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Sample records for reduce 21st-birthday drinking

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Event Specific Prevention Strategies for Reducing Problematic Drinking Associated with 21st Birthday Celebrations

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Geisner, Irene M.; Zheng, Cheng; Larimer, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective While research has documented heavy drinking practices and associated negative consequences of college students turning 21, few studies have examined prevention efforts aimed to reduce high-risk drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The present study evaluated the comparative efficacy of a general prevention effort (i.e., BASICS) and event specific prevention in reducing 21st birthday drinking and related negative consequences. Furthermore, this study evaluated inclusion of peers in interventions and mode of intervention delivery (i.e., in-person vs. web). Method Participants included 599 college students (46% male) who intended to consume at least five/four drinks (men/women respectively) on their 21st birthday. After completing a screening/baseline assessment approximately one week before turning 21, participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions: 21st birthday in-person BASICS, 21st birthday web BASICS, 21st birthday in-person BASICS plus friend intervention, 21st birthday web BASICS plus friend intervention, BASICS, or an attention control. A follow-up assessment was completed approximately one week after students’ birthdays. Results Results indicated a significant intervention effect for BASICS in reducing blood alcohol content reached and number of negative consequences experienced. All three in-person interventions reduced negative consequences experienced. Results for the web-based interventions varied by drinking outcome and whether or not a friend was included. Conclusions Overall, results provide support for both general intervention and ESP approaches across modalities for reducing extreme drinking and negative consequences associated with turning 21. These results suggest there are several promising options for campuses seeking to reduce both use and consequences associated with 21st birthday celebrations. PMID:22823855

  2. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Event-Specific Prevention Strategies for Reducing Problematic Drinking Associated with 21st Birthday Celebrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Geisner, Irene M.; Zheng, Cheng; Larimer, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: While research has documented heavy drinking practices and associated negative consequences of college students turning 21, few studies have examined prevention efforts aimed at reducing high-risk drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The present study evaluated the comparative efficacy of a general prevention effort (i.e., Brief

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Event-Specific Prevention Strategies for Reducing Problematic Drinking Associated with 21st Birthday Celebrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Geisner, Irene M.; Zheng, Cheng; Larimer, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: While research has documented heavy drinking practices and associated negative consequences of college students turning 21, few studies have examined prevention efforts aimed at reducing high-risk drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The present study evaluated the comparative efficacy of a general prevention effort (i.e., Brief…

  5. A Hierarchy of 21st Birthday Drinking Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper offers preliminary evidence for a hierarchical organization of normative social influences on 21st birthday drinking. In recent years, 21st birthday celebratory drinking has received increasing attention, due largely to the propagation of dangerous and sometimes fatal drinking traditions, such as attempting to drink one shot for…

  6. Internet-Based Personalized Feedback to Reduce 21st-Birthday Drinking: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Event-Specific Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Fossos, Nicole; Walter, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an initial randomized controlled trial of an event-specific prevention intervention. Participants included 295 college students (41.69% male, 58.31% female) who intended to consume 2 or more drinks on their 21st birthday. Participants completed a screening/baseline assessment approximately 1 week before they turned 21 and…

  7. Evaluation Results of a 21st Birthday Card Program Targeting High-Risk Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembroff, Larry; Atkin, Charles; Martell, Dennis; McCue, Cindy; Greenamyer, Jasmine T.

    2007-01-01

    The B.R.A.D. Birthday Card initiative was started on the campus of Michigan State University (MSU) in April 1999. MSU administrators send the safe-drinking 21st birthday card (B.R.A.D.) and laminated wallet card to students shortly before their 21st birthday. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the 21st birthday card, MSU and B.R.A.D.,…

  8. Event- and Context-Specific Normative Misperceptions and High-Risk Drinking: 21st Birthday Celebrations and Football Tailgating*

    PubMed Central

    NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; OSTER-AALAND, LAURA; BERGSTROM, ROCHELLE L.; LEWIS, MELISSA A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Negative alcohol-related consequences often occur during specific events and in specific contexts (eg., 21st birthday celebrations and tailgating parties). A lack of available event- and context-specific interventions suggests the need to better understand factors associated with heavy drinking in these contexts, with an eye toward developing specific interventions. The purpose of this research was to lay the foundation for developing personalized normative feedback interventions for 21st birthday celebratory drinking and tailgating drinking by evaluating whether students overestimate norms in these specific contexts, as they do more generally. Method Perceived descriptive norms and alcohol consumption were assessed at event- and context-specific levels in two studies. Study 1 included 119 students turning 21 years old who reported their 21st birthday drinking behavior and estimated the typical number of drinks consumed by students celebrating (their 21st birthday. Study 2 included 140 undergraduates drawn from a stratified random sample who reported their behavior regarding drinking and tailgating and their perceived norms for typical drinking and tailgating behavior. Results Results from Study 1 revealed that students overestimated peer drinking during 21st birthday celebrations, and this overestimation was associated with heavier drinking on one’s own 21st birthday. In Study 2, students underestimated the percentage of tailgaters who drank but overestimated typical consumption. Overestimation was consistently associated with heavier drinking during tailgating. Conclusions Successful correction of general normative misperceptions has been shown to reduce drinking in other research. Documentation of normative misperceptions for specific events and context provided by these results represents an important step in developing event- and context-specific interventions utilizing specific normative feedback. PMID:16562411

  9. 21st Birthday Drinking and Associated Physical Consequences and Behavioral Risks

    PubMed Central

    Brister, Heather A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first birthday celebrations often involve dangerously high levels of alcohol consumption, yet little is known about risk factors for excessive drinking on this occasion. Participants (N = 150) from a larger prospective study who consumed at least one drink during their celebration completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews about their 21st birthday within four days after the event. Assessments were designed to characterize 21st birthday alcohol use, adjusted for alcohol content, as well as situational/contextual factors (e.g., celebration location, peer influence) that contribute to event-level drinking. Participants reported an average of 10.85 drinks (9.76 adjusted drinks), with experienced drinkers consuming significantly more than relatively naïve drinkers who had no previous binge or drunken episodes. Men consumed more drinks, whereas age of first drunken episode and heavier drinking during the 3-months preceding the 21st birthday predicted higher estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs) on the 21st birthday. Celebrating in bars and engaging in birthday-specific drinking traditions (free drinks at bars) explained additional variance in 21st birthday eBACs. Both physical consequences (e.g., blacking out or having a hangover) and behavioral risks (e.g., sexually provocative behaviors) were prevalent and were predicted by higher eBACs. Together these findings indicate that 21st birthday celebrations are associated with heavy drinking and a variety of physical consequences and behavioral risks. PMID:21895347

  10. Friends in low places: The impact of locations and companions on 21st birthday drinking.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Young, Chelsie M; Tomkins, Mary M; DiBello, Angelo M; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined how various locations and companions were associated with hazardous drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The sample included 912 college students (57% female) who completed an online survey to examine 21st birthday drinking. Locations included bars, friends' houses, restaurants, outdoor barbecues, homes, parents' homes, and Fraternity/Sorority houses. Companions included friends, family members, casual acquaintances, roommates, significant others, Fraternity/Sorority members, and none (alone). Participants consumed an average of 7.6 drinks and reached an average eBAC of .15 during their 21st birthday celebrations. Locations accounted for 20%/18% of the variance in number of drinks and eBAC, respectively, whereas companions accounted for 23%/20% of the variance. Drinking with romantic partners was associated with less drinking, whereas drinking with Fraternity/Sorority members was associated with more drinking. Stepwise regressions combining locations and companions suggested that, overall, celebrating in a bar setting and with Fraternity and Sorority members were the strongest variables associated with drinking. With the exception of a bar setting, companions were the most important contextual factors associated with 21st birthday drinking. PMID:26363304

  11. The Effect of a Birthday Card Intervention on 21st Birthday Celebratory Drinking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Ellen J.; Bruce, Susan E.; Lee, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    birthday card was mailed to 2,380 college students who later completed an online instrument to assess the campaign's impact. Students reported drinking more during their 21st birthday celebrations than on a typical weekend night. Men consumed more drinks, reached higher…

  12. Alcohol use by undergraduate students on their 21st birthday: predictors of actual consumption, anticipated consumption, and normative beliefs.

    PubMed

    Day-Cameron, Jennifer M; Muse, Lauren; Hauenstein, Jennifer; Simmons, Lisa; Correia, Christopher J

    2009-12-01

    Recent research has identified celebration of a 21st birthday as an environmental event during which many college students engage in risky levels of alcohol consumption. The current study examined the relationship between personality and different aspects of alcohol use during 21st birthday celebrations: actual amount consumed for those who had turned 21, anticipated amount consumed for those under the age of 21, and normative beliefs regarding the amount other students consume on their 21st birthdays. Sensation seeking and impulsivity both displayed significant bivariate relationships with all three aspects of 21st birthday drinking. Personality traits did not contribute unique variance to actual 21st birthday drinking after the effects of typical alcohol consumption were accounted for in the models. Impulsivity contributed unique variance to models accounting for anticipated drinking and normative beliefs. Additional research is necessary to better understand the role personality variables play on alcohol consumption during 21st birthday celebrations. PMID:20025376

  13. Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies and their Association to 21st Birthday Alcohol Consumption and Related Negative Consequences: A Between- and Within-person Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Patrick, Megan E.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra L.; Mittman, Angela; Neighbors, Clayton

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine between- and within-person relationships among protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption, and related negative consequences during the 21st birthday week. Participants for the present study included undergraduate college students (N = 1,028) who turned 21 during three academic quarters at a large public northwestern university in the U.S. Students completed a Web-based survey that was comprised of measures of 21st birthday PBS, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related negative consequences. Between-person findings indicated that participants who employed more manner of drinking PBS and fewer serious harm reduction PBS consumed fewer drinks and reached lower BACs. Results also showed that participants who employed a greater number of limiting/stopping PBS and who used more manner of drinking PBS experienced fewer negative consequences. Within-person findings demonstrated that on days when participants used more limiting/stopping PBS, fewer manner of drinking PBS, and more serious harm reduction PBS than average they also consumed more drinks and reached higher BACs. When examining negative consequences, within-person results showed that on days when participants used more limiting/stopping PBS, fewer manner of drinking PBS, and more serious harm reduction PBS than usual they experienced more negative consequences. Discussion focuses on clarification of the association between PBS and drinking and implications for preventive interventions. PMID:21553945

  14. Event Specific Drinking Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    College represents a period of risk for heavy drinking and experiencing unwanted consequences associated with drinking. Previous research has identified specific events including holidays (e.g., New Years), school breaks (e.g., Spring Break) and personally relevant events (e.g., 21st birthdays) that are associated with elevated risk of heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The systematic evaluation of relative risk offers insights into event specific drinking and an empirical basis upon which to consider allocation of limited prevention resources. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to provide a comparative index of drinking across a wide range of holidays and compare holiday drinking to 21st birthday drinking. Participants were 1,124 students (55% female) who had turned 21 within the previous three weeks in 2008 and provided 90-day retrospective reports of their drinking using the Timeline Follow-back. Results based on a hurdle mixed model for blood alcohol content (BAC) revealed several holidays that stand out for elevated drinking, including New Year’s Eve and July 4th, whereas other holidays appear more similar to weekend drinking, such as Spring Break (approximately last week of March) and graduation (mid-June). Drinking on holidays or special days was substantially lower than drinking on 21st birthdays. Results are discussed in terms of practical applications for targeted intervention efforts on college campuses toward specific events where elevated drinking is known to occur. PMID:21639597

  15. Minocycline reduces ethanol drinking.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R G; Hewetson, A; George, C M; Syapin, P J; Bergeson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease characterized by continued alcohol consumption despite recurring negative consequences. Thus, medications that reduce the drive to consume alcohol can be beneficial in treating alcoholism. The neurobiological systems that regulate alcohol consumption are complex and not fully understood. Currently, medications are available to treat alcoholism that act either by causing accumulation of a toxic metabolite of ethanol, or by targeting specific transmitter receptors. The purpose of our study was to investigate a new potential therapeutic pathway, neuroimmune interactions, for effects on ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that neuroimmune activity of brain glia may have a role in drinking. We utilized minocycline, a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that has immune modulatory actions, to test our hypothesis because it is known to suppress microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia, activity following many types of insults to the brain. Treatment with 50mg/kg minocycline significantly reduced ethanol intake in male and female C57Bl/6J mice using a free choice voluntary drinking model. Saline injections did not alter ethanol intake. Minocycline had little effect on water intake or body weight change. The underlying mechanism whereby minocycline reduced ethanol intake requires further study. The results suggest that drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways may represent a new approach to developing additional therapies to treat alcoholism. PMID:21397005

  16. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131

  17. Reducing Harms from Youth Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peele, Stanton

    2006-01-01

    American alcohol education and prevention efforts for youth emphasize abstinence. In support of this approach, epidemiologists conclude that early drinking by adolescents increases the lifetime likelihood of alcohol dependence and that overall drinking levels in a society are directly linked to drinking problems. At the same time, cultural,…

  18. Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

  19. Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

    This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

  20. Reducing sugary drink consumption: New York City's approach.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Susan M; Kennelly, Maura O; Nonas, Cathy A; Curtis, Christine J; Van Wye, Gretchen; Goodman, Andrew; Farley, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    Studies have linked the consumption of sugary drinks to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Since 2006, New York City has taken several actions to reduce consumption. Nutrition standards limited sugary drinks served by city agencies. Mass media campaigns educated New Yorkers on the added sugars in sugary drinks and their health impact. Policy proposals included an excise tax, a restriction on use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, and a cap on sugary drink portion sizes in food service establishments. These initiatives were accompanied by a 35% decrease in the number of New York City adults consuming one or more sugary drinks a day and a 27% decrease in public high school students doing so from 2007 to 2013. PMID:25713971

  1. Behavioral economic approaches to reduce college student drinking.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Correia, Christopher J; Barnett, Nancy P

    2007-11-01

    There is a need for novel, theory-based approaches to reduce heavy drinking on college campuses. Behavioral economics has guided basic laboratory research on drug administration for over 30 years and has recently been applied to human substance use in naturalistic and clinical settings. This paper provides an introduction to behavioral economics, reviews applications of behavioral economics to college student drinking, and describes prevention and intervention strategies that are consistent with behavioral economic theory. Behavioral economic theory predicts that college students' decisions about drinking are related to the relative availability and price of alcohol, the relative availability and price of substance-free alternative activities, and the extent to which reinforcement from delayed substance-free outcomes is devalued relative to the immediate reinforcement associated with drinking. Measures of problem severity are based on resource allocation towards alcohol and the relative value of alcohol compared to other reinforcers. Policy and individual level prevention approaches that are consistent with behavioral economic theory are discussed, including strategies for increasing the behavioral and monetary price of alcohol, increasing engagement in rewarding alternatives to substance use, and counteracting student drinkers' tendency to overvalue immediate relative to delayed rewards. PMID:17600631

  2. Event-Specific Prevention: Addressing College Student Drinking During Known Windows of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T.; Lee, Christine M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William

    2007-01-01

    The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut’s efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort. PMID:17616260

  3. Reducing Lead in School Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Lee

    1991-01-01

    The Seattle School District began a program in 1990 to identify lead levels in the district's drinking water and to implement measures to lower any high lead levels. Recounts each of the seven steps of the program, discusses what the district found, and explains how it lowered lead levels in the drinking water. (MLF)

  4. Reliance on God, Prayer, and Religion Reduces Influence of Perceived Norms on Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Brown, Garrett A.; Dibello, Angelo M.; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Foster, Dawn W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has shown that perceived social norms are among the strongest predictors of drinking among young adults. Research has also consistently found religiousness to be protective against risk and negative health behaviors. The present research evaluates the extent to which reliance on God, prayer, and religion moderates the association between perceived social norms and drinking. Method: Participants (n = 1,124 undergraduate students) completed a cross-sectional survey online, which included measures of perceived norms, religious values, and drinking. Perceived norms were assessed by asking participants their perceptions of typical student drinking. Drinking outcomes included drinks per week, drinking frequency, and typical quantity consumed. Results: Regression analyses indicated that religiousness and perceived norms had significant unique associations in opposite directions for all three drinking outcomes. Significant interactions were evident between religiousness and perceived norms in predicting drinks per week, frequency, and typical quantity. In each case, the interactions indicated weaker associations between norms and drinking among those who assigned greater importance to religiousness. Conclusions: The extent of the relationship between perceived social norms and drinking was buffered by the degree to which students identified with religiousness. A growing body of literature has shown interventions including personalized feedback regarding social norms to be an effective strategy in reducing drinking among college students. The present research suggests that incorporating religious or spiritual values into student interventions may be a promising direction to pursue. PMID:23490564

  5. Reducing lead in drinking water: a benefit analysis. Draft report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, R.

    1986-12-01

    An analysis estimates some of the benefits that could result from reducing exposure to lead in community drinking-water supplies. There are two primary categories of benefits evaluated: public-health benefits of reduced lead exposure and reduced materials damages relating to the phenomenon of lead's presence in drinking water. In addition, because the calculation of health benefits depends on the extent of human exposure, another chapter presents the available data on the occurrence of lead in public water supplies, and estimates of the population exposed to drinking water exceeding the proposed standard pf 20 ppb. In assessing the benefits of the proposed reduced lead standard, the analysis assumes that EPA will act to reduce lead levels in drinking water, as well as to maintain the current high quality of water leaving the treatment plant. It also relies upon assumptions about drinking water use and consumption patterns.

  6. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER: APPROACHES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. It has been projected that the State of Ohio will have nearly 140 community and non-community non-transient water systems in violation of the Rule. This ...

  7. Using Environmental Strategies to Reduce Drinking and Driving among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, David; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of several environmental strategies that have proven successful in reducing drinking and driving among adolescents and young adults and suggests that integrating such strategies into present institutional initiatives can create significant and enduring reductions in drinking and driving among this population. (Author)

  8. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  9. An upper-bound assessment of the benefits of reducing perchlorate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Randall

    2014-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency plans to issue new federal regulations to limit drinking water concentrations of perchlorate, which occurs naturally and results from the combustion of rocket fuel. This article presents an upper-bound estimate of the potential benefits of alternative maximum contaminant levels for perchlorate in drinking water. The results suggest that the economic benefits of reducing perchlorate concentrations in drinking water are likely to be low, i.e., under $2.9 million per year nationally, for several reasons. First, the prevalence of detectable perchlorate in public drinking water systems is low. Second, the population especially sensitive to effects of perchlorate, pregnant women who are moderately iodide deficient, represents a minority of all pregnant women. Third, and perhaps most importantly, reducing exposure to perchlorate in drinking water is a relatively ineffective way of increasing iodide uptake, a crucial step linking perchlorate to health effects of concern. PMID:25196433

  10. Applications of the Hertzsprung-Russell star chart to ecology: reflections on the 21(st) birthday of Geographical Ecology.

    PubMed

    Keddy, P A

    1994-06-01

    Robert MacArthur's Geographical Ecology turned 21 last year. As it enters adulthood, we may ask whether or not it is still influencing contemporary approaches to ecology. The opening sentence, 'To do science is to search for repeated patterns, not simply to accumulate facts...', is a theme of the entire book. As ecologists, we are faced with the problem of finding patterns when there is a large number of species, an even larger number of possible pairwise interactions, and when these are dispersed across a bewildering array of habitat types. How do we look for general patterns in nature? The Hertzsprung-Russell star diagram provides an inspiring example for meeting MacArthur's challenge. PMID:21236836

  11. Reducing high-risk drinking in mandated college students: evaluation of two personalized normative feedback interventions.

    PubMed

    Doumas, Diana M; Workman, Camille; Smith, Diana; Navarro, Anabel

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of two brief personalized normative feedback interventions aimed at reducing heavy drinking among mandated college students (N = 135). Students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: Web-based assessment with self-guided personalized normative feedback (SWF) or Web-based assessment with counselor-guided personalized normative feedback (CWF). Results indicated that students in the CWF condition reported significantly greater reductions in weekly drinking quantity and binge drinking frequency than those in the SWF group at follow-up (M = 8 months). Students in the CWF group also reported significantly greater reductions in estimates of peer drinking from baseline to the follow-up assessment than students in the SWF group. In addition, changes in estimates of peer drinking partially mediated the effect of the intervention on changes in drinking. Results suggest that counselor-guided feedback may be more effective in reducing drinking among mandated students relative to self-guided feedback in the long term. PMID:21295938

  12. Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Craig L.; Adams, Jeffrey Q.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

  13. Alcohol binge drinking during adolescence or dependence during adulthood reduces prefrontal myelin in male rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Wanette M; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Whitcomb, Brian W; Richardson, Heather N

    2014-10-29

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism. PMID:25355229

  14. Motivational interviewing to reduce hazardous drinking and drug use among depression patients

    PubMed Central

    Satre, Derek D.; Delucchi, Kevin; Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Sterling, Stacy A.; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This randomized study examined the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to reduce substance use among adults with depression in outpatient psychiatry. The sample consisted of 104 participants ages 18 and over who reported hazardous drinking (three drinks or more per occasion), illegal drug use or misuse of prescription drugs in the prior 30days, and who scored ≥15 on the Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II). Participants were randomized to receive either three sessions of MI or printed literature about alcohol and drug use risks, as an adjunct to usual outpatient depression care, and completed telephone follow-up interviews at 3 and 6months (93 and 99% of the baseline sample, respectively). Among participants reporting any hazardous drinking at baseline (n=73), MI-treated participants were less likely than controls to report hazardous drinking at 3months (60.0 vs. 81.8%, p=.043). MI is a promising intervention to reduce hazardous drinking among depression patients. PMID:22999815

  15. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water. PMID:25320856

  16. Buprenorphine Reduces Alcohol Drinking Through Activation of the Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ-NOP Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Economidou, Daina; Rimondini, Roberto; Sommer, Wolfgang; Massi, Maurizio; Heilig, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Background Activation of the NOP receptor by its endogenous ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ reduces ethanol intake in genetically selected alcohol preferring Marchigian Sardinian alcohol preferring (msP) rats. Here we evaluated whether buprenorphine, a partial agonist at μ-opioid and NOP receptors, would reduce ethanol consumption in msP rats via activation of NOP receptors. Methods Marchigian Sardinian alcohol preferring rats trained to drink 10% alcohol 2 hours/day were injected with buprenorphine (.03, .3, 3.0, or 6.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally [IP]) 90 min before access to ethanol. Results Similar to prototypical μ-agonists, the two lowest doses of buprenorphine significantly increased ethanol consumption (p < .01); in contrast, the two highest doses reduced it (p < .05). Pretreatment with naltrexone (.25 mg/kg IP) prevented the increase of ethanol intake induced by .03 mg/kg of buprenorphine (p < .001) but did not affect the inhibition of ethanol drinking induced by 3.0 mg/kg of buprenorphine. Conversely, pretreatment with the selective NOP receptor antagonist UFP-101 (10.0 or 20.0 μg/rat) abolished the suppression of ethanol drinking by 3.0 mg/kg of buprenorphine. Conclusions Buprenorphine has dualistic effects on ethanol drinking; low doses increase alcohol intake via stimulation of classic opioid receptors, whereas higher doses reduce it via activation of NOP receptors. We suggest that NOP agonistic properties of buprenorphine might be useful in the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:16533497

  17. Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…

  18. Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen

  19. Characterization of bromate-reducing bacterial isolates and their potential for drinking water treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize several bromatereducing bacteria and to examine their potential for bioaugmentation to a drinking water treatment process. Fifteen bromate-reducing bacteria were isolated from three sources. According to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the...

  20. Social Network Influences on Initiation and Maintenance of Reduced Drinking Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Allecia E.; Carey, Kate B.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether (a) social networks influence the extent to which college students initiate and/or maintain reductions in drinking following an alcohol intervention, and (b) students with riskier networks respond better to a counselor-delivered, versus a computer-delivered, intervention. Method Mandated students (N = 316; 63% male) provided their perceptions of peer network members drinking statuses (e.g., heavy drinker) and how accepting each friend would be if the participant reduced his/her drinking. Next, they were randomized to receive a brief motivational intervention (BMI) or Alcohol Edu for Sanctions (EDU). In latent growth models controlling for baseline levels on outcomes, influences of social networks on two phases of intervention response were examined: initiation of reductions in drinks per heaviest week, peak BAC, and consequences at 1 month (model intercepts) and maintenance of reductions between 1 and 12 months (model slopes). Results : Peer drinking status predicted initiation of reductions in drinks per heaviest week and peak BAC; peer acceptability predicted initial reductions in consequences. Peer acceptability by condition interactions were significant or marginal for all outcomes in the maintenance phase. In networks with higher perceived acceptability of decreasing use, BMI and EDU exhibited similar growth rates. In less accepting networks, growth rates were significantly steeper among EDU than BMI participants. For consumption outcomes, lower perceived peer acceptability predicted steeper rates of growth in drinking among EDU but not BMI participants. Conclusions Understanding how social networks influence behavior change and how interventions mitigate their influence is important for optimizing efficacy of alcohol interventions. PMID:25111432

  1. Varenicline Reduces Alcohol Self-Administration in Heavy-Drinking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Sherry A.; Harrison, Emily L.R.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Shi, Julia; Tetrault, Jeanette M.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Petrakis, Ismene L.; Estevez, Naralys; Balchunas, Erika

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol and tobacco dependence are highly comorbid disorders, with preclinical evidence suggesting a role for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in alcohol consumption. Varenicline, a partial nicotinic agonist with high affinity for the α4β2 nAChR receptor, reduced ethanol intake in rodents. We aimed to test whether varenicline would reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol craving in humans. Methods This double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation examined the effect of varenicline (2 mg/day vs. placebo) on alcohol self-administration using an established laboratory paradigm in non-alcohol-dependent heavy drinkers (n = 20) who were daily smokers. Following 7 days of medication pretreatment, participants were first administered a priming dose of alcohol (.3 g/kg) and subjective, and physiologic responses were assessed. A 2-hour alcohol self-administration period followed during which participants could choose to consume up to 8 additional drinks (each .15 g/kg). Results Varenicline (.5 ± SE = .40) significantly reduced the number of drinks consumed compared to placebo (2.60 ± SE = .93) and increased the likelihood of abstaining from any drinking during the self-administration period. Following the priming drink, varenicline attenuated alcohol craving and reduced subjective reinforcing alcohol effects (high, like, rush, feel good, intoxicated). Adverse events associated with varenicline were minimal and, when combined with alcohol, produced no significant effects on physiologic reactivity, mood, or nausea. Conclusions This preliminary investigation demonstrated that varenicline significantly reduced alcohol self-administration and was well tolerated, alone and in combination with alcohol in heavy-drinking smokers. Varenicline should be investigated as a potential treatment for alcohol use disorders. PMID:19249750

  2. Dutasteride reduces alcohol's sedative effects in men in a human laboratory setting and reduces drinking in the natural environment

    PubMed Central

    Covault, Jonathan; Pond, Timothy; Feinn, Richard; Arias, Albert J.; Oncken, Cheryl; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Preclinical studies support the hypothesis that endogenous neuroactive steroids mediate some effects of alcohol. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dutasteride inhibition of 5α-reduced neuroactive steroid production on subjective responses to alcohol in adult men. Methods Using a within-subject factorial design, 70 men completed four randomly ordered monthly sessions in which pretreatment with 4 mg dutasteride or placebo was paired with a moderate dose of alcohol (0.8 g/kg) or placebo beverage. The pharmacologic effect of dutasteride was measured by an assay of serum androstanediol glucuronide. Self-reports of alcohol effects were obtained at 40-min intervals following alcohol administration using the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) and the Alcohol Sensation Scale (SS). We used linear mixed models to examine the effects of dutasteride and alcohol on BAES and SS responses and the interaction of dutasteride with the GABRA2 alcohol dependence-associated polymorphism rs279858. We also examined whether exposure to dutasteride influenced drinking in the weeks following each laboratory session. Results A single 4-mg dose of dutasteride produced a 70 % reduction in androstanediol glucuronide. Dutasteride pretreatment reduced alcohol effects on the BAES sedation and SS anesthesia scales. There was no interaction of dutasteride with rs279858. Heavy drinkers had fewer heavy drinking days during the 2 weeks following the dutasteride sessions and fewer total drinks in the first week after dutasteride. Conclusions These results provide evidence that neuroactive steroids mediate some of the sedative effects of alcohol in adult men and that dutasteride may reduce drinking, presumably through its effects on neuroactive steroid concentrations. PMID:24557088

  3. Efficacy of expectancy challenge interventions to reduce college student drinking: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Terry, Danielle L; Carey, Kate B; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Michael P

    2012-09-01

    Interventions challenging alcohol expectancies may lead to reductions in alcohol consumption. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of alcohol expectancy challenge (EC) interventions for college alcohol abuse prevention. Included were 14 studies (19 EC interventions) that measured alcohol expectancies and consumption, provided sufficient information to calculate effect sizes, and were available as of June 2010 (N=1,415; M age=20 years; 40% women; 88% White). Independent raters coded participant characteristics, design and methodological features, and intervention content, and calculated weighted mean effect sizes at first follow-up, using both fixed and random effects models. Compared with controls, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s ranged from 0.23 to 0.28). Within-group improvements in alcohol expectancies and consumption emerged for the EC group only; relative to their own baseline, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s ranged from 0.13 to 0.36). Supplemental analyses found improvements in specific alcohol expectancies (social, sexual, tension, and arousal) both between groups and within group. The short-term effects of EC interventions on college student drinking are not maintained at follow-ups greater than 4 weeks. PMID:22428862

  4. Efficacy of Expectancy Challenge Interventions to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Terry, Danielle L.; Carey, Kate B.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Interventions challenging alcohol expectancies may lead to reductions in alcohol consumption. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of alcohol expectancy challenge (EC) interventions for college alcohol abuse prevention. Included were 14 studies (19 EC interventions) that measured alcohol expectancies and consumption, provided sufficient information to calculate effect sizes, and were available as of June 2010 (N = 1,415; M age = 20; 40% women; 88% White). Independent raters coded participant characteristics, design and methodological features, and intervention content, and calculated weighted mean effect sizes at first follow-up, using both fixed- and random-effects models. Compared to controls, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s ranged from 0.23 to 0.28). Within-group improvements in alcohol expectancies and consumption emerged for the EC group only; relative to their own baseline, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s range from 0.13 to 0.36). Supplemental analyses found improvements in specific alcohol expectancies (social, sexual, tension, and arousal) both between- and within-group. The short-term effects of EC interventions on college student drinking are not maintained at follow-ups greater than 4 weeks. PMID:22428862

  5. Reduced Efficiency of Chlorine Disinfection of Naegleria fowleri in a Drinking Water Distribution Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Miller, Haylea C; Wylie, Jason; Dejean, Guillaume; Kaksonen, Anna H; Sutton, David; Braun, Kalan; Puzon, Geoffrey J

    2015-09-15

    Naegleria fowleri associated with biofilm and biological demand water (organic matter suspended in water that consumes disinfectants) sourced from operational drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) had significantly increased resistance to chlorine disinfection. N. fowleri survived intermittent chlorine dosing of 0.6 mg/L for 7 days in a mixed biofilm from field and laboratory-cultured Escherichia coli strains. However, N. fowleri associated with an attached drinking water distribution biofilm survived more than 30 times (20 mg/L for 3 h) the recommended concentration of chlorine for drinking water. N. fowleri showed considerably more resistance to chlorine when associated with a real field biofilm compared to the mixed laboratory biofilm. This increased resistance is likely due to not only the consumption of disinfectants by the biofilm and the reduced disinfectant penetration into the biofilm but also the composition and microbial community of the biofilm itself. The increased diversity of the field biofilm community likely increased N. fowleri's resistance to chlorine disinfection compared to that of the laboratory-cultured biofilm. Previous research has been conducted in only laboratory scale models of DWDSs and laboratory-cultured biofilms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating how N. fowleri can persist in a field drinking water distribution biofilm despite chlorination. PMID:26287820

  6. Ability of Food/Drink to Reduce the Bitterness Intensity of Topiramate as Determined by Taste Sensor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Tamami; Uchida, Takahiro; Hazekawa, Mai; Yoshida, Miyako; Nakashima, Masaki; Sanda, Hotaka; Hase, Takema; Tomoda, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which foods and/or drinks are capable of reducing the bitterness of topiramate when consumed together with the medicine. The inhibitory effects of foods/drinks (yoghurt and nine other foods/drinks) on the bitterness of topiramate (5?mg/mL) were evaluated with a taste sensor using a bitterness-responsive membrane (C00). The effect of topiramate on the taste characteristics of the foods/drinks themselves was also evaluated by taste sensor outputs. The viscosities of the foods/drinks and the influence of the lactic acid and orotic acid components of yoghurt, the most successful of the tested substances in taste masking, on the bitterness of topiramate were also measured. Yoghurt was predicted to be the most effective of the foods/drinks tested in reducing the acidic bitterness-responsive sensor output of topiramate. The outputs of the astringency sensor, sourness sensor, and saltiness sensor to yoghurt were not reduced by the addition of topiramate. The viscosity and lactic acid and orotic acid components of yoghurt seemed to be the keys in reducing the bitterness of topiramate. Yoghurt is predicted to be the food/drink most capable of reducing the bitterness of topiramate without losing the taste of the food/drink itself. PMID:26726740

  7. Characterization of bromate-reducing bacterial isolates and their potential for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew N; Chee-Sanford, Joanne; Lai, Hoi Yi Mandy; Ho, Chi-hua; Klenzendorf, J Brandon; Kirisits, Mary Jo

    2011-11-15

    The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize several bromate-reducing bacteria and to examine their potential for bioaugmentation to a drinking water treatment process. Fifteen bromate-reducing bacteria were isolated from three sources. According to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the bromate-reducing bacteria are phylogenetically diverse, representing the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria. The broad diversity of bromate-reducing bacteria suggests the widespread capability for microbial bromate reduction. While the cometabolism of bromate via nitrate reductase and (per)chlorate reductase has been postulated, five of our bromate-reducing isolates were unable to reduce nitrate or perchlorate. This suggests that a bromate-specific reduction pathway might exist in some microorganisms. Bioaugmentation of activated carbon filters with eight of the bromate-reducing isolates did not significantly decrease start-up time or increase bromate removal as compared to control filters. To optimize bromate reduction in a biological drinking water treatment process, the predominant mechanism of bromate reduction (i.e., cometabolic or respiratory) needs to be assessed so that appropriate measures can be taken to improve bromate removal. PMID:21943884

  8. Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

  9. Can technology help to reduce underage drinking? Evidence from the false ID laws with scanner provision.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K

    2014-07-01

    Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth. PMID:24732386

  10. Can technology help to reduce underage drinking? Evidence from the false ID laws with scanner provision*

    PubMed Central

    Yörük, Barış K.

    2014-01-01

    Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth. PMID:24732386

  11. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative consequences) among first-year college females (N = 128). Findings revealed that protective behaviors were particularly effective in reducing both alcohol consumption and related risks among participants reporting lower mental health as compared to higher mental health. Further, participants with higher social health who utilized protective behaviors consumed significantly fewer maximum drinks per occasion than did peers who also employed protective behaviors but reported lower social health. Explanation of findings and implications for campus intervention initiatives are discussed. PMID:25382937

  12. Reducing Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water in Estonia—A Countrywide Study

    PubMed Central

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004–2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%). PMID:24637908

  13. Brief motivational interventions to reduce excessive drinking, intimate partner violence fail to positively impact outcomes.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Findings from a large, randomized clinical trial suggest that the use of an ED-based motivational intervention is not sufficient to reduce incidents of heavy drinking or intimate partner violence (IPV) among women who present to the ED. Investigators have found that while heavy drinking and incidents of IPV declined in all groups being evaluated, the intervention, which involved a 20- to 30-minute motivational interview by a masters-prepared social worker and a follow-up reinforcement call, did not make a difference in outcomes. Investigators conclude that more comprehensive solutions are needed. Participants for the study were recruited from two urban-area EDs in Philadelphia between January 2011 and December 2014. Patients were randomized to an intervention group or one of two control groups. At one year post-enrollment, nearly half (45%) of all the study participants reported no incidents of IPV in the previous three months, and the researchers found that 22% of all participants were consuming alcohol at safe drinking levels. However, there was no evidence that the intervention influenced outcomes. Investigators recommend EDs set up routine screening to identify IPV and co-occurring psychosocial risk factors, and train social workers and IPV advocates to perform safety assessments and provide referrals for more intensive, evidence-based interventions that are tailored to the patient's needs and goals. PMID:26447261

  14. Characterization of the microbial community structure and nitrosamine-reducing isolates in drinking water biofilters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanfeng; Guo, Yanling; Yang, Qingxiang; Huang, Yao; Zhu, Chunyou; Fan, Jing; Pan, Feng

    2015-07-15

    Two biofilters were constructed using biological activated carbon (BAC) and nitrosamine-containing water from two drinking water treatment plants. The microbiome of each biofilter was characterized by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing, and one nitrosamine-reducing bacterium was isolated. The results showed that nitrosamines changed the relative abundance at both the phylum and class levels, and the new genera were observed in the microbial communities of the two BAC filters after cultivation. As such, the genus Rhodococcus, which includes many nitrosamine-reducing strains reported in previous studies, was only detected in the BAC2 filter after cultivation. These findings indicate that nitrosamines can significantly affect the genus level in the microbial communities. Furthermore, the isolated bacterial culture Rhodococcus cercidiphylli A41 AS-1 exhibited the ability to reduce five nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine) with removal ratios that ranged from 38.1% to 85.4%. The isolate exhibited a better biodegradation ability with nitrosamine as the carbon source when compared with nitrosamine as the nitrogen source. This study increases our understanding of the microbial community in drinking water biofilters with trace quantities of nitrosamines, and provides information on the metabolism of nitrosamine-reducing bacteria. PMID:25841075

  15. THE α1-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST, PRAZOSIN, REDUCES ALCOHOL DRINKING IN ALCOHOL-PREFERRING (P) RATS

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D.; Alexander, Laura L.; Raskind, Murray A.; Froehlich, Janice C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preliminary evidence suggest that noradrenergic signaling may play a role in mediating alcohol drinking behavior in both humans and rats. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that blockade of α1-adrenergic receptors will suppress alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for alcohol preference (P line). METHODS Adult male P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to a 15% (v/v) alcohol solution for two hours daily. Rats were injected IP with the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mg/kg BW), once a day at 15 min prior to onset of the daily two hour two-bottle choice, alcohol versus water, access period for two consecutive days and then three weeks later for five consecutive days. RESULTS Prazosin significantly reduced (p<0.01) alcohol intake during the initial two daily administrations, and this reduction of alcohol intake was maintained for five consecutive days by daily prazosin treatment in the subsequent more prolonged trial (p<0.05). The prazosin-induced reduction of alcohol intake was not dependent upon drug-induced motor impairment since increases in water drinking (p<0.05) were exhibited during the two hour access periods during both two day and five day prazosin treatment. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that the noradrenergic system plays a role in mediating alcohol drinking in rats of the P line, and suggest that prazosin - a safe, well-characterized and well-tolerated drug - may be an effective pharmacotherapeutic agent for the treatment of alcohol use disorders. PMID:19032582

  16. An Interactive Text Message Intervention to Reduce Binge Drinking in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 9-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Suffoletto, Brian; Chung, Tammy; Jeong, Kwonho; Fabio, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is associated with numerous negative consequences. The prevalence and intensity of binge drinking is highest among young adults. This randomized trial tested the efficacy of a 12-week interactive text message intervention to reduce binge drinking up to 6 months after intervention completion among young adults. Methods and Findings Young adult participants (18–25 y; n = 765) drinking above the low-risk limits (AUDIT-C score >3/4 women/men), but not seeking alcohol treatment, were enrolled from 4 Emergency Departments (EDs) in Pittsburgh, PA. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions in a 2:1:1 allocation ratio: SMS Assessments + Feedback (SA+F), SMS Assessments (SA), or control. For 12 weeks, SA+F participants received texts each Thursday querying weekend drinking plans and prompting drinking limit goal commitment and each Sunday querying weekend drinking quantity. SA+F participants received tailored feedback based on their text responses. To contrast the effects of SA+F with self-monitoring, SA participants received texts on Sundays querying drinking quantity, but did not receive alcohol-specific feedback. The control arm received standard care. Follow-up outcome data collected through web-based surveys were provided by 78% of participants at 3- months, 63% at 6-months and 55% at 9-months. Multiple imputation-derived, intent-to-treat models were used for primary analysis. At 9-months, participants in the SA+F group reported greater reductions in the number of binge drinking days than participants in the control group (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.69; 95% CI .59 to.79), lower binge drinking prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.52; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.98]), less drinks per drinking day (beta -.62; 95% CI -1.10 to -0.15) and lower alcohol-related injury prevalence (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.88). Participants in the SA group did not reduce drinking or alcohol-related injury relative to controls. Findings were similar using complete case analyses. Conclusions An interactive text-message intervention was more effective than self-monitoring or controls in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related injury prevalence up to 6 months after intervention completion. These findings, if replicated, suggest a scalable approach to help achieve sustained reductions in binge drinking and accompanying injuries among young adults. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01688245 PMID:26580802

  17. Is allicin able to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers when added to drinking water?

    PubMed

    Robyn, J; Rasschaert, G; Hermans, D; Pasmans, F; Heyndrickx, M

    2013-05-01

    Reducing Campylobacter shedding on the farm could result in a reduction of the number of human campylobacteriosis cases. In this study, we first investigated if allicin, allyl disulfide, and garlic oil extract were able to either prevent C. jejuni growth or kill C. jejuni in vitro. Allyl disulfide and garlic oil extract reduced C. jejuni numbers in vitro below a detectable level at a concentration of 50 mg/kg (no lower concentrations were tested), whereas allicin reduced C. jejuni numbers below a detectable level at a concentration as low as 7.5 mg/kg. In further experiments we screened for the anti-C. jejuni activity of allicin in a fermentation system closely mimicking the broiler cecal environment using cecal microbiota and mucus isolated from C. jejuni-free broilers. During these fermentation experiments, allicin reduced C. jejuni numbers below a detectable level after 24 h at a concentration of 50 mg/kg. In contrast, 25 mg/kg of allicin killed C. jejuni in the first 28 h of incubation, but anti-C. jejuni activity was lost after 48 h of incubation, probably due to the presence of mucin in the growth medium. This had been confirmed in fermentation experiments in the presence of broiler cecal mucus. Based on these results, we performed an in vivo experiment to assess the prevention or reduction of cecal C. jejuni colonization in broiler chickens when allicin was added to drinking water. We demonstrated that allicin in drinking water did not have a statistically significant effect on cecal C. jejuni colonization in broilers. It was assumed, based on in vitro experiments, that the activity of allicin was thwarted by the presence of mucin-containing mucus. Despite promising in vitro results, allicin was not capable of statistically influencing C. jejuni colonization in a broiler flock, although a trend toward lower cecal C. jejuni numbers in allicin-treated broilers was observed. PMID:23571353

  18. Reducing diarrhoea in Guatemalan children: randomized controlled trial of flocculant-disinfectant for drinking-water.

    PubMed Central

    Chiller, Tom M.; Mendoza, Carlos E.; Lopez, M. Beatriz; Alvarez, Maricruz; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Keswick, Bruce H.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a new point-of-use treatment for drinking-water, a commercially developed flocculant-disinfectant, on the prevalence of diarrhoea in children. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 514 rural Guatemalan households, divided into 42 neighbourhood clusters, for 13 weeks, from 4 November 2002 through 31 January 2003. Clusters assigned to water treatment with the flocculant-disinfectant were compared with those using their usual water-handling practices. The longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea was calculated as the proportion of total days with diarrhoea divided by the total number of days of observation. The prevalence of diarrhoea was compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. FINDINGS: The 1702 people in households receiving the disinfectant had a prevalence of diarrhoea that was 40% lower than that among the 1699 people using standard water-handling practices (0.9% versus 1.5%; P = 0.001). In households using the flocculant-disinfectant, children < 1 year of age had a 39% lower prevalence of diarrhoea than those in households using their standard practices (3.7% versus 6.0%; P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: In settings where families rarely treat drinking-water, we introduced a novel flocculant-disinfectant that reduced the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea, especially among children aged < 1 year, among whom diarrhoea has been strongly associated with mortality. Successful introduction and use of this product could contribute to preventing diarrhoeal disease globally. PMID:16501712

  19. Mobile phone text message intervention to reduce binge drinking among young adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy episodic (binge) drinking is common among young adults and can lead to injury and illness. Young adults who seek care in the Emergency Department (ED) may be disproportionately affected with binge drinking behavior, therefore provide an opportunity to reduce future risk through screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT). Mobile phone text messaging (SMS) is a common form of communication among young adults and has been shown to be effective at providing behavioral support to young adult drinkers after ED discharge. Efficacy of SMS programs to reduce binge drinking remains unknown. Methods/Design We will conduct a three parallel arm, randomized trial. A convenience sample of adults aged 18 to 25 years attending three EDs in Pittsburgh, PA and willing to participate in the study will be screened for hazardous alcohol consumption. Participants identified as hazardous drinkers will then be allocated to either 12 weeks of weekly SMS drinking assessments with feedback (SA+F), SMS drinking assessments without feedback (SA), or a control group. Randomization will be via an independent and remote computerized randomization and will be stratified by study site. The SA+F group will be asked to provide pre-weekend drinking intention as well as post-weekend consumption via SMS and will receive feedback messages focused on health consequences of alcohol consumption, personalized normative feedback, protective drinking strategies and goal setting. Follow-up data on alcohol use and injury related to alcohol will be collected through a password-protected website three, six and nine months later. The primary outcome for the study is binge drinking days (≥4 drinks for women; ≥5 drinks for men) during the previous month, and the main secondary outcome is the proportion of participants who report any injury related to alcohol in the prior three months. Discussion This study will test the hypothesis that a mobile phone text-messaging program will result in immediate and durable reductions in binge drinking among at-risk young adults. By testing an intervention group to an assessment-only and control group, we will be able to separate the effect of assessment reactivity. By collecting pre-weekend drinking intentions and post-weekend consumption data in the SA+F group, we will be able to better understand mechanism of change. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01688245 PMID:23552023

  20. Reducing Drinking Among Junior Enlisted Air Force Members in Five Communities: Early Findings of the EUDL Program's Influence on Self-Reported Drinking Behaviors*

    PubMed Central

    Spera, Christopher; Franklin, Keita; Uekawa, Kazuaki; Kunz, John F.; Szoc, Ronald Z.; Thomas, Randall K.; Cambridge, Milton H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In the fall of 2006, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention awarded discretionary grants to five communities in four states as part of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws initiative. These 3-year grants were designed to support implementation of a set of interventions using an environmental strategies approach to reduce drinking and associated alcohol-related misconducts among active-duty Air Force members ages 18–25, with a specific focus on the underage population. The current article presents findings from Year 1 of the evaluation. Method: Data on alcohol use were obtained from a large-scale, anonymous survey that fielded in the spring of 2006 (i.e., pretest) and the spring of 2008 (i.e., posttest) from a stratified random sample of Air Force members at five demonstration and five comparison communities. Results: The percentage of junior enlisted personnel at risk for an alcohol problem dropped 6.6% in the Air Force overall during the last 2 years but dropped as much as 13.6% and 9.8% in two Arizona demonstration communities that implemented the intervention. Conclusions: The first-year results suggest that the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws intervention may have been one factor that helped to reduce the percentage of junior enlisted Air Force members at risk for an alcohol problem in the demonstration communities. PMID:20409431

  1. Risk of hypertension and reduced kidney function after acute gastroenteritis from bacteria-contaminated drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Amit X.; Moist, Louise; Matsell, Douglas; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather R.; Haynes, R. Brian; Suri, Rita S.; Salvadori, Marina; Ray, Joel; Clark, William F.

    2005-01-01

    Background The long-term health consequences of acute bacterial gastroenteritis remain uncertain. We studied the risk of hypertension and reduced kidney function after an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to contamination of a regional drinking water supply with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter species. Methods A total of 1958 adults with no known history of hypertension or kidney disease before the outbreak participated in a long-term follow-up study. Of the participants, 675 had been asymptomatic during the outbreak, 909 had had moderate symptoms of acute self-limited gastroenteritis, and 374 had had severe symptoms that necessitated medical attention. The outcomes of interest were a diagnosis of hypertension or the presence of reduced kidney function and albuminuria during the follow-up period. Results After a mean follow-up of 3.7 years after the outbreak, hypertension was diagnosed in 27.0% of participants who had been asymptomatic during the outbreak and in 32.3% and 35.9% of those who had had moderate and severe symptoms of acute gastroenteritis respectively (trend p = 0.009). Compared with the asymptomatic participants, those with moderate and severe symptoms of gastroenteritis had an adjusted relative risk of hypertension of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97–1.35) and 1.28 (95% CI 1.04–1.56) respectively. A similar graded association was seen for reduced kidney function, defined as the presence of an estimated glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (trend p = 0.03). No association was observed between gastroenteritis and the subsequent risk of albuminuria. Interpretation Acute bacterial gastroenteritis necessitating medical attention was associated with an increased risk of hypertension and reduced kidney function 4 years after infection. Maintaining safe drinking water remains essential to human health, as transient bacterial contaminations may have implications well beyond a period of acute self-limited illness. PMID:15923490

  2. A Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Intervention to Reduce Drinking in the Trauma Care Setting: How Brief is Brief?

    PubMed Central

    Field, Craig; Walters, Scott; Marti, C. Nathan; Jun, Jina; Foreman, Michael; Brown, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective Determine the efficacy of three brief intervention strategies that address heavy drinking among injured patients. Summary of Background Data The content or structure of brief interventions most effective at reducing alcohol misuse following traumatic injury is not known. Methods Injured patients from three trauma centers were screened for heavy drinking and randomly assigned to brief advice or BA (n=200), brief motivational intervention or BMI (n=203), or brief motivational intervention plus a telephone booster using personalized feedback or BMI+B (n=193). Among those randomly assigned, 57% met criteria for moderate to severe alcohol problems. The primary drinking outcomes were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results Compared with BA and BMI, BMI+B showed significant reductions in the number of standard drinks consumed per week at 3 (Δ adjusted means=-1.22, 95% C.I.=-.99 ∼ -1.49, p=.01) and 6 months (Δ adjusted means=-1.42, 95% C.I.=-1.14 ∼ -1.76, p=.02), percent days of heavy drinking at 6 months (Δ adjusted means=-5.90, 95% C.I.=-11.40 ∼ -0.40, p=.04), maximum number of standard drinks consumed in one day at 3 (Δ adjusted means=-1.38, 95% C.I.=-1.18 ∼ -1.62, p=.003) and 12 months (Δ adjusted means=-1.71, 95% C.I.=-1.47 ∼ -1.99, p=.02), and number of standard drinks consumed per drinking day at 3 (Δ adjusted means=-1.49, 95% C.I.=-1.35∼-1.65, p=.002) and 6 months (Δ adjusted means=-1.28,, 95% C.I.=-1.17 ∼ -1.40, p=.01). Conclusion Brief interventions based on motivational interviewing with a telephone booster using personalized feedback were most effective at achieving reductions in alcohol intake across the three trauma centers. PMID:24263324

  3. Mobilizing for change: a case study of a campus and community coalition to reduce high-risk drinking.

    PubMed

    Linowski, Sally A; DiFulvio, Gloria T

    2012-06-01

    Campus and community coalitions include a partnership between campus leaders and community stakeholders and can effectively address the environment that may promote high-risk drinking. Despite evidence suggesting that coalitions may be effective vehicles for producing sustainable changes in college drinking, few campuses work within such a structure. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a campus and community coalition to implement environmental changes and thereby reduce high-risk drinking and associated consequences. This study utilized a case study method to tell the story of a campus and community coalition (CCC) implemented on a large university campus in the Northeast. The study employed multiple methods including archival document review, review of campus and community level data (i.e. alcohol-related arrests and sanctions) and analysis of student level data. The case study discusses the strategies employed, the environmental changes that occurred and the impact these changes have had on student drinking and consequences. Since implementing the campus and community coalition, the campus has seen an increase in enforcement by campus and local police, changes in community by-laws, and significant reductions in student drinking and consequences. The data provide evidence that a comprehensive approach to reducing high-risk drinking can have an impact on the campus and community environment, which in turn impacts student drinking and associated consequences. The CCC utilized a strategic and comprehensive approach to substance abuse prevention, allowing all participants to have a shared understanding of the challenges and best practices. Implications for research and practice are also discussed. PMID:22101635

  4. Supplementation of soft drinks with metallic ions reduces dissolution of bovine enamel

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Heloisa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva; LEITE, Aline de Lima; ITALIANI, Flávia de Moraes; KATO, Melissa Thiemi; PESSAN, Juliano Pelim; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of metallic ions to carbonated drinks on their erosive potential. Material and Methods Powdered enamel was added to carbonated beverages (Coca-ColaTM or Sprite ZeroTM and shaken for 30 s. The samples were then immediately centrifuged and the supernatant removed. This procedure was repeated 5 times with the beverages containing Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ or Zn2+ (1.25-60 mmol/L). For Coca-ColaTM, the concentration of each ion that exhibited the highest protection was also evaluated in combination with Fe2+. The phosphate or calcium released were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results For Coca-ColaTM, the best protective effect was observed for Zn2+ alone (10 mmol/L) or in combination (1 mmol/L) with other ions (12% and 27%, respectively, when compared with the control). Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the best protective effect was observed for Cu2+ at 15 and 30 mmol/L, which decreased the dissolution by 22-23%. Zn2+ at 2.5 mmol/L also reduced the dissolution of powdered enamel by 8%. Conclusions The results suggest that the combination of metallic ions can be an alternative to reduce the erosive potential of Coca-ColaTM. Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the addition of Cu2+ seems to be the best alternative. PMID:24037077

  5. Chlorination and safe storage of household drinking water in developing countries to reduce waterborne disease.

    PubMed

    Sobsey, M D; Handzel, T; Venczel, L

    2003-01-01

    Simple, effective and affordable methods are needed to treat and safely store non-piped, gathered household water. This study evaluated point-of-use chlorination and storage in special plastic containers of gathered household water for improving microbial quality and reducing diarrhoeal illness of consumers living under conditions of poor sanitation and hygiene. Community families were recruited and randomly divided into intervention (household water chlorination and storage in a special container) and control (no intervention) households. Microbes in stored household water were extensively inactivated by 1-5-mg/L doses of hypochlorite. Escherichia coli levels in stored household waters were < 1/100 mL in most intervention households but readily detectable at high levels in control households. Stored water of intervention households was also lower in Clostridium perfringens and heterotrophic plate count bacteria than in control households. The intervention reduced household diarrhoeal illness. In Bolivia, monthly episodes of household diarrhoeal illness were 1.25 and 2.2 in intervention and control families, respectively (P = < 0.002) indicating that 43% of community diarrhoea was preventable by using the intervention. In Bangladesh, mean episodes of child diarrhoea/1,000 d were 19.6 and 24.8 in intervention and control groups respectively (P = < 0.03) indicating that about 24% of observed diarrhoea was preventable by using the intervention. Chlorine disinfection and storage in an appropriate container significantly improved the microbiological quality of non-piped household drinking water and reduced community diarrhoeal disease. Widespread use of this simple treatment and storage system for non-piped domestic water has the potential to dramatically reduce the global burden of waterborne diarrhoeal disease. PMID:12639033

  6. Reducing Teenage Binge Drinking and Drunk Driving on the Reservation: The Pikanii Action Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still Smoking, Dorothy; Bull Shoe, Debbie Whitegrass

    2012-01-01

    The Pikanii Action Team project addressed the issues of teenage drinking and drunk driving on the Blackfeet Reservation. Basing their actions on locally-generated research, the Pikanii Action Team conducted a series of activities and initiatives to promote public awareness and action related to high-risk activities related to drinking. The team's…

  7. The Effectiveness of an Innovative Intervention Aimed at Reducing Binge Drinking among Young People: Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Ramm, Josephine; Cooke, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a digital-story intervention (short videos made by young people) seeking to reduce the prevalence of young people's binge drinking in Caerphilly. Method: A quasi-experimental design was adopted with three intervention sites and one control site providing the sample (mainly aged 14-15 years). Three rounds of…

  8. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to…

  9. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to

  10. Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists reduce ethanol self-administration in high-drinking rodent models

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel I.; Becker, Howard C.; Adams, Benjamin L.; Jesudason, Cynthia D.; Rorick-Kehn, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the role of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor activity on ethanol self-administration, compounds that differentially target orexin (OX) receptor subtypes were assessed in various self-administration paradigms using high-drinking rodent models. Effects of the OX1 antagonist SB334867, the OX2 antagonist LSN2424100, and the mixed OX1/2 antagonist almorexant (ACT-078573) on home cage ethanol consumption were tested in ethanol-preferring (P) rats using a 2-bottle choice procedure. In separate experiments, effects of SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant on operant ethanol self-administration were assessed in P rats maintained on a progressive ratio operant schedule of reinforcement. In a third series of experiments, SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant were administered to ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J mice to examine effects of OX receptor blockade on ethanol intake in a binge-like drinking (drinking-in-the-dark) model. In P rats with chronic home cage free-choice ethanol access, SB334867 and almorexant significantly reduced ethanol intake, but almorexant also reduced water intake, suggesting non-specific effects on consummatory behavior. In the progressive ratio operant experiments, LSN2424100 and almorexant reduced breakpoints and ethanol consumption in P rats, whereas the almorexant inactive enantiomer and SB334867 did not significantly affect the motivation to consume ethanol. As expected, vehicle-injected mice exhibited binge-like drinking patterns in the drinking-in-the-dark model. All three OX antagonists reduced both ethanol intake and resulting blood ethanol concentrations relative to vehicle-injected controls, but SB334867 and LSN2424100 also reduced sucrose consumption in a different cohort of mice, suggesting non-specific effects. Collectively, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence indicating that OX1 and OX2 receptor activity influences ethanol self-administration, although the effects may not be selective for ethanol consumption. PMID:24616657

  11. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

  12. Nicotinic receptor ligands reduce ethanol intake by high alcohol-drinking HAD-2 rats

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Eiler, Bill J. A.; Cook, Jason B.; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are implicated in the reinforcing effects of many drugs of abuse, including ethanol. The present study examined the efficacy of cytisine, a nAChR partial agonist, and lobeline, a putative nAChR antagonist, on the maintenance of ethanol drinking by HAD-2 rats. Adult male HAD-2 rats were given access to ethanol (15% and 30%, with ad lib water and food) 22 hr per day for 12 weeks, beginning at 60 days old, after which cytisine (0.0, 0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg) was tested for 3 consecutive days. The rats were given an 18 day wash-out period, and were then tested with lobeline (0.0, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Ethanol intake was measured at 1, 4 and 22 hours post-injection. Rats were injected i.p. just prior to lights out (1200 h). There was a significant main effect of cytisine treatment on the 2nd test day, with the 1.5 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake at the 1 hr and 4 hr time-points, relative to saline, and the 0.5 mg/kg dose inducing a significant reduction at the 4 hr time-point. Conversely, lobeline treatment resulted in significant main effects of treatment for all 3 time points, within each test day, with the 5.0 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake, relative to saline, at each time-point within each test day. These findings provide further evidence that activity at the nAChR influences ethanol intake and is a promising target for pharmacotherapy development for the treatment of alcohol dependence and relapse. PMID:20004336

  13. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  14. Reducing heavy drinking in HIV primary care: a randomized trial of brief intervention, with and without technological enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Aharonovich, Efrat; O’Leary, Ann; Greenstein, Eliana; Pavlicova, Martina; Arunajadai, Srikesh; Waxman, Rachel; Wainberg, Milton; Helzer, John; Johnston, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Aims In HIV-infected individuals, heavy drinking compromises survival. In HIV primary care, the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) to reduce drinking is unknown, alcohol-dependent patients may need greater intervention and resources are limited. Using interactive voice response (IVR) technology, HealthCall was designed to enhance MI via daily patient self-monitoring calls to an automated telephone system with personalized feedback. We tested the efficacy of MI-only and MI+HealthCall for drinking reduction among HIV primary care patients. Design Parallel random assignment to control (n = 88), MI-only (n = 82) or MI+HealthCall (n = 88). Counselors provided advice/education (control) or MI (MI-only or MI+HealthCall) at baseline. At 30 and 60 days (end-of-treatment), counselors briefly discussed drinking with patients, using HealthCall graphs with MI+HealthCall patients. Setting Large urban HIV primary care clinic. Participants Patients consuming ≥4 drinks at least once in prior 30 days. Measurements Using time-line follow-back, primary outcome was number of drinks per drinking day, last 30 days. Findings End-of-treatment number of drinks per drinking day (NumDD) means were 4.75, 3.94 and 3.58 in control, MI-only and MI+HealthCall, respectively (overall model χ2, d.f. = 9.11,2, P = 0.01). For contrasts of NumDD, P = 0.01 for MI+HealthCall versus control; P = 0.07 for MI-only versus control; and P = 0.24 for MI+HealthCall versus MI-only. Secondary analysis indicated no intervention effects on NumDD among non-alcohol-dependent patients. However, for contrasts of NumDD among alcohol-dependent patients, P < 0.01 for MI+HealthCall versus control; P = 0.09 for MI-only versus control; and P = 0.03 for MI+HealthCall versus MI-only. By 12-month follow-up, although NumDD remained lower among alcohol-dependent patients in MI+HealthCall than others, effects were no longer significant. Conclusions For alcohol-dependent HIV patients, enhancing MI with HealthCall may offer additional benefit, without extensive additional staff involvement. PMID:23432593

  15. Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and Mycobacteria Dominate the Biofilm Communities in a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Smith, C Kimloi; LaPara, Timothy M; Hozalski, Raymond M

    2015-07-21

    The quantity and composition of bacterial biofilms growing on 10 water mains from a full-scale chloraminated water distribution system were analyzed using real-time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and next-generation, high-throughput Illumina sequencing. Water mains with corrosion tubercles supported the greatest amount of bacterial biomass (n = 25; geometric mean = 2.5 × 10(7) copies cm(-2)), which was significantly higher (P = 0.04) than cement-lined cast-iron mains (n = 6; geometric mean = 2.0 × 10(6) copies cm(-2)). Despite spatial variation of community composition and bacterial abundance in water main biofilms, the communities on the interior main surfaces were surprisingly similar, containing a core group of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to only 17 different genera. Bacteria from the genus Mycobacterium dominated all communities at the main wall-bulk water interface (25-78% of the community), regardless of main age, estimated water age, main material, and the presence of corrosion products. Further sequencing of the mycobacterial heat shock protein gene (hsp65) provided species-level taxonomic resolution of mycobacteria. The two dominant Mycobacteria present, M. frederiksbergense (arithmetic mean = 85.7% of hsp65 sequences) and M. aurum (arithmetic mean = 6.5% of hsp65 sequences), are generally considered to be nonpathogenic. Two opportunistic pathogens, however, were detected at low numbers: M. hemophilum (arithmetic mean = 1.5% of hsp65 sequences) and M. abscessus (arithmetic mean = 0.006% of hsp65 sequences). Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfovibrio, which have been implicated in microbially influenced corrosion, dominated all communities located underneath corrosion tubercules (arithmetic mean = 67.5% of the community). This research provides novel insights into the quantity and composition of biofilms in full-scale drinking water distribution systems, which is critical for assessing the risks to public health and to the water supply infrastructure. PMID:26098899

  16. Leucine supplementation via drinking water reduces atherosclerotic lesions in apoE null mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Dai, Xiao-yan; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Ge-xin; Wang, Xian; Xu, Ming-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Recent evidence suggests that the essential amino acid leucine may be involved in systemic cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of leucine supplementation on the development of atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. Methods: ApoE null mice were fed with chow supplemented with leucine (1.5% w/v) in drinking water for 8 week. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were examined using Oil Red O staining. Plasma lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were measured with fast protein liquid chromatography. Hepatic gene expression was detected using real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Results: Leucine supplementation resulted in 57.6% reduction of aortic atherosclerotic lesion area in apoE null mice, accompanied by 41.2% decrease of serum LDL-C levels and 40.2% increase of serum HDL-C levels. The body weight, food intake and blood glucose level were not affected by leucine supplementation. Furthermore, leucine supplementation increased the expression of Abcg5 and Abcg8 (that were involved in hepatic cholesterol efflux) by 1.28- and 0.86-fold, respectively, and significantly increased their protein levels. Leucine supplementation also increased the expression of Srebf1, Scd1 and Pgc1b (that were involved in hepatic triglyceride metabolism) by 3.73-, 1.35- and 1.71-fold, respectively. Consequently, leucine supplementation resulted in 51.77% reduction of liver cholesterol content and 2.2-fold increase of liver triglyceride content. Additionally, leucine supplementation did not affect the serum levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12, but markedly decreased the serum level of MCP-1. Conclusion: Leucine supplementation effectively attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE null mice by improving the plasma lipid profile and reducing systemic inflammation. PMID:26687933

  17. Reduced risk estimations after remediation of lead (Pb) in drinking water at two US school districts.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Le, Trung; Gallagher, Daniel; Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The risk of students to develop elevated blood lead from drinking water consumption at schools was assessed, which is a different approach from predictions of geometric mean blood lead levels. Measured water lead levels (WLLs) from 63 elementary schools in Seattle and 601 elementary schools in Los Angeles were acquired before and after voluntary remediation of water lead contamination problems. Combined exposures to measured school WLLs (first-draw and flushed, 50% of water consumption) and home WLLs (50% of water consumption) were used as inputs to the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model for each school. In Seattle an average 11.2% of students were predicted to exceed a blood lead threshold of 5 μg/dL across 63 schools pre-remediation, but predicted risks at individual schools varied (7% risk of exceedance at a "low exposure school", 11% risk at a "typical exposure school", and 31% risk at a "high exposure school"). Addition of water filters and removal of lead plumbing lowered school WLL inputs to the model, and reduced the predicted risk output to 4.8% on average for Seattle elementary students across all 63 schools. The remnant post-remediation risk was attributable to other assumed background lead sources in the model (air, soil, dust, diet and home WLLs), with school WLLs practically eliminated as a health threat. Los Angeles schools instead instituted a flushing program which was assumed to eliminate first-draw WLLs as inputs to the model. With assumed benefits of remedial flushing, the predicted average risk of students to exceed a BLL threshold of 5 μg/dL dropped from 8.6% to 6.0% across 601 schools. In an era with increasingly stringent public health goals (e.g., reduction of blood lead safety threshold from 10 to 5 μg/dL), quantifiable health benefits to students were predicted after water lead remediation at two large US school systems. PMID:23988746

  18. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a U.S. College

    PubMed Central

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. PARTICIPANTS Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. METHODS Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum age drinking law (MADL). RESULTS In the short-term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. CONCLUSION These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MADLs simply lead to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse. PMID:23930747

  19. Perceptions of adult trauma patients on the acceptability of text messaging as an aid to reduce harmful drinking behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brief interventions (BIs) have been shown to be effective in modifying hazardous drinking behaviours in a range of settings. However, they are underutilised in hospitals due to resource constraints. We explored the perspectives of admitted trauma patients about the appeal, acceptability and content of a Brief Intervention (BI) delivered via text messages. Methods Thirty mobile phone users (≥16 years old) admitted to Auckland City Hospital as a result of injury were recruited (December 2010 – January 2011). Participants were interviewed face-to-face during their hospital stay using a semi-structured interview guide that explored topics including perceptions of the proposed intervention to reduce hazardous drinking and related harm, and perceived acceptability of an m-health program. Where issues relating to content of messages were raised by participants these were also captured. In addition, a brief survey captured information on demographic information, mobile phone usage and type of phone, along with the frequency of alcohol use. Results 22 of the 30 participants were male, and almost half were aged 20 to 39 years. The majority of participants identified as New Zealand Europeans, six as Māori (New Zealand's indigenous population) and of the remainder two each identified as Pacific and of Asian ethnicity. Most (28/30) participants used a mobile phone daily. 18 participants were deemed to be drinking in a non-hazardous manner, seven were hazardous drinkers, and three were non-drinkers. Most participants (21/30) indicated that text messages could be effective in reducing hazardous drinking and related harms, with more than half (17/30) signalling they would sign-up. Factors identified that would increase receptiveness included: awareness that the intervention was evidence-based; participants readiness-to-change; informative messages that include the consequences of drinking and practical advice; non-judgemental messages; and ease-of-use. Areas of potential concern included: confidentiality and frequency of messages. The cultural relevance of the messages for Māori was highlighted as important. Conclusions This study indicates that trauma patients recognize potential benefits of mobile-health interventions designed to reduce hazardous drinking. The feedback provided will inform the development of an intervention to be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:24387293

  20. A Group Motivational Interviewing Intervention Reduces Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences in Adjudicated College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Lamb, Toby F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Quinlan, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a single-session group motivational enhancement intervention with college students adjudicated for violation of alcohol policy. The intervention consisted of a timeline Followback assessment of drinking, social norms re-education, decisional balance for behavior change, relapse prevention, expectancy…

  1. Integrating mHealth Mobile Applications to Reduce High Risk Drinking among Underage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemi, Donna M.; Cochran, Allyson R.; Kelly, John F.; Cornelius, Judith B.; Belk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: College students embrace mobile cell phones (MCPs) as a primary communication and entertainment device. The aim of this study was to investigate college students' perceptions toward using mHealth technology to deliver interventions to prevent high-risk drinking and associated consequences. Design/setting: Four focus group

  2. Late-Night Programming Can Reduce High-risk Drinking, Provide Quality Student Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latta, Stan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses late-night programming by college student unions as an alternative to high-risk drinking behavior, describing such programs at Michigan State, Penn State, and West Virginia universities. Addresses these programs' mission statement, goals, presidential support, staffing, food, programming ideas, promotion and publicity, assessment,…

  3. Conservation program (EQIP) reduces atrazine in Columbus, OH drinking water supply reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation dollars applied in the Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed have achieved a significant reduction in the atrazine levels in Hover Reservoir, a major drinking water source for Columbus, Ohio. During the 1990s, atrazine levels in this reservoir periodically exceeded the health advisory limit ...

  4. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Patricia A., Ed.; Faden, Vivian B., Ed.; Wing, Stephen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This "Call to Action" serves as a reminder that underage drinking has serious social costs and tragic consequences, demonstrating the importance of prevention. Underage alcohol use is not inevitable, and schools, parents, and other adults are not powerless to stop it. The latest research demonstrates a compelling need to address alcohol use early,…

  5. Integrating mHealth Mobile Applications to Reduce High Risk Drinking among Underage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemi, Donna M.; Cochran, Allyson R.; Kelly, John F.; Cornelius, Judith B.; Belk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: College students embrace mobile cell phones (MCPs) as a primary communication and entertainment device. The aim of this study was to investigate college students' perceptions toward using mHealth technology to deliver interventions to prevent high-risk drinking and associated consequences. Design/setting: Four focus group…

  6. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  7. New Research Findings Since the 2007 Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, Ralph; White, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In 2007, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued The Surgeon General’s Call To Action To Prevent And Reduce Underage Drinking, a publication documenting a problem linked to nearly 5,000 injury deaths annually and poor academic performance, potential cognitive deficits, risky sexual behavior, physical and sexual assaults, and other substance use. This report reviews subsequent underage drinking and related traffic fatality trends and research on determinants, consequences, and prevention interventions. Method: New research reports, meta-analyses, and systematic literature reviews were examined. Results: Since the Call to Action, reductions in underage frequency of drinking, heavy drinking occasions, and alcohol-related traffic deaths that began in the 1980s when the drinking age nationally became 21 have continued. Knowledge regarding determinants and consequences, particularly the effects of early-onset drinking, parental alcohol provision, and cognitive effects, has expanded. Additional studies support associations between the legal drinking age of 21, zero tolerance laws, higher alcohol prices, and reduced drinking and related problems. New research suggests that use/lose laws, social host liability, internal possession laws, graduated licensing, and night driving restrictions reduce traffic deaths involving underage drinking drivers. Additional studies support the positive effects of individually oriented interventions, especially screening and brief motivational interventions, web and face-to-face social norms interventions, college web-based interventions, parental interventions, and multicomponent community interventions. Conclusions: Despite reductions in underage alcohol consumption and related traffic deaths, underage drinking remains an enduring problem. Continued research is warranted in minimally studied areas, such as prospective studies of alcohol and brain development, policy studies of use/lose laws, internal possession laws, social host liability, and parent–family interventions. PMID:24411808

  8. Evaluating rain gardens as a method to reduce the impact of sewer overflows in sources of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Autixier, Laurène; Mailhot, Alain; Bolduc, Samuel; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2014-11-15

    The implications of climate change and changing precipitation patterns need to be investigated to evaluate mitigation measures for source water protection. Potential solutions need first to be evaluated under present climate conditions to determine their utility as climate change adaptation strategies. An urban drainage network receiving both stormwater and wastewater was studied to evaluate potential solutions to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in a drinking water source. A detailed hydraulic model was applied to the drainage basin to model the implementation of best management practices at a drainage basin scale. The model was calibrated and validated with field data of CSO flows for seven events from a survey conducted in 2009 and 2010. Rain gardens were evaluated for their reduction of volumes of water entering the drainage network and of CSOs. Scenarios with different levels of implementation were considered and evaluated. Of the total impervious area within the basin directly connected to the sewer system, a maximum of 21% could be alternately directed towards rain gardens. The runoff reductions for the entire catchment ranged from 12.7% to 19.4% depending on the event considered. The maximum discharged volume reduction ranged from 13% to 62% and the maximum peak flow rate reduction ranged from 7% to 56%. Of concern is that in-sewer sediment resuspension is an important process to consider with regard to the efficacy of best management practices aimed at reducing extreme loads and concentrations. Rain gardens were less effective for large events, which are of greater importance for drinking water sources. These practices could increase peak instantaneous loads as a result of greater in-sewer resuspension during large events. Multiple interventions would be required to achieve the objectives of reducing the number, total volumes and peak contaminant loads of overflows upstream of drinking water intakes. PMID:25192930

  9. Reducing HIV Risks in the Places Where People Drink: Prevention Interventions in Alcohol Venues.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-01-01

    Apart from individual alcohol drinking behavior, the context or places where people drink play a significant role in HIV transmission risk. In this paper, we review the research that has been conducted on alcohol venues to identify the social and structural factors (e.g., social norms, sexual behavior) that are associated with HIV risk in these places, to review HIV prevention interventions based in alcohol venues, and to discuss appropriate methodologies for alcohol venue research. Alcohol venues are defined here as places that sell or serve alcohol for onsite consumption, including bars, bottle stores, nightclubs, wine shops, and informal shebeens. Despite the many established HIV risk factors at play in alcohol venues, limited prevention strategies have been implemented in such places. A total of 11 HIV prevention interventions or programs were identified. HIV prevention interventions in alcohol venues may be conducted at the individual, social, or structural level. However, multilevel interventions that target more than one level appear to lead to the most sustainable behavior change. Strategies to incorporate alcohol venues in biomedical prevention strategies including antiretroviral therapy for alcohol users are also discussed. PMID:26099244

  10. THE USE OF PROTECTIVE BEHAVIORAL STRATEGIES IS RELATED TO REDUCED RISK IN HEAVY DRINKING COLLEGE STUDENTS WITH POORER MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH*

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample of heavy drinking college students (N = 1,820). In this high risk sample, multiple regression analyses showed that stronger social health was related to increased drinking, while poorer physical, mental, and social health were related to increased alcohol negative consequences. Further, moderation effects revealed that increasing the use of protective behaviors was associated with significantly less drinking in those with stronger social health, as well as significantly lower numbers of negative consequences among participants with poorer physical and mental health. Implications for college counselors and medical personnel are discussed. PMID:21381463

  11. Reducing the Harms of College Student Drinking: How Alan Marlatt Changed Approaches, Outcomes, and the Field

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Jason R.; Palmer, Rebekka S.; Cronce, Jessica M.; Logan, Diane E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss Alan Marlatt’s contributions to the prevention and reduction of alcohol-related harms among college students. We consider Alan’s early research that later led to the development and evaluation of college student drinking programs, and examine Alan’s impact, both directly and indirectly through those he mentored and trained, as a scientist-practitioner. We review the recognition of the efficacy of Alan’s programs, including the Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP) and Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), in addition to extensions of these interventions in more recent studies. Finally, we discuss how Alan’s work influences interventions with college student drinkers today, and how future directions will continue to be informed by his vision and values. PMID:25774117

  12. Salt Appetite Is Reduced by a Single Experience of Drinking Hypertonic Saline in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Michael P.; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F. R.; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  13. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Michael P; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  14. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  15. Reducing the chlorine dioxide demand in final disinfection of drinking water treatment plants using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Crotti, Barbara Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests was performed at the laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests was performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30 min after ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, mesoporous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and UV absorbance at wavelength 254 nm using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral mesoporous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP. PMID:25465650

  16. Effectiveness of flushing on reducing lead and copper levels in school drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, E A

    1993-01-01

    Samples from drinking water fountains in 50 schools in New Jersey were collected at specific times during a typical school day and analyzed for lead, copper, pH, alkalinity, and hardness. First-draw lead and copper levels (medians 0.010 mg/l and 0.26 mg/l, respectively) decreased significantly after 10 min of flushing in the morning (medians 0.005 mg/l lead and 0.068 mg/l copper), but levels increased significantly by lunchtime (medians 0.007 mg/l lead and 0.12 mg/l copper) after normal use of fountains in the morning by students. Corrosive water, as defined by the aggressive index, contained significantly higher levels of lead and copper (medians 0.012 mg/l and 0.605 mg/l, respectively) than noncorrosive water (medians 0.005 mg/l and 0.03 mg/l, respectively). Images p240-a PMID:8404761

  17. Fetal death and reduced birth rates associated with exposure to lead-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This ecologic study notes that fetal death rates (FDR) during the Washington DC drinking water "lead crisis" (2000-2004) peaked in 2001 when water lead levels (WLLs) were highest, and were minimized in 2004 after public health interventions were implemented to protect pregnant women. Changes in the DC FDR vs neighboring Baltimore City were correlated to DC WLL (R(2) = 0.72). Birth rates in DC also increased versus Baltimore City and versus the United States in 2004-2006, when consumers were protected from high WLLs. The increased births in DC neighborhoods comparing 2004 versus 2001 was correlated to the incidence of lead pipes (R(2) = 0.60). DC birth rates from 1999 to 2007 correlated with proxies for maternal blood lead including the geometric mean blood lead in DC children (R(2) = 0.68) and the incidence of lead poisoning in children under age 1.3 years (R(2) = 0.64). After public health protections were removed in 2006, DC FDR spiked in 2007-2009 versus 2004-2006 (p < 0.05), in a manner consistent with high WLL health risks to consumers arising from partial lead service line replacements, and DC FDR dropped to historically low levels in 2010-2011 after consumers were protected and the PSLR program was terminated. Re-evaluation of a historic construction-related miscarriage cluster in the USA Today Building (1987-1988), demonstrates that high WLLs from disturbed plumbing were a possible cause. Overall results are consistent with prior research linking increased lead exposure to higher incidence of miscarriages and fetal death, even at blood lead elevations (≈5 μg/dL) once considered relatively low. PMID:24321041

  18. Effects of A 2.5-Year Campus-Wide Intervention to Reduce College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Owens, Dee; Gassman, Ruth; Kingori, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study reports on the results of a 2.5-year college-wide, coordinated intervention that was implemented from June 2007 to December 2009 to reduce the amount and frequency of students' alcohol consumption. Design: Quasi-experimental study using a one-group (freshmen living on campus) pretest/posttest design ("N"…

  19. Condensed tannin in drinking water reduces greenhouse gas precursor urea in sheep and cattle urine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingestion of small amounts of naturally-occurring condensed tannin (CT) by ruminants can provide several benefits including potential reduction of ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions over the long-term by reducing their urine urea excretion. However, providing grazing ruminants with sufficient amou...

  20. Iron Isotope Variations in Reduced Groundwater and in Drinking Water Supplies: A Case Study of Hanoi, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teutsch, N.; Berg, M.; von Gunten, U.; Halliday, A.

    2004-12-01

    In reduced groundwater iron is involved in biotic and abiotic transformation processes, both of which could lead to iron isotope fractionation. The reduced groundwater aquifers in the area of the Vietnamese capital of Hanoi are the main drinking water sources for the city. These groundwaters contain arsenic, which imposes a serious health threat to millions of people. Dissolved arsenic is related to the reducing conditions prevalent in the groundwater, and iron and arsenic contents are correlated in the sediments. We are employing iron isotope composition as a tool to better understand the processes leading to the transformation of iron in the groundwater and its role in various biogeochemical processes in reduced environments. Drinking water is supplied to the city of Hanoi from several water treatment plants (WTP) which pump the raw groundwater from a lower aquifer, while the rural surroundings pump untreated groundwater from an upper aquifer by private tubewells. Surface water from the Red River delta is the main source of recharge to these two aquifers. Due to high content of particulate natural organic matter (NOM) in the sediment leading to extensive microbial activity, the groundwaters are anoxic and rich in dissolved iron(II). The iron(II) removal in the WTPs is carried by a multi-step treatment including aeration, settling, filtration, and chlorination. We have collected natural groundwater samples for isotopic analysis from two aquifers at several locations, a groundwater depth profile and its corresponding sediment phases from the upper aquifer and the underlying aquitard, raw and treated water from several WTPs, as well as the corresponding iron(III) precipitates. The iron concentrations of groundwaters analysed in this study range from 3 to 28 mg/L and δ 57Fe (57/54 deviation from IRMM 014) values vary between -1.2 and +1.5 ‰ . The sediment depth profile has a δ 57Fe around +0.3 ‰ , which implies that the high values obtained in the groundwater nearby (+0.9 - +1.2 ‰ ) cannot be explained by a simple reductive dissolution process, which would be expected to favour the lighter Fe isotopes. Removal of iron in the WTP is followed by a strong decrease of δ 57Fe, probably due to formation of heavier Fe(III) phases. High δ 57Fe values are found in both aquifers and correspond to high concentrations of iron in the groundwater. We hypothesize that the iron isotopic variations observed so far are an indication for iron sources and transformation processes that could not be detected by only measuring dissolved iron concentrations. Current investigations will further explore this hypothesis.

  1. Optimizing Timing and Dosage: Does Parent Type Moderate the Effects of Variations of a Parent-Based Intervention to Reduce College Student Drinking?

    PubMed Central

    Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Scaglione, Nichole; Cleveland, Michael J.; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob; Abar, Caitlin C.

    2013-01-01

    Research on parent-based interventions (PBIs) to reduce college student drinking has explored the optimal timing of delivery and dosage. The present study extended this work by examining the effectiveness of three different PBI conditions on student drinking outcomes as a function of parenting types and students' pre-college drinking patterns. Four hypotheses were evaluated (early intervention, increased dosage, invariant, and treatment matching risk). A random sample of 1900 college students and their parents was randomized to four conditions: 1) pre-college matriculation, 2) pre-college matriculation plus booster, 3) post-college matriculation, or 4) control, and was assessed at baseline (summer prior to college) and 5-month follow-up. Baseline parent type was assessed using latent profile analysis (positive, pro-alcohol, positive, anti-alcohol, negative mother and negative father). Student drinking patterns were classified at baseline and follow up and included: non-drinker, weekend light drinker, weekend heavy episodic drinker, and heavy drinker. Consistent with the treatment matching risk hypothesis, results indicated parent type moderated the effects of intervention condition such that receiving the intervention prior to college was associated with lower likelihood of being in a higher-risk drinking pattern at follow up for students with positive, anti-alcohol or negative father parent types. The findings are discussed with respect to optimal delivery and dosage of parent-based interventions for college student drinking. PMID:23404668

  2. A Pre-Post Study on the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of a Web- and Text Messaging-Based Intervention to Reduce Problem Drinking in Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Michael P; Venzin, Vigeli; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background Problem drinking, particularly risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD), also called “binge drinking”, is widespread among adolescents and young adults in most Western countries. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of interventions to reduce RSOD in young people with heterogeneous and particularly lower educational background. Objective To test the appropriateness and initial effectiveness of a combined, individually tailored Web- and text messaging (SMS)–based intervention program to reduce problem drinking in vocational school students. Methods The fully automated program provided: (1) online feedback about an individual’s drinking pattern compared to the drinking norms of an age- and gender-specific reference group, and (2) recurrent individualized SMS messages over a time period of 3 months. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses were used to investigate the longitudinal courses of the following outcomes over the study period of 3 months: RSOD, alcohol-related problems, mean number of standard drinks per week, and maximum number of standard drinks on an occasion. Results The program was tested in 36 school classes at 7 vocational schools in Switzerland. Regardless of their drinking behavior, 477 vocational school students who owned a mobile phone were invited to participate in the program. Of these, 364 (76.3%) participated in the program. During the intervention period, 23 out of 364 (6.3%) persons unsubscribed from participating in the program. The GEE analyses revealed decreases in the percentage of persons with RSOD from baseline (75.5%, 210/278) to follow-up assessment (67.6%, 188/278, P<.001), in the percentage of persons with alcohol-related problems (20.4%, 57/280 to 14.3%, 40/280, P=.009), and in the mean number of standard drinks per week: 13.4 (SD 15.3) to 11.3 (SD 14.0), P=.002. They also revealed a trend toward a decrease in the mean of the maximum number of drinks consumed on an occasion: 11.3 (SD 10.3) to 10.5 (SD 10.3), P=.08. Conclusions The results show high acceptance and promising effectiveness of this interventional approach, which could be easily and economically implemented within school classes. PMID:23999406

  3. Challenging the Collegiate Rite of Passage: A Campus-Wide Social Marketing Media Campaign To Reduce Binge Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glider, Peggy; Midyett, Stephen J.; Mills-Novoa, Beverly; Johannessen, Koreen; Collins, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. Two surveys provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors…

  4. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking: What It Means to You. A Guide to Action for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Stephen; Beazley, Hamilton; Fine, Theodora

    2007-01-01

    The Surgeon General, the Nation's top public health officer, is appointed by the President of the United States to help protect and promote the health of the Nation. The recently published "Surgeon General's Call to Action To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking" [ED496083] highlights underage alcohol use as a major public health and safety issue.…

  5. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. PMID:26905761

  6. A reduced graphene oxide nanofiltration membrane intercalated by well-dispersed carbon nanotubes for drinking water purification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianfu; Qiu, Minghui; Ding, Hao; Fu, Kaiyun; Fan, Yiqun

    2016-03-14

    In this study, we report a promising rGO-CNT hybrid nanofiltration (NF) membrane that was fabricated by loading reduced graphene oxide that was intercalated with carbon nanotubes (rGO-CNTs) onto an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) microfiltration membrane via a facile vacuum-assisted filtration process. To create this NF membrane, the CNTs were first dispersed using block copolymers (BCPs); the effects of the types and contents of BCPs used on the dispersion of CNTs have been investigated. The as-prepared rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes were then used for drinking water purification to retain the nanoparticles, dyes, proteins, organophosphates, sugars, and particularly humic acid. Experimentally, it is shown that the rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes have high retention efficiency, good permeability and good anti-fouling properties. The retention was above 97.3% even for methyl orange (327 Da); for other objects, the retention was above 99%. The membrane's permeability was found to be as high as 20-30 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1). Based on these results, we can conclude that (i) the use of BCPs as a surfactant can enhance steric repulsion and thus disperse CNTs effectively; (ii) placing well-dispersed 1D CNTs within 2D graphene sheets allows an uniform network to form, which can provide many mass transfer channels through the continuous 3D nanostructure, resulting in the high permeability and separation performance of the rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes. PMID:26898192

  7. Consumption of mixed fruit-juice drink and vitamin C reduces postprandial stress induced by a high fat meal in healthy overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Villano, Debora V; Roberts, Susan A; Cesqui, Eleonora; Raguzzini, Anna; Borges, Gina; Crozier, Alan; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial stress induced by acute consumption of meals with a high fat content results in an increase of markers of cardiometabolic risk. Repeated acute dietary stress may induce a persistent low-grade inflammation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of functional gut diseases. This may cause an impairment of the complex immune response of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which results in a breakdown of oral tolerance. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a fruit-juice drink (FJD) composed by multiple fruit juice and extracts, green tea extracts and vitamin C on postprandial stress induced by a High Fat Meal (HFM) in healthy overweight subjects. Following a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design, 15 healthy overweight subjects were randomized to a HFM providing 1334 Kcal (55% fat, 30% carbohydrates and 15% proteins) in combination with 500 mL of a placebo drink (HFM-P) or a fruit-juice drink (HFM-FJD). Ingestion of HFM-P led to an increase in circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of HFM-FJD significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of a fruit-juice drink reduce markers of postprandial stress induced by a HFM. PMID:23701571

  8. Consumption of mixed fruit-juice drink and vitamin C reduces postprandial stress induced by a high fat meal in healthy overweight subjects.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Peluso I; Villano DV; Roberts SA; Cesqui E; Raguzzini A; Borges G; Crozier A; Catasta G; Toti E; Serafini M

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial stress induced by acute consumption of meals with a high fat content results in an increase of markers of cardiometabolic risk. Repeated acute dietary stress may induce a persistent low-grade inflammation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of functional gut diseases. This may cause an impairment of the complex immune response of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which results in a breakdown of oral tolerance. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a fruit-juice drink (FJD) composed by multiple fruit juice and extracts, green tea extracts and vitamin C on postprandial stress induced by a High Fat Meal (HFM) in healthy overweight subjects. Following a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design, 15 healthy overweight subjects were randomized to a HFM providing 1334 Kcal (55% fat, 30% carbohydrates and 15% proteins) in combination with 500 mL of a placebo drink (HFM-P) or a fruit-juice drink (HFM-FJD). Ingestion of HFM-P led to an increase in circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of HFM-FJD significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of a fruit-juice drink reduce markers of postprandial stress induced by a HFM.

  9. Effects of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Game to Reduce Binge Drinking Among Dutch Adolescents: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Crutzen, Rik; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background Binge drinking among Dutch adolescents is among the highest in Europe. Few interventions so far have focused on adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Because binge drinking increases significantly during those years, it is important to develop binge drinking prevention programs for this group. Web-based computer-tailored interventions can be an effective tool for reducing this behavior in adolescents. Embedding the computer-tailored intervention in a serious game may make it more attractive to adolescents. Objective The aim was to assess whether a Web-based computer-tailored intervention is effective in reducing binge drinking in Dutch adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Secondary outcomes were reduction in excessive drinking and overall consumption during the previous week. Personal characteristics associated with program adherence were also investigated. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 34 Dutch schools. Each school was randomized into either an experimental (n=1622) or a control (n=1027) condition. Baseline assessment took place in January and February 2014. At baseline, demographic variables and alcohol use were assessed. Follow-up assessment of alcohol use took place 4 months later (May and June 2014). After the baseline assessment, participants in the experimental condition started with the intervention consisting of a game about alcohol in which computer-tailored feedback regarding motivational characteristics was embedded. Participants in the control condition only received the baseline questionnaire. Both groups received the 4-month follow-up questionnaire. Effects of the intervention were assessed using logistic regression mixed models analyses for binge and excessive drinking and linear regression mixed models analyses for weekly consumption. Factors associated with intervention adherence in the experimental condition were explored by means of a linear regression model. Results In total, 2649 adolescents participated in the baseline assessment. At follow-up, 824 (31.11%) adolescents returned. The intervention was effective in reducing binge drinking among adolescents aged 15 years (P=.03) and those aged 16 years when they participated in at least 2 intervention sessions (P=.04). Interaction effects between excessive drinking and educational level (P=.08) and between weekly consumption and age (P=.09) were found; however, in-depth analyses revealed no significant subgroup effects for both interaction effects. Additional analyses revealed that prolonged use of the intervention was associated with stronger effects for binge drinking. Yet, overall adherence to the intervention was low. Analyses revealed that being Protestant, female, younger, a nonbinge drinker, and having a higher educational background were associated with adherence. Conclusions The intervention was effective for adolescents aged 15 and 16 years concerning binge drinking. Prevention messages may be more effective for those at the start of their drinking career, whereas other methods may be needed for those with a longer history of alcohol consumption. Despite using game elements, intervention completion was low. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR4048; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4048 (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/6eSJD3FiY) PMID:26842694

  10. A reduced graphene oxide nanofiltration membrane intercalated by well-dispersed carbon nanotubes for drinking water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xianfu; Qiu, Minghui; Ding, Hao; Fu, Kaiyun; Fan, Yiqun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report a promising rGO-CNT hybrid nanofiltration (NF) membrane that was fabricated by loading reduced graphene oxide that was intercalated with carbon nanotubes (rGO-CNTs) onto an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) microfiltration membrane via a facile vacuum-assisted filtration process. To create this NF membrane, the CNTs were first dispersed using block copolymers (BCPs); the effects of the types and contents of BCPs used on the dispersion of CNTs have been investigated. The as-prepared rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes were then used for drinking water purification to retain the nanoparticles, dyes, proteins, organophosphates, sugars, and particularly humic acid. Experimentally, it is shown that the rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes have high retention efficiency, good permeability and good anti-fouling properties. The retention was above 97.3% even for methyl orange (327 Da); for other objects, the retention was above 99%. The membrane's permeability was found to be as high as 20-30 L m-2 h-1 bar-1. Based on these results, we can conclude that (i) the use of BCPs as a surfactant can enhance steric repulsion and thus disperse CNTs effectively; (ii) placing well-dispersed 1D CNTs within 2D graphene sheets allows an uniform network to form, which can provide many mass transfer channels through the continuous 3D nanostructure, resulting in the high permeability and separation performance of the rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes.In this study, we report a promising rGO-CNT hybrid nanofiltration (NF) membrane that was fabricated by loading reduced graphene oxide that was intercalated with carbon nanotubes (rGO-CNTs) onto an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) microfiltration membrane via a facile vacuum-assisted filtration process. To create this NF membrane, the CNTs were first dispersed using block copolymers (BCPs); the effects of the types and contents of BCPs used on the dispersion of CNTs have been investigated. The as-prepared rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes were then used for drinking water purification to retain the nanoparticles, dyes, proteins, organophosphates, sugars, and particularly humic acid. Experimentally, it is shown that the rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes have high retention efficiency, good permeability and good anti-fouling properties. The retention was above 97.3% even for methyl orange (327 Da); for other objects, the retention was above 99%. The membrane's permeability was found to be as high as 20-30 L m-2 h-1 bar-1. Based on these results, we can conclude that (i) the use of BCPs as a surfactant can enhance steric repulsion and thus disperse CNTs effectively; (ii) placing well-dispersed 1D CNTs within 2D graphene sheets allows an uniform network to form, which can provide many mass transfer channels through the continuous 3D nanostructure, resulting in the high permeability and separation performance of the rGO-CNT hybrid NF membranes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08697c

  11. Ondansetron reduces naturalistic drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent individuals with the LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype: a laboratory study

    PubMed Central

    Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Vuittonet, Cynthia; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background One hypothesis suggests that the differential response to ondansetron and serotonin specific re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be due to a functional polymorphism of the 5′-HTTLPR promoter region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). The LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype is postulated to be specifically sensitive to the effects of ondansetron with SS/SL 5′-HTTLPR genotypes sensitive to SSRIs. This study tests this hypothesis by matching non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals with LL genotype to ondansetron and SS/SL genotypes to the SSRI sertraline, and mis-matching them assessing naturalistic and bar-laboratory alcohol drinking. Methods Seventy-seven AD individuals were randomized to one of two counterbalanced arms to receive sertraline 200mg/day or ondansetron 0.5 mg/day for three weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then received placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE. Individuals then received the alternate drug for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Drinks per drinking day (DDD with drinks in SDUs) for 7 days prior to each ASAE and milliliters consumed during each ASAE were the primary outcomes. Results Fifty-five participants completed the study. The genotype x order interaction was significant [F(1,47) = 8.42, p = .006] for DDD. Three ANCOVAs were conducted for DDD during the week before each ASAE. Ondansetron compared to sertraline resulted in a significant reduction in DDD during the week before the first [F(1,47) = 7.64, p = .008] but not the third ASAE. There was no difference in milliliters consumed during each ASAE. Conclusion This study modestly supports the hypothesis that ondansetron may reduce DDD in AD individuals with the LL genotype as measured naturalistically. By contrast there was no support that ondansetron reduces drinking during the ASAEs or that sertraline reduces alcohol use in individuals who have SS/SL genotypes. We provide limited support that ondansetron may reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking individuals with the LL genotype. PMID:24773166

  12. Binge drinking in Europe.

    PubMed

    Farke, Walter; Anderson, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Binge drinking is a pattern of heavy drinking which is observed all over Europe. The term Binge drinking implies a lot of different meanings to different people. The most popular definition used for this term is five or more 'standard drinks' in a single occasion. Binge drinking is different from intoxication, although this kind of heavy alcohol consumption can be lead to intoxication. This condition is manifested by different signs, for example slurred speech. Binge drinking is very common among the European population. In 2006 some 80 million Europeans aged 15 plus reported this kind of alcohol consumption patterns. European surveys showed that there is an increase of binge drinking across Europe amongst young people (15-16 years) old since 1995. The consequences of binge drinking contain acute and chronic effects, which are caused by long term alcohol use. The individual risks are brain damage, suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. It has also an impact on harm to others than the drinkers. This includes violence and crime, accidents, etc. Each year in the European Union 2000 homicides are related to heavy drinking. There a lot of effective measures to reduce binge drinking. Strong evidence is shown by drink-driving laws, tax, reduced access to and availability of alcohol, brief interventions such as physician advice and advertising controls. PMID:18173097

  13. Reducing High-Risk Drinking among Student-Athletes: The Effects of a Targeted Athlete-Specific Brief Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimini, M. Dolores; Monserrat, Joseph M.; Sokolowski, Karen L.; Dewitt-Parker, Joyce Y.; Rivero, Estela M.; McElroy, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of a single-session motivational interviewing--based in-person brief alcohol intervention that contained student-athlete-specific personalized drinking feedback. Participants: Participants were 170 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes meeting screening criteria for heavy…

  14. A Multisite Randomized Trial of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Replication Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…

  15. Reducing High-Risk Drinking among Student-Athletes: The Effects of a Targeted Athlete-Specific Brief Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimini, M. Dolores; Monserrat, Joseph M.; Sokolowski, Karen L.; Dewitt-Parker, Joyce Y.; Rivero, Estela M.; McElroy, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of a single-session motivational interviewing--based in-person brief alcohol intervention that contained student-athlete-specific personalized drinking feedback. Participants: Participants were 170 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes meeting screening criteria for heavy

  16. The highly selective orexin/hypocretin 1 receptor antagonist GSK1059865 potently reduces ethanol drinking in ethanol dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Moorman, David E; Aston-Jones, Gary; Becker, Howard C

    2016-04-01

    The orexin/hypocretin (ORX) system plays a major role in motivation for natural and drug rewards. In particular, a number of studies have shown that ORX signaling through the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) regulates alcohol seeking and consumption. Despite the association between ORX signaling and motivation for alcohol, no study to date has investigated what role the ORX system plays in alcohol dependence, an understanding of which would have significant clinical relevance. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the highly selective OX1R antagonist GSK1059865 on voluntary ethanol intake in ethanol-dependent and control non-dependent mice. Mice were subjected to a protocol in which they were evaluated for baseline ethanol intake and then exposed to intermittent ethanol or air exposure in inhalation chambers. Each cycle of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE), or air, exposure was followed by a test of ethanol intake. Once the expected effect of increased voluntary ethanol intake was obtained in ethanol dependent mice, mice were tested for the effect of GSK1059865 on ethanol and sucrose intake. Treatment with GSK1059865 significantly decreased ethanol drinking in a dose-dependent manner in CIE-exposed mice. In contrast GSK1059865 decreased drinking in air-exposed mice only at the highest dose used. There was no effect of GSK1059865 on sucrose intake. Thus, ORX signaling through the OX1R, using a highly-selective antagonist, has a profound influence on high levels of alcohol drinking induced in a dependence paradigm, but limited or no influence on moderate alcohol drinking or sucrose drinking. These results indicate that the ORX system may be an important target system for treating disorders of compulsive reward seeking such as alcoholism and other addictions in which motivation is strongly elevated. PMID:26851547

  17. The efficacy of a brief intervention in reducing hazardous drinking in working age men in Russia: the HIM (Health for Izhevsk men) individually randomised parallel group exploratory trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Russia has particularly low life expectancy for an industrialised country, with mortality at working ages having fluctuated dramatically over the past few decades, particularly among men. Alcohol has been identified as the most likely cause of these temporal variations. One approach to reducing the alcohol problem in Russia is 'brief interventions' which seek to change views of the personal acceptability of excessive drinking and to encourage self-directed behaviour change. Very few studies to evaluate the efficacy of brief interventions in Russia have been conducted. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a person-centred counselling style which can be adapted to brief interventions in which help is offered in thinking through behaviour in the context of values and goals, to decide whether change is needed, and if so, how it may best be achieved. Methods This paper reports on an individually randomised two-armed parallel group exploratory trial. The primary hypothesis is that a brief adaptation of MI will be effective in reducing self-reported hazardous and harmful drinking at 3 months. Participants were drawn from the Izhevsk Family Study II, with eligibility determined based on proxy reports of hazardous and harmful drinking in the past year. All participants underwent a health check, with MI subsequently delivered to those in the intervention arm. Signed consent was obtained from those in the intervention arm only at this point. Both groups were then invited for 3 and 12 month follow ups. The control group did not receive any additional intervention. Results 441 men were randomised. Of these 61 did not have a health check leaving 190 in each trial arm. Follow up at 3 months was high (97% of those having a health check), and very similar in the two trial arms (183 in the intervention and 187 in the control). No significant differences were detected between the randomised groups in either the primary or the secondary outcomes at three months in the intention to treat analyses. The unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for the effect of MI on hazardous and harmful drinking was 0.77 (0.51, 1.16). An adjusted odds ratio of 0.52 (0.28, 0.94) was obtained in the pre-specified per protocol analysis. Conclusions This trial demonstrates that it is possible to engage Russian men who drink hazardously in a brief intervention aimed at reducing alcohol related harm. However the results with respect to the efficacy are equivocal and further, larger-scale trials are warranted. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN82405938 PMID:22053775

  18. 1.5 V battery driven reduced graphene oxide-silver nanostructure coated carbon foam (rGO-Ag-CF) for the purification of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Surender; Ghosh, Somnath; Munichandraiah, N; Vasan, H N

    2013-06-14

    A porous carbon foam (CF) electrode modified with a reduced graphene oxide-Ag (rGO-Ag) nanocomposite has been fabricated to purify water. It can perform as an antibacterial device by killing pathogenic microbes with the aid of a 1.5 V battery, with very little power consumption. The device is recycled ten times with good performance for long term usage. It is shown that the device may be implemented as a fast water purifier to deactivate the pathogens in drinking water. PMID:23670243

  19. 1.5 V battery driven reduced graphene oxide-silver nanostructure coated carbon foam (rGO-Ag-CF) for the purification of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Surender; Ghosh, Somnath; Munichandraiah, N.; Vasan, H. N.

    2013-06-01

    A porous carbon foam (CF) electrode modified with a reduced graphene oxide-Ag (rGO-Ag) nanocomposite has been fabricated to purify water. It can perform as an antibacterial device by killing pathogenic microbes with the aid of a 1.5 V battery, with very little power consumption. The device is recycled ten times with good performance for long term usage. It is shown that the device may be implemented as a fast water purifier to deactivate the pathogens in drinking water.

  20. An Evaluation of a Controlled Drinking Program for Drinking Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Damron, C. Frazier

    1985-01-01

    Tested the effectiveness of Behavioral Self-Control Training in reducing alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, drinking-and-driving incidents, and life problems. No significant differences were found between conditions on these variables suggesting that a controlled drinking goal may not be feasible for all drinking-and-driving…

  1. An Evaluation of a Controlled Drinking Program for Drinking Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Damron, C. Frazier

    1985-01-01

    Tested the effectiveness of Behavioral Self-Control Training in reducing alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, drinking-and-driving incidents, and life problems. No significant differences were found between conditions on these variables suggesting that a controlled drinking goal may not be feasible for all drinking-and-driving

  2. Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... of guarana increases the drink’s total caffeine content. Young adults who combine caffeinated drinks with alcohol may not be able to tell how intoxicated they are. Excessive energy drink consumption may disrupt teens’ sleep patterns and may fuel ...

  3. College Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism College Drinking Harmful and underage college drinking are significant public health problems, and they exact an enormous toll on the intellectual and ...

  4. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol is the most widely abused substance among America's youth. Drinking by young people has big health ... interfere with brain development Increases the risk of alcohol problems later in life Kids often begin drinking ...

  5. The Sonoma Water Evaluation Trial: A Randomized Drinking Water Intervention Trial to Reduce Gastrointestinal Illness in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Joan F.; Wright, Catherine C.; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Saha, Sona; Wade, Timothy J.; Scott, James; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the relative rate of highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) per year associated with active versus sham household water filtration devices among older adults in a community receiving tap water meeting current US standards. Methods. We conducted a randomized, triple-blinded, crossover trial in 714 households (988 individuals), which used active and sham water filtration devices for 6 months each. We estimated the annual incidence rate ratio of HCGI episodes and the longitudinal prevalence ratio of HCGI days at population and individual levels with a generalized estimating equation (GEE) and generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs), respectively, adjusted for covariates associated with outcome. Results. The incidence rate ratios (active versus sham) were 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77, 1.00) and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.76, 0.94) HCGI episodes per year estimated by GEE and GLMM models, respectively. The corresponding longitudinal prevalence ratios were 0.88 (95% CI = 0.74, 1.05) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.78, 0.90) HCGI days per person per year. Conclusions. We observed reductions in population- and individual-level measures of HCGI associated with use of the active filtration device. These findings suggest the need for further research on the impact of drinking water on the health of sensitive subpopulations. PMID:19762663

  6. Towards reducing DBP formation potential of drinking water by favouring direct ozone over hydroxyl radical reactions during ozonation.

    PubMed

    De Vera, Glen Andrew; Stalter, Daniel; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Weinberg, Howard S; Keller, Jurg; Farré, Maria José

    2015-12-15

    When ozonation is employed in advanced water treatment plants to produce drinking water, dissolved organic matter reacts with ozone (O3) and/or hydroxyl radicals (OH) affecting disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation with subsequently used chlorine-based disinfectants. This study presents the effects of varying exposures of O3 and •OH on DBP concentrations and their associated toxicity generated after subsequent chlorination. DBP formation potential tests and in vitro bioassays were conducted after batch ozonation experiments of coagulated surface water with and without addition of tertiary butanol (t-BuOH, 10 mM) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1 mg/mg O3), and at different pH (6-8) and transferred ozone doses (0-1 mg/mg TOC). Although ozonation led to a 24-37% decrease in formation of total trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and trihaloacetamides, an increase in formation of total trihalonitromethanes, chloral hydrate, and haloketones was observed. This effect however was less pronounced for samples ozonated at conditions favoring molecular ozone (e.g., pH 6 and in the presence of t-BuOH) over •OH reactions (e.g., pH 8 and in the presence of H2O2). Compared to ozonation only, addition of H2O2 consistently enhanced formation of all DBP groups (20-61%) except trihalonitromethanes. This proves that •OH-transformed organic matter is more susceptible to halogen incorporation. Analogously, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) concentrations increased under conditions that favor •OH reactions. The ratio of unknown to known AOX, however, was greater at conditions that promote direct O3 reactions. Although significant correlation was found between AOX and genotoxicity with the p53 bioassay, toxicity tests using 4 in vitro bioassays showed relatively low absolute differences between various ozonation conditions. PMID:26378731

  7. Endogenous Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Reduces Drinking Behavior and Is Differentially Engaged by Water and Food Intakes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Naomi J.; Galante, Daniela L.

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the ileum and the nucleus of the solitary tract. It is well known that GLP-1 controls food intake, but there is a growing literature indicating that GLP-1 also is involved in fluid intake. It is not known, however, if the observed effects are pharmacological or if endogenous GLP-1 and its receptor contribute to physiological fluid intake control. Accordingly, we blocked endogenous GLP-1 by application of a receptor antagonist and measured subsequent drinking. Furthermore, we measured changes in GLP-1-associated gene expression after water intake, and compared the effects of fluid intake to those caused by food intake. Rats injected with the antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9) drank more fluid in response to either subcutaneous hypertonic saline or water deprivation with partial rehydration than did vehicle-treated rats. Analysis of licking behavior showed that Ex-9 increased fluid intake by increasing the number of licking bursts, without having an effect on the number of licks per burst, suggesting that endogenous GLP-1 suppresses fluid intake by influencing satiety. Subsequent experiments showed that water intake had a selective effect on central GLP-1-related gene expression, unlike food intake, which affected both central and peripheral GLP-1. Although water and food intakes both affected central GLP-1-relevant gene expression, there were notable differences in the timing of the effect. These results show a novel role of the endogenous GLP-1 system in fluid intake, and indicate that elements of the GLP-1 system can be engaged separately by different forms of ingestive behavior. PMID:25471579

  8. Kelston Beverages Pilot Study: Rationale, design and implementation of a community and school based intervention to reduce sugary drink consumption among children and youth.

    PubMed

    Sundborn, G; Ni Mhurchu, C; Ness, C; Latu, H; Jackson, R

    2014-03-01

    The Kelston Beverages Study was designed to increase awareness of the sugar content of sugary drinks, the poor health consequences that high intake of these drinks have, and inform on ways to reduce intake of students. The aims of this pilot study were to refine interventions and processes designed to raise awareness of the harms that sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) have on health, and to reduce their consumption among the youth of a small West Auckland suburb. There were three arms to this interventional study, one in schools, another in community organisations (churches, sports clubs and community groups), and the final arm is in the local retail sector. The school arm was the most extensive component and initially involved a survey of children's knowledge and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) using a brief questionnaire. The study evaluated any SSB policies in schools and for schools that did not have policies, opportunities were scoped to develop and implement them; a canteen AUDIT focussed particularly on beverages was carried out; and finally a student partnered social marketing exercise was undertaken that comprised 2 competitions, one to design a poster, and another to write and perform a rap. Children were re-surveyed at the completion of the intervention (7 months later) to determine change in knowledge and self-reported consumption of SSBs. Both the community organisations and retail arms of this study focussed on raising awareness into the harmful effects of SSBs and establishing healthy beverage policy in the respective organisations. Promising results with regards to acceptability, feasibility, and recruitment as well as valuable learnings with regard to process support the development of a proposal to conduct a cluster randomised trial of the interventions successfully tested in this pilot study. PMID:25929003

  9. Energy Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill. PMID:22347688

  10. Encouraging responsible drinking among underage drinkers.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Laura A; Pilling, Valerie K

    2005-01-01

    Public Service Announcements tailored to specific college drinking rituals (Treise, Wolburg and Otnes 1999) were tested on 133 underage undergraduate drinkers. More significant reductions in drinking intentions were found when using appeals focusing on drinking rituals pertaining to Maturity/Order (older students drink moderately: "Don't drink like a freshman.") than to Transformation (desired personality and mood changes), Community (social bonding and camaraderie), or a no-message Control. Gender did not moderate this effect. Underage drinkers may drink, in part, to feel more "grown up." Emphasizing that more senior students actually drink responsibly may diminish this belief and result in reduced alcohol consumption among underage students. PMID:17182459

  11. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  12. How To Reduce High-Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies, Fill Research Gaps. Final Report of the Panel on Prevention and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Alcohol on college campuses is not a new problem, but recent concerns have centered on heavy episodic drinking, binge drinking. To address these concerns, the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established two panels of nongovernment experts to help develop a national research agenda. This report represents the work of the…

  13. Development and Implementation of CHOICES Group to Reduce Drinking, Improve Contraception, and Prevent Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in American Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Ingersoll, Karen; Pourier, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Public health officials assert that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) should begin before conception, by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk for or planning pregnancy, and/or preventing pregnancy in women who are drinking at risky levels. One such effort is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES Program. While the OST CHOICES Program has been successfully implemented, a community-based needs assessment determined that the OST CHOICES intervention should expand and be delivered in a group setting using group motivational interviewing (MI) techniques. After extensive group MI and CHOICES group trainings, recruitment for CHOICES Group began and within a ten month period, a total of twelve groups with non-pregnant American Indian women were held for this pilot intervention. Evaluations completed by participants indicated that CHOICES Group sessions positively engaged members, had low levels of anger or tension, and had average levels of avoidance of personal responsibility. An evaluation of the CHOICES Group leaders indicated strengths in certain MI skills, although improvement is needed in some core MI and group leadership skills. This is an important expansion of a successful AEP prevention program (CHOICES), as well as a novel application of MI, and recommendations and future plans for this intervention are outlined. PMID:26265591

  14. Community organizing goes to college: A practice-based model of community organizing to implement environmental strategies to reduce high-risk drinking on college campuses

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lentz, Ashley W.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Community organizing is a successful method to leverage resources and build community capacity to identify and intervene upon health issues. However, published accounts documenting the systematic facilitation of the process are limited. This qualitative analysis explored community organizing using data collected as part of the Study to Prevent Alcohol Related Consequences (SPARC), a randomized community trial of 10 North Carolina colleges focused on reducing consequences of high-risk drinking among college students. We sought to develop and confirm use of a community-organizing model, based in practice, illustrating an authentic process of organizing campus and community stakeholders for public health change. Using the grounded theory approach, we analyzed and interpreted data from three waves of individual interviews with full-time community organizers on five SPARC intervention campuses. A five-phase community-organizing model was developed and its use was confirmed. This model may serve as a practical guide for public health interventions utilizing community-organizing approaches. PMID:20530638

  15. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... harder to get—for example, by raising the price of alcohol and keeping the minimum drinking age ... in school Rebelliousness Changing groups of friends Low energy level Less interest in activities and/or care ...

  16. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... become angry or moody while drinking, for example. Alcoholism Some studies have shown that people who binge- ... 2 weeks — have some of the symptoms of alcoholism. previous continue Getting Help If you think you ...

  17. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include adding fluoride to ...

  18. Underage Drinking. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Underage drinking is a major problem across the country. Many communities are trying to reduce the injuries and deaths that occur as a result of this problem. Community groups have been instrumental in working at the state level to pass stricter laws curbing underage drinking and to tighten the laws that already exist. This paper provides tips and…

  19. A protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce exposure to lead through consumer products and drinking water

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The toxic heavy metal lead continues to be a leading environmental risk factor, with the number of attributable deaths having doubled between 1990 and 2010. Although major sources of lead exposure, in particular lead in petrol, have been significantly reduced in recent decades, lead is still used in a wide range of processes and objects, with developing countries disproportionally affected. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of regulatory, environmental and educational interventions for reducing blood lead levels and associated health outcomes in children, pregnant women and the general population. Methods/design The databases MEDLINE, Embase and the Global Health Library (GHL) will be searched using a sensitive search strategy. Studies in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian or Afrikaans will be screened according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We will consider randomized and non-randomized studies accepted by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) Group, as well as additional non-randomized studies. Screening of titles and abstracts will be performed by one author. Full texts of potentially relevant studies will be independently assessed for eligibility by two authors. A single author will extract data, with a second reviewer checking the extraction form. Risk of bias will be assessed by two researchers using the Graphical Appraisal Tool for Epidemiological studies, as modified by the Centre for Public Health at the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Any inconsistencies in the assessment of eligibility, data extraction or quality appraisal will be resolved through discussion. Where two or more studies report the primary outcome blood lead levels within the same population group, intervention category and source of lead exposure, data will be pooled using random effects meta-analysis. In parallel, harvest plots as a graphical method of evidence synthesis will be used to present findings for blood lead levels and secondary outcomes. Discussion This systematic review will fill an important evidence gap with respect to the effectiveness of interventions to reduce lead in consumer products and drinking water in the context of new WHO guidelines for the prevention and management of lead poisoning. It will also contribute to setting a future research agenda. PMID:24731516

  20. Measuring the Propensity to Drink and Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelli, Anthony M.; Richardson, Lilliard E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Laws such as 0.08 blood alcohol content, open container, and license revocation provide a policy framework for reducing drinking and driving. Drinking and driving behavior is difficult to assess; unlike property and violent crimes, where incidence statistics can approximate behavior, most drink-driving trips go undetected. The authors develop a…

  1. Measuring the Propensity to Drink and Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelli, Anthony M.; Richardson, Lilliard E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Laws such as 0.08 blood alcohol content, open container, and license revocation provide a policy framework for reducing drinking and driving. Drinking and driving behavior is difficult to assess; unlike property and violent crimes, where incidence statistics can approximate behavior, most drink-driving trips go undetected. The authors develop a

  2. Binge Drinking.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Lorena; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol is the substance most frequently abused by children and adolescents in the United States, and its use is associated with the leading causes of death and serious injury at this age (ie, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, and suicides). Among youth who drink, the proportion who drink heavily is higher than among adult drinkers, increasing from approximately 50% in those 12 to 14 years of age to 72% among those 18 to 20 years of age. In this clinical report, the definition, epidemiology, and risk factors for binge drinking; the neurobiology of intoxication, blackouts, and hangovers; genetic considerations;and adverse outcomes are discussed. The report offers guidance for the pediatrician. As with any high-risk behavior, prevention plays a more important role than later intervention and has been shown to be more effective. In the pediatric office setting, it is important to ask every adolescent about alcohol use. PMID:26324872

  3. Gender-Specific Intervention to Reduce Underage Drinking Among Early Adolescent Girls: A Test of a Computer-Mediated, Mother-Daughter Program*

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Cole, Kristin C. A.; Fang, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated a gender-specific, computer-mediated intervention program to prevent underage drinking among early adolescent girls. Method: Study participants were adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants completed pretests online and were randomly divided between intervention and control arms. Intervention-arm girls and their mothers interacted with a computer program aimed to enhance mother-daughter relationships and to teach girls skills for managing conflict, resisting media influences, refusing alcohol and drugs, and correcting peer norms about underage drinking, smoking, and drug use. After intervention, all participants (control and intervention) completed posttest and follow-up measurements. Results: Two months following program delivery and relative to control-arm participants, intervention-arm girls and mothers had improved their mother-daughter communication skills and their perceptions and applications of parental monitoring and rule-setting relative to girls' alcohol use. Also at follow-up, intervention-arm girls had improved their conflict management and alcohol use-refusal skills; reported healthier normative beliefs about underage drinking; demonstrated greater self-efficacy about their ability to avoid underage drinking; reported less alcohol consumption in the past 7 days, 30 days, and year; and expressed lower intentions to drink as adults. Conclusions: Study findings modestly support the viability of a mother-daughter, computer-mediated program to prevent underage drinking among adolescent girls. The data have implications for the further development of gender-specific approaches to combat increases in alcohol and other substance use among American girls. PMID:19118394

  4. Drinking water and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R D

    1995-01-01

    Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water. PMID:8741788

  5. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Adolescent Drug Use [PDF 3.37 MB] Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan. Miller JW, Naimi TS, Brewer RD, Jones SE. Binge drinking and associated health risk behaviors among high school students. Pediatrics 2007; ...

  6. Supportive Text Messages to Reduce Mood Symptoms and Problem Drinking in Patients With Primary Depression or Alcohol Use Disorder: Protocol for an Implementation Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Mrklas, Kelly; Suen, Victoria Yung Mei; Rose, Marianne Sarah; Jahn, Megan; Gladue, Irene; Kozak, Jody; Leslie, Maureen; Dursun, Serdar; Ohinmaa, Arto; Greenshaw, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) are two leading causes of disability worldwide and are associated with significant treatment challenges requiring new, innovative, cost-effective and technologically-based therapies including the use of supportive text messages. Objective To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of supportive text messages in long-term follow-up to reduce mood symptoms and problem drinking in patients with Depression or AUD respectively and to explore the usefulness of self-reports of health services utilization as an outcomes measure. Methods This will be a longitudinal, prospective, parallel-design, two-arm, placebo-controlled single-rater-blinded randomized clinical trial with a recruitment period of 6 months and an observation period of 12 months for each participant, with two strata based on primary diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder or AUD. The sample size will be 120, with about 60 patients randomized from each primary diagnostic grouping. Patients in all intervention groups will receive twice-daily supportive SMS text messages for 3 months and then daily supportive text messages for the next three months. Patients will also receive a phone call every two weeks from the research assistant assigning treatment allocation to confirm that they are still receiving the text messages and to thank them for taking part in the study. Patients in the control group will receive no text messages but will also receive a phone call from the same research assistant every two weeks to thank them for taking part in the study. Results The study starts in April 2015 and ends in September 2016. It is envisaged that both qualitative and quantitative primary and secondary outcomes, including patient perceptions of the intervention, will shed light on the feasibility of using automated supportive text message interventions in long term for patients with Depression and AUD. This will inform a full-scale clinical trial. Conclusions The paradigm for behavior change using text messages as a patient-direct intervention is consistent with a cognitive behavior therapy approach and addictions counselling principles. Given the automaticity of the messages, we anticipate that if the intervention proves successful, it will represent a low cost strategy that will be readily available and can bring relief to patients in hard-to-reach areas with limited access to psychological therapies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02327858; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02327858 (Archived by WebCite at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02327858). PMID:25979786

  7. Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Drew K.

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would

  8. Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Drew K.

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…

  9. Sports drinks hazard to teeth.

    PubMed Central

    Milosevic, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental hazards associated with sports supplement drinks by investigating the chemicophysical properties of eight brands of sports drinks. METHODS: The pH and titratable acidity against 0.1 M NaOH was measured. Calcium, phosphate, and fluoride concentrations and viscosities of Carbolode, Gatorade, High Five, Isostar, Lucozade Sport Lemon, Lucozade Sport Orange, Maxim, and PSP22 were determined. RESULTS: The pH values of the drinks ranged from 4.46 (Maxim) to 2.38 (Isostar) and therefore were below the critical pH value (5.5) for enamel demineralisation. Both Lucozade varieties had high titratable acidities (16.30 ml 0.1M NaOH to neutrality) with Gatorade, High Five, and Isostar displaying intermediate titratable acidity, although Isostar had 74.5 ppm calcium and 63.6 ppm phosphate. The fluoride concentration of all drinks was low, and none of the drinks was particularly viscous (range 3.1-1.4 mPa.s). CONCLUSIONS: The chemicophysical analyses indicate that all the sports drinks in this study have erosive potential. However, drinks with higher pH, lower titratable acidity, and higher concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride will reduce this erosive potential. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9132205

  10. Parents' rules about underage drinking: a qualitative study of why parents let teens drink.

    PubMed

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W; Moore, Roland S; Jennings, Vanessa K

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semistructured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous, and harm reduction. Deliberate reasons included passing on knowledge about drinking responsibly and appreciating alcohol. Parents also spontaneously decided to let their teen drink. Some of these spontaneous situations involved feeling pressure from other adults to let their teen drink. Another reason was a desire to reduce potential harm. Parents feared that forbidding underage drinking would harm their relationship with their teen and potentially lead to drunk driving. Prevention efforts aimed at parents should take into account parents' motivations to let teens drink. PMID:25031481

  11. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  12. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14912 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  13. Fraternity membership and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship that social fraternity and sorority membership has with binge drinking incidence and frequency among 18-24 year old full-time 4-year college students who participated in the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. To net out unobserved heterogeneity, several measures of situational and total alcohol use are entered into the regressions as explanatory variables. Fraternity membership coefficients are substantially reduced in size, but remain large and highly significant, suggesting a causal effect on binge drinking. Otherwise, the estimates identify idiosyncratic selection into fraternities and binge drinking across students with similar overall drinking profiles. Particularly notable is that behavior by underage students appears to drive the relationship. PMID:17320225

  14. [Drinking water].

    PubMed

    Dartois, A M; Casamitjana, F

    1991-01-01

    Water is essential for life. Thirst is a pressing need which always has to be satisfied. Infants need 3 times more water than adults if the requirements is calculated according to body weight. A correct balance in the sensory, physical, chemical and bacteriological qualities of water make it drinkable. Two laws have been passed recently concerning drinking water in France: one deals with water for human consumption (January 3 1989 decree), and the other deals with drinkable bottled mineral water (June 3 1989 decree). Tap water and bottled water are under strict vigilance. For babies under 4 months of age, it is better to use bottled water with a low mineral content (nitrates less than 15 mg/l). Hard water is safe; water softeners are useful only for hot water. Fluorination supplies of water is good for dental health at a concentration of 1 mg/l. Plastic bottles are as safe as glass ones. PMID:1662352

  15. Parenthood, drinking locations and heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Catherine

    2011-04-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the relationship between parenthood and heavy drinking is mediated by drinking locations. The analysis is based on a random sample of 4180 female and 3630 male Canadian drinkers aged between 18 and 55 years old. A multiple mediator model is tested. Results show that the parental role may be associated with variation in where people drink, and where people drink may be associated with variation in heavy drinking. For women, parenthood is related to a reduction in heavy drinking associated with a reduction of drinking occasions that occur at bars, offset to some extent by the fact that drinking in restaurants is also less common among mothers than non-mothers. For men, parenthood is related to a reduction in heavy drinking partly because fathers more often drink at friends' homes and the proportion of drinking occasions that occur at bars is smaller among fathers than non-fathers. The results of this study correspond with a refined version of the opportunity perspective. Given the nature of the processes by which parenthood is related to heavy drinking, alcohol consumption needs to be understood through a perspective that includes both individual and contextual factors. PMID:21454004

  16. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  17. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Nevertheless, alcohol use patterns still indicate high rates of binge drinking and drunkenness and the co-occurrence of alcohol use among youth with risky sexual activity, illicit substance use, and poor school performance. This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems. These differences range from patterns of drinking to differential sensitivity to alcohol. Developmental differences between adolescents and adults also are discussed with regard to age-normative developmental tasks and distinctions in brain development that may affect differences in drinking patterns. Epidemiologic findings on sexual-minority youth are provided, as are global trends in alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. It is proposed that using information about differences between youth and adults will be helpful in directing future etiologic and intervention research by capitalizing on unique biological, psychological, and social factors that may affect the success of efforts to reduce alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. PMID:27159816

  18. Correlates of Pro-Drinking Practices in Drinking Parents of Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Au, Wing Man; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Huang, Rong; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Parental alcohol-related practices are important risk factors of adolescent drinking, but little is known about the factors associated with these parental pro-drinking practices (PPDPs). We investigated the correlates of 9 PPDPs in drinking parents of adolescents in Hong Kong. Methods A total of 2200 students (age 14.8±2.0; boys 63.2%) participated in a school-based cross-sectional survey in 2012. Analysis was restricted to 1087 (61.8%) students with at least 1 drinking parent as PPDPs were much more common in these families. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of each PPDP. Results Among 1087 students, the prevalence of PPDPs ranged from 8.2% for training drinking capacity to 65.7% for seeing parents drink. Only 14.8% of students had not experienced any of these practices. More frequent maternal drinking predicted parental training of drinking capacity. Older age predicted helping parents buy alcohol and parental encouragement of drinking. Adolescent girls were more likely to have received parental training of drinking capacity than boys. Higher perceived family affluence was associated with hearing parents saying benefits of drinking, and helping parents open bottle and pour alcohol. Conclusions PPDPs were associated with parental drinking frequency and various socio-demographic factors. These results have implications on alcohol control programmes involving parents to tailor messages for reducing PPDPs based on the characteristics of adolescents and parents. PMID:25786105

  19. Can Parents Prevent Heavy Episodic Drinking by Allowing Teens to Drink at Home?

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Windle, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined whether permitting young women to drink alcohol at home during senior year of high school reduces the risk of heavy drinking in college. Participants were 449 college-bound female high school seniors, recruited at the end of their senior year. Participants were classified into one of three permissibility categories according to their baseline reports of whether their parents allowed them to drink at home: (a) not permitted to drink at all; (b) allowed to drink with family meals; (c) allowed to drink at home with friends. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the drinking behaviors of the three groups at the time of high school graduation and again after the first semester of college. Students who reported being allowed to drink at home during high school, whether at meals or with friends, reported more frequent heavy episodic drinking (HED) in the first semester of college than those who reported not being allowed to drink at all. Those who were permitted to drink at home with friends reported the heaviest drinking at both time points. Path analysis revealed that the relationship between alcohol permissiveness and college HED was mediated via perceptions of parental alcohol approval. PMID:20805017

  20. Ondansetron and sertraline may interact with 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 polymorphisms to reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent women: exploratory findings

    PubMed Central

    Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200mg/day of sertraline or 0.5mg/day of ondansetron for 3-weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotypes receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7-days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e. sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a three-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4 ≥7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4 <7-repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad lib during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions may be essential to successfully treat alcohol dependence. PMID:25212749

  1. "Fourteen dollars for one beer!" Pre-drinking is associated with high-risk drinking among Victorian young adults.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    MacLean S; Callinan S

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pre-drinking entails consuming alcohol before attending licensed venues. We examined the relationship between pre-drinking, intention to get drunk and high-risk drinking among Victorians aged 18-24 years, to consider whether reducing pre-drinking might ameliorate alcohol-related harm.METHODS: Variables within the 2009 Victorian Youth Alcohol and Drugs Survey (VYADS) dataset were analysed and compared with a thematic interpretation of research interviews involving 60 young adults living in Melbourne. High-risk drinking was defined as consuming 11 or more standard drinks in a session at least monthly.RESULTS: VYADS data show that pre-drinking was a significant predictor of high-risk drinking, even after intention to get drunk was controlled for. The most common explanation provided by interviewees for pre-drinking was because it is cheaper to purchase alcohol at bottle shops than at bars and clubs. This was particularly emphasised by those who drank at a high-risk level.CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that people pre-drink because they desire to be intoxicated, but also that pre-drinking patterns and product choices exacerbate the likelihood of high-risk drinking. Reducing availability of cheap packaged alcohol has potential to limit both pre-drinking and high-risk drinking among Victorian young adults.IMPLICATIONS: The study adds weight to calls to implement minimum alcohol pricing in Australia.

  2. Hazardous Drinking and Military Community Functioning: Identifying Mediating Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hazardous drinking is a serious societal concern in military populations. Efforts to reduce hazardous drinking among military personnel have been limited in effectiveness. There is a need for a deeper understanding of how community-based prevention models apply to hazardous drinking in the military. Community-wide prevention efforts may…

  3. Characteristics of older at-risk drinkers who drive after drinking and those who do not drive after drinking

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Maija B.; Tuqan, Alia T.; Goldsmith, Jeff S.; Law, Malena S.; Ramirez, Karina D.; Liao, Diana H.; Moore, Alison A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe and compare characteristics of older adults who drive after drinking and those who do not, whether an intervention addressing at-risk drinking reduces risk among those reporting driving after drinking, and reasons reported for driving after drinking. Methods Secondary data analysis of a randomized trial testing the efficacy of a multifaceted intervention to reduce at-risk drinking among adults with a mean age of 68 years in primary care (N=631). Results Almost a quarter of at-risk drinkers reported driving after drinking (N=154). Compared to those who did not drive after drinking, those who did were more likely to be younger, male and working. They consumed a higher average number of drinks per week, had more reasons they were considered at-risk drinkers, and were more likely to meet at-risk drinking criteria due to amount of drinking and binge drinking. Those driving after drinking at baseline reduced the frequency of this behavior at 3- and 12-months and there were no statistically significant differences in the proportions of persons still engaging in driving after drinking among those who were assigned to intervention or control groups. Reasons for driving after drinking included not thinking it was a problem and having to get home. Conclusions Driving after drinking is common in this population of older, at-risk drinkers recruited in primary care settings, and, like younger adults, men and those reporting binge drinking are more likely to engage in this behavior. Given this behavior is dangerous and the population of older adults is fast growing, interventions addressing driving after drinking are needed. PMID:24874549

  4. Increases in Problem Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Increases in Problem Drinking Alcohol use disorder is becoming ... Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). search Health Capsules Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs ...

  5. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink consumption and…

  6. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... life. In fact, some people develop problems with drinking at a later age. One reason is that people become more sensitive ... get older. What is a healthy range of drinking for men and women over age 65? Experts recommend no more than 3 drinks ...

  7. Dying for a Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Studies show that 40 percent of youth who begin drinking before age 13 are classified as alcohol dependent at some point in their lives. Explores three theories about adolescents' alcohol use, describes a national intervention program, lists warning signs of early drinking, and offers a policy preventing early drinking. (MLF)

  8. AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

  9. Social Influences on the Clustering of Underage Risky Drinking and Its Consequences in Communities

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine whether the clustering of underage risky drinking and its consequences within communities might arise from shared perceptions regarding underage drinking as well as the social context of drinking. Method: The Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided data from repeated cross-sectional samples of 5,017 current drinkers (2,619 male) ages 1420 years from 68 communities surveyed in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Alternating logistic regressions were used to estimate the influence of social factors on the clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, nonviolent consequences, and driving after drinking or riding with a drinking driver. Results: The clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for drinking with friends and drinking with parents. Parents providing alcohol explained the clustering of heavy episodic drinking and nonviolent consequences, whereas drinking with other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol explained the clustering of nonviolent consequences. Drinking with friends or other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol increased the risk of these behaviors, whereas drinking with parents and parents providing alcohol were protective. Perceptions regarding peer drinking, community norms, consequences for drinking, and drinking at a party did not influence clustering. Conclusions: These findings suggest that interventions to reduce underage risky drinking in communities should focus on the differential effects of the social context in which drinking occurs. PMID:23036206

  10. A Lactobacillus casei Shirota probiotic drink reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in patients with spinal cord injuries: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samford; Jamous, Ali; O'Driscoll, Jean; Sekhar, Ravi; Weldon, Mike; Yau, Chi Y; Hirani, Shashivadan P; Grimble, George; Forbes, Alastair

    2014-02-01

    Certain probiotics may prevent the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), but their effectiveness depends on both strain and dose. There are few data on nutritional interventions to control AAD/CDAD in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. The present study aimed to assess (1) the efficacy of consuming a commercially produced probiotic containing at least 6·5 × 10⁹ live Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) in reducing the incidence of AAD/CDAD, and (2) whether undernutrition and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are risk factors for AAD/CDAD. A total of 164 SCI patients (50·1 (sd 17·8) years) with a requirement for antibiotics (median 21 d, range 5-366) were randomly allocated to receive LcS (n 76) or no probiotic (n 82). LcS was given once daily for the duration of the antibiotic course and continued for 7 days thereafter. Nutritional risk was assessed by the Spinal Nutrition Screening Tool. The LcS group had a significantly lower incidence of AAD (17·1 v. 54·9%, P< 0·001). At baseline, 65% of patients were at undernutrition risk. Undernutrition (64·1 v. 33·3%, P< 0·01) and the use of PPI (38·4 v. 12·1 %, P= 0·022) were found to be associated with AAD. However, no significant difference was observed in nutrient intake between the groups. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified poor appetite ( < 1/2 meals eaten) (OR 5·04, 95% CI 1·28, 19·84) and no probiotic (OR 8·46, 95% CI 3·22, 22·20) as the independent risk factors for AAD. The present study indicated that LcS could reduce the incidence of AAD in hospitalised SCI patients. A randomised, placebo-controlled study is needed to confirm this apparent therapeutic success in order to translate into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:24044687

  11. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non–college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to the college environment, including residential campus living, the academic week, and the academic year. Additional psychosocial factors are of particular relevance to the drinking behavior of college-age people, and include exaggerated peer norms, the development and use of protective behavioral strategies, and mental health considerations. Understanding the unique interaction of person and environment is key to designing prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:27159817

  12. Distinguishing between Positive and Negative Social Bonding in Problem Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Hussain, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Background: To reduce problem drinking, interventions must be directed toward those factors associated with problem drinking. Purpose: This study examined how perceptions of the role of alcohol related to problem drinking among a convenience sample of 301 college students. Methods: Fifteen items concerned with drinking behavior or perceptions…

  13. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonist Ro 64-6198 reduces alcohol self-administration and prevents relapse-like alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Alexander; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Bakalkin, Georgy; Liljequist, Sture

    2007-04-01

    Effects of the opioid receptor like-1 (ORL-1) receptor agonist Ro 64-6198 (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)) on operant ethanol self-administration and activation of self-administration by ethanol deprivation were studied in male Wistar rats. Acute administration of Ro 64-6198 caused a dose-dependent reduction of ethanol self-administration. In comparison, the opioid antagonist naltrexone (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited ethanol self-administration at all doses tested. Ethanol deprivation for 10 days significantly increased ethanol self-administration during the first 2 days after deprivation. Daily pretreatment with Ro 64-6198 (0.3 mg/kg) or naltrexone (0.3 mg/kg) during the last 3 days of ethanol deprivation abolished the deprivation-induced increase in ethanol intake. Thus, stimulation of the ORL-1 receptors by Ro 64-6198 reduced the acute reinforcing effects of ethanol and prevented relapse-like behavior in the ethanol-deprivation model in a similar manner as a blockade of opioid receptors by naltrexone. Ro 64-6198 at 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg doses did not alter self-administration of 0.2% saccharin solution, indicating an apparent selectivity of this compound in modification of ethanol reward. These findings add further support to the idea that Ro 64-6198 and potentially other synthetic ORL-1 receptor agonists are as effective as naltrexone in blocking the actions of ethanol important for its addictive potential in animal experiments, and therefore may have therapeutic value in the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:16880770

  14. Chronic Treatment with Novel Brain-Penetrating Selective NOP Receptor Agonist MT-7716 Reduces Alcohol Drinking and Seeking in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Stopponi, Serena; Economidou, Daina; Kuriyama, Makoto; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Heilig, Markus; Roberto, Marisa; Weiss, Friedbert; Teshima, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery, the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-NOP receptor system has been extensively investigated as a promising target to treat alcoholism. Encouraging results obtained with the endogenous ligand N/OFQ stimulated research towards the development of novel brain-penetrating NOP receptor agonists with a pharmacological and toxicological profile compatible with clinical development. Here we describe the biochemical and alcohol-related behavioral effects of the novel NOP receptor agonist MT-7716. MT-7716 has high affinity for human NOP receptors expressed in HEK293 cells with a Ki value of 0.21 nM. MT-7716 concentration-dependently stimulated GTPγ35S binding with an EC50 value of 0.30 nM and its efficacy was similar to N/OFQ, suggesting that MT7716 is a full agonist at NOP receptors. In the two bottle choice test MT-7716 (0, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, bid) given orally for 14 days dose-dependently decreased voluntary alcohol intake in Marchigian Sardinian rats. The effect became gradually stronger following repeated administration, and was still significant 1 week after discontinuation of the drug. Oral naltrexone (30 mg/kg, bid) for 14 days also reduced ethanol intake; however, the effect decreased over the treatment period and rapidly disappeared when drug treatment was discontinued. MT-7716 is also effective for preventing reinstatement caused by both ethanol-associated environmental stimuli and stress. Finally, to investigate the effect of MT-7716 on alcohol withdrawal symptoms, Wistar rats were withdrawn from a 7-day alcohol liquid diet. MT-7716 significantly attenuated somatic alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Together these findings indicate that MT-7716 is a promising candidate for alcoholism treatment remaining effective with chronic administration. PMID:24863033

  15. Depression, Alcohol Dependence and Abuse, and Drinking and Driving Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Sloan, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence/abuse and depression are positively related. Prior studies focused on relationships between drinking and driving and alcohol dependence/abuse, drinking and driving and problem drinking, or drinking and driving and depression separately. No study has addressed how depression is linked to drinking and driving through various underlying channels in the same study. Methods This study investigated relationships between depression, alcohol dependence/abuse, and the number of self-reported drinking and driving episodes. We also explored underlying behavioral channels between depression and alcohol dependence/abuse and binge drinking, reducing drinking amounts when planning to drive, and use of designated drivers. Data on 1,634 drinkers came from a survey fielded in eight U.S. cities. We employed ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and path analysis to assess drinking and driving and underlying channels. Results With OLS, being depressed increased the number of drinking and driving episodes during the past year by 0.572. This increase decreased to 0.411 episodes/year increase after adding socio-demographic characteristics and household income and lost statistical significance after controlling for alcohol dependence/abuse. The path analysis showed that depression is positively associated with drinking and driving, indirectly operating through not using a designated driver, but is not directly associated with drinking and driving. Alcohol dependence/abuse is directly associated with drinking and driving, and indirectly with drinking and driving through binge drinking. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment should focus on helping individuals with depression to obtain assistance from others, such as obtaining a designated driver. Since self-control of drinking in anticipation of driving did not significantly reduce drinking and driving episodes, this study finds no empirical support for emphasizing improved self-control when the treatment objective is reducing drinking and driving frequency. While binge drinking is associated with drinking and driving, the more appropriate way to influence binge drinking is treating alcohol dependence/abuse rather than depression per se. PMID:26236541

  16. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting. PMID:18429501

  17. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Child All About Food Allergies Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? KidsHealth > For ... a daily multivitamin formulated for kids. previous continue Energy Drinks These are becoming increasingly popular with middle- ...

  18. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Ground Water and Drinking Water Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us You ... Disinfection of Drinking Water Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water In an emergency situation where regular water service ...

  19. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Ground Water and Drinking Water Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us You ... Disinfection of Drinking Water Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water In an emergency situation where regular water service ...

  20. The Drinking Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  1. Teenage Drinking and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Lis-Marie

    1975-01-01

    This study focuses on drinking and the socially associated behavior of young people in discotheques and restaurants serving alcoholic beverages in Helsinki, Finland. Patterns of entering, seating, drinking, contact-making, and social control are discussed with respect to their inter-relationships and sexual differences are noted. (EH)

  2. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of

  3. Safe drinking water act

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.

  4. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  5. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also

  6. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  7. [Drinking and driving].

    PubMed

    Peleg, A; Shvartzman, P; Peleg, R

    1997-02-01

    A worrisome connection between driving and drinking was found in 166 people randomly surveyed in public places in Beer Sheba. 80% of the study population stated that they drink alcoholic beverages. Of these, 45% reported drinking at least once a week, and 21% drank 3 glasses/cans at each drinking bout. We noted a trend among those who drank frequently to drink greater amounts. Of the sample, 110 interviewees stated that they had a driver's license and that they drank alcoholic drinks. 39% reported driving after a number of alcoholic drinks, and 23% of them did so invariably or frequently. 5% drank while driving. The drinkers exhibited a high-risk behavioral pattern, remaining in the car with friends (53%) or relatives (16%) also under the influence of alcohol. Those who are aware of the influence of alcohol on their driving skills and the danger of being involved in car accidents, moderate their consumption of alcohol. The results of the study confirm our hypothesis that there is an upswing in the phenomenon of high-risk driving connected with drinking alcoholic beverages. PMID:9154719

  8. Psychological Distress and Problem Drinking.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Roberts, Bayard; Suhrcke, Marc; McKee, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We examine the influence of harmful alcohol use on mental health using a flexible two-step instrumental variables approach and household survey data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union. Using alcohol advertisements to instrument for alcohol, we show that problem drinking has a large detrimental effect on psychological distress, with problem drinkers exhibiting a 42% increase in the number of mental health problems reported and a 15% higher chance of reporting very poor mental health. Ignoring endogeneity leads to an underestimation of the damaging effect of excessive drinking. Findings suggest that more effective alcohol polices and treatment services in the former Soviet Union may have added benefits in terms of reducing poor mental health. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25640167

  9. Protecting health from metal exposures in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water is essential to us as human beings. According to the World Health Organization "The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health" (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en/), but clean drinking water is a precious commodity not always readily available. Surface and ground water are the major sources of drinking water. Both can be contaminated, surface water with bacteria while ground water frequently contains salts of metals that occur naturally or are introduced by human activity. This paper will briefly review the metallic salts found in drinking water in areas around the world, as well as list some of the methods used to reduce or remove them. It will then discuss our research on reducing the risk of pollution of drinking water by removal of metal ions from wastewater. PMID:26953706

  10. Positive drinking consequences among hazardous drinking college students.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Schmidt, Norman B

    2012-05-01

    Negative drinking consequences in college students have been well studied, but emerging evidence points to a role for positive drinking consequences in predicting alcohol related problems. Positive drinking consequences appear to be distinct from other drinking constructs such as drinking expectancies and drinking motives. However, no work has evaluated the role of positive drinking consequences in hazardous drinking college students, a population at high risk for alcohol related problems. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of positive drinking consequences on problem drinking and alcohol problem recognition in a hazardous drinking college sample. Participants (N=222) were hazardous drinking undergraduate students completing a battery of self-report measures about alcohol use. Findings indicated that positive drinking consequences predicted problem drinking above and beyond other related constructs including positive drinking motives (i.e. enhancement and social). However, positive drinking consequences did not appear to play a significant role in alcohol problem recognition. Future research directions and implications for interventions with hazardous drinking college students are discussed. PMID:22370521

  11. Underage Drinking and the Drinking Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Carla T.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of underage drinking on college campuses has been brewing for many years to the continued vexation of higher education administrators. In 2008, John McCardell, president emeritus of Middlebury College, began to circulate for signature a public statement among colleagues titled "The Amethyst Initiative," which calls for elected…

  12. Differences in Drinking Patterns Between Female Nursing and Nonnursing Students.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Desiree; Engs, Ruth C; Middleton, Mary Jean

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the drinking patterns of 123 female nursing students with those of 185 female students of other majors enrolled beyond the freshman year at a large public university. High-risk drinking patterns did not vary significantly between the 2 groups, suggesting that students' drinking patterns reflected the norms of their institution. Prevention strategies geared at campus culture and that target students still enrolled in prerequisites may be needed to reduce alcohol abuse in nursing students. PMID:26218007

  13. PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL DECAY IN DRINKING WATER: A SECOND ORDER MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide water that is both microbiologically and chemically safe for human consumption. Drinking water chlorination, therefore, poses a dilemma. Chemical disinfection reduces the risk of infectious disease but the interaction be...

  14. GEOCHEMISTRY OF SULFUR IN IRON CORROSION SCALES FOUND IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron-sulfur geochemistry is important in many natural and engineered environments, including drinking water systems. In the anaerobic environment beneath scales of corroding iron drinking water distribution system pipes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulfide from natu...

  15. The Occurrence and Comparative Toxicity of Haloacetaldehyde Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of drinking water disinfection greatly reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases. However, the reaction between disinfectants and natural organic matter in the source water can lead to an unintended consequence, which is the formation of drinking water disinfe...

  16. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC) at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%), Spanish (59.6%) and British (61.4%) samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%). In those drinking < 3 h at interview, there were no differences in BAC by gender or nationality. In UK participants, BAC increased significantly in those who had been drinking longer, reaching 0.13% (median) in females and 0.17% in males drinking > 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08%) was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife. PMID:22151744

  17. Energy Drinks: Implications for the Breastfeeding Mother.

    PubMed

    Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity. PMID:26909852

  18. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  19. Coffee Stirrers and Drinking Straws as Disposable Spatulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turano, Morgan A.; Lobuono, Cinzia; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Although metal spatulas are damaged through everyday use and become discolored and corroded by chemical exposure, plastic drinking straws are inexpensive, sterile, and disposable, reducing the risk of cross-contamination during laboratory procedures. Drinking straws are also useful because they come in a variety of sizes; narrow sample containers

  20. Preventing Dangerous College Drinking Is Possible. E-Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol is all too often seen as an accepted part of college life, but there are programs that can significantly reduce students' risky drinking, according to a series of studies in a special college drinking supplement of the "Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs." Fourteen studies detail results of projects funded by the National Institute on…

  1. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    This guide details what coalitions and organizations need to do to insure the enforcement and judicial communities are active partners in the effort to reduce underage drinking. One of the first tasks discussed is the necessity for groups to understand the needs and concerns of law enforcement and to recognize that underage drinking enforcement…

  2. Coffee Stirrers and Drinking Straws as Disposable Spatulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turano, Morgan A.; Lobuono, Cinzia; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Although metal spatulas are damaged through everyday use and become discolored and corroded by chemical exposure, plastic drinking straws are inexpensive, sterile, and disposable, reducing the risk of cross-contamination during laboratory procedures. Drinking straws are also useful because they come in a variety of sizes; narrow sample containers…

  3. Drinking Reductions following Alcohol-related Sanctions are associated with Social Norms among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.; Reid, Allecia E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Students mandated for intervention following an alcohol-related sanction event often reduce their drinking prior to intervention. Knowing the determinants of self-initiated change may help identify intervention targets for individuals who do not reduce their drinking. Guided by self-regulation theory, we tested whether fewer past alcohol consequences and higher descriptive and injunctive norms would be associated with higher levels of post-sanction drinking. College students referred for a campus alcohol violation (N=658, 64% male) reported on their drinking during the month before and after their sanction event. Results show that post-sanction drinking was significantly lower than pre-sanction drinking across four outcomes: (a) drinks per drinking day, (b) drinks per week, (c) peak drinks, and (d) peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Hypothesized social influence variables (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) were consistently associated with all four drinking outcomes; that is, students who perceived that their friends drank more and held more accepting views of drinking were less reactive to alcohol-related sanctions. Past consequences of drinking did not consistently predict subsequent drinking. Therefore, we conclude that alcohol interventions for mandated students should target both descriptive and injunctive norms to optimize their efficacy. PMID:24274435

  4. Not Just Fun and Games: A Review of College Drinking Games Research From 2004 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Van Tyne, Kathryne; Olthuis, Janine V.; Correia, Christopher J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Borsari, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Drinking games are a high-risk social drinking activity consisting of rules and guidelines that determine when and how much to drink (Polizzotto et al., 2007). Borsari's (2004) seminal review paper on drinking games in the college environment succinctly captured the published literature as of February 2004. However, research on college drinking games has grown exponentially during the last decade, necessitating an updated review of the literature. This review provides an in-depth summary and synthesis of current drinking games research (e.g., characteristics of drinking games, and behavioral, demographic, social, and psychological influences on participation) and suggests several promising areas for future drinking games research. This review is intended to foster a better understanding of drinking game behaviors among college students and improve efforts to reduce the negative impact of this practice on college campuses. PMID:25222171

  5. Heavy drinking on college campuses: no reason to change minimum legal drinking age of 21.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Drew K

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would remove one of the most researched and supported policies in the nation's alcohol control arsenal. There is little evidence that other interventions or policies are capable of working on the same broad level as MLDA 21, and there could also be a deleterious ripple effect in related legislation because MLDA 21 works in conjunction with other drinking laws. In addition, historic and international experiences with a lowered MLDA indicate there are serious social and public health consequences. Instead of removing efficacious interventions, we must remain committed to implementing and enforcing evidence-based practices and legislation. PMID:21308595

  6. Lead in the School's Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The purpose of this manual is to assist school officials by providing information on the effects of lead in school drinking water on children, how to detect the presence of lead, how to reduce the lead, and how to provide training for sampling and remedial programs. A protocol is provided for procedures to determine the location and source of lead…

  7. Changing the Culture of Young People's Binge Drinking: From Motivations to Practical Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Aims: This paper explores young people's own opinions about how the "drinking to get drunk" culture can be changed. More precisely, the two objectives of this study were to explore: (1) whether young people viewed binge drinking as a real "problem"; and (2) what they thought could be done to reduce binge drinking. Methods: Forty in-depth…

  8. Changing the Culture of Young People's Binge Drinking: From Motivations to Practical Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Aims: This paper explores young people's own opinions about how the "drinking to get drunk" culture can be changed. More precisely, the two objectives of this study were to explore: (1) whether young people viewed binge drinking as a real "problem"; and (2) what they thought could be done to reduce binge drinking. Methods: Forty in-depth

  9. Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

  10. GRIK1 Genotype Moderates Topiramate's Effects on Daily Drinking Level, Expectations of Alcohol's Positive Effects, and Desire to Drink

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We (Kranzler et al. 2014) reported that topiramate 200 mg/day reduced heavy drinking days and increased abstinent days in 138 heavy drinkers whose treatment goal was to reduce drinking to safe levels. In that 12-week, placebo-controlled study, we measured drinking using the Timeline Follow-back method at each treatment visit. In addition to the intent-to-treat effects of topiramate, we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, encoding the GluK1 subunit of the kainate receptor, moderated the treatment effect in European Americans (EAs; n=122). Topiramate reduced heavy drinking only in rs2832407*C allele homozygotes. Here, we augment those analyses by using patients’ daily reports obtained using interactive voice response technology (a) to validate the interactive effects of GRIK1 and topiramate as predictors of drinking level and (b) to examine changes in expected positive effects of drinking (i.e., positive outcome expectancies) and desire to drink. We found that rs2832407*C allele homozygotes treated with topiramate drank less overall during treatment than those receiving placebo, validating our earlier findings for heavy drinking days (Kranzler et al. 2014). There was also a study day × medication group × genotype group interaction that predicted both positive alcohol expectancies and desire to drink, with rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showing the largest decreases in these outcomes during the study period. Changes in positive alcohol expectancies or desire to drink did not mediate the effects on drinking. These findings validate and extend our previous pharmacogenetic findings with topiramate. PMID:24786948

  11. GRIK1 genotype moderates topiramate's effects on daily drinking level, expectations of alcohol's positive effects and desire to drink.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    We (Kranzler et al., 2014) reported that topiramate 200 mg/day reduced heavy drinking days and increased abstinent days in 138 heavy drinkers whose treatment goal was to reduce drinking to safe levels. In that 12-week, placebo-controlled study, we measured drinking using the Timeline Follow-back method at each treatment visit. In addition to the intent-to-treat effects of topiramate, we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, encoding the GluK1 subunit of the kainate receptor, moderated the treatment effect in European Americans (EAs; n = 122). Topiramate reduced heavy drinking only in rs2832407*C allele homozygotes. Here, we augment those analyses by using patients' daily reports obtained using interactive voice response technology; (a) to validate the interactive effects of GRIK1 and topiramate as predictors of drinking level; and, (b) to examine changes in expected positive effects of drinking (i.e. positive outcome expectancies) and desire to drink. We found that rs2832407*C allele homozygotes treated with topiramate drank less overall during treatment than those receiving placebo, validating our earlier findings for heavy drinking days (Kranzler et al., 2014). There was also a study day × medication group × genotype group interaction that predicted both positive alcohol expectancies and desire to drink, with rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showing the largest decreases in these outcomes during the study period. Changes in positive alcohol expectancies or desire to drink did not mediate the effects on drinking. These findings validate and extend our previous pharmacogenetic findings with topiramate. PMID:24786948

  12. To drink or not to drink: Harmful drinking is associated with hyperactivation of reward areas rather than hypoactivation of control areas in men

    PubMed Central

    Stuke, Heiner; Gutwinski, Stefan; Wiers, Corinde E.; Schmidt, Timo T.; Gröpper, Sonja; Parnack, Jenny; Gawron, Christiane; Attar, Catherine Hindi; Spengler, Stephanie; Walter, Henrik; Heinz, Andreas; Bermpohl, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background The maintenance of harmful alcohol use can be considered a reiterated decision in favour of alcohol in concrete drinking occasions. These decisions are often made despite an intention to quit or reduce alcohol consumption. We tested if a hyperactive reward system and/or an impaired cognitive control system contribute to such unfavourable decision-making. Methods In this fMRI study, men with modest to harmful drinking behaviour, which was measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), repeatedly made decisions between alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. Based on prior individual ratings, decision pairs were created with an alcoholic decision option considered more desirable but less beneficial by the participant. By correlating AUDIT scores with brain activation during decision-making, we determined areas explicitly related to pro-alcohol decisions in men with greater drinking severity. Results Thirty-eight men participated in our study. Behaviourally, we found a positive correlation between AUDIT scores and the number of decisions for desired alcoholic drinks compared with beneficial nonalcoholic drinks. The fMRI results show that AUDIT scores were positively associated with activation in areas associated with reward and motivation processing (i.e., ventral striatum, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex) during decisions favouring a desired, nonbeneficial alcoholic drink. Conversely, we did not find hypoactivation in areas associated with self-control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). These effects were not present when participants chose a desired, nonbenefical, nonalcoholic drink. Limitations The men participating in our study had to be abstinent and would potentially consume an alcoholic drink at the end of the experiment. Hence, we did not define manifest alcohol dependence as an inclusion criterion and instead focused on less severely affected individuals. Conclusion Our results indicate that with growing drinking severity, decisions for alcoholic drinks are associated with increasing activity in reward-associated neural systems, rather than decreasing activity in self-control–associated systems. PMID:26900791

  13. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

  14. Rethinking Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). It is designed to help people reduce ... alcohol use disorder, a term that includes both alcoholism and harmful drinking that has not reached the ...

  15. Drinking Motives, Alcohol Expectancies, Self-Efficacy, and Drinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Wiers, Reinout; Lemmers, Lex; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2005-01-01

    The current study focused on the associations between drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and drinking behavior in a representative sample of 553 Dutch adolescents and adults. Data were gathered by means of self-report questionnaires and a 14-days drinking diary. A model was postulated in which negative expectancies and…

  16. Dying To Drink: Confronting Binge Drinking on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Wuethrich, Bernice

    This book outlines the toll binge drinking is taking on college campuses and suggests steps that can be taken to take action against the binge drinking that has become part of college culture. The chapters of part 1, "The College Drinking Environment," are: (1) "A Culture of Alcohol"; (2) "Where's the Party?"; (3) "College Sports and Alcohol"; and

  17. Dying To Drink: Confronting Binge Drinking on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Wuethrich, Bernice

    This book outlines the toll binge drinking is taking on college campuses and suggests steps that can be taken to take action against the binge drinking that has become part of college culture. The chapters of part 1, "The College Drinking Environment," are: (1) "A Culture of Alcohol"; (2) "Where's the Party?"; (3) "College Sports and Alcohol"; and…

  18. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Most American high school seniors have had an alcoholic drink within the past month. This is in ... dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them: ...

  19. DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conducted every 4 years, the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey (DWINS) is an EPA-conducted statistically-based survey of the infrastructure investment needs of the Nation's drinking water systems for the next 20 years.

  20. Who Drinks Where: Youth Selection of Drinking Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina F.; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Grube, Joel W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Different drinkers may experience specific risks depending on where they consume alcohol. This longitudinal study examined drinking patterns, demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with youth drinking in different contexts. Methods We used survey data from 665 past-year alcohol using youths (ages 13–16 at Wave 1) in 50 midsized California cities. Measures of drinking behaviors and drinking in seven contexts were obtained at three annual time points. Other characteristics included gender, age, race, parental education, weekly disposable income, general deviance, and past year cigarette smoking. Results Results of multilevel regression analyses show that more frequent past-year alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of drinking at parties and at someone else’s home. Greater continued volumes of alcohol (i.e., heavier drinking) was associated with increased likelihood of drinking at parking lots or street corners. Deviance was positively associated with drinking in most contexts, and past year cigarette smoking was positively associated with drinking at beaches or parks and someone else’s home. Age and deviance were positively associated with drinking in a greater number of contexts. The likelihood of youth drinking at parties and someone else’s home increased over time, whereas the likelihood of drinking at parking lots/street corners decreased. Also, deviant youths progress to drinking in their own home, beaches or parks and restaurants/bars/nightclubs more rapidly. Conclusions The contexts in which youths consume alcohol changes over time. These changes vary by individual characteristics. The redistribution of drinking contexts over the early life course may contribute to specific risks associated with different drinking contexts. PMID:25778102

  1. Moderate and Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the ... Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption » Drinking Levels Defined In ...

  2. Drinking among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; Duncan-Schill, Marilyn

    1995-01-01

    Reports the results of a study on the ways in which alcohol is built into the social role and social life of college students. Provides direct support for the idea that the patterns of drinking alcoholic beverages are integral to social and structural aspects of college. (LKS)

  3. How Giraffes Drink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Taylor, Dale L.

    2015-12-01

    Giraffes face unique challenges for drinking due to their long necks. In this article we use evidence from videos, size estimates, and elementary fluid mechanics to make a strong case for a plunger pump mechanism moving water up from their lips to their shoulders.

  4. DRINKING WATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

  5. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  6. How Giraffes Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, P.-M.; Taylor, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Giraffes face unique challenges for drinking due to their long necks. In this article we use evidence from videos, size estimates, and elementary fluid mechanics to make a strong case for a plunger pump mechanism moving water up from their lips to their shoulders.

  7. Drinking Enough Fluids

    MedlinePlus

    ... a cup of low-fat soup as an afternoon snack . Drink a full glass of water if you need to take a pill. Have a glass of water before you exercise or go outside to garden or walk, especially on a hot day. Remember, water is a good way to add fluids to your daily routine ...

  8. Youthful Drinking: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    1982-01-01

    As the adolescent matures, drinking situations occur outside of the home with friends. This period is characterized by drinking habits, patterns, and attitudes which are different from those of the parent population; the peer group and situational factors are significant influences on drinking behavior during this phase. (Author)

  9. REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

  10. Palm wine drinking in a Balinese village: environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Suryani, L K; Adnyana, T A; Jensen, G D

    1990-08-01

    The present study reports observations of drinking patterns and life-style of Bali-Hindu men in a Balinese village, Pemuteran, who have a relatively high prevalence (about 40%) of excessive consumption of locally produced palm wine. Patterns of drinking were defined. They are rooted in the customs of the inhabitants prior to mass displacement to a "new" land area following a volcanic catastrophe in their old village location in 1963. Excessive drinking appeared to be causally related to identified sociocultural factors and to a physically impoverished environment that greatly reduced work opportunities during much of this year. A similar village in the area which underwent important social and drinking pattern changes consequent to government provision of irrigation water and greater work opportunities suggests that alcohol drinking in Pemuteran may decline under similar social-environmental changes. PMID:2286473

  11. Young Adult Veteran Perceptions of Peers’ Drinking Behavior and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based intervention in this heavy drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine: (1) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (2) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (3) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-same-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans’ own drinking, and (4) whether perceptions about others’ attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association on drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  12. A Field Investigation of the Effects of Drinking Consequences on Young Adults’ Readiness to Change

    PubMed Central

    Usala, Julie M.; Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.; Day, Anne M.; Spear, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    In the research on readiness to change (RTC) one’s drinking, there has been little assessment of the influence of positive drinking consequences or other potential moderating variables. To address these limitations, we examined how young adults’ RTC their alcohol consumption shortly following a drinking episode was associated with self-reported drinking consequences, as well as any potential moderating effects of gender and Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC). In street interviews outside bars, 238 young adults were administered questionnaires about their drinking, including a measure examining participants’ current readiness to reduce their alcohol consumption. Within 72 hours of their drinking episode, 67 participants (36 males; Entire Sample Mage = 20.90 years, Range = 18–26 years) completed an online survey, once again measuring RTC as well as positive and negative drinking consequences. Consistent with our hypothesis, positive drinking consequences were negatively associated with participants’ changes in RTC. Additionally, a three-way interaction of gender x BrAC x Positive Drinking Consequences on RTC showed that females with low BrACs reported higher RTC scores when they had endorsed fewer positive drinking consequences. Interestingly, negative drinking consequences alone did not impact individuals’ RTC. Because positive drinking consequences were a significantly better predictor of RTC than were negative drinking consequences, researchers are advised to examine both types of consequences in future studies. Finally, effective alcohol education programs for those who have never consumed alcohol as well as social drinkers should include consideration of the experience of positive outcomes. PMID:25452061

  13. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided. PMID:25031128

  14. Hydrogen peroxide generation from hydrated protein drink mixes.

    PubMed

    Boatright, William L

    2013-11-01

    Generation of oxygen radicals upon hydration of powdered protein products was examined using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Among individual proteins powders examined oxidative bursts occurred almost immediately, and then rapidly declined in the 1st 5 min. Commercially available powdered protein drink mixes behaved differently, with an initial lag phase followed by a sustained increase in luminol-enhanced luminescence, lasting for an hour or beyond. The drink mix that produced the highest level of luminol-enhanced luminescence also contained 379 nM ascorbate radical when hydrated (28 nmole/g of powdered drink mix). The entire ascorbic acid content of this drink mix was oxidized to nondetectable levels (using HPLC-diode array detection) within 60 min of being hydrated. Treatment of the hydrated drink mixes with the enzyme catalase almost completely inhibited the luminol-enhanced luminescence from the hydrated drink mix demonstrating that hydrogen peroxide generated via a chemical reaction among the drink mixes' ingredients was a primary reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is the strongest oxidative capacity demonstrated in a food product as consumed (without any manipulation to increase ROS) and the 1st time that the ascrobate radical in a food product as been quantified. Generation of hydrogen peroxide in the hydrated drink mixes from metal catalyzed reactions involving oxygen and reducing equivalents from ascorbic acid is proposed. PMID:24245883

  15. Examining Factors Associated with Heavy Episodic Drinking Among College Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Scholly, Kristen; Katz, Alan R.; Kehl, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students’ heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one’s social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students’ perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found.

  16. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  17. Assessing Driving while Intoxicated (DWI) Offender Characteristics and Drinking Problems Utilizing the Numerical Drinking Profile (NDP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Misra, Ranjita; Dennis, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol is a major public health concern. By distinguishing the type of individuals violating driving while intoxicated (DWI) sanctions, intervention programs will be better suited to reduce drinking and driving. The purpose of this study was to examine the personal characteristics of DWI offenders and…

  18. Assessing Driving while Intoxicated (DWI) Offender Characteristics and Drinking Problems Utilizing the Numerical Drinking Profile (NDP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Misra, Ranjita; Dennis, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol is a major public health concern. By distinguishing the type of individuals violating driving while intoxicated (DWI) sanctions, intervention programs will be better suited to reduce drinking and driving. The purpose of this study was to examine the personal characteristics of DWI offenders and

  19. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Prevention & Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    Underage drinking prevention has two goals: prevent harm to the individual drinker and prevent harm to society. Modern prevention programs should be measured not by their intentions, but by their consequences: reducing the number of criminal events, reducing the amount of harm to individuals, and reducing the harm to society. This guide discusses…

  20. Drinking in the Context of Life Stressors: A Multidimensional Coping Strategy among South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Karmel W.; Watt, Melissa H.; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored narratives of drinking as a coping strategy among female drinkers in a South African township. In 2010–11, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 54 women recruited from 12 alcohol-serving venues. Most women drank heavily and linked their drinking to stressors. They were motivated to use drinking to manage their emotions, facilitate social engagement, and achieve a sense of empowerment, even while recognizing the limitations of this strategy. This study helps to contextualize heavy drinking behavior among women in this setting. Multifaceted interventions that help female drinkers to more effectively manage stressors may aid in reducing hazardous drinking. PMID:23905586

  1. [Sugary drinks and glycemia].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Susana; Alçada, Manuel; Azevedo, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing all over the world. Most affected are people changing from a traditional lifestyle to an environment with both availability of high energy diet and less physical activity. Glycemic index (GI) is a measure of dietary glycemic carbohydrates, representing their ability to raise blood glucose concentrations. It refers to the postprandial blood glucose response expressed as a percentage of the response to a reference food (glucose or white bread) containing the same carbohydrate content. Given the present high consumption of sugary drinks, the putative contribution of these products to obesity deserves investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the GI of some drinks from the Portuguese market. Postprandial glycemia after ingestion of apple Frutis, peach Frutis, Green tea Frutea, green tea, black tea, lupin infusion, rooibos infusion, raftilose solution or bran solution has been determined for two hours in a caucasian population of young adults of any sex, 17 to 24 years of age. Apple Frutis GI was found to be 54.3, i.e., a low GI; Frutea Green tea had a GI of 64.7, considered as a moderate GI; peach Frutis showed a high GI, 86.6. Green and Black teas as well as rooibos and lupin infusions, all with added glucose (25 g), did not change glycemic response in comparison with the reference solution (water with 25 g glucose). No differences were seen after raftilose and bran solutions by comparison with the reference solution. GI information may help the choice of carbohydrates to include in a healthy diet. Formerly considered as a parameter of interest to diabetic patients, it may actually interest anybody concerned with a healthy diet. This study has been performed by medical and nutritional science students, who observed glycemic excursions in themselves, after drink ingestion. This experiment allowed them to see the impressive rise of glycemia after ingestion of a sugary drink, by comparison with basal levels which would not rise if plain water or other nonsugary drink had been ingested. PMID:20687984

  2. Response of colleges to risky drinking college students.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Nadine R; Logan, Diane E

    2014-10-01

    Heavy drinking and related consequences continue to affect college campuses due to fatalities, assaults, serious injuries, and arrests that occur among students. Several approaches aimed at reducing the harm incurred by students and the college communities as a result of heavy drinking are being used with varying success. A review of interventions including educational, individual, and environmental approaches are described, as well as new, promising, strategies. Despite some success, elevated and risky drinking patterns continue. As such, concerns over implementation of evidence-based treatments and areas in need of further study are discussed. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-10.asp, free with no login]. PMID:25271660

  3. Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff. PMID:25252352

  4. Underage drinking: does the minimum age drinking law offer enough protection?

    PubMed

    Green, Rivka; Jason, Hannah; Ganz, Debora

    2015-05-01

    Underage drinking is a significant problem in the US. It is responsible for several thousand mortalities and fatalities each year, both among minors and other members of society. Additionally, underage alcohol consumption produces a severe economic burden in the US. Introduction to alcohol in youth poses serious long-term risks for adolescents, including occupational, educational, and psychosocial impairments, and increases the risk for developing alcohol abuse disorders in adulthood. In order to address and mitigate this problem, the US has set a minimum age drinking law of 21 in all 50 states, and has implemented several supplementary laws limiting the possession and consumption of alcohol. Though these laws have successfully reduced underage drinking, several additional strategies are noteworthy, including preventative and intervention efforts incorporating environmental, individual, communal, and parental factors. The following literature review describes these concepts as they relate to underage drinking laws in the US. Directions for future research, interventions, and ongoing challenges related to the minimum drinking age in the US are also discussed. PMID:25924229

  5. Preventing injuries through interventions for problem drinking: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Dinh-Zarr, T; Diguiseppi, C; Heitman, E; Roberts, I

    1999-01-01

    To assess the effect of treatment of problem drinking on injury risk, we conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials by searching 12 computerized databases, cross-checking bibliographies, and contacting authors and governmental agencies. We identified 19 trials of interventions for problem drinking that measured injury outcomes. Treatment for problem drinking was associated with reduced suicide attempts, domestic violence, falls, drinking-related injuries, and injury hospitalizations and deaths, with reductions ranging from 27 to 65%. Interventions among convicted drunk drivers reduced motor vehicle crashes and injuries. The precision of all the point estimates was low, however. We did not combine the results quantitatively, because the interventions, patient populations, and outcomes were so heterogeneous. The results suggest that treatment for problem drinking may reduce injuries and their antecedents. Because injuries account for much of the morbidity and mortality from problem drinking, further studies are warranted to confirm these effects. PMID:10456590

  6. Decisional balance: Alcohol decisional balance intervention for heavy drinking undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated a decisional balance intervention among heavy drinking undergraduates and compared a non-weighted decisional balance proportion (DBP; Collins, Carey, & Otto, 2009) to a participant-weighted DBP with weights based on relative importance of items. We expected: 1) the intervention to decrease drinking compared to control; 2) the weighted intervention to be more effective compared to the non-weighted or control in reducing drinking; and 3) intervention efficacy to be moderated by initial DBP. Method Participants (N =162, Mean age = 24.37, SD = 6.81, 27% male) were randomly assigned to an alcohol intervention wherein they were either asked to assign weights of importance to pros and cons (weighted intervention), or not (non-weighted intervention), or to control. Participants completed web-based questionnaires at baseline and again during a one month follow-up assessment. Results Consistent with expectations, the non-weighted intervention was associated with reduced follow-up weekly drinking, and the weighted intervention was associated with reductions in drinking frequency. Results further indicated that initial decisional balance did not moderate intervention efficacy. Discussion Findings suggest that the decisional balance procedure can reduce drinking but there was not compelling evidence for the addition of weights. This study lays the groundwork for enhancing future interventions by increasing empirical knowledge of the role motivation plays in heavy alcohol use. PMID:26555004

  7. On drinking nectar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wonjung; Gilet, Tristan; Bush, John

    2010-11-01

    Many creatures, including bees, birds and bats, feed on floral nectar. It is advantageous for these creatures to ingest energy rapidly due to the threat of predation during feeding. While the sweetest nectar offers the greatest energetic rewards, the exponential increase of viscosity with sugar concentration makes it the most difficult to transport. We here demonstrate that the energy intake rate is maximized at a particular concentration that depends on the mode of nectar feeding. We here rationalize the different optimal concentrations reported for the three principal nectar drinking strategies, capillary suction, active suction and viscous dipping.

  8. Adolescent Drinking and Driving: Etiology Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustyn, Mary Catharine; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    1995-01-01

    A literature review of research on adolescent drinking and driving reveals which subgroups are most likely to drink and drive, where and why drinking and driving occur, peer- and family-related issues, and adolescent expectancies and perceived efficacies associated with drinking and drinking/driving behavior. The use of etiologic data in

  9. Differences in College Student Typical Drinking and Celebration Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodyard, Catherine Dane; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…

  10. Drinking Patterns, Drinking Expectancies, and Coping after Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Drinking patterns, alcohol expectancies, and coping strategies were assessed for 121 persons with recent spinal cord injuries during hospitalization, 3 months after surgery, and 12 months after surgery. Although the rate of heavy drinking decreased, preinjury problem drinkers still had the lowest rate of positive reappraisal, problem solving, and…

  11. The Need for Attitude Changes concerning Drinking and Drinking Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, R. G.; Liban, C. B.

    1981-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward alcohol use and abuse, drinking norms, and treatment of alcoholism among a representative sample of adults (N=933). Results indicated public concern about alcohol abuse and a desire to help, definite norms maintained against heavy drinking and drunkeness, and a belief in the value of treatment demonstrated. (Author)

  12. Environmental Predictors of Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Short, Brian; Wagenaar, Alexander; Toomey, Tracie; Murray, David; Wolfson, Mark; Forster, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among drinking norms, peer alcohol use, alcohol availability, drinking location, alcohol consumption, and drinking-related problems among young adult drinkers (N=3,095). Results show that drinking norms and peer alcohol use influenced alcohol consumption and drinking consequences. Drinking in public contributed to alcohol…

  13. [Epidemiologic aspects of energy drink intake in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Zastrozhin, M S; Drozhzhina, N A

    2015-01-01

    Article examines the impact of 'energy" drinks that have become so popular in recent decades on people. As a research tool a short structured questionnaire was used. It included questions about whether the respondent used "energy" drinks and, if yes, how often; whether he/she had an experience of using it with alcohol; if one is informed about the affect of substances that are included in the drink on the organism; reason of using; the reason of debut consumption; primary feeling during and after consumption; primary feeling after taking a large dose of "energy" drink. Each respondent also pointed out sex and noted whether he/she wanted to learn more about "energy" drinks and effects of their use on the organism. Within 3 years of study 1377 people (682 men and 695 women) aged 12 to 42 were surveyed. The results showed that 89.0% of respondents consumed energy drinks in some to some degree, and from these 7.4% used it constantly (at least 1 can a day). 24,0% of respondents had an experience of taking "energy" drinks with alcohol. With that, the number of men who used "energy" drinks with alcohol, prevails over the same number of women: 60.3% (n = 199) and 39.7% (n = 131), respectively (p = 0.003). Relationship between age of respondents and features of using as well as effects of "energy drinks" was also statistically proven. The elder the group is the less is the number of responders who drinks energetics constantly (Rs = -0.88, p < 0.001), who knows about the affect of caffeine and other substances on the organism (Rs = -0.93, p < 0.001), who drinks energetics forced by desire to get new feelings (Rs = -0.78, p < 0.001), exams (Rs = -0.73, p < 0.001), who feels fatigue (Rs = -0.79, p < 0.001), and get headache (Rs = -0.8, p < 0.001), the more is the number of responders who noticed that the primal feeling after energetics drinking was rising of working efficiency (Rs = 0.76, p < 0.001) and excessive motional activity (Rs = 0.59, p = 0.01). Basing on the data obtained basic principles of reducing the rate of use of energy drinks program were developed. PMID:26841552

  14. Nonvolatile mutagens in drinking water: production by chlorination and destruction by sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Cheh, A.M.; Skochdopole, J.; Koski, P.; Cole, L.

    1980-01-04

    In a laboratory simulation of a drinking water treatment process, the levels of nonvolatile mutagens in drinking water were quantified. By means of the Ames Salmonella test, unchlorinated water was found to be devoid of mutagens. Chloramine-treated water however, contained mutagenic activity; water chlorinated with free chlorine showed even greater mutagenic activity. Dechlorination of drinking water with sulfite sharply reduced the mutagenic activity. Treatment with sulfur dioxide is proposed as an effective, inexpensive method of reducing the direct-acting mutagenic activity of drinking water and of aqueous industrial effluents. (1 graph, 20 references, 1 table)

  15. Alcohol Use Disorders and Perceived Drinking Norms: Ethnic Differences in Israeli Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shmulewitz, Dvora; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Aharonovich, Efrat; Aivadyan, Christina; Greenstein, Eliana; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Individuals’ perceptions of drinking acceptability in their society (perceived injunctive drinking norms) are widely assumed to explain ethnic group differences in drinking and alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but this has never been formally tested. Immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) are more likely to drink and report AUD symptoms than other Israelis. We tested perceived drinking norms as a mediator of differences between FSU immigrants and other Israelis in drinking and AUDs. Method: Adult household residents (N = 1,349) selected from the Israeli population register were assessed with a structured interview measuring drinking, AUD symptoms, and perceived drinking norms. Regression analyses were used to produce odds ratios (OR) and risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to test differences between FSU immigrants and other Israelis on binary and graded outcomes. Mediation of FSU effects by perceived drinking norms was tested with bootstrapping procedures. Results: FSU immigrants were more likely than other Israelis to be current drinkers (OR = 2.39, CI [1.61, 3.55]), have higher maximum number of drinks per day (RR = 1.88, CI [1.64, 2.16]), have any AUD (OR = 1.75, CI [1.16, 2.64]), score higher on a continuous measure of AUD (RR = 1.44, CI [1.12, 1.84]), and perceive more permissive drinking norms (p < .0001). For all four drinking variables, the FSU group effect was at least partially mediated by perceived drinking norms. Conclusions: This is the first demonstration that drinking norms mediate ethnic differences in AUDs. This work contributes to understanding ethnic group differences in drinking and AUDs, potentially informing etiologic research and public policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. PMID:23036217

  16. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Treatment Drinking Water FAQ Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... Submit" /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  17. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations The Environmental Protection Agency ( ... states, tribes, and many other partners. Regulated Drinking Water Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table ...

  18. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Treatment Drinking Water FAQ Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... Submit" /> Healthy Water Home Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  19. Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Drinking Water The Basics A cool ...

  20. Lead in School Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

  1. Binge Drinking on College Campuses. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Karen

    This digest discusses binge drinking on U.S. college campuses. Male binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks in a row one or more times during a 2-week period; female binge drinking is defined as four or more drinks in a row one or more times during a two-week period. A drink is defined as twelve ounces of beer or wine cooler, four ounces…

  2. Associations among Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress, and Hazardous Drinking in College Students: Considerations for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Radomski, Sharon; Borsari, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Students with trauma and posttraumatic stress are disproportionately at risk for heavy drinking and for alcohol-related consequences. Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) have been shown to reduce hazardous drinking in college students, and could serve as a first-line approach to reduce heavy drinking in students with trauma and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Yet the standard BMI format may not adequately address the factors that lead to hazardous drinking in these students. Here, we review the literature on PTS and hazardous drinking in college students, and highlight cognitive (self-efficacy, alcohol expectancies) and behavioral (coping strategies, emotion regulation skills, protective behaviors) factors that may link trauma and PTS to drinking risk. Incorporating these factors into standard BMIs in a collaborative way that enhances their personal relevance may enhance intervention efficacy and acceptability for these at-risk students. PMID:26167448

  3. Toward prevention of alcohol exposed pregnancies: characteristics that relate to ineffective contraception and risky drinking

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Stefania; Farrell, Leah V.; Penberthy, J. Kim; Ceperich, Sherry Dyche; Ingersoll, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-exposed pregnancy is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the United States. This paper describes the motivational patterns that relate to risky drinking and ineffective contraception, two behaviors that can result in alcohol-exposed pregnancy. As part of an intervention study aimed at reducing alcohol-exposed pregnancy 124 women were recruited and reported demographic characteristics, readiness to change, stages of change, drinking, contraception, and sexual behavior history. Our results showed the following. Drinking: A significant positive correlation was found between the number of drinks consumed in 90 days and the Importance to reduce drinking (r = .23, p = .008). A significant negative correlation between number of drinks and confidence to reduce drinking (r = ?.39, p = .000) was found as well. Significant differences were found in the total number of drinks consumed in 90 days between the five stages of change (F = (4,118), 3.12, p = .01). Women in Preparation reported drinking a significantly higher number of drinks than women in other stages of change. Contraception: There were significant negative correlations between ineffective contraception and Importance (r = ?.38, p = .00), confidence (r = ?.20, p = .02) and Readiness (r = ?.43, p = .00) to use contraception effectively. Significant differences in contraception ineffectiveness were found for women in different stages of change (F = (4,115) 8.58, p = .000). Women in Precontemplation reported significantly higher levels of contraception ineffectiveness compared to women in other stages of change. Results show a clear relationship between higher alcohol consumption and higher levels of motivation to reduce drinking. In contrast, higher levels of ineffective contraception were related to lower levels of motivation to use contraception effectively. This suggests risky drinking may be better targeted with brief skills building interventions and ineffective contraception may require interventions that enhance problem awareness and motivation. PMID:19459039

  4. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574 PMID:23933526

  5. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801

  6. Less drinking, yet more problems: understanding African American drinking and related problems.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  7. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  8. Risks of Alcohol Use Disorders Related to Drinking Patterns in the U.S. General Population

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William C; Nayak, Madhabika B; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Anton, Raymond F; Litten, Raye Z; Kranzler, Henry R

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between drinking (mean quantity and heavy drinking patterns) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in the U.S. general population. Method: Data from three telephone National Alcohol Surveys (in 2000, 2005, and 2010) were pooled, with separate analyses for men and women restricted to current drinkers (ns = 5,922 men, 6,270 women). Predictors were 12-month volume (mean drinks per day), rates of heavy drinking (5+/4+ drinks in a day for men/women), and very heavy drinking (8+, 12+, and 24+ drinks in a day). Outcomes were negative alcohol-related consequences constituting abuse (1+ of 4 DSM-IV–based domains assessed by 13 items) and alcohol dependence (symptoms in 3+ of 7 DSM-IV–based domains), together taken to indicate an AUD. Segmentation analyses were used to model risks of problem outcomes from drinking patterns separately by gender. Results: In the general population, men and women who consumed ≤1 drink/day on average with no heavy drinking days did not incur substantial risks of an AUD (<10%). Men who drank from 1 to 2 drinks/day on average but never 5+ incurred a 16% risk of reporting an AUD (3.5% alcohol dependence). At higher volumes, men and women who indicated higher rates of drinking larger amounts per day and/or involving 8+ and 12+ drinks/day (and even 24+ drinks/day for men) showed much higher risks of experiencing AUDs. Conclusions: The findings provide quantitative guidance for primary care practitioners who wish to make population-based recommendations to patients who might benefit by reducing both overall intake and amounts per occasion in an effort to lower their risks of developing AUDs. PMID:24650826

  9. Controlling Underage Drinking: Fear of Law Enforcement or Internalized Normative Values?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research on alcohol control policies has generally taken a deterrence perspective. Whether internalized normative values, consistent with the changes intended by alcohol policies, were a potential base for securing public compliance with them has received little research attention. To fill this gap, this study examined whether underage young adults’ support for underage drinking laws was associated with their alcohol use. Methods National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) data collected in 1995–2005 were used. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Covariates included: sex, race, education level, household income, positive alcohol expectancies, the perceived likelihood of law enforcement, and the availability and affordability of alcohol. Results Controlling for other covariates, support for underage drinking laws was significantly associated with some drinking outcomes. Underage young adults who were not supportive of the minimum legal drinking age law were more likely to engage in frequent binge drinking (OR=3.08) and drinking driving (OR=4.17), and to have initiated drinking at age 16 or younger (OR=2.37). Those who indicated a lower degree of support for the zero-tolerance drunk driving law had higher odds of drinking driving (OR=4.36), as well as higher odds of having ever had alcohol (OR=5.46), current drinking (OR=5.36), and having initiated drinking at the age of 16 or younger (OR=3.09). The perceived likelihood of law enforcement was protective only from frequent binge drinking (OR=0.09). Conclusion A clear articulation of potential harms associated with underage drinking to help legitimize underage drinking laws, along with their rigorous enforcement, may help reduce underage drinking. PMID:25243198

  10. Mediterranean Way of Drinking and Longevity.

    PubMed

    Giacosa, Attilio; Barale, Roberto; Bavaresco, Luigi; Faliva, Milena Anna; Gerbi, Vincenzo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Pezzotti, Mario; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-03-11

    The relation between alcohol consumption and mortality is a J-shaped curve in most of the many studies published on this topic. The Copenhagen Prospective Population Studies demonstrated in the year 2000 that wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. Wine contains various poliphenolic substances which may be beneficial for health and in particular flavonols (such as myricetin and quercetin), catechin and epicatechin, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, various phenolic acids and the stilbene resveratrol. In particular, resveratrol seems to play a positive effect on longevity because it increases the expression level of Sirt1, besides its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. Moderate wine drinking is part of the Mediterranean diet, together with abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat and a low intake of (red) meat. This healthy diet pattern involves a "Mediterranean way of drinking," that is a regular, moderate wine consumption mainly with food (up to two glasses a day for men and one glass for women). Moderate wine drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer. PMID:25207479

  11. Sustained parenting and college drinking in first-year students.

    PubMed

    Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E

    2010-04-01

    Research indicates that for many students excessive drinking in college is a continuation of high school drinking tendencies. However, there have been limited theory-driven, systematic interventions targeting students so as to prevent alcohol misuse in their transition to college. Almost all current prevention approaches tend to be focused on younger populations and college-drinking interventions are typically delivered to students when they are already on campus. These analyses draw from a novel program of research involving parents of college freshmen based on the work of Turrisi et al. [Turrisi et al. [2001] Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(4), 366-372; Turrisi, et al. [2009] Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 7, 315-326] and focuses on examining: (1) the relationship between parenting and student drinking tendencies during the transitional period between high school and college and into the first year of college, and (2) the mediation process by which sustained parenting throughout the first year is related to college-drinking outcomes and consequences so as to inform future intervention efforts. The empirical evidence from this study suggests that sustained parental efforts have a beneficial effect on reducing high-risk drinking and preventing harm even at this late stage of late adolescent/early adult development. PMID:20213752

  12. Maori Identification, Drinking Motivation and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or

  13. "Binge" Drinking: Not the Word of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhart, Fern Walter; Lederman, Linda C.; Stewart, Lea P.; Laitman, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Educators and researchers strive to use terms that reflect a replicable measure of behavior. A term commonly used to describe drinking of a problematic nature is "binge drinking". Binge drinking defines behavior by a number of drinks of an alcoholic beverage consumed in a space of time. The authors argue that the term does not describe drinking…

  14. Maori Identification, Drinking Motivation and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…

  15. A Typology of Adolescent Drinking-Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M.

    2001-01-01

    Study examined data from students reporting driving within one hour of drinking two or more drinks. Three-cluster typology included: Marginals engage in least amount of delinquent behaviors, alcohol use, and drinking-driving; Heavy Drinkers are heaviest drinkers, most frequent drinking-drivers, and have greatest driving exposure; Delinquents

  16. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER MORTALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of understanding the possible adverse health effects of organic chemical contaminants in drinking water is not new, but national concern has intensified in recent years. Despite this concern and regulatory efforts, no definitive relationship has been established betwe...

  17. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services "National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Logo RETHINKING DRINKING is a service mark of ... a parent, grandparent, or other close relative with alcoholism have a higher risk for becoming dependent on ...

  18. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). CollegeDrinkingPrevention.gov is your one-stop resource ... About Alcohol Poisoning FAQs on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism High School Graduation Fact Sheet How to Cut ...

  19. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  20. A behavioral economic analysis of the effect of next-day responsibilities on drinking.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lindsey J; Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 37% of college students report heavy episodic drinking (5 or more drinks in an occasion for men and 4 or more for women) in the past month. This pattern of drinking is often associated with high blood alcohol levels, accidents, injuries, and negative social and academic outcomes. There is a need for novel theoretical approaches to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral economics emphasizes the role of contextual determinants, such as drink price and the presence and amount of alternative reinforcement as determinants of drinking levels and has received strong empirical support in basic laboratory research. This translational research study used a hypothetical behavioral economic measure to investigate the impact of a variety of next-day responsibilities on night-before drinking intentions in a sample of first-year college students (N = 80; 50% female) who reported recent heavy episodic drinking. Drinking estimates were significantly lower in all of the responsibility conditions relative to the no-responsibility condition; internships were associated with the greatest reduction (d(rm) = 1.72), and earlier class times were associated with greater reductions in drinking intentions (d(rm) range = 1.22-1.35) than later class times (d(rm) range = 0.83-1.00). These results suggest that increasing morning responsibilities should be further investigated as a potential strategy to reduce drinking in college students. PMID:25402835

  1. Association of solitary binge drinking and suicidal behavior among emerging adult college students.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Vivian M

    2012-09-01

    Emerging adult college students who binge drink in solitary contexts (i.e., while alone) experience greater depression and suicidal ideation than do students who only binge drink in social contexts, suggesting that they may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior. This study examined the association of a previous suicide attempt, one of the best predictors of future suicide attempts and suicide, and severity of recent suicidal ideation with drinking in solitary and social contexts. Participants were binge drinking, emerging adult (18- to 25-year-old) college students (N=182) drawn from two studies of college drinkers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that both suicide attempt history and severity of suicidal ideation were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of being a solitary binge drinker as opposed to only a social binge drinker. Students with a previous suicide attempt were nearly four times more likely to be solitary binge drinkers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that suicide attempt history was significantly associated with greater frequency and quantity of drinking in solitary, but not social contexts. Suicidal ideation was significantly associated with drinks per solitary drinking day, but not frequency of solitary drinking once suicide attempt history was accounted for. Given the associations found between solitary binge drinking and a history of suicide attempts, as well as greater severity of recent suicidal ideation, it appears that these students are in need of suicide prevention efforts, including treatment efforts aimed at reducing binge drinking. PMID:22288976

  2. Personality, Alcohol Use, and Drinking Motives: A Comparison of Independent and Combined Internal Drinking Motives Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Flett, Gordon L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-established that coping and enhancement drinking motives predict college student drinking and that personality traits predict drinking motives. Little is known, however, about personality and drinking patterns among individuals who drink for both enhancement and coping reasons. University students in the current study completed…

  3. Attitudes and Knowledge about Drinking: Relationships With Drinking Behavior among Pregnant Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Marie D.; Lebow, Howard A.; Day, Nancy L.

    1997-01-01

    Collected data on the drinking behavior of 415 pregnant adolescents over a five-year period to examine relationships between knowledge and attitudes about drinking and drinking behavior. Results indicate that knowledge about drinking was related to a decrease in drinking among drinkers during pregnancy. Other results are reported. (RJM)

  4. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  5. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct

  6. How to think about your drink: Action-identification and the relation between mindfulness and dyscontrolled drinking.

    PubMed

    Schellhas, Laura; Ostafin, Brian D; Palfai, Tibor P; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional and intervention research have shown that mindfulness is inversely associated with difficulties in controlling alcohol use. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms through which mindfulness is related to increased control over drinking. One potential mechanism consists of the way individuals represent their drinking behaviour. Action identification theory proposes that self-control of behaviour is improved by shifting from high-level representations regarding the meaning of a behaviour to lower-level representations regarding "how-to" aspects of a behaviour. Because mindfulness involves present-moment awareness, it may help to facilitate such shifts. We hypothesized that an inverse relation between mindfulness and dyscontrolled drinking would be partially accounted for by the way individuals mentally represent their drinking behaviour - i.e., reduced levels of high-level action identification and increased levels of low-level action identification. One hundred and twenty five undergraduate psychology students completed self-report measures of mindful awareness, action identification of alcohol use, and difficulty in controlling alcohol use. Results supported the hypothesis that high-level action identification partially mediates the relation between mindfulness and dyscontrolled drinking but did not support a mediating role for low-level action identification. These results suggest that mindfulness can improve self-control of alcohol by changing the way we think about our drinking behaviour. PMID:26812278

  7. Drinking Consequences and Subsequent Drinking in College Students Over 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Julia A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Wood, Phillip K.

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence that college student drinkers may continue drinking in the face of adverse consequences. We examined 2 hypotheses: (a) that this seemingly pathological behavior is a phenomenon of university life, occurring with consistency throughout the entirety of college, and (b) that individuals accumulate these consequences over multiple semesters in college. A sample of 3,720 students from a large Midwestern university was asked to complete surveys the summer before college and every semester thereafter for 4 years. Results showed that certain drinking-related consequences (e.g., blackouts, regretted sexual experiences) consistently predicted continued frequent heavy drinking in the following semester, even after controlling for sex, race, age, and previous-semester frequent heavy drinking (range of odds ratio = 1.17 to 1.45 across semesters, p < .01). Such potent consequences may predict subsequent drinking for a number of possible reasons that may be examined and addressed as they would pertain to specific protective behavioral strategy-related and cognitive interventions. Furthermore, consequences were accumulated over multiple semesters by notable proportions of students. For example, 13.8% of students reported blacking out 5 time-points or more—describing a full half or more of their college careers. Experimental studies which aim to modify students’ perceptions of norms associated with these consequences may aid in developing interventions to reduce the burden of harm to students. In the broader context, and given the prevalence of students’ accumulation of consequences, future study might aim to determine how and in what ways these findings describe either pathological or normative processes. PMID:25528051

  8. Drinking consequences and subsequent drinking in college students over 4 years.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Julia A; Sher, Kenneth J; Wood, Phillip K

    2014-12-01

    There is some evidence that college student drinkers may continue drinking in the face of adverse consequences. We examined 2 hypotheses: (a) that this seemingly pathological behavior is a phenomenon of university life, occurring with consistency throughout the entirety of college, and (b) that individuals accumulate these consequences over multiple semesters in college. A sample of 3,720 students from a large Midwestern university was asked to complete surveys the summer before college and every semester thereafter for 4 years. Results showed that certain drinking-related consequences (e.g., blackouts, regretted sexual experiences) consistently predicted continued frequent heavy drinking in the following semester, even after controlling for sex, race, age, and previous-semester frequent heavy drinking (range of odds ratio = 1.17 to 1.45 across semesters, p < .01). Such potent consequences may predict subsequent drinking for a number of possible reasons that may be examined and addressed as they would pertain to specific protective behavioral strategy-related and cognitive interventions. Furthermore, consequences were accumulated over multiple semesters by notable proportions of students. For example, 13.8% of students reported blacking out 5 time-points or more--describing a full half or more of their college careers. Experimental studies which aim to modify students' perceptions of norms associated with these consequences may aid in developing interventions to reduce the burden of harm to students. In the broader context, and given the prevalence of students' accumulation of consequences, future study might aim to determine how and in what ways these findings describe either pathological or normative processes. PMID:25528051

  9. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    PubMed

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body. PMID:26475300

  10. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls. PMID:25303360

  11. The risks of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1984-04-01

    Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

  12. The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We use variation from the minimum legal drinking age to estimate the causal effect of access to alcohol on crime. Using a census of arrests in California and a regression discontinuity design, we find that individuals just over age 21 are 5.9% more likely to be arrested than individuals just under 21. This increase is mostly due to assaults, alcohol-related offenses, and nuisance crimes. These results suggest that policies that restrict access to alcohol have the potential to substantially reduce crime. PMID:26120205

  13. How to Identify Lead Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act went into effect on January 4, 2014. The Act has reduced the lead content allowed in water system and plumbing products by changing the definition of lead free in Section 1417 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) from not more than 8% ...

  14. Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

  15. ETV COLLABORATIVE EVALUATIONS OF MARKET-READY TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    How well do some commercially marketed package treatment systems perform to reduce arsenic from drinking water supplies? The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Drinking Water Systems (DWS) Center is a partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA...

  16. The Effects of Fatal Vision Goggles on Drinking and Driving Intentions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Dwight A.; Lanni-Manley, Elizabeth; Maiorana, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effectiveness of Fatal Vision Goggles in reducing intentions to drink and drive. Participants performed a field sobriety task and drove in a traffic simulator while wearing the goggles. A regression analysis was performed in order to predict changes in intentions to drink and drive, using typical

  17. The Effects of Fatal Vision Goggles on Drinking and Driving Intentions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Dwight A.; Lanni-Manley, Elizabeth; Maiorana, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effectiveness of Fatal Vision Goggles in reducing intentions to drink and drive. Participants performed a field sobriety task and drove in a traffic simulator while wearing the goggles. A regression analysis was performed in order to predict changes in intentions to drink and drive, using typical…

  18. Unintended Effects of an Intervention Supporting Mexican-Heritage Youth: Decreased Parent Heavy Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Baldwin, Adrienne; Ayers, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of a parenting intervention, "Familias: Preparando la Nueva Generación" (FPNG), intended to support children, on parents heavy drinking. We hypothesized that parent participants of FPNG would reduce their heavy drinking at 1-year follow-up. Methods: Parents (N = 281) of middle school children from a large,…

  19. Reducing Alcohol Consumption through Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, James G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed impact of television commercial based on controlled-drinking principles. Measures were taken 12 months prior to start of campaign and 3 weeks after campaign from regular drinkers of general public whose drinking behavior was known to be unaffected by previous antidrug advertising campaign. Found that advertisement reduced intake provided…

  20. Off-Premise Alcohol Sales Policies, Drinking, and Sexual Risk Among People Living With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Stephanie L.; Elliott, Marc N.; Ringel, Jeanne S.; Kanouse, David E.; Beckman, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Drinking among HIV-positive individuals increases risks of disease progression and possibly sexual transmission. We examined whether state alcohol sales policies are associated with drinking and sexual risk among people living with HIV. In a multivariate analysis combining national survey and state policy data, we found that HIV-positive residents of states allowing liquor sales in drug and grocery stores had 70% to 88% greater odds of drinking, daily drinking, and binge drinking than did HIV-positive residents of other states. High-risk sexual activity was more prevalent in states permitting longer sales hours (7% greater odds for each additional hour). Restrictive alcohol sales policies may reduce drinking and transmission risk in HIV-positive individuals. PMID:20075324

  1. Safer-drinking strategies used by chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population. PMID:25690515

  2. Drinking motives and drinking behavior over time: a full cross-lagged panel study among adults.

    PubMed

    Crutzen, Rik; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen

    2013-03-01

    Drinking motives are among the most proximal factors for drinking behavior and serve as a mechanism through which more distal factors are mediated. However, it is less clear whether drinking motives are precursors of drinking or, in contrast, shaped by previous drinking experiences (reciprocal effects), or both. Moreover, in adults it is unclear whether drinking motives, usually shaped in adolescence, influence each other over time. In this longitudinal study (N = 2440, 47% women, average age 53 years), drinking motives and drinking behavior (i.e., number of drinks on the heaviest drinking day and number of drinking days; both during the past week) were assessed at 2 time points, separated by 3 months. Full cross-lagged regression models revealed that drinking motives were positively associated with drinking behavior over time and that drinking motives are shaped by the number of drinking days (i.e., reciprocal effects). Furthermore, coping and enhancement motives, as well as social and conformity motives, positively reinforced each other. Moreover, social motives were positively associated with enhancement motives over time. In conclusion, drinking motives influence each other over a 3-month period in adulthood and predict drinking behavior over time, making them important candidates for prevention efforts. Drinking motives are likely to be modifiable and might be used to stimulate drinking decrease. PMID:22925011

  3. Hurting, Helping, or Neutral? The Effects of Parental Permissiveness toward Adolescent Drinking on College Student Alcohol Use and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Crowley, D. Max; Turrisi, Rob; Greenberg, Mark; Mallett, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    To enhance prevention efforts to reduce college drinking, parents have been identified as an important source of influence that can be modified with brief interventions. Research suggests parental permissiveness toward drinking in adolescence is positively related to college student drinking, though existing studies have not comprehensively accounted for potential confounders (e.g., parental drinking). The present study used propensity modeling to estimate the effects of pre-college parental permissiveness on college student drinking and consequences while accounting for an inclusive range of confounders. A random sample of 1518 incoming students at a large university completed baseline measures of parental permissiveness and a list of confounders (e.g., parental drinking, family history). At follow up 15 months later, participants reported on their drinking and alcohol-related consequences. To control for potential confounders, individuals were weighted based on their propensity scores to obtain less biased estimates of the effects of parental permissiveness on drinking and consequences. Analyses revealed parental permissiveness was consistently and positively associated with college drinking and consequences when the confounders were not accounted for, but these effects were attenuated after weighting. Parent’s allowance of drinking was not related to college drinking or consequences after weighting. Students’ perceived parental limits for consumption were related to drinking and consequences in the weighted models. Prevention efforts may benefit from targeting parents’ communication of acceptable limits for alcohol consumption. PMID:23934443

  4. Drinking water and liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Cui-Cai; Chen, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Zhen-Quan

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between the mutagenicity of drinking water and incidence of liver cancer in high liver cancer incidence areas in Guangxi. METHODS: A relationship between the mutagenicity of drinking water and incidence of liver cancer was studied in Fusui County, a high liver cancer incidence area in China. Thirty-two samples of different kinds of drinking water (13 samples of pond water, 3 samples of well water near the ponds, 5 samples of well water, 6 samples of river water and 5 samples of tap water) were tested with a micronuclear technique in the root tips of Vicia faba. RESULTS: Among the 32 samples of different kinds of drinking water, 12 samples of pond water and 2 samples of well water near the ponds induced micronucleus frequencies on the root tips of Vicia faba to increase (P < 0.01), with the average micronucleus rate being 15.8% and 11.7%, respectively, while there was no difference between the micronucleus frequencies on the root tips of Vicia faba induced by well water (4.3%), river water (3.9%) or tap water (4.2%) and that on the control group (P > 0.05). Micronuclear effects on the root tips of Vicia faba in different kinds of drinking water were positively related to the incidence of liver cancer (r = 0.86, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: There were substances that caused chromosomal aberrations in the drinking pond water in high liver cancer incidence areas of Guangxi. Different kinds of drinking water were closely related to the incidence of liver cancer. Chemical mutagens in the water may be an important factor in the high incidence of human liver cancer. PMID:27006586

  5. “It's better for me to drink, at least the stress is going away”: Perspectives on alcohol use during pregnancy among South African women attending drinking establishments

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Melissa H.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Choi, Karmel W.; Velloza, Jennifer; Kalichman, Seth C.; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    The Western Cape of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) globally. Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority for this region, but insight into the experiences of women who drink during pregnancy is lacking. Convenience sampling in alcohol-serving venues was used to identify women who were currently pregnant (n=12) or recently post-partum (n=12) and reported drinking during the pregnancy period. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between April and August 2013. Interviews explored drinking narratives, with textual data analyzed for themes related to factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy. All but one woman reported her pregnancy as unplanned. The majority sustained or increased drinking after pregnancy recognition, with patterns typically including multiple days of binge drinking per week. Analysis of the textual data revealed five primary factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy: 1) women used alcohol as a strategy to cope with stressors and negative emotions, including those associated with pregnancy; 2) women drank as a way to retain social connection, often during a difficult period of life transition; 3) social norms in women's peer groups supported drinking during pregnancy; 4) women lacked attachment to the pregnancy or were resistant to motherhood; and 5) women were driven physiologically by alcohol addiction. Our data suggest that alcohol-serving settings are important sites to identify and target women at risk of drinking during pregnancy. Intervention approaches to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy should include counseling and contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies, mental health and coping interventions targeting pregnant women, peer-based interventions to change norms around perinatal drinking, and treatment for alcohol dependence during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that innovative interventions that go beyond the boundaries of the health care system are urgently needed to address FASD in this region. PMID:24997441

  6. "It's better for me to drink, at least the stress is going away": perspectives on alcohol use during pregnancy among South African women attending drinking establishments.

    PubMed

    Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Velloza, Jennifer; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2014-09-01

    The Western Cape of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) globally. Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority for this region, but insight into the experiences of women who drink during pregnancy is lacking. Convenience sampling in alcohol-serving venues was used to identify women who were currently pregnant (n = 12) or recently post-partum (n = 12) and reported drinking during the pregnancy period. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between April and August 2013. Interviews explored drinking narratives, with textual data analyzed for themes related to factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy. All but one woman reported her pregnancy as unplanned. The majority sustained or increased drinking after pregnancy recognition, with patterns typically including multiple days of binge drinking per week. Analysis of the textual data revealed five primary factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy: 1) women used alcohol as a strategy to cope with stressors and negative emotions, including those associated with pregnancy; 2) women drank as a way to retain social connection, often during a difficult period of life transition; 3) social norms in women's peer groups supported drinking during pregnancy; 4) women lacked attachment to the pregnancy or were resistant to motherhood; and 5) women were driven physiologically by alcohol addiction. Our data suggest that alcohol-serving settings are important sites to identify and target women at risk of drinking during pregnancy. Intervention approaches to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy should include counseling and contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies, mental health and coping interventions targeting pregnant women, peer-based interventions to change norms around perinatal drinking, and treatment for alcohol dependence during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that innovative interventions that go beyond the boundaries of the health care system are urgently needed to address FASD in this region. PMID:24997441

  7. Soft Drinks and Weight Gain: How Strong Is the Link?

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Emily; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Context Soft drink consumption in the United States has tripled in recent decades, paralleling the dramatic increases in obesity prevalence. The purpose of this clinical review is to evaluate the extent to which current scientific evidence supports a causal link between sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption and weight gain. Evidence acquisition MEDLINE search of articles published in all languages between 1966 and December 2006 containing key words or medical subheadings, such as “soft drinks” and “weight.” Additional articles were obtained by reviewing references of retrieved articles, including a recent systematic review. All reports with cross-sectional, prospective cohort, or clinical trial data in humans were considered. Evidence synthesis Six of 15 cross-sectional and 6 of 10 prospective cohort studies identified statistically significant associations between soft drink consumption and increased body weight. There were 5 clinical trials; the two that involved adolescents indicated that efforts to reduce sugar-sweetened soft drinks slowed weight gain. In adults, 3 small experimental studies suggested that consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks caused weight gain; however, no trial in adults was longer than 10 weeks or included more than 41 participants. No trial reported the effects on lipids. Conclusions Although observational studies support the hypothesis that sugar-sweetened soft drinks cause weight gain, a paucity of hypothesis-confirming clinical trial data has left the issue open to debate. Given the magnitude of the public health concern, larger and longer intervention trials should be considered to clarify the specific effects of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18924641

  8. Self-efficacy mediates the effects of topiramate and GRIK1 genotype on drinking.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Armeli, Stephen; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan; Pond, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that topiramate reduces alcohol use among problem drinkers, with one study showing that the effect was moderated by a polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, the gene encoding the GluK1 kainate subunit. We examined whether the interactive effect of medication and genotype (1) altered the association between daily self-efficacy and later-day drinking; and (2) had an indirect effect on drinking via self-efficacy. In a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate, we used daily interactive voice response technology to measure self-efficacy (i.e. confidence in avoiding heavy drinking later in the day) and drinking behavior in 122 European-American heavy drinkers. Topiramate's effects on both self-efficacy and drinking level were moderated by rs2832407. C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showed higher levels of self-efficacy and lower levels of nighttime drinking across the 12-week trial. Further, the interactive effect of topiramate and genotype on mean nighttime drinking levels was mediated by mean levels of self-efficacy. By modeling topiramate's effects on nighttime drinking across multiple levels of analysis, we found that self-efficacy, a key psychologic construct, mediated the effect of topiramate, which was moderated by rs2832407 genotype. Thus, it may be possible to use an individualized assessment (i.e. genotype) to select treatment to optimize the reduction in heavy drinking and thereby provide a personalized treatment approach. PMID:25496338

  9. Under-estimation of Alcohol Consumption among Women At-risk for Drinking during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Korcha, Rachael; Armstrong, Mary Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study adds to a growing literature showing that definitions for “standard drinks” are often difficult to conceptualize and that people often underestimate their actual drink sizes. As part of an intervention aimed at reducing negative neonatal and maternal outcomes, insured at-risk women were asked to identify the vessels from which they drank each of 6 beverages (n=266). We calculated differences between their actual and standard drink sizes. Additionally, differences were compared to those reported in an earlier study of uninsured inner city minority women that used identical vessels methodology. Over half of the spirits, fortified wine and malt liquor drinkers underestimated the actual number of ounces their drinks contained. Most spirits drinkers (90%) and approximately three-quarters of the wine and malt liquor drinkers drank larger-than-standard drink sizes, with the median drink size 1.5 to 2.0 times larger than the standard size for those beverages. Heavier drinkers (≥3 drinks per sitting) were more likely than lighter drinkers to underestimate their drink sizes. Findings were similar to those in the previous study using identical drink size measurements. Accurately assessing true drink sizes is underscored when the social, health and epidemiologic consequences associated with miscalculation are considered. PMID:20589228

  10. College versus the real world: student perceptions and implications for understanding heavy drinking among college students.

    PubMed

    Colby, Suzanne M; Colby, John J; Raymond, George A

    2009-01-01

    College student heavy drinking is a persistent problem despite widespread initiatives. Using focus group methodology, this study examined student perceptions of factors that promote and limit drinking during and after college. The goal was to better understand factors that reduce drinking post-college to develop strategies to moderate college drinking. Twelve groups (N=75) were conducted with undergraduates at a northeastern Catholic college. Most participants drank; the majority exceeded a clinical indicator of problematic drinking. Transcript analysis identified themes that were coded with high reliability. Drinking in college was perceived to enhance socialization, bonding, and disinhibition. College, characterized by a high level of freedom and low level of responsibility, was seen as time-out from the "real world". In that context, heavy drinking was permissible. Students expected their future lifestyle to be burdensome and tedious; nostalgia for the good times associated with heavy drinking was anticipated. They imagined post-college drinking to be a threat to career and family and therefore irresponsible. Implications for intervention development and future research are described. PMID:18774233

  11. Ethnic identity, drinking motives, and alcohol consequences among Alaska Native and non-Native college students.

    PubMed

    Skewes, Monica C; Blume, Arthur W

    2015-01-01

    This research involves the examination of drinking motives, alcohol consequences, and ethnic identity in a sample of Native and non-Native college student drinkers in Alaska. Although more Alaska Native students are abstinent from alcohol compared to any other ethnic group, Native students who do drink experience greater alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms. Therefore, we attempted to examine the influence of ethnic identity on alcohol consequences in a diverse sample of Native and non-Native students in Alaska. Findings showed that drinking motives, as measured by the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (social, coping, enhancement, and conformity), significantly predicted alcohol consequences after controlling for frequency of monthly binge drinking. In addition, after controlling for depression, binge drinking, and drinking motives, one aspect of ethnic identity (Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment) was significantly negatively related to alcohol consequences, whereas another aspect of ethnic identity (Ethnic Identity Search) was not. Taken together, these findings suggest that interventions for college student alcohol misuse that target Native students should be culturally grounded and focused on enhancing the Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment to one's ethnic heritage and should address drinking motives, especially drinking to cope, as a way to reduce alcohol related harm. PMID:25536236

  12. A Longitudinal Investigation of Heavy Drinking and Physical Dating Violence in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of heavy drinking and dating violence have typically focused on either female victimization or male perpetration; yet recent findings indicate that mutual aggression is the most common pattern of dating violence. The current study investigated the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence for both men and women. Participants (N = 2,247) completed surveys that assessed their heavy drinking and dating violence frequency across the first three years of college. Findings indicated that heavy drinking and dating violence were both relatively stable across time for men and women, but the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence differed by gender. For men, heavy drinking and dating violence were concurrently associated during their freshman year (Year 1), whereas for women heavy drinking during sophomore year (Year 2) predicted dating violence in their junior year (Year 3). In addition to providing educational material on healthy relationships and conflict resolution techniques, intervention efforts should target both heavy drinking and dating violence for men during or prior to their freshman year of college, whereas women may primarily benefit from efforts to reduce their heavy drinking. PMID:20079971

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial of BASICS for Heavy Drinking Mandated and Volunteer Undergraduates: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.; Larimer, Mary E.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first randomized trial testing whether heavy drinking undergraduates mandated to the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program following a campus alcohol violation would benefit as much as heavy drinking volunteers up to one year post-intervention using control groups with high-risk drinkers to model disciplinary-related and naturalistic changes in drinking. Participants (61% male; 51% mandated; 84% Caucasian; Mage = 20.14 years) were screened for heavy drinking and randomized to BASICS (n = 115) or assessment-only control (n = 110). Outcome measures (drinking, alcohol problems) were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. At 4 weeks post-intervention, intent-to-treat multilevel longitudinal models showed that regardless of referral group (mandated or volunteer) BASICS significantly decreased weekly drinking, typical drinks, and peak drinks relative to controls (ds = .41-.92). BASICS had a large effect on decreases in alcohol problems (d = .87). At 12 months post-intervention, BASICS participants (regardless of referral group) reported significantly fewer alcohol problems (d = .56) compared to controls. Significant long-term intervention gains for peak and typical drinks were sustained in both referral groups relative to controls (ds = .42; .11). Referral group had no significant main effect and did not interact with intervention condition to predict outcomes. Given that BASICS was associated with less drinking and fewer alcohol problems (even among heavier drinking mandated students up to one year post-intervention), provision of BASICS-style programs within disciplinary settings may help reduce heavy and problematic drinking among at-risk students. PMID:25844834

  14. Magnesium and calcium in drinking water and cardiovascular mortality.

    PubMed

    Rylander, R; Bonevik, H; Rubenowitz, E

    1991-04-01

    Data on the hardness of drinking water were collected from 27 municipalities in Sweden where the drinking water quality had remained unchanged for more than 20 years. Analyses were made of the levels of lead, cadmium, calcium, and magnesium. These water-quality data were compared with the age-adjusted mortality rate from ischemic heart and cerebrovascular disease for the period 1969-1978. Lead and cadmium were not present in detectable amounts except in one water sample. A statistically significant inverse relationship was present between hardness and mortality from cardiovascular disease for both sexes. Mortality caused by ischemic heart disease was inversely related to the magnesium content, particularly for the men (P less than 0.01). The rather small set of data supports results from previous studies suggesting that a high magnesium level in drinking water reduces the risk for death from ischemic heart disease, especially among men, although the possible importance of confounding factors needs further evaluation. PMID:2047817

  15. Survey of barium in Italian drinking water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Lanciotti, E.; Comodo, N.; Gambassini, L.; Cerbai, E. ); Vallone, G.; Griffini, E. ); Mugelli, A. )

    1989-12-01

    Trace metal contamination in public water supplies may be detrimental to human health. In recent years there has been increasing attention paid to the presence of barium in public water supplies and to its possible effects on human health. Recently the maximum allowed level for barium in drinking water in Europe has been reduced from 1 mg/L to 0.1 mg/L. The toxic effects following acute ingestion of soluble barium salts are well characterized. Elevated barium levels in drinking water have been associated with higher mortality rates due to cardiovascular or heart diseases. The present survey was undertaken to evaluate the extent of exposure of the Tuscany population to barium. Levels of barium were measured in drinking water supplies.

  16. Are People Overoptimistic about the Effects of Heavy Drinking?

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Frank A.; Eldred, Lindsey M.; Guo, Tong; Xu, Yanzhi

    2013-01-01

    We test whether heavy or binge drinkers are overly optimistic about probabilities of adverse consequences from these activities or are relatively accurate about these probabilities. Using data from a survey in eight cities, we evaluate the relationship between subjective beliefs and drinking. We assess accuracy of beliefs about several outcomes of heavy/binge drinking: reduced longevity, liver disease onset, link between alcohol consumption and Driving While Intoxicated (DWI), probability of an accident after drinking, accuracy of beliefs about encountering intoxicated drivers on the road, and legal consequences of DWI—ranging from being stopped to receiving fines and jail terms. Overall, there is no empirical support for the optimism bias hypothesis. We do find that persons consuming a lot of alcohol tend to be more overconfident about their driving abilities and ability to handle alcohol. However, such overconfidence does not translate into over-optimism about consequences of high levels of alcohol consumption. PMID:24058265

  17. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  18. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Methods Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Results Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems – source, storage and distribution – the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Discussion Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster. PMID:26767136

  19. A review of arsenic presence in China drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Charlet, Laurent

    2013-06-01

    Chronic endemic arsenicosis areas have been discovered in China since 1960s. Up to 2012, 19 provinces had been found to have As concentration in drinking water exceeding the standard level (0.05 mg/L). Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Shanxi Province are historical well-known “hotspots” of geogenic As-contaminated drinking water. The goal of this review is to examine, summarize and discuss the information of As in drinking water for all provinces and territories in China. Possible natural As sources for elevating As level in drinking water, were documented. Geogenic As-contaminated drinking water examples were taken to introduce typical environmental conditions where the problems occurred: closed basins in arid or semi-arid areas and reducing aquifers under high pH conditions. Geothermal water or mineral water in mountains areas can be high-As water as well. For undiscovered areas, prediction of potential As-affected groundwater has been carried out by some research groups by use of logistic regression. Modeled maps of probability of geogenic As contamination in groundwater are promising to be used as references to discover unknown areas. Furthermore, anthropogenic As contaminations were summarized and mining, smelters and chemical industries were found to be major sources for As pollution in China.

  20. Hazardously Drinking Women Leaving Jail: Time to First Drink

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Jennifer G.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated time to first drink in women being released from jail to determine predictors of early relapse among women with hazardous drinking and HIV risk behaviors. Between February 2004 and June 2007, 245 participants were recruited from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. Following the baseline assessment, participants were randomized to a motivational intervention group or to a control condition. Follow-up assessments at 1, 3, and 6 months were completed for 210 participants. Alcohol use during follow-up occurred in 86.7% of participants; 42.4% initiated alcohol use on day 1. The rate of initiation was associated with norms favorable to using alcohol (p < .01) and having a partner with an alcohol problem (HR = 1.62, p < .01). The rate of drink initiation decreased significantly (HR = 0.82, p < .05) as length of incarceration increased. The intervention was not associated with decreased drinking. Interventions to maintain abstinence need to reach women within their first days postrelease. PMID:21278321

  1. COMBINING METHODS FOR THE REDUCTION OF OXYCHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous investigations have shown ferrous iron application to be an effective and economically feasible method of removing residual chlorine dioxide and chlorite iron from drinking water. This treatment, however, was not effective in reducing concentrqations of chlorate iron. ...

  2. Disinfectant Penetration into Nitrifying Drinking Water Distribution System Biofilm Using Microelectrodes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrification within drinking water distribution systems reduces water quality, causes difficulties maintaining adequate disinfectant residual, and poses public health concerns including exposure to nitrite, nitrate, and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms. Monochloramine is...

  3. Post-treatment Effects of Topiramate Treatment for Heavy Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Pond, Timothy; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined whether the effects of topiramate and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2832407) in GRIK1, which encodes a kainate receptor subunit, persisted following a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial in 138 heavy drinkers with a treatment goal of reduced drinking. During treatment, topiramate 200 mg/day significantly reduced heavy drinking days and increased the frequency of abstinent days (Kranzler et al. 2014a). In the European-American (EA) subsample (n=122), rs2832407 moderated the treatment effect on heavy drinking. Methods Patients were re-interviewed 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment. During treatment, we obtained 92.4% of drinking data, with 89.1% and 85.5% complete data at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits, respectively. We examined four outcomes over time in the overall sample and the EA subsample: percent heavy drinking days (PHDD), percent days abstinent (PDA), serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) concentration, and a measure of alcohol-related problems. Results In the full sample, the lower PHDD and higher PDA seen with topiramate treatment were no longer significant during follow-up. Nonetheless, the topiramate-treated patients had lower alcohol-related problem scores during treatment and both follow-up periods. Further, in the EA subsample, the greater reduction in PHDD seen during treatment in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes persisted throughout follow-up, with no significant effects in A-allele carriers. A reduction in GGTP concentration was consistent with the reduction in heavy drinking, but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion There are persistent therapeutic effects of topiramate in heavy drinkers, principally in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes. PMID:25581656

  4. Desipramine enhances the ability of paliperidone to decrease alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Gulick, Danielle; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia and dramatically worsens their course. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine has been associated with reduced drinking in these patients, but its toxicity reduces its use. We have attempted to create a clozapine-like drug by combining agents that capture components of clozapine's pharmacologic action, including its weak dopamine D2 blockade and noradrenergic modulation. The current study assessed whether paliperidone, a dopamine D2 receptor and adrenergic alpha-2 receptor antagonist like clozapine, would attenuate alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring P rat and the Syrian golden hamster, and whether desipramine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, would potentiate the ability of paliperidone to attenuate alcohol drinking in the P rat and the Syrian golden hamster. Daily subcutaneous injections of paliperidone (5 mg/kg for the rat; 1 mg/kg for the hamster) over 20 days slightly and transiently attenuated initiation of alcohol consumption in both animals. Desipramine (3 mg/kg) or lower doses of paliperidone alone did not affect alcohol drinking. However, the combination of desipramine (3 mg/kg) and paliperidone essentially prevented initiation of alcohol drinking and acquisition of alcohol preference in the P rat (2.5 or 5 mg/kg), and almost as dramatically suppressed chronic alcohol intake and alcohol preference in the hamster (2.5 mg/kg). Taken together, the current data suggest that (1) the desipramine and paliperidone combination attenuates alcohol drinking in a synergistic manner, and (2) desipramine and paliperidone may serve as an effective new treatment for alcohol use disorder in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26343589

  5. Changes in Affect and Drinking Outcomes in a Pharmacobehavioral Trial for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Michelle D.; Hook, Joshua N.; Wagley, J. Nile; Davis, Don; Hill, Christina; Johnson, Bankole A.; Penberthy, J. Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective Despite extensive research exploring affect in alcohol dependent individuals in recovery, empirical research on affective changes over the course of psychosocial treatment and their role on drinking outcomes has been minimal. The present study examined the relationship between changes in positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and drinking outcomes during a pharmacobehavioral trial. Method Data for these post-hoc exploratory analyses were derived from a clinical trial of 321 alcohol dependent male and female individuals. The study design had four treatment arms for medication: three levels of dose of ondansetron as well as a control condition (placebo). All participants received weekly cognitive behavioral therapy for twelve weeks. We conducted an exploratory evaluation of changes in negative and positive affect and drinking behavior over time during the treatment phase of the trial using multilevel modeling. Results Participants experienced substantial reductions in drinking, decreases in NA, and increases in PA over the course of treatment. Individuals who experienced increases in PA over the course of treatment significantly reduced their drinking in subsequent weeks, while those who had reductions in NA only experienced reductions in drinking later in treatment if they also reported increases in PA. These results support the role of affect regulation in treatment. Conclusions These results suggest that affective change during the course of treatment may serve as one potential mechanism of action for changes in drinking behavior. The interaction between reductions in NA and increases in PA may be particularly important in promoting new coping skills and reducing drinking. PMID:22368517

  6. Longitudinal associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks, and binge drinking behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior. PMID:23435271

  7. DRINKING WATER MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 direct EPA to conduct research to strengthen the scientific foundation for standards that limit public exposure to drinking water contaminants. The Amendments contain specific requirements for research on waterborne pathogens, such a...

  8. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

  9. Drinking More Water May Help Your Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157636.html Drinking More Water May Help Your Diet Sugar, salt and overall ... March 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Plain old tap water might be the best diet drink around, scientists ...

  10. Teenage Drinking: Does Advertising Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed teenagers (grades 7-12) about their drinking behavior, their exposure to alcohol advertising, relevant demographic information, and other communication influences. Concluded that exposure to alcohol advertising is significantly associated with teenage drinking behavior and intentions. (PD)

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page U.S. State Info Some teens in high school drink and drive more than others. SOURCE: Youth ... 2011 View text version Percentage of teens in high school, aged 16 years or older, who reported drinking ...

  12. Drivers within natural drinking groups: an exploration of role selection, motivation, and group influence on driver sobriety.

    PubMed

    Lange, James E; Johnson, Mark B; Reed, Mark B

    2006-01-01

    Young people consume alcohol almost exclusively in social contexts, but natural drinking group dynamics are poorly understood. Our research focuses on the drivers' role within natural drinking groups. We conducted breath-test surveys of existing groups of young people at the US/Mexico border crossing before they headed to Tijuana bars, and surveyed them again upon their return. Results indicated an individual's perception of other group member's drinking plans predicts drinking intentions to a greater degree for passengers than drivers. Additionally, drivers who anticipated heavy drinking among other group members returned to the United States with BACs nearly identical to drivers who reported that other group members would not drink at all. This suggests drivers were resistant to normative pressures to drink. Evidence that group-dynamic variables may impact drinking behavior underscores the importance of systematic exploration of natural drinking groups. Furthermore, the knowledge gleaned from studying the dynamics and decision making processes of natural drinking groups could be used to design intervention designed to increase designated driver use and to reduce drinking among designated drivers. PMID:16595327

  13. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  14. Alcohol Impairment and Social Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marsha E.

    Cognitive abilities of social drinkers are generally thought to be affected by alcohol only during acute intoxication, but several studies suggest that sober-state performance may be affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking episode. Although the findings regarding sober-state mental deficits in social drinkers are inconclusive,…

  15. Decisional Balance and Collegiate Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgen, Keith; Gunneson, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the perceived benefits and costs of alcohol use among undergraduates (N=462) perceiving their drinking as normal or abnormal as well as those undergraduates who met or did not meet the DSM-IV-TR criteria for an alcohol disorder. A 2x2 MANOVA and univariate analyses on the benefits (pros) and costs (cons) scales of the Alcohol…

  16. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations. PMID:24070912

  17. Predicting undergraduates' intentions to drink.

    PubMed

    Budd, R J; Spencer, C P

    1984-03-01

    Sex-linked differences in motivation to drink were studied with Fishbein's model of the relationship between attitudes and behavior. Fishbein's model was revised so that personal normative beliefs were seen as measuring ideal behavioral intentions (what the person intended given real-world constraints) rather than personal norms. A total of 101 college students (53 women) completed a questionnaire. Also, 10 additional students (five women) were interviewed to determine referents whose expectations were salient for the present sample. Both attitudes and social normative beliefs (SNB) correlated significantly with ideal behavioral intentions (IBI); IBI was able to be predicted from the weighted sum of attitudes and SNB. IBI correlated significantly with actual behavioral intentions and accounted for the majority of the variance in actual intentions to drink. Support for the revision of Fishbein's model was shown by the direct effect of attitude on women's intentions to drink. The lack of mediation of attitudes by IBI showed that IBI function differently from actual intentions. The revised model was shown to be very successful in predicting intentions to drink, and in exploring gender and cultural differences therein. PMID:6727381

  18. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and

  19. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and…

  20. Multivariate Analyses of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenzel, L. Mickey

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines predictors of heavy drinking frequency and drinking-related problems among more than 600 college students. Controlling for high school drinking frequency, results of multiple regression analyses showed that more frequent heavy drinking was predicted by being male and risk factors of more frequent marijuana and tobacco

  1. THE USE OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS OF IN-HOME DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TO STUDY ENDEMIC WATERBORNE DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Randomized trials of water treatment have demonstrated the ability of simple water treatments to significantly reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal illnesses in developing countries where drinking water is of poor quality. Whether or not additional treatment at the tap reduc...

  2. Teen Drinking Prevention Program: Teen Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This guide was designed to help teenagers become involved in fun, alcohol-free activities. It provides youth with ideas on how to influence and change the factors that encourage teenage drinking. The guide has four purposes: (1) raise public awareness of the underage drinking crisis; (2) change community norms that encourage underage drinking; (3)…

  3. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  4. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  5. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  6. Teen Tipplers: America's Underage Drinking Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    In preparing for this report, surveys and focus groups were conducted with adults (N=900), with or without children under the legal drinking age, to determine their attitudes, views, and thoughts regarding the problem of underage drinking. The survey was designed to identify opportunities for civic engagement on the issue of underage drinking and…

  7. College Drinking Needs More Research, Scientists Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donodeo, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes presentations at a symposium (Denver, CO, June 5, 1998) on college drinking which examined: the impact of developmental issues of late adolescence; influence of college drinking on human biology and on substance abuse in later life; student drinking during the academic year; and campus program evaluation. Concluded there was a need for…

  8. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  12. Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Boorman, G A

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions. Images Figure 3 PMID:10229719

  13. Experimental Test of Social Norms Theory in a Real-World Drinking Environment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory’s limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Method: Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. Results: We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reduce drinking via changing normative perceptions. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduced drinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small. PMID:22846251

  14. The Alcohol Policy Environment and Policy Subgroups as Predictors of Binge Drinking Measures Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Jason; Nelson, Toben F.; Heeren, Timothy; Oussayef, Nadia; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationships of the state-level alcohol policy environment and policy subgroups with individual-level binge drinking measures. Methods. We used generalized estimating equations regression models to relate the alcohol policy environment based on data from 29 policies in US states from 2004 to 2009 to 3 binge drinking measures in adults from the 2005 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Results. A 10 percentage point higher alcohol policy environment score, which reflected increased policy effectiveness and implementation, was associated with an 8% lower adjusted odds of binge drinking and binge drinking 5 or more times, and a 10% lower adjusted odds of consuming 10 or more drinks. Policies that targeted the general population rather than the underage population, alcohol consumption rather than impaired driving, and raising the price or reducing the availability of alcohol had the strongest independent associations with reduced binge drinking. Alcohol taxes and outlet density accounted for approximately half of the effect magnitude observed for all policies. Conclusions. A small number of policies that raised alcohol prices and reduced its availability appeared to affect binge drinking. PMID:25122017

  15. The Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Mortality: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from the Minimum Drinking Age†

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the effect of alcohol consumption on mortality using the minimum drinking age in a regression discontinuity design. We find large and immediate increases in drinking at age 21, including a 21 percent increase in recent drinking days. We also find a discrete 9 percent increase in the mortality rate at age 21, primarily due to motor vehicle accidents, alcohol-related deaths, and suicides. We estimate a 10 percent increase in the number of drinking days for young adults results in a 4.3 percent increase in mortality. Our results suggest policies that reduce drinking among young adults can have substantial public health benefits. (JEL I12, I18) PMID:20351794

  16. Arsenic exposure to drinking water in the Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Merola, R B; Hien, T T; Quyen, D T T; Vengosh, A

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater drinking sources was investigated in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in order to assess the occurrence of As in the groundwater, and the magnitude of As exposure of local residents through measurements of As in toenails of residents consuming groundwater as their major drinking water source. Groundwater (n=68) and toenail (n=62) samples were collected in Dong Thap Province, adjacent to the Mekong River, in southern Vietnam. Fifty-three percent (n=36) of the wells tested had As content above the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended limit of 10 ppb. Samples were divided into Northern (mean As=4.0 ppb) and Southern (329.0 ppb) groups; wells from the Southern group were located closer to the Mekong River. Elevated As contents were associated with depth (<200 m), salinity (low salinity), and redox state (reducing conditions) of the study groundwater. In 79% of the wells, As was primarily composed of the reduced As(III) species. Arsenic content in nails collected from local residents was significantly correlated to As in drinking water (r=0.49, p<0.001), and the relationship improved for pairs in which As in drinking water was higher than 1 ppb (r=0.56, p<0.001). Survey data show that the ratio of As in nail to As in water varied among residents, reflecting differential As bioaccumulation in specific exposed sub-populations. The data show that water filtration and diet, particularly increased consumption of animal protein and dairy, and reduced consumption of seafood, were associated with lower ratios of As in nail to As in water and thus could play important roles in mitigating As exposure in areas where As-rich groundwater is the primary drinking water source. PMID:25585157

  17. Influences on consumption of soft drinks and fast foods in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Crawford, David; Dobbins, Timothy; Hardy, Louise; Okely, Anthony D

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink and fast food are energy dense foodstuffs that are heavily marketed to adolescents, and are likely to be important in terms of risk of obesity. This study sought to examine the influences on soft drink and fast food consumption among adolescents as part of a cross-sectional survey of 2,719 adolescents (aged 11-16) from 93 randomly selected schools in New South Wales, Australia. Students provided information on soft drink and fast food consumption, and responded to statements examining influences over consumption. Over half of the boys and more than one third of the girls reported drinking soft drink daily, and consumption peaked in Grade 8 students. A quarter of students reported choosing soft drinks instead of water or milk, and around 40% agreed that soft drink was usually available in their homes. Availability in the home and drinking soft drinks with meals was most strongly associated with consumption in all age groups. Fast food consumption was higher among boys than girls in all age groups. Convenience and value for money yielded the strongest associations with fast food consumption in boys, while preferring fast food to meals at home and preferring to "upsize" meals were most strongly associated with consumption in girls. Interventions to reduce consumption of soft drinks should target availability in both the home and school environment by removing soft drinks and replacing them with more nutritive beverages. Fast food outlets should be encouraged to provide a greater range of healthy and competitively priced options in reasonable portions. PMID:19786394

  18. Price elasticity of the demand for sugar sweetened beverages and soft drinks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Colchero, M A; Salgado, J C; Unar-Munguía, M; Hernández-Ávila, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J A

    2015-12-01

    A large and growing body of scientific evidence demonstrates that sugar drinks are harmful to health. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mexico has one of the largest per capita consumption of soft drinks worldwide and high rates of obesity and diabetes. Fiscal approaches such as taxation have been recommended as a public health policy to reduce SSB consumption. We estimated an almost ideal demand system with linear approximation for beverages and high-energy food by simultaneous equations and derived the own and cross price elasticities for soft drinks and for all SSB (soft drinks, fruit juices, fruit drinks, flavored water and energy drinks). Models were stratified by income quintile and marginality index at the municipality level. Price elasticity for soft drinks was -1.06 and -1.16 for SSB, i.e., a 10% price increase was associated with a decrease in quantity consumed of soft drinks by 10.6% and 11.6% for SSB. A price increase in soft drinks is associated with larger quantity consumed of water, milk, snacks and sugar and a decrease in the consumption of other SSB, candies and traditional snacks. The same was found for SSB except that an increase in price of SSB was associated with a decrease in snacks. Higher elasticities were found among households living in rural areas (for soft drinks), in more marginalized areas and with lower income. Implementation of a tax to soft drinks or to SSB could decrease consumption particularly among the poor. Substitutions and complementarities with other food and beverages should be evaluated to assess the potential impact on total calories consumed. PMID:26386463

  19. Relationships Between Social Host Laws and Underage Drinking: Findings From a Study of 50 California Cities

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Thomas, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many states and local communities have enacted social host (SH) laws to reduce underage drinking in private settings. However, little is known about whether such laws are effective. This study examined relationships between city SH laws and underage drinking in general and at parties in private settings. Method: SH policy data were collected for 50 California cities in 2009, and SH policies were rated for comprehensiveness and stringency. Annual telephone interviews were conducted with a cohort of 1,483 adolescents (ages 13–16 at Wave 1) from 2009 to 2011 to assess past-year alcohol use, heavy drinking, and drinking at parties. Multilevel analyses were first conducted for the total sample to examine relationships between SH laws and adolescents’ past-year drinking, with other city and individual characteristics controlled for. Parallel analyses were then conducted for a subsample of 667 youth who had reported any past-year drinking. Results: SH policy ratings were unrelated to any of the past-year drinking outcomes for the total sample of adolescents. However, among past-year drinkers, a stronger SH policy was inversely related to drinking at parties (β = -.06, p < .05) but was unrelated to past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking in general. There were no moderating effects of SH policy on change in adolescents’ past-year drinking over the 3-year period. Conclusions: Local SH policies that include strict liability and civil penalties that are imposed administratively may be associated with less frequent underage drinking in private settings, particularly among adolescents who have already initiated alcohol use. PMID:25343646

  20. Corrosion of aluminium in soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Seruga, M; Hasenay, D

    1996-04-01

    The corrosion of aluminium (Al) in several brands of soft drinks (cola- and citrate-based drinks) has been studied, using an electrochemical method, namely potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion of Al in soft drinks is a very slow, time-dependent and complex process, strongly influenced by the passivation, complexation and adsorption processes. The corrosion of Al in these drinks occurs principally due to the presence of acids: citric acid in citrate-based drinks and orthophosphoric acid in cola-based drinks. The corrosion rate of Al rose with an increase in the acidity of soft drinks, i.e. with increase of the content of total acids. The corrosion rates are much higher in the cola-based drinks than those in citrate-based drinks, due to the facts that: (1) orthophosphoric acid is more corrosive to Al than is citric acid, (2) a quite different passive oxide layer (with different properties) is formed on Al, depending on whether the drink is cola or citrate based. The method of potentiodynamic polarization was shown as being very suitable for the study of corrosion of Al in soft drinks, especially if it is combined with some non-electrochemical method, e.g. graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). PMID:8638433

  1. A longitudinal analysis of drinking and victimization in college women: Is there a reciprocal relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Taggart, Caroline; Bradizza, Clara M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between drinking and severe physical and sexual victimization in a sample of 989 college women over five years. Participants completed a web-based survey each fall semester, beginning as first time incoming freshman, and continuing each year for five years. The survey was comprehensive in assessing drinking, victimization, and relevant covariates. Women were followed whether they remained at university or not. Prior year same type of severe victimization predicted current year victimization, both severe physical and sexual. However, prior year drinking did not predict current year severe victimization. Prior year severe sexual victimization predicted current year drinking. Our findings of a longitudinal relationship between severe sexual victimization and subsequent increases in drinking suggests that college women may be drinking to cope with negative sequelae that they experience as a result of the victimization. We did not find the same longitudinal relationship between drinking and severe physical or sexual victimization, suggesting that a reciprocal relationship does not exist between drinking and victimization among college women. We did find that severe sexual victimization decreased across college, suggesting that the year prior to and the first year of college may be a critical period for intervening to reduce risk for severe victimization. PMID:25134028

  2. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks' sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers' choices. PMID:26858681

  3. Mental Health, Sleep Quality, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol-Related Consequences: A Path-Analytic Model

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer,, Justin F.; Pham, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor mental health, sleep problems, drinking motivations, and high-risk drinking are prevalent among college students. However, research designed to explicate the interrelationships among these health risk behaviors is lacking. This study was designed to assess the direct and indirect influences of poor mental health (a latent factor consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress) to alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences through the mediators of global sleep quality and drinking motives in a comprehensive model. Method: Participants were 1,044 heavy-drinking college students (66.3% female) who completed online surveys. Results: A hybrid structural equation model tested hypotheses involving relations leading from poor mental health to drinking motives and poorer global sleep quality to drinking outcomes. Results showed that poor mental health significantly predicted all four subscales of drinking motivations (social, coping, conformity, and enhancement) as well as poor sleep. Most of the drinking motives and poor sleep were found to explain alcohol use and negative alcohol consequences. Poor sleep predicted alcohol consequences, even after controlling for all other variables in the model. The hypothesized mediational pathways were examined with tests of indirect effects. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess concomitantly the relationships among three vital health-related domains (mental health, sleep behavior, and alcohol risk) in college students. Findings offer important implications for college personnel and interventionists interested in reducing alcohol risk by focusing on alleviating mental health problems and poor sleep quality. PMID:24172110

  4. The relationship of 16 underage drinking laws to reductions in underage drinking drivers in fatal crashes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fell, J C; Fisher, D A; Voas, R B; Blackman, K; Tippetts, A S

    2007-01-01

    The minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA 21) legislation in the United States (U.S.) has been documented as one of the most effective public health measures adopted in recent times. This study reports on an effort to evaluate and interrelate a basic set of 16 laws directed at younger than age 21 youth that are designed to (a) control the sales of alcohol to youth, (b) prevent possession and consumption of alcohol by youth, and (c) prevent alcohol impaired driving by those younger than age 21. The first objective of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between the existence and strength of the various underage drinking laws in a State and the percentage of younger than age 21 drivers involved in fatal crashes who were drinking. After controlling for various factors, the only significant finding that emerged was for the existence and strength of the law making it illegal for an underage person to use fake identification ( p <0.016). The second objective was to determine if the enactment of two of the sixteen provisions (possession and purchase laws) was associated with a reduction in the rate of underage drinking driver involvements in fatal crashes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a national 11.2% reduction ( p <0.05) in the ratio of underage drinking drivers to underage non-drinking drivers in fatal crashes after the possession and purchase laws were adopted in 36 States and the District of Columbia (DC). This suggests that the two mandatory elements of the Federal MLDA 21 law are having the desired effect of reducing underage alcohol-related highway deaths. PMID:18184512

  5. The Relationship of 16 Underage Drinking Laws to Reductions in Underage Drinking Drivers in Fatal Crashes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fell, J.C.; Fisher, D.A.; Voas, R.B.; Blackman, K.; Tippetts, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    The minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA 21) legislation in the United States (U.S.) has been documented as one of the most effective public health measures adopted in recent times. This study reports on an effort to evaluate and interrelate a basic set of 16 laws directed at younger than age 21 youth that are designed to (a) control the sales of alcohol to youth, (b) prevent possession and consumption of alcohol by youth, and (c) prevent alcohol impaired driving by those younger than age 21. The first objective of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between the existence and strength of the various underage drinking laws in a State and the percentage of younger than age 21 drivers involved in fatal crashes who were drinking. After controlling for various factors, the only significant finding that emerged was for the existence and strength of the law making it illegal for an underage person to use fake identification (p<0.016). The second objective was to determine if the enactment of two of the sixteen provisions (possession and purchase laws) was associated with a reduction in the rate of underage drinking driver involvements in fatal crashes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a national 11.2% reduction (p<0.05) in the ratio of underage drinking drivers to underage non-drinking drivers in fatal crashes after the possession and purchase laws were adopted in 36 States and the District of Columbia (DC). This suggests that the two mandatory elements of the Federal MLDA 21 law are having the desired effect of reducing underage alcohol-related highway deaths. PMID:18184512

  6. Energy Drinks: Ergolytic or Ergogenic?

    PubMed Central

    SILLIVENT, JOE; BLEVINS, JENNIFER; PEAK, KAYLA

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of energy drinks, many do not realize the negative effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of energy drink ingestion on estimated VO2max, heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP, respectively), rate pressure product (RPP), and RPE at rest and during exercise. Seven healthy adults (age: 24.3 ± 3.5 yrs; body mass: = 66.0 ± 2.2 kg) participated in this randomized double blind, crossover study. Subjects ingested a placebo (PL) or Redline (RL) energy drink (240ml; 250 mg caffeine) 40 minutes before maximal graded exercise test (GXT). Estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was lower in the RL trial (37.9±5.7 ml·kg−1·min−1) compared to the PL trial (39.7±6.5 ml·kg−1·min−1; P= 0.02). Although no significant differences were noted for the number of ectopic beats (ETB) between the trials, a five to one ratio for the RL and PL existed (RL = 106 total ectopic beats; PL = 21 total ectopic beats). Sub-maximal exercise heart demand (RPP: systolic BP × HR) at the same workload was considerably higher in the RL trial (224.9 ± 39.9 mmHg·bts·min−1; P=0.04) compared to PL (195.8 ± 22.9 mmHg·bts·min−1). Recovery DBP was significantly higher at one min. in the RL trial (51.6 ± 25.1 mmHg) compared to PL (25.4 ± 33.8 mmHg; P=0.05). Based on the results of this study, it was determined that energy drinks lowered estimated VO2max while elevating RPP and recovery DBP.

  7. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments Among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    PubMed Central

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and drinking settings of 16,745 undergraduate students. The findings revealed that drinking patterns for intramural/club athletes remained relatively consistent at all quantity levels; however, intercollegiate athletes consumed alcohol in higher quantities. Further, intramural/club athletes drank in almost every drinking setting, whereas intercollegiate athletes were more limited. The drinking patterns and settings suggest a stronger social motivation for drinking among intramural/club athletes than among intercollegiate athletes and point to a need to specify competition level when studying college athletes. PMID:25767148

  8. The temporal "pulse" of drinking: Tracking 5 years of binge drinking in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Reich, Richard R; Cummings, Jenna R; Greenbaum, Paul E; Moltisanti, Allison J; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences, but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the 5 "peak" years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day timeline follow-back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend "pulse" of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire 5 year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with "maturing out" was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  9. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

  10. Drinking water for the future.

    PubMed Central

    Okun, D A

    1976-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 represents an important step in improving the quality of public water supply in the United States. However, it fails to address two important problems: (1) The 1970 Public Health Service Community Water Supply Survey revealed that small public water supply systems often deliver poor quality water. The Act does not assure that these supplies will now receive appropriate attention; furthermore, the Act does not address the needs of the 50 million people not now served by public water systems; (2) About one-third of our population draws its drinking waters from polluted sources. The decisions to use these low cost sources were made generations ago when consumers could be protected from water-borne infectious disease. A new problem has now arisen--the presence of numerous synthetic organic chemicals of uncertain health consequence, not removed by conventional water treatment. The Act does not address this problem. Regionalization and the integration of water resource and water pollution control authorities are proposed as a reasonable solution to these problems. The development of dual water supply systems in order to conserve scarce pure water sources for human consumption appears to be a feasible way to avoid using polluted waters for drinking. The development of dual supplies would be enhanced by regionalization and integration of water authorities. PMID:937609

  11. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Naltrexone and Behavioral Therapy for Problem Drinking Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the comparative effectiveness of modified behavioral self-control therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the 2, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N = 200) were recruited and urn randomized to 1 of 2…

  12. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Naltrexone and Behavioral Therapy for Problem Drinking Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the comparative effectiveness of modified behavioral self-control therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the 2, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N = 200) were recruited and urn randomized to 1 of 2

  13. College students' estimation and accuracy of other students' drinking and believability of advertisements featured in a social norms campaign.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Sun; Smith, Sandi W; Klein, Katherine A; Martell, Dennis

    2011-05-01

    Social norms campaigns, which are based on correcting misperceptions of alcohol consumption, have frequently been applied to reduce college students' alcohol consumption. This study examined estimation and accuracy of normative perceptions for students during everyday drinking occasions. Students who reported having 4 or fewer drinks underestimated the percentage of other students who had 4 or fewer drinks, while those who drank 5 or more drinks overestimated the percentage of other students who had 5 or more drinks. Believability of advertisements featured in social norms campaigns also played a crucial role in this process. Those who believed the ad more closely estimated alcohol consumption by their peers while ad believability moderated the relation between drinking behaviors and accuracy. PMID:21298586

  14. Taxing soft drinks and restricting access to vending machines to curb child obesity.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest drivers of the current obesity epidemic is thought to be excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Some have proposed vending machine restrictions and taxing soft drinks to curb children's consumption of soft drinks; to a large extent, these policies have not been evaluated empirically. We examine these policies using two nationally representative data sets and find no evidence that, as currently practiced, either is effective at reducing children's weight. We conclude by outlining changes that may increase their effectiveness, such as implementing comprehensive restrictions on access to soft drinks in schools and imposing higher tax rates than are currently in place in many jurisdictions. PMID:20360172

  15. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  16. Event-Specific Drinking in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Cunningham, John Alastair

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It has been well established that college students engage in heavy drinking during specific social events; however, within the general population, evidence of event-specific drinking has been largely indirect. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the temporal variability in daily alcohol consumption in the winter holiday months among residents of a large metropolitan area. Method: A random-digit-dialing telephone survey was conducted of residents who drank alcohol at least once per month. During a 5-week period beginning December 1, 2009, the number of drinks consumed on each day within the past week was collected for 578 participants. Results: Weekly variation in alcohol consumption peaked on Fridays and Saturdays and was particularly high on Christmas and New Year’s Eve. Mean drink consumption was significantly higher on Christmas and New Year’s Eve compared with most weekends within the sampling period. Conclusions: The present findings provide the first direct evidence, with temporal specificity, that alcohol consumption within the general population is highly event specific. Targeted intervention strategies similar to those used within college student samples may be appropriate for reducing or preventing alcohol-related harmful events on a population level. PMID:25343654

  17. Nutrient composition and antimicrobial activity of sorrel drinks (soborodo).

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Elusiyan, C A

    2004-01-01

    Aqueous extracts (1,200 mL) of roselle calyx (40 g), fortified with either orange juice or pineapple juice as sweetener and lemon grass as flavorant (sorrel drink), were analyzed with regard to their mineral composition (Na, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Ca), vitamin C content, and sensory evaluation. While the medicinal potentials were determined with respect to their inhibitory effect on the growth of Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus sp., and Corynebacterium sp. The results revealed that the roselle extract fortified with orange juice had higher vitamin C content than did those fortified with pineapple juice, while those fortified with pineapple juice had the best general acceptability. Zn, Na, and Ca were generally high in all the drinks; however, fortification with either pineapple or orange juice reduced the mineral content of the roselle extract. However, Pb, Cu, and Mn (toxic metals) were not detected. The antimicrobial effect of the unfortified roselle extract was low against the entire organism; however, fortification with pineapple juice and lemon grass greatly enhanced the inhibition of the growth of those organisms. They all had their highest inhibitory effect on the growth of P. aeruginosa. In view of the high Zn, Ca, Fe, Na, and vitamin C content as well as the antimicrobial activity, this cheaply produced drink from purely local materials could serve as a good replacement for expensive carbonated drinks. PMID:15383229

  18. A Review of Exercise as Intervention for Sedentary Hazardous Drinking College Students: Rationale and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Weinstock, Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity – exercise – as an intervention for hazardous drinking. Exercise has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and data suggest that students who engage in exercise regularly are less likely to drink heavily. However, the adherence to exercise necessary to achieve these benefits and possibly reduce drinking is poor, and improved exercise adherence interventions are needed. A novel combination of motivational enhancement therapy and contingency management is discussed as a means to address the critical issue of exercise adherence. PMID:20452930

  19. Binge drinking among Brazilians: Higher drinking frequency increases related problems.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Daniel Sócrates; Sanchez, Zila M; Zaleski, Marcos; Palhares Alves, Hamer Nastasy; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2014-05-14

    Abstract Aims: To correlate binge drinking (BD) with alcohol-related problems (ARP) in the Brazilian population. Methods: A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted in 143 Brazilian cities. Associations between the frequencies of BD and ARP were gathered using an ordered logit regression model. Results: Higher BD frequencies significantly increased the chance of injury in accidents, job loss, and involvement in intense arguments and assaults over the year. High frequency in BD increases the odds of all ARP. Conclusion: There is a dose-response association between the frequency BD and ARP and is therefore a possible target for public prevention policies. PMID:24829095

  20. Social motives for drinking in students should not be neglected in efforts to decrease problematic drinking.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, J; Maes, L; Clays, E; Rosiers, J F M T; Van Hal, G; Hublet, A

    2013-08-01

    High heavy drinking prevalence persists in students. Recently, drinking motivation received a lot of attention as an important determinant. Enhancement and coping motives are mostly positively related and conformity motives are mostly negatively related with heavy drinking. Relations are less clear for social motives. This study aimed at gaining more insight in the role of drinking motives in heavy drinking students. Overall, 15 897 Belgian university and college students (mean age: 20.7, SD = 2.6) anonymously participated in an online survey. Logistic regressions tested relationships between motives and problematic drinking (>weekly drinking, ≥monthly binge drinking and being at risk for problematic drinking by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT]). Social motives had the highest prevalence, followed by enhancement, coping and conformity motives. Men engaged more in problematic drinking and reported more motives, except for coping. Enhancement, coping and social-motivated students have higher chances for problematic drinking, while the opposite is true for conformity-motivated students. Although this study found a similar ranking of motives as in other studies, a relationship between problematic drinking and all motives, including social motives, was revealed. This might indicate the different functions of social motives in heavy drinking in different cultures/sub-populations and countries. This finding is relevant for the development of interventions. PMID:23487559

  1. Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: An evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE. PMID:24169372

  2. Legumes as a nitrate source in drinking water and selecting subsequent crops for control

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, D.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Where ground waters are used for domestic purposed in farming areas, symbiotically fixed nitrogen becomes a potential source on nitrate contamination in drinking water. Agricultural crops are not sufficiently efficient to absorb all of the nitrate-nitrogen from the soil solution. Wheat, barley and corn can be used to remove nitrogen from the soil solution. This report presents results from experiments designed to utilize nitrogen fixed by natural processes and reduce the potential for nitrate contamination of drinking water.

  3. EPAs Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

  4. EPA’s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

  5. Rotavirus survival in conventionally treated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sattar, S A; Raphael, R A; Springthorpe, V S

    1984-05-01

    Samples of conventionally treated drinking water collected either as effluent (PE) at a treatment plant or out of a tap (TW) in our laboratory were seeded with simian rotavirus SA-11, which closely resembles rotavirus of human origin. The virus, grown in MA-104 cells, was suspended either in distilled water, Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS), or tryptose phosphate broth (TPB), and added to the water samples to a final concentration of 5.7 X 10(3) plaque-forming units (PFU) per millilitre. After a contact time of 1 h at 22 degrees C, the samples were diluted and plaque assayed. There was no significant reduction in the virus titre in samples of TW (less than 0.05 mg/L free chlorine). The titre also remained almost the same in PE (0.75 mg/L free chlorine) when EBSS or TPB was used for virus suspension. There was, however, nearly a 1 log10 loss in the titre of the virus when it was suspended in distilled water before the contamination of PE. To study the long-term survival of the rotavirus in TW, the inoculated samples (5.0 X 10(4) PFU/mL) were held at either 4 or 20 degrees C in the dark and tested over a period of 64 days. At 20 degrees C it took 64 days to reduce the virus titre by 2 log10, whereas at 4 degrees C the virus titre dropped only 0.7 log10 during the same period. Rotaviruses could, therefore, survive well enough in conventionally treated drinking water to make it a possible vehicle for their transmission. PMID:6331622

  6. Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration. PMID:22990947

  7. [Controlled drinking for alcohol-dependent patients].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Anais; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2007-07-01

    Controlled drinking should be included in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. Research has showed that treatment plans which allow controlled drinking as a possible outcome yield better results in the long run than those in which abstinence is imposed. Controlled drinking can be a goal in itself, a step towards abstinence or a way of limiting alcohol-related problems. Accepting that the patient set his own treatment goals helps reinforce therapeutic rapport and diminish drop-out. Furthermore, the treatment approach becomes more finely-shaded, as it helps patients not to waver continuously between abstinence and massive drinking. PMID:17726899

  8. Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

  9. Nor Any Drop To Drink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Jay H.

    In Nor Any Drop To Drink author William Ashworth displays an exceptional grasp of the hydrologic cycle for one trained as a writer rather than as an earth scientist. Especially remarkable for a popular book is the no-nonsense manner in which he handles popular misconceptions about underground water. Authors of similar books generally mollify readers who hold fallacious, mysterious beliefs concerning groundwater flow. Ashworth gets their attention with the proverbial two-by-four between the eyes by declaring such fallacies to be 100% hogwash. He describes the groundwater system in an exceptionally accurate manner using precise analogies which benefit from his literary skill.

  10. Stability and Contradiction in College Students' Drinking Following a Drinking-Age Law Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, H. Wesley; Berkowitz, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    Examined college students' drinking behavior before and after increase in minimum-legal-drinking age for alcohol from 18 to 19 in New York. Comparison of students before (N=797) and after (N=860) age raise revealed than under-age students were not particularly affected in terms of consumption rates, alcohol use attitudes, reasons for drinking, or…

  11. Parents' Rules about Underage Drinking: A Qualitative Study of Why Parents Let Teens Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semistructured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous, and harm reduction. Deliberate…

  12. Through the Drinking Glass: An Analysis of the Cultural Meanings of College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Andy Soon Leong

    2012-01-01

    College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the…

  13. Turning 21 and the Associated Changes in Drinking and Driving after Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromme, Kim; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Neal, Dan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined drinking and driving after drinking before and after turning 21. Participants: Participants were drawn from first time college students who were taking part in a 4-year longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks. Methods: Web-based longitudinal surveys collected data on drinking and driving after…

  14. Alcohol intake and binge drinking among Italian adolescents: The role of drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Piacentino, Daria; Girardi, Paolo; Angeletti, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Binge drinking, a pattern associated with worse outcome, is becoming increasingly popular among youths, thus negatively impacting social life. To investigate drinking patterns and their underlying motives in Italian adolescents, the Alcohol Use Questionnaire and the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form were administered to 332 school-age teenagers (16-19 years; 139 girls, 193 boys) from a single Roman school, recruited at their classrooms through the intermediation of their teachers. Boys scored higher than girls on all drinking and binge measures. They also scored higher on the Enhancement, Social, and Conformity Drinking Motive Questionnaire-Revised Short Form subscales. Binge drinking scores positively correlated with gender, alcohol consumption, and with all Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form subscales. In the two-step hierarchical model, Drinking Motive Questionnaire-Revised Short Form enhancement and conformity predicted alcohol use and Drinking Motive Questionnaire-Revised Short Form coping motives significantly predicted binge drinking. Binge drinking is prevalent among Italian adolescents, who mainly drink to enhance perceived positive effects of alcohol, conform to their social groups, and face their problems. Boys binge more than girls. PMID:26670483

  15. Through the Drinking Glass: An Analysis of the Cultural Meanings of College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Andy Soon Leong

    2012-01-01

    College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the

  16. Protective behavioral strategy use and motivations for drinking: exploring Alternatives to Drinking strategies.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ashley N; Kite, Benjamin A; Braitman, Abby L; Henson, James M

    2014-02-01

    Protective behavioral strategy (PBS) use is associated with less alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related problems. Further, greater endorsement of social or enhancement drinking motives (i.e., positive motives) is associated with less frequent PBS use. Limited research has, however, explored coping or conformity motives (i.e., negative motives) in relation to PBS. Consequently, the present study aimed to (1) identify the types of PBS most strongly associated with negative and positive motives and (2) examine different types of PBS as mediators of the relationship between each drinking motive and alcohol outcomes. Participants were college students (n=303; 70% women) who completed measures of drinking motives, PBS, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that greater endorsement of positive drinking motives were more strongly associated with less frequent use of PBS while drinking whereas negative motives were more strongly related to less frequent Alternatives to Drinking strategy use. Further, strategies used while drinking were more relevant in a model of positive drinking motives and Alternatives to Drinking strategies were more relevant in a model of negative motives. These findings may suggest that whereas individuals with stronger positive motives have difficulty using strategies while drinking, individuals who drink to cope or conform have greater difficulty utilizing Alternatives to Drinking strategies. Based on our results demonstrating that different types of PBS are more relevant for various types of drinkers, it may be important for future interventions to discuss not only the participant's PBS use but also their motivations for consuming alcohol. PMID:24229844

  17. Parents' Rules about Underage Drinking: A Qualitative Study of Why Parents Let Teens Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semistructured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous, and harm reduction. Deliberate

  18. A Drop to Drink. . .A Report on the Quality of Our Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Jack

    Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water…

  19. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:24841178

  20. Turning 21 and the Associated Changes in Drinking and Driving after Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromme, Kim; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Neal, Dan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined drinking and driving after drinking before and after turning 21. Participants: Participants were drawn from first time college students who were taking part in a 4-year longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks. Methods: Web-based longitudinal surveys collected data on drinking and driving after

  1. The Disparity between Social Drinking Motives and Social Outcomes: A New Perspective on College Student Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Allison M.; Brown, B. Bradford; Moreno, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    Students report drinking for social reasons, yet the social benefits of alcohol use are less understood. Associations between social drinking motives, drinking behaviors, and college friendships were examined via in-person interviews with 72 college freshmen from a large Mid-western University. Consistent with previous research, social drinking…

  2. Maturing Out of Alcohol Involvement: Transitions in Latent Drinking Statuses from Late Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; Villalta, Ian K.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of alcohol involvement beginning in young adulthood, but the precise nature of changes characterizing maturing out is unclear. We used latent transition analysis to investigate these changes in a high-risk sample from a longitudinal study of familial alcoholism (N=844; 51% children of alcoholics; 53% male, 71% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27% Hispanic). Analyses classified participants into latent drinking statuses during late adolescence (ages 17–22), young adulthood (ages 23–28), and adulthood (ages 29–40), and characterized transitions among these statuses over time. The resulting four statuses were abstainers, low-risk drinkers who typically drank less than weekly and rarely binged or showed drinking problems, moderate-risk drinkers who typically binged less than weekly and showed moderate risk for drinking problems, and high-risk drinkers who typically binged at least weekly and showed high risk for drinking problems. Maturing out between late adolescence and young adulthood was most common among initial high-risk drinkers, but they typically declined to moderate-risk drinking rather than to non-risky drinking statuses. This suggests that the developmental phenomenon of maturing out pertains primarily to relatively high-risk initial drinkers, and that many high-risk drinkers who “mature out” merely reduce rather than eliminate their risky drinking. PMID:24229554

  3. Impact of Hydraulic Well Restoration on Native Bacterial Communities in Drinking Water Wells

    PubMed Central

    Karwautz, Clemens; Lueders, Tillmann

    2014-01-01

    The microbial monitoring of drinking water production systems is essential to assure water quality and minimize possible risks. However, the comparative impact of microbes from the surrounding aquifer and of those established within drinking water wells on water parameters remains poorly understood. High pressure jetting is a routine method to impede well clogging by fine sediments and also biofilms. In the present study, bacterial communities were investigated in a drinking water production system before, during, and after hydraulic purging. Variations were observed in bacterial communities between different wells of the same production system before maintenance, despite them having practically identical water chemistries. This may have reflected the distinct usage practices of the different wells, and also local aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic jetting of one well preferentially purged a subset of the dominating taxa, including lineages related to Diaphorobacter, Nitrospira, Sphingobium, Ralstonia, Alkanindiges, Janthinobacterium, and Pseudomonas spp, suggesting their tendency for growth in well-associated biofilms. Lineages of potential drinking water concern (i.e. Legionellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Acinetobacter spp.) reacted distinctly to hydraulic jetting. Bacterial diversity was markedly reduced in drinking water 2 weeks after the cleaning procedure. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of drinking water wells as a microbial habitat, as well as their role in the microbiology of drinking water systems. PMID:25273229

  4. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices. PMID:26858681

  5. Presence, introduction and removal of mutagenic activity during the preparation of drinking water in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kool, H J; van Kreijl, C F; de Greef, E; van Kranen, H J

    1982-12-01

    A survey of the presence of mutagenic activity in drinking water of 18 cities in the Netherlands revealed that in drinking water of 13 cities mutagenic activity could be demonstrated. The activity was detected in the Ames test after concentrating the organic mutagens with a XAD-4/8 procedure. Dose-related responses were observed with concentrates corresponding to 0.5 to 3.0 liters of drinking water. A study of the changes in mutagenic activity during the preparation of drinking water in a few waterworks showed that breakpoint chlorination, transport chlorination and post chlorination increased the mutagenic activity, while ozonation only reduced the activity with metabolic activation. When adsorption on activated carbon powder was used, a certain reduction of mutagenic activity was observed. The use of activated carbon filters, however, removed the activity completely. The majority of organic mutagens present in drinking water concentrates were shown to be nonvolatile and relatively stable and probably consist of compounds with a molecular weight in the order of 200. These mutagens are not identical to the organics identified up till now in drinking water by standard gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Finally, a group of organic mutagens, which adsorbs only at pH 2-3 on XAD-4/8 (acid fraction), could be demonstrated in Ames-positive drinking waters. PMID:6759109

  6. Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, J.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Lippincott, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2??mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10??days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24??h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Parents' and Students' Reports of Parenting: Which are more Reliably Associated with College Student Drinking?

    PubMed Central

    Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Turrisi, Rob; Scaglione, Nichole; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Ray, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts to reduce college student heavy episodic drinking have examined parental influences, with the goal of continually refining parent-based interventions (PBIs). This research has primarily relied on student-reported data, which is often cited as a methodological limitation although the degree to which parent- and student-reported data on parenting behaviors correspond is unknown. The goals of the present study were to assess the level of consistency between parent- and student-reported data for commonly examined parenting constructs and compare their associations with college student drinking. Data were collected from a sample of 145 parent-student dyads using a longitudinal design. At baseline, parents and students reported on parental monitoring, approval of light and moderate/heavy drinking, and permissiveness. At a 10-month follow up, students reported on their typical weekly drinking and consequences. Parents' and students' reports of parenting behavior at baseline were compared and their associations with student drinking and consequences at follow up were assessed. Agreement between parents' and students' reports of parenting was fair to moderate, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .34 to .61. Student-reported data were more reliably associated with student drinking at follow up. Studies examining parent influences on college student drinking, including research on PBIs, do not appear to be limited by using student-reported data. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23254221

  8. Rapid Drinking is Associated with Increases in Driving-Related Risk-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Bernosky-Smith, Kimberly A.; Aston, Elizabeth R.; Liguori, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objective The rate of alcohol drinking has been shown to predict impairment on cognitive and behavioral tasks. The current study assessed the influence of speed of alcohol consumption within a laboratory-administered binge on self-reported attitudes toward driving and simulated driving ability. Method Forty moderate drinkers (20 female, 20 male) were recruited from the local community via advertisements for individuals who drank alcohol at least once per month. The equivalent of four standard alcohol drinks was consumed at the participant’s desired pace within a two-hour session. Results Correlation analyses revealed that, after alcohol drinking, mean simulated driving speed, time in excess of speed limit, collisions, and reported confidence in driving were all associated with rapid alcohol drinking. Conclusion Fast drinking may coincide with increased driving confidence due to the extended latency between the conclusion of drinking and the commencement of driving. However, this latency did not reduce alcohol-related driving impairment, as fast drinking was also associated with risky driving. PMID:23027650

  9. Drinking to reach the top: Young adults' drinking patterns as a predictor of status within natural drinking groups.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Tara M; Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha

    2014-10-01

    In this study we examined associations between young adults' drinking patterns and social status within their natural drinking groups (NDGs) and assessed gender differences in these relationships. Same-sex NDGs (n=104) on route to a bar district were recruited and completed a peer-nominated measure of within-NDG status. In a follow-up online survey, participants (n=293; 174 men and 119 women) reported their usual drinking pattern within the past year. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that men who engaged in more frequent heavy episodic drinking (HED) (both for 5+ and 8+ drinks in one sitting) and women who drank more frequently were nominated as occupying higher-status positions within their NDGs compared to their peers who drank less. Further, for both men and women, drinking more than one's peers during one's heaviest drinking occasion in the past year was also associated with higher within-NDG status. These findings suggest that higher social status is associated with riskier drinking patterns and have important implications for prevention programming. PMID:24968362

  10. Drinking to reach the top: Young adults’ drinking patterns as a predictor of status within natural drinking groups

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Tara M.; Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined associations between young adults’ drinking patterns and social status within their natural drinking groups (NDGs) and assessed gender differences in these relationships. Same-sex NDGs (n = 104) on route to a bar district were recruited and completed a peer-nominated measure of within-NDG status. In a follow-up online survey, participants (n = 293; 174 men and 119 women) reported their usual drinking pattern within the past year. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that men who engaged in more frequent heavy episodic drinking (HED) (both for 5+ and 8+ drinks in one sitting) and women who drank more frequently were nominated as occupying higher-status positions within their NDGs compared to their peers who drank less. Further, for both men and women, drinking more than one’s peers during one’s heaviest drinking occasion in the past year was also associated with higher within-NDG status. These findings suggest that higher social status is associated with riskier drinking patterns and have important implications for prevention programming. PMID:24968362

  11. Understanding Associations Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Negative Consequences of Drinking: a Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Liu, HuiGuo; Kaplan, Lauren M

    2016-05-01

    We explored how neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) is related to negative consequences of drinking to explain why racial/ethnic minority group members are more at risk than Whites for adverse alcohol outcomes. We tested direct and indirect effects of neighborhood SES on alcohol problems and examined differences by gender and race. We used data from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys (N = 7912 drinkers aged 18 and older; 49 % female) linked with data from the 2000 Decennial Census in multivariate path models adjusting for individual demographics. In the full sample, neighborhood disadvantage had a significant direct path to increased negative consequences, with no indirect paths through depression, positive affect or pro-drinking attitudes. Neighborhood affluence had significant indirect paths to increased negative consequences through greater pro-drinking attitudes and increased heavy drinking. Subgroup analyses showed the indirect path from affluence to consequences held for White men, with no effects of neighborhood disadvantage. For racial/ethnic minority men, significant indirect paths emerged from both neighborhood disadvantage and affluence to increased consequences through greater pro-drinking attitudes and more heavy drinking. For minority women, there was an indirect effect of neighborhood affluence through reduced depression to fewer drinking consequences. There were limited neighborhood effects on alcohol outcomes for White women. Interventions targeting pro-drinking attitudes in both affluent and disadvantaged areas may help reduce alcohol-related problems among men. Initiatives to improve neighborhood conditions could enhance mental health of minority women and reduce alcohol-related health disparities. PMID:26898509

  12. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

  13. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)

  14. Drinking water quality management: a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rizak, S; Cunliffe, D; Sinclair, M; Vulcano, R; Howard, J; Hrudey, S; Callan, P

    2003-01-01

    A growing list of water contaminants has led to some water suppliers relying primarily on compliance monitoring as a mechanism for managing drinking water quality. While such monitoring is a necessary part of drinking water quality management, experiences with waterborne disease threats and outbreaks have shown that compliance monitoring for numerical limits is not, in itself, sufficient to guarantee the safety and quality of drinking water supplies. To address these issues, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) has developed a Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality (the Framework) for incorporation in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, the primary reference on drinking water quality in Australia. The Framework was developed specifically for drinking water supplies and provides a comprehensive and preventive risk management approach from catchment to consumer. It includes holistic guidance on a range of issues considered good practice for system management. The Framework addresses four key areas: Commitment to Drinking Water Quality Management, System Analysis and System Management, Supporting Requirements, and Review. The Framework represents a significantly enhanced approach to the management and regulation of drinking water quality and offers a flexible and proactive means of optimising drinking water quality and protecting public health. Rather than the primary reliance on compliance monitoring, the Framework emphasises prevention, the importance of risk assessment, maintaining the integrity of water supply systems and application of multiple barriers to assure protection of public health. Development of the Framework was undertaken in collaboration with the water industry, regulators and other stakeholder, and will promote a common and unified approach to drinking water quality management throughout Australia. The Framework has attracted international interest. PMID:12830937

  15. Sexual Assault Related Distress and Drinking: The Influence of Daily Reports of Social Support and Coping Control

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Hassija, Christina M.; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    A history of sexual assault (SA) is often associated with increased distress and heavy drinking. One’s ability to cope with the distress and seek social support has been associated with drinking more generally. However, SA-related distress, drinking, and the extent to which a woman engages in adaptive coping or seeks social support is known to vary day-to-day. The goal of the present investigation was to examine the moderating influence of perceived coping control and social support on the event-level association between SA-related distress and drinking. This study included 133 college women with a history of SA who reported recent heavy drinking. Participants provided daily reports of their SA-related distress, perceived coping control, perceived social support, and alcohol consumption every day for 30-days. Results of generalized estimating equation models suggest that coping control moderated the association between distress and drinking such that those with less perceived coping control drank more as their SA-related distress increased from their average. Although social support did not moderate between distress and drinking, decreases in perceived social support were associated with more drinking on that day. Results suggest that daily deviations in SA-related distress may influence alcohol consumption more than average levels of distress, especially among women with low coping control. Interventions for women with SA histories should help them build coping skills as well as adequate social support in order to reduce drinking. PMID:25437266

  16. Sexual assault related distress and drinking: the influence of daily reports of social support and coping control.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hassija, Christina M; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Introduction. A history of sexual assault (SA) is often associated with increased distress and heavy drinking. One's ability to cope with the distress and seek social support has been associated with drinking more generally. However, SA-related distress, drinking, and the extent to which a woman engages in adaptive coping or seeks social support is known to vary day-to-day. The goal of the present investigation was to examine the moderating influence of perceived coping control and social support on the event-level association between SA-related distress and drinking. Methods. This study included 133 college women with a history of SA who reported recent heavy drinking. Participants provided daily reports of their SA-related distress, perceived coping control, perceived social support, and alcohol consumption every day for 30days. Results. Results of generalized estimating equation models suggest that coping control moderated the association between distress and drinking such that those with less perceived coping control drank more as their SA-related distress increased from their average. Although social support did not moderate between distress and drinking, decreases in perceived social support were associated with more drinking on that day. Conclusions. The results suggest that daily deviations in SA-related distress may influence alcohol consumption more than average levels of distress, especially among women with low coping control. Interventions for women with SA histories should help them build coping skills as well as adequate social support in order to reduce drinking. PMID:25437266

  17. Triple monoamine uptake inhibitors demonstrate a pharmacologic association between excessive drinking and impulsivity in high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice

    PubMed Central

    O’Tousa, David S.; Warnock, Kaitlin T.; Matson, Liana M.; Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Halcomb, Meredith E.; Cook, James; Grahame, Nicholas J.; June, Harry L.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of current drinkers in the US drink excessively, and are referred to as problem/hazardous drinkers. These individuals, who may not meet criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, comprise binge, heavy drinkers, or both. Given their high prevalence, interventions that reduce the risk of binge and heavy drinking have important public health implications. Impulsivity has been repeatedly associated with excessive drinking in the clinical literature. As impulsivity is correlated with, and may play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of excessive drinking, this behavior may be an important target for therapeutic intervention. Hence, a better understanding of pharmacological treatments capable of attenuating excessive drinking models and impulsivity may markedly improve clinical outcomes. The high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice represent an optimal rodent model to study the relationship between impulsivity and excessive alcohol drinking, as recent evidence indicates they consume high levels of alcohol throughout their active cycle and are innately impulsive. Using this model, the present study demonstrates that the triple monoamine uptake inhibitors (TUIs) amitifadine and DOV 102, 677 effectively attenuate binge drinking, heavy drinking assessed via a 24-hour free-choice assay, and impulsivity measured by the delay discounting procedure. In contrast, 3-PBC, a GABA-A α1 preferring ligand, with mixed agonist-antagonist properties attenuates excessive drinking without affecting impulsivity. These findings suggest in the HAP mice, monoamine pathways may predominate as a common mechanism underlying impulsivity and excessive drinking, while the GABAergic system may be more salient in regulating excessive drinking. We further propose that TUIs such as amitifadine and DOV 102, 677 may be used to treat the co-occurrence of impulsivity and excessive drinking. PMID:24118509

  18. Effects of number of cagemates on home cage ethanol drinking during proximal cagemate drinking (PCD) procedures in male and female CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Tomie, Arthur; Samuel, Allison Gayle; Sprung, Dana Michelle; Malul, Yael; Yu, Lei

    2015-03-01

    The present experiment evaluated the effects of the Number of Cagemates (0 vs 1 vs 2) on home cage ethanol drinking during Proximal Cagemate Drinking (PCD) procedures in Male and Female CD-1 mice. Continuous-access home cage 2-bottle (ethanol vs. water) free-choice procedures were employed. PCD procedures eliminate the distracting effects of direct physical contact between Drinkers and their Cagemates on ethanol drinking by imposing a translucent plastic barrier strip between them. If direct physical contact distracts from drinking, then one Cagemate would drink more ethanol and more water than two Cagemates housed together on the same side of the barrier. This would be the case even if two Cagemates stimulated more ethanol drinking in the Drinker housed on the other side of the barrier, due to the social stimulation effects of additional Cagemates. Results revealed that the ethanol intake of Female Drinkers was directly related to the number of Cagemates on the other side of the barrier strip, but this social stimulation effect was not observed in Male Drinkers. For Male Cagemates and Female Cagemates, the single Cagemate provided elevated ethanol intake and elevated water intake relative to the ethanol intake and water intake of each Cagemate in the two Cagemates condition. The data revealed that direct physical contact between Cagemates reduced their ethanol intake, even while stimulating ethanol intake of the Drinker on the other side of the barrier, indicating that the effects of social stimulation on ethanol drinking are not entirely due to effects of modeling or peer pressure. The PCD procedures allow the evaluation of effects of a broad range of social factors on home cage ethanol drinking in mice. PMID:25447404

  19. Effects of iloperidone, combined with desipramine, on alcohol drinking in the Syrian golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Jibran Y; Green, Alan I

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder in patients with schizophrenia dramatically worsens their clinical course, and few treatment options are available. Clozapine appears to reduce alcohol use in these patients, but its toxicity limits its use. To create a safer clozapine-like drug, we tested whether the antipsychotic iloperidone, a drug that combines a weak dopamine D2 receptor blockade and a potent norepinephrine alpha-2 receptor blockade would reduce alcohol drinking, and whether its effect on alcohol drinking could be increased if combined with an agent to facilitate norepinephrine activity. Syrian golden hamsters (useful animal model for screening drugs that reduce alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia) were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) until stable drinking was established. Animals (n = 6-7/group), matched according to alcohol intake, were treated daily with each drug (iloperidone; clozapine; haloperidol; desipramine [norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor]; with idazoxan [norepinephrine alpha-2 receptor antagonist]) or with a two-drug (iloperidone + desipramine; iloperidone + idazoxan) combination for 14 days. Moderate doses of iloperidone (1-5 mg/kg) significantly reduced alcohol drinking (p < 0.05) in the hamster, whereas higher doses (10-20 mg/kg) did not. In addition, 5 mg/kg of iloperidone reduced alcohol drinking to the same extent as clozapine (8 mg/kg), whereas haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) did not. Moreover, iloperidone's effects were enhanced via the addition of desipramine (3 mg/kg), but not idazoxan (1.5/3 mg/kg). In this animal model, iloperidone decreases alcohol drinking as effectively as clozapine, and desipramine appears to amplify this effect. The data suggest that iloperidone, alone or in combination with desipramine, should be tested in patients with schizophrenia and alcohol use disorder. PMID:26796639

  20. Voluntary drinking versus imposed drinking in the methodology of investigations about the drinking-induced thermoregulatory sweating

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Khamnei, Saeed; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that dehydrated humans or animals in a warm environment begin to sweat within seconds to minutes after drinking. This phenomenon is one of the drinking-induced thermoregulatory responses; being investigated from different aspects. Our objective is to show the difference of voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the methodology of these experiments. Six healthy subjects 23.7 0.6 yr old and 80.7 5.7 kg wt were dehydrated by performing mild exercise (ergometer cycling) in a hot and humid chamber (38-40C, 20-28% relative humidity). We incorporated two protocols: after dehydration, subjects were allowed to drink water with 1) imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/kg and 2) voluntary volumes; on four separate days. The sweating rate was measured on the forehead area before and after drinking. Sweating increased markedly just a few minutes after the onset of drinking. The mean sweat rates of the imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/Kg were 0.33 0.15, 0.31 0.17, 0.47 0.21 respectively and for the voluntary volume it was 0.54 0.19. The mean intake in the voluntary trial was 6.58 1.14 ml/Kg, more than the imposed volume of 5 ml/Kg. The trend of the rate of the sweating response in the imposed trials was distinct from the response in the voluntary trial. Conclusion: There exists a difference between voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the sweating response that follows rehydration. So it is suggested to use the methods of voluntary drinking in the investigations of this phenomenon, to reveal the natural events that happen in the actual circumstances. PMID:25419429

  1. Milk Consumption during Adolescence Decreases Alcohol Drinking in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Walker, Brendan M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Early of onset of alcohol consumption increases the risk for the development of dependence. Whether adolescent consumption of other highly palatable solutions may also affect alcohol drinking in adulthood is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adolescent consumption of four solutions: water, sucrose, sucrose-milk and milk on ethanol drinking in adult rats. Rats had limited access to one of the four solutions from day PND 29 to PND 51 and were subsequently trained to consume ethanol (E) using a sucrose(S) fade-out procedure. Adolescent consumption of sucrose and sucrose-milk solutions increased intake of 2.5%E when it was combined with 10%S but it had no effect on the drinking of 10%E alone. Adolescent consumption of milk and sucrose-milk significantly decreased the intake of 10%E when it was combined with 10%S, and milk significantly reduced 10%E consumption alone and when it was combined with 5%S. Adolescent exposure to the sucrose-milk and sucrose solutions was also found to increase sucrose and sucrose-milk consumption. Our findings suggest adolescent exposure to sucrose increases, whereas, exposure to milk reduces ethanol consumption in adult rats. Our results may provide a new theoretical approach to the early prevention of alcoholism. PMID:19698741

  2. Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

  3. Acculturation Stress and Drinking Problems Among Urban Heavy Drinking Latinos in the Northeast

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christina S.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; López, Steven R.; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between level of acculturation and acculturation stress, and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of acculturation level. Acculturation stress accounted for significant variance in drinking problems while adjusting for acculturation, income, and education. Choosing to drink in response to acculturation stress should be an intervention target with Hispanic heavy drinkers. PMID:24215224

  4. Schools Offering Drinking Water May Have Slightly Slimmer Students

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156781.html Schools Offering Drinking Water May Have Slightly Slimmer Students When water was ... they may bring from home. "If you are drinking water, then you are not drinking something else that ...

  5. 1 in 3 Americans Drinks Sugary Soda or Juice Daily

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 in 3 Americans Drinks Sugary Soda or Juice Daily: CDC These beverages linked to greater risk ... drink at least one sugar-laden soda or juice every day, federal health officials report. Sugary drinks ...

  6. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory



    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

  7. Underage Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Underage Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents ... be the victim of physical or sexual assault. Underage Drinking Warning Signs Academic and/or behavioral problems ...

  8. Adolescent Problem Drinking and Perceived Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitic, Wayne R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessed relationship between adolescents' problem drinking and their perceptions of stressful relationships with people or situations. Results from survey of 1,684 secondary school students suggest that perceived stress may have role in etiology of adolescent problem drinking and should signal program planners in alcohol education to include

  9. Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Communicator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Underage drinking is a serious national problem--alcohol-related injuries are a leading cause of death and injury among young people in the United States today. This guide is designed to help individuals who wish to be involved in a national effort to prevent underage drinking. It includes materials and messages that can be reproduced, as well as…

  10. Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…

  11. The Young Drinking Driver: Cause or Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Patricia F.; Waller, Marcus B.

    Drunk driving is a major public health problem and young people suffer disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality as a result of drinking and driving. Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 in this country, and alcohol is implicated in many of these deaths. Countermeasures to drinking and driving…

  12. Predictors of Early Alcohol Drinking Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Early alcohol drinking onset (ADO) has been implicated as a cause of adult alcohol disorder inviting interventions that target the causes of ADO. This study explores the precursors of early ADO using variables measured before drinking onset, reaching back to the mothers of the respondents. The sample consists of children of the women respondents…

  13. Middle School Drinking: Who, Where, and when

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to describe the most common drinking situations for young adolescents (N = 1171; 46.6% girls), as well as determine predictors of their drinking in the seventh and eighth grades. Middle school students most frequently drank at parties with three to four teens, in their home or at a friend's home, and reported…

  14. Teenage Drinking, Symbolic Capital and Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Margaretha; Gundelach, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses alcohol-related lifestyles among Danish teenagers. Building on Bourdieu's reasoning on symbolic capital and distinction, we analyse three interrelated themes. First, we show that alcohol-related variables (drinking patterns, drinking debut, experience of intoxication, etc.) can be used to identify some very distinctive life…

  15. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes
    DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola

    Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

  16. Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Event Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Underage drinking presents a serious health risk not only to young people themselves but to entire communities. This program guide is designed to help communities establish their own underage drinking prevention programs. Community norms, actions, and attitudes toward alcohol affect young people, as do the ways in which alcohol is promoted.…

  17. Quantification of alcohol drinking patterns in mice.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Manuela; Leixner, Sarah; Spanagel, Rainer; Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2015-11-01

    The use of mice in alcohol research provides an excellent model system for a better understanding of the genetics and neurobiology of alcohol addiction. Almost 60 years ago, alcohol researchers began to test strains of mice for alcohol preference and intake. In particular, various voluntary alcohol drinking paradigms in the home cage were developed. In mouse models of voluntary oral alcohol consumption, animals have concurrent access to water and either one or several concentrated alcohol solutions in their home cages. Although these models have high face validity, many experimental conditions require a more precise monitoring of alcohol consumption in mice in order to capture the role of specific strains or genes, or any other manipulation on alcohol drinking behavior. Therefore, we have developed a fully automated, highly precise monitoring system for alcohol drinking in mice in the home cage. This system is now commercially available. We show that this drinkometer system allows for detecting differences in drinking behavior (i) in transgenic mice, (ii) following alcohol deprivation, and (iii) following stress applications that are usually not detected by classical home-cage drinking paradigms. In conclusion, our drinkometer system allows disturbance-free and high resolution monitoring of alcohol drinking behavior. In particular, micro-drinking and circadian drinking patterns can be monitored in genetically modified and inbred strains of mice after environmental and pharmacological manipulation, and therefore this system represents an improvement in measuring behavioral features that are of relevance for the development of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26515884

  18. Monitoring of Microbes in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Internationally there is a move towards managing the provision of safe drinking water by direct assessment of the performance of key pathogen barriers (critical control points), rather than end point testing (i.e. in drinking water). For fecal pathogens that breakthrough the vari...

  19. Teenage Drinking in Rural Middle Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mookherjee, Harsha N.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which alcoholic beverages are consumed by high school teenagers (N=622) in rural communities of middle Tennessee. Results showed that about 63 percent of the subjects do drink alcoholic beverages, and that most of the drinking is done in the company of friends. (LLL)

  20. Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,

  1. MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

  2. Middle School Drinking: Who, Where, and when

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to describe the most common drinking situations for young adolescents (N = 1171; 46.6% girls), as well as determine predictors of their drinking in the seventh and eighth grades. Middle school students most frequently drank at parties with three to four teens, in their home or at a friend's home, and reported

  3. Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

  4. Drinking Attitudes and Behavior of Incoming Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Deborah H.; Sedlacek, William E.

    An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…

  5. Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of

  6. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations into the mutagenicity and mutational mechanisms of single chemicals within drinking water as well as of organic extracts of drinking water are being pursued using the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay as well as in human samples. For example, the semi-volatile ...

  7. Evolution of regulatory targets for drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; O'Toole, Joanne; Gibney, Katherine; Leder, Karin

    2015-06-01

    The last century has been marked by major advances in the understanding of microbial disease risks from water supplies and significant changes in expectations of drinking water safety. The focus of drinking water quality regulation has moved progressively from simple prevention of detectable waterborne outbreaks towards adoption of health-based targets that aim to reduce infection and disease to a level well below detection limits at the community level. This review outlines the changes in understanding of community disease and waterborne risks that prompted development of these targets, and also describes their underlying assumptions and current context. Issues regarding the appropriateness of selected target values, and how continuing changes in knowledge and practice may influence their evolution, are also discussed. PMID:26042974

  8. HEAVY DRINKING TRAJECTORIES AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: A LONGITUDINAL, GROUP-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Shoveller, Jean A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy episodic drinking (HED) is associated with sexual risk behavior and HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM), yet few studies have examined heavy drinking typologies in this population. Methods We analyzed data from 4,075 HIV-uninfected MSM (aged 16 to 88) participating in EXPLORE, a 48-month behavioral intervention trial, to determine the patterns and predictors of HED trajectories. Heavy episodic drinking was defined as the number of days in which ≥5 alcohol drinks were consumed in the past 6 months. Longitudinal group-based mixture models were used to identify HED trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine correlates of membership in each group. Results We identified five distinct HED trajectories: non-heavy drinkers (31.9%); infrequent heavy drinkers (i.e., <10 heavy drinking days per 6 month period, 54.3%); regular heavy drinkers (30-45 heavy drinking days per 6 months, 8.4%); drinkers who increased HED over time (average 33 days in the past six months to 77 days at end of follow-up, 3.6%); and very frequent heavy drinkers (>100 days per 6 months, 1.7%). Intervention arm did not predict drinking trajectory patterns. Younger age, self-identifying as white, lower educational attainment, depressive symptoms, and stimulant use were also associated with reporting heavier drinking trajectories. Compared to non-heavy drinkers, participants who increased HED more often experienced a history of childhood sexual abuse. Over the study period, depressive symptomatology increased significantly among very frequent heavy drinkers. Conclusions Socioeconomic factors, substance use, depression, and childhood sexual abuse were associated with heavier drinking patterns among MSM. Multi-component interventions to reduce HED should seek to mitigate the adverse impacts of low educational attainment, depression, and early traumatic life events on the initiation, continuation or escalation of frequent HED among MSM. PMID:25684055

  9. Geospatial Analysis on the Distributions of Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking in India

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Sze Hang; Jha, Prabhat; Gupta, Prakash C.; Kumar, Rajesh; Dikshit, Rajesh; Sinha, Dhirendra

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood. Methodology We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at the district and postal code levels. We used kriging interpolation to generate smoking and drinking distributions at the postal code level. We also examined spatial autocorrelations and identified spatial clusters of high and low prevalence of smoking and drinking. Finally, we used bivariate analyses to examine the spatial correlations between smoking and drinking, and between cigarette and bidi smoking. Results There was a high prevalence of any smoking in the central and northeastern states, and a high prevalence of any drinking in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Madhya Pradesh. Spatial clusters of early smoking (started smoking before age 20) were identified in the central states. Cigarette and bidi smoking showed distinctly different geographic patterns, with high levels of cigarette smoking in the northeastern states and high levels of bidi smoking in the central states. The geographic pattern of bidi smoking was similar to early smoking. Cigarette smoking was spatially associated with any drinking. Smoking prevalences in 1998 were correlated with prevalences in 2004 at the district level and 2010 at the state level. Conclusion These results along with earlier evidence on the complementarities between tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking suggest that local public health action on smoking might also help to reduce alcohol consumption, and vice versa. Surveys that properly represent tobacco and alcohol consumptions at the district level are recommended. PMID:25025379

  10. Social pressures to drink or drink a little more: the Nigerian experience

    PubMed Central

    Ibanga, Akanidomo K J; Adetula, Victor A. O.; Dagona, Zubairu K

    2009-01-01

    This study set out to investigate the pressures experienced by different individuals to drink, or drink a little more than intended, by someone who drinks or drinks more than they do. A total of 2099 Nigerian adults between the ages of 18 and 65 years were randomly sampled. The frequency with which they experienced such other drinkers encouraging them to drink or drink more than intended from various sources was examined. Logistic regression was used to identify significant individual predictors of receiving pressure by sources of influence. Focus group discussions were also held to examine how these pressures are applied in various settings. Results indicated that male friends or acquaintances were the sources respondents reported influenced them the most to drink or drink more. Significant predictors of pressure varied by source but tended to include religion (5 of 6 sources) and gender (3 of 6). Results showed that pressure to drink or drink a little more was seen to come more from males than from females. It raises the need to have a better knowledge of these factors, particularly as they may relate to heavy or problematic drinking, and their implications for prevention and treatment. PMID:20651928

  11. Asian American Problem Drinking Trajectories During the Transition to Adulthood: Ethnic Drinking Cultures and Neighborhood Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Bond, Jason; Lui, Camillia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to identify problem drinking trajectories and their predictors among Asian Americans transitioning from adolescence to adulthood. We considered cultural and socioeconomic contextual factors, specifically ethnic drinking cultures, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and neighborhood coethnic density, to identify subgroups at high risk for developing problematic drinking trajectories. Methods. We used a sample of 1333 Asian Americans from 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1994–2008) in growth mixture models to identify trajectory classes of frequent heavy episodic drinking and drunkenness. We fitted multinomial logistic regression models to identify predictors of trajectory class membership. Results. Two dimensions of ethnic drinking culture—drinking prevalence and detrimental drinking pattern in the country of origin—were predictive of problematic heavy episodic drinking and drunkenness trajectories. Higher neighborhood socioeconomic status in adolescence was predictive of the trajectory class indicating increasing frequency of drunkenness. Neighborhood coethnic density was not predictive of trajectory class membership. Conclusions. Drinking cultures in the country of origin may have enduring effects on drinking among Asian Americans. Further research on ethnic drinking cultures in the United States is warranted for prevention and intervention. PMID:25393183

  12. Which Heavy Drinking College Students Benefit from a Brief Motivational Intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy drinking among college students is common and is often harmful. A previously reported randomized trial revealed that a brief motivational intervention (BMI) reduced the alcohol consumption of heavy drinking college students (Carey, Carey, Maisto, & Henson, 2006). For this study, we conducted supplemental analyses of hypothesized predictors of change using the same sample (N = 495). Greater readiness-to-change, higher levels of self-regulation, and less engagement in social comparison all independently predicted reductions in drinking outcomes. Furthermore, self-regulation, social comparison, and future time perspective interacted with BMI and predicted drinks per week. As expected, greater self-regulation skills enhanced response to the BMI; the remaining interaction effects were unexpected. Overall, these findings suggest that BMIs produce relatively robust effects. PMID:17663621

  13. Alcohol Outlet Density, Drinking Contexts and Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina; Todd, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use is a robust predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV). A critical barrier to progress in preventing alcohol-related IPV is that little is known about how an individual’s specific drinking contexts (where, how often, and with whom one drinks) are related to IPV, or how these contexts are affected by environmental characteristics, such as alcohol outlet density and neighborhood disadvantage. The putative mechanism is the social environment in which drinking occurs that may promote or strengthen aggressive norms. Once these contexts are known, specific prevention measures can be put in place, including policy-oriented (e.g., regulating outlet density) and individually-oriented (e.g., brief interventions to reduce risk for spousal aggression) measures targeting at-risk populations. This paper reviews applicable theories and empirical research evidence that links IPV to drinking contexts and alcohol outlet density, highlights research gaps, and make recommendations for future research. PMID:25725018

  14. Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

    2014-04-01

    Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534

  15. The fluoride content of bottled drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Toumba, K J; Levy, S; Curzon, M E

    1994-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking waters in the United Kingdom have tripled over the last 5 years. The fluoride content of 12 bottled waters purchased from two Leeds supermarkets was determined by both the direct and acid diffusion methods and found to vary from 0.10-0.80 mg/l fluoride (ie ppm fluoride). This article shows that bottled drinking waters contain differing concentrations of fluoride. There is no apparent difference between the direct and acid diffusion methods for the determination of fluoride concentrations of drinking waters. The manufacturers' labelling of fluoride concentrations are mainly inaccurate. Dentists should be aware of the fluoride concentrations of the drinking water of their child patients, be they municipal or bottled drinking water, when prescribing fluoride supplements. Also, some parents are using bottled waters to prepare baby milk formulations which themselves may contain high levels of fluoride and subject their children to the risk of dental fluorosis. PMID:8186036

  16. Fungi contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially accomplish this, by first filtering the water and finally by adding disinfection treatments adequate to remove or mitigate fungi or their toxic metabolites. PMID:24162095

  17. How to Identify Lead-Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, Congress passed the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act, which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of lead-free by reducing allowed...

  18. How to Identify Lead-Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Materials - Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, Congress passed the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act, which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of lead-free by reducing allowed...

  19. How to Identify Lead-Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, Congress passed the “Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,” which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of “lead-free” by reducing allowed...

  20. How to Identify Lead-Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Materials - Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, Congress passed the “Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,” which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of “lead-free” by reducing allowed...

  1. Drinking induced by angiotensin II in fishes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Uemura, H; Takei, Y; Itatsu, N; Ozawa, M; Ichinohe, K

    1983-02-01

    Among 20 species of freshwater fishes examined, Pseudorasbora parva, Rhodeus ocellatus, Cobitis anguillicaudatus, Carassius auratus, Oryzias latipes, Gambusia affinis, and Gyrinocheilus anymonieri were found to drink water like seawater fishes, while 13 remaining species did not drink. For fish species found exclusively in fresh water, angiotensin II (AII) treatment did not induce drinking. In contrast, those freshwater fishes which survive in estuarine brackish water (Leuciscus hakonensis, C. carassius, Parasilurus asotus, G. affinis, Chaenogobius annularis, Tridentiger obscurus, and G. anymonieri responded to AII by drinking. Furthermore, some freshwater fishes which survive either in hypertonic water (C. auratus) or in sea water (Anguilla japonica and O. latipes) also responded to AII by drinking. Of 17 seawater fishes examined, Eptatretus burgeri, Triakis scyllia, and Heterodontus japonicus failed to drink water, and for Trachurus japonicus, Platichthys bicoloratus, and Glossogobius giuris fasciatopunctatus, water intake was minor (similar to freshwater fishes). The 11 remaining seawater fishes drank water. AII did not induce drinking in fishes living exclusively in sea water. However, seawater fishes which survive either in tide pools (Chasmichthys dolichognathus gulosus) or in brackish water (Sillago japonica, Mugil cephalus, G. giuris fasciatopunctatus) responded to AII by drinking. P. bicoloratus, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, and Fugu niphobles were exceptional, in that they survive in brackish water, but did not respond to AII. Although some exceptions exist, it is generally concluded that a drinking response to AII is characteristic of fishes which encounter water more hypertonic than that in which they typically reside. Accordingly, a drinking mechanism induced by AII may be a compensatory emergency reaction to dehydration stress. PMID:6840524

  2. The Persistent Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Drinking Patterns Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Plunk, Andrew D.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws not only affects young adults in the short term, but also later in life; for example, individuals who could legally purchase alcohol before age 21 are more likely to suffer from drinking problems as older adults, long after the laws had been changed. However, it is not known how permissive MLDA exposure affects specific drinking behavior. This present study uses changes in MLDA laws during the 1970s and 1980s as a natural experiment to investigate the potential impact of permissive MLDA exposure on average alcohol consumption, frequency of drinking, and on patterns of binging and more moderate, non-heavy drinking. Methods Policy exposure data were paired with alcohol use data from the 1991–1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey and the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Past-year drinkers born between 1949 and 1972 (n = 24,088) were included. Average daily intake, overall drinking frequency, and frequency of both binge episodes (5+ drinks) and days without a binge episode (non-heavy drinking) for the previous year at the time of interview were tracked for each respondent. Results Exposure to permissive MLDAs was associated with higher odds to report frequent binging and lower odds to report any moderate drinking; these associations were largely driven by men and those who did not attend college. Overall drinking frequency and average alcohol consumption were not affected by MLDA exposure. Conclusions The ability to legally purchase alcohol before age 21 does not seem to increase overall drinking frequency, but our findings suggest that it is associated with certain types of problematic drinking behaviors that persist into later adulthood: more frequent binge episodes and less frequent non-heavy drinking. We also propose that policymakers and critics should not focus on college drinking when evaluating the effectiveness of MLDAs. PMID:23347177

  3. Tears in your beer: Gender differences in coping drinking motives, depressive symptoms and drinking

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. PMID:25525419

  4. Daily mood-drinking slopes as predictors: a new take on drinking motives and related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Cynthia D; Brannan, Debi; Wendt, Staci; Jacobs, Laurie; Wright, Robert; Wang, Mo

    2013-12-01

    Motivational models of alcohol consumption have articulated the manner in which positive and negative experiences motivate drinking in unique social contexts (e.g., M. L. Cooper, M. R. Frone, M. Russell & P. Mudar, 1995, Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: A motivational model of alcohol use, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 69, pp. 990-1005). Daily process methodology, in which daily events, moods, and drinking behaviors are reported daily or multiple times per day, has been used to examine behavioral patterns that are consistent with discrete motivations. We advance the notion that repeated patterns of drinking in various social contexts as a function of positive or negative mood increases can provide evidence of individual-level if-then drinking signatures, which in turn can predict drinking-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of slopes to predict longer term drinking motivations and alcohol problems by employing a daily-process study of nonclinical moderate alcohol drinkers (N = 47; 49% women). Participants responded to thrice daily interviews administered via handheld computer for 30 days, followed by a longitudinal telephone survey for 12 months. Participants' daily mood-drinking relationships were extracted from hierarchical linear modeling and employed as predictors of 12-month outcomes in multiple regression analyses. Daily mood-drinking patterns demonstrated significant variability across persons, such that moderate drinkers could be reliably differentiated based on those patterns in terms of distinct drinking-related outcomes. Among the results, negative-mood-solitary-drinking slopes were associated with lower subsequent coping motives but positive-mood-solitary-drinking slopes were predictive of higher coping and lower social motives. Conversely, positive-mood-social-drinking associations were predictive of higher enhancement motives and brief Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test scores. Results are interpreted in light of motivational models of consumption. PMID:23647154

  5. Gender and Social Pressure to Change Drinking Behavior: Results from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1984–2010

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Korcha, Rachael A.; Kerr, William C.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research shows social and institutional pressure influences drinking, yet determinants of who receives pressure are understudied. This paper examines age, time period, and birth cohort (APC) effects on pressure to stop or reduce drinking among U.S. men and women. Methods Data were drawn from six National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) conducted from 1984 to 2010 (N=32,534). Receipt of pressure during the past year to quit or change drinking from formal (police, doctor, work) and informal (spouse, family, friends) sources was assessed. Results Determinants of pressure were similar for men and women but varied in strength. They included younger age, less education, and younger cohort groups. Cohort effects were stronger for women than men. Conclusions Cohort effects among women may be due to increased alcohol marketing to younger women and the changing social contexts of their drinking. Future studies should assess associations between drinking contexts, pressures, and outcomes. PMID:25395917

  6. Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

  7. The combination of short rest and energy drink consumption as fatigue countermeasures during a prolonged drive of professional truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Adi; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Gershon, Pnina

    2014-06-01

    One of the major concerns for professional drivers is fatigue. Many studies evaluated specific fatigue countermeasures, in many cases comparing the efficiency of each method separately. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of rest areas combined with consumption of energy drinks on professional truck drivers during a prolonged simulated drive. Fifteen professional truck drivers participated in three experimental sessions: control-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of a placebo drink prior to the beginning of the drive. Energy drink-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink containing 160 mg of caffeine prior to the beginning of the drive, and an Energy drink+Rest session--where the drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink prior to driving, and rest for 10 min at a designated rest area zone 100 min into the drive. For all sessions, driving duration was approximately 150 min and consisted of driving on a monotonous, two-way rural road. In addition to driving performance measures, subjective measures, and heart rate variability were obtained. Results indicated that consumption of an energy drink (in both sessions) facilitated lower lane position deviations and reduced steering wheel deviations during the first 80-100 min of the drive relative to the control sessions. Resting after 100 min of driving, in addition to the energy drink that was consumed before the drive, enabled the drivers to maintain these abilities throughout the remainder of the driving session. Practical applications: Practical applications arising from the results of this research may give indication on the possible added value of combining fatigue counter measures methods during a prolonged drive and the importance of the timing of the use for each method. PMID:24913484

  8. A Multi-site Randomized Trial of Normative Feedback for Heavy Drinking: Social Comparison versus Social Comparison plus Correction of Normative Misperceptions

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; LaBrie, Joseph; DiBello, Angelo M.; Young, Chelsie M.; Rinker, Dipali V.; Litt, Dana; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Knee, C. Raymond; Hamor, Ezekiel; Jerabeck, Jessica M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Given widespread alcohol misuse among college students, numerous intervention programs have been developed, including personalized normative feedback (PNF). Most research evaluating PNF assumes that presenting one's own perceived norms is necessary to correct normative misperceptions and thereby reduce drinking. Alternatively, simply providing social comparison information showing that one drinks more than others may be sufficient. The present study evaluated the efficacy of full PNF (one's own drinking, campus drinking rates, and perceived norms) and a partial personalized social comparison feedback (PSCF; one's own drinking and campus drinking rates) in a randomized trial among heavy-drinking college students. Method Participants included 623 heavy-drinking students from three universities. Assessments occurred at baseline and three- and six-months post-baseline. Results Primary analyses examined differences across four drinking outcomes (drinks per week, total drinks past month, frequency of past month drinking, and negative alcohol-related consequences) at three- and six-month follow-ups controlling for the baseline variable. Results revealed significant reductions across all alcohol consumption outcomes at three months in both intervention conditions compared to attention-control. Mediation analyses demonstrated significant indirect effects of the intervention on six-month drinking through changes in perceived norms at three months. Moreover, evidence emerged for changes in drinking at three months as a mediator of the association between PSCF and six-month perceived norms. Conclusions The present research suggests PNF may not require explicit consideration of one's perceived norms in order to be effective and that direct social comparison provides an alternative theoretical mechanism for PNF efficacy. PMID:26727407

  9. Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

  10. Driving while drinking: performance impairments resulting from social drinking.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Samuel G; Starkey, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the effects of alcohol on drivers' performance can differ depending on whether blood alcohol concentrations are increasing or decreasing. The present research used a more ecologically representative alcohol consumption protocol in order to determine whether the same pattern of driver impairment would occur when drinking occurred in social groups over a longer period of time. Forty-four participants were assigned to one of two alcohol dose conditions or a placebo control group and consumed alcohol in groups of three (typically one participant from each condition) such that they gradually reached their target BAC (.05 or .08) and maintained it for 1 h. The participants completed a series of cognitive tests (Cogstate test battery) and a simulated driving task (driver attention inhibition and reaction test) over the course of their intoxication curve (approximately 4 h). The results showed strong placebo effects on ratings of subjective intoxication. Driving and cognitive performance both showed dose-dependent alcohol impairment, and some measures displayed acute protracted error. The findings provide strong evidence of expectancy effects in contributing to self-perceptions of intoxication. PMID:25463962

  11. Suicidal ideation and drinking to cope among college binge drinkers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Vivian M; Hewell, Valerie M

    2012-08-01

    Suicidality among college students is associated with binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Consistent with motivational models of alcohol use, drinking to cope (DTC) is a significant intervening variable in the association between suicidal ideation and alcohol use and problems among students. This study examined whether several factors shown to be associated with both suicidal ideation and DTC (i.e., impulsivity, mood regulation expectancies, and coping skills) account for the relationship between these variables, as well as the associations of depression and hopelessness with DTC. Participants were 109 emerging adult (18- to 25-year-old) college students who reported at least one episode of binge drinking during a typical month in the past year. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that while greater negative urgency and low negative mood regulation expectancies were significantly associated with DTC, suicidal ideation remained significantly associated with DTC, even when controlling for depression. Suicidal ideation showed a stronger association with DTC than either depression or hopelessness both before and after accounting for other variables. These findings suggest that suicidal ideation has a direct association with DTC, and that negative urgency and mood regulation expectancies may be useful treatments targets for reducing alcohol misuse among emerging adult students who experience suicidal ideation. PMID:22522033

  12. The Predictive Influence of Youth Assets on Drinking and Driving Behaviors in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Shults, Ruth A; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K

    2016-06-01

    Drinking and driving among adolescents and young adults remains a significant public health burden. Etiological research is needed to inform the development and selection of preventive interventions that might reduce alcohol-involved crashes and their tragic consequences. Youth assets-that is, skills, competencies, relationships, and opportunities-can help youth overcome challenges, successfully transition into adulthood, and reduce problem behavior. We examined the predictive influence of individual, relationship, and community assets on drinking and driving (DD) and riding with a drinking driver (RDD). We assessed prospective relationships through analysis of data from the Youth Assets Study, a community-based longitudinal study of socio-demographically diverse youth. Results from calculation of marginal models using a Generalized Estimating Equation approach revealed that parent and peer relationship and school connectedness assets reduced the likelihood of both drinking and driving and riding with a drinking driver approximately 1 year later. The most important and consistent asset that influenced DD and RDD over time was parental monitoring, highlighting the role of parental influence extending beyond the immediate teen driving context into young adulthood. Parenting-focused interventions could influence factors that place youth at risk for injury from DD to RDD, complementing other evidence-based strategies such as school-based instructional programs and zero tolerance Blood Alcohol Concentration laws for young and inexperienced drivers. PMID:26779910

  13. The role of social drinking factors in the relationship between incapacitated sexual assault and drinking before sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Bird, Elizabeth R; Gilmore, Amanda K; George, William H; Lewis, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    White House Council on Women and Girls (2014) highlighted sexual assault prevention as a high priority issue in need of immediate attention. A risk factor associated with sexual assault victimization and revictimization is drinking before sexual activity. The current study examined the relationship between incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) and drinking before sexual activity. Given the typical social context of both drinking before sexual activity and sexual assault in college settings, social-related drinking factors including drinking to conform motives, social drinking motives, and perceived drinking norms were examined. Six hundred and three undergraduate college women completed a survey online assessing history of ISA, social factors associated with drinking, and frequency of drinking before sexual activity. Path analysis indicated that both ISA before college and since entering college were associated with higher perceived drinking norms, more social drinking motive endorsement, and more drinking to conform. However, only higher perceived drinking norms and more social drinking motive endorsement were associated with both more severe ISA histories and more frequent drinking before sexual activity. Thus, a more severe ISA history was indeed associated with more frequent drinking before sexual activity and social factors related to drinking played a significant role in this relationship. Social factors can be easily targeted through brief interventions and these findings can inform future programming to promote more careful use of alcohol in social and sexual situations. PMID:26348279

  14. Comparing the Detection of Transdermal and Breath Alcohol Concentrations during Periods of Alcohol Consumption Ranging from Moderate Drinking to Binge Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Charles, Nora E.; Acheson, Ashley; John, Samantha; Furr, R. Michael; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Binge drinking is a public health concern due to its association with negative health outcomes as well as increased legal and social consequences. Previous studies have frequently used self-reported alcohol consumption to classify binge drinking episodes; however, these measures are often limited in both detail and accuracy. Some researchers have begun using additional measures such as blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol concentrations to supplement self-report data. Transdermal alcohol testing, or the detection of alcohol expiration through the skin, offers advantages over BAC and BrAC measures by allowing for continuous and noninvasive monitoring of an individual's drinking behavior in real-time. Despite these advantages, this technology has not been widely used or studied outside of forensic applications. The present research compares transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) and BrAC readings during the consumption of alcohol ranging from moderate drinking to binge drinking in 22 adult regular drinkers in order to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of the TAC monitors. We observed that BrAC and TAC measures were broadly consistent. Additionally, we were able to develop an equation that could predict BrAC results using TAC data, indicating TAC data would be an appropriate substitute in research and clinical contexts where BrAC readings are typically used. Finally, we were able to determine a cutoff point for peak TAC data that could reliably predict whether a participant had engaged in moderate or more than moderate drinking, suggesting TAC monitors could be used in settings where moderate or reduced drinking is the goal. PMID:22708608

  15. Stress, Social Support and Problem Drinking among Women in Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    Aims Prior studies find that stress contributes to problem drinking while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are largely confined to middle class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time period. Design and Participants This prospective study used GEE transition modeling and 4 annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. Measurements We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Findings Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events significantly increased the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Conclusions Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the private safety net of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor womens lives. PMID:18855817

  16. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)‒10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers. PMID:25898249

  17. The Developmental Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence and Harmful Drinking in Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Peers and Parents.

    PubMed

    Pesola, Francesca; Shelton, Katherine H; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus; Hickman, Matthew; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2015-09-01

    Depressive symptoms have been linked to the development of harmful drinking in adolescence but it remains unclear to what extent this effect continues into emerging adulthood. Deviant peers represent a risk factor while parental monitoring is a protective factor for harmful drinking. The study explored the relationship between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking between early adolescence and emerging adulthood. We also assessed to what extent this relationship is mediated by the influence of deviant peers and whether parental monitoring weakens this process. The sample consisted of 2964 adolescents (64 % females) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children study assessed between the ages of 14 and 19. Using structural equation modelling, we found that affiliation with deviant peers mediated the association between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking after adjustment for socio-demographic variables, parental drinking and depression, teenager's sex, conduct problems as well as drinking and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. We also found that parental control and solicitation reduced the influence of deviant peers on harmful drinking. The results indicate that prevention programs should offer adolescents training for peer resistance training and monitoring skills training for parents may have a long-term effect at weakening peer influences on harmful drinking. PMID:25976526

  18. Sexual Assault, Drinking Norms, and Drinking Behavior among a National Sample of Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Koo, Kelly H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Granato, Hollie F.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) are strongly associated with women’s alcohol use and the rates of both alcohol use and sexual assault history are higher among lesbian and bisexual women than heterosexual women. Although descriptive drinking norms are one of the highest predictors of alcohol use in emerging adults, this is the first study to examine the relationship between sexual assault history, drinking norms, and alcohol use in lesbian and bisexual women. We found that CSA severity was associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing more severe alcohol-involved ASA, more severe physically forced ASA, and was indirectly associated with more drinking behavior and higher drinking norms. Additionally, more severe alcohol-involved ASA was associated with higher drinking norms and more drinking behavior, but physically forced ASA was not. These findings help explain previous contradictory findings and provide information for interventions. PMID:24360780

  19. Drinking patterns of adolescents who develop alcohol use disorders: results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Craig A; Romaniuk, Helena; Salinger, Jodi; Staiger, Petra K; Bonomo, Yvonne; Hulbert, Carol; Patton, George C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We identify drinking styles that place teens at greatest risk of later alcohol use disorders (AUD). Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants A representative sample of 1943 adolescents living in Victoria in 1992. Outcome measures Teen drinking was assessed at 6 monthly intervals (5 waves) between mean ages 14.9 and 17.4 years and summarised across waves as none, one, or two or more waves of: (1) frequent drinking (3+ days in the past week), (2) loss of control over drinking (difficulty stopping, amnesia), (3) binge drinking (5+ standard drinks in a day) and (4) heavy binge drinking (20+ and 11+ standard drinks in a day for males and females, respectively). Young Adult Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) was assessed at 3 yearly intervals (3 waves) across the 20s (mean ages 20.7 through 29.1 years). Results We show that patterns of teen drinking characterised by loss of control increase risk for AUD across young adulthood: loss of control over drinking (one wave OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8; two or more waves OR 1.9, CI 1.4 to 2.7); binge drinking (one wave OR 1.7, CI 1.3 to 2.3; two or more waves OR 2.0, CI 1.5 to 2.6), and heavy binge drinking (one wave OR 2.0, CI 1.4 to 2.8; two or more waves OR 2.3, CI 1.6 to 3.4). This is not so for frequent drinking, which was unrelated to later AUD. Although drinking was more common in males, there was no evidence of sex differences in risk relationships. Conclusions Our results extend previous work by showing that patterns of drinking that represent loss of control over alcohol consumption (however expressed) are important targets for intervention. In addition to current policies that may reduce overall consumption, emphasising prevention of more extreme teenage bouts of alcohol consumption appears warranted. PMID:26868948

  20. Ethnic Drinking Cultures and Alcohol Use among Asian American Adults: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Results: Controlling for financial stress, discrimination and demographic variables, a hypothesized, positive relationship between ethnic drinking cultures and alcohol outcomes held for most drinking outcomes. A hypothesis on the moderating effect of integration into ethnic cultures indicated by ethnic language use was supported for US-born Asian Americans. Conclusion: Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence alcohol use by Asian Americans. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures may be conditioned by the degree of integration into the ethnic cultures. To inform alcohol interventions for reducing harmful and hazardous alcohol use among immigrants, future research needs to explore the cultural and social processes occurring in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking. PMID:22378829

  1. Drinking consequence types in the first college semester differentially predict drinking the following year.

    PubMed

    Read, Jennifer P; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Bachrach, Rachel L

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the utility of distinguishing among negative consequence types when seeking to predict drinking later in college, to understand which consequences in particular were associated with future drinking, and to determine the direction of those associations. We also examined whether there were differences in the types of drinking outcomes (quantity, frequency, binge) predicted by unique consequences. Finally, we tested whether the link between consequences and future drinking was different for men versus for women. Incoming first year college students (n=997; 65% female) completed an online assessment in September of the first college year, and again at the same time the following year. Results of structural equation model tests offered support for the utility of distinguishing among different consequence types, as specific consequences experienced during the first semester of college were associated differently with drinking at the beginning of the second school year. Gender differences also were observed. For both men and women, social consequences were associated with increases in drinking over time. Blackout drinking also evidenced prospective prediction, but differentially for men and women. For men, these consequences were associated with later increases in drinking, whereas for women, they were associated with a diminution in drinking the next year. For men, only consequences associated with self-care (impairment in physical activity, physical appearance, less time to pursue recreation) predicted decreases in drinking at Year 2. Prediction was generally similar across drinking outcomes. Results suggest that whether negative consequences result in downward titration, escalation, or no change at all in later drinking depends on the type of consequence experienced, and who experiences it. PMID:23017734

  2. Daily mood-drinking slopes as predictors: A new take on drinking motives and related outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Cynthia D.; Brannan, Debi; Wendt, Staci; Jacobs, Laurie; Wright, Robert; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    Motivational models of alcohol consumption have articulated the manner in which positive and negative experiences motivate drinking in unique social contexts (e.g., Cooper, Frone, Russell & Mudar, 1995). Daily process methodology, in which daily events, moods and drinking behaviors are reported daily or multiple times per day, has been used to examine behavioral patterns that are consistent with discrete motivations. We advance the notion that repeated patterns of drinking in various social contexts as a function of positive or negative mood increases can provide evidence of individual-level if-then drinking signatures, which in turn can predict drinking-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of slopes to predict longer term drinking motivations and alcohol problems, employing a daily process study of non-clinical moderate alcohol drinkers (N=47; 49% women). Participants responded to thrice daily interviews administered via handheld computer for 30 days, followed by a longitudinal telephone survey for 12 months. Participants’ daily mood-drinking relationships were extracted from HLM and employed as predictors of 12-month outcomes in multiple regression analyses. Daily mood-drinking patterns demonstrated significant variability across persons, such that moderate drinkers could be reliably differentiated based on those patterns in terms of distinct drinking-related outcomes. Among the results, negative mood-solitary drinking slopes were associated with lower subsequent coping motives; yet, positive mood-solitary drinking slopes were predictive of higher coping and lower social motives. Conversely, positive mood-social drinking associations were predictive of higher enhancement motives and b-MAST scores. Results are interpreted in light of motivational models of consumption. PMID:23647154

  3. Acute consumption of a caffeinated energy drink enhances aspects of performance in sprint swimmers.

    PubMed

    Lara, Beatriz; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Areces, Francisco; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Gallo-Salazar, César; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-09-28

    This study investigated the effect of a caffeinated energy drink on various aspects of performance in sprint swimmers. In a randomised and counterbalanced order, fourteen male sprint swimmers performed two acute experimental trials after the ingestion of a caffeinated energy drink (3 mg/kg) or after the ingestion of the same energy drink without caffeine (0 mg/kg; placebo). After 60 min of ingestion of the beverages, the swimmers performed a countermovement jump, a maximal handgrip test, a 50 m simulated competition and a 45 s swim at maximal intensity in a swim ergometer. A blood sample was withdrawn 1 min after the completion of the ergometer test. In comparison with the placebo drink, the intake of the caffeinated energy drink increased the height in the countermovement jump (49.4 (SD 5.3) v. 50.9 (SD 5.2) cm, respectively; P<0.05) and maximal force during the handgrip test with the right hand (481 (SD 49) v. 498 (SD 43) N; P<0.05). Furthermore, the caffeinated energy drink reduced the time needed to complete the 50 m simulated swimming competition (27.8 (SD 3.4) v. 27.5 (SD 3.2) s; P<0.05), and it increased peak power (273 (SD 55) v. 303 (SD 49) W; P <0.05) and blood lactate concentration (11.0 (SD 2.0) v. 11.7 (SD 2.1) mM; P<0.05) during the ergometer test. The caffeinated energy drink did not modify the prevalence of insomnia (7 v. 7%), muscle pain (36 v. 36%) or headache (0 v. 7%) during the hours following its ingestion (P>0.05). A caffeinated energy drink increased some aspects of swimming performance in competitive sprinters, whereas the side effects derived from the intake of this beverage were marginal at this dosage. PMID:26279580

  4. Correlates of soft drink and fruit juice consumption among Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vågstrand, Karin; Linné, Yvonne; Karlsson, Jan; Elfhag, Kristina; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how soft drink and fruit juice consumption in teenagers is associated with life-style, other food choices, eating behaviour and maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 16-year-old girls (n 275) and boys (n 199) and their mothers was undertaken. Questionnaires were used to assess habitual dietary intake, eating behaviour, physical activity, smoking and educational level. Weight and height were measured. It was found that eating breakfast less than five times per week was independently associated with a high soft drink consumption in both girls and boys. A low intake of cooked meals and milk and a high intake of salty snacks were associated with soft drinks in boys only, and a low intake of fruits in girls only. A high maternal juice intake, low milk and high fruit consumption were independent correlates of fruit juice intake in both girls and boys. In girls, being a smoker, having a smoking mother, a high soft drink intake, scoring low on emotional eating and high on cognitive restraint were also associated with fruit juice intake. A low intake of soft drinks and cooked meals was associated with fruit juice intake in boys only. Neither soft drinks nor fruit juice was associated with BMI. In conclusion, a high intake of both fruit juice and soft drinks were associated with a lower intake of foods such as milk and cooked meals. It might be possible to influence fruit juice intake among teenagers by aiming at their mothers, whereas the adolescents themselves should be targeted when the aim is to reduce soft drink consumption. PMID:18838019

  5. The Impact of Underage Drinking Laws on Alcohol-Related Fatal Crashes of Young Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Fisher, Deborah A.; Voas, Robert B.; Blackman, Kenneth; Tippetts, A. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background This study used a pre-post design to evaluate the influence on drinking-and-driving fatal crashes of six laws directed at youth aged 20 and younger and four laws targeting all drivers. Methods Data on the laws were drawn from the Alcohol Policy Information System data set (1998–2005), the Digests of State Alcohol-Highway Safety Related Legislation (1983-2006), and the Westlaw database. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set (1982-2004) was used to assess the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers involved in fatal crashes (fatal crash incidence ratio [CIR]). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Results Significant decreases in the underage fatal CIR were associated with presence of four of the laws targeting youth (possession, purchase, use and lose, and zero tolerance) and three of the laws targeting all drivers (.08 blood alcohol concentration illegal per se law, secondary or upgrade to a primary seat belt law, and an administrative license revocation law). Beer consumption was associated with a significant increase in the underage fatal CIR. The direct effects of laws targeting drivers of all ages on adult drinking drivers aged 26 and older were similar but of a smaller magnitude compared to the findings for those aged 20 and younger. It is estimated that the two core underage drinking laws (purchase and possession) and the zero-tolerance law are currently saving an estimated 732 lives per year controlling for other exposure factors. If all states adopted use and lose laws, an additional 165 lives could be saved annually. Conclusions These results provide substantial support for the effectiveness of under age 21 drinking laws with four of the six laws examined having significant associations with reductions in underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes. These findings point to the importance of key underage drinking and traffic safety laws in efforts to reduce underage drinking-driver crashes. PMID:19389192

  6. Pharmacologic dissociation between impulsivity and alcohol drinking in High Alcohol Preferring mice

    PubMed Central

    Oberlin, Brandon G.; Bristow, R. Evan; Heighton, Meredith E.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Impulsivity is genetically correlated with, and precedes addictive behaviors and alcoholism. If impulsivity or attention is causally related to addiction, certain pharmacological manipulations of impulsivity and/or attention may affect alcohol drinking, and vice versa. The current studies were designed to explore the relationship among impulsivity, drinking, and vigilance in selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice, a line that has previously demonstrated both high impulsivity and high alcohol consumption. Amphetamine, naltrexone and memantine were tested in a delay discounting (DD) task for their effects on impulsivity and vigilance. The same drugs and doses were also assessed for effects on alcohol drinking in a two-bottle choice test. Methods HAP mice were subjected to a modified version of adjusting amount DD using 0.5 sec and 10 sec delays to detect decreases and increases, respectively, in impulsive responding. In 2 experiments, mice were given amphetamine (0.4, 0.8 or 1.2 mg/kg), naltrexone (3 and 10 mg/kg), and memantine (1 and 5 mg/kg) before DD testing. Another pair of studies used scheduled access, two-bottle choice drinking to assess effects of amphetamine (0.4, 1.2, or 3.0 mg/kg), naltrexone (3 and 10 mg/kg), and memantine (1 and 5 mg/kg) on alcohol consumption. Results Amphetamine dose-dependently reduced impulsivity and vigilance decrement in DD, but similar doses left alcohol drinking unaffected. Naltrexone and memantine decreased alcohol intake at doses that did not affect water drinking, but had no effects on impulsivity or vigilance decrement in the DD task. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, none of the drugs tested here, while effective either on alcohol drinking or impulsivity, decreased both behaviors. These findings suggest that the genetic association between drinking and impulsivity observed in this population is mediated by mechanisms other than those targeted by the drugs tested in these studies. PMID:20491739

  7. Caffeinated Energy Drinks Improve High-Speed Running in Elite Field Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Areces, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a caffeine-containing energy drink to improve physical performance of elite field hockey players during a game. On 2 days separated by a week, 13 elite field hockey players (age and body mass = 23.2 ± 3.9 years and 76.1 ± 6.1 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants played a simulated field hockey game (2 × 25 min). Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the game were assessed using GPS devices. The total number of accelerations and decelerations was determined by accelerometry. Compared with the placebo drink, the caffeinated energy drink did not modify the total distance covered during the game (6,035 ± 451 m and 6,055 ± 499 m, respectively; p = .87), average heart rate (155 ± 13 beats per min and 158 ± 18 beats per min, respectively; p = .46), or the number of accelerations and decelerations (697 ± 285 and 618 ± 221, respectively; p = .15). However, the caffeinated energy drink reduced the distance covered at moderate-intensity running (793 ± 135 and 712 ± 116, respectively; p = .03) and increased the distance covered at high-intensity running (303 ± 67 m and 358 ± 117 m; p = .05) and sprinting (85 ± 41 m and 117 ± 55 m, respectively; p = .02). Elite field hockey players can benefit from ingesting caffeinated energy drinks because they increase the running distance covered at high-intensity running and sprinting. Increased running distance at high speed might represent a meaningful advantage for field hockey performance. PMID:26251550

  8. Wide Variation in Understanding about What Constitutes "Binge-Drinking"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Richard; French, David P.; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies investigated undergraduates' knowledge of the UK government recommendations about binge drinking and sensible drinking, and also examined how labelling oneself as a binge drinker is associated with binge drinking perceptions. In Study 1, 325 undergraduates reported how many units constitute binge drinking, and labelled themselves as a…

  9. Drinking Games in the College Environment: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsari, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Drinking games among American college students, although popular, contribute significantly to excessive drinking and alcohol-related problems. Drinking games appear to facilitate socialization, and are especially prevalent among younger students. This article reviews the qualitative and quantitative research on drinking games. Findings from…

  10. Increasing self-drinking for children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kathryn M; Volkert, Valerie M; Zeleny, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often do not self-drink without treatment. Unfortunately, the literature on self-drinking is scarce. We evaluated differential positive reinforcement to increase self-drinking for 2 children with feeding disorders. Results showed that differential positive reinforcement with tangible items increased self-drinking for both children in the absence of nonremoval of the cup. PMID:25931021

  11. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  12. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  13. A Practical Guide to Preventing and Dispersing Underage Drinking Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This guide describes the role of enforcement and community organizations or groups in preventing underage drinking parties and how to safely disperse them. It describes the problem of underage drinking, in general, and youth-drinking parties in particular. It provides step-by-step information on how to address underage drinking parties and how to…

  14. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  15. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  16. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  17. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  18. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  19. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  20. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...