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The present paper offers preliminary evidence for a hierarchical organization of normative social influences on 21stbirthdaydrinking. In recent years, 21stbirthday celebratory drinking has received increasing attention, due largely to the propagation of dangerous and sometimes fatal drinking traditions, such as attempting to drink one shot for…
Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.
birthday card was mailed to 2,380 college students who later completed an online instrument to assess the campaign's impact. Students reported drinking more during their 21stbirthday celebrations than on a typical weekend night. Men consumed more drinks, reached higher…
College represents a period of risk for heavy drinking and experiencing unwanted consequences associated with drinking. Previous research has identified specific events, including holidays (e.g., New Years), school breaks (e.g., Spring Break) and personally relevant events (e.g., 21stbirthdays), that are associated with elevated risk of heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The systematic evaluation of relative risk offers insights into event-specific drinking and an empirical basis upon which to consider allocation of limited prevention resources. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to provide a comparative index of drinking across a wide range of holidays and compare holiday drinking to 21stbirthdaydrinking. Participants were 1,124 students (55% female) who had turned 21 within the previous three weeks in 2008 and provided 90-day retrospective reports of their drinking using the Timeline Follow-back. Results based on a hurdle mixed model for blood alcohol content revealed several holidays that stand out for elevated drinking, including New Year's Eve and July 4th, whereas other holidays appear more similar to weekend drinking, such as Spring Break (approximately last week of March) and graduation (mid-June). Drinking on holidays or special days was substantially lower than drinking on 21stbirthdays. Results are discussed in terms of practical applications for targeted intervention efforts on college campuses toward specific events where elevated drinking is known to occur. PMID:21639597
Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C; Lewis, Melissa A; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Rodriguez, Lindsey M
This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21stbirthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reducedrinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131
Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the United States. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exceptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper,
Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reducedrinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health.
The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducingdrinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers. PMID:24064189
Young, Chelsie M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton
An analysis estimates some of the benefits that could result from reducing exposure to lead in community drinking water supplies. There are two primary categories of benefits evaluated: The public health benefits of reduced lead exposure and reduced mater...
Aim Estimate the efficacy of Case Management (CM) for women at high risk for bearing a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Design Women were recruited from antenatal clinics and engaged in 18 months of CM. Setting A South African community with a subculture of heavy, regular, weekend, recreational drinking and high documented rates of FASD. Participants Forty-one women who were high risk for bearing a child with FASD. Measures Statistical analysis of trends in drinking and other risk factors. Findings At intake 87.8% were pregnant, most had previous alcohol-exposed pregnancies, most/all of their friends drink alcohol (67.5%), and 50.0% had stressful lives. CM was particularly valuable for pregnant women, as statistically significant reductions in alcohol risk were obtained for them in multiple variables: total drinks on weekends after six months of CM (p = .026) and estimated peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at six (p < .001) and 18 months (p < .001). For participants completing 18 months of CM, AUDIT scores improved significantly by 6-month follow-up (from 19.8 to 9.7, p = .000), and even though rising at 12 and 18 months, AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking remained statistically significantly lower than baseline throughout CM. Happiness scale scores correlated significantly with reduceddrinking in most time periods. Conclusions An enduring change in drinking behavior is difficult in this social setting. Yet, CM provided by skilled and empathic case managers reduced maternal drinking at critical times, and therefore, alcohol exposure levels to the fetus.
May, Philip A.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Hendricks, Natalie; Roux, Sumien; Blom, Annalien; Steenekamp, Jeanetta; Alexander, Theresa; Andreas, Romena; Human, Suzanne; Snell, Cudore; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles C.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Blankenship, Jason
An analysis estimates some of the benefits that could result from reducing exposure to lead in community drinking-water supplies. There are two primary categories of benefits evaluated: public-health benefits of reduced lead exposure and reduced materials damages relating to the phenomenon of lead's presence in drinking water. In addition, because the calculation of health benefits depends on the extent of
Objective: Previous research has shown that perceived social norms are among the strongest predictors of drinking among young adults. Research has also consistently found religiousness to be protective against risk and negative health behaviors. The present research evaluates the extent to which reliance on God, prayer, and religion moderates the association between perceived social norms and drinking. Method: Participants (n = 1,124 undergraduate students) completed a cross-sectional survey online, which included measures of perceived norms, religious values, and drinking. Perceived norms were assessed by asking participants their perceptions of typical student drinking. Drinking outcomes included drinks per week, drinking frequency, and typical quantity consumed. Results: Regression analyses indicated that religiousness and perceived norms had significant unique associations in opposite directions for all three drinking outcomes. Significant interactions were evident between religiousness and perceived norms in predicting drinks per week, frequency, and typical quantity. In each case, the interactions indicated weaker associations between norms and drinking among those who assigned greater importance to religiousness. Conclusions: The extent of the relationship between perceived social norms and drinking was buffered by the degree to which students identified with religiousness. A growing body of literature has shown interventions including personalized feedback regarding social norms to be an effective strategy in reducingdrinking among college students. The present research suggests that incorporating religious or spiritual values into student interventions may be a promising direction to pursue.
Neighbors, Clayton; Brown, Garrett A.; Dibello, Angelo M.; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Foster, Dawn W.
The presentation provides an overview of iron removal technology for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The presentation is divided into several topic topics: Arsenic Chemistry, Treatment Selection, Treatment Options, Case Studies and Iron Removal Processes. Each topic i...
In 2006, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention provided grants to five communities with local Air Force bases to implement the agencys Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws (EUDL) initiative. This bulletin presents findings from an evaluati...
C. Spera J. F. Kunz K. Franklin K. Uekawa M. H. Cambridge R. K. Thomas R. Z. Szoc
We assessed the criterion-related validity of a contemplation ladder used to determine college students' readiness to reduce binge drinking. 1356 students in halls of residence in Dunedin, New Zealand completed a self-report survey including the contemplation ladder, AUDIT questionnaire, and other alcohol-related measures. Two groups of binge drinkers were identified, one reporting bingeing more than twice per week (n=645), and one bingeing 1-2 times per week (n=237). A third group did not report binge drinking (n=474). A higher readiness to change binge drinking was associated with more frequent bingeing, more interpersonal and academic problems with alcohol, less frequent use of cannabis, and living in a hall with a norm of binge drinking. The contemplation ladder for alcohol was sensitive to other alcohol-related behaviours, and may be useful in surveys of drinking where a brief measure of readiness to change is needed. PMID:20106607
Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent based intervention (PBI) in reducingdrinking among first year college students (N=443). Students were assigned to one of three conditions: PBI, PBI plus booster brochures (PBI-B), and an assessment only control group (CNT). At a 4-month post-intervention follow-up, results indicated students in the PBI-B group reported significantly less drinking to intoxication and peak drinking relative to the PBI group and CNT group. No significant differences were found between the PBI group and CNT group. Results provide further support for PBIs to reduce college student drinking and suggest that a booster brochure increases the effectiveness of PBIs. PMID:23369415
Doumas, Diana M; Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E; Esp, Susan M; Curtis-Schaeffer, Amy K
Importance of peer counselor post-training supervision on Motivational Interviewing microskills and post-intervention drinking outcomes were evaluated in a sample of heavy drinking undergraduate students completing BASICS (Dimeff et al., 1999). Two peer counselor groups were trained using identical protocols. Post-training, one group was randomized to receive supervision, while the other received no supervision. Groups were subsequently compared on MI microskills. College students (N=122) were randomly assigned to either assessment-only control, supervision, or no supervision groups and completed a BASICS intervention. Post-intervention drinking outcomes were examined. Results suggested supervision aided peer counselors in reducing use of closed-ended questions. Both treatment groups reduced total drinks per week and heavy drinking behaviors compared to control. No differences on peak BAC or alcohol related consequences were observed. Differences in supervision did not influence drinking outcomes; however post-training supervision for peer counselors deficient in MI microskills may be needed to improve BASICS fidelity.
Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Turrisi, Rob; Carney, JoLynn V.; Ray, Anne E.; Larimer, Mary E.
As part of a parent intervention to reduce heavy-drinking, college freshmen were assessed for their attitudes toward drinking and reasonable alternatives to drinking on the weekends, as well as cognitive variables underlying attitudinal variables. Intervention parents received a handbook the summer prior to college entrance with information about college drinking and best practices for parent-teen communication. Results revealed that the association between intervention condition and drinking outcomes was mediated by attitudes favorable to drinking and reasonable alternatives to drinking, as well as beliefs about alcohol related behavior. This parent program was shown to be efficacious for changing high-risk drinking in college. Findings are discussed regarding the further development of college drinking prevention programs involving parents.
Turrisi, Rob; Abar, Caitlin; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Jaccard, James
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are a major public health issue and have an enormous social and economic burden in developed, developing, and third-world countries. Current pharmacotherapies for treating AUDs suffer from deleterious side effects and are only effective in preventing relapse in a subset of individuals. This signifies an essential need for improved medications to reduce heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Growing literature has provided support for the use of anticonvulsants in suppressing symptoms induced by alcohol withdrawal. Emerging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that a number of well-tolerated anticonvulsants may also decrease alcohol drinking. This review will focus on recent evidence supporting the efficacy of novel anticonvulsants in reducing voluntary alcohol consumption in rodent models. The data demonstrate that anticonvulsants reducedrinking in standard home cage two-bottle choice paradigms, self-administration of alcohol in operant chambers, and cue- and stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking behaviors in rats and mice. This review also highlights evidence that some anticonvulsants were only moderately effective in reducingdrinking in select strains of rodents or models. This suggests that genetics, possible neuroadaptations, or the pharmacological target affect the ability of anticonvulsants to attenuate alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, anticonvulsants are relatively safe, have little abuse potential, and can work in combination with other drugs. The results from these preclinical and clinical studies provide compelling evidence that anticonvulsants are a promising class of medication for the treatment of AUDs.
Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…
Interventions challenging alcohol expectancies may lead to reductions in alcohol consumption. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of alcohol expectancy challenge (EC) interventions for college alcohol abuse prevention. Included were 14 studies (19 EC interventions) that measured alcohol expectancies and consumption, provided sufficient information to calculate effect sizes, and were available as of June 2010 (N=1,415; M age=20 years; 40% women; 88% White). Independent raters coded participant characteristics, design and methodological features, and intervention content, and calculated weighted mean effect sizes at first follow-up, using both fixed and random effects models. Compared with controls, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s ranged from 0.23 to 0.28). Within-group improvements in alcohol expectancies and consumption emerged for the EC group only; relative to their own baseline, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s ranged from 0.13 to 0.36). Supplemental analyses found improvements in specific alcohol expectancies (social, sexual, tension, and arousal) both between groups and within group. The short-term effects of EC interventions on college student drinking are not maintained at follow-ups greater than 4 weeks. PMID:22428862
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Terry, Danielle L; Carey, Kate B; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Michael P
Objective To determine if a school based educational programme aimed at reducing consumption of carbonated drinks can prevent excessive weight gain in children. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Six primary schools in southwest England. Participants 644 children aged 7-11 years. Intervention Focused educational programme on nutrition over one school year. Main outcome measures Drink consumption and number of overweight and obese children. Results Consumption of carbonated drinks over three days decreased by 0.6 glasses (average glass size 250 ml) in the intervention group but increased by 0.2 glasses in the control group (mean difference 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 1.3). At 12 months the percentage of overweight and obese children increased in the control group by 7.5%, compared with a decrease in the intervention group of 0.2% (mean difference 7.7%, 2.2% to 13.1%). Conclusion A targeted, school based education programme produced a modest reduction in the number of carbonated drinks consumed, which was associated with a reduction in the number of overweight and obese children.
James, Janet; Thomas, Peter; Cavan, David; Kerr, David
Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…
Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.
The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize several bromate-reducing bacteria and to examine their potential for bioaugmentation to a drinking water treatment process. Fifteen bromate-reducing bacteria were isolated from three sources. According to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the bromate-reducing bacteria are phylogenetically diverse, representing the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria. The broad diversity of bromate-reducing bacteria suggests the widespread capability for microbial bromate reduction. While the cometabolism of bromate via nitrate reductase and (per)chlorate reductase has been postulated, five of our bromate-reducing isolates were unable to reduce nitrate or perchlorate. This suggests that a bromate-specific reduction pathway might exist in some microorganisms. Bioaugmentation of activated carbon filters with eight of the bromate-reducing isolates did not significantly decrease start-up time or increase bromate removal as compared to control filters. To optimize bromate reduction in a biological drinking water treatment process, the predominant mechanism of bromate reduction (i.e., cometabolic or respiratory) needs to be assessed so that appropriate measures can be taken to improve bromate removal. PMID:21943884
Davidson, Andrew N; Chee-Sanford, Joanne; Lai, Hoi Yi Mandy; Ho, Chi-hua; Klenzendorf, J Brandon; Kirisits, Mary Jo
Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth. PMID:24732386
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is heritable, but the genetic basis for this disease remains poorly understood. Although numerous gene variants have been associated with AUD, these variants account for only a small fraction of the total risk. The idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, i.e. “epigenetic inheritance,” is re-emerging as a proven adjunct to traditional modes of genetic inheritance. We hypothesized that alcohol drinking and neurobiological sensitivity to alcohol are influenced by ancestral alcohol exposure. To test this hypothesis, we exposed male mice to chronic vapor ethanol or control conditions, mated them to ethanol-naïve females, and tested adult offspring for ethanol drinking, ethanol-induced behaviors, gene expression, and DNA methylation. We found that ethanol-sired male offspring had reduced ethanol preference and consumption, enhanced sensitivity to the anxiolytic and motor-enhancing effects of ethanol, and increased Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) compared to control-sired male offspring. There were no differences among ethanol- and control-sired female offspring on these assays. Ethanol exposure also decreased DNA methylation at the BdnfÆpromoter of sire's germ cells and hypomethylation was maintained in the VTA of both male and female ethanol-sired offspring. Our findings show that paternal alcohol exposure is a previously unrecognized regulator of alcohol drinking and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol in male, but not female, offspring. Paternal alcohol exposure also induces epigenetic alterations (DNA hypomethylation) and gene expression changes that persist in the VTA of offspring. These results provide new insight into the inheritance and development of alcohol drinking behaviors.
Background The long-term health consequences of acute bacterial gastroenteritis remain uncertain. We studied the risk of hypertension and reduced kidney function after an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to contamination of a regional drinking water supply with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter species. Methods A total of 1958 adults with no known history of hypertension or kidney disease before the outbreak participated in a long-term follow-up study. Of the participants, 675 had been asymptomatic during the outbreak, 909 had had moderate symptoms of acute self-limited gastroenteritis, and 374 had had severe symptoms that necessitated medical attention. The outcomes of interest were a diagnosis of hypertension or the presence of reduced kidney function and albuminuria during the follow-up period. Results After a mean follow-up of 3.7 years after the outbreak, hypertension was diagnosed in 27.0% of participants who had been asymptomatic during the outbreak and in 32.3% and 35.9% of those who had had moderate and severe symptoms of acute gastroenteritis respectively (trend p = 0.009). Compared with the asymptomatic participants, those with moderate and severe symptoms of gastroenteritis had an adjusted relative risk of hypertension of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97–1.35) and 1.28 (95% CI 1.04–1.56) respectively. A similar graded association was seen for reduced kidney function, defined as the presence of an estimated glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (trend p = 0.03). No association was observed between gastroenteritis and the subsequent risk of albuminuria. Interpretation Acute bacterial gastroenteritis necessitating medical attention was associated with an increased risk of hypertension and reduced kidney function 4 years after infection. Maintaining safe drinking water remains essential to human health, as transient bacterial contaminations may have implications well beyond a period of acute self-limited illness.
Garg, Amit X.; Moist, Louise; Matsell, Douglas; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather R.; Haynes, R. Brian; Suri, Rita S.; Salvadori, Marina; Ray, Joel; Clark, William F.
experience the highest levels of binge-drinking and life-time drunkenness in Europe. Youth drinking trends in North Tyneside reflect the national picture and many young people drink unsupervised on the streets, placing them at increased risk of alcohol-related harm (e.g. violence and assaults) and environmental danger (e.g. accidents and injuries), as well as contributing to residents’ fear of crime. The National
Disinfection is a key treatment process for producing drinking water. However, it produces undesirable by- products that may cause adverse health effects. Disinfection by-products (DBP) such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) are considered potentially carcinogenic and have been recently associated with reproduction problems. In the province of Quebec (Canada), the regulation respecting the quality of drinking water (RRQDW)
Disinfection is a key treatment process for producing drinking water. However, it produces undesirable byproducts that may cause adverse health effects. Disinfection by-products (DBP) such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) are considered potentially carcinogenic and have been recently associated with reproduction problems. In the province of Quebec (Canada), the regulation respecting the quality of drinking water (RRQDW) published
Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to…
Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa
To examine the role of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor activity on ethanol self-administration, compounds that differentially target orexin (OX) receptor subtypes were assessed in various self-administration paradigms using high-drinking rodent models. Effects of the OX1 antagonist SB334867, the OX2 antagonist LSN2424100, and the mixed OX1/2 antagonist almorexant (ACT-078573) on home cage ethanol consumption were tested in ethanol-preferring (P) rats using a 2-bottle choice procedure. In separate experiments, effects of SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant on operant ethanol self-administration were assessed in P rats maintained on a progressive ratio operant schedule of reinforcement. In a third series of experiments, SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant were administered to ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J mice to examine effects of OX receptor blockade on ethanol intake in a binge-like drinking (drinking-in-the-dark) model. In P rats with chronic home cage free-choice ethanol access, SB334867 and almorexant significantly reduced ethanol intake, but almorexant also reduced water intake, suggesting non-specific effects on consummatory behavior. In the progressive ratio operant experiments, LSN2424100 and almorexant reduced breakpoints and ethanol consumption in P rats, whereas the almorexant inactive enantiomer and SB334867 did not significantly affect the motivation to consume ethanol. As expected, vehicle-injected mice exhibited binge-like drinking patterns in the drinking-in-the-dark model. All three OX antagonists reduced both ethanol intake and resulting blood ethanol concentrations relative to vehicle-injected controls, but SB334867 and LSN2424100 also reduced sucrose consumption in a different cohort of mice, suggesting non-specific effects. Collectively, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence indicating that OX1 and OX2 receptor activity influences ethanol self-administration, although the effects may not be selective for ethanol consumption.
Anderson, Rachel I.; Becker, Howard C.; Adams, Benjamin L.; Jesudason, Cynthia D.; Rorick-Kehn, Linda M.
... are here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Drinking Water Radon in Drinking Water Public Health ... States and community water systems for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, ...
Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774
Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard
Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...
To examine the impact of a computer-delivered, home-based, alcohol-specific attention modification program (AMP), 41 heavy drinking college students were randomly assigned to AMP or an attention control condition (ACC). Participants selected 10 alcohol-related words most relevant to their own drinking experience as well as 10 neutral words not related to alcohol. These personalized stimuli were used in an attention retaining program based upon the probe detection paradigm twice weekly for 4 weeks. Participants in the AMP condition reported decreased drinking, whereas those in the ACC condition reported no change in their drinking. These preliminary data suggest that a computer-delivered, home-delivered, attention-retraining for alcohol treatment may be an inexpensive and efficacious adjunct to standard alcohol treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24955674
McGeary, John E; Meadows, Sydney P; Amir, Nader; Gibb, Brandon E
OBJECTIVE This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. PARTICIPANTS Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. METHODS Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum age drinking law (MADL). RESULTS In the short-term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. CONCLUSION These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MADLs simply lead to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse.
Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa
The risk of students to develop elevated blood lead from drinking water consumption at schools was assessed, which is a different approach from predictions of geometric mean blood lead levels. Measured water lead levels (WLLs) from 63 elementary schools in Seattle and 601 elementary schools in Los Angeles were acquired before and after voluntary remediation of water lead contamination problems. Combined exposures to measured school WLLs (first-draw and flushed, 50% of water consumption) and home WLLs (50% of water consumption) were used as inputs to the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model for each school. In Seattle an average 11.2% of students were predicted to exceed a blood lead threshold of 5 ?g/dL across 63 schools pre-remediation, but predicted risks at individual schools varied (7% risk of exceedance at a "low exposure school", 11% risk at a "typical exposure school", and 31% risk at a "high exposure school"). Addition of water filters and removal of lead plumbing lowered school WLL inputs to the model, and reduced the predicted risk output to 4.8% on average for Seattle elementary students across all 63 schools. The remnant post-remediation risk was attributable to other assumed background lead sources in the model (air, soil, dust, diet and home WLLs), with school WLLs practically eliminated as a health threat. Los Angeles schools instead instituted a flushing program which was assumed to eliminate first-draw WLLs as inputs to the model. With assumed benefits of remedial flushing, the predicted average risk of students to exceed a BLL threshold of 5 ?g/dL dropped from 8.6% to 6.0% across 601 schools. In an era with increasingly stringent public health goals (e.g., reduction of blood lead safety threshold from 10 to 5 ?g/dL), quantifiable health benefits to students were predicted after water lead remediation at two large US school systems. PMID:23988746
Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Le, Trung; Gallagher, Daniel; Edwards, Marc
Background Brief interventions (BIs) have been shown to be effective in modifying hazardous drinking behaviours in a range of settings. However, they are underutilised in hospitals due to resource constraints. We explored the perspectives of admitted trauma patients about the appeal, acceptability and content of a Brief Intervention (BI) delivered via text messages. Methods Thirty mobile phone users (?16 years old) admitted to Auckland City Hospital as a result of injury were recruited (December 2010 – January 2011). Participants were interviewed face-to-face during their hospital stay using a semi-structured interview guide that explored topics including perceptions of the proposed intervention to reduce hazardous drinking and related harm, and perceived acceptability of an m-health program. Where issues relating to content of messages were raised by participants these were also captured. In addition, a brief survey captured information on demographic information, mobile phone usage and type of phone, along with the frequency of alcohol use. Results 22 of the 30 participants were male, and almost half were aged 20 to 39 years. The majority of participants identified as New Zealand Europeans, six as M?ori (New Zealand's indigenous population) and of the remainder two each identified as Pacific and of Asian ethnicity. Most (28/30) participants used a mobile phone daily. 18 participants were deemed to be drinking in a non-hazardous manner, seven were hazardous drinkers, and three were non-drinkers. Most participants (21/30) indicated that text messages could be effective in reducing hazardous drinking and related harms, with more than half (17/30) signalling they would sign-up. Factors identified that would increase receptiveness included: awareness that the intervention was evidence-based; participants readiness-to-change; informative messages that include the consequences of drinking and practical advice; non-judgemental messages; and ease-of-use. Areas of potential concern included: confidentiality and frequency of messages. The cultural relevance of the messages for M?ori was highlighted as important. Conclusions This study indicates that trauma patients recognize potential benefits of mobile-health interventions designed to reduce hazardous drinking. The feedback provided will inform the development of an intervention to be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial.
Underage drinking, or binge drinking, has become a major concern in U.S. society. At The University of Tennessee (UT) a computer-based intervention was put into place for the past 3 years with funding from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The intervention was provided to all college students via UT's computer network system and was completed mostly online. Students were given a computerized, standardized assessment of alcohol use, and then a brief intervention was given based on the students' information. The intervention targeted students who were at highest risk for developing unsafe alcohol behaviors and/or increasing prior alcohol consumption habits in their first year of college. More than 54,000 graduate and undergraduate students completed the program. Since the launch of the program binge drinking has dropped 27% on campus, frequent binge drinking dropped 44%, and the number of liquor law violations to 18- to 20-year-olds decreased from 542 in 2004 to approximately 158 in 2007. The use of a computer-based intervention was comprehensive, low cost, and required low maintenance. PMID:22486431
Wodarski, John S; Macmaster, Samuel; Miller, Nichole K
Discusses late-night programming by college student unions as an alternative to high-risk drinking behavior, describing such programs at Michigan State, Penn State, and West Virginia universities. Addresses these programs' mission statement, goals, presidential support, staffing, food, programming ideas, promotion and publicity, assessment,…
Objective: College students embrace mobile cell phones (MCPs) as a primary communication and entertainment device. The aim of this study was to investigate college students' perceptions toward using mHealth technology to deliver interventions to prevent high-risk drinking and associated consequences. Design/setting: Four focus group…
Kazemi, Donna M.; Cochran, Allyson R.; Kelly, John F.; Cornelius, Judith B.; Belk, Catherine
The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water also have iron in their water. As a result, arsenic treatment at these sites will most likely b...
The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water also have iron in their water. As a result, arsenic treatment at these sites will most likely b...
The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water also have iron in their water. As a result, arsenic treatment at these sites will most likely b...
This "Call to Action" serves as a reminder that underage drinking has serious social costs and tragic consequences, demonstrating the importance of prevention. Underage alcohol use is not inevitable, and schools, parents, and other adults are not powerless to stop it. The latest research demonstrates a compelling need to address alcohol use early,…
Aims To evaluate a 2.5-year prevention programme working through parents, targeting drinking among 13-16-year-olds. Design Quasi-experimental using matched controls with a pre-post, intention-to-treat design. Setting Schools located in inner city, public housing and small town areas. Participants A total of 900 pupils entering junior high school and their parents, followed longitudinally. Intervention Parents received information by mail and during parent
This article discusses the issue of lead contamination of drinking water, noting the various regulatory-driven measures that have been adopted in the U.S. since 1986 to address this public health issue. The article summarizes the literature on the dynamics of tap water lead contamination and discusses this widespread source of lead exposure in the context of the latest research evidence. PMID:16134575
Maas, Richard P; Patch, Steven C; Morgan, Diane M; Pandolfo, Tamara J
Alcohol use increases substantially during the transition from middle school to high school. This study tested a brief, web-based personalized feedback program aimed at reducing risk factors for drinking, alcohol use, and alcohol-related consequences among 9th grade students. At a 3-month follow-up, students in the intervention group showed positive results relative to those in the control group on variables associated with reduced risk, including positive alcohol expectancies and positive beliefs about alcohol. Students in the intervention group also reported a reduction in drinking frequency and alcohol-related consequences relative to those in the control group. There were, however, no differences in normative beliefs regarding peer drinking or quantity of weekly drinking between the two groups. Results indicate that a brief, web-based personalized normative feedback program delivered in the school setting is a promising approach to reducing alcohol use and the associated consequences among 9th grade students. PMID:24148137
Doumas, Diana M; Esp, Susan; Turrisi, Rob; Hausheer, Robin; Cuffee, Courtney
... Problem Binge drinking is a dangerous and costly public health problem Binge drinking is a bigger problem than ... faith-based organizations, law enforcement, health care, and public health agencies to reduce binge drinking. Doctors, nurses, and ...
Our previous findings have shown that l-cysteine, a non essential amino acid, prevented ethanol (EtOH) induced conditioned place preference. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of l-cysteine on the acquisition and maintenance of oral EtOH self-administration and on the reinstatement of EtOH-drinking behavior in Wistar rats. Rats were pretreated intraperitoneally with saline or l-cysteine (20 and 40 mg/kg) 30 min before each acquisition trial, in an operant nose-poking paradigm where they were given the opportunity to orally self-administer tap water or EtOH (5-10% v/v). Further, to evaluate if l-cysteine reduces the acquired oral EtOH self-administration, we carried out an independent experiment in which rats were trained to self-administer EtOH (10%); after all groups of rats developed similarly stable oral EtOH self-administration, the effect of l-cysteine (0, 40, 60, 80 and 100mg/kg) was tested. An additional group of rats was pretreated with saline or l-cysteine (80 mg/kg) and tested on reinstatement after EtOH extinction and, at the end of last reinstatement session, were utilized to measure blood and brain EtOH levels. The animals that had access to EtOH solution discriminated between the active and inactive nose-pokes and showed rates of active nose-pokes significantly higher than the tap water group. Furthermore, rats self-administering EtOH (10%) also demonstrated extinction behavior and gradually reinstated active nose-poke responding when EtOH was reintroduced. l-cysteine reduced both the acquisition and maintenance of oral EtOH self-administration. The reduced reinstatement of EtOH-drinking behavior was paralleled by a significant reduction of EtOH intake and correlated with blood and brain EtOH levels. The efficacy of l-cysteine on the various phases of alcohol drinking in rats, could represent an interesting pharmacological approach and could open a new line of research for the development of therapies to reduce EtOH intake in alcoholic patients. PMID:19879891
This ecologic study notes that fetal death rates (FDR) during the Washington DC drinking water "lead crisis" (2000-2004) peaked in 2001 when water lead levels (WLLs) were highest, and were minimized in 2004 after public health interventions were implemented to protect pregnant women. Changes in the DC FDR vs neighboring Baltimore City were correlated to DC WLL (R(2) = 0.72). Birth rates in DC also increased versus Baltimore City and versus the United States in 2004-2006, when consumers were protected from high WLLs. The increased births in DC neighborhoods comparing 2004 versus 2001 was correlated to the incidence of lead pipes (R(2) = 0.60). DC birth rates from 1999 to 2007 correlated with proxies for maternal blood lead including the geometric mean blood lead in DC children (R(2) = 0.68) and the incidence of lead poisoning in children under age 1.3 years (R(2) = 0.64). After public health protections were removed in 2006, DC FDR spiked in 2007-2009 versus 2004-2006 (p < 0.05), in a manner consistent with high WLL health risks to consumers arising from partial lead service line replacements, and DC FDR dropped to historically low levels in 2010-2011 after consumers were protected and the PSLR program was terminated. Re-evaluation of a historic construction-related miscarriage cluster in the USA Today Building (1987-1988), demonstrates that high WLLs from disturbed plumbing were a possible cause. Overall results are consistent with prior research linking increased lead exposure to higher incidence of miscarriages and fetal death, even at blood lead elevations (?5 ?g/dL) once considered relatively low. PMID:24321041
In reduced groundwater iron is involved in biotic and abiotic transformation processes, both of which could lead to iron isotope fractionation. The reduced groundwater aquifers in the area of the Vietnamese capital of Hanoi are the main drinking water sources for the city. These groundwaters contain arsenic, which imposes a serious health threat to millions of people. Dissolved arsenic is related to the reducing conditions prevalent in the groundwater, and iron and arsenic contents are correlated in the sediments. We are employing iron isotope composition as a tool to better understand the processes leading to the transformation of iron in the groundwater and its role in various biogeochemical processes in reduced environments. Drinking water is supplied to the city of Hanoi from several water treatment plants (WTP) which pump the raw groundwater from a lower aquifer, while the rural surroundings pump untreated groundwater from an upper aquifer by private tubewells. Surface water from the Red River delta is the main source of recharge to these two aquifers. Due to high content of particulate natural organic matter (NOM) in the sediment leading to extensive microbial activity, the groundwaters are anoxic and rich in dissolved iron(II). The iron(II) removal in the WTPs is carried by a multi-step treatment including aeration, settling, filtration, and chlorination. We have collected natural groundwater samples for isotopic analysis from two aquifers at several locations, a groundwater depth profile and its corresponding sediment phases from the upper aquifer and the underlying aquitard, raw and treated water from several WTPs, as well as the corresponding iron(III) precipitates. The iron concentrations of groundwaters analysed in this study range from 3 to 28 mg/L and ? 57Fe (57/54 deviation from IRMM 014) values vary between -1.2 and +1.5 ‰ . The sediment depth profile has a ? 57Fe around +0.3 ‰ , which implies that the high values obtained in the groundwater nearby (+0.9 - +1.2 ‰ ) cannot be explained by a simple reductive dissolution process, which would be expected to favour the lighter Fe isotopes. Removal of iron in the WTP is followed by a strong decrease of ? 57Fe, probably due to formation of heavier Fe(III) phases. High ? 57Fe values are found in both aquifers and correspond to high concentrations of iron in the groundwater. We hypothesize that the iron isotopic variations observed so far are an indication for iron sources and transformation processes that could not be detected by only measuring dissolved iron concentrations. Current investigations will further explore this hypothesis.
Teutsch, N.; Berg, M.; von Gunten, U.; Halliday, A.
Objective: The present study reports on the results of a 2.5-year college-wide, coordinated intervention that was implemented from June 2007 to December 2009 to reduce the amount and frequency of students' alcohol consumption. Design: Quasi-experimental study using a one-group (freshmen living on campus) pretest/posttest design ("N"…
Seo, Dong-Chul; Owens, Dee; Gassman, Ruth; Kingori, Caroline
The Surgeon General, the Nation's top public health officer, is appointed by the President of the United States to help protect and promote the health of the Nation. The recently published "Surgeon General's Call to Action To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking" [ED496083] highlights underage alcohol use as a major public health and safety issue.…
It has been shown that molecular hydrogen (H2) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant and suppresses brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we show that drinking H2-containing water significantly reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD model mice using both acute and chronic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The concentration-dependency of H2 showed that H2 as low as 0.08 ppm had almost the same effect as saturated H2 water (1.5 ppm). MPTP-induced accumulation of cellular 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a marker of DNA damage, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway in mice drinking H2-containing water, whereas production of superoxide (O2•?) detected by intravascular injection of dihydroethidium (DHE) was not reduced significantly. Our results indicated that low concentration of H2 in drinking water can reduce oxidative stress in the brain. Thus, drinking H2-containing water may be useful in daily life to prevent or minimize the risk of life style-related oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.
Objective: This study evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of combining motivational interviewing with feedback to address heavy drinking among university freshmen. Method: Microcosting methods were used in a prospective cost and cost-effectiveness study of a randomized trial of assessment only (AO), motivational interviewing (MI), feedback only (FB), and motivational interviewing with feedback (MIFB) at a large public university in the southeastern United States. Students were recruited and screened into the study during freshman classes based on recent heavy drinking. A total of 727 students (60% female) were randomized, and 656 had sufficient data at 3-months’ follow-up to be included in the cost-effectiveness analysis. Effectiveness outcomes were changes in average drinks per drinking occasion and number of heavy drinking occasions. Results: Mean intervention costs per student were $16.51 for MI, $17.33 for FB, and $36.03 for MIFB. Cost-effectiveness analysis showed two cost-effective interventions for both outcomes: AO ($0 per student) and MIFB ($36 per student). Conclusions: This is the first prospective cost-effectiveness study to our knowledge to examine MI for heavy drinking among students in a university setting. Despite being the most expensive intervention, MIFB was the most effective intervention and may be a cost-effective intervention, depending on a university’s willingness to pay for changes in the considered outcomes.
Cowell, Alexander J.; Brown, Janice M.; Mills, Michael J.; Bender, Randall H.; Wedehase, Brendan J.
Introduction and Aims Misperceptions of how members of one’s social group think and act influence behaviour. The current study was designed to extend the research of group-specific normative feedback interventions among salient campus groups with heightened risk. Although not a randomised controlled trial, this research used normative feedback that was obtained using wireless keypad technology during a live session, within sex-specific student athlete groups to extend the proof of concept of using this brief interactive intervention. Design and Methods Participants included 660 intercollegiate athletes from all varsity athletic teams at two private, mid-size universities. Intervention data were gathered in vivo using computerised handheld keypads into which group members entered in personal responses to a series of alcohol-related questions. These questions assessed perceptions of normative group behaviour and attitudes as well as actual individual behaviour and attitudes. These data were then immediately presented back in graphical form to illustrate discrepancies between perceived and actual group norms. Results Results revealed that at 1 month post-intervention, perceived group norms, behaviour, attitudes and consequences reduced compared with baseline. These reductions were maintained at 2 month follow up. Latent growth modelling suggested that the reductions in perceived norms and attitudes were associated with reductions in individual drinking behaviour and negative consequences. Discussion and Conclusions These results are among the first to suggest the effectiveness of a novel, group-based normative alcohol intervention among student athletes. Limitations of the design preclude strong inferences about efficacy; however, the findings support further trialling of such information technology in alcohol treatment research.
Background Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost, point-of-use water purification method that has been disseminated globally. Laboratory studies suggest that SODIS is highly efficacious in inactivating waterborne pathogens. Previous field studies provided limited evidence for its effectiveness in reducing diarrhoea. Methods and Findings We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 rural communities in Bolivia to evaluate the effect of SODIS in reducing diarrhoea among children under the age of 5 y. A local nongovernmental organisation conducted a standardised interactive SODIS-promotion campaign in 11 communities targeting households, communities, and primary schools. Mothers completed a daily child health diary for 1 y. Within the intervention arm 225 households (376 children) were trained to expose water-filled polyethyleneteraphtalate bottles to sunlight. Eleven communities (200 households, 349 children) served as a control. We recorded 166,971 person-days of observation during the trial representing 79.9% and 78.9% of the total possible person-days of child observation in intervention and control arms, respectively. Mean compliance with SODIS was 32.1%. The reported incidence rate of gastrointestinal illness in children in the intervention arm was 3.6 compared to 4.3 episodes/year at risk in the control arm. The relative rate of diarrhoea adjusted for intracluster correlation was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.59–1.12). The median length of diarrhoea was 3 d in both groups. Conclusions Despite an extensive SODIS promotion campaign we found only moderate compliance with the intervention and no strong evidence for a substantive reduction in diarrhoea among children. These results suggest that there is a need for better evidence of how the well-established laboratory efficacy of this home-based water treatment method translates into field effectiveness under various cultural settings and intervention intensities. Further global promotion of SODIS for general use should be undertaken with care until such evidence is available. Trial Registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00731497 Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary
Mausezahl, Daniel; Christen, Andri; Pacheco, Gonzalo Duran; Tellez, Fidel Alvarez; Iriarte, Mercedes; Zapata, Maria E.; Cevallos, Myriam; Hattendorf, Jan; Cattaneo, Monica Daigl; Arnold, Benjamin; Smith, Thomas A.; Colford, John M.
Background Risky driving and hazardous drinking are associated with significant human and economic costs. Brief interventions for more than one risky behavior have the potential to reduce health-compromising behaviors in populations with multiple risk-taking behaviors such as young adults. Emergency department (ED) visits provide a window of opportunity for interventions meant to reduce both risky driving and hazardous drinking. Methods We determined the efficacy of a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) protocol addressing risky driving and hazardous drinking. We used a randomized controlled trial design with follow-ups through 12 months. ED patients aged 18 to 44 who screened positive for both behaviors (n = 476) were randomized to brief intervention (BIG), contact control (CCG), or no-contact control (NCG) groups. The BIG (n = 150) received a 20-minute assessment and two 20-minute interventions. The CCG (n = 162) received a 20-minute assessment at baseline and no intervention. The NCG (n = 164) were asked for contact information at baseline and had no assessment or intervention. Outcomes at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were self-reported driving behaviors and alcohol consumption. Results Outcomes were significantly lower in BIG compared with CCG through 6 or 9 months, but not at 12 months: Safety belt use at 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08 to 0.65); 6 months (AOR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.42); and 9 months (AOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.56); binge drinking at 3 months (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.97) and 6 months (ARR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.97); and ? 5 standard drinks/d at 3 months (AOR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.91) and 6 months (AOR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.98). No substantial differences were observed between BIG and NCG at 12 months. Conclusions Our findings indicate that SBIRT reduced risky driving and hazardous drinking in young adults, but its effects did not persist after 9 months. Future research should explore methods for extending the intervention effect.
Sommers, Marilyn S.; Lyons, Michael S.; Fargo, Jamison D.; Sommers, Benjamin D.; McDonald, Catherine C.; Shope, Jean T.; Fleming, Michael F.
Objectives. We estimate the risk of highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) among adults 55 and older in a community drinking tap water meeting current U.S. standards. Methods. We conducted a randomized, triple-blinded, crossover trial in 714 households (988 indiv...
A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…
DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.
Our previous findings have shown that l-cysteine, a non essential amino acid, prevented ethanol (EtOH) induced conditioned place preference. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of l-cysteine on the acquisition and maintenance of oral EtOH self-administration and on the reinstatement of EtOH-drinking behavior in Wistar rats. Rats were pretreated intraperitoneally with saline or l-cysteine (20
Alessandra T. Peana; Giulia Muggironi; Giovanna Calvisi; Paolo Enrico; Maddalena Mereu; Maria Nieddu; Gianpiero Boatto; Marco Diana
A porous carbon foam (CF) electrode modified with a reduced graphene oxide-Ag (rGO-Ag) nanocomposite has been fabricated to purify water. It can perform as an antibacterial device by killing pathogenic microbes with the aid of a 1.5 V battery, with very little power consumption. The device is recycled ten times with good performance for long term usage. It is shown that the device may be implemented as a fast water purifier to deactivate the pathogens in drinking water. PMID:23670243
Kumar, Surender; Ghosh, Somnath; Munichandraiah, N; Vasan, H N
Drinking water is the major natural source of iodine in many European countries. In the present study, we examined possible sites of iodine loss during the usual water purification process.Water samples from 6 sites during the technological process were taken and analyzed for iodine content. Under laboratory circumstances, prepared iodine in water solution has been used as a model to test the effect of the presence of chlorine. Samples from the purification sites revealed that in the presence of chlorine there is a progressive loss of iodine from the water. In the chlorine concentrations employed in the purification process, 24-h chlorine exposure eliminated more than 50% of iodine when the initial iodine concentration was 250 ?g/l or less. Iodine was completely eliminated if the starting concentration was 16 ?g/l.We conclude that chlorine used during water purification may be a major contributor to iodine deficiency in European communities. PMID:21623158
Samson, L; Czegeny, I; Mezosi, E; Erdei, A; Bodor, M; Cseke, B; Burman, K D; Nagy, E V
A randomized, controlled intervention trial of two household-scale drinking water filters was conducted in a rural village in Cambodia. After collecting four weeks of baseline data on household water quality, diarrheal disease, and other data related to water use and handling practices, households were randomly assigned to one of three groups of 60 households: those receiving a ceramic water purifier (CWP), those receiving a second filter employing an iron-rich ceramic (CWP-Fe), and a control group receiving no intervention. Households were followed for 18 weeks post-baseline with biweekly follow-up. Households using either filter reported significantly less diarrheal disease during the study compared with a control group of households without filters as indicated by longitudinal prevalence ratios CWP: 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-0.63); CWP-Fe: 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), an effect that was observed in all age groups and both sexes after controlling for clustering within households and within individuals over time. PMID:18784232
Objectives. We estimated the relative rate of highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) per year associated with active versus sham household water filtration devices among older adults in a community receiving tap water meeting current US standards. Methods. We conducted a randomized, triple-blinded, crossover trial in 714 households (988 individuals), which used active and sham water filtration devices for 6 months each. We estimated the annual incidence rate ratio of HCGI episodes and the longitudinal prevalence ratio of HCGI days at population and individual levels with a generalized estimating equation (GEE) and generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs), respectively, adjusted for covariates associated with outcome. Results. The incidence rate ratios (active versus sham) were 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77, 1.00) and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.76, 0.94) HCGI episodes per year estimated by GEE and GLMM models, respectively. The corresponding longitudinal prevalence ratios were 0.88 (95% CI = 0.74, 1.05) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.78, 0.90) HCGI days per person per year. Conclusions. We observed reductions in population- and individual-level measures of HCGI associated with use of the active filtration device. These findings suggest the need for further research on the impact of drinking water on the health of sensitive subpopulations.
Hilton, Joan F.; Wright, Catherine C.; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Saha, Sona; Wade, Timothy J.; Scott, James; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.
Background The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20?years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific target group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that aims to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking adolescents aged 15 to 20?years with a low educational background. Methods/design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink (WDYD) web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 750 low-educated, heavy drinking adolescents. It will use a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Classes of adolescents from educational institutions will be randomly assigned to either the experimental (n?=?375: web-based brief alcohol intervention) or control condition (n?=?375: no intervention). Primary outcomes measures will be: 1) the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking, 2) reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption, and 3) frequency of binge drinking. The secondary outcome measures include the alcohol-related cognitions, attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective norms, which will be measured at baseline and at one and six months after the intervention. Discussion This study protocol presents the study design of a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention. We hypothesized a reduction in mean weekly alcohol consumption and in the frequency of binge drinking in the experimental condition, resulting from the web-based brief alcohol intervention, compared to the control condition. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971
Synopsis Our study attempts to find out the role of various information sources in the implementation of the rainwater harvesting tanks to reduce water pollution risks in the coastal Bangladesh. An extensive field survey has shown that adopters of the tanks mostly have come to know the tank by interpersonal sources rather than mass media. By mapping interpersonal information networks
A systematic review of the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol- impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). In eight studies that met quality criteria for inclusion in the review, the median decrease in alcohol-related crashes resulting from the campaigns was 13% (interquartile range: 6% to 14%). Economic
Randy W. Elder; Ruth A. Shults; David A. Sleet; James L. Nichols; Robert S. Thompson; Warda Rajab
The questions in this activity help students to understand the effects of consuming sports drinks and when and how the consumption of sports drinks can be beneficial or harmful. This activity provides the opportunity to review some basic concepts related to osmosis, cellular respiration, mammalian temperature regulation, and how our different body systems cooperate to maintain homeostasis.
Underage drinking is a major problem across the country. Many communities are trying to reduce the injuries and deaths that occur as a result of this problem. Community groups have been instrumental in working at the state level to pass stricter laws curbing underage drinking and to tighten the laws that already exist. This paper provides tips and…
... problem with serious health and safety consequences. Deeply embedded in American culture, underage drinking is still viewed ... schools, communities, all levels of government, all social systems that interface with youth, and youth themselves in ...
BACKGROUND: College drinking is a significant public health problem. Although parental monitoring and supervision reduces the risk for alcohol consumption among younger adolescents, few studies have investigated the impact of earlier parental monitoring on later college drinking. This study examined whether parental monitoring indirectly exerts a protective effect on college drinking by reducing high school alcohol consumption. METHODS: A longitudinal
Amelia M Arria; Vanessa Kuhn; Kimberly M Caldeira; Kevin E O'Grady; Kathryn B Vincent; Eric D Wish
... sodium in my drinking water? How much does water contribute to sodium in my diet? To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy ... health effects. Top of page How much does water contribute to sodium in my diet? A Food and Drug Administration publication, " Scouting for ...
Background The toxic heavy metal lead continues to be a leading environmental risk factor, with the number of attributable deaths having doubled between 1990 and 2010. Although major sources of lead exposure, in particular lead in petrol, have been significantly reduced in recent decades, lead is still used in a wide range of processes and objects, with developing countries disproportionally affected. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of regulatory, environmental and educational interventions for reducing blood lead levels and associated health outcomes in children, pregnant women and the general population. Methods/design The databases MEDLINE, Embase and the Global Health Library (GHL) will be searched using a sensitive search strategy. Studies in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian or Afrikaans will be screened according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We will consider randomized and non-randomized studies accepted by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) Group, as well as additional non-randomized studies. Screening of titles and abstracts will be performed by one author. Full texts of potentially relevant studies will be independently assessed for eligibility by two authors. A single author will extract data, with a second reviewer checking the extraction form. Risk of bias will be assessed by two researchers using the Graphical Appraisal Tool for Epidemiological studies, as modified by the Centre for Public Health at the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Any inconsistencies in the assessment of eligibility, data extraction or quality appraisal will be resolved through discussion. Where two or more studies report the primary outcome blood lead levels within the same population group, intervention category and source of lead exposure, data will be pooled using random effects meta-analysis. In parallel, harvest plots as a graphical method of evidence synthesis will be used to present findings for blood lead levels and secondary outcomes. Discussion This systematic review will fill an important evidence gap with respect to the effectiveness of interventions to reduce lead in consumer products and drinking water in the context of new WHO guidelines for the prevention and management of lead poisoning. It will also contribute to setting a future research agenda.
Social host policies focused on underage drinking parties are implemented to reduce social availability of alcohol and high-risk drinking by adolescents in private locations. We examined the policies' relationship with drinking location, peer-group drinking size, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences. Cross-sectional data from 11,205, 14-20-year olds, were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Policies were not associated with drinking location, decreased heavy episodic drinking, or nonviolent consequences. However, adolescents from communities with a preexisting policy had lower odds of drinking in large peer groups compared to those from communities without a policy at baseline. Additional research is needed to examine their effectiveness. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:23003215
Wagoner, Kimberly G; Sparks, Michael; Francisco, Vincent T; Wyrick, David; Nichols, Tracy; Wolfson, Mark
Objective: This study evaluated a gender-specific, computer-mediated intervention program to prevent underage drinking among early adolescent girls. Method: Study participants were adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants completed pretests online and were randomly divided between intervention and control arms. Intervention-arm girls and their mothers interacted with a computer program aimed to enhance mother-daughter relationships and to teach girls skills for managing conflict, resisting media influences, refusing alcohol and drugs, and correcting peer norms about underage drinking, smoking, and drug use. After intervention, all participants (control and intervention) completed posttest and follow-up measurements. Results: Two months following program delivery and relative to control-arm participants, intervention-arm girls and mothers had improved their mother-daughter communication skills and their perceptions and applications of parental monitoring and rule-setting relative to girls' alcohol use. Also at follow-up, intervention-arm girls had improved their conflict management and alcohol use-refusal skills; reported healthier normative beliefs about underage drinking; demonstrated greater self-efficacy about their ability to avoid underage drinking; reported less alcohol consumption in the past 7 days, 30 days, and year; and expressed lower intentions to drink as adults. Conclusions: Study findings modestly support the viability of a mother-daughter, computer-mediated program to prevent underage drinking among adolescent girls. The data have implications for the further development of gender-specific approaches to combat increases in alcohol and other substance use among American girls.
Schinke, Steven P.; Cole, Kristin C. A.; Fang, Lin
The use of natural environmentally benign agents in the treatment of drinking water is rapidly gaining interest due to their inherently renewable character and low toxicity. We show that the common Mexican cactus produces a gum-like substance, cactus mucilage, which shows excellent flocculating abilities and is an economically viable alternative for low-income communities. Cactus mucilage is a neutral mixture of
The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…
... are here Home » Alcohol & Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption » Drinking Levels Defined In this Section Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? ...
This 'Community How to Guide on Underage Drinking Enforcement' detail what coalitions and organizations need to do to insure the enforcement and judicial communities are active partners in the effort to reduce underage drinking. One of the first tasks dis...
Water is essential for life. Thirst is a pressing need which always has to be satisfied. Infants need 3 times more water than adults if the requirements is calculated according to body weight. A correct balance in the sensory, physical, chemical and bacteriological qualities of water make it drinkable. Two laws have been passed recently concerning drinking water in France: one deals with water for human consumption (January 3 1989 decree), and the other deals with drinkable bottled mineral water (June 3 1989 decree). Tap water and bottled water are under strict vigilance. For babies under 4 months of age, it is better to use bottled water with a low mineral content (nitrates less than 15 mg/l). Hard water is safe; water softeners are useful only for hot water. Fluorination supplies of water is good for dental health at a concentration of 1 mg/l. Plastic bottles are as safe as glass ones. PMID:1662352
Objective: Hazardous drinking is a serious societal concern in military populations. Efforts to reduce hazardous drinking among military personnel have been limited in effectiveness. There is a need for a deeper understanding of how community-based prevention models apply to hazardous drinking in the military. Community-wide prevention efforts may…
Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Requires that information be made available to the public so that you can learn how to help protect your drinking water and make personal health decisions about it. SDWA ...
... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Energy Drinks and Booze HealthDay July 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alcohol Caffeine Transcript Mixing alcohol with energy drinks boosts a young adult's desire to keep ...
High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink consumption and…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010
This study examines the efficacy of a video entitled “Underage Drinking: A Roll of the Dice,” and accompanying discussion guide. The video illustrates the civil and criminal consequences of underage drinking. The video and discussion aimed to: (1) increase awareness about the problem of underage drinking; (2) increase viewers' and participants' knowledge and perceptions of the risks and responsibilities and
Karen Glanz; Jason E Maddock; Dorothy Shigaki; Catherine A Sorensen
Background: To reduce problem drinking, interventions must be directed toward those factors associated with problem drinking. Purpose: This study examined how perceptions of the role of alcohol related to problem drinking among a convenience sample of 301 college students. Methods: Fifteen items concerned with drinking behavior or perceptions…
Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Hussain, Mohammad
Background College drinking is a significant public health problem. Although parental monitoring and supervision reduces the risk for alcohol consumption among younger adolescents, few studies have investigated the impact of earlier parental monitoring on later college drinking. This study examined whether parental monitoring indirectly exerts a protective effect on college drinking by reducing high school alcohol consumption. Methods A longitudinal cohort of 1,253 male and female students, ages 17 to 19, attending a large, public, mid-Atlantic university was studied at two time points. First, data on high school parental monitoring and alcohol consumption were gathered via questionnaire during the summer prior to college entry. Second, during the first year of college, past-year alcohol consumption was measured via a personal interview. Multiple regression models tested the relationship between parental monitoring and past year alcohol use (i.e., number of drinks per drinking day). Results Holding constant demographics, SAT score, and religiosity, parental monitoring had a significant protective effect on both high school and college drinking level. However, the association between parental monitoring and college drinking level became non-significant once high school drinking level was held constant. Conclusion While parental monitoring did not directly influence college alcohol consumption, evidence for mediation was observed, whereby parental monitoring had an indirect influence on college drinking through reductions in high school drinking. Initiatives that promote effective parenting might be an important strategy to curb high-risk drinking among older adolescents. More research is needed to understand the nature and degree of parent-child communication that is necessary to extend the protective influence of parents into the college years.
Arria, Amelia M; Kuhn, Vanessa; Caldeira, Kimberly M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vincent, Kathryn B; Wish, Eric D
Certain probiotics may prevent the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), but their effectiveness depends on both strain and dose. There are few data on nutritional interventions to control AAD/CDAD in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. The present study aimed to assess (1) the efficacy of consuming a commercially produced probiotic containing at least 6·5 × 10? live Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) in reducing the incidence of AAD/CDAD, and (2) whether undernutrition and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are risk factors for AAD/CDAD. A total of 164 SCI patients (50·1 (sd 17·8) years) with a requirement for antibiotics (median 21 d, range 5-366) were randomly allocated to receive LcS (n 76) or no probiotic (n 82). LcS was given once daily for the duration of the antibiotic course and continued for 7 days thereafter. Nutritional risk was assessed by the Spinal Nutrition Screening Tool. The LcS group had a significantly lower incidence of AAD (17·1 v. 54·9%, P< 0·001). At baseline, 65% of patients were at undernutrition risk. Undernutrition (64·1 v. 33·3%, P< 0·01) and the use of PPI (38·4 v. 12·1 %, P= 0·022) were found to be associated with AAD. However, no significant difference was observed in nutrient intake between the groups. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified poor appetite ( < 1/2 meals eaten) (OR 5·04, 95% CI 1·28, 19·84) and no probiotic (OR 8·46, 95% CI 3·22, 22·20) as the independent risk factors for AAD. The present study indicated that LcS could reduce the incidence of AAD in hospitalised SCI patients. A randomised, placebo-controlled study is needed to confirm this apparent therapeutic success in order to translate into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:24044687
In recent years an increasing number of different energy drinks have been introduced to provide an energy boost. They contain high levels of caffeine and other additives that act as stimulants. Several recent studies present that energy drinks could increase the risk of seizures, acid-base disorders and cardiovascular events. The authors report a 28-year-old man who was brought to the emergency room after sudden onset of tonic-clonic seizures and metabolic acidosis after drinking several cans of a caffeinated energy drink. The authors believe that this clinical picture was caused by caffeine intoxication from an energetic drink causing a syndrome of catecholamine excess. The patient was discharged within a week with no complaints and no neurological signs. Finally, recognising the features of caffeine intoxication and its potential health consequences may be especially relevant when treating younger persons who may be more likely to consume energy drinks. PMID:22714613
Use only water that has been properly disinfected for drinking, cooking, making any prepared drink, or for brushing teeth. Downloads & Translations ... for brushing teeth. 7 Steps to Emergency Drinking Water Disinfection Only use water that has been properly ...
Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent\\u000a need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the\\u000a Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in\\u000a this protocol will test the effectiveness of
Carmen V Voogt; Evelien AP Poelen; Marloes Kleinjan; Lex ACJ Lemmers; Rutger CME Engels
The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…
Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…
Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a pa
Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? KidsHealth > Parents > Sports Medicine Center > Q&As > Sports and Energy Drinks: Should ... a daily multivitamin formulated for kids. Back Continue Energy Drinks These are becoming increasingly popular with middle- ...
Alcohol is all too often seen as an accepted part of college life, but there are programs that can significantly reduce students' risky drinking, according to a series of studies in a special college drinking supplement of the "Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs." Fourteen studies detail results of projects funded by the National Institute on…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2009
This guide details what coalitions and organizations need to do to insure the enforcement and judicial communities are active partners in the effort to reduce underage drinking. One of the first tasks discussed is the necessity for groups to understand the needs and concerns of law enforcement and to recognize that underage drinking enforcement…
National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.
... Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 ... weight and blood glucose! We recommend choosing zero-calorie or very low-calorie drinks. This includes: Water ...
... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...
Drinking can lead to making decisions that cause harm. Alcohol abuse means any of these things are more likely to occur: Car crashes Falls, drowning, and other accidents Suicide Violence and homicide Being a victim of violent crime
... risk of cancer Byproduct of drinking water disinfection Chlorite 0.8 1.0 Anemia; infants and young ... that when acrylamide and epichlorohydrin are used to treat water, the combination (or product) of dose and ...
Drinking Bird: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". The drinking bird's felt-covered head dips into the beaker of water as it bobs up and down. The tube goes from the bottom of the body to its head. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.
In recent years there has been increased interest in the role of commercial soft drinks in dental diseases namely as dental caries and erosion. The objective of this paper has been to review the past and current literature to determine the present knowledge on this subject. The literature related to dental caries, erosion, drinks, soft drinks and fruit juices was reviewed. The literature shows efforts have been taken to modify soft drinks by either adding or deleting certain components so as to reduce their harmful effects on teeth. A rational protocol to encourage the sensible use of drinks and the modification of drinks to render them less harmful would be advisable. PMID:16157439
Tahmassebi, J F; Duggal, M S; Malik-Kotru, G; Curzon, M E J
BACKGROUND: This report assessed the proportion of US 10th graders (average age, 16) who saw a physician in the past year and were asked and given advice about their drinking. We hypothesized that advice would vary by whether students were asked about drinking and their drinking, bingeing, and drunkenness frequency. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 10th graders in 2010 (N = 2519) were asked their past 30-day frequency of drinking, bingeing, and intoxication and whether, during their last medical examination, their drinking was explored and they received advice about alcohol’s risks and reducing or stopping. RESULTS: In the past month, 36% reported drinking, 28% reported bingeing, and 23% reported drunkenness (11%, 5%, and 7%, respectively, 6 or more times). In the past year, 82% saw a doctor. Of that group, 54% were asked about drinking, 40% were advised about related harms, and 17% were advised to reduce or stop. Proportions seeing a doctor and asked about drinking were similar across drinking patterns. Respondents asked about drinking were more often advised to reduce or stop. Frequent drinkers, bingers, and those drunk were more often advised to reduce or stop. Nonetheless, only 25% of them received that advice from physicians. In comparison, 36% of frequent smokers, 27% of frequent marijuana users, and 42% of frequent other drug users were advised to reduce or quit those behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts are warranted to increase the proportion of physicians who follow professional guidelines to screen and counsel adolescents about unhealthy alcohol use and other behaviors that pose health risks.
Zha, Wenxing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Compares interview and fatal crash data from Massachusetts after the legal drinking age was raised, with data from New York, where drinking is legal from age 18. Suggests that without intensive, coordinated enforcement efforts, raising the legal drinking age does not reduce fatalities significantly. (GC)
Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)
Aims: This paper explores young people's own opinions about how the "drinking to get drunk" culture can be changed. More precisely, the two objectives of this study were to explore: (1) whether young people viewed binge drinking as a real "problem"; and (2) what they thought could be done to reduce binge drinking. Methods: Forty in-depth…
Teen drinkers are over twice as likely as abstainers to smoke cigarettes. This empirical study provides evidence of a robust complementarity between these health behaviors by exploiting the “cross-price” effects. The results indicate that the movement away from minimum legal drinking ages of 18 reduced teen smoking participation by 3 to 5%. The corresponding instrumental variable estimates suggest that teen
PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.
Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens
... from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). It is designed to help people reduce ... alcohol use disorder, a term that includes both alcoholism and harmful drinking that has not reached the ...
Voluntarily stopping eating and drinking, in which death occurs within one to three weeks of beginning the fast, is increasingly explored in the literature and mainstream media as an option to be discussed with "decisionally capable," suffering patients who want to hasten their dying. The author uses an example from her experience to describe stopping eating and drinking, as well as other clinical practices associated with hastening dying; explores whether this practice can or should be distinguished from suicide; and discusses the ethical and legal implications for nurses. PMID:19704237
ABSTRACT. Objective: This study extends previous research on masculinity and negative drinking consequences among young men by considering mediating effects of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol expectancies. We hypothesized that masculinity would have a direct relationship with negative consequences from drinking as well as indirect relationships mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies of courage, risk, and aggression. Method: A random sample of 1,436 college and university men ages 19-25 years completed an online survey, including conformity to masculine norms, alcohol-related expectancies, HED, and negative drinking consequences. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used. Results: Six of seven dimensions of masculinity and the alcohol expectancy scales were significantly associated with both HED and negative consequences. In multivariate regression models predicting HED and negative consequences, the playboy and violence dimensions of masculinity and the risk/aggression alcohol expectancy remained significant. HED and the risk-taking dimension of masculinity were also significant in the model predicting negative consequences. The structural equation model indicated that masculinity was directly associated with HED and negative consequences but also influenced negative consequences indirectly through HED and alcohol expectancies. Conclusions: The findings suggest that, among young adult male college and university students, masculinity is an important factor related to both HED and drinking consequences, with the latter effect partly mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies. Addressing male norms about masculinity may help to reduce HED and negative consequences from drinking. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 510-519, 2014). PMID:24766763
... swimming pool. FOR MORE INFORMATION Arsenic in drinking water http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic Arsenic health ... http://www.epa.gov/safewater/privatewells Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1-800-426-4791 JUST THE FACTS ...
... other health care provider. Based on the drinking pattern results from your web site, my friends and ... it's safest to quit. According to the drinking patterns quiz, men have an increased risk of a ...
Objective: This study examined how social-influence processes operate during specific drinking contexts as well as the stability and change in these processes throughout the college years. Method: Using a measurement-burst design, a hybrid of longitudinal and daily diary methods, we assessed the relationship between event-specific descriptive drinking norms and personal drinking. College students (N = 523) completed a baseline survey followed by a 30-day daily diary each year for up to the 4 study years. The baseline survey assessed participant gender and social anxiety, and the daily survey assessed personal drinking and perceived peer drinking (i.e., event-specific descriptive norms) during social drinking events. Results: Multilevel modeling revealed that men's social drinking slightly increased over the 4 years, whereas women's drinking remained steady. Further, on social drinking days when event-specific descriptive norms were high, students drank more, but this relationship was stronger for men than women and did not change over time. However, men's drinking norm perceptions increased across years, whereas women's decreased. Social anxiety did not moderate the relationship between norms and drinking. Conclusions: We demonstrate that although gender differences exist in the stability and change of personal drinking, norms, and normative influence on drinking across the years of college, the acute social influence of the norm on personal drinking remains a stable and important predictor of drinking throughout college. Our findings can assist with the identification of how, when, and for whom to target social influence—based interventions aimed at reducingdrinking.
O'Grady, Megan A.; Cullum, Jerry; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen
Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...
The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…
This site provides an overview of types of drinking water contaminants, where they come from, and their effects on human health. Special topics include chemical and microbial contamination, health effects of microbes, pesticides, metals and various other contaminants, and causes of source water contamination. The site also features links to current news and other related resources and organizations.
A model was proposed to explain variations in alcohol use among nonmarried, full-time undergraduate students. Sociocultural, familial characteristics, and age at onset of student drinking as predictor variables were analyzed. Findings indicated that the extent of adolescent alcohol consumption was the strongest overall predictor of undergraduate…
Compares opinions of students from secondary, vocational, and technicums technical schools in the USSR on why Soviet students drink alcohol. Reasons include companionship, celebrations, curiosity, and imitation. Investigates gender differences. Underscores student naivete about alcohol's effects. Indicates discrepancies between students' stated…
Levin, Boris Mikhailovich; Levin, Mikhail Borisovich
This report presents capital, and operating and maintenance cost equations for 99 water treatment unit processes. The equations, derived from a cost data base developed for the Drinking Water Research Division can be used to provide preliminary cost estimates for individual unit ...
According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...
In one advertisement, the headline above a clear glass of water reads, ``Now it comes with a list of ingredients.'' Another headline, positioned above a tipped water pitcher, reads, ``Drinking water. Pour over the facts.'' These catchy ads are part of an educational campaign begun by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on July 19 to notify the public about
Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided. PMID:25031128
Generation of oxygen radicals upon hydration of powdered protein products was examined using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Among individual proteins powders examined oxidative bursts occurred almost immediately, and then rapidly declined in the 1st 5 min. Commercially available powdered protein drink mixes behaved differently, with an initial lag phase followed by a sustained increase in luminol-enhanced luminescence, lasting for an hour or beyond. The drink mix that produced the highest level of luminol-enhanced luminescence also contained 379 nM ascorbate radical when hydrated (28 nmole/g of powdered drink mix). The entire ascorbic acid content of this drink mix was oxidized to nondetectable levels (using HPLC-diode array detection) within 60 min of being hydrated. Treatment of the hydrated drink mixes with the enzyme catalase almost completely inhibited the luminol-enhanced luminescence from the hydrated drink mix demonstrating that hydrogen peroxide generated via a chemical reaction among the drink mixes' ingredients was a primary reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is the strongest oxidative capacity demonstrated in a food product as consumed (without any manipulation to increase ROS) and the 1st time that the ascrobate radical in a food product as been quantified. Generation of hydrogen peroxide in the hydrated drink mixes from metal catalyzed reactions involving oxygen and reducing equivalents from ascorbic acid is proposed. PMID:24245883
Regrowth of coliform bacteria in distribution systems has been a problem for a number of water utilities. Efforts to solve the regrowth problem have not been totally successful. The current project, which was conducted at the New Jersey American Water Co.-Swimming River Treatment Plant, showed that the occurrence of coliform bacteria in the distribution system could be associated with rainfall, water temperatures greater than 15 degrees C, total organic carbon levels greater than 2.4 mg/liter, and assimilable organic carbon levels greater than 50 micrograms of acetate carbon equivalents per liter. A multiple linear regression model based on free chlorine residuals present in dead-end sections of the distribution system and temperature predicted 83.8% of the heterotrophic plate count bacterial variation. To limit the growth of coliform bacteria in drinking water, the study concludes that assimilable organic carbon levels should be reduced to less than 50 micrograms/liter.
Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol is a major public health concern. By distinguishing the type of individuals violating driving while intoxicated (DWI) sanctions, intervention programs will be better suited to reducedrinking and driving. The purpose of this study was to examine the personal characteristics of DWI offenders and…
In this quick activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners will construct an oboe-like instrument from a plastic drinking straw by cutting the end to split it into two loose flaps, like reeds on an oboe. Blowing hard makes a sound. Cutting the straws to different lengths provides an opportunity for learners to predict how length will affect sound. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Music and Sound.
Underage drinking prevention has two goals: prevent harm to the individual drinker and prevent harm to society. Modern prevention programs should be measured not by their intentions, but by their consequences: reducing the number of criminal events, reducing the amount of harm to individuals, and reducing the harm to society. This guide discusses…
National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.
Alcoholic drinks are capable of triggering a wide range of allergic and allergic-like responses, including rhinitis, itching, facial swelling, headache, cough and asthma. Limited epidemiological data suggests that many individuals are affected and that sensitivities occur to a variety of drinks, including wine, beer and spirits. In surveys of asthmatics, over 40% reported the triggering of allergic or allergic-like symptoms following alcoholic drink consumption and 30 - 35% reported worsening of their asthma. Sensitivity to ethanol itself can play a role in triggering adverse responses, particularly in Asians, which is due mainly to a reduced capacity to metabolize acetaldehyde. In Caucasians, specific non-alcohol components are the main cause of sensitivities to alcoholic drinks. Allergic sensitivities to specific components of beer, spirits and distilled liquors have been described. Wine is clearly the most commonly reported trigger for adverse responses. Sensitivities to wine appear to be due mainly to pharmacological intolerances to specific components, such as biogenic amines and the sulphite additives. Histamine in wine has been associated with the triggering of a wide spectrum of adverse symptoms, including sneezing, rhinitis, itching, flushing, headache and asthma. The sulphite additives in wine have been associated with triggering asthmatic responses. Clinical studies have confirmed sensitivities to the sulphites in wine in limited numbers of individuals, but the extent to which the sulphites contribute to wine sensitivity overall is not clear. The aetiology of wine-induced asthmatic responses may be complex and may involve several co-factors. PMID:12745410
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exposure to others’ drink driving during adolescence on self-reported driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol in young adulthood. Data were drawn from 1,956 participants with a driving license enrolled in the International Youth Development Study from Victoria, Australia. During 2003 and 2004, adolescents in Grades 7, 9 and 10 (aged 12 – 17) completed questionnaires examining whether they had ridden in a vehicle with a driver who had been drinking, as well as other demographic, individual, peer and family risk factors for DUI. In 2010, the same participants (aged 18 to 24) then reported on their own DUI behaviour. 18% of young adults with a driving license reported DUI in the past 12 months. Exposure to others’ drink driving during adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of DUI as a young adult (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.68 – 2.69). This association remained after accounting for the effects of other potential confounding factors from the individual, peer and family domains (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.23 – 2.13). Observing the drink driving behaviours of others during adolescence may increase the likelihood of DUI as a young adult. Strategies to reduce youth exposure to drink driving are warranted.
Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Olsson, Craig; Rowland, Bosco; Hemphill, Sheryl A.
Efforts to discourage excessive alcohol use among young people can only be effective if the target audience is exposed to, attends to, and comprehends key messages. The aim of this study was to examine age and sex differences in drinking motives to better inform development of targeted interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm. Thirty individual interviews and 12 group interviews were conducted with English 13-25?year olds. Interviewees gave multiple motivations for drinking - especially those related to image and reputation, and played down the health implications of heavy drinking. Negative aspects of drinking - caring for drunk friends, being cared for when drunk and suffering through hangovers with friends - were considered to offer opportunities for closer interpersonal bonding than other social activities. Respondents distanced themselves from 'problem' drinkers, but disapproved of others' problematic drinking or antisocial behaviour. Narrative messages demonstrating the social consequences of excessive consumption were preferred to single, static messages emphasising risk or harm. Interviewees noted that interventions must use an engaging tone or pitch: they considered many campaigns to be patronising or preaching. A lack of consensus between age and sex groups highlighted a need for multifaceted, multi-modal approaches that utilise mobile technologies and new media. PMID:23947783
de Visser, Richard O; Wheeler, Zoe; Abraham, Charles; Smith, Jonathan A
The project described in this report consists of the following parts: (1) Prevalence of drink-driving among drivers of heavy vehicles; (2) Accident risk related to drink-driving with heavy vehicles; (3) Possibilities of reducingdrink-driving with heavy v...
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided online access to two reports, America's Drinking Water in 1997 and the 1996 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report and Update on Implementation of the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. While both reports find that US drinking water is generally safe, the EPA also reviews initiatives to improve water quality. The brief summaries of these reports can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text articles are available in .pdf format.
Contamination in drinking water sources or watersheds can negatively affect the organisms that come in contact with it. The affects can be severe â causing illness or, in some cases, even death. It is important for people to understand how they can contribute to the contaminants in drinking water and what treatment can be done to counter these harmful effects. Students will learn about the various methods developed by environmental engineers for treating drinking water in the United States.
Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources\\u000a and deterring its possession and use. However, little is known about the processes through which enforcement strategies may\\u000a affect underage drinking. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible\\u000a direct and indirect
Sharon Lipperman-KredaJoel; Joel W. Grube; Mallie J. Paschall
Aim: The study’s aim was to determine whether medical doctors’ expectancy that alcohol use reduces tension predicts the extent of their hazardous drinking and whether this effect is mediated by drinking to cope. Methods: A group of Norwegian medical doctors’ (n = 288) alcohol use was followed for 6 years. The expectancy that alcohol reduces tension and the use of
Kjersti S. Grotmol; Per Vaglum; Øivind Ekeberg; Tore Gude; Olaf G. Aasland; Reidar Tyssen
Background There is a lack of consensus in the literature as to how to define drinking outcomes in clinical trials. Typically, separate statistical models are fit to assess treatment effects on a number of summary drinking measures. These summary measures do not capture the complexity of drinking behavior. We used the COMBINE Study to illustrate a statistical approach for examining treatment effects on high-resolution drinking data, which takes into account abstinence and non zero drinking in the same analysis. Methods This is a secondary data analysis of COMBINE (n=1195) participants randomly assigned to naltrexone, acamprosate, with medical management and/or Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI). Using a Poisson hurdle model, abstinence and number of drinks were simultaneously modeled with treatment, prior drinking, week, and study center as covariates. Odds ratios (OR) for abstinence and relative risk (RR) for drinking are reported. A special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of “risky drinking” defined as 3 drinks per day for women and 4 for men. Results During treatment, naltrexone increased the odds of abstinence versus placebo naltrexone (OR=1.35[1.06,1.65]) but receiving CBI in addition to naltrexone (versus not) obscured this effect; thus, the naltrexone effect was largest in the group not receiving CBI (OR=1.87[1.29,2.46]). Naltrexone versus placebo naltrexone also reduced the risk of drinking in people who resumed risky drinking, defined as more than 3 and 4 drinks/day for women and men, respectively (RR=0.58[0.24,0.93]) and increased the odds of maintaining low risk drinking (OT=1.99[1.07,2.90]). Both effects were strongest in the absence of CBI when only “medical management” was provided. Conclusions Naltrexone promotes both abstinence and reduction in drinking once risky drinking is resumed. The finding that the rate of risky drinking is reduced once a slip has occurred bolsters support for the use of naltrexone, especially since this was observed in the context of a medical management approach that could be delivered in various health care settings. The utilization of a hurdle model adds to prior reports on summary drinking measures, which found no effect of naltrexone on abstinence, did not evaluate its effect closely on risk drinking, and did not analyze weekly drinking behavior.
DeSantis, Stacia M.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Randall, Patrick K.; Anton, Raymond; Prisciandaro, James J.
Many creatures, including bees, birds and bats, feed on floral nectar. It is advantageous for these creatures to ingest energy rapidly due to the threat of predation during feeding. While the sweetest nectar offers the greatest energetic rewards, the exponential increase of viscosity with sugar concentration makes it the most difficult to transport. We here demonstrate that the energy intake rate is maximized at a particular concentration that depends on the mode of nectar feeding. We here rationalize the different optimal concentrations reported for the three principal nectar drinking strategies, capillary suction, active suction and viscous dipping.
This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.
Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…
In a laboratory simulation of a drinking water treatment process, the levels of nonvolatile mutagens in drinking water were quantified. By means of the Ames Salmonella test, unchlorinated water was found to be devoid of mutagens. Chloramine-treated water however, contained mutagenic activity; water chlorinated with free chlorine showed even greater mutagenic activity. Dechlorination of drinking water with sulfite sharply reduced the mutagenic activity. Treatment with sulfur dioxide is proposed as an effective, inexpensive method of reducing the direct-acting mutagenic activity of drinking water and of aqueous industrial effluents. (1 graph, 20 references, 1 table)
... lead from my drinking water? Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is lead? Lead is ... Where and how does lead get into drinking water? Lead rarely occurs naturally in water; it usually ...
... Giardia from my drinking water? Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE- ... Where and how does Giardia get into drinking water? Millions of Giardia parasites can be released in ...
... Campylobacter from my drinking water? Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is campylobacteriosis? Campylobacteriosis (CAMP- ... Where and how does Campylobacter get into drinking water? Campylobacter is found in every part of the ...
Intentional self-restraint may play an important role in the control of potentially addictive behavior. Unfortunately, for some individuals, efforts to reduce substance use may prove not only temporary but to increase the likelihood of a later "binge." An experimental study examined the relationship between prior self-restraint efforts and drinking. Results indicated that successfully restrained drinkers (i.e., those individuals who reported exerting considerable effort toward drinking self-control, and who were normatively successful, that is, light drinkers) responded to the sudden availability of alcohol with increased levels of consumption, relative to unrestrained drinkers at a similar level of habitual drinking. There was no such effect among unsuccessfully restraining (i.e., heavy) drinkers. These results suggest that a period of successful drinking restraint which is initiated by the individual, may lead to heightened subsequent alcohol consumption. PMID:2248124
This digest discusses binge drinking on U.S. college campuses. Male binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks in a row one or more times during a 2-week period; female binge drinking is defined as four or more drinks in a row one or more times during a two-week period. A drink is defined as twelve ounces of beer or wine cooler, four ounces…
Seeks to determine whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) on college campuses have a more problematic style of drinking compared with non-ACOAs. Results indicate ACOAs endorse more problematic drinking patterns. Discusses implications for counselors who undertake prevention and intervention for ACOA student population. (Author/JDM)
The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...
A variant of the drinking philosophers algorithm of Chandy and Misra is described and proved correct in a modular way. The algorithm of Chandy and Misra is based on a particular dining philosophers algorithm and relies on certain properties of its implementation. The drinking philosophers algorithm presented in this paper is able to use an arbitrary dining philosophers algorithm as
Recent changes in the Federal Register proposing a revision of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations to include volatile synthetic organic chemicals (VOCs) may have a potential future impact on drinking water quality. This article briefly discusses some of the inputs....
Prior studies have suggested that affect lability might reduce the risk for problematic drinking among sensation seekers by compensating for their deficiencies in emotional reactivity and among individuals high on negative urgency by disrupting stable negative emotions. Due to the high prevalence of college drinking, this study examined whether affect lability interacted with sensation seeking and negative urgency to influence college student problematic drinking. 414 college drinkers (mean age: 20, 77% female, and 74% Caucasian) from a US Midwestern University completed self-administered questionnaires online. Consistent with our hypotheses, our results indicated that the effects of sensation seeking and negative urgency on problematic drinking weakened at higher levels of affect lability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering specific emotional contexts in understanding how negative urgency and sensation seeking create risk for problematic drinking among college students. These findings might also help us better understand how to reduce problematic drinking among sensation seekers and individuals high on negative urgency.
Karyadi, Kenny; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Dir, Allyson L.; Cyders, Melissa A.
Abstract Question A 14-year-old boy came to my office to discuss his frequent consumption of energy drinks to enhance his performance at school and while playing soccer. What is the recommended use of energy drinks in children and is there any harm in consuming them? Answer Energy drinks are beverages with a high concentration of caffeine and additional stimulants. They are sold in numerous places and are easily accessed by children, adolescents, and young adults. Many reports warn about potential adverse effects associated with their consumption, especially in combination with alcohol among adolescents, and in combination with stimulant medications among children treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children and adolescents should avoid energy drinks, and health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks.
The transition from adolescence into emerging adulthood is a critical developmental period for changes in alcohol use and drinking related problems. Prior research has identified a number of distinct developmental alcohol use trajectories, which appear to be differentially related to young adult drinking outcomes. Another correlate of alcohol use in early adulthood is impulsivity. The primary aim of this study was to examine the moderating role of impulsivity in the relation between patterns of past alcohol use and hazardous drinking during the first year of college. Participants (N=452; 49% male; mean age 18.5 years; 82% Caucasian) completed self-report measures during the first year of college, including retrospective alcohol use calendars, current alcohol use and drinking problems, and personality. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify groups with similar adolescent drinking history from retrospective, self-report. Four groups were identified: abstainers/very light users, late/moderate users, early/moderate users, and steep increase/heavy users. The abstainer/very light user group reported the lowest levels of alcohol use and problematic drinking in college; the steep increase/heavy use group reported the highest levels of alcohol use and problematic drinking. As predicted, the role of personality—specifically urgency, or emotion-based rash action—was strongest among moderate use groups. These findings may be helpful in guiding targeted prevention and intervention programs for alcohol use and abuse.
Adams, Zachary W.; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R.; Charnigo, Richard J.
The objective of this study was to determine the drinking patterns of high school students in central Thailand. Eleven thousand three hundred sixty high school students from central Thailand were divided into 2 groups (drinkers and nondrinkers) according to their alcohol consumption. Information was obtained by an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire which consisted of 2 parts: general characteristics, and characteristics of alcohol drinking behavior. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by a computerized statistical package. The socio-demographic factors related to the student's alcohol consumption during the previous 12 months were: age > 15 years old, male sex, grades 9 and 11 education level, living in a private dormitory, staying with a relative or a friend, having a grade point average <2.0 or >3.0, having a job earning money and having family members with alcohol/drug problems (p<0.05). Drinking patterns were classified into 5 categories: life time drinking, drinking during the previous year, drinking during the previous 30 days, binge drinking during the previous 30 days and drinking until intoxication during the previous 30 days. A higher proportion of drinking was reported by boys than girls. The prevalence of drinking increased in proportion to the educational level. The 3 main drinking places were parties (48.5%), at home or in the dormitory (37.5%) and in shops around the school (12.4%). Boys drank alcohol on average 1-2 times per month in 59.8% and 1-2 standard drinks per time in 38.6%. Eighty point one percent of girls drank alcohol 1-2 times per month and 1-2 standard drinks per time in 55.6%. Drinking alcohol among high school students should be controlled by limiting access to alcoholic beverages in order to reduce accidents, injuries, violence and alcohol-related health problems among young people. PMID:21329325
Heavy drinking among individuals with HIV is associated with poor medication adherence and other health problems. Understanding reasons for drinking (drinking motives) in this population is therefore important and could inform intervention. Using concepts of drinking motives from previous alcohol research, we assessed these motives and drinking in 254 HIV-positive primary care patients (78.0 % male; 94.5 % African American or Hispanic) prior to their participation in an alcohol intervention trial. Three motives had good factor structure and internal consistency: "drinking to cope with negative affect", "drinking for social facilitation" (both associated with heavier drinking), and "drinking due to social pressure" (associated with less drinking). Drinking motives may provide important content for alcohol intervention; clinical trials could indicate whether inclusion of such content improves intervention efficacy. Discussing motives in session could help providers assist clients in better managing psychological and social aspects of their lives without reliance on alcohol. PMID:24165984
Elliott, Jennifer C; Aharonovich, Efrat; O'Leary, Ann; Wainberg, Milton; Hasin, Deborah S
In 2002, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) issued a report entitled A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges. Data on the magnitude of college drinking problems in 1998 to 1999 were reported. From 1999 to 2005, the proportion of college students aged 18–24 who drank five or more drinks on a single occasion in the past month increased from 41.7 percent to 45.2 percent. The proportion who drove under the influence of alcohol increased from 26.1 percent to 29.2 percent. Higher percentages of 21- to 24-year-olds engaged in those behaviors than 18- to 20-year-olds, and between 1999 and 2005 the percentage increased among 21- to 24-year-olds but not among those aged 18–20. From 1998 to 2005, unintentional alcohol-related injury deaths increased 3 percent (from 1,442 to 1,825) per 100,000 college students aged 18–24. Alcohol misuse by college students often harms other people through traffic crashes and sexual/other assaults. Research regarding ways to reduce college drinking problems has shown that individual-oriented interventions, particularly screening and brief motivational counseling interventions, social norms interventions, environmental policy changes such as the minimum legal drinking age of 21 and drinking-and-driving laws, and comprehensive college–community programs, can reduce college drinking and related morbidity and mortality. There is a growing need for colleges and surrounding communities to implement interventions shown through research to reduce alcohol misuse among college-aged people.
Study examined data from students reporting driving within one hour of drinking two or more drinks. Three-cluster typology included: Marginals engage in least amount of delinquent behaviors, alcohol use, and drinking-driving; Heavy Drinkers are heaviest drinkers, most frequent drinking-drivers, and have greatest driving exposure; Delinquents…
This document presents justification for a legal drinking age of 21 in all states. The introduction reviews the history of the raising and lowering of the drinking age and the rise in highway accidents and deaths resulting from lowered drinking ages. The federal response of mandating a 21-year-old drinking age for states with the threat of loss of…
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, "heroic drinking," is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, "playful drinking," has become more prevalent in Denmark as well as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations in which you need to play with different aspects of social and bodily styles. We approach the positions of heroic drinking and playful drinking among young adults (between 17 and 23 years) in Denmark and Finland by analyzing how they discuss these two drinking styles in focus groups (N = 16). PMID:21619443
Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…
Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.
Heavy drinking among college students is common and is often harmful. A previously reported randomized trial revealed that a brief motivational intervention (BMI) reduced the alcohol consumption of heavy drinking college students (K. B. Carey, M. P. Carey, S. A. Maisto, & J. M. Henson, 2006). For this study, the researchers conducted supplemental…
Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.
USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...
Although research has found an association between social anxiety and alcohol use in noncollege samples, results have been mixed for college samples. College students face many novel social situations in which they may drink to reduce social anxiety. In the current study, the authors tested a model of college problem drinking, incorporating social anxiety and related psychosocial variables among 228
A subchronic rat study with paired-water control was conducted to resolve the question of whether monochloramine at 200 ppm in drinking water can cause reduced body weight gain and other changes observed in earlier investigations. Male Sprague–Dawley rats (93 ± 5 g) were divided into three groups of 10 rats each: the treatment group was fed drinking water containing 200
Raymond Poon; Pierre Lecavalier; Helen Tryphonas; Genevieve Bondy; Min Chen; Ih Chu; Algis Yagminas; Victor E Valli; Monique D'amour; Barry Thomas
... by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). CollegeDrinkingPrevention.gov is your one-stop resource ... About Alcohol Poisoning FAQs on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism High School Graduation Fact Sheet How to Cut ...
Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink. PMID:19570614
The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, dichlorodifluoromethane. Dichlorodifluoromethane's applications include use primarily as a refrigerant and blowing agent, wit...
Mice (CD-1 strain) were placed on diets containing either municipal drinking water (Durham, North Carolina) or water that had been distilled and passed through cartridges to reduce organics and remove inorganics. After a two-week acclimation period, animals were bred and pregnanc...
Coalitions have been used successfully in the United States to tackle a number of seemingly intractable problems. For communities that want to reduce their underage drinking problem, putting together a broad-based coalition can bring substantial dividends. In this guide, readers will learn the steps that bring together a diverse group of people in…
National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.
This research plan was developed to describe research needed to reduce uncertainties in the arsenic risk assessment and to support EPAs development of a new arsenic drinking water standard. The research plan was developed by a team of scientists from EPAs National Laboratories an...
The Western Cape of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) globally. Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority for this region, but insight into the experiences of women who drink during pregnancy is lacking. Convenience sampling in alcohol-serving venues was used to identify women who were currently pregnant (n = 12) or recently post-partum (n = 12) and reported drinking during the pregnancy period. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between April and August 2013. Interviews explored drinking narratives, with textual data analyzed for themes related to factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy. All but one woman reported her pregnancy as unplanned. The majority sustained or increased drinking after pregnancy recognition, with patterns typically including multiple days of binge drinking per week. Analysis of the textual data revealed five primary factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy: 1) women used alcohol as a strategy to cope with stressors and negative emotions, including those associated with pregnancy; 2) women drank as a way to retain social connection, often during a difficult period of life transition; 3) social norms in women's peer groups supported drinking during pregnancy; 4) women lacked attachment to the pregnancy or were resistant to motherhood; and 5) women were driven physiologically by alcohol addiction. Our data suggest that alcohol-serving settings are important sites to identify and target women at risk of drinking during pregnancy. Intervention approaches to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy should include counseling and contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies, mental health and coping interventions targeting pregnant women, peer-based interventions to change norms around perinatal drinking, and treatment for alcohol dependence during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that innovative interventions that go beyond the boundaries of the health care system are urgently needed to address FASD in this region. PMID:24997441
Although lithium is known to prevent suicide in people with mood disorders, it is uncertain whether lithium in drinking water could also help lower the risk in the general population. To investigate this, we examined lithium levels in tap water in the 18 municipalities of Oita prefecture in Japan in relation to the suicide standardised mortality ratio (SMR) in each municipality. We found that lithium levels were significantly and negatively associated with SMR averages for 2002-2006. These findings suggest that even very low levels of lithium in drinking water may play a role in reducing suicide risk within the general population. PMID:19407280
Using a Web-based, self-administered questionnaire, we assessed 498 university-student drinkers' self-efficacy to use 31 different behavioral strategies to reduce excessive drinking in each of three different locations (bar, party, own dorm/apartment). Averaging all 31 items within each drinking situation to create a single scale score revealed high internal consistency reliabilities and moderate inter-item correlations. Testing the association of self-efficacy with drinking location, sex, and frequency of recent binge drinking, we found that respondents reported higher self-efficacy to use these strategies when drinking in their own dorm/apartment than when drinking in bars and at parties; women reported higher mean self-efficacy than men; and drinkers who engaged in 3-or-more binges in the previous 2 weeks reported lower self-efficacy than those who reported either 0 or 1-or-2 binges in the same time period. This questionnaire could be used to identify self-efficacy deficits among clients with drinking problems and as an outcome measure to assess the degree to which interventions influence reported confidence to use specific drinking-reduction strategies in high-risk drinking situations. PMID:21443310
The aim of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship of readiness to change, drinking pattern, amount of alcohol consumed, and alcohol-related negative consequences among at-risk and dependent drinkers enrolled in a Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) trial in an emergency department in southern Poland. The study examined 299 patients randomized to either an assessment or intervention condition and followed at 3 and 12 months after initial presentation. Patients indicating a readiness or were unsure of changing drinking behavior were significantly more likely to decrease the maximum number of drinks per occasion and the usual number of drinks in a sitting in the 3-months following study entry when compared to those that rated changing drinking behavior as unimportant. Readiness to change was not predictive of outcomes between the baseline and 12-month follow-up. Drinking outcomes and negative consequences by readiness and research condition were non-significant. This is the first Polish study utilizing SBIRT to enable patients to identify their hazardous drinking and reduce alcohol consumption. While some drinking outcomes improved with motivation, these improvements were not maintained at 12-months following SBIRT. Attention to additional constructs of readiness to change and drinking patterns may augment the effectiveness of SBIRT.
1. From 36 to 43 weeks of age 210 White Leghorn laying hens were used to study the relationship of plasma calcium and phosphorus concentrations to egg-shell quality when saline drinking water was given. 2. Seven experimental treatments in which different amounts of sodium chloride were supplied by the food and/or the drinking water were compared. 3. Increasing salt intake through the drinking water or the food reduced shell thickness and shell calcium, and increased the numbers of damaged eggs. Sodium chloride given in the drinking water was more effective in reducing shell quality and increasing plasma calcium and phosphorus than sodium chloride given in the food. PMID:7719739
The limit value of 0.1 µg/liter for “substances used in plant treatment and pest control including their main toxic degradation products” (PBSM) established in the German Drinking Water Regulations (Trinkwasserverordnung) serves comprehensively to protect drinking water from unexpected toxicological risks and thus corresponds to the axiom of concern (Besorgnisgrundsatz) contained in §11,2 of the Federal Communicable Disease Control Act (Bundesseuchengesetz), which is an essential cornerstone of the Drinking Water Regulations. Furthermore, precautionary values that are specific to the particular substance and near the valid limit can be found for about 10% of all registered active substances. The goal of the PBSM Recommendations of the Federal Health Office (BGA) issued in July 1989 is to preserve and restore groundwater and drinking water through measures to be taken by the causal party, while reducing consumer health risks to the greatest extent possible. The EC commission's drawbacks on these recommendations and the imminent EC-wide directive for the uniform registration of pesticides being based solely on Article 43 of the European Treaty would seriously endanger this goal. Therefore, a situation threatens in Europe similar to that in the United States, where at least 18 active ingredients have been detected in groundwater in concentrations of up to 1000 times the toxicologically established limits for drinking water.
Coffee drinking may be associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer; however, prospective data are limited. Further, it is not clear whether any association between coffee and endometrial cancer differs according to coffee caffeine content. The association of coffee drinking with incidence of endometrial cancer was evaluated among 226,732 women, aged 50-71, enrolled in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study who completed a baseline epidemiologic questionnaire. Following a mean 9.3 years of follow-up, data were available for 1,486 incident endometrial cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence. Sub-group analyses were performed according to smoking status, hormone therapy use (HT) and body habitus. Coffee drinking was inversely related to incidence of endometrial cancer (hazard ratio [HR] comparing drinking of >3 cups/day versus no cups = 0.64, 95% CI, 0.51-0.80; P(trend) = 0.0004). The association of coffee with endometrial cancer risk was apparent for consumption of both regular (HR per cup = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.86-0.95) and decaffeinated coffee (HR per cup = 0.93, 95% CI, 0.87-0.99). The relation of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence varied significantly by HT use (P(interaction) = 0.03) with an association only apparent among HT-never users (HR comparing drinking >3 cups/day versus no cups = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.41-0.72; P(trend) = 0.0005). Endometrial cancer incidence appears to be reduced among women that habitually drink coffee, an association that does not differ according to caffeine content. PMID:22021096
Gunter, Marc J; Schaub, Jennifer A; Xue, Xiaonan; Freedman, Neal D; Gaudet, Mia M; Rohan, Thomas E; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Sinha, Rashmi
Coffee drinking may be associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer; however, prospective data are limited. Further, it is not clear whether any association between coffee and endometrial cancer differs according to coffee caffeine content. The association of coffee drinking with incidence of endometrial cancer was evaluated among 226,732 women, aged 50–71, enrolled in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study who completed a baseline epidemiologic questionnaire. Following a mean 9.3 years of follow-up, data were available for 1,486 incident endometrial cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence. Sub-group analyses were performed according to smoking status, hormone therapy use (HT) and body habitus. Coffee drinking was inversely related to incidence of endometrial cancer (Hazard Ratio [HR] comparing drinking of >3 cups/day versus no cups=0.64, 95%CI, 0.51–0.80; Ptrend= 0.0004). The association of coffee with endometrial cancer risk was apparent for consumption of both regular (HR per cup= 0.90, 95%CI, 0.86–0.95) and decaffeinated coffee (HR per cup=0.93, 95%CI, 0.87–0.99). The relation of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence varied significantly by HT use (Pinteraction=0.03) with an association only apparent among HT-never users (HR comparing drinking >3 cups/day versus no cups= 0.54, 95%CI, 0.41–0.72; Ptrend=0.0005). Endometrial cancer incidence appears to be reduced among women that habitually drink coffee, an association that does not differ according to caffeine content.
Gunter, Marc J.; Schaub, Jennifer A.; Xue, Xiaonan; Freedman, Neal D.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Sinha, Rashmi
... PDF (250 K PDF FILE, 3 pgs) Drinking Water Monitoring, Compliance, and Enforcement EPA 816-F-04-031 June 2004 PDF (150 K PDF FILE, 3 pgs) Protecting Drinking Water Sources EPA 816-F-04-032 June 2004 ...
... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...
State Profiles of Underage Drinking Laws This section of the APIS Web site provides State-by-State summaries of statutes and regulations related to underage drinking and access to alcohol. For each State, summaries ...
The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 direct EPA to conduct research to strengthen the scientific foundation for standards that limit public exposure to drinking water contaminants. The Amendments contain specific requirements for research on waterborne pathogens, such a...
Dehydrated rats exhibit a rapid inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after rehydration. Drinking activates vagal afferents that project to neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). We hypothesized that when dehydrated rats drink, vagal afferents stimulate NTS neurons initiating inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Experiments assessed NTS activity by measuring Fos expression. Rats were water restricted for 1 or 6 d, limiting access to water to 30 min/d in the morning. Drinking after single or repeated restriction increased Fos, demonstrating increased NTS activity. We next examined the contribution of the vagus by comparing hormonal responses after total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or sham surgery. Water restriction for 6 d increased plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), ACTH, and adrenal and plasma corticosterone in both groups. In sham rats, drinkingreduced plasma AVP, ACTH, adrenal and plasma corticosterone by 7.5 min. In total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy rats, whereas drinkingreduced plasma AVP, ACTH, and adrenal corticosterone, drinking did not reduce plasma corticosterone. To identify the source of vagal activity, hormonal responses to restriction-induced drinking were measured after common hepatic branch vagotomy (HBV). Although pituitary hormonal responses were not affected by HBV, the adrenal and plasma corticosterone responses to water restriction were reduced; in addition, drinking in HBV rats decreased adrenal corticosterone without changing plasma corticosterone. These data indicate that an intact vagus is necessary to reduce plasma corticosterone when water-restricted rats drink and that the common hepatic vagal branch contributes to the response. These findings implicate the vagus in augmenting rapid removal of circulating corticosterone during relief from stress.
Arnhold, Michelle M.; Yoder, J. Marina; Engeland, William C.
Objectives: To examine the frequency of underage drinking, driving after drinking and alcohol-related crashes, trends in these behaviors, and promising interventions.Methods: We examined drinking and drinking- and-driving behaviors reported in the United States in the 2001 U.S. National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol
RALPH W. HINGSON; JEAN-PASCAL Assailly; ALLAN F. WILLIAMS
Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental\\u000a health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with\\u000a lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or sociability (positive\\u000a reinforcement) and better mental health. Maori identification and mental health would be
Students report drinking for social reasons, yet the social benefits of alcohol use are less understood. Associations between social drinking motives, drinking behaviors, and college friendships were examined via in-person interviews with 72 college freshmen from a large Mid-western University. Consistent with previous research, social drinking…
Grant, Allison M.; Brown, B. Bradford; Moreno, Megan A.
This study examines relationships between country of origin, age of drinking onset, and adverse drinking outcomes among young adult Mexican Americans in the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression models estimate associations between age of drinking onset, age of onset in relation to age at immigration, and adverse drinking outcomes, controlling for sex, age,
Lee Strunin; Erika M. Edwards; Dionne C. Godette; Timothy Heeren
The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...
The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...
In preparing for this report, surveys and focus groups were conducted with adults (N=900), with or without children under the legal drinking age, to determine their attitudes, views, and thoughts regarding the problem of underage drinking. The survey was designed to identify opportunities for civic engagement on the issue of underage drinking and…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
... can of bottle of beer, a 5-ounce glass of wine, a wine cooler, or 1 cocktail or shot of hard liquor. When you are drinking: Pace yourself. Have no more than one alcoholic drink each hour. Sip on water, soda, or juice in between drinks with alcohol. ...
The study examined the perceived benefits and costs of alcohol use among undergraduates (N=462) perceiving their drinking as normal or abnormal as well as those undergraduates who met or did not meet the DSM-IV-TR criteria for an alcohol disorder. A 2x2 MANOVA and univariate analyses on the benefits (pros) and costs (cons) scales of the Alcohol…
Alcohol use by underage drinkers is a persistent public health problem in the United States, and alcohol is the most commonly used drug among adolescents. Accordingly, numerous approaches have been developed and studied that aim to prevent underage drinking. Some approaches are school based, involving curricula targeted at preventing alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana use. Other approaches are extracurricular, offering activities
Pilot-plant tests of two treatment methods-activated alumina and ion exchange--for removing arsenic from drinking water were evaluated at the Fallon, Nev., Naval Air Station (NAS). The arsenic concentration was 0.080-0.116 mg/L, exceeding the 0.05-mg/L maximum contaminant level. ...
There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions. Images Figure 3
Objective: Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory’s limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Method: Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. Results: We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reducedrinking via changing normative perceptions. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduceddrinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small.
Harmful excessive use of alcohol has a severe impact on society and it remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. However, mechanisms that underlie excessive alcohol consumption are still poorly understood, and thus available medications for alcohol use disorders are limited. Here, we report that changing the level of chromatin condensation by affecting DNA methylation or histone acetylation limits excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in rodents. Specifically, we show that decreasing DNA methylation by inhibiting the activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with systemic administration of the FDA-approved drug, 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) prevents excessive alcohol use in mice. Similarly, we find that increasing histone acetylation via systemic treatment with several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduces mice binge-like alcohol drinking. We further report that systemic administration of the FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor, SAHA, inhibits the motivation of rats to seek alcohol. Importantly, the actions of both DNMT and HDAC inhibitors are specific for alcohol, as no changes in saccharin or sucrose intake were observed. In line with these behavioral findings, we demonstrate that excessive alcohol drinking increases DNMT1 levels and reduces histone H4 acetylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents. Together, our findings illustrate that DNA methylation and histone acetylation control the level of excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in preclinical rodent models. Our study therefore highlights the possibility that DNMT and HDAC inhibitors can be used to treat harmful alcohol abuse.
Warnault, V; Darcq, E; Levine, A; Barak, S; Ron, D
In the first experiment 4 rats developed schedule-induced water drinking during daily 1 hr sessions of a fixed-time 1 min schedule of food pellet delivery. Injections of a range of doses (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg) of nicotine hydrogen tartrate were found to produce a dose related attenuation of water intake. The higher doses also reduced the numbers of entries into the food tray in three rats, while the lowest dose consistently facilitated this behavior in the same animals. In a second experiment schedule-induced water drinking developed in 4 other rats under a similar schedule. Substitution of nicotine solution (0.05 and 0.1 mg/ml) for the water reduced volumes of fluid consumed. However, schedule-induced drinking continued at a rate sufficient for the animals to ing-st average doses of the nicotine salt of up to 8.5 mg/kg. It is concluded that schedule-induced drinking can be used successfully as a method of inducing self-administration of nicotine by rats. PMID:674246
OBJECTIVES. This study examines the individual correlates of college student binge drinking. METHODS. Questionnaires were completed by a representative national sample (n = 17,592) of students on 140 campuses in 1993. Binge drinking was defined as five or more drinks per episode for men and as four or more drinks per episode for women. RESULTS. Overall, 44% of the students (50% of the men and 39% of the women) binged. While demographic factors such as sex and race were significantly related to binge drinking, prior binging in high school was crucial, suggesting that for many students, binge drinking begins before college. The strongest predictors of college binge drinking were residence in a fraternity or sorority, adoption of a party-centered life-style, and engagement in other risky behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. Interventions must be targeted at high school binge drinking as well as at several characteristics of college life--most notably fraternity residence. Legal drinking age fails to predict binge drinking, raising questions about the effectiveness of the legal minimum drinking age of 21 in college alcohol policies.
Wechsler, H; Dowdall, G W; Davenport, A; Castillo, S
The present study used perspectives from the general literature on college alcohol consumption to examine mediational influences of peer, environmental, and parental variables on heavy drinking for student athlete and nonathlete samples. Eight hundred thirty-five freshmen who differed in organized sports involvement were compared on heavy drinking outcomes, peer norms, environmental influences, and parental communication. College athletes reported significantly more heavy drinking experiences than nonathletes. Peer norms, environmental influences, and parental communication were all significant mediators of the athlete–heavy drinking relationship. Athletes reported a higher perception of peer drinking, peer approval of drinking, higher alcohol availability, and direct drink offers, which, in turn, were related to higher rates of heavy drinking. Parental communication mediated the athlete–heavy drinking relationship differently, depending on the specific topic of conversation. Discussion surrounding the importance of incorporating a variety of interventions aimed at reducing collegiate athlete drinking on the basis of the peer, environmental, and parental influences observed in the present analyses are presented. Limitations and directions for future research are also noted.
Turrisi, Rob; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Larimer, Mary E.; Kilmer, Jason R.
Green tea is a commonly consumed beverage in China. Epidemiological and animal data suggest tea and tea polyphenols may be preventive against various cancers, including breast cancer. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes catechol estrogens and tea polyphenols. The COMT rs4680 AA genotype leads to lower COMT activity, which may affect the relationship between green tea consumption and breast cancer risk. We evaluated
Martha J. Shrubsole; W. Lu; Z. Chen; X. O. Shu; Y. Zheng; Q. Dai; Q. Cai; K. Gu; Z. X. Ruan; Y.-T. Gao; W. Zheng
For many young people, binge drinking is the most common form of alcohol misuse, particularly in those with a depressive disorder. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about the effects that the combination of depression and binge drinking has on neuropsychological outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether binge drinkers with depression show more pronounced neuropsychological dysfunction compared to their peers with depression alone or binge drinking alone. Neuropsychological testing was conducted on help-seeking young people (18-30 years) recently diagnosed with a depressive disorder and classified as either 'binge drinkers' (n=43) or 'non-bingers' (n=48). Two healthy control groups (i.e. binge drinkers, n=24 and non-bingers, n=21) were additionally recruited and also underwent the same testing. Qualitatively, binge-drinking patients with depression performed consistently below controls, depression alone, or binge drinking alone. In keeping with our hypotheses, visual learning and memory was significantly reduced in depressed binge drinkers, whereas mental flexibility was reduced at a trend level. There were no significant differences in neuropsychological performance in depressed alone or binge drinking alone individuals compared to controls. The findings suggest that when treating young people with a depressive disorder, strategies targeting binge drinking may contribute to preventing potential neurobiological changes underlying poorer long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:23721946
Hermens, Daniel F; Lee, Rico S C; De Regt, Tamara; Lagopoulos, Jim; Naismith, Sharon L; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B
Objective: This study tested the comparative effectiveness of modified behavioral self-control therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the 2, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N = 200) were recruited and urn randomized to 1 of 2…
Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kranzler, Henry R.
Objective: Motivational interviewing (MI) therapies are effective in reducing high-risk drinking in college populations. Although research supports efficacy of MI prevention strategies in reducing alcohol use, there are little data examining readiness to change (RTC), the underlying theoretical model of MI interventions. The purpose of the present study was to explore RTC variability and drinking behavior and whether MI increases RTC in an intervention group compared with controls. Method: Two-hundred eighty-five first-year female college students participated in the study. Present analyses focused on those students who consumed alcohol in the month before the study (n = 182). RTC was measured using the Readiness to Change Ruler. Results: Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. There was significant variability in RTC: 71.86% of variance in RTC was between- person differences, and 28.14% was within-person differences. Higher RTC was associated with lower intentions to drink and future drinking behavior. However, in weeks in which students drank more, they experienced a decrease in RTC. Based on the significant cross-level interaction, the intervention group had significantly higher RTC than controls. Conclusions: These results provided partial support for our hypotheses. The overall theoretical construct of RTC varies both across and within individuals. These results also offer support for the utility of MI-based prevention strategies in increasing RTC within individuals. However, we did not consistently find that these changes related to drinking changes. Findings provide support for both the construct of RTC and utility of MI interventions in changing these beliefs in female college students.
Kaysen, Debra L.; Lee, Christine M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Tollison, Sean J.
Self-medication has been theorized to explain comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drinking, whereupon problem drinking develops in order to modulate negative affect and ameliorate PTSD symptoms. Daily monitoring methodologies may help refine our understanding of proximal relations between PTSD, affect, and alcohol use. One hundred thirty-six female college drinkers with a past history of sexual victimization and 38 female college drinkers with no past trauma history completed electronic monitoring of PTSD symptoms, affect, alcohol use, and alcohol cravings, daily for 4 weeks. A two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine likelihood of drinking and amount of alcohol consumed on drinking days. We found significant relationships between daily PTSD symptoms, affect, and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms of PTSD, they experienced stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink on that day. On days in which women experienced more negative affect than their average, they experienced stronger urges to drink, whereas on days in which women experienced more of the dysphoric symptoms associated with PTSD than their average, they drank less. On days with higher positive affect, women reported stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink. Results suggest the need to examine both aspects of affect and specific PTSD symptoms as they may differentially predict drinking behavior. Differences in the ways in which PTSD symptoms and affect influence drinking suggest that interventions more specifically address the function of drinking behaviors in reducing alcohol use among college women. PMID:23915369
Kaysen, Debra; Atkins, David C; Simpson, Tracy L; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Blayney, Jessica A; Lee, Christine M; Larimer, Mary E
Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.
Three case studies demonstrated that social and monetary reinforcement for abstinence reduced the rate of excessive alcohol drinking in adolescents. The self-monitoring and extrinsic reinforcement procedures (ABA reversal design) resulted in complete abstinence in a 15-year-old boy with a 10-year history of excessive alcohol abuse and hospitalization for an alcohol-induced psychosis. In the cases of the 13-year-old and 15-year-old girls
Steven L. Brigham; George A. Rekers; Alexander C. Rosen; Judson J. Swihart; Gene Pfrimmer; Larry N. Ferguson
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently reduced the maximum contaminant level for arsenic in community drinking water systems from 50 to 10ppb. EPA uses net benefit analyses aggregated at the national-scale to set drinking water standards. Such aggregation may result in compliance options that are not cost-effective for very small systems, and may limit opportunities for these communities to
College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity—exercise—as an intervention for hazardous drinking. Exercise has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and data suggest that
The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...
Underage drinking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for American youths and young adults. The negative consequences of underage drinking range from academic problems to intentional and unintentional injuries, acts directed toward self or others, and death. Nurses, regardless of practice settings, are on the frontline of defense. The take-home message is to delay/deter the first drink of alcohol. PMID:23998767
Drinking together has important roles in human relationships and social interactions. In this paper, we suggest drinking as an implicit communication channel and an enhancer of communications. We present Lover's Cups as drinking-together interfaces that promote sharing the drinking time with someone you care about. The drinking interfaces are a pair of cups with a wireless connection that communicate with
Binge drinking as a researchable construct has generally been defined as 5 or more drinks on one occasion. However, no study has been conducted to determine if the binge concept that implies “excessive drunkenness” is being optimally captured within that level. Random interviews with breath tests of drinkers returning from visiting bars in Tijuana provide both blood alcohol concentration (BAC) measurements and the self-reported number of drinks consumed. Results indicate that currently used definitions of binge drinking predict relatively low BACs and may not be capturing the “excessive drunkenness” quality of the term. Consumption duration may explain the lower BACs.
Drinking water supplies continue to be a major source of human disease and death globally because many of them remain unsafe and vulnerable. Greater efforts are needed to address the key issues and questions which influence the provision of safe drinking water. Efforts are needed to re-evaluate and set new and better priorities for drinking water research and practice. More stakeholders need to be included in the processes of identifying key issues and setting priorities for safe drinking water. The overall approach to drinking water research and the provision of safe drinking water needs to become more rational and scientific, and become more visionary and anticipatory of the ever-present and emerging risks to drinking water safety. Collectively, we need to do a better job of making safe water available, accessible and affordable for all. One such approach to safe water for all is household water treatment and safe storage, which is being promoted globally by the World Health Organization and many other stakeholders and partners to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. PMID:16493895
Objective The rate of alcohol drinking has been shown to predict impairment on cognitive and behavioral tasks. The current study assessed the influence of speed of alcohol consumption within a laboratory-administered binge on self-reported attitudes toward driving and simulated driving ability. Method Forty moderate drinkers (20 female, 20 male) were recruited from the local community via advertisements for individuals who drank alcohol at least once per month. The equivalent of four standard alcohol drinks was consumed at the participant’s desired pace within a two-hour session. Results Correlation analyses revealed that, after alcohol drinking, mean simulated driving speed, time in excess of speed limit, collisions, and reported confidence in driving were all associated with rapid alcohol drinking. Conclusion Fast drinking may coincide with increased driving confidence due to the extended latency between the conclusion of drinking and the commencement of driving. However, this latency did not reduce alcohol-related driving impairment, as fast drinking was also associated with risky driving.
Bernosky-Smith, Kimberly A.; Aston, Elizabeth R.; Liguori, Anthony
Personality and cognitive processes are both related to alcohol use and misuse. A recent model of hazardous drinking referred, the 2-CARS model, postulates two major pathways to hazardous drinking. One pathway primarily involves the association between Reward Drive and Positive Outcome Expectancies, the second involves the association between Rash Impulsiveness and Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy. In previous tests of the model, Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy was found to have the most proximal impact on drinking, being directly influenced by Rash Impulsiveness, and indirectly influenced by Reward Drive through Positive Outcome Expectancies. The aim of the current study was to test the 2-CARS model in a larger independent sample. Results found that individuals with a strong Reward Drive showed higher Positive Outcome Expectancies, while individuals high in Rash Impulsiveness were more likely to report reducedDrinking Refusal Self-Efficacy. The present results also showed a theoretically unexpected pathway with a direct association between Rash Impulsiveness and Positive Outcome Expectancies. However, overall the results support the view that a greater understanding of hazardous drinking can be achieved by investigating the relationship between these personality and cognitive variables. PMID:24064194
Harnett, Paul H; Lynch, Samantha J; Gullo, Matthew J; Dawe, Sharon; Loxton, Natalie
This study explored the feasibility of a "Composite Drinking Scale" (CDS) designed to capture fully the phenomenon of problem drinking among college students while allowing easy public understanding. A survey conducted at 32 four-year U.S. colleges included four consumption measures: 30-day frequency; average number of drinks per week; number of…
Huang, Jiun-Hau; Dejong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg
Objective: The authors examined drinking and driving after drinking before and after turning 21. Participants: Participants were drawn from first time college students who were taking part in a 4-year longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks. Methods: Web-based longitudinal surveys collected data on drinking and driving after…
Protective behavioral strategy (PBS) use is associated with less alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related problems. Further, greater endorsement of social or enhancement drinking motives (i.e., positive motives) is associated with less frequent PBS use. Limited research has, however, explored coping or conformity motives (i.e., negative motives) in relation to PBS. Consequently, the present study aimed to (1) identify the types of PBS most strongly associated with negative and positive motives and (2) examine different types of PBS as mediators of the relationship between each drinking motive and alcohol outcomes. Participants were college students (n=303; 70% women) who completed measures of drinking motives, PBS, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that greater endorsement of positive drinking motives were more strongly associated with less frequent use of PBS while drinking whereas negative motives were more strongly related to less frequent Alternatives to Drinking strategy use. Further, strategies used while drinking were more relevant in a model of positive drinking motives and Alternatives to Drinking strategies were more relevant in a model of negative motives. These findings may suggest that whereas individuals with stronger positive motives have difficulty using strategies while drinking, individuals who drink to cope or conform have greater difficulty utilizing Alternatives to Drinking strategies. Based on our results demonstrating that different types of PBS are more relevant for various types of drinkers, it may be important for future interventions to discuss not only the participant's PBS use but also their motivations for consuming alcohol. PMID:24229844
Linden, Ashley N; Kite, Benjamin A; Braitman, Abby L; Henson, James M
College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the…
In the last 10-15 years in some German drinking water reservoirs an increase in the NOM (natural organic matter) content has occurred. The impact of such a change on the drinking water quality was almost unknown. A research project was carried out at several drinking water reservoirs and water works concerning the change in the NOM quality and the nutrient
This paper describes smoking and drinking patterns during pregnancy amongst a cohort of 2266 women who enrolled at a London antenatal clinic 1982-1983. Only 12% of mothers were non-drinkers before pregnancy, but 44% abstained in the first trimester, 38% in the second and 50% in the third. Before pregnancy 20% of mothers were drinking more than the recommended 10 units of alcohol per week. This dropped to 6% during pregnancy. Mean consumption at each of the three stages of pregnancy was highest amongst those mothers who were the heaviest drinkers before pregnancy. The heaviest pre-pregnancy drinkers were also the least likely to abstain at any point in pregnancy. Of those mothers who were drinking less than 10 units of alcohol per week before pregnancy, 3% increased during pregnancy. Wine was the most popular beverage choice but heavier drinkers were more likely to drink beers and spirits in addition. Before pregnancy 29% of mothers smoked. This dropped to 23% in pregnancy. Consumption levels fell amongst those who continued smoking. The heaviest pre-pregnancy smokers were the most likely to reduce but the least likely to stop. Smoking was positively associated with the level of both pre-pregnancy and pregnancy drinking. The most commonly cited reasons for changes in drinking and smoking habits in pregnancy were concern for the child, concern for self or concern for both. Feeling sick or ill was a more commonly stated reason for reduction of drinking than smoking. Social pressures were important in reducing smoking, but the mass media were quoted as a more important influence in reducingdrinking. Mothers who drank more than 10 units of alcohol per week during pregnancy were more likely to be older, of higher social status and primiparous. In contrast those who smoked in pregnancy were more likely to be younger, of lower social status and multiparous. This has important implications for planning antenatal health education. PMID:2785805
The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…
In this study we examined associations between young adults' drinking patterns and social status within their natural drinking groups (NDGs) and assessed gender differences in these relationships. Same-sex NDGs (n=104) on route to a bar district were recruited and completed a peer-nominated measure of within-NDG status. In a follow-up online survey, participants (n=293; 174 men and 119 women) reported their usual drinking pattern within the past year. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that men who engaged in more frequent heavy episodic drinking (HED) (both for 5+ and 8+ drinks in one sitting) and women who drank more frequently were nominated as occupying higher-status positions within their NDGs compared to their peers who drank less. Further, for both men and women, drinking more than one's peers during one's heaviest drinking occasion in the past year was also associated with higher within-NDG status. These findings suggest that higher social status is associated with riskier drinking patterns and have important implications for prevention programming. PMID:24968362
Dumas, Tara M; Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha
BackgroundBrief interventions (BIs) are effective methods to reduce problematic drinking. It is not known, if the effectiveness of BI differs between patients with or without comorbid depression or anxiety disorders.
Janina M. Grothues; Gallus Bischof; Susa Reinhardt; Christian Meyer; Ulrich John; Hans-Jürgen Rumpf
... when you’re drinking, insert a non-alcoholic beverage between alcoholic beverages. Don’t have more than about one drink ... habit and then kind of start over. Drink beverages that have a lower alcohol concentration rather than ...
...2014-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section 3...Standards Â§ 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable water...
... Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities This one-stop EPA site provides information about drinking water quality in schools and child care facilities. Ensuring ...
This site contains listings of drinking water contaminants and the EPA regulatory limit for each contaminant. Tables include the national primary drinking water regulations, the national secondary drinking water regulations, and unregulated contaminants.
Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Nutrition Basics > Energy Drinks and ... Downsides Cutting Through the Hype The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...
...AGENCY [FRL-9186-8] Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program AGENCY...details of EPA's voluntary Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program, effective...The program enables qualified drinking water operators at public water systems in...
... the body's tolerance for alcohol. People experience the effects of alcohol more quickly than when they were younger. Drinking ... more than this increases the risk of serious alcohol problems. Heavy drinking ... problems, and mood disorders. Drinking and Medications Many ...
Background Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood. Methodology We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at the district and postal code levels. We used kriging interpolation to generate smoking and drinking distributions at the postal code level. We also examined spatial autocorrelations and identified spatial clusters of high and low prevalence of smoking and drinking. Finally, we used bivariate analyses to examine the spatial correlations between smoking and drinking, and between cigarette and bidi smoking. Results There was a high prevalence of any smoking in the central and northeastern states, and a high prevalence of any drinking in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Madhya Pradesh. Spatial clusters of early smoking (started smoking before age 20) were identified in the central states. Cigarette and bidi smoking showed distinctly different geographic patterns, with high levels of cigarette smoking in the northeastern states and high levels of bidi smoking in the central states. The geographic pattern of bidi smoking was similar to early smoking. Cigarette smoking was spatially associated with any drinking. Smoking prevalences in 1998 were correlated with prevalences in 2004 at the district level and 2010 at the state level. Conclusion These results along with earlier evidence on the complementarities between tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking suggest that local public health action on smoking might also help to reduce alcohol consumption, and vice versa. Surveys that properly represent tobacco and alcohol consumptions at the district level are recommended.
Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534
Although studies on social anxiety and alcohol-related problems are numerous, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate how the motive to drink due to social anxiety is associated with hazardous alcohol use over and above habitual alcohol use, social anxiety, and alcohol outcome expectancies. We also examine which factors define the motive to drink due to social anxiety and clarify the impact of the type of social situation. Drinking due to social anxiety, habitual alcohol use, and gender, but not social anxiety, were associated with hazardous alcohol use. Social anxiety increased the motive to drink due to social anxiety, but fear of cognitive performance deficits after drinkingreduced it. Alcohol was used to reduce anxiety more frequently in situations where intake of alcohol is deemed socially acceptable. These findings suggest that the motive drinking due to social anxiety, not social anxiety per se, is related to hazardous alcohol use. The motive is weakened by the expectation of alcohol-induced cognitive deficits, as well as by the type of social situation in which alcohol is to be used. PMID:23586457
The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...
Internationally there is a move towards managing the provision of safe drinking water by direct assessment of the performance of key pathogen barriers (critical control points), rather than end point testing (i.e. in drinking water). For fecal pathogens that breakthrough the vari...
Investigations into the mutagenicity and mutational mechanisms of single chemicals within drinking water as well as of organic extracts of drinking water are being pursued using the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay as well as in human samples. For example, the semi-volatile ...
The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...
This article analyses alcohol-related lifestyles among Danish teenagers. Building on Bourdieu's reasoning on symbolic capital and distinction, we analyse three interrelated themes. First, we show that alcohol-related variables (drinking patterns, drinking debut, experience of intoxication, etc.) can be used to identify some very distinctive life…
Studied the adult male albino rat's rate of drinking by directly measuring the interlick intervals, and comparing interlick-interval distributions obtained during drinking elicited by several different sets of dipsogenic stimuli. The means and standard deviations of the interlick-interval distributions were highly stable and generally on the order of 150 4 15 msec. Neither the interlick interval nor the volume of
Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, recogni...
An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…
Evidence is reviewed that indicates that social anxiety is a significant motivation for drinking among college students. Although the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has been studied from a variety of perspectives, there has been little integration of data. Drawing from the alcohol and anxiety literature, the relationship between social anxiety and heavy drinking in college students is
Treatment systems within the U.S. are almost exclusively focused on abstinence as the goal of treatment for alcohol use disorders. This article reviews literature on the natural course of recovery from alcohol disorders and examines the role of testing control over drinking in the course of successful resolution of alcohol problems. Theory, quantitative and qualitative evidence support controlled drinking trials
Resource Purpose: Section 1412(b)(12)(A) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. ? 300f-300j), as amended in 1996, required EPA to propose a National Primary Drinking Water Regulation for arsenic by January 1, 2000, and to issue a final regulation by January 1, 20...
Data gathered in a study of palatability (“liking”) and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males, two for females). Palatability ratings were
Jim Lemon; Richard Stevenson; Peter Gates; Jan Copeland
Objective: Understanding why people drink alcohol is important for the health and safety of individuals and the public. The aim of this study was to examine from a cognitive point of view the hypothesized link between drinking and stress. Methods: 25 scenarios were constructed by combining two items, either two life-change events or a social situation and an emotional state.
Evelyne Fouquereau; Anne Fernandez; Etienne Mullet; Paul Clay Sorum
Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…
Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan
Interviews with 634 Hispanics living in California's San Francisco Bay Area provided data on their drinking patterns by sex, age, income, education, marital status, occupation, and religion. Results confirmed previous findings that indicate that Hispanics have a higher rate of heavy drinking and alcohol problems than other ethnic groups. (NQA)
Although the heavy episodic drinking (HED) measure of 5+ drinks (sometimes 4+ for women) is used extensively, there is no empirical basis for the designation of 5 drinks as the threshold (vs. another threshold that may perform equally). The present study sought to determine the threshold for HED that maximally predicts proximal and distal adverse-drinking-related outcomes. Participants included 115 young adults (57% female; 96% Caucasian) who partook in an 8-week Internet survey that assessed daily drinking as well as next-day hangover; 10 months later, adverse outcomes (problem drinking, alcohol-related problems, maximum number of drinks, and drug use) were surveyed. Thresholds were computed, with a range from 1+ drinks to 15+ drinks, and outcomes were predicted from each threshold. Findings for hangover measures showed relatively good convergence across multiple indicators, with greatest prediction occurring at a threshold of 10+ drinks per occasion. Different thresholds were observed for long-term outcomes, with higher thresholds indicative of outcomes with greater severity. Although alternatives to HED, such as subjective effects and blood alcohol concentration, can indicate risky drinking, a threshold measure of HED may have advantages in terms of prevention and of intervention efforts.
In 2011, Congress passed the ?Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,? which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of ?lead-free? by reducing allowed...
In 2011, Congress passed the ?Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,? which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of ?lead-free? by reducing allowed...
As college students are returning to campuses, their parents are concerned over the risks of binge drinking, which is particularly high among the college-aged set. In a national survey released this week by the American Medical Association (AMA), 95% of parents believe that binge drinking is a serious threat to their children, and 85% say that easy access to alcohol contributes to too much drinking. Visitors to the "Binge Drinking: Community Problem, Community Solution" Website can not only read the results of the AMA poll results and associated graphics but also read about prevention strategies employed by colleges and communities and learn about the people spearheading the prevention movement. Other features of the site are a FAQ list and advisory for parents concerned about binge drinking among college students. The easiest way to download the poll results is to go to the site's downloads page where you can choose from .pdf, .zip or .sit formats.
Among 20 species of freshwater fishes examined, Pseudorasbora parva, Rhodeus ocellatus, Cobitis anguillicaudatus, Carassius auratus, Oryzias latipes, Gambusia affinis, and Gyrinocheilus anymonieri were found to drink water like seawater fishes, while 13 remaining species did not drink. For fish species found exclusively in fresh water, angiotensin II (AII) treatment did not induce drinking. In contrast, those freshwater fishes which survive in estuarine brackish water (Leuciscus hakonensis, C. carassius, Parasilurus asotus, G. affinis, Chaenogobius annularis, Tridentiger obscurus, and G. anymonieri responded to AII by drinking. Furthermore, some freshwater fishes which survive either in hypertonic water (C. auratus) or in sea water (Anguilla japonica and O. latipes) also responded to AII by drinking. Of 17 seawater fishes examined, Eptatretus burgeri, Triakis scyllia, and Heterodontus japonicus failed to drink water, and for Trachurus japonicus, Platichthys bicoloratus, and Glossogobius giuris fasciatopunctatus, water intake was minor (similar to freshwater fishes). The 11 remaining seawater fishes drank water. AII did not induce drinking in fishes living exclusively in sea water. However, seawater fishes which survive either in tide pools (Chasmichthys dolichognathus gulosus) or in brackish water (Sillago japonica, Mugil cephalus, G. giuris fasciatopunctatus) responded to AII by drinking. P. bicoloratus, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, and Fugu niphobles were exceptional, in that they survive in brackish water, but did not respond to AII. Although some exceptions exist, it is generally concluded that a drinking response to AII is characteristic of fishes which encounter water more hypertonic than that in which they typically reside. Accordingly, a drinking mechanism induced by AII may be a compensatory emergency reaction to dehydration stress. PMID:6840524
Kobayashi, H; Uemura, H; Takei, Y; Itatsu, N; Ozawa, M; Ichinohe, K
Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially accomplish this, by first filtering the water and finally by adding disinfection treatments adequate to remove or mitigate fungi or their toxic metabolites. PMID:24162095
The presence of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in drinking water is of great concern due to their adverse effects on human health. Emerging regulation limiting the concentration of DBPs in drinking water has increased demands for technologies and processes which reduce the formation of DBPs in drinking water. In this study, UV-H2O2 based
One of the major concerns for professional drivers is fatigue. Many studies evaluated specific fatigue countermeasures, in many cases comparing the efficiency of each method separately. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of rest areas combined with consumption of energy drinks on professional truck drivers during a prolonged simulated drive. Fifteen professional truck drivers participated in three experimental sessions: control-drivers were asked to drink 500ml of a placebo drink prior to the beginning of the drive. Energy drink-drivers were asked to drink 500ml of an energy drink containing 160mg of caffeine prior to the beginning of the drive, and an Energy drink+Rest session - where the drivers were asked to drink 500ml of an energy drink prior to driving, and rest for 10min at a designated rest area zone 100min into the drive. For all sessions, driving duration was approximately 150min and consisted of driving on a monotonous, two-way rural road. In addition to driving performance measures, subjective measures, and heart rate variability were obtained. Results indicated that consumption of an energy drink (in both sessions) facilitated lower lane position deviations and reduced steering wheel deviations during the first 80-100min of the drive relative to the control sessions. Resting after 100min of driving, in addition to the energy drink that was consumed before the drive, enabled the drivers to maintain these abilities throughout the remainder of the driving session. Practical applications: Practical applications arising from the results of this research may give indication on the possible added value of combining fatigue counter measures methods during a prolonged drive and the importance of the timing of the use for each method. PMID:24913484
Binge drinking is prevalent and has serious biomedical consequences. In children, adolescents, and young adults, it is a prominent risk factor for later development of alcohol-use disorders. Many preclinical models have been employed to study the genetic risks for and biomedical consequences of alcohol drinking. However, these models historically did not result in blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) exceding 80 mg%; this relatively modest level is the threshold that currently defines a binge session, according to the NIAAA and CDC. Nevertheless, in alcohol-dependent rodents, binge drinking has been well documented. Key neurobiological substrates localized to brain reward and stress systems have been identified. Studies of newer models of binge drinking without dependence are reviewed here. In these models, rodents, non-human primates, and flies will drink enough to reach high BACs. They often display observable signs of intoxication. The neurobiological consequences of these episodes of binge drinking without dependence are reviewed, preliminary evidence for roles for GABA, glutamate, opioid peptides, and corticotropin releasing factor are discussed, as is the need for more work to identify the antecedents and consequences of binge drinking in both animal models and humans.
Crabbe, John C.; Harris, R. Adron; Koob, George F.
Alcohol remains the drug of choice for many adolescents; however, the nature of the relationship between athletic involvement and alcohol misuse remains ambiguous. In this article, we used a longitudinal sample of over 600 Western New York adolescents and their families to explore the gender-specific and race-specific relationships between identification with the "jock" label and adolescent alcohol consumption, specifically problem drinking. Operationalization of problem drinking included frequency measures of heavy drinking, binge drinking, and social problems related to alcohol (e.g., trouble with family, friends, school officials over drinking). Self-identified adolescent "jocks" were more likely to engage in problem drinking than their non-jock counterparts, even after controlling for gender, age, race, socioeconomic status, physical maturity, social maturity, and frequency of athletic activity. Jock identity was strongly associated with higher binge drinking frequency in Black adolescent girls. This study underscores the need to distinguish between objective and subjective meanings of athletic involvement when assessing the relationship between sport and adolescent health-risk behavior. PMID:15237868
Miller, Kathleen E; Hoffman, Joseph H; Barnes, Grace M; Farrell, Michael P; Sabo, Don; Melnick, Merrill J
Although drinking motives have been shown to influence drinking behavior among women with trauma histories and PTSD, no known research has examined the influence of drinking motives on alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences for women with PTSD as compared to women with a trauma history but no PTSD and women with no trauma history. Therefore, the present study sought to examine the associations between drinking motives women held for themselves as well as their perception of the drinking motives of others and their own alcohol use and consequences, and whether this was moderated by a history of trauma and/or PTSD. College women (N=827) were categorized as either having no trauma exposure (n=105), trauma exposure but no PTSD (n=580), or PTSD (n=142). Results of regression analyses revealed that women with trauma exposure and PTSD consume more alcohol and are at greatest risk of experiencing alcohol-related consequences. A diagnosis of PTSD moderated the association between one's own depression and anxiety coping and conformity drinking motives and alcohol-related consequences. PTSD also moderated the association between the perception of others' depression coping motives and one's own consequences. These findings highlight the importance of providing alternative coping strategies to women with PTSD to help reduce their alcohol use and consequences, and also suggest a possible role for the perceptions regarding the reasons other women drink alcohol and one's own drinking behavior that may have important clinical implications. PMID:23261496
Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra
Estrogenic compounds have been shown to be present in surface waters, leading to concerns over their possible presence in finished drinking waters. In this work, two in vitro human cell line bioassays for estrogenicity were used to evaluate the removal of estrogens through conventional drinking water treatment using a natural water. Bench-scale studies utilizing chlorine, alum coagulation, ferric chloride coagulation, and powdered activated carbon (PAC) were conducted using Ohio River water spiked with three estrogens, 17?-estradiol, 17?-ethynylestradiol, and estriol. Treatment of the estrogens with chlorine, either alone or with coagulant, resulted in approximately 98% reductions in the concentrations of the parent estrogens, accompanied by formation of by-products. The MVLN reporter gene and MCF-7 cell proliferation assays were used to characterize the estrogenic activity of the water before and after treatment. The observed estrogenic activities of the chlorinated samples showed that estrogenicity of the water was reduced commensurate with removal of the parent estrogen. Therefore, the estrogen chlorination by-products did not contribute appreciably to the estrogenic activity of the water. Coagulation alone did not result in significant removals of the estrogens. However, addition of PAC, at a typical drinking water plant dose, resulted in removals ranging from approximately 20 to 80%. PMID:22361701
Schenck, Kathleen; Rosenblum, Laura; Wiese, Thomas E; Wymer, Larry; Dugan, Nicholas; Williams, Daniel; Mash, Heath; Merriman, Betty; Speth, Thomas
Ingestion of arsenic, both from water supplies and medicinal preparations, is known to cause skin cancer. The evidence assessed here indicates that arsenic can also cause liver, lung, kidney, and bladder cancer and that the population cancer risks due to arsenic in U.S. water supplies may be comparable to those from environmental tobacco smoke and radon in homes. Large population studies in an area of Taiwan with high arsenic levels in well water (170-800 micrograms/L) were used to establish dose-response relationships between cancer risks and the concentration of inorganic arsenic naturally present in water supplies. It was estimated that at the current EPA standard of 50 micrograms/L, the lifetime risk of dying from cancer of the liver, lung, kidney, or bladder from drinking 1 L/day of water could be as high as 13 per 1000 persons. It has been estimated that more than 350,000 people in the United States may be supplied with water containing more than 50 micrograms/L arsenic, and more than 2.5 million people may be supplied with water with levels above 25 micrograms/L. For average arsenic levels and water consumption patterns in the United States, the risk estimate was around 1/1000. Although further research is needed to validate these findings, measures to reduce arsenic levels in water supplies should be considered.
Smith, A H; Hopenhayn-Rich, C; Bates, M N; Goeden, H M; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Duggan, H M; Wood, R; Kosnett, M J; Smith, M T
Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.
Binge drinking is a public health concern due to its association with negative health outcomes as well as increased legal and social consequences. Previous studies have frequently used self-reported alcohol consumption to classify binge drinking episodes; however, these measures are often limited in both detail and accuracy. Some researchers have begun using additional measures such as blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol concentrations to supplement self-report data. Transdermal alcohol testing, or the detection of alcohol expiration through the skin, offers advantages over BAC and BrAC measures by allowing for continuous and noninvasive monitoring of an individual's drinking behavior in real-time. Despite these advantages, this technology has not been widely used or studied outside of forensic applications. The present research compares transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) and BrAC readings during the consumption of alcohol ranging from moderate drinking to binge drinking in 22 adult regular drinkers in order to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of the TAC monitors. We observed that BrAC and TAC measures were broadly consistent. Additionally, we were able to develop an equation that could predict BrAC results using TAC data, indicating TAC data would be an appropriate substitute in research and clinical contexts where BrAC readings are typically used. Finally, we were able to determine a cutoff point for peak TAC data that could reliably predict whether a participant had engaged in moderate or more than moderate drinking, suggesting TAC monitors could be used in settings where moderate or reduceddrinking is the goal.
Dougherty, Donald M.; Charles, Nora E.; Acheson, Ashley; John, Samantha; Furr, R. Michael; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie
Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714
Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs.
Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.
Background Alcohol consumption is strongly associated with cigarette smoking in young adults. Purpose To evaluate the acceptability and estimate the magnitude of the effect of a novel integrated smoking cessation and binge drinking intervention for young adults compared to standard treatment control. Methods Participants were 41 young adult smokers (? 10 cigarettes per day) who regularly (? 2 times per month) binge drank who were randomly assigned to Standard Treatment (n=19) involving eight individual treatment visits plus eight weeks of nicotine patch therapy or the identical smoking cessation treatment integrated with a binge drinking intervention (Integrated Intervention; n=22). Results Participants rated Integrated Intervention as highly acceptable as indicated by 100% of participants rating helpfulness as 5 on 5-point scale. Using an intent-to-treat analysis for tobacco abstinence, at both week 12 end of treatment and week 24 follow-up, more participants who received Integrated Intervention were biochemically confirmed abstinent from tobacco than those who received Standard Treatment (36% vs. 21% at week 12; 23% vs. 11% at week 24). At week 24, change from baseline in binge drinking episodes, drinks consumed, and drinking days between treatment groups were similar (intent-to-treat analysis was not used for alcohol data). Conclusions Preliminary data supports the intriguing possibility that Integrated Intervention may enhance smoking cessation and reduce binge drinking.
Ames, Steven C.; Werch, Chudley E.; Ames, Gretchen E.; Lange, Lori J.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Hanson, Andrew C.; Patten, Christi A.
Background Limited research exists on medical students’ substance use patterns including over-consumption of alcohol. Objective To determine prevalence and correlates of at-risk drinking among a national sample of medical students. Design Cross-sectional, anonymous, web-based survey. 2710 medical students from 36 U.S. medical schools (1st – 4th year) completed the survey. Included in the instruments was a 10-item scale (AUDIT) to assess at-risk drinking behaviors within the last 12 months. Results Over 15% of the subjects (n= 412) scored positive for at-risk drinking (8?). Multivariate analysis of the data revealed the following independent predictors were statistically significant (p ? 0.05) for at-risk drinking: being of younger age, male, unmarried, using illicit drugs, smoking tobacco products within the last 30 days, having low perception of risk, showing impulsive behavior, being depressed, and having gambling problems. Conclusions Findings from this study provides initial data for investigating further associations between risky drinking behavior, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors, as well as effectiveness of curriculum or campus wide policy interventions to reduce over-consumption of drinking among this population.
Shah, Ameet Arvind; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lindstrom, Richard W.; Wolf, Kenneth E.
Aims: To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Results: Controlling for financial stress, discrimination and demographic variables, a hypothesized, positive relationship between ethnic drinking cultures and alcohol outcomes held for most drinking outcomes. A hypothesis on the moderating effect of integration into ethnic cultures indicated by ethnic language use was supported for US-born Asian Americans. Conclusion: Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence alcohol use by Asian Americans. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures may be conditioned by the degree of integration into the ethnic cultures. To inform alcohol interventions for reducing harmful and hazardous alcohol use among immigrants, future research needs to explore the cultural and social processes occurring in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking.
Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine
Sodium (Na) ingestion in rats depleted of Na is a strong, motivated behavior that is enhanced further when depleted rats are sham drinking. Dopamine plays a critical role in motivation, including reward associated with consumption of palatable tastes. The present studies assessed the role of dopamine in real and sham drinking of NaCl solutions after Na depletion with the diuretic furosemide (10 mg/kg). Dopamine (D2) receptor antagonists were evaluated (Haloperidol [0.1 mg/kg] and raclopride [0.2 mg/kg]), for their effects on sham and real drinking of 0.3 M NaCl. Sham drinking was markedly reduced by both antagonists whereas real drinking was unaffected. These effects did not appear to be due to malaise or suppression of motor behavior because drug-treated animals were able to increase ingestion substantially when offered less concentrated NaCl (0.1 M). These results suggest that the positive motivating properties of NaCl stimulation in depleted, sham-drinking rats are mediated by central D2 receptors. PMID:9189275
Roitman, M F; Schafe, G E; Thiele, T E; Bernstein, I L
The aim of the study was to investigate how soft drink and fruit juice consumption in teenagers is associated with life-style, other food choices, eating behaviour and maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 16-year-old girls (n 275) and boys (n 199) and their mothers was undertaken. Questionnaires were used to assess habitual dietary intake, eating behaviour, physical activity, smoking and educational level. Weight and height were measured. It was found that eating breakfast less than five times per week was independently associated with a high soft drink consumption in both girls and boys. A low intake of cooked meals and milk and a high intake of salty snacks were associated with soft drinks in boys only, and a low intake of fruits in girls only. A high maternal juice intake, low milk and high fruit consumption were independent correlates of fruit juice intake in both girls and boys. In girls, being a smoker, having a smoking mother, a high soft drink intake, scoring low on emotional eating and high on cognitive restraint were also associated with fruit juice intake. A low intake of soft drinks and cooked meals was associated with fruit juice intake in boys only. Neither soft drinks nor fruit juice was associated with BMI. In conclusion, a high intake of both fruit juice and soft drinks were associated with a lower intake of foods such as milk and cooked meals. It might be possible to influence fruit juice intake among teenagers by aiming at their mothers, whereas the adolescents themselves should be targeted when the aim is to reduce soft drink consumption.
Vagstrand, Karin; Linne, Yvonne; Karlsson, Jan; Elfhag, Kristina; Lindroos, Anna Karin
Background This study used a pre-post design to evaluate the influence on drinking-and-driving fatal crashes of six laws directed at youth aged 20 and younger and four laws targeting all drivers. Methods Data on the laws were drawn from the Alcohol Policy Information System data set (1998–2005), the Digests of State Alcohol-Highway Safety Related Legislation (1983-2006), and the Westlaw database. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set (1982-2004) was used to assess the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers involved in fatal crashes (fatal crash incidence ratio [CIR]). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Results Significant decreases in the underage fatal CIR were associated with presence of four of the laws targeting youth (possession, purchase, use and lose, and zero tolerance) and three of the laws targeting all drivers (.08 blood alcohol concentration illegal per se law, secondary or upgrade to a primary seat belt law, and an administrative license revocation law). Beer consumption was associated with a significant increase in the underage fatal CIR. The direct effects of laws targeting drivers of all ages on adult drinking drivers aged 26 and older were similar but of a smaller magnitude compared to the findings for those aged 20 and younger. It is estimated that the two core underage drinking laws (purchase and possession) and the zero-tolerance law are currently saving an estimated 732 lives per year controlling for other exposure factors. If all states adopted use and lose laws, an additional 165 lives could be saved annually. Conclusions These results provide substantial support for the effectiveness of under age 21 drinking laws with four of the six laws examined having significant associations with reductions in underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes. These findings point to the importance of key underage drinking and traffic safety laws in efforts to reduce underage drinking-driver crashes.
Fell, James C.; Fisher, Deborah A.; Voas, Robert B.; Blackman, Kenneth; Tippetts, A. Scott
The independent effects of ethnicity and social class on multiple aspects of adolescent drinking were examined. African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students (1,134 females, 740 males) from three social classes completed measures of drinking frequency and quantity, drinking consequences, reasons for drinking, and…
Data from rats with chronic intracardiac cannulae support the cellular dehydration theory of thirst: (1) Drinking was stimulated by intravenous (IV) hypertonic saline, the degree of stimulation being a function of amount injected. (2) Drinking was depressed by IV distilled water as a function of amount injected and temporal relationship between injection and drinking. (3) Drinking was unaffected by IV
OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required.
Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.
This guide describes the role of enforcement and community organizations or groups in preventing underage drinking parties and how to safely disperse them. It describes the problem of underage drinking, in general, and youth-drinking parties in particular. It provides step-by-step information on how to address underage drinking parties and how to…
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 2011
Coping motives for drinking initiate alcohol-related problems. Interpersonal goals, which powerfully influence affect, could provide a starting point for this relation. Here we tested effects of self-image goals (which aim to construct and defend desired self-views) and compassionate goals (which aim to support others) on heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Undergraduate drinkers (N=258) completed measures of self-image and compassionate goals in academics and friendships, coping and enhancement drinking motives, heavy-episodic drinking, and alcohol-related problems in a cross-sectional design. As predicted, self-image goals, but not compassionate goals, positively related to alcohol-related problems. Path models showed that self-image goals relate to coping motives, but not enhancement motives; coping motives then relate to heavy-episodic drinking, which in turn relate to alcohol-related problems. Self-image goals remained a significant predictor in the final model, which accounted for 34% of the variance in alcohol-related problems. These findings indicate that self-image goals contribute to alcohol-related problems in college students both independently and through coping motives. Interventions can center on reducing self-image goals and their attendant negative affect. PMID:19586150
Coping motives for drinking initiate alcohol-related problems. Interpersonal goals, which powerfully influence affect, could provide a starting point for this relation. Here we tested effects of self-image goals (which aim to construct and defend desired self-views) and compassionate goals (which aim to support others) on heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Undergraduate drinkers (N=258) completed measures of self-image and compassionate goals in academics and friendships, coping and enhancement drinking motives, heavy-episodic drinking, and alcohol-related problems in a cross-sectional design. As predicted, self-image goals, but not compassionate goals, positively related to alcohol-related problems. Path models showed that self-image goals relate to coping motives, but not enhancement motives; coping motives then relate to heavy-episodic drinking, which in turn relate to alcohol-related problems. Self-image goals remained a significant predictor in the final model, which accounted for 34% of the variance in alcohol-related problems. These findings indicate that self-image goals contribute to alcohol-related problems in college students both independently and through coping motives. Interventions can center on reducing self-image goals and their attendant negative affect.
Despite the dangers associated with drink walking, limited research is currently available regarding the factors which influence individuals to engage in this risky behaviour. This study examined the influence of psychosocial factors upon individuals' intentions to drink walk across four experimental scenarios (and a control condition). Specifically, a 2×2 repeated measures design was utilised in which all of the scenarios incorporated a risky pedestrian crossing situation (i.e., a pedestrian crossing against a red man signal) but differed according to the level of group identity (i.e., low/strangers and high/friends) and conformity (low and high). Individuals were assessed for their intentions to drink walk within each of these different scenarios. Undergraduate students (N=151), aged 17-30 years, completed a questionnaire. Overall, most of the study's hypotheses were supported with individuals reporting the highest intentions to drink walk when in the presence of friends (i.e., high group identity) and their friends were said to be also crossing against the red man signal (i.e., high conformity). The findings may have significant implications for the design of countermeasures to reducedrink walking. For instance, the current findings would suggest that potentially effective strategies may be to promote resilience to peer influence as well as highlight the negative consequences associated with following the behaviour of other intoxicated pedestrians who are crossing against a red signal. PMID:22269552
In-house contamination of drinking-water is a persistent problem in developing countries. This study aimed at identifying critical points of contamination and determining the extent of recontamination after water treatment. In total, 81 households were visited, and 347 water samples from their current sources of water, transport vessels, treated water, and drinking vessels were analyzed. The quality of water was assessed using Escherichia coli as an indicator for faecal contamination. The concentration of E. coli increased significantly from the water source [median=0 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL, interquartile range (IQR: 0-13)] to the drinking cup (median=8 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0-550; n=81, z=-3.7, p<0.001). About two-thirds (34/52) of drinking vessels were contaminated with E. coli. Although boiling and solar disinfection of water (SODIS) improved the quality of drinking-water (median=0 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0-0.05), recontamination at the point-of-consumption significantly reduced the quality of water in the cups (median=8, IQR: 0-500; n=45, z=-2.4, p=0.015). Home-based interventions in disinfection of water may not guarantee health benefits without complementary hygiene education due to the risk of posttreatment contamination. PMID:20214084
... 2014) Tuesday, May 13, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Medicines TUESDAY, May 13, 2014 ( ... if they do drink," she said. Patients fighting alcoholism should expect, or ask, for information about medications ...
Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)
The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)
This project will enable a systematic approach to characterizing the value of condition assessment of drinking water mains that will provide the basis for better communication among, and decisions by, stakeholders regarding goals and priorities for research, development, and tech...
Chlorine, the most common drinking water disinfectant in the United States, is effective for killing harmful microorganisms, but it produces a few disinfection byproducts (DBPs) about which health concerns have been raised. Among the more predominant chlo...
The presence of biodegradable organic matter in drinking water can result in biologically unstable water that has been linked to various taste, odor and color problems. When the implicated bacteria are members of the total coliform group, those occurrence...
During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...
Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States.
Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy
Chlorine, the most common drinking water disinfectant in the United States, is effective for killing harmful microorganisms, but it produces a few disinfection byproducts (DBPS) about which health concerns have been raised. mong the more predominant chlorination DBPs are trihalom...
At least 10 % of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. PMID:24714110
An investigation of Legionella pneumophila in drinking water systems and home plumbing appurtenances was done. In Phase 1, 68 water samples were collected from kitchen sink faucets in homes on 17 community water systems. No. L. pneumophila organisms were ...
L. E. Witherell R. W. Duncan K. M. Stone L. J. Stratton L. Orciari
Indirect reuse of wastewaters in drinking water supplies is common practice in industrialized states today. The investigations reported upon have been directed towards improvements upon existing techniques more applicable to the tropical and savanna devel...
The amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is present as a nutritional supplement in many sports drinks. An experiment, suitable for a junior-senior level instrumental analysis course, is described to measure the amount of taurine in these sports drinks. A pre-column derivatization with Sanger's reagent, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, is followed by an HPLC separation utilizing a gradient elution, and detection at 360 nm.
During the year 2004, 20% of eighth-graders and 60.3% of twelfth-graders reported that they had gotten drunk at least once over the course of just one year, according to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Of the 10.7 million underage youth who drink, 7.2 million or 31% of all high school students binge drink with a frequency of at least…
Background Excessive alcohol consumption causes 79,000 deaths annually in the U.S., shortening the lives of those who die by approximately 30 years. Although alcohol taxation is an effective measure to reduce excessive consumption and related harms, some argue that increasing alcohol taxes places an unfair economic burden on “responsible” drinkers and socially disadvantaged persons. Purpose To examine the impact of a hypothetical tax increase based on alcohol consumption and socio-demographic characteristics of current drinkers, individually and in aggregate. Methods Data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey was analyzed from 2010–2011 to determine the net financial impact of a hypothetical 25 cent-per-drink tax increase on current drinkers in the U.S. Higher-risk drinkers were defined as those whose past-30 day consumption included binge drinking, heavy drinking, drinking in excess of the U.S. Dietary Guidelines, and alcohol-impaired driving. Results Of current drinkers in the U.S., 50.4% (or approximately 25% of the total U.S. population) were classified as higher-risk drinkers. The tax increase would result in a 9.2% reduction in alcohol consumption, including an 11.4% reduction in heavy drinking. Compared with lower-risk drinkers, higher-risk drinkers paid 4.7 times more in net increased annual per capita taxes, and paid 82.7% of net increased annual aggregate taxes. Lower-risk drinkers paid less than $30 in net increased taxes annually. In aggregate, groups who paid the most in net tax increases included those who were white, male, between the ages of 21 and 50, earning ?$50,000 per year, employed, and had a college degree. Conclusions A 25 cent-per-drink alcohol tax increase would reduce excessive drinking, and higher-risk drinkers would pay the substantial majority of the net tax increase.
Daley, James I.; Stahre, Mandy A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Naimi, Timothy S.
Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater than 95%. m-T7 agar yielded 8- to 38-fold more coliforms than did m-Endo agar LES. The geometric mean of coliforms recovered by m-Endo agar LES was less than 1 confirmed coliform per 100 ml, although m-T7 agar yielded 5.7 to 67.5 confirmed coliforms per 100 ml. In addition, the majority of these samples giving positive results on m-T7 agar produced no detectable counts on m-Endo agar LES. These findings indicated that coliforms were injured and largely undetected by use of accepted analytical media in the systems examined.
Objective This research considered whether changes in marital quality over the early years of marriage were related to patterns of alcohol use among three groups of couples: congruent nondrinkers, congruent drinkers who usually drank with their spouses and congruent drinkers who usually drank apart from their spouses. Method Newlywed couples (N = 418) were assessed for marital satisfaction and drinking behaviors and then were reassessed at their first and second anniversaries, Cross-sectional analyses compared couples at each assessment mid multilevel modeling assessed changes in marital satisfaction over time. Results At each assessment, husbands and wives who usually drank with their partners reported greater levels of marital satisfaction. Over time, marital satisfaction declined for both husbands and wives. When we assessed changes in mental quality based on the three groups, husbands in each group experienced similar declines in marital quality. Among wives, however, the rate of decline was not the same. Although wives in the nondrinking group and wives who usually drank with their husbands had similar initial marital satisfaction, the nondrinkers experienced a greater decline in marital satisfaction than the wives who drank with their husbands. The rate of change for the wives in the nondrinking group was quite similar to wives who more often drank apart from their spouses. Conclusion These findings suggest that alcohol use may be a part of the couple’s socializing and may increase interaction, thereby increasing marital satisfaction.
Three case studies demonstrated that social and monetary reinforcement for abstinence reduced the rate of excessive alcohol drinking in adolescents. The self-monitoring and extrinsic reinforcement procedures (ABA reversal design) resulted in complete abstinence in a 15-year-old boy with a 10-year history of excessive alcohol abuse and hospitalization for an alcohol-induced psychosis. In the cases of the 13-year-old and 15-year-old girls with extensive alcohol abuse histories, the behavioral interventions decreased the rate of alcohol consumption during treatment phases, but alcohol abuse increased markedly with the removal of the intervention procedures. PMID:7288676
Brigham, S L; Rekers, G A; Rosen, A C; Swihart, J J; Pfrimmer, G; Ferguson, L N
Over the last decade, the Brazilian alcohol industry - which for years has ignored alcohol problems - inaugurated responsible drinking programs (RDPs). This paper reports findings from an exploratory study that investigated the RDP-related activities of six leading alcohol companies in Brazil (three national, three transnational) focusing on program goals and components, target populations and evaluation methods. Interviews were conducted from October 2007 to February 2008 with nine key-informants, and 71 corporate documents were collected along with additional web information about the programs. Content analysis of interviews and institutional documents was used to identify the companies' RDP activities. Three types of RDPs were found that focused respectively on institutional action, drinking and driving, and underage drinking. All three transnational firms were involved in RDPs, whereas national firms demonstrated limited involvement. The majority of RDPs were implemented using television. No targeted research appears to have been undertaken by the companies to assess the efficacy of the strategies in terms of changes in drinking behavior. The evidence for both national and transnational firms means that is difficult to confirm that the responsible drinking programs produced so far in Brazil have been undertaken to systematically reduce alcohol problems, or mainly as part of a public relations strategy to reduce criticism and potentially forestall government regulations (Babor, 2006, 2009; Jernigan, 2009). PMID:22800917
Pantani, Daniela; Sparks, Robert; Sanchez, Zila M; Pinsky, Ilana
Objective: The objective of the study is to determine whether Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation leads to reduceddrinking and problems related to drinking within Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity), an existing national alcoholism treatment data set. Method: The method used is structural equation modeling of panel data with cross-lagged partial regression coefficients. The main advantage of this technique for the analysis of AA outcomes is that potential reciprocal causation between AA participation and drinking behavior can be explicitly modeled through the specification of finite causal lags. Results: For the outpatient subsample (n = 952), the results strongly support the hypothesis that AA attendance leads to increases in alcohol abstinence and reducesdrinking/problems, whereas a causal effect in the reverse direction is unsupported. For the aftercare subsample (n = 774), the results are not as clear but also suggest that AA attendance leads to better outcomes. Conclusions: Although randomized controlled trials are the surest means of establishing causal relations between interventions and outcomes, such trials are rare in AA research for practical reasons. The current study successfully exploited the multiple data waves in Project MATCH to examine evidence of causality between AA participation and drinking outcomes. The study obtained unique statistical results supporting the effectiveness of AA primarily in the context of primary outpatient treatment for alcoholism.
Magura, Stephen; Cleland, Charles M.; Tonigan, J. Scott
The authors examined the effectiveness of a school-based prevention program on reducing binge drinking in a sample of minority, inner-city, middle-school students. Rates of binge drinking were compared among who received the pro& beginning in the 7th grade (n = 1.7i3) and a c&rol gou;(n = 1,328) that did not. The prevention program had protective effects in terms of binge
Gilbert J. Botvin; Kenneth W. Griffin; Tracy Diaz; Michelle Ifill-Williams
Attempts at removal of drinking water biofilms rely on various preventive and curative strategies such as nutrient reduction in drinking water, disinfection or water flushing, which have demonstrated limited efficiency. The main reason for these failures is the cohesiveness of the biofilm driven by the physico-chemical properties of its exopolymeric matrix (EPS). Effective cleaning procedures should break up the matrix and/or change the elastic properties of bacterial biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the cohesive strength of two-month-old drinking water biofilms under increasing hydrodynamic shear stress ?w (from ?0.2 to ?10 Pa) and shock chlorination (applied concentration at T0: 10 mg Cl2/L; 60 min contact time). Biofilm erosion (cell loss per unit surface area) and cohesiveness (changes in the detachment shear stress and cluster volumes measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM)) were studied. When rapidly increasing the hydrodynamic constraint, biofilm removal was found to be dependent on a dual process of erosion and coalescence of the biofilm clusters. Indeed, 56% of the biofilm cells were removed with, concomitantly, a decrease in the number of the 50-300 ?m(3) clusters and an increase in the number of the smaller (i.e., <50 ?m(3)) and larger (i.e., >600 ?m(3)) ones. Moreover, AFM evidenced the strengthening of the biofilm structure along with the doubling of the number of contact points, NC, per cluster volume unit following the hydrodynamic disturbance. This suggests that the compactness of the biofilm exopolymers increases with hydrodynamic stress. Shock chlorination removed cells (-75%) from the biofilm while reducing the volume of biofilm clusters. Oxidation stress resulted in a decrease in the cohesive strength profile of the remaining drinking water biofilms linked to a reduction in the number of contact points within the biofilm network structure in particular for the largest biofilm cluster volumes (>200 ?m(3)). Changes in the cohesive strength of drinking water biofilms subsequent to cleaning/disinfection operations call into question the effectiveness of cleaning-in-place procedures. The combined alternating use of oxidation and shear stress sequences needs to be investigated as it could be an important adjunct to improving biofilm removal/reduction procedures. PMID:24607313
Sports and energy drinks are being marketed to children and adolescents for a wide variety of inappropriate uses. Sports drinks and energy drinks are significantly different products, and the terms should not be used interchangeably. The primary objectives of this clinical report are to define the ingredients of sports and energy drinks, categorize the similarities and differences between the products, and discuss misuses and abuses. Secondary objectives are to encourage screening during annual physical examinations for sports and energy drink use, to understand the reasons why youth consumption is widespread, and to improve education aimed at decreasing or eliminating the inappropriate use of these beverages by children and adolescents. Rigorous review and analysis of the literature reveal that caffeine and other stimulant substances contained in energy drinks have no place in the diet of children and adolescents. Furthermore, frequent or excessive intake of caloric sports drinks can substantially increase the risk for overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. Discussion regarding the appropriate use of sports drinks in the youth athlete who participates regularly in endurance or high-intensity sports and vigorous physical activity is beyond the scope of this report. PMID:21624882
This study investigated the factors predictive of heavy drinking and drinking problems over the early years of marriage, focusing on the premarital drinking and relatively stable individual risk and protective factors that were present prior to marriage, and on social-interpersonal factors that may change or emerge over marriage. Newlywed couples were assessed at the time of marriage, and at the 1st, 2nd, and 4th anniversaries with respect to frequency of heavy drinking and the extent of drinking problems, and a variety of factors that have been found to be predictive of adult alcohol problems. The results indicated that antisocial characteristics, family history of alcoholism, negative affect, and alcohol expectancies were related to heavy drinking and alcohol problems at the time of marriage. Changes after marriage were predicted by the drinking of one's partner and of one's peers and by alcohol expectancies for social/physical pleasure for both men and women. In addition, the quality of the marriage was longitudinally protective from the experience of alcohol problems for both men and women, although it was not related to changes in heavy drinking.
Aims Universities are striving to raise funds, often attracting spectators by selling alcohol at campus events. This study evaluates the effect of a policy change on student drinking at a large western university that had historically banned alcohol on campus but transitioned to permitting the sale of alcohol in some of its facilities. Methods Surveys of student drinking and perceptions of other students' drinking were conducted before, during and after the policy change at the transition university (TU) and compared to similar data from a control university (CU). Surveys of student drinking at on-campus and off-campus venues and observations of alcohol service practices were also conducted. Results The policy change at the TU was introduced cautiously, and sales to underage drinkers were relatively well controlled. Despite this, student drinking rose initially, then declined after 1 year. Perceptions of the amount of drinking by other students increased slightly, but there was no overall measurable increase in student drinking during the first 3 years of the new policy. Conclusions The conservative TU policy—to sell alcohol only at select events and to control sales to minors—may have limited the impact of on-campus alcohol sales on student consumption. Although the study results did not find a stable increase in student drinking, they do not necessarily support the liberalization of campus alcohol policy, because the transition is still ‘in progress’ and the final outcome has not been evaluated.
Voas, Robert B.; Johnson, Mark; Turrisi, Robert J.; Taylor, Dexter; Honts, Charles Robert; Nelsen, Lisa
Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…
This study investigated the factors predictive of heavy drinking and drinking problems over the early years of marriage, focusing on premarital drinking and the relatively stable individual risk and protective factors that were present prior to marriage and on social-interpersonal factors that may change or emerge over marriage. Newlywed couples were assessed at the time of marriage and at the 1st, 2nd, and 4th anniversaries with respect to frequency of heavy drinking and the extent of drinking problems and a variety of factors that have been found to be predictive of adult alcohol problems. The results indicated that antisocial characteristics, family history of alcoholism, negative affect, and alcohol expectancies were related to heavy drinking and alcohol problems at the time of marriage. Changes after marriage were predicted by the drinking of one's partner and of one's peers and by alcohol expectancies for social/physical pleasure for both men and women. In addition, the quality of the marriage was longitudinally protective from the experience of alcohol problems for both men and women, although it was not related to changes in heavy drinking. PMID:18298228
Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L.
Kurttio, Paivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Makelainen, Ilona; Vaisanen, Sari B; Penttila, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu
Tea consumption has been associated with reduced risk of both cancer and cardiovascular disease in population studies, but clinical data demonstrating bioavailability of the individual catechins and other polyphe- nolic components of tea are limited. This study assessed the apparent bioavailability of the prominent catechins from black tea in humans drinking tea throughout the day. Afte r5do fconsuming a low
Beverly A. Warden; Lametta S. Smith; Gary R. Beecher; Douglas A. Balentine; Beverly A. Clevidence
Objectives: To explore the use of protective behaviors to reduce risks associated with alcohol consumption among adolescents during the summer preceding college enrollment. Methods: Survey data were collected in fall 2006 and 2007 that assessed demographic characteristics, drinking behaviors, and use of protective behaviors in the 3 months…
Sutfin, Erin L.; Light, Laney S.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Thompson, Martie P.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Spitler, Hugh D.
Disinfection for drinking water reduces the risk of pathogenic infection but may pose chemical threat to human health due to disinfection residues and their by-products (DBPs) when the organic and inorganic precursors are present in water. More than 250 DBPs have been identified, but the behavioural profile of only approximately 20 DBPs are adequately known. In the last 2 decades,
Objective: Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs.Research Methods and Procedures: Secondary
Jodi D. Stookey; Florence Constant; Christopher D. Gardner; Barry M. Popkin
Adenosine signaling is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including alcoholism. Among its diverse functions in the brain, adenosine regulates glutamate release and has an essential role in ethanol sensitivity and preference. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adenosine-mediated glutamate signaling in neuroglial interaction remain elusive. We have previously shown that mice lacking the ethanol-sensitive adenosine transporter, type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1), drink more ethanol compared with wild-type mice and have elevated striatal glutamate levels. In addition, ENT1 inhibition or knockdown reduces glutamate transporter expression in cultured astrocytes. Here, we examined how adenosine signaling in astrocytes contributes to ethanol drinking. Inhibition or deletion of ENT1 reduced the expression of type 2 excitatory amino-acid transporter (EAAT2) and the astrocyte-specific water channel, aquaporin 4 (AQP4). EAAT2 and AQP4 colocalization was also reduced in the striatum of ENT1 null mice. Ceftriaxone, an antibiotic compound known to increase EAAT2 expression and function, elevated not only EAAT2 but also AQP4 expression in the striatum. Furthermore, ceftriaxone reduced ethanol drinking, suggesting that ENT1-mediated downregulation of EAAT2 and AQP4 expression contributes to excessive ethanol consumption in our mouse model. Overall, our findings indicate that adenosine signaling regulates EAAT2 and astrocytic AQP4 expressions, which control ethanol drinking in mice.
Lee, Moonnoh R; Ruby, Christina L; Hinton, David J; Choi, Sun; Adams, Chelsea A; Young Kang, Na; Choi, Doo-Sup
College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity--exercise--as an intervention for…
Nano-functionalized products such as UV protective paints additives, antimicrobial food packaging, and fuel additives offering reduced CO2 emissions have the potential to secure a significant Irish market share in the near future. This scoping study gives a first estimation of nanomaterial surface water concentrations and population ingestional exposure through drinking water resulting from these products. As nanomaterial behavior in wastewater
The role of fluoride in reducing the risk of dental caries, especially among children, is well recognized and is the basis for current intake recommendations. The US Department of Agriculture, Nutrient Data Laboratory conducted a comprehensive study of the fluoride content of US drinking water, as part of the US National Fluoride Database and Intake Assessment Study, a collaborative effort
P. R. Pehrsson; C. R. Perry; R. C. Cutrufelli; K. Y. Patterson; J. Wilger; D. B. Haytowitz; J. M. Holden; C. D. Day; J. H. Himes; L. Harnack; S. Levy; J. Wefel; J. Heilman; K. M. Phillips; A. S. Rasor
Heavy alcohol use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and may impede smoking cessation. This clinical trial examined whether smoking cessation treatment that incorporates brief alcohol intervention can improve smoking cessation outcomes (7-day verified point prevalence abstinence) and reducedrinks consumed per week. Heavy drinkers seeking…
Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; LaChance, Heather R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Abrams, David B.; Monti, Peter M.; Brown, Richard A.
Proponents of social norms approaches maintain that correcting misperceptions of alcohol use among college students may reducedrinking and its consequences. The author used aggregate campus-level data from the Nationwide Campuses Study to test this hypothesis. He defined the misperceptions ratio as the ratio of the frequency of the "average…
ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) has proven effective at removing high concentrations of arsenic from drinking water in Bangladesh. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of the country, ARUBA reduced arsenic levels ranging from 200 to 900 ppb to ...
Background: There are popular reports on the combined use of alcohol and energy drinks (such as Red Bull® and similar beverages, which contain caffeine, taurine, carbohydrates, etc.) to reduce the depressant effects of alcohol on central nervous system, but no controlled studies have been performed. The main purpose of this study was to verify the effects of alcohol, and alcohol
Sionaldo Eduardo Ferreira; Marcio Vinicius Rossi; Maria Lucia O. Souza-Formigoni
Lead is a pervasive environmental contaminant. The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children and adults are well documented, and no safe blood lead threshold in children has been identified. Lead can be ingested from various sources, including lead paint and house dust contaminated by lead paint, as well as soil, drinking water, and food. The concentration of lead, total amount of lead consumed, and duration of lead exposure influence the severity of health effects. Because lead accumulates in the body, all sources of lead should be controlled or eliminated to prevent childhood lead poisoning. Beginning in the 1970s, lead concentrations in air, tap water, food, dust, and soil began to be substantially reduced, resulting in significantly reduced blood lead levels (BLLs) in children throughout the United States. However, children are still being exposed to lead, and many of these children live in housing built before the 1978 ban on lead-based residential paint. These homes might contain lead paint hazards, as well as drinking water service lines made from lead, lead solder, or plumbing materials that contain lead. Adequate corrosion control reduces the leaching of lead plumbing components or solder into drinking water. The majority of public water utilities are in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) of 1991. However, some children are still exposed to lead in drinking water. EPA is reviewing LCR, and additional changes to the rule are expected that will further protect public health. Childhood lead poisoning prevention programs should be made aware of the results of local public water system lead monitoring measurement under LCR and consider drinking water as a potential cause of increased BLLs, especially when other sources of lead exposure are not identified. PMID:22874873
Objective: Despite the low overall prevalence of alcohol use among Asian Americans, rates of alcohol use disorder are high among Asian American young adults. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures on immigrants and their descendants has been overlooked in past research. We took an integrative approach to examine the influence of ethnic drinking culture, acculturation, and socioeconomic disparities on problem drinking among Asian American young adults. Method: This study was a nationally representative sample of 854 Asian American young adults extracted from the Wave 4 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data. About 48% of the sample was female and 52% male. Several multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results: Controlling for other covariates, two dimensions of ethnic drinking culture were associated with alcohol outcomes only for the foreign born: (a) detrimental drinking pattern with frequent drunkenness and alcoholabuse symptoms and (b) drinking prevalence with alcohol-dependence symptoms. Financial hardship was a significant predictor of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence only for the U.S. born. Asian language use was protective against alcohol-abuse symptoms and alcohol-dependence symptoms for the foreign born. Conclusions: Cultural and socioeconomic factors of problem drinking may be different for U.S.- and foreign-born Asian American young adults. Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence problem drinking of foreign-born Asian American young adults, independent of their acculturation into U.S. cultures. To inform effective interventions targeted at immigrants and their descendants, future research might further investigate the cultural and socioeconomic processes in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking.
Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Zemore, Sarah
The UK is a high prevalence country for underage alcohol use. We conducted an evidence synthesis to examine (1) the changing trends in underage drinking in the UK compared to Europe and the USA, (2) the impact of underage drinking in terms of hospital admissions, (3) the association between underage drinking and violent youth offending, and (4) the evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction interventions aimed at children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. The following databases were searched from November 2002 until November 2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, The Evidence for Policy and Practice Information, DARE, Medline, The Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Psych INFO and Social Care Online. Our findings revealed changes in the way children drink in the UK and how much they drink. Alcohol related harms are increasing in the UK despite overall population levels of consumption reducing in this age group. Girls aged 15-16 years report binge drinking and drunkenness more than boys. Girls are also more likely than boys to be admitted to hospital for alcohol related harm. The evidence suggests a strong association between heavy episodic binge drinking and violent youth offending. Only 7 out of 45 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified for this review included children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. Most were delivered in the emergency department (ED) and involved a brief intervention. All were characterised by a wide age range of participants, heterogeneous samples and high rates of refusal and attrition. The authors conclude that whilst the ED might be the best place to identify children and adolescents at risk of harm related to alcohol use it might not be the best place to deliver an intervention. Issues related to a lack of engagement with alcohol harm reduction interventions have been previously overlooked and warrant further investigation. PMID:24095678
Healey, Christine; Rahman, Atif; Faizal, Mohammad; Kinderman, Peter
Keywords:Randomized Controlled Trial;Problem Drinking;Web-Based Self-Help;Real-World Setting\\u000aBackground: Drinking Less (DL) is a 24\\/7 free-access anonymous interactive web-based self-help intervention without therapeutic guidance for adult problem drinkers in the community. In a randomized controlled trial (referred to here as DL-RCT), DL has been shown effective in reducing risky alcohol consumption. Objective: To assess whether the findings of DL-RCT are generalizable to
Heleen Riper; Jeannet Kramer; Barbara Conijn; Filip Smit; Gerard Schippers; Pim Cuijpers
Objectives To explore the use of protective behaviors to reduce risks associated with alcohol consumption among adolescents during the summer preceding college enrollment. Methods Survey data were collected in fall 2006 and 2007 that assessed demographic characteristics, drinking behaviors, and use of protective behaviors in the 3 months preceding the survey. Results Female participants reported using 4 out of 10 protective behaviors more often than did males, and using protective behaviors was significantly related to fewer negative drinking-related consequences. Conclusions Findings highlight potential benefits of using protective behaviors and the need to promote effective behaviors.
Sutfin, Erin L.; Light, Laney S.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Thompson, Martie P.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Spitler, Hugh D.
The human tendency to experience a delay in rehydration (involuntary dehydration) after fluid loss is considered. The two primary factors contributing to involuntary dehydration are probably upright posture, and extracellular fluid and electrolyte loss by sweating from exercise and heat exposure. First, as the plasma sodium and osmotic concentrations remain virtually unchanged for supine to upright postural changes, the major stimuli for drinking appear to be associated with the hypovolemia and increase in the renin-angiotension system. Second, voluntary drinking during the heat experiments was 146% greater than in cool experiments; drinking increased by 109% with prior dehydration as opposed to normal hydration conditions; and drinking was increased by 41% after exercise as compared with the resting condition. Finally, it is concluded that the rate of sweating and the rate of voluntary fluid intake are highly correlated, and that the dispogenic factors of plasma volume, osmolality, and plasma renin activity are unrelated to sweat rate, but are likely to induce drinking in humans.
OBJECTIVE To summarize for clinicians recent epidemiologic evidence regarding medical risks of alcohol use for women. METHODS MEDLINE and PsychINFO, 1990 through 1996, were searched using key words “women” or “woman,” and “alcohol.” MEDLINE was also searched for other specific topics and authors from 1980 through 1996. Data were extracted and reviewed regarding levels of alcohol consumption associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, alcohol-related liver disease, injury, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity, fetal alcohol syndrome, spontaneous abortion, infertility, menstrual symptoms, breast cancer, and gynecologic malignancies. Gender-specific data from cohort studies of general population or large clinical samples are primarily reviewed. MAIN RESULTS Women develop many alcohol-related medical problems at lower levels of consumption than men, probably reflecting women's lower total body water, gender differences in alcohol metabolism, and effects of alcohol on postmenopausal estrogen levels. Mortality and breast cancer are increased in women who report drinking more than two drinks daily. Higher levels of alcohol consumption by women are associated with increased menstrual symptoms, hypertension, and stroke. Women who drink heavily also appear to have increased infertility and spontaneous abortion. Adverse fetal effects occur after variable amounts of alcohol consumption, making any alcohol use during pregnancy potentially harmful. CONCLUSIONS In general, advising nonpregnant women who drink alcohol to have fewer than two drinks daily is strongly supported by the epidemiologic literature, although specific recommendations for a particular woman should depend on her medical history and risk factors.
Trait impulsivity is a reliable, robust predictor of risky, problematic alcohol use. Mounting evidence supports a multidimensional model of impulsivity, whereby several distinct traits serve as personality pathways to rash action. Different impulsivity-related traits may predispose individuals to drink for different reasons (e.g., to enhance pleasure, to cope with distress) and these different motives may, in turn, influence drinking behavior. Previous findings support such a mediational model for two well-studied traits: sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. This study addresses other impulsivity-related traits, including negative urgency. College students (N = 432) completed questionnaires assessing personality, drinking motives, and multiple indicators of problematic drinking. Negative urgency, sensation seeking, and lack of premeditation were all significantly related to problematic drinking. When drinking motives were included in the model, direct effects for sensation seeking and lack of premeditation remained significant, and indirect effects of sensation seeking and lack of premeditation on problematic drinking were observed through enhancement motives. A distinct pathway was observed for negative urgency. Negative urgency bore a significant total effect on problematic drinking through both coping and enhancement motives. This study highlights unique motivational pathways through which different impulsive traits may operate, suggesting that interventions aimed at preventing or reducing problematic drinking should be tailored to individuals' personalities. For instance, individuals high in negative urgency may benefit from learning healthier strategies for coping with distress.
Adams, Zachary W.; Kaiser, Alison J.; Lynam, Donald R.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Milich, Richard
The Per2 clock gene modulates ethanol consumption, such that mutant mice not expressing functional mPer2 have altered circadian behavior that promotes higher ethanol intake and preference. Experiments were undertaken to characterize circadian-related behavioral effects of mPer2 deletion on ethanol intake and to explore how acamprosate (used to reduce alcohol dependence) alters diurnal patterns of ethanol intake. Male mPer2 mutant and WT (wild-type) mice were entrained to a 12L:12D photocycle and their locomotor and drinking activities were recorded. Circadian locomotor measurements confirmed that mPer2 mutants had an advanced onset of nocturnal activity of about 2 h relative to WTs, and an increased duration of nocturnal activity (p<0.01). Also, mPer2 mutants preferred and consumed more ethanol and had more daily ethanol drinking episodes vs. WTs. Measurements of systemic ethanol using subcutaneous microdialysis confirmed the advanced rise in ethanol intake in the mPer2 mutants, with 24 hr averages being ~60 mM vs. ~25 mM for WTs (p<0.01). A six-day regimen of single i.p. acamprosate injections (300 mg/kg) did not alter the earlier onset of nocturnal ethanol drinking in the mPer2 mutants, but reduced the overall amplitude of drinking and preference (both, p<0.01). Acamprosate also reduced these parameters in WTs. These results suggest that elevated ethanol intake in mPer2 mutants may be a partial consequence of an earlier nighttime activity onset and increase in nocturnal drinking activity. The suppressive action of acamprosate on ethanol intake is not due to an altered diurnal pattern of drinking, but rather, a decrease in the number of daily drinking bouts and drinking per bout.
Brager, Allison J.; Prosser, Rebecca A.; Glass, J. David
Many public water systems in the U.S. are unsafe because the communities cannot afford to comply with the current 10 parts per billion (ppb) federal arsenic standard for drinking water. Communities unable to afford improvements remain vulnerable to adverse health effects associated with higher levels of arsenic exposure. Scientific and bipartisan political consensus exists that the arsenic standard should not be less stringent than 10 ppb, and new data suggest additional adverse health effects related to arsenic exposure through drinking water. Congress has failed to reauthorize the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund program to provide reliable funding to promote compliance and reduce the risk of adverse health effects. Congress's recent ad hoc appropriations do not allow long-term planning and ongoing monitoring and maintenance. Investing in water infrastructure will lower health care costs and create American jobs. Delaying necessary upgrades will only increase the costs of improvements over time. PMID:23210394
This study investigated the drinking response and the expression of Fos- and Egr-1-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir, Egr-1-ir) in the brain induced by endogenous angiotensin generated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of renin. Renin induced Fos-ir in the subformical organ (SFO), median preoptic (MnPO), supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei (SON and PVN), area postrema (AP), nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) and lateral parabrachial nuclei (LPBN). Renin-induced Egr-1-ir exhibited a similar pattern of distribution as that observed for Fos-ir. The dose of i.c.v. renin that induced expression of immediate early gene (IEG) product immunoreactivity also produced vigorous drinking. When renin-injected rats were pretreated with captopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, drinking was blocked. With the same captopril pretreatment, both Fos- and Egr-1-ir in the SFO, MnPO, SON, PVN, AP and LPBN were also significantly reduced.
The phenomenon of involuntary dehydration, the delay in full restoration of a body water deficit by drinking, has been described extensively but relatively little is known about its physiological mechanism. It occurs primarily in humans when they are exposed to various stresses including exercise, environmental heat and cold, altitude, water immersion, dehydration, and perhaps microgravity, singly and in various combinations. The level of involuntary dehydration is approximately proportional to the degree of total stress imposed on the body. Involuntary dehydration appears to be controlled by more than one factor including social customs that influence what is consumed, the capacity and rate of fluid absorption from the gastrointestinal system, the level of cellular hydration involving the osmotic-vasopressin interaction with sensitive cells or structures in the central nervous system, and, to a lesser extent, hypovolemic-angiotensin II stimuli. Since humans drink when there is no apparent physiological stimulus, the psychological component should always be considered when investigating the total mechanisms for drinking.
The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship of alcohol craving with biopsychosocial and addiction factors that are clinically pertinent to alcoholism treatment. Alcohol craving was assessed in 315 treatment-seeking, alcohol dependent subjects using the PACS questionnaire. Standard validated questionnaires were used to evaluate a variety of biological, addiction, psychological, psychiatric, and social factors. Individual covariates of craving included age, race, problematic consequences of drinking, heavy drinking, motivation for change, mood disturbance, sleep problems, and social supports. In a multivariate analysis (R2 = .34), alcohol craving was positively associated with mood disturbance, heavy drinking, readiness for change, and negatively associated with age. The results from this study suggest that alcohol craving is a complex phenomenon influenced by multiple factors.
Chakravorty, Subhajit; Kuna, Samuel T.; Zaharakis, Nikola; O'Brien, Charles P.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Oslin, David
Low-cost options for the treatment of drinking water at the household level are being explored by the Cambodian government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Cambodia, where many lack access to improved drinking water sources and diarrhoeal diseases are the most prevalent cause of death in children under 5 years of age. The ceramic water purifier (CWP), a locally produced, low-cost ceramic filter, is now being implemented by several NGOs, and an estimated 100,000+households in the country now use them for drinking water treatment. Two candidate filters were tested for the reduction of bacterial and viral surrogates for waterborne pathogens using representative Cambodian drinking water sources (rainwater and surface water) spiked with Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Results indicate that filters were capable of reducing key microbes in the laboratory with mean reductions of E. coli of approximately 99% and mean reduction of bacteriophages of 90-99% over >600 litres throughput. Increased effectiveness was not observed in filters with an AgNO3 amendment. At under US$10 per filter, locally produced ceramic filters may be a promising option for drinking water treatment and safe storage at the household level. PMID:20009242
This study investigates existing water supply scenario, and evaluates the performance of pond sand filter (PSF) in meeting drinking water demand of Dacope Upazila in southwest coastal Bangladesh. Questionnaire survey to the villagers reveals that PSF is the major drinking water sources (38 %) of the study area followed by tubewells (30.4 %), rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems (12.6 %), ponds (10.3 %) and others (8.7 %). The spot test and laboratory analysis show that odour, colour, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate and phosphate of the PSFs water meet Bangladesh standard. The efficiency of PSF in reducing total dissolved solids (TDS) (15 %) and potassium (8.2 %) is not enough to meet the standard of 20 % PSFs for TDS and one-third PSFs for potassium. The study proves that PSF is unable to remove coliform bacteria by 100 % from highly contaminated water. Hence, disinfection should be adopted before distribution to ensure safe drinking water. Majority of the PSF's users (80 %) are either partially satisfied or dissatisfied with the existing system. The beneficiary's willingness to pay for drinking water technologies seems that the combination of PSF and RWH could ensure sustainable drinking water in coastal region of Bangladesh.
Drinking water purveyors are increasingly relying on land conservation and management to ensure the safety of the water that they provide to consumers. To cost-effectively implement any such landscape initiatives, resources must be targeted to the appropriate spatial scale to address quality impairments of concern in a cost-effective manner. Using data gathered from 40 Canadian rivers across four ecozones, we examined the spatial scales at which land use was most closely associated with drinking source water quality metrics. Exploratory linear mixed-effects models accounting for climatic, hydrological, and physiographic variation among sites suggested that different spatial areas of land-use influence drinking source water quality depending on the parameter and season investigated. Escherichia coli spatial variability was only associated with land use at a local (5-10 km) spatial scale. Turbidity measures exhibited a complex association with land use, suggesting that the land-use areas of greatest influence can range from a 1 km subcatchment to the entire watershed depending on the season. Total organic carbon concentrations were only associated with land use characterized at the entire watershed scale. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index was used to calculate a composite measure of seasonal drinking source water quality but did not provide additional information beyond the analyses of individual parameters. These results suggest that entire watershed management is required to safeguard drinking water sources with more focused efforts at targeted spatial scales to reduce specific risk parameters.
This study examined the hypothesis that the subfornical organ (SFO), a circumventricular organ with both osmosensitive elements and dipsogenic receptors for circulating angiotensin (ANG) II, is important for the water drinking response that follows an intragastric (ig) load of hypertonic NaCl. A 2-ml saline load was administered ig at 300, 900, or 1200 mOsm/kg to rats with sham lesions or lesions of the SFO, and intake was measured periodically for 2 h. Hypertonic loads caused sham-lesioned rats, but not SFO-lesioned rats, to drink earlier in the test or to drink more water than did the isotonic load. Inhibition of ANG II synthesis in unoperated rats with 100 mg/kg of captopril reduced water intake only during the initial 15 min after a gavage of 1200 mOsm/kg saline. Loads of 900 and 1200 mOsm/kg both increased plasma osmolality and sodium concentration by 15 min after gavage without greatly affecting hematocrit or plasma protein concentration. Thus, the SFO is important for the osmotically-induced water drinking response after acute ig administration of hypertonic saline. With the possible exception of the first 15 min, this drinking response is independent of the peripheral synthesis of ANG II. PMID:9622590
The aim of this study was to determine whether a socially focused treatment can effect change in the patient's social network from one that reinforces drinking to one that reinforces sobriety. Alcohol dependent men and women (N = 210) recruited from the community were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient treatment conditions: network support (NS), network support + contingency management (NS + CM), or case management (CaseM; a control condition). Analysis of drinking rates for 186 participants at 15 months indicated a significant interaction effect of Treatment x Time, with both NS conditions yielding better outcomes than the CaseM condition. Analyses of social network variables at posttreatment indicated that the NS conditions did not reduce social support for drinking relative to the CaseM condition but did increase behavioral and attitudinal support for abstinence as well as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement. Both the NS variables and AA involvement variables were significantly correlated with drinking outcomes. These findings indicate that drinkers' social networks can be changed by a treatment that is specifically designed to do so, and that these changes contribute to improved drinking outcomes. PMID:17663609
Litt, Mark D; Kadden, Ronald M; Kabela-Cormier, Elise; Petry, Nancy
Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout.
Juntunen, J.; Asp, S.; Olkinuora, M.; Aarimaa, M.; Strid, L.; Kauttu, K.
Abstract Background: Alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of preventable death in the US. Limited research has been conducted examining drinking habits of medical students. Objective: This study was designed to measure the prevalence and associated risk factors of binge drinking among a sample of medical students. Methods: A total of 485 medical students at a private, Jesuit medical school in the US participated in a confidential web-based survey in April 2011. Univariate and multivariate generalized linear regressions with robust error variance were performed for estimated prevalence ratio (PR) of binge drinking. Results: The prevalence of binge drinking was 58.1% among the sampled medical students with the majority being white (67.0%) and between 18 and 25 years old (60.0%). After adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and year in medical school, there were statistically significant (p?0.05) associations of drinking during an after-exam party (PR?=?2.82), protective behavioral strategy (PR?=?0.97 per 1-score increase), self-reported diagnosis of depression (PR?=?1.19), tobacco use (PR?=?1.21 for previous use, 1.39 for current use), and previous illicit drug use (PR?=?1.24) with binge drinking. In addition, the prevalence of binge drinking decreased among this sample of the medical students with older age (PR?=?0.80 for 26-28, 0.60 for >28, p?0.01) compared to those of 18-25 years old. Conclusion: Binge drinking was highly prevalent among the sampled medical students, especially during an after-exam party. Identifying healthy coping strategies among medical students is warranted to reduce binge drinking. PMID:24809369
Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.
Recently we developed a model composed of five impulsive differential equations that describes the changes in drinking patterns (that persist at epidemic level) amongst college students. Many of the model parameters cannot be measured directly from data; thus, an inverse problem approach, which chooses the set of parameters that results in the "best" model to data fit, is crucial for using this model as a predictive tool. The purpose of this paper is to present the procedure and results of an unconventional approach to parameter estimation that we developed after more common approaches were unsuccessful for our specific problem. The results show that our model provides a good fit to survey data for 32 campuses. Using these parameter estimates, we examined the effect of two hypothetical intervention policies: 1) reducing environmental wetness, and 2) penalizing students who are caught drinking. The results suggest that reducing campus wetness may be a very effective way of reducing heavy episodic (binge) drinking on a college campus, while a policy that penalizes students who drink is not nearly as effective. PMID:20161275
Ackleh, Azmy S; Fitzpatrick, Ben G; Scribner, Richard; Simonsen, Neal; Thibodeaux, Jeremy J
To understand the impact of drinking and driving laws on drinking and driving fatality rates, this study explored the different effects these laws have on areas with varying severity rates for drinking and driving. Unlike previous studies, this study employed quantile regression analysis. Empirical results showed that policies based on local conditions must be used to effectively reducedrinking and driving fatality rates; that is, different measures should be adopted to target the specific conditions in various regions. For areas with low fatality rates (low quantiles), people's habits and attitudes toward alcohol should be emphasized instead of transportation safety laws because "preemptive regulations" are more effective. For areas with high fatality rates (or high quantiles), "ex-post regulations" are more effective, and impact these areas approximately 0.01% to 0.05% more than they do areas with low fatality rates. PMID:24084673
Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment, Arsenic, Adsorption, Coagulation, Drinking Water, Bangladesh
Vietnam is an agricultural country with a population of about 88 million, with some 18 million inhabitants living in the Red River Delta in Northern Vietnam. The present study reports the chemical analyses of 68 water and 213 biological (human hair and urine) samples conducted to investigate arsenic contamination in tube well water and human arsenic exposure in four districts (Tu Liem, Dan Phuong, Ly Nhan, and Hoai Duc) in the Red River Delta. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in these areas were in the range of <1 to 632?g/L, with severe contamination found in the communities Ly Nhan, Hoai Duc, and Dan Phuong. Arsenic concentrations were markedly lowered in water treated with sand filters, except for groundwater from Hoai Duc. Human hair samples had arsenic levels in the range of 0.07-7.51?g/g, and among residents exposed to arsenic levels ?50?g/L, 64% of them had hair arsenic concentrations higher than 1?g/g, which is a level that can cause skin lesions. Urinary arsenic concentrations were 4-435?g/g creatinine. Concentrations of arsenic in hair and urine increased significantly with increasing arsenic content in drinking water, indicating that drinking water is a significant source of arsenic exposure for these residents. The percentage of inorganic arsenic (IA) in urine decreased with age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine. Significant co-interactions of age and arsenic exposure status were also detected for concentrations of arsenic in hair and the sum of IA, MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine and %MMA. In summary, this study demonstrates that a considerable proportion of the Vietnamese population is exposed to arsenic levels of chronic toxicity, even if sand filters reduce exposure in many households. Health problems caused by arsenic ingestion through drinking water are increasingly reported in Vietnam. PMID:24262873
Agusa, Tetsuro; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Lan, Vi Mai; Anh, Duong Hong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Berg, Michael
Employing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) as a sample of adolescents and their mothers, the present study connected the onset of adolescents' drinking to certain posited risk and protective factors characterizing their families. Via event history analysis and the discrete-time method, the data analysis involved more than 6,331 pair-interview-year units. The results show that both peer influences and mother's daily alcohol consumption enhance the risk that an adolescent aged between 10 and 14 years will begin drinking. At the same time, the quality of a mother's relationship with her child is an important posited protective factor delaying onset drinking. PMID:20397874
... calorie versions of sodas, fruit drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks, and carbonated water, consistent with definitions reported by the National Cancer Institute ( 7 ) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration food labeling guidelines ( 6 ). Diet drinks do ...
... on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking The Importance of Drinking Patterns Spring 2014 Table of Contents Symptoms: Alcohol's Impact ... or otherwise, depend largely on an individual's drinking pattern—how often he or she drinks alcohol, and ...
Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on carbon tetrachloride. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of car...
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on epichlorohydrin. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of epichlorohydrin; Toxicokinetics ...
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on pentachlorophenol. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of pentachlorophenol, Toxicokineti...
The Office of Drinking Water, Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Pentachlorophenol. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of Pentachlorophenol...
D. L. Tullis D. A. Gray P. R. Durkin D. Sing R. McGaughy
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on pentachlorophenol. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of pentac...
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on acrylamide. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of acrylamide; ...
The Office of Drinking Water, Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Acrylamide. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of Acrylamide; Toxicokineti...
populations at risk for heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. In this study, 63 (56% female, 62% Caucasian) first-year student-athletes completed a preliminary questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, athlete-specific drinking motives,…
Wahesh, Edward; Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Lewis, Todd F.; Orsini, Muhsin M.; Wyrick, David L.
... Emergency Department Visits Involving Energy Drinks: A Continuing Public Health Concern In Brief The number of emergency department ( ... 4 Consumption of energy drinks is a rising public health problem because medical and behavioral consequences can result ...
Abstract: The Environmental Protection Agency is required under the Safe Drinking Water Act to promulgate National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for contaminants in public water systems when certain regulatory criteria are met. Once a contaminant is regu...
Objective The authors developed and validated measures of college drinking expectations, psychosocial influences, and values. Participants Freshmen at college entry (N = 320) and the end of freshman year (N = 420) participated. Methods The College Drinking Influences Survey, administered in paper and Web-based versions, consists of 3 distinct scales: (1) the College Drinking Expectations Scale assesses expectations for drinking norms and consequences; (2) the Psychosocial Drinking Inventory evaluates social influences, stress, and sensation seeking; and (3) the Drinking Values Scale assesses drinking decisions based on personal choice, social responsibility, and institutional obligation. Results Factor analysis, interitem reliability, and correlations with existing instruments demonstrated validity and reliability. Differences between the sexes were in predicted directions, and multiple regression using subscale scores as predictors accounted for significant variance in drinking behaviors across the freshman year. Conclusions Data support the usefulness of the scales for identifying student alcohol risk and protective factors.
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a drinking water criteria document on toluene. The criteria document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of toluene toxicoki...
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Toluene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical chemical properties of Toluene; Toxicokinetics ...
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Toxaphene. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical chemical properties of Toxaphene; Toxicokineti...
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on toxaphene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of toxaphene; To...
The Office of Drinking Water, Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on barium. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical chemical properties of Barium; Toxicokinetics and human...
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on barium. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of barium; Toxicoki...
Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Aldicarb. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of Aldicarb; Toxicokin...
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on aldicarb. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of aldicarb; Toxi...
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on hexachlorobenzene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of hexac...
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on hexachlorobenzene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of hexachlorobenzene ; Toxicokine...
We examined the survival of four bacterial enteropathogens frozen in ice and subsequently allowed to melt in various popular drinks. The counts of all the organisms were markedly lowered by freezing alone, and the numbers were further decreased by exposure to some of the drinks. Nevertheless, none of the organisms were completely eliminated as a result of freezing for 24 hours followed by melting in any of the test drinks, even when the drink was 86-proof tequila. PMID:3889393
Background South Africa has one of the world’s highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and interpersonal trauma. These co-occurring public health problems raise the need to understand alcohol consumption among trauma-exposed pregnant women in this setting. Since a known predictor of drinking during pregnancy is drinking behavior before pregnancy, this study explored the relationship between women’s drinking levels before and after pregnancy recognition, and whether traumatic experiences – childhood abuse or recent intimate partner violence (IPV) – moderated this relationship. Methods Women with incident pregnancies (N = 66) were identified from a longitudinal cohort of 560 female drinkers in a township of Cape Town, South Africa. Participants were included if they reported no pregnancy at one assessment and then reported pregnancy four months later at the next assessment. Alcohol use was measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and traumatic experiences of childhood abuse and recent IPV were also assessed. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for race and age examined childhood abuse and recent IPV as moderators of the effect of pre-pregnancy recognition drinking on post-pregnancy recognition AUDIT scores. Results Following pregnancy recognition, 73% of women reported drinking at hazardous levels (AUDIT ? 8). Sixty-four percent reported early and/or recent exposure to trauma. While drinking levels before pregnancy significantly predicted drinking levels after pregnancy recognition, t(64) = 3.50, p < .01, this relationship was moderated by experiences of childhood abuse, B = -.577, t(60) = -2.58, p = .01, and recent IPV, B = -.477, t(60) = -2.16, p = .04. Pregnant women without traumatic experiences reported drinking at levels consistent with levels before pregnancy recognition. However, women with traumatic experiences tended to report elevated AUDIT scores following pregnancy recognition, even if low-risk drinkers previously. Conclusion This study explored how female drinkers in South Africa may differentially modulate their drinking patterns upon pregnancy recognition, depending on trauma history. Our results suggest that women with traumatic experiences are more likely to exhibit risky alcohol consumption when they become pregnant, regardless of prior risk. These findings illuminate the relevance of trauma-informed efforts to reduce FASD in South Africa.
Introduction Water is vital for life, and plain water is a calorie-free option for hydration. Increasing consumption of drinking water is a strategy to reduce energy intake and lose or maintain weight; however, information on the characteristics of consumers who drink water is limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of people who have a low intake of drinking water and to determine associations between their behaviors and attitudes and their intake of water. Methods We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 3,397 US adults who participated in the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviors and attitudes associated with self-reported drinking water intake of less than 4 cups per day. Results Overall, 7% of adults reported no daily consumption of drinking water, 36% reported drinking 1 to 3 cups, 35% reported drinking 4 to 7 cups, and 22% reported drinking 8 cups or more. The likelihood of drinking less than 4 cups of water daily was significantly higher among participants aged 55 years or older than among those aged 18 to 34 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.3), among residents of the Northeast than among residents of the South (AOR, 1.4), among participants who consumed 1 cup or less of fruits or vegetables per day than among those who consumed 4.5 cups or more (AOR, 3.0), among participants who did not exercise than among those who exercised 150 minutes or more per week (AOR, 1.7), and among participants who were neither trying to gain nor lose weight than among those trying to lose weight (AOR, 1.3). Conclusion Low drinking water intake was associated with age, region of residence, and several unhealthful behaviors and attitudes. Understanding characteristics associated with low drinking water intake may help to identify populations that could benefit from interventions to help adults drink more water.
Blanck, Heidi M.; Sherry, Bettylou; Park, Sohyun; Nebeling, Linda; Yaroch, Amy L.
Background An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents’ consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. Methods We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. Results About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or “other.” Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84–4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90–2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. Interpretation The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of interventions aimed at reducing consumption of these drinks.
Current estimates of the societal costs of alcoholism do not consider the impact of parental drinking on children. This paper analyzes the consequences of parental problem-drinking on children's labor market outcomes in adulthood. Using the NLSY79, I show that having a problem-drinking parent is associated with longer periods out of the labor…
Presents an analysis of drink-driving research methods and findings with reference to traffic accidents. Challenges some conclusions about drinking and driving in Australia and New Zealand. Evaluates the growing acceptance of Scandinavian-type laws. Rejects the demand to "criminalize" drink-driving offenses. Presents the reduction of death as the…
Synthetic organic polymers used to purify drinking water are severely limited in that their impurities and by-products harm human health. In this study, the undesired effects resulted from chlorination and the enhanced attenuation of toxic organic compounds in drinking water from using synthetic organic polymer cogulants were investigated.In the simulated drinking water purification processes, synthetic organic polymers were used as
This paper presents estimates of the effects of the drinking age and beer taxes on youth motor vehicle mortality. A simultaneous equation model is used and the resu lts show that the drinking age is a function of mortality rates. The results also show that for eighteen to twenty year-old drivers, an in crease in the drinking age to twenty-one,
Antioxidant properties of foods and beverages have been widely studied; however, few data have been reported on the antioxidant capacity of soft drinks. Apart from fruit juice-based drinks, some of the most common soft drinks contain as a colouring agent one of the four caramel colours allowed in foods (E150 d). Caramels contain melanoidin compounds, which have been reported to
Oreste V. Brenna; Elena L. M. Ceppi; Gabriella Giovanelli
Although drinking motives have been largely studied, research taking into account the Mediterranean drinking culture and focusing on motives specifically associated to adolescents' developmental tasks is lacking. For these reasons the study investigates drinking motives in a group of Italian adolescents and their relationships with drunkenness and…
Resource Purpose: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) gives EPA the authority to regulate public drinking water supplies. Using its authority under law, EPA has set health-based standards for contaminants that may be found in drinking water. EPA regulates over 80 contaminant...
Alachlor (Lasso) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in the production of corn and soybeans. U.S. EPA has studied control of alachlor in drinking water treatment processes to define treatability before setting maximum contaminant levels and to assist water utilities in selecting con...
Drawing on an analysis of the media debate on two Swedish rape cases involving alcohol, the present article argues that social norms and power structures are made visible both when debaters ascribe explanatory power to alcohol and when they do not. Using feminist intersectional theory, we argue that when debaters employ the concepts of “foreign culture” and “jet-set drinking culture,”
Critical to establishing a regulatory strategy for drinking water is identifying those contaminants which pose the greatest risk to human health and consequently, what treatments could be developed to address those risks and at what cost. The National Center for Environmental Ass...
Sharp increases in fertilizer and pesticide use throughout the 1960s and 1970s along with generally less attachment to soil particles may result in more widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. he purpose of this study was to highlight the use of agricultural chemical...
The Treatability Data Base will assemble referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It will be an interactive data base, housed in an EPA, web-accessible site. It may be used for many purposes, including: identifying an effective treatment process or a se...
In February 1977, a massive discharge of carbon tetrachloride into the Kanawha River in West Virginia threatened much of the Ohio River Valley with contaminated drinking water potentially affecting over one million consumers. The episode heightened the awareness of consumers and ...
A variant of the drinking philosophers algorithm of Chandy and Misra is described and proved correct in a modular way, using the I/O automation model of Lynch and Tuttle. The algorithm of Chandy and Misra is based on a particular dining philosophers algor...
The article develops a framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of environmental control and preventive public health practices and asks the policy question: How do the authors achieve the best mix of protection against infectious disease and toxic chemicals in drinking wa...
In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-¿g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...
Early alcohol drinking onset (ADO) is associated with adult alcohol misuse, but the accuracy of ADO is unclear. Reliability of self-reported ADO was studied in two panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. For the Adult sample (n = 6,215), the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.36. Older respondents had higher reliabilities…
Prause, JoAnn; Dooley, David; Ham-Rowbottom, Kathleen A.; Emptage, Nicholas
Early alcohol drinking onset (ADO) is associated with adult alcohol misuse, but the accuracy of ADO is unclear. Reliability of self-reported ADO was studied in two panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. For the Adult sample (n = 6,215), the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was .36. Older respondents had higher reliabilities and reported later ADO than younger ones.
JoAnn Prause; David Dooley; Kathleen A. Ham-Rowbottom; Nicholas Emptage
The report discusses the results of a study of defluoridation of drinking water in small communities using either central or point-of-use treatment. The ten sites used for project data collection had natural fluoride in their groundwater supplies in exces...
The presence of biodegradable organic matter in drinking water can result in biologically unstable water that has been linked to various taste, odor and color problems. hen the implicated bacteria are members of the total coliform group, those occurrences can result if major comp...
Organic contamination of drinking water is basically caused by two general classes of organics; man-made synthetic organics and disinfection of naturally occurring organics (disinfection by-products). Many volatile and non-volatile synthetic organics at trace concentrations are b...
Florfenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is being developed for veterinary application as an oral concentrate intended for dilution with drinking water. When a drug product is dosed via drinking water in a farm setting, a number of variables, including pH, chlorine content, hardness of the water used for dilution, and container material, may affect its stability, leading to a decrease in drug potency. The stability of florfenicol after dilution of Florfenicol Drinking Water Concentrate Oral Solution, 23 mg/mL, with drinking water was studied. A stability-indicating, validated liquid chromatographic method was used to evaluate florfenicol stability at 25 degrees C at 5, 10, and 24 h after dilution. The results indicate that florfenicol is stable under a range of simulated field conditions, including various pipe materials and conditions of hard or soft and chlorinated or nonchlorinated water at low or high pH. Significant degradation (> 10%) was observed only for isolated combinations in galvanized pipes. Analysis indicated that the florfenicol concentration in 8 of the 12 water samples stored in galvanized pipes remained above 90% of the initial concentration (100 mg/L) for 24 h after dilution. PMID:12607736
Hayes, John M; Eichman, Jonathan; Katz, Terry; Gilewicz, Rosalia
Exposure to arsenic through drinking water poses a threat to human health. Electrocoagulation is an emerging water treatment technology that involves electrolytic oxidation of anode materials and in-situ generation of coagulant. Electrocoagulation is an alternative to using chemical coagulants for arsenic removal and thus is beneficial for communities with better access to electricity than to chemicals.
This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article?s organization matches that of M53, as follows: ? wate...
Membranes have historically been used to remove salts and other inorganic compounds from water but recently both bench-scale and field studies have shown their effectiveness for removing organic compounds from drinking water. wo different membrane types have been evaluated by the...
Prior research has found that intercollegiate athletes consume more alcohol and experience more negative alcohol-related consequences than nonathletes, but no measure of sport-related reasons for alcohol use currently exists. The purpose of this study was to develop such a measure, which the authors termed the Athlete Drinking Scale (ADS). An exploratory factor analysis supported the existence of 3 subscales: Positive
Matthew P. Martens; Elizabeth M. Royland; Niels C. Beck
The most frequent testing required under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 is for turbidity and coliform. Free chlorine residual testing can be substituted for part of the coliform requirement. Described are chemical procedures for performing this test. References are given. (Author/MA)
Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbest...
Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbes...
This report presents capital and operation/maintenance cost equations for 33 drinking water treatment processes as applied to small flows (2,500 gpd to 1 mgd). The equations are based on previous cost data development work performed under contract to EPA. These equations provide ...
This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…
This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...
Lead pipes are capable of lasting hundreds of years. Conservatively, there are over 12 million, still serving drinking water in the US. Probably, this is a substantial underestimate. Leaded solder joining copper pipe abounds. Leaded brasses have dominated the materials used for...
The report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water. Calcium cation exchange removes radium and can be used when hardness removal is not
In the early modern period, drinking alcohol was an integral part of Dutch social and cultural life. Toast were made to the health of unborn babies, for job nominations, and at funerals. Young people started to consume alcohol at an early age. However, within this culture they had to learn how to drink in moderation. Excessive drinking was not only a cardinal sin, it was also a paradox in the realm of gender. For males, the act of getting drunk and losing control was a flaw on their masculinity. They in fact became like women who were believed to be incapable of controlling their mind and body. On the other hand, the ability to drink great quantities of alcohol symbolized an age-old form of masculinity. Imbibing in "wine, women, and song" were liminal rites in becoming men and how young men demarcated themselves from being boys. PMID:15307266
The objective was to determine whether discrepancies between husbands’ and wives’ past year heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time. Participants were recruited at the time they applied for their marriage licenses (N= 634). Couples completed questionnaires about their alcohol use and marital satisfaction at the time of marriage, and again at their first and second anniversaries. Generalized estimating equation models were used to evaluate the association between discrepancies in husbands’ and wives’ heavy drinking in the year prior to marriage and marital satisfaction at the first wedding anniversary and the association between discrepancies in heavy alcohol use in the first year of marriage and marital satisfaction at the second wedding anniversary. In these prospective time-lagged analyses, discrepancies in husbands’ and wives’ heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time while controlling for heavy drinking. Over time, these couples may be at greater risk for decreased marital functioning that may lead to relationship dissolution.
Background While some reported benefits of moderate drinking are thought to be the direct results of physiological mechanisms associated with consumption, other effects may be attributable to mediating factors. Both explanations suggest that moderate drinkers may be healthier than non-drinking and heavier-drinking peers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether moderate drinking postmenopausal women report healthier dietary and exercise patterns, and whether they demonstrate better physiological functioning compared to peers. This study also aimed to describe patterns of relationships between alcohol and measures of general health functioning in postmenopausal women. Methods One-hundred-fifteen women, aged 50–65 participated. Participants completed alcohol interviews, diet and exercise questionnaires, and bone density examination. Blood pressure, height, and weight were assessed, and blood was collected to conduct basic chemistry and complete blood count tests. Results Postmenopausal moderate drinkers failed to demonstrate healthier dietary or exercise habits, and did not exhibit significantly better health-functioning compared to peers. They did evidence positive associations between drinking and healthy behavior, and between drinking and cardiovascular health. Relationships between alcohol and blood analytes differed between drinking groups, some of which suggested possible negative health consequences for higher-end drinkers in both drinking groups. Conclusions These data suggested that moderate drinking postmenopausal women are not significantly healthier than their non- or heavier drinking peers, but may drink as part of a larger effort to take care of their health. Despite this, even one-drink-per-drinking-day moderate drinkers may have tendencies toward unhealthy conditions. Limitations include small sample size, inability to assess specific cardiac risk and socio-economic status, small number of correlations, and clinical relevance of analyte values.
Initial acts of self-control have repeatedly been shown to reduce individuals' performance on a consecutive self-control task. In addition, sugar containing drinks have been demonstrated to counteract this so-called ego-depletion effect, both when being ingested and when merely being sensed in the oral cavity. However, since the underlying evidence is less compelling than suggested, replications are crucially required. In Experiment 1, 70 participants consumed a drink containing either sugar or a non-caloric sweetener between two administrations of delay-discounting tasks. Experiment 2 (N=115) was designed to unravel the psychological function of oral glucose sensing by manipulating the temporal delay between a glucose mouth rinse and the administration of the consecutive self-control task. Despite applying powerful research designs, no effect of sugar sensing or ingestion on ego depletion could be detected. These findings add to previous challenges of the glucose model of self-control and highlight the need for independent replications. PMID:24389240
Heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated from the Seattle drinking water catchment basins and distribution system. The highest bacterial recoveries were obtained by using a very dilute medium containing 0.01% peptone as the primary carbon source. Other factors favoring high recovery were the use of incubation temperatures close to that of the habitat and an extended incubation (28 days or longer provided the highest counts). Total bacterial counts were determined by using acridine orange staining. With one exception, all acridine orange counts in chlorinated samples were lower than those in prechlorinated reservoir water, indicating that chlorination often reduces the number of acridine orange-detectable bacteria. Source waters had higher diversity index values than did samples examined following chlorination and storage in reservoirs. Shannon index values based upon colony morphology were in excess of 4.0 for prechlorinated source waters, whereas the values for final chlorinated tap waters were lower than 2.9. It is not known whether the reduction in diversity was due solely to chlorination or in part to other factors in the water treatment and distribution system. Based upon the results of this investigation, we provide a list of recommendations for changes in the procedures used for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking waters. Images
Maki, J S; LaCroix, S J; Hopkins, B S; Staley, J T
IntroductionAlcohol use, alcohol misuse, and risky driving from adolescence into young adulthood were compared by drinking onset age. Methods: Surveys were administered in Grades 5\\/6, 6\\/7, 7\\/8, 10, 12, and at approximately age 23. Participants were placed into Drinking Onset groups based on self-reported alcohol use frequency on the adolescent surveys. Driving records were examined in three age periods: under
Concentrations of aluminium in drinking waters (tap water, still mineral water and sparkling mineral water), fruit juices and soft drinks were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) of samples processed with a HNO3–V2O5 acid digestion pre-treatment. In water samples, aluminium was determined directly. We verified the sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the method and ruled out matrix interferences.
Francisco F. López; Carmen Cabrera; M. Luisa Lorenzo; M. Carmen López
Background There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania. Methods We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18–44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs. Results Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ?1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR?=?1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10–2.23; AUDIT: aOR?=?2.00, 95% CI: 1.34–3.00) and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR?=?1.79, 95% CI: 1.26–2.56; AUDIT: aOR?=?1.51, 95% CI: 1.04–2.18), in the past 3 months. Conclusion These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high-risk sexual behaviors and contribute in lowering the risk of HIV infection.
Aims: This paper examines the interaction of intention to change drinking behaviour with comorbid depression and anxiety in pro-actively recruited individuals with a range of drinking problems. Methods: Cross-sectional data of 408 general practice (GP) patients aged 18-64 years, who meet the diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence or abuse according to DSM-IV, criteria of at-risk drinking or binge drinking, were
Background The neighborhood distribution of education (education inequality) may influence substance use among neighborhood residents. Methods Using data from the New York Social Environment Study (conducted in 2005; n=4,000), we examined the associations of neighborhood education inequality (measured using Gini coefficients of education) with alcohol use prevalence and levels of alcohol consumption among alcohol users. Analyses were adjusted for neighborhood education level, income level, and income inequality, as well as for individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and history of drinking prior to residence in the current neighborhood. Neighborhood social norms about drinking were examined as a possible mediator. Results In adjusted generalized estimating equation regression models, one-standard-deviationhigher education inequality was associated with 1.18 times higher odds of alcohol use (logistic regression odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.08–1.30) but 0.79 times lower average daily alcohol consumption among alcohol users (Poisson regression relative rate = 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.68–0.92). The results tended to differ in magnitude depending on respondents’ individual educational levels. There was no evidence that these associations were mediated by social drinking norms, although norms did vary with education inequality. Conclusions Our results provide further evidence of a relation between education inequality and drinking behavior while illustrating the importance of considering different drinking outcomes and heterogeneity between neighborhood subgroups. Future research could fruitfully consider other potential mechanisms, such as alcohol availability or the role of stress; research that considers multiple mechanisms and their combined effects may be most informative.
Regulations on the availability of alcohol have been used to moderate alcohol problems in communities throughout the world for thousands of years. In the latter half of the 20th century, quantitative studies of the effects of these regulations on drinking and related problems began in earnest as public health practitioners began to recognize the full extent of the harmful consequences related to drinking. This article briefly outlines the history of this work over four areas, focusing on the minimum legal drinking age, the privatization of alcohol control systems, outlet densities, and hours and days of sale. Some historical background is provided to emphasize the theoretical and empirical roots of this work and to highlight the substantial progress that has been made in each area. In general, this assessment suggests that higher minimum legal drinking ages, greater monopoly controls over alcohol sales, lower outlet numbers and reduced outlet densities, and limited hours and days of sale can effectively reduce alcohol sales, use, and problems. There are, however, substantial gaps in the research literature and a near absence of the quantitative theoretical work needed to direct alcohol-control efforts. Local community responses to alcohol policies are complex and heterogeneous, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes mitigating the effects of availability regulations. Quantitative models of policy effects are essential to accelerate progress toward the formulation and testing of optimal control strategies for the reduction of alcohol problems.
Harmful excessive use of alcohol has a severe impact on society and it remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. However, mechanisms that underlie excessive alcohol consumption are still poorly understood, and thus available medications for alcohol use disorders are limited. Here, we report that changing the level of chromatin condensation by affecting DNA methylation or histone acetylation limits excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in rodents. Specifically, we show that decreasing DNA methylation by inhibiting the activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with systemic administration of the FDA-approved drug, 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) prevents excessive alcohol use in mice. Similarly, we find that increasing histone acetylation via systemic treatment with several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduces mice binge-like alcohol drinking. We further report that systemic administration of the FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor, SAHA, inhibits the motivation of rats to seek alcohol. Importantly, the actions of both DNMT and HDAC inhibitors are specific for alcohol, as no changes in saccharin or sucrose intake were observed. In line with these behavioral findings, we demonstrate that excessive alcohol drinking increases DNMT1 levels and reduces histone H4 acetylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents. Together, our findings illustrate that DNA methylation and histone acetylation control the level of excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in preclinical rodent models. Our study therefore highlights the possibility that DNMT and HDAC inhibitors can be used to treat harmful alcohol abuse. PMID:23423140
Warnault, V; Darcq, E; Levine, A; Barak, S; Ron, D
Objective: The aims of this study were to (1) determine recognition of and self-reported concern regarding alcohol poisoning symptoms versus other alcohol-related behaviors among students turning 21 years old, (2) assess the frequency of helping behavior among students in situations where peers display alcohol poisoning symptoms, (3) assess sources from which students seek help, and (4) consider reasons why students report reluctance to seek help. Method: Students (N = 306; 50% male) completed a Web-based self-report assessment during the week before their 21stbirthday focusing on drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, concern for symptoms of alcohol poisoning, and observations of and experience with helping behavior. Results: Results indicated most students report having helped another student with symptoms of alcohol poisoning and show concern about the symptoms. Students most often seek help from other students and parents. When students do not help their peers, it is most often because of the perception that help is not needed. Heavier drinkers report a greater likelihood to help a peer showing symptoms of alcohol poisoning. Conclusions: Prevention professionals should incorporate students, friends, and parents in interventions that provide knowledge and helping strategies for alcohol poisoning symptoms. In addition, prevention efforts regarding alcohol poisoning should focus on heavy drinkers, as they are most likely to be in situations requiring help. Finally, administrators implementing medical amnesty policies should couple those policies with educational strategies aimed at recognition of alcohol poisoning symptoms.
Oster-Aaland, Laura; Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton; Vangsness, Jane; Larimer, Mary E.
The opioid system is known to enhance motivated behaviors, including ethanol drinking and food ingestion, by acting in various reward-related brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area and medial hypothalamus. There is indirect evidence, however, suggesting that opioid peptides may act differently in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PF/LH), causing a suppression of consummatory behavior. Using brain-cannulated Sprague-Dawley rats trained to voluntarily drink 7% ethanol, the present study tested the hypothesis that opioids in the PF/LH can reduce the consumption of ethanol, with animals receiving PF/LH injections of the ?-opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA), the ?-receptor agonist [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), the ?-receptor agonist (±)-trans-U-50,488 methanesulfonate (U-50,488H), or the general opioid antagonist methylated naloxone (m-naloxone). The consumption of ethanol, lab chow, and water was monitored for 4 h after injection. The results showed that the three opioid receptor agonists injected into the PF/LH specifically and significantly reduced ethanol intake, while causing little change in chow or water intake, and the opposite effect, enhanced ethanol intake, was observed with the opioid antagonist. Of the three opioid agonists, the ?-agonist appears to produce the most consistent and long-lasting suppression of consumption. This effect was not observed with injections 2 mm dorsal to this area, focusing attention on the PF/LH as the main site of action. These results suggest that the opioid peptides have a specific role in the PF/LH of reducing ethanol drinking, which is distinct from their more commonly observed appetitive actions in other brain areas. The additional finding, that m-naloxone in the PF/LH stimulates ethanol intake in contrast to its generally suppressive effect in other regions, focuses attention on this hypothalamic area and its distinctive role in contributing to the variable effects sometimes observed with opioid antagonist therapy for alcoholism. PMID:23199698
Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G; Leibowitz, Sarah F
The opioid system is known to enhance motivated behaviors, including ethanol drinking and food ingestion, by acting in various reward-related brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area and medial hypothalamus. There is indirect evidence, however, suggesting that opioid peptides may act differently in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PF/LH), causing a suppression of consummatory behavior. Using brain-cannulated Sprague-Dawley rats trained to voluntarily drink 7% ethanol, the present study tested the hypothesis that opioids in the PF/LH can reduce the consumption of ethanol, with animals receiving PF/LH injections of the ?-opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA), the µ-receptor agonist [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), the ?-receptor agonist (±)-trans-U-50,488 methanesulfonate (U-50,488H), or the general opioid antagonist methylated naloxone (m-naloxone). The consumption of ethanol, lab chow, and water was monitored for 4 hours after injection. The results showed that the three opioid receptor agonists injected into the PF/LH specifically and significantly reduced ethanol intake, while causing little change in chow or water intake, and the opposite effect, enhanced ethanol intake, was observed with the opioid antagonist. Of the three opioid agonists, the ?-agonist appears to produce the most consistent and long-lasting suppression of consumption. This effect was not observed with injections 2 mm dorsal to this area, focusing attention on the PF/LH as the main site of action. These results suggest that the opioid peptides have a specific role in the PF/LH of reducing ethanol drinking, which is distinct from their more commonly observed appetitive actions in other brain areas. The additional finding, that m-naloxone in the PF/LH stimulates ethanol intake in contrast to its generally suppressive effect in other regions, focuses attention on this hypothalamic area and its distinctive role in contributing to the variable effects sometimes observed with opioid antagonist therapy for alcoholism.
Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R.; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Leibowitz, Sarah F.
Background The present study is an evaluation of a 3-year parental program aiming to prevent underage drinking. The intervention was implemented by a non-governmental organization and targeted parents with children aged 13-16 years old and included recurrent activities during the entire period of secondary school. The program consisted of four different types of group and self-administered activities: parent meetings, family dialogues, friend meetings, and family meetings. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used following parents and children with questionnaires during the three years of secondary school. The analytic sample consisted of 509 dyads of parents and children. Measures of parental attitudes and behaviour concerning underage drinking and adolescents' lifetime alcohol consumption and drunkenness were used. Three socio-demographic factors were included: parental education, school, and gender of the child. A Latent Growth Modelling (LGM) approach was used to examine changes in parental behaviour regarding youth drinking and in young people's drinking behaviour. To test for the pre-post test differences in parental attitudes repeated measures ANOVA were used. Results The results showed that parents in the program maintained their restrictive attitude toward underage drinking to a higher degree than non-participating parents. Adolescents of participants were on average one year older than adolescents with non-participating parents when they made their alcohol debut. They were also less likely to have ever been drunk in school year 9. Conclusion The results of the study suggested that Strong and Clear contributed to maintaining parents' restrictive attitude toward underage drinking during secondary school, postponing alcohol debut among the adolescents, and significantly reducing their drunkenness.
Background Compared to other European countries, the Netherlands score among the highest of binge drinking rates of 16 to 18 year old adolescents. Dutch adolescents aged 16 are legally allowed to buy and consume low strength alcoholic beverages. This study focused on determinants of binge drinking in such a permissive environment from the perspectives of adolescents and parents. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 16 to 18 (N?=?83), and parents of adolescents from this age group (N?=?24). Data was analysed using thematic analyses methods. Results Most reasons adolescents mentioned for drinking were to relax, increase a good mood and to be social. Also peers around them influenced and increased adolescents’ drinking. Comparing adolescents and parental statements about their perspectives how alcohol use is handled and accepted by the parents we found that generally, those perspectives match. Parents as well as adolescents stated that alcohol use is accepted by parents. However, when looking at essential details, like the acceptable amounts that children may consume, the perspectives differ enormously. Adolescents think their parents accept any amount of drinking as long as they do not get drunk, whereas parents reported acceptable limits of 1 or 2 glasses every two weeks. Parents further indicated that they felt unsupported by the Dutch policies and regulations of alcohol use. Most of them were in favour of an increase of the legal purchasing age to 18 years. Conclusions Parents and adolescents should both be targeted in interventions to reduce alcohol use among adolescents. In particular, communication between parents and children should be improved, in order to avoid misconceptions about acceptable alcohol use. Further, adolescents should be supported to handle difficult social situations with peers where they feel obliged to drink. Additionally, revisions of policies towards a less permissive standpoint are advised to support parents and to impede availability of alcoholic beverages for adolescents/children younger than 18 years.
OBJECTIVES. Public policy has treated drinking and boating as though it were analogous to drinking and driving. Accordingly, recent Federal and state laws to prevent drinking and boating have focused solely on alcohol use by the boat operator. This study was designed to determine boaters' knowledge about the epidemiology of boating fatalities and how boaters perceive the risks of drinking and boating. METHODS. In the summer of 1995, the authors conducted a survey by mail of a random sample of 600 owners of boats registered in Massachusetts. RESULTS. Survey results indicated that boaters believe passengers can safely drink more than operators. Respondents also thought that people on boats at rest can safely drink more than people on boats underway. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this study could be helpful in designing future boating safety campaigns by identifying gaps in knowledge about about the risks of drinking and boating for both operators and passengers.
The present experiment evaluated the effects of naltrexone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, on post-abstinence alcohol drinking in C57BL/6NCRL and DBA/2J male mice. Home cage 2-bottle (alcohol vs. water) free-choice procedures were employed. During the pre-abstinence period, alcohol intake was much lower for the DBA/2J mice relative to the C57BL/6NCRL mice, and this strain difference was observed for groups receiving either 3% or 10% alcohol concentrations. The four-day abstinence period effectively reduced alcohol intakes (i.e., a negative alcohol deprivation effect, negative ADE) in both groups of DBA/2J mice, but had no effect on alcohol intakes in either group of C57BL/6NCRL mice. Both groups trained with 3% alcohol received the second four-day abstinence period, where the effects of acute administration of either naltrexone or saline on post-abstinence alcohol drinking were assessed. Naltrexone was more effective in reducing post-abstinence drinking of 3% alcohol in the DBA/2J mice than in the C57BL/6NCRL mice. In the DBA/2J mice, naltrexone further reduced, relative to saline-injected controls, the low levels of post-abstinence alcohol intake. Thus, the low baseline levels of alcohol drinking in DBA/2J mice were further diminished by the four-day abstinence period (negative ADE), and this suppressed post-abstinence level of alcohol drinking was still further reduced by acute administration of naltrexone. The results indicate that naltrexone is effective in reducing further the low levels of alcohol drinking induced by the negative ADE.
We have selectively bred mice that reach very high blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) after drinking from a single bottle of 20% ethanol. High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1) mice drink nearly 6g/kg ethanol in 4h and reach average BECs of more than 1.0mg/mL. Previous studies suggest that DID and two-bottle preference for 10% ethanol with continuous access are influenced by many of the same genes. We therefore asked whether HDID-1 mice would differ from the HS/Npt control stock on two-bottle preference drinking. We serially offered mice access to 3-40% ethanol in tap water versus tap water. For ethanol concentrations between 3 and 20%, HDID-1 and HS/Npt controls did not differ in two-bottle preference drinking. At the highest concentrations, the HS/Npt mice drank more than the HDID-1 mice. We also tested the same mice for preference for two concentrations each of quinine, sucrose, and saccharin. Curiously, the mice showed preference ratios (volume of tastant/total fluid drunk) of about 50% for all tastants and concentrations. Thus, neither genotype showed either preference or avoidance for any tastant after high ethanol concentrations. Therefore, we compared naive groups of HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice for tastant preference. Results from this test showed that ethanol-naive mice preferred sweet fluids and avoided quinine but the genotypes did not differ. Finally, we tested HDID-1 and HS mice for an extended period for preference for 15% ethanol versus water during a 2-h access period in the dark. After several weeks, HDID-1 mice consumed significantly more than HS. We conclude that drinking in the dark shows some genetic overlap with other tests of preference drinking, but that the degree of genetic commonality depends on the model used. PMID:21194877
Aim: To analyse serious eye injuries caused by bottles containing pressurised drinks. Methods: Retrospective review of the databases of US, Hungarian, and Mexican eye injury registries. Results: In the combined database (12 889 injuries), 90 cases (0.7%) were caused by bottle tops or glass splinters. The incidence varied widely: 0.3% (United States), 3.1% (Hungary), and 0.9% (Mexico), as did the agent. Champagne bottle corks were responsible in 20% (United States), 71% (Hungary; p<0.0001), and 0% (Mexico). Most eyes improved, but 26% remained legally blind. Conclusions: The presence of warning labels on champagne bottles appears to reduce cork related eye injuries, as does using plastic bottles and caps.
The goal of this curriculum is to help all health care professionals -- physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, social workers, health educators, counselors, psychologists, and others who work with college students -- identify and treat students who are at-risk or are having alcohol-related problems. The clinical methods…
The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.
Infectious microbes can be transmitted through the drinking water supply. Recent research indicates that infection transmission\\u000a dynamics influence the public health benefit of water treatment interventions, although some risk assessments currently in\\u000a use do not fully account for those dynamics. This chapter models the public health benefit of two interventions: improvements\\u000a to centralized water treatment facilities, and localized point-of-use treatments
Stephen E. Chick; Sada Soorapanth; James S. Koopman
There are few first-hand reports of drinking ayahuasca by residents of Amazonia, where use is widespread. One of us (F.A.F.\\u000a ), who lives in Iquitos, took ayahuasca 30 times during a three-year period between 1972 and 1974 in an attempt to experience\\u000a all levels of hallucination. Although unable to achieve the ultimate goal of telepathy and extrasensory perception, this author
Goal, Scope and Background. Perfluorinated surfactants (e.g. PFOS and PFOA) have shown different potentials for reproductory interfer- ence and carcinogenity in animal experiments as well as partly long half-lives in humans. They possess compound-dependent extreme re- calcitrance against microbiological and chemical degradation and, in addition, they show variable potentials for bioaccumulation in ani- mals and humans. Methods. Surface and drinking
We studied a group of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water to identify the pregnancy outcomes in terms of live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth. We compared pregnancy outcomes of exposed respondents with pregnancy outcomes of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were not exposed to arsenic-contaminated water. In a cross-sectional study, we matched the women in both exposed and nonexposed groups for age, socioeconomic status, education, and age at marriage. The total sample size was 192, with 96 women in each group (i.e., exposed and nonexposed). Of the respondents in the exposed group, 98% had been drinking water containing [Greater and equal to] 0.10 mg/L arsenic and 43.8% had been drinking arsenic-contaminated water for 5-10 years. Skin manifestation due to chronic arsenic exposure was present in 22.9% of the respondents. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in terms of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and preterm birth rates were significantly higher in the exposed group than those in the nonexposed group (p = 0.008, p = 0.046, and p = 0.018, respectively).
Ahmad, S A; Sayed, M H; Barua, S; Khan, M H; Faruquee, M H; Jalil, A; Hadi, S A; Talukder, H K
This paper builds upon the work of previous authors who have explored the evolution of ideas in the alcohol arena. With revisions in the relevant sections of ICD and DSM forthcoming, such matters are of considerable contemporary importance. The focus here will be upon the history of the last 200 years. The main themes to be explored include the flux of ideas on what, over time, has counted as the trouble with drink, ideas on the cause of the problem and the impact of this thinking on public action. Medical authorities of the late Enlightenment period made the revolutionary suggestion that habitual drunkenness constituted a disease, rather than a vice. The thread of that idea can be traced to the present day, but with an alternative perception of drink itself or alcohol-related problems generally, as cause for concern, also having a lineage. There are several inferences to be drawn from this history: the need for vigilance lest disease formulations become stalking-horses for moralism and social control, the need to integrate awareness of alcohol dependence as a dimensional individual-level problem, with a public health understanding of the vastly amorphous and at least equally important universe of alcohol-related problems; the dangers lurking in scientific reductionism when the problems at issue truly require a multi-disciplinary analysis; and the need for global consensus rather than cultural imposition of ideas on what counts as the problem with drink. PMID:20039858
Water drinking elicits profound pressor responses in patients with impaired baroreflex function and in sinoaortic-denervated mice. Healthy subjects show more subtle changes in heart rate and blood pressure with water drinking. The water-induced pressor response appears to be mediated through sympathetic nervous system activation at the spinal level. Indeed, water drinking raises resting energy expenditure in normal weight and obese subjects. The stimulus setting off the response is hypoosmolarity rather than water temperature or gastrointestinal stretch. Studies in mice suggest that this osmopressor response may involve transient receptor potential vanniloid 4 (Trpv4) receptors. However, the (nerve) cell population serving as peripheral osmosensors and the exact transduction mechanisms are still unknown. The osmopressor response can be exploited in the treatment of orthostatic and postprandial hypotension in patients with severe autonomic failure. Furthermore, the osmopressor response acutely improves orthostatic tolerance in healthy subjects and in patients with neurally mediated syncope. The phenomenon should be recognized as an important confounder in cardiovascular and metabolic studies. PMID:21048076
Interest in the public health significance of trace levels of pharmaceuticals in potable water is increasing, particularly with regard to the effects of long-term, low-dose exposures. To assess health risks and establish target concentrations for water treatment, human health risk-based screening levels for 15 pharmaceutically active ingredients and four metabolites were compared to concentrations detected at 19 drinking water treatment plants across the United States. Compounds were selected based on rate of use, likelihood of occurrence, and potential for toxicity. Screening levels were established based on animal toxicity data and adverse effects at therapeutic doses, focusing largely on reproductive and developmental toxicity and carcinogenicity. Calculated drinking water equivalent levels (DWELs) ranged from 0.49 microg/L (risperidone) to 20,000 microg/L (naproxen). None of the 10 detected compounds exceeded their DWEL. Ratios of DWELs to maximum detected concentrations ranged from 110 (phenytoin) to 6,000,000 (sulfamethoxazole). Based on this evaluation, adverse health effects from targeted pharmaceuticals occurring in U.S. drinking water are not expected. PMID:20575537
Bruce, Gretchen M; Pleus, Richard C; Snyder, Shane A
The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications. PMID:19475483
Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl, O, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).
A trait-dispositional paradigm for conceptualizing personality provided the framework for investigating the relationship between personality dispositions and drinking problems. This approach was compared directly with personality research based on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). A total of 241 subjects (192 men and 49 women) were tested at a mandatory Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) first-offender education program. Information was gathered from the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) at time of arrest, and two personality tests--the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC) and the Problem Drinker Trait List (PDTL). The psychometric properties of the PDTL were analyzed and compared with those of the MAC. In comparing the two personality tests in terms of their capacity to predict drinking problems over a wide range of drinking severity, the PDTL performed as well or better than the MAC, particularly for drinkers with low arrest BAC. Comparative analysis between the best predictor items of the MAC and of the PDTL revealed little relationship between the item domains. The predictive trait clusters of the PDTL for men were Emotionality/Depressiveness, Impulsivity, and Low Self-Confidence, whereas predictive clusters for women included Depressiveness, Overcontrol, and Alienation. PMID:8186674
The effect of food reinforcement schedules on the reinforcement value of drinking water was evaluated. Food-deprived rats were exposed to concurrent, identical variable-time schedules of food presentation, the food thus being delivered independently of the rats' behavior. When the relative amount of time spent in a schedule component stabilized, an opportunity to drink water was introduced into one schedule component. The value of the variable-time schedules was varied from 60 to 90 to 270 sec. The relative amount of time spent in the schedule component associated with drinking water was a decreasing function of food frequency for two animals and remained constant for the third. Drinking rates were direct functions of food frequency, and the amount of water drunk per pellet was an inverse function of food frequency. The reinforcement value of drinking water, according to the Matching Law, was a direct function of the frequency of food presentation. It was concluded that food reinforcement schedules indirectly influence rates of drinking by altering the reinforcement value of drinking water and that certain properties of schedule-induced drinking can be accounted for in terms of the reinforcement value of drinking water, the rate of drinking, and the frequency of food presentation.
Recent research suggests that social anxiety may be associated with higher rates of alcohol problems in women, yet may be associated with lower levels of drinking in men. The current study investigated putative mechanisms that may underlie potential gender differences in the social anxiety-alcohol relationship. One hundred and eighteen college students (61.0% women) completed an interview assessing drinking behaviors and questionnaires measuring social anxiety, drinking motives, and drinking situations. Although college men and women both reported similar frequencies of drinking in positive situations and to enhance positive emotions, women reported drinking more often in negative situations and to cope with aversive emotions than men. Mediated moderation analyses suggested that women with social anxiety may be at greater risk of encountering adverse consequences because of their likelihood to drink to conform or to cope with the aversive affect they experience in negative situations. Conversely, when men experience high rates of adverse consequences, it may be due to drinking greater quantities of alcohol in positive situations. Highly socially anxious college men may drink less alcohol and experience fewer adverse consequences than their nonanxious or mildly anxious counterparts because they may find themselves in positive situations and drinking to enhance positive feelings less often, potentially due to avoidant behavior. These findings may help to explain why social anxiety serves as a potential risk factor for alcohol-related problems for college women, but a protective factor for college men. PMID:21035618
Norberg, Melissa M; Norton, Alice R; Olivier, Jake; Zvolensky, Michael J
The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources. PMID:23520842
After a chronic ligation of the common bile duct (BDL), Long-Evans rats are hypotensive and have elevated saline intake during both sodium-depleted and nondepleted conditions. We tested whether BDL rats have exaggerated hypotension during sodium depletion or an elevated dipsogenic response to angiotensin II (ANG II) that might help to explain the saline intake. After 4 wk of BDL, rats were hypotensive at baseline and developed exaggerated hypotension during acute furosemide-induced diuresis. Without saline to drink, BDL rats increased water intake during depletion equal to sham-ligated rats. However, with saline solution available at 22 h after sodium depletion, the BDL rats drank more water and saline than did sham-ligated rats. This rapid intake temporarily increased their mean arterial pressure to equal that of sham-ligated rats. Intravenous infusion of ANG II induced equal drinking responses despite reduced pressor responses in the BDL rats relative to sham-ligated rats during both ad libitum and sodium-depleted conditions. Thus BDL rats have exaggerated hypotension during diuresis, and their hypotension is corrected by drinking an exaggerated volume of saline, but they do not have an increased drinking response to ANG II. PMID:9887174