These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

A Night to Remember: A Harm-Reduction Birthday Card Intervention Reduces High-Risk Drinking during 21st Birthday Celebrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In collaboration with Residence Life, the Heads UP research team developed a 21st birthday card program to help reduce the risky drinking often associated with these celebrations. Participants: 81 students (28 males, 53 females) completed a post-21st birthday survey. Of these, 74 reported drinking during their 21st birthday and were…

LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Cail, Jessica

2009-01-01

2

21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

2008-01-01

3

A Hierarchy of 21st Birthday Drinking Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper offers preliminary evidence for a hierarchical organization of normative social influences on 21st birthday drinking. In recent years, 21st birthday celebratory drinking has received increasing attention, due largely to the propagation of dangerous and sometimes fatal drinking traditions, such as attempting to drink one shot for…

Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.

2012-01-01

4

Internet-Based Personalized Feedback to Reduce 21st-Birthday Drinking: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Event-Specific Prevention Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an initial randomized controlled trial of an event-specific prevention intervention. Participants included 295 college students (41.69% male, 58.31% female) who intended to consume 2 or more drinks on their 21st birthday. Participants completed a screening/baseline assessment approximately 1 week before they turned 21 and…

Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Fossos, Nicole; Walter, Theresa

2009-01-01

5

Evaluation Results of a 21st Birthday Card Program Targeting High-Risk Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The B.R.A.D. Birthday Card initiative was started on the campus of Michigan State University (MSU) in April 1999. MSU administrators send the safe-drinking 21st birthday card (B.R.A.D.) and laminated wallet card to students shortly before their 21st birthday. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the 21st birthday card, MSU and B.R.A.D.,…

Hembroff, Larry; Atkin, Charles; Martell, Dennis; McCue, Cindy; Greenamyer, Jasmine T.

2007-01-01

6

21st birthday celebratory drinking: evaluation of a personalized normative feedback card intervention.  

PubMed

This research was designed to evaluate a personalized normative feedback birthday card intervention aimed at reducing normative perceptions, alcohol consumption, and negative consequences associated with 21st birthday celebrations among college students (N=281; 59.15% women). Students were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a birthday card about 1 week prior to their 21st birthday. Approximately 1 week following their birthday, students were asked to complete a brief survey concerning their birthday celebration activities. Findings indicated that the birthday card intervention was not successful at reducing drinking or consequences; however, the card did reduce normative misperceptions. Additional findings indicated that many students experienced negative consequences, such as passing out or driving after consuming alcohol. Combined, these findings suggest that prevention is needed for drinking associated with turning 21. However, prevention efforts should consist of more than a birthday card. PMID:18540715

Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M; Oster-Aaland, Laura

2008-06-01

7

21st Birthday Celebratory Drinking: Evaluation of a Personalized Normative Feedback Card Intervention  

PubMed Central

This research was designed to evaluate a personalized normative feedback birthday card intervention aimed at reducing normative perceptions, alcohol consumption, and negative consequences associated with 21st birthday celebrations among college students (N = 281; 59.15% women). Students were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a birthday card about 1 week prior to their 21st birthday. Approximately 1 week following their birthday, students were asked to complete a brief survey concerning their birthday celebration activities. Findings indicated that the birthday card intervention was not successful at reducing drinking or consequences; however, the card did reduce normative misperceptions. Additional findings indicated that many students experienced negative consequences, such as passing out or driving after consuming alcohol. Combined, these findings suggest that prevention is needed for drinking associated with turning 21. However, prevention efforts should consist of more than a birthday card. PMID:18540715

Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Oster-Aaland, Laura

2009-01-01

8

Social Norms vs. Risk Reduction Approaches to 21st Birthday Celebrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Celebratory drinking among college students on their 21st birthday often involves dangerous levels of alcohol consumption. Purpose: This study utilized an experimental design to assess the efficacy of social norm and risk reduction strategies developed to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol related consequences among college students…

Glassman, Tavis; Dodd, Virginia; Kenzik, Kelly; Miller, E. Maureen; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye

2010-01-01

9

Event Specific Drinking Among College Students  

PubMed Central

College represents a period of risk for heavy drinking and experiencing unwanted consequences associated with drinking. Previous research has identified specific events including holidays (e.g., New Years), school breaks (e.g., Spring Break) and personally relevant events (e.g., 21st birthdays) that are associated with elevated risk of heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The systematic evaluation of relative risk offers insights into event specific drinking and an empirical basis upon which to consider allocation of limited prevention resources. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to provide a comparative index of drinking across a wide range of holidays and compare holiday drinking to 21st birthday drinking. Participants were 1,124 students (55% female) who had turned 21 within the previous three weeks in 2008 and provided 90-day retrospective reports of their drinking using the Timeline Follow-back. Results based on a hurdle mixed model for blood alcohol content (BAC) revealed several holidays that stand out for elevated drinking, including New Year’s Eve and July 4th, whereas other holidays appear more similar to weekend drinking, such as Spring Break (approximately last week of March) and graduation (mid-June). Drinking on holidays or special days was substantially lower than drinking on 21st birthdays. Results are discussed in terms of practical applications for targeted intervention efforts on college campuses toward specific events where elevated drinking is known to occur. PMID:21639597

Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.

2011-01-01

10

The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.  

PubMed

This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131

Yörük, Bar?? K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

2011-07-01

11

Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight?  

PubMed Central

Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude. PMID:20657817

Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David

2009-01-01

12

Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking  

PubMed Central

Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.

2010-01-01

13

Environmental Policies to Reduce College Drinking: Options and Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an over- view of environmental strategies that may reduce college drinking. Drinking behavior is influenced by many environmental factors, includ- ing messages in the media, community norms and attitudes, public and institutional policies and practices and economic factors. College stu- dent drinking may be influenced by environmental factors on and off

TRACI L. TOOMEY; ALEXANDER C. WAGENAAR

14

Behavioral economic approaches to reduce college student drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for novel, theory-based approaches to reduce heavy drinking on college campuses. Behavioral economics has guided basic laboratory research on drug administration for over 30 years and has recently been applied to human substance use in naturalistic and clinical settings. This paper provides an introduction to behavioral economics, reviews applications of behavioral economics to college student drinking, and

James G. Murphy; Christopher J. Correia; Nancy P. Barnett

2007-01-01

15

Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

16

Case Management Reduces Drinking During Pregnancy among High Risk Women  

PubMed Central

Aim Estimate the efficacy of Case Management (CM) for women at high risk for bearing a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Design Women were recruited from antenatal clinics and engaged in 18 months of CM. Setting A South African community with a subculture of heavy, regular, weekend, recreational drinking and high documented rates of FASD. Participants Forty-one women who were high risk for bearing a child with FASD. Measures Statistical analysis of trends in drinking and other risk factors. Findings At intake 87.8% were pregnant, most had previous alcohol-exposed pregnancies, most/all of their friends drink alcohol (67.5%), and 50.0% had stressful lives. CM was particularly valuable for pregnant women, as statistically significant reductions in alcohol risk were obtained for them in multiple variables: total drinks on weekends after six months of CM (p = .026) and estimated peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at six (p < .001) and 18 months (p < .001). For participants completing 18 months of CM, AUDIT scores improved significantly by 6-month follow-up (from 19.8 to 9.7, p = .000), and even though rising at 12 and 18 months, AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking remained statistically significantly lower than baseline throughout CM. Happiness scale scores correlated significantly with reduced drinking in most time periods. Conclusions An enduring change in drinking behavior is difficult in this social setting. Yet, CM provided by skilled and empathic case managers reduced maternal drinking at critical times, and therefore, alcohol exposure levels to the fetus. PMID:24729823

May, Philip A.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Hendricks, Natalie; Roux, Sumien; Blom, Annalien; Steenekamp, Jeanetta; Alexander, Theresa; Andreas, Romena; Human, Suzanne; Snell, Cudore; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles C.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Blankenship, Jason

2014-01-01

17

Subdiagnostic alcohol use by depressed men and women seeking outpatient psychiatric services: consumption patterns and motivation to reduce drinking.  

E-print Network

episodic drinking were younger age, male gender, and prior-hazardous drinking was associated with male gender, youngergender and younger age) and smoking; among these patients, motivation to reduce drinking

Satre, Derek D; Chi, Felicia W; Eisendrath, Stuart; Weisner, Constance

2011-01-01

18

Reliance on God, Prayer, and Religion Reduces Influence of Perceived Norms on Drinking  

PubMed Central

Objective: Previous research has shown that perceived social norms are among the strongest predictors of drinking among young adults. Research has also consistently found religiousness to be protective against risk and negative health behaviors. The present research evaluates the extent to which reliance on God, prayer, and religion moderates the association between perceived social norms and drinking. Method: Participants (n = 1,124 undergraduate students) completed a cross-sectional survey online, which included measures of perceived norms, religious values, and drinking. Perceived norms were assessed by asking participants their perceptions of typical student drinking. Drinking outcomes included drinks per week, drinking frequency, and typical quantity consumed. Results: Regression analyses indicated that religiousness and perceived norms had significant unique associations in opposite directions for all three drinking outcomes. Significant interactions were evident between religiousness and perceived norms in predicting drinks per week, frequency, and typical quantity. In each case, the interactions indicated weaker associations between norms and drinking among those who assigned greater importance to religiousness. Conclusions: The extent of the relationship between perceived social norms and drinking was buffered by the degree to which students identified with religiousness. A growing body of literature has shown interventions including personalized feedback regarding social norms to be an effective strategy in reducing drinking among college students. The present research suggests that incorporating religious or spiritual values into student interventions may be a promising direction to pursue. PMID:23490564

Neighbors, Clayton; Brown, Garrett A.; Dibello, Angelo M.; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Foster, Dawn W.

2013-01-01

19

Prevention of childhood obesity by reducing soft drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a global problem. There are a variety of environmental factors that may be contributing to this increase. One such factor may be the increased consumption of soft drinks.Objective:This review will describe some of the latest research that has examined the association between obesity and the consumption of soft drinks.Results:The association between the consumption

J James; D Kerr

2005-01-01

20

The Role of Mass Media Campaigns in Reducing High-Risk Drinking among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This article categorizes and describes current media campaigns to reduce college student drinking, reviews key prin- ciples of campaign design and outlines recommendations for future cam- paigns. Method: The article describes three types of media campaigns on student drinking: information, social norms marketing, and advocacy. Key principles of campaign design are derived from work in commer- cial marketing, advertising,

WILLIAM DEJONG

2002-01-01

21

Alcohol Consumption and Women's Vulnerability to Sexual Victimization: Can Reducing Women's Drinking Prevent Rape?  

PubMed Central

Before effective prevention interventions can be developed, it is necessary to identify the mechanisms that contribute to the targeted negative outcomes. A review of the literature on women's substance use and sexual victimization points to women's heavy episodic drinking as a proximal risk factor, particularly among college samples. At least half of sexual victimization incidents involve alcohol use and the majority of rapes of college women occur when the victim is too intoxicated to resist (“incapacitated rape”). Despite the importance of women's heavy episodic drinking as being a risk factor, existing rape prevention programs have rarely addressed women's alcohol use and have shown little success in reducing rates of sexual victimization. We argue that given the strength of the association between heavy episodic drinking and sexual victimization among young women, prevention programs targeting drinking may prove more efficacious than programs targeting sexual vulnerability. Applications of existing drinking prevention strategies to reducing women's sexual victimization are discussed. PMID:19938922

Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.

2009-01-01

22

PRAZOSIN REDUCES ALCOHOL DRINKING THROUGHOUT PROLONGED TREATMENT AND BLOCKS THE INITIATION OF DRINKING IN RATS SELECTIVELY BRED FOR HIGH ALCOHOL INTAKE  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND This study examined whether prazosin reduces alcohol drinking over the course of prolonged treatment and whether it blocks initiation of alcohol drinking in rats with a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol drinking, i.e, alcohol-preferring (P) rats. METHODS In study one, alcohol-experienced P rats that had been drinking alcohol 2 hrs/day for several months were treated daily with prazosin (0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg BW) for 7 weeks. In study two, alcohol-naïve P rats were treated daily with prazosin (0, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg BW) for two weeks prior to, or concomitantly with, initiation of alcohol access and throughout 3 weeks of alcohol availability. Prazosin treatment and alcohol access were then discontinued for 2 weeks followed by reinstatement of alcohol access without prazosin treatment for 4 weeks, followed by resumption of daily prazosin treatment (2.0 mg/kg BW) for 3 weeks. RESULTS Prazosin reduced alcohol drinking throughout 7 weeks of treatment in P rats accustomed to drinking alcohol. Following termination of prazosin treatment, alcohol drinking slowly returned to pretreatment baseline. Reduced alcohol intake was accompanied by increased water intake. In alcohol-naïve P rats, prazosin administration prior to the first opportunity to drink alcohol and throughout 3 weeks of alcohol access retarded acquisition of alcohol drinking and reduced the amount of alcohol consumed. When prazosin was administered concomitantly with the first opportunity to drink alcohol, it abolished acquisition of alcohol drinking. Discontinuation of prazosin treatment allowed expression of a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol drinking to gradually emerge. Prazosin retained the ability to reduce alcohol intake with repeated treatments. CONCLUSIONS Prazosin decreased alcohol drinking during prolonged treatment and may be useful for treating alcoholism and alcohol use disorders. Prazosin may also be useful for deterring initiation of drinking in individuals with a family history of alcoholism. PMID:23731093

Froehlich, Janice C; Hausauer, Brett J; Federoff, David L; Fischer, Stephen M; Rasmussen, Dennis D

2013-01-01

23

Pressure to Reduce Drinking and Reasons for Seeking Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective Individuals with alcohol problems often receive pressure to change their drinking. However, when they enter treatment it is unclear how often it is because of the pressure they received or other reasons. Method A secondary analysis was conducted using four cross sectional National Alcohol Surveys (NASs) collected at 5-year intervals between 1995 and 2010. Treatment seekers (N=476) were interviewed about 1) all reasons for seeking treatment, 2) their primary reason, 3) lifetime heavy drinking, and 4) whether they ever received pressure from six different sources (spouse, family, friends, doctor, work and police). Results Over 90% of the sample received pressure from at least one source. Thirty-four percent identified legal problems/felt forced as their primary reason for seeking treatment. Other primary reasons included a desire to improve relationships (25%) and health (15%). When asked about all reasons, 46% endorsed five or more reasons and 74% included legal problems/felt forced. When pressure was received from police it was often the primary reason for seeking treatment. When pressure was received from physicians or work, legal problems/felt forced was less likely to be the primary reason. Most reasons, including legal problems/felt forced, did not change significantly over time. Conclusions A primary reason for seeking alcohol treatment is drinking-related legal problems or feeling forced. However, legal problems/feeling forced occurs along with a variety of additional reasons. Future research should assess pathways between receipt of pressure from different sources, recognition of different types of problems, and reasons given for seeking treatment. PMID:24431479

Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William

2012-01-01

24

Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

Patterson, Craig L.; Adams, Jeffrey Q.

2011-12-01

25

Alcohol Binge Drinking during Adolescence or Dependence during Adulthood Reduces Prefrontal Myelin in Male Rats.  

PubMed

Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism. PMID:25355229

Vargas, Wanette M; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Whitcomb, Brian W; Richardson, Heather N

2014-10-29

26

Motivational interviewing to reduce hazardous drinking and drug use among depression patients  

PubMed Central

This randomized study examined the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to reduce substance use among adults with depression in outpatient psychiatry. The sample consisted of 104 participants ages 18 and over who reported hazardous drinking (three drinks or more per occasion), illegal drug use or misuse of prescription drugs in the prior 30days, and who scored ?15 on the Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II). Participants were randomized to receive either three sessions of MI or printed literature about alcohol and drug use risks, as an adjunct to usual outpatient depression care, and completed telephone follow-up interviews at 3 and 6months (93 and 99% of the baseline sample, respectively). Among participants reporting any hazardous drinking at baseline (n=73), MI-treated participants were less likely than controls to report hazardous drinking at 3months (60.0 vs. 81.8%, p=.043). MI is a promising intervention to reduce hazardous drinking among depression patients. PMID:22999815

Satre, Derek D.; Delucchi, Kevin; Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Sterling, Stacy A.; Weisner, Constance

2013-01-01

27

Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…

Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

2010-01-01

28

Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Interventions to Reduce College Students' Drinking and Risky Sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested the proposition that an intervention to reduce alcohol use among college students will also reduce their risky sexual behavior. In a randomized controlled trial, 154 heavy-drinking, predominantly White, heterosexual college students at behavioral risk for infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases were assigned to receive no intervention or a two-session, in-person, motivational interviewing-based intervention

Kurt H. Dermen; Sherilyn N. Thomas

2011-01-01

29

Commercially available probiotic drinks containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of Lactobacillus-containing commercially available probiotic formulations in Germany during antibiotic treatment with an analysis of cost-efficiency. METHODS: In an observational study, we analyzed the frequency of bowel movements from 258 patients with infections in a primary care hospital in western Germany; 107 of the patients were offered a probiotic drink containing at least 10 billion cultures of Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 b.i.d. The economic analysis was based on the costs of patient isolation vs preventive intake of probiotics. In a second pilot study, two commercially available probiotic drinks with different Lactobacillus casei strains were directly compared in 60 patients in a randomized controlled fashion. RESULTS: In the first study, the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) was significantly reduced in the intervention group (6.5% vs 28.4%), and the duration of AAD in days was significantly shorter (1.7 ± 1.1 vs 3.1 ± 2.1). Higher age and creatinine and lower albumin were identified as risk factors for AAD. Ampicillin was the antibiotic with the highest rate of AAD (50%) and with the greatest AAD reduction in the probiotic group (4.2%, relative risk reduction 92%). The economic analysis showed a cost advantage of nearly 60000 €/year in a department of this size. The second study confirmed the preventive effect of the drink with Lactobacillus casei DN114001; however, there were no advantages found for the other tested probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota. CONCLUSION: In contrast to a drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota, a commercially available probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 cost-efficiently reduces the prevalence of AAD during antibiotic treatment. PMID:25400470

Dietrich, Christoph G; Kottmann, Tanja; Alavi, Manuela

2014-01-01

30

Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ  

PubMed Central

Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of ferrous sulfate supplementation on the inhibition of the erosion caused by a cola drink. Material and Methods Ten adult volunteers participated in a crossover protocol conducted in two phases of 5 days, separated by a washout period of 7 days. In each phase, they wore palatal devices containing two human enamel and two human dentin blocks. The volunteers immersed the devices for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink (Coca-ColaTM, pH 2.6), containing ferrous sulfate (10 mmol/L) or not (control), 4 times per day. The effect of ferrous sulfate on the inhibition of erosion was evaluated by profilometry (wear). Data were analyzed by paired t tests (p<0.05). Results The mean wear (±se) was significantly reduced in the presence of ferrous sulfate, both for enamel (control: 5.8±1.0 µm; ferrous sulfate: 2.8±0.6 µm) and dentin (control: 4.8±0.8 µm; ferrous sulfate: 1.7±0.7 µm). Conclusions The supplementation of cola drinks with ferrous sulfate can be a good alternative for the reduction of their erosive potential. Additional studies should be done to test if lower ferrous sulfate concentrations can also have a protective effect as well as the combination of ferrous sulfate with other ions. PMID:22858697

KATO, Melissa Thiemi; BUZALAF, Marilia Afonso Rabelo

2012-01-01

31

Efficacy of expectancy challenge interventions to reduce college student drinking: a meta-analytic review.  

PubMed

Interventions challenging alcohol expectancies may lead to reductions in alcohol consumption. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of alcohol expectancy challenge (EC) interventions for college alcohol abuse prevention. Included were 14 studies (19 EC interventions) that measured alcohol expectancies and consumption, provided sufficient information to calculate effect sizes, and were available as of June 2010 (N=1,415; M age=20 years; 40% women; 88% White). Independent raters coded participant characteristics, design and methodological features, and intervention content, and calculated weighted mean effect sizes at first follow-up, using both fixed and random effects models. Compared with controls, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s ranged from 0.23 to 0.28). Within-group improvements in alcohol expectancies and consumption emerged for the EC group only; relative to their own baseline, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s ranged from 0.13 to 0.36). Supplemental analyses found improvements in specific alcohol expectancies (social, sexual, tension, and arousal) both between groups and within group. The short-term effects of EC interventions on college student drinking are not maintained at follow-ups greater than 4 weeks. PMID:22428862

Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Terry, Danielle L; Carey, Kate B; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Michael P

2012-09-01

32

Reducing high-risk drinking in mandated college students: Evaluation of two personalized normative feedback interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of two brief personalized normative feedback interventions aimed at reducing heavy drinking among mandated college students (N = 135). Students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: Web-based assessment with self-guided personalized normative feedback (SWF) or Web-based assessment with counselor-guided personalized normative feedback (CWF). Results indicated that students in the CWF condition reported significantly

Diana M. Doumas; Camille Workman; Diana Smith; Anabel Navarro

2011-01-01

33

Reducing Heavy Drinking in Intercollegiate Athletes: Evaluation of a Web-Based Personalized Feedback Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of a Web-based personalized feedback program aimed at reducing drinking in freshman intercollegiate athletes. The program was offered through the Athletic Department freshman seminar at a NCAA Division I university. Seminar sections were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: Web-based personalized feedback (WPF) or Web-based education (WE). Assess- ment measures were completed at baseline,

Diana M. Doumas; Tonya Haustveit

34

Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

2010-01-01

35

Can technology help to reduce underage drinking? Evidence from the false ID laws with scanner provision.  

PubMed

Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth. PMID:24732386

Yörük, Bar?? K

2014-07-01

36

The ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clonidine, reduces alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that noradrenergic signaling may play a role in mediating alcohol-drinking behavior in both rodents and humans. We have investigated this possibility by administering clonidine to alcohol-drinking rats selectively bred for alcohol preference (P line). Clonidine is an ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist which, at low doses, inhibits noradrenergic signaling by decreasing norepinephrine release from presynaptic noradrenergic neurons. Adult male P rats were given 24 h access to food and water and scheduled access to a 15% (v/v) alcohol solution for 2 h daily. Rats received intra-peritoneal (IP) injections with clonidine (0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 ?g/kg body weight [BW], 10-11 rats/treatment group) once/day at 30 min prior to onset of the daily 2 h alcohol access period for 2 consecutive days. Clonidine, in doses of 40 or 80 ?g/kg BW, significantly reduced alcohol intake on both days of treatment (p < 0.001). Two weeks later, rats were treated with clonidine for 5 consecutive days and clonidine, in doses of 40 or 80 ?g/kg BW, reduced alcohol intake on all 5 treatment days (p < 0.001). Clonidine did not alter water consumption during the daily 2 h free-choice between alcohol and water. In a separate group of male P rats, clonidine (40 ?g/kg BW) suppressed intake of a saccharin solution (0.04 g/L). These results are consistent with and complement our previous findings that the ?1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, decreases voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring rats, but suggests that effects of clonidine may not be specific for alcohol. The results suggest that although activation of the noradrenergic system plays an important role in mediating voluntary alcohol drinking, care is needed in selecting which drugs to use to suppress central noradrenergic signaling in order to maximize the selectivity of the drugs for treating alcohol-use disorders. PMID:25085719

Rasmussen, Dennis D; Alexander, Laura; Malone, Julia; Federoff, David; Froehlich, Janice C

2014-09-01

37

Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.  

PubMed

Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%). PMID:24637908

Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

2014-03-01

38

Paternal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Alcohol Drinking and Increases Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol Selectively in Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is heritable, but the genetic basis for this disease remains poorly understood. Although numerous gene variants have been associated with AUD, these variants account for only a small fraction of the total risk. The idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, i.e. “epigenetic inheritance,” is re-emerging as a proven adjunct to traditional modes of genetic inheritance. We hypothesized that alcohol drinking and neurobiological sensitivity to alcohol are influenced by ancestral alcohol exposure. To test this hypothesis, we exposed male mice to chronic vapor ethanol or control conditions, mated them to ethanol-naïve females, and tested adult offspring for ethanol drinking, ethanol-induced behaviors, gene expression, and DNA methylation. We found that ethanol-sired male offspring had reduced ethanol preference and consumption, enhanced sensitivity to the anxiolytic and motor-enhancing effects of ethanol, and increased Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) compared to control-sired male offspring. There were no differences among ethanol- and control-sired female offspring on these assays. Ethanol exposure also decreased DNA methylation at the BdnfÆpromoter of sire's germ cells and hypomethylation was maintained in the VTA of both male and female ethanol-sired offspring. Our findings show that paternal alcohol exposure is a previously unrecognized regulator of alcohol drinking and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol in male, but not female, offspring. Paternal alcohol exposure also induces epigenetic alterations (DNA hypomethylation) and gene expression changes that persist in the VTA of offspring. These results provide new insight into the inheritance and development of alcohol drinking behaviors. PMID:24896617

Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E.

2014-01-01

39

Economic implications of reduced binge drinking among the military health system's TRICARE Prime plan beneficiaries.  

PubMed

This study examines the economic burden of alcohol misuse to the Department of Defense (DoD) and the benefits of reduced binge drinking among beneficiaries in the DoD's TRICARE Prime plan. Data analyzed include administrative records for approximately 3 million beneficiaries age 18 to 64, DoD's Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel, and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Alcohol misuse among Prime beneficiaries cost the DoD an estimated $1.2 billion in 2006--$425 million in higher medical costs and $745 million in reduced readiness and misconduct charges. Potential annual gross benefits to the DoD of reduced binge drinking are simulated for three scenarios: (1) implementing a comprehensive alcohol screening with referral to brief intervention or treatment by primary care ($87 million/$129 million in short/long-term benefits); (2) increasing the price of alcoholic beverages on military installations by 20% ($75 million/$115 million); and (3) implementing a Web-based education program ($81 million/$123 million). PMID:19685845

Harwood, Henrick J; Zhang, Yiduo; Dall, Timothy M; Olaiya, Samuel T; Fagan, Nancy K

2009-07-01

40

Reducing diarrhoea in Guatemalan children: randomized controlled trial of flocculant-disinfectant for drinking-water.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a new point-of-use treatment for drinking-water, a commercially developed flocculant-disinfectant, on the prevalence of diarrhoea in children. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 514 rural Guatemalan households, divided into 42 neighbourhood clusters, for 13 weeks, from 4 November 2002 through 31 January 2003. Clusters assigned to water treatment with the flocculant-disinfectant were compared with those using their usual water-handling practices. The longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea was calculated as the proportion of total days with diarrhoea divided by the total number of days of observation. The prevalence of diarrhoea was compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. FINDINGS: The 1702 people in households receiving the disinfectant had a prevalence of diarrhoea that was 40% lower than that among the 1699 people using standard water-handling practices (0.9% versus 1.5%; P = 0.001). In households using the flocculant-disinfectant, children < 1 year of age had a 39% lower prevalence of diarrhoea than those in households using their standard practices (3.7% versus 6.0%; P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: In settings where families rarely treat drinking-water, we introduced a novel flocculant-disinfectant that reduced the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea, especially among children aged < 1 year, among whom diarrhoea has been strongly associated with mortality. Successful introduction and use of this product could contribute to preventing diarrhoeal disease globally. PMID:16501712

Chiller, Tom M.; Mendoza, Carlos E.; Lopez, M. Beatriz; Alvarez, Maricruz; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Keswick, Bruce H.; Luby, Stephen P.

2006-01-01

41

Mobile phone text message intervention to reduce binge drinking among young adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Heavy episodic (binge) drinking is common among young adults and can lead to injury and illness. Young adults who seek care in the Emergency Department (ED) may be disproportionately affected with binge drinking behavior, therefore provide an opportunity to reduce future risk through screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT). Mobile phone text messaging (SMS) is a common form of communication among young adults and has been shown to be effective at providing behavioral support to young adult drinkers after ED discharge. Efficacy of SMS programs to reduce binge drinking remains unknown. Methods/Design We will conduct a three parallel arm, randomized trial. A convenience sample of adults aged 18 to 25 years attending three EDs in Pittsburgh, PA and willing to participate in the study will be screened for hazardous alcohol consumption. Participants identified as hazardous drinkers will then be allocated to either 12 weeks of weekly SMS drinking assessments with feedback (SA+F), SMS drinking assessments without feedback (SA), or a control group. Randomization will be via an independent and remote computerized randomization and will be stratified by study site. The SA+F group will be asked to provide pre-weekend drinking intention as well as post-weekend consumption via SMS and will receive feedback messages focused on health consequences of alcohol consumption, personalized normative feedback, protective drinking strategies and goal setting. Follow-up data on alcohol use and injury related to alcohol will be collected through a password-protected website three, six and nine months later. The primary outcome for the study is binge drinking days (?4 drinks for women; ?5 drinks for men) during the previous month, and the main secondary outcome is the proportion of participants who report any injury related to alcohol in the prior three months. Discussion This study will test the hypothesis that a mobile phone text-messaging program will result in immediate and durable reductions in binge drinking among at-risk young adults. By testing an intervention group to an assessment-only and control group, we will be able to separate the effect of assessment reactivity. By collecting pre-weekend drinking intentions and post-weekend consumption data in the SA+F group, we will be able to better understand mechanism of change. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01688245 PMID:23552023

2013-01-01

42

Reducing Drinking Among Junior Enlisted Air Force Members in Five Communities: Early Findings of the EUDL Program's Influence on Self-Reported Drinking Behaviors*  

PubMed Central

Objective: In the fall of 2006, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention awarded discretionary grants to five communities in four states as part of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws initiative. These 3-year grants were designed to support implementation of a set of interventions using an environmental strategies approach to reduce drinking and associated alcohol-related misconducts among active-duty Air Force members ages 18–25, with a specific focus on the underage population. The current article presents findings from Year 1 of the evaluation. Method: Data on alcohol use were obtained from a large-scale, anonymous survey that fielded in the spring of 2006 (i.e., pretest) and the spring of 2008 (i.e., posttest) from a stratified random sample of Air Force members at five demonstration and five comparison communities. Results: The percentage of junior enlisted personnel at risk for an alcohol problem dropped 6.6% in the Air Force overall during the last 2 years but dropped as much as 13.6% and 9.8% in two Arizona demonstration communities that implemented the intervention. Conclusions: The first-year results suggest that the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws intervention may have been one factor that helped to reduce the percentage of junior enlisted Air Force members at risk for an alcohol problem in the demonstration communities. PMID:20409431

Spera, Christopher; Franklin, Keita; Uekawa, Kazuaki; Kunz, John F.; Szoc, Ronald Z.; Thomas, Randall K.; Cambridge, Milton H.

2010-01-01

43

Chlorination and safe storage of household drinking water in developing countries to reduce waterborne disease.  

PubMed

Simple, effective and affordable methods are needed to treat and safely store non-piped, gathered household water. This study evaluated point-of-use chlorination and storage in special plastic containers of gathered household water for improving microbial quality and reducing diarrhoeal illness of consumers living under conditions of poor sanitation and hygiene. Community families were recruited and randomly divided into intervention (household water chlorination and storage in a special container) and control (no intervention) households. Microbes in stored household water were extensively inactivated by 1-5-mg/L doses of hypochlorite. Escherichia coli levels in stored household waters were < 1/100 mL in most intervention households but readily detectable at high levels in control households. Stored water of intervention households was also lower in Clostridium perfringens and heterotrophic plate count bacteria than in control households. The intervention reduced household diarrhoeal illness. In Bolivia, monthly episodes of household diarrhoeal illness were 1.25 and 2.2 in intervention and control families, respectively (P = < 0.002) indicating that 43% of community diarrhoea was preventable by using the intervention. In Bangladesh, mean episodes of child diarrhoea/1,000 d were 19.6 and 24.8 in intervention and control groups respectively (P = < 0.03) indicating that about 24% of observed diarrhoea was preventable by using the intervention. Chlorine disinfection and storage in an appropriate container significantly improved the microbiological quality of non-piped household drinking water and reduced community diarrhoeal disease. Widespread use of this simple treatment and storage system for non-piped domestic water has the potential to dramatically reduce the global burden of waterborne diarrhoeal disease. PMID:12639033

Sobsey, M D; Handzel, T; Venczel, L

2003-01-01

44

Reducing Teenage Binge Drinking and Drunk Driving on the Reservation: The Pikanii Action Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pikanii Action Team project addressed the issues of teenage drinking and drunk driving on the Blackfeet Reservation. Basing their actions on locally-generated research, the Pikanii Action Team conducted a series of activities and initiatives to promote public awareness and action related to high-risk activities related to drinking. The team's…

Still Smoking, Dorothy; Bull Shoe, Debbie Whitegrass

2012-01-01

45

The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to…

Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

2013-01-01

46

The Effectiveness of an Innovative Intervention Aimed at Reducing Binge Drinking among Young People: Results from a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a digital-story intervention (short videos made by young people) seeking to reduce the prevalence of young people's binge drinking in Caerphilly. Method: A quasi-experimental design was adopted with three intervention sites and one control site providing the sample (mainly aged 14-15 years). Three rounds of…

Coleman, Lester; Ramm, Josephine; Cooke, Richard

2010-01-01

47

A Multifaceted Social Norms Approach To Reduce High-Risk Drinking: Lessons from Hobart and Williams Smith Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Hobart and William Smith Colleges Alcohol Education Project (HWS) began in 1996 to test the social norms approach to reducing alcohol use by students. A social norms approach works on the premise that misperceived norms, perceptions that usually exaggerate what is typical for other students, lead to increased drinking as students attempt to…

Perkins, H. Wesley; Craig, David W.

48

Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists reduce ethanol self-administration in high-drinking rodent models.  

PubMed

To examine the role of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor activity on ethanol self-administration, compounds that differentially target orexin (OX) receptor subtypes were assessed in various self-administration paradigms using high-drinking rodent models. Effects of the OX1 antagonist SB334867, the OX2 antagonist LSN2424100, and the mixed OX1/2 antagonist almorexant (ACT-078573) on home cage ethanol consumption were tested in ethanol-preferring (P) rats using a 2-bottle choice procedure. In separate experiments, effects of SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant on operant ethanol self-administration were assessed in P rats maintained on a progressive ratio operant schedule of reinforcement. In a third series of experiments, SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant were administered to ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J mice to examine effects of OX receptor blockade on ethanol intake in a binge-like drinking (drinking-in-the-dark) model. In P rats with chronic home cage free-choice ethanol access, SB334867 and almorexant significantly reduced ethanol intake, but almorexant also reduced water intake, suggesting non-specific effects on consummatory behavior. In the progressive ratio operant experiments, LSN2424100 and almorexant reduced breakpoints and ethanol consumption in P rats, whereas the almorexant inactive enantiomer and SB334867 did not significantly affect the motivation to consume ethanol. As expected, vehicle-injected mice exhibited binge-like drinking patterns in the drinking-in-the-dark model. All three OX antagonists reduced both ethanol intake and resulting blood ethanol concentrations relative to vehicle-injected controls, but SB334867 and LSN2424100 also reduced sucrose consumption in a different cohort of mice, suggesting non-specific effects. Collectively, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence indicating that OX1 and OX2 receptor activity influences ethanol self-administration, although the effects may not be selective for ethanol consumption. PMID:24616657

Anderson, Rachel I; Becker, Howard C; Adams, Benjamin L; Jesudason, Cynthia D; Rorick-Kehn, Linda M

2014-01-01

49

Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.  

PubMed

Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

2012-12-01

50

Reducing heavy drinking in HIV primary care: a randomized trial of brief intervention, with and without technological enhancement  

PubMed Central

Aims In HIV-infected individuals, heavy drinking compromises survival. In HIV primary care, the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) to reduce drinking is unknown, alcohol-dependent patients may need greater intervention and resources are limited. Using interactive voice response (IVR) technology, HealthCall was designed to enhance MI via daily patient self-monitoring calls to an automated telephone system with personalized feedback. We tested the efficacy of MI-only and MI+HealthCall for drinking reduction among HIV primary care patients. Design Parallel random assignment to control (n = 88), MI-only (n = 82) or MI+HealthCall (n = 88). Counselors provided advice/education (control) or MI (MI-only or MI+HealthCall) at baseline. At 30 and 60 days (end-of-treatment), counselors briefly discussed drinking with patients, using HealthCall graphs with MI+HealthCall patients. Setting Large urban HIV primary care clinic. Participants Patients consuming ?4 drinks at least once in prior 30 days. Measurements Using time-line follow-back, primary outcome was number of drinks per drinking day, last 30 days. Findings End-of-treatment number of drinks per drinking day (NumDD) means were 4.75, 3.94 and 3.58 in control, MI-only and MI+HealthCall, respectively (overall model ?2, d.f. = 9.11,2, P = 0.01). For contrasts of NumDD, P = 0.01 for MI+HealthCall versus control; P = 0.07 for MI-only versus control; and P = 0.24 for MI+HealthCall versus MI-only. Secondary analysis indicated no intervention effects on NumDD among non-alcohol-dependent patients. However, for contrasts of NumDD among alcohol-dependent patients, P < 0.01 for MI+HealthCall versus control; P = 0.09 for MI-only versus control; and P = 0.03 for MI+HealthCall versus MI-only. By 12-month follow-up, although NumDD remained lower among alcohol-dependent patients in MI+HealthCall than others, effects were no longer significant. Conclusions For alcohol-dependent HIV patients, enhancing MI with HealthCall may offer additional benefit, without extensive additional staff involvement. PMID:23432593

Hasin, Deborah S.; Aharonovich, Efrat; O'Leary, Ann; Greenstein, Eliana; Pavlicova, Martina; Arunajadai, Srikesh; Waxman, Rachel; Wainberg, Milton; Helzer, John; Johnston, Barbara

2013-01-01

51

Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters  

EPA Science Inventory

Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

52

The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a U.S. College  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. PARTICIPANTS Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. METHODS Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum age drinking law (MADL). RESULTS In the short-term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. CONCLUSION These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MADLs simply lead to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse. PMID:23930747

Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

2013-01-01

53

Solar Drinking Water Disinfection (SODIS) to Reduce Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Bolivia: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost, point-of-use water purification method that has been disseminated globally. Laboratory studies suggest that SODIS is highly efficacious in inactivating waterborne pathogens. Previous field studies provided limited evidence for its effectiveness in reducing diarrhoea. Methods and Findings: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 rural communities in Bolivia to evaluate the

Daniel Mäusezahl; Andri Christen; Gonzalo Duran Pacheco; Fidel Alvarez Tellez; Mercedes Iriarte; Maria E. Zapata; Myriam Cevallos; Jan Hattendorf; Monica Daigl Cattaneo; Benjamin Arnold; Thomas A. Smith; John M. Colford Jr

2009-01-01

54

Acceptability of the use of Motivational Interviewing to reduce underage drinking in an Native American community  

PubMed Central

Thirty-six Native American tribal leaders and members living on contiguous rural Southwest California reservations were surveyed concerning their view of the acceptability of a Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention to youth (ages 8–18 years) who are drinking and their families. The results suggest that: (1) a substantial proportion of reservation youth would be willing to accept MI for behavior change; (2) relatively few are actually ready to change; (3) most reservation youth are in the pre-contemplation stage of change; and (4) MI may be well suited as an intervention to prevent underage drinking in that population. Supported by NIH. PMID:21210721

Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Calac, Daniel; Moore, Roland S.; Monti, Peter M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

2010-01-01

55

The 21st Birthday Party for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT); 21 years from 1988-2009; From concept to practical reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

IMRT is now a major clinical specialty. It is a form of conformal radiation therapy which is specifically tailored to create\\u000a a high-dose volume that matches the volumetric shape of the intended target region and simultaneously spares the nearby organs\\u000a at risk. It is particularly competent for treating head-and-neck cancers, prostate, lung, breast and other targets where adjacent\\u000a organs at

S. Webb

56

Perceptions of adult trauma patients on the acceptability of text messaging as an aid to reduce harmful drinking behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background Brief interventions (BIs) have been shown to be effective in modifying hazardous drinking behaviours in a range of settings. However, they are underutilised in hospitals due to resource constraints. We explored the perspectives of admitted trauma patients about the appeal, acceptability and content of a Brief Intervention (BI) delivered via text messages. Methods Thirty mobile phone users (?16 years old) admitted to Auckland City Hospital as a result of injury were recruited (December 2010 – January 2011). Participants were interviewed face-to-face during their hospital stay using a semi-structured interview guide that explored topics including perceptions of the proposed intervention to reduce hazardous drinking and related harm, and perceived acceptability of an m-health program. Where issues relating to content of messages were raised by participants these were also captured. In addition, a brief survey captured information on demographic information, mobile phone usage and type of phone, along with the frequency of alcohol use. Results 22 of the 30 participants were male, and almost half were aged 20 to 39 years. The majority of participants identified as New Zealand Europeans, six as M?ori (New Zealand's indigenous population) and of the remainder two each identified as Pacific and of Asian ethnicity. Most (28/30) participants used a mobile phone daily. 18 participants were deemed to be drinking in a non-hazardous manner, seven were hazardous drinkers, and three were non-drinkers. Most participants (21/30) indicated that text messages could be effective in reducing hazardous drinking and related harms, with more than half (17/30) signalling they would sign-up. Factors identified that would increase receptiveness included: awareness that the intervention was evidence-based; participants readiness-to-change; informative messages that include the consequences of drinking and practical advice; non-judgemental messages; and ease-of-use. Areas of potential concern included: confidentiality and frequency of messages. The cultural relevance of the messages for M?ori was highlighted as important. Conclusions This study indicates that trauma patients recognize potential benefits of mobile-health interventions designed to reduce hazardous drinking. The feedback provided will inform the development of an intervention to be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:24387293

2014-01-01

57

Integrating mHealth Mobile Applications to Reduce High Risk Drinking among Underage Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: College students embrace mobile cell phones (MCPs) as a primary communication and entertainment device. The aim of this study was to investigate college students' perceptions toward using mHealth technology to deliver interventions to prevent high-risk drinking and associated consequences. Design/setting: Four focus group…

Kazemi, Donna M.; Cochran, Allyson R.; Kelly, John F.; Cornelius, Judith B.; Belk, Catherine

2014-01-01

58

A Group Motivational Interviewing Intervention Reduces Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences in Adjudicated College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effectiveness of a single-session group motivational enhancement intervention with college students adjudicated for violation of alcohol policy. The intervention consisted of a timeline Followback assessment of drinking, social norms re-education, decisional balance for behavior change, relapse prevention, expectancy…

LaBrie, Joseph W.; Lamb, Toby F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Quinlan, Thomas

2006-01-01

59

Reducing youth alcohol drinking through a parent-targeted intervention: the Örebro Prevention Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To evaluate a 2.5-year prevention programme working through parents, targeting drinking among 13-16-year-olds. Design Quasi-experimental using matched controls with a pre-post, intention-to-treat design. Setting Schools located in inner city, public housing and small town areas. Participants A total of 900 pupils entering junior high school and their parents, followed longitudinally. Intervention Parents received information by mail and during parent

Nikolaus Koutakis; Håkan Stattin; Margaret Kerr

2008-01-01

60

The development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: an Intervention Mapping approach.  

PubMed

In the Netherlands, young adults' drinking practices have become an issue of public concern since their drinking levels are high. Heavy drinking can place young adults at an increased risk for developing short- and long-term health-related problems. Current national alcohol prevention programmes focus mainly on adolescents and their parents and paying less systematic attention to young adults. The present study describes the theory and evidence-based development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention entitled What Do You Drink (WDYD). We applied the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to combine theory and evidence in the development and implementation of WDYD. The WDYD intervention aims to detect and reduce heavy drinking of young adults who are willing to decrease their alcohol consumption, preferably below the Dutch guidelines of low-risk drinking. According to the IM protocol, the development of WDYD resulted in a structured intervention. Reducing heavy drinking to low-risk drinking was proposed as the behavioural outcome. Motivational interviewing principles and parts of the I-Change Model were used as methods in the development of WDYD, whereas computer tailoring was selected as main strategy. An effect and a process evaluation of the intervention will be conducted. IM was found to be a practical instrument for developing the WDYD intervention tailored to a specific target population in the area of alcohol prevention. PMID:23525645

Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

2014-12-01

61

Underage Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... to Reduce and Prevent Underage Drinking. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2004. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. The DAWN Report: Highlights ...

62

Evaluating rain gardens as a method to reduce the impact of sewer overflows in sources of drinking water.  

PubMed

The implications of climate change and changing precipitation patterns need to be investigated to evaluate mitigation measures for source water protection. Potential solutions need first to be evaluated under present climate conditions to determine their utility as climate change adaptation strategies. An urban drainage network receiving both stormwater and wastewater was studied to evaluate potential solutions to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in a drinking water source. A detailed hydraulic model was applied to the drainage basin to model the implementation of best management practices at a drainage basin scale. The model was calibrated and validated with field data of CSO flows for seven events from a survey conducted in 2009 and 2010. Rain gardens were evaluated for their reduction of volumes of water entering the drainage network and of CSOs. Scenarios with different levels of implementation were considered and evaluated. Of the total impervious area within the basin directly connected to the sewer system, a maximum of 21% could be alternately directed towards rain gardens. The runoff reductions for the entire catchment ranged from 12.7% to 19.4% depending on the event considered. The maximum discharged volume reduction ranged from 13% to 62% and the maximum peak flow rate reduction ranged from 7% to 56%. Of concern is that in-sewer sediment resuspension is an important process to consider with regard to the efficacy of best management practices aimed at reducing extreme loads and concentrations. Rain gardens were less effective for large events, which are of greater importance for drinking water sources. These practices could increase peak instantaneous loads as a result of greater in-sewer resuspension during large events. Multiple interventions would be required to achieve the objectives of reducing the number, total volumes and peak contaminant loads of overflows upstream of drinking water intakes. PMID:25192930

Autixier, Laurène; Mailhot, Alain; Bolduc, Samuel; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

2014-11-15

63

A test of the efficacy of a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention to reduce drinking among 9th grade students.  

PubMed

Alcohol use increases substantially during the transition from middle school to high school. This study tested a brief, web-based personalized feedback program aimed at reducing risk factors for drinking, alcohol use, and alcohol-related consequences among 9th grade students. At a 3-month follow-up, students in the intervention group showed positive results relative to those in the control group on variables associated with reduced risk, including positive alcohol expectancies and positive beliefs about alcohol. Students in the intervention group also reported a reduction in drinking frequency and alcohol-related consequences relative to those in the control group. There were, however, no differences in normative beliefs regarding peer drinking or quantity of weekly drinking between the two groups. Results indicate that a brief, web-based personalized normative feedback program delivered in the school setting is a promising approach to reducing alcohol use and the associated consequences among 9th grade students. PMID:24148137

Doumas, Diana M; Esp, Susan; Turrisi, Rob; Hausheer, Robin; Cuffee, Courtney

2014-01-01

64

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Rich

2010-09-30

65

Alcohol facts labels on Four Loko: Will the Federal Trade Commission's order be effective in reducing hazardous drinking among underage youth?  

PubMed

Abstract Underage drinking accounts for 4400 alcohol-attributable deaths in the US each year. After several reports of the deaths of young people due to the consumption of the flavored-alcoholic beverage (FAB) Four Loko, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) examined whether Phusion Projects violated federal law by using deceptive marketing. In 2013, the FTC responded by ordering alcohol facts labels on Four Loko disclosing the number of standard drinks contained in the product. This paper aims to discuss whether the FTC's order for alcohol facts labels on Four Loko cans will effectively reduce the hazardous consumption of FABs among youth. The authors discuss the existing research that relates to the FTC's order, including studies on the effectiveness of serving size labeling for reducing youth drinking, research on the brand-specific consumption of FABs among underage youth, and the associations between youth drinking and exposure to alcohol marketing. After synthesizing the evidence, the authors conclude that simply requiring the disclosure of the number of standard drinks on supersized Four Loko cans is not likely to adequately address the hazardous consumption of this beverage among underage drinkers. Instead, if the FTC addresses the marketing of these products and its potential to encourage the excessive use of alcohol, as the Attorneys General did recently in a settlement with the same company, it is possible that there would be a greater impact on reducing youth alcohol consumption. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of alcohol facts labels in changing underage drinking behaviors. PMID:25265094

Esser, Marissa B; Siegel, Michael

2014-11-01

66

Effects of A 2.5-Year Campus-Wide Intervention to Reduce College Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study reports on the results of a 2.5-year college-wide, coordinated intervention that was implemented from June 2007 to December 2009 to reduce the amount and frequency of students' alcohol consumption. Design: Quasi-experimental study using a one-group (freshmen living on campus) pretest/posttest design ("N"…

Seo, Dong-Chul; Owens, Dee; Gassman, Ruth; Kingori, Caroline

2013-01-01

67

Chlorination and safe storage of household drinking water in developing countries to reduce waterborne disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple, effective and affordable methods are needed to treat and safely store non-piped, gathered household water. This study evaluated point-of-use chlorination and storage in special plastic containers of gathered household water for improving microbial quality and reducing diarrhoeal illness of consumers living under conditions of poor sanitation and hygiene. Community families were recruited and randomly divided into intervention (household water

M. D. Sobsey; T. Handzel; L. Venczel

68

Effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing drinking and driving and alcohol-involved crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic review of the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). In eight studies that met quality criteria for inclusion in the review, the median decrease in alcohol-related crashes resulting from the campaigns was 13% (interquartile range: 6% to 14%). Economic analyses

Randy W Elder; Ruth A Shults; David A Sleet; James L Nichols; Robert S Thompson; Warda Rajab

2004-01-01

69

Hydrogen in Drinking Water Reduces Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that molecular hydrogen (H2) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant and suppresses brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we show that drinking H2-containing water significantly reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD model mice using both acute and chronic administration of

Kyota Fujita; Toshihiro Seike; Noriko Yutsudo; Mizuki Ohno; Hidetaka Yamada; Hiroo Yamaguchi; Kunihiko Sakumi; Yukiko Yamakawa; Mizuho A. Kido; Atsushi Takaki; Toshihiko Katafuchi; Yoshinori Tanaka; Yusaku Nakabeppu; Mami Noda

2009-01-01

70

Solar Drinking Water Disinfection (SODIS) to Reduce Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Bolivia: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daniel Maeusezahl and colleagues conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bolivia of solar drinking water disinfection, and find only moderate compliance with the intervention and no evidence of reduction in diarrhea among children.

Daniel Mäusezahl; Andri Christen; Gonzalo Duran Pacheco; Fidel Alvarez Tellez; Mercedes Iriarte; Maria E. Zapata; Myriam Cevallos; Jan Hattendorf; Monica Daigl Cattaneo; Benjamin Arnold; Thomas A. Smith; John M. Colford

2009-01-01

71

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Motivational Interviewing With Feedback to Reduce Drinking Among a Sample of College Students  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of combining motivational interviewing with feedback to address heavy drinking among university freshmen. Method: Microcosting methods were used in a prospective cost and cost-effectiveness study of a randomized trial of assessment only (AO), motivational interviewing (MI), feedback only (FB), and motivational interviewing with feedback (MIFB) at a large public university in the southeastern United States. Students were recruited and screened into the study during freshman classes based on recent heavy drinking. A total of 727 students (60% female) were randomized, and 656 had sufficient data at 3-months’ follow-up to be included in the cost-effectiveness analysis. Effectiveness outcomes were changes in average drinks per drinking occasion and number of heavy drinking occasions. Results: Mean intervention costs per student were $16.51 for MI, $17.33 for FB, and $36.03 for MIFB. Cost-effectiveness analysis showed two cost-effective interventions for both outcomes: AO ($0 per student) and MIFB ($36 per student). Conclusions: This is the first prospective cost-effectiveness study to our knowledge to examine MI for heavy drinking among students in a university setting. Despite being the most expensive intervention, MIFB was the most effective intervention and may be a cost-effective intervention, depending on a university’s willingness to pay for changes in the considered outcomes. PMID:22333330

Cowell, Alexander J.; Brown, Janice M.; Mills, Michael J.; Bender, Randall H.; Wedehase, Brendan J.

2012-01-01

72

Solar Drinking Water Disinfection (SODIS) to Reduce Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Bolivia: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost, point-of-use water purification method that has been disseminated globally. Laboratory studies suggest that SODIS is highly efficacious in inactivating waterborne pathogens. Previous field studies provided limited evidence for its effectiveness in reducing diarrhoea. Methods and Findings We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 rural communities in Bolivia to evaluate the effect of SODIS in reducing diarrhoea among children under the age of 5 y. A local nongovernmental organisation conducted a standardised interactive SODIS-promotion campaign in 11 communities targeting households, communities, and primary schools. Mothers completed a daily child health diary for 1 y. Within the intervention arm 225 households (376 children) were trained to expose water-filled polyethyleneteraphtalate bottles to sunlight. Eleven communities (200 households, 349 children) served as a control. We recorded 166,971 person-days of observation during the trial representing 79.9% and 78.9% of the total possible person-days of child observation in intervention and control arms, respectively. Mean compliance with SODIS was 32.1%. The reported incidence rate of gastrointestinal illness in children in the intervention arm was 3.6 compared to 4.3 episodes/year at risk in the control arm. The relative rate of diarrhoea adjusted for intracluster correlation was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.59–1.12). The median length of diarrhoea was 3 d in both groups. Conclusions Despite an extensive SODIS promotion campaign we found only moderate compliance with the intervention and no strong evidence for a substantive reduction in diarrhoea among children. These results suggest that there is a need for better evidence of how the well-established laboratory efficacy of this home-based water treatment method translates into field effectiveness under various cultural settings and intervention intensities. Further global promotion of SODIS for general use should be undertaken with care until such evidence is available. Trial Registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00731497 Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary PMID:19688036

Mausezahl, Daniel; Christen, Andri; Pacheco, Gonzalo Duran; Tellez, Fidel Alvarez; Iriarte, Mercedes; Zapata, Maria E.; Cevallos, Myriam; Hattendorf, Jan; Cattaneo, Monica Daigl; Arnold, Benjamin; Smith, Thomas A.; Colford, John M.

2009-01-01

73

ETHANOL DRINKING REDUCES EXTRACELLULAR DOPAMINE LEVELS IN THE POSTERIOR VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA OF NONDEPENDENT ALCOHOL-PREFERRING P RATS  

PubMed Central

Moderate ethanol exposure produces neuroadaptive changes in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system in nondependent rats, and increases measures of dopamine neuronal activity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, moderate ethanol drinking and moderate systemic exposure elevates extracellular dopamine levels in mesocorticolimbic projection regions. However, the neuroadaptive changes subsequent to moderate ethanol drinking on basal dopamine levels have not been investigated in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In the current study, adult female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were divided into alcohol-naïve, alcohol drinking, and alcohol deprived groups. The alcohol drinking group had continuous access to water and ethanol (15%, v/v) for 8 weeks. The alcohol deprived group had 6 weeks of access followed by 2 weeks of ethanol deprivation, 2 weeks of ethanol re-exposure, followed again by 2 weeks of deprivation. The deprived rats demonstrated a robust alcohol deprivation effect upon ethanol reinstatement. The alcohol-naïve group had continuous access to water only. In the last week of the drinking protocol, all rats were implanted with unilateral microdialysis probes aimed at the posterior VTA and no-net-flux microdialysis was conducted to quantify extracellular dopamine levels and dopamine clearance. Results yielded significantly lower basal extracellular dopamine concentrations in the posterior VTA of the alcohol drinking group compared to the alcohol naive and alcohol deprived groups (3.8 ± 0.3 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 [p < 0.02] and 4.8 ± 0.4 nM, [p < 0.05], respectively). Extraction fractions were significantly (p < 0.0002) different between the alcohol drinking and alcohol naive groups (72 ± 2 vs. 46 ± 4%, respectively) and not significantly different (p = 0.051) between alcohol deprived and alcohol naive groups (61 ± 6% for the alcohol deprived group). The data indicate that reductions in basal DA levels within the posterior VTA occur after moderate chronic ethanol intake in nondependent P rats. This reduction may result, in part, from increased DA uptake and may be important for the maintenance of ethanol drinking. These adaptations normalize with ethanol deprivation and may not contribute to the alcohol deprivation effect. PMID:21827929

Engleman, Eric A.; Keen, Elizabeth J.; Tilford, Sydney S.; Thielen, Richard J.; Morzorati, Sandra L.

2011-01-01

74

Binge drinking in Europe.  

PubMed

Binge drinking is a pattern of heavy drinking which is observed all over Europe. The term Binge drinking implies a lot of different meanings to different people. The most popular definition used for this term is five or more 'standard drinks' in a single occasion. Binge drinking is different from intoxication, although this kind of heavy alcohol consumption can be lead to intoxication. This condition is manifested by different signs, for example slurred speech. Binge drinking is very common among the European population. In 2006 some 80 million Europeans aged 15 plus reported this kind of alcohol consumption patterns. European surveys showed that there is an increase of binge drinking across Europe amongst young people (15-16 years) old since 1995. The consequences of binge drinking contain acute and chronic effects, which are caused by long term alcohol use. The individual risks are brain damage, suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. It has also an impact on harm to others than the drinkers. This includes violence and crime, accidents, etc. Each year in the European Union 2000 homicides are related to heavy drinking. There a lot of effective measures to reduce binge drinking. Strong evidence is shown by drink-driving laws, tax, reduced access to and availability of alcohol, brief interventions such as physician advice and advertising controls. PMID:18173097

Farke, Walter; Anderson, Peter

2007-01-01

75

The Sonoma Water Evaluation Trial (SWET): A randomized drinking water intervention trial to reduce gastrointestinal illness in older adults  

EPA Science Inventory

Objectives. We estimate the risk of highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) among adults 55 and older in a community drinking tap water meeting current U.S. standards. Methods. We conducted a randomized, triple-blinded, crossover trial in 714 households (988 indiv...

76

Reducing Heavy Drinking Among First Year Intercollegiate Athletes: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Web-Based Normative Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of a web-based personalized normative feedback program targeting heavy drinking in first-year intercollegiate athletes. The program was offered through the Athletic Department first-year seminar at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university. Athletes were randomly assigned to either a web-based feedback group or a comparison condition. Results indicated high-risk athletes receiving the intervention

Diana M. Doumas; Tonya Haustveit; Kenneth M. Coll

2010-01-01

77

1.5 V battery driven reduced graphene oxide-silver nanostructure coated carbon foam (rGO-Ag-CF) for the purification of drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A porous carbon foam (CF) electrode modified with a reduced graphene oxide-Ag (rGO-Ag) nanocomposite has been fabricated to purify water. It can perform as an antibacterial device by killing pathogenic microbes with the aid of a 1.5 V battery, with very little power consumption. The device is recycled ten times with good performance for long term usage. It is shown that the device may be implemented as a fast water purifier to deactivate the pathogens in drinking water.

Kumar, Surender; Ghosh, Somnath; Munichandraiah, N.; Vasan, H. N.

2013-06-01

78

Drinking Water Problems: Copper  

E-print Network

management strategy, consider treating your water or seeking an alternative drink- ing-water supply such as bottled water. Treatment options for reducing copper concentrations in water include (1) reverse osmosis, (2) distillation or (3) ion exchange. Reverse... management strategy, consider treating your water or seeking an alternative drink- ing-water supply such as bottled water. Treatment options for reducing copper concentrations in water include (1) reverse osmosis, (2) distillation or (3) ion exchange. Reverse...

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2006-01-25

79

The Sonoma Water Evaluation Trial: A Randomized Drinking Water Intervention Trial to Reduce Gastrointestinal Illness in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We estimated the relative rate of highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) per year associated with active versus sham household water filtration devices among older adults in a community receiving tap water meeting current US standards. Methods. We conducted a randomized, triple-blinded, crossover trial in 714 households (988 individuals), which used active and sham water filtration devices for 6 months each. We estimated the annual incidence rate ratio of HCGI episodes and the longitudinal prevalence ratio of HCGI days at population and individual levels with a generalized estimating equation (GEE) and generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs), respectively, adjusted for covariates associated with outcome. Results. The incidence rate ratios (active versus sham) were 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77, 1.00) and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.76, 0.94) HCGI episodes per year estimated by GEE and GLMM models, respectively. The corresponding longitudinal prevalence ratios were 0.88 (95% CI = 0.74, 1.05) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.78, 0.90) HCGI days per person per year. Conclusions. We observed reductions in population- and individual-level measures of HCGI associated with use of the active filtration device. These findings suggest the need for further research on the impact of drinking water on the health of sensitive subpopulations. PMID:19762663

Hilton, Joan F.; Wright, Catherine C.; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Saha, Sona; Wade, Timothy J.; Scott, James; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

2009-01-01

80

Underage Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol is the most widely abused substance among America's youth. Drinking by young people has big health ... interfere with brain development Increases the risk of alcohol problems later in life Kids often begin drinking ...

81

Binge Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... more serious and longer-lasting risks as well. Alcohol Poisoning Alcohol poisoning is the most life-threatening consequence of ... drinking. When someone drinks too much and gets alcohol poisoning, it affects the body's involuntary reflexes — including ...

82

Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns for Reducing Drinking and Driving and Alcohol-Involved Crashes A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic review of the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol- impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). In eight studies that met quality criteria for inclusion in the review, the median decrease in alcohol-related crashes resulting from the campaigns was 13% (interquartile range: 6% to 14%). Economic

Randy W. Elder; Ruth A. Shults; David A. Sleet; James L. Nichols; Robert S. Thompson; Warda Rajab

2004-01-01

83

Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N = 454: web-based brief alcohol intervention) or control condition (N = 454: no intervention). The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention. We expect a reduction of mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking in the experimental condition compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. If the website is effective, it will be implemented in alcohol prevention initiatives, which will facilitate the implementation of the protocol. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2665. PMID:21492412

2011-01-01

84

How To Reduce High-Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies, Fill Research Gaps. Final Report of the Panel on Prevention and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol on college campuses is not a new problem, but recent concerns have centered on heavy episodic drinking, binge drinking. To address these concerns, the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established two panels of nongovernment experts to help develop a national research agenda. This report represents the work of the…

National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

85

Does the minimum drinking age affect traffic fatalities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1970s numerous states have raised their minimum legal drinking age in an effort to reduce alcohol-related traffic accidents. This study examines determinants of a variety of traffic fatality rates at the state level for 1978, with particular attention to drinking age and drinking experience. The legal drinking age has no perceptible influence on fatalities, but inexperience in drinking

Peter Asch; David T. Levy

1987-01-01

86

Community organizing goes to college: A practice-based model of community organizing to implement environmental strategies to reduce high-risk drinking on college campuses  

PubMed Central

Community organizing is a successful method to leverage resources and build community capacity to identify and intervene upon health issues. However, published accounts documenting the systematic facilitation of the process are limited. This qualitative analysis explored community organizing using data collected as part of the Study to Prevent Alcohol Related Consequences (SPARC), a randomized community trial of 10 North Carolina colleges focused on reducing consequences of high-risk drinking among college students. We sought to develop and confirm use of a community-organizing model, based in practice, illustrating an authentic process of organizing campus and community stakeholders for public health change. Using the grounded theory approach, we analyzed and interpreted data from three waves of individual interviews with full-time community organizers on five SPARC intervention campuses. A five-phase community-organizing model was developed and its use was confirmed. This model may serve as a practical guide for public health interventions utilizing community-organizing approaches. PMID:20530638

Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lentz, Ashley W.; Wolfson, Mark

2013-01-01

87

The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men*  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct and indirect effects on adolescent drinking and driving as well as whether they moderate the effect of adolescent drinking on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Methods The assessment is conducted using data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM) with Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression analyses. Results The data reveal that peer drinking has direct and indirect effects on adolescent drinking-and-driving behavior when adolescent drinking behavior is controlled. It also moderates the effect of adolescent drinking behavior on their drinking and driving. However, parental drinking does not have these direct and interactive effects, although it may have an indirect effect on adolescent drinking and driving via adolescent drinking behavior. Conclusions These findings imply that peer drinking behavior should be considered seriously in prevention and intervention for reducing the risk of adolescent drinking-and-driving behavior. PMID:23705513

Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

2013-01-01

88

Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...

89

Drinking motives, drinking restraint and drinking behaviour among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motives to drink alcohol are widely thought to be the proximal cognitive factors involved in the decision to consume alcohol beverages. However it has also been argued that the ability to restrain drinking may be a more proximal predictor of drinking behaviour. The current study aimed to examine the relationships between drinking motives, drinking restraint and both alcohol consumption and

Michael Lyvers; Penelope Hasking; Riana Hani; Madolyn Rhodes; Emily Trew

2010-01-01

90

A protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce exposure to lead through consumer products and drinking water  

PubMed Central

Background The toxic heavy metal lead continues to be a leading environmental risk factor, with the number of attributable deaths having doubled between 1990 and 2010. Although major sources of lead exposure, in particular lead in petrol, have been significantly reduced in recent decades, lead is still used in a wide range of processes and objects, with developing countries disproportionally affected. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of regulatory, environmental and educational interventions for reducing blood lead levels and associated health outcomes in children, pregnant women and the general population. Methods/design The databases MEDLINE, Embase and the Global Health Library (GHL) will be searched using a sensitive search strategy. Studies in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian or Afrikaans will be screened according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We will consider randomized and non-randomized studies accepted by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) Group, as well as additional non-randomized studies. Screening of titles and abstracts will be performed by one author. Full texts of potentially relevant studies will be independently assessed for eligibility by two authors. A single author will extract data, with a second reviewer checking the extraction form. Risk of bias will be assessed by two researchers using the Graphical Appraisal Tool for Epidemiological studies, as modified by the Centre for Public Health at the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Any inconsistencies in the assessment of eligibility, data extraction or quality appraisal will be resolved through discussion. Where two or more studies report the primary outcome blood lead levels within the same population group, intervention category and source of lead exposure, data will be pooled using random effects meta-analysis. In parallel, harvest plots as a graphical method of evidence synthesis will be used to present findings for blood lead levels and secondary outcomes. Discussion This systematic review will fill an important evidence gap with respect to the effectiveness of interventions to reduce lead in consumer products and drinking water in the context of new WHO guidelines for the prevention and management of lead poisoning. It will also contribute to setting a future research agenda. PMID:24731516

2014-01-01

91

Drinking water and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water. PMID:8741788

Morris, R D

1995-01-01

92

Acamprosate {monocalcium bis(3-acetamidopropane-1-sulfonate)} reduces ethanol-drinking behavior in rats and glutamate-induced toxicity in ethanol-exposed primary rat cortical neuronal cultures.  

PubMed

Acamprosate, the calcium salt of bis(3-acetamidopropane-1-sulfonate), contributes to the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients, but its mechanism of action in the central nervous system is unclear. Here, we report the effect of acamprosate on ethanol-drinking behavior in standard laboratory Wistar rats, including voluntary ethanol consumption and the ethanol-deprivation effect. After forced ethanol consumption arranged by the provision of only one drinking bottle containing 10% ethanol, the rats were given a choice between two drinking bottles, one containing water and the other containing 10% ethanol. In rats selected for high ethanol preference, repeated oral administration of acamprosate diminished voluntary ethanol drinking. After three months of continuous access to two bottles, rats were deprived of ethanol for three days and then presented with two bottles again. After ethanol deprivation, ethanol preference was increased, and the increase was largely abolished by acamprosate. After exposure of primary neuronal cultures of rat cerebral cortex to ethanol for four days, neurotoxicity, as measured by the extracellular leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), was induced by incubation with glutamate for 1h followed by incubation in the absence of ethanol for 24h. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blocker 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]-cyclohepten-5,10-imine, the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine and the voltage-gated calcium-channel blocker nifedipine all inhibited glutamate-induced LDH leakage from ethanol-exposed neurons. Acamprosate inhibited the glutamate-induced LDH leakage from ethanol-exposed neurons more strongly than that from intact neurons. In conclusion, acamprosate showed effective reduction of drinking behavior in rats and protected ethanol-exposed neurons by multiple blocking of glutamate signaling. PMID:24012782

Oka, Michiko; Hirouchi, Masaaki; Tamura, Masaru; Sugahara, Seishi; Oyama, Tatsuya

2013-10-15

93

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING DELIVERED BY YOUTH WORKERS IN REDUCING DRINKING, CIGARETTE AND CANNABIS SMOKING AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE: QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL PILOT STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To test whether a single session of Motivational Interviewing (MI) focussing on drinking alcohol, and cigarette and cannabis smoking, would successfully lead to reductions in use or problems. Methods: Naturalistic quasi-experimental study, in 162 young people (mean age 17 years) who were daily cigarette smokers, weekly drinkers or weekly cannabis smokers, comparing 59 receiving MI with 103 non-intervention assessment-only

EMILY GRAY; JIM MCCAMBRIDGE; JOHN STRANG

2005-01-01

94

Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of “binge drinking” on college campuses. However, such a policy change would remove one of the

Drew K. Saylor

2011-01-01

95

Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…

Saylor, Drew K.

2011-01-01

96

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-print Network

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20

97

It's Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... drinking water program. Many are available via the Internet. Call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) ... been meeting drinking water safety standards, on the Internet at: www.epa.gov/safewater/dwinfo.htm DETERMINING ...

98

[Microbiological research methods of drinking water regulation in West Germany from 1986. Suitability of the specifications of DIN 38411, Part 7, for the detection of sulfite-reducing, spore-forming anaerobes (Clostridia)].  

PubMed

The drinking-water regulations of the Federal Republic of Germany, from 22.05.1986, contains in paragraph 1 the instructions: "Drinking-water must be free of pathogens", and further in paragraph 11, "Responsibilities of the employer or other owner of a water supplying facility", include that: "The official authority may direct, that the employer...of a water supplying facility has to extend or has to cause to extend the microbiological examinations in order to determine, that...sulfite-reducing, spore-forming anaerobes (Clostridia) can not be detected in 20 ml of water..." The drinking-water regulations do not prescribe a bacteriological examination method in detail. Appendix 1 rules only that the examination for sulfite-reducing, spore-forming anaerobes (Clostridia) has to be performed after heating the sample to 75 degrees C (+/- 5 degrees C) for 10 min, by either the multiple-tube or membrane filtration method and cultivation in DRCM1-medium. If growth occurs, the presence of Clostridia must be confirmed by anaerobic and aerobic subcultivation. Furthermore, a DIN-instruction (DIN 38411, part 7) exists, which prescribes a detailed procedure for multiple-tube and membrane filtration methods, but does not provide for strict anaerobiosis. We were, however, unable to detect Clostridia in a multitude of water samples with the methods of the DIN-regulation. In order to examine if neglect of strict anaerobiosis was the reason for these failures, we checked the suitability of the DIN-regulation for the isolation of Clostridia from drinking water. In preliminary tests we examined up to four strains of the species C. botulinum, C. cadaveris, C. cochlearium, C. difficile, C. innocuum, C. perfringens and C. tertium for their ability to form heat-resistent spores in four sporulation media. It was, however, not possible to find a medium, in which all strains could sporulate within one week. In order to characterize the detection of these anaerobes in water, one particularly well-sporulating strain of each of the following, C. cadaveris, C. difficile and C. perfringens, was selected and the multiple-tube and membrane-filtration methods were compared. Counts of C. difficile and C. perfringens detected by the multiple-tube method were identical with counts of test-suspensions determinded by the most probable number (MPN) method. It was found to be decisive that only freshly prepared DRCM-medium be used and that, disagreeing with the DIN-instruction, cultivation at 37 degrees C is continued for at least four days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2897749

Schneider, J; Edenharder, R; Borneff, J

1988-01-01

99

Parenthood, drinking locations and heavy drinking.  

PubMed

This study tests the hypothesis that the relationship between parenthood and heavy drinking is mediated by drinking locations. The analysis is based on a random sample of 4180 female and 3630 male Canadian drinkers aged between 18 and 55 years old. A multiple mediator model is tested. Results show that the parental role may be associated with variation in where people drink, and where people drink may be associated with variation in heavy drinking. For women, parenthood is related to a reduction in heavy drinking associated with a reduction of drinking occasions that occur at bars, offset to some extent by the fact that drinking in restaurants is also less common among mothers than non-mothers. For men, parenthood is related to a reduction in heavy drinking partly because fathers more often drink at friends' homes and the proportion of drinking occasions that occur at bars is smaller among fathers than non-fathers. The results of this study correspond with a refined version of the opportunity perspective. Given the nature of the processes by which parenthood is related to heavy drinking, alcohol consumption needs to be understood through a perspective that includes both individual and contextual factors. PMID:21454004

Paradis, Catherine

2011-04-01

100

Measuring College Student Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the feasibility of a Composite Drinking Scale (CDS) designed to capture fully the phenomenon of problem drinking among college students while allowing easy public understanding. A survey conducted at 32 four-year U.S. colleges included four consumption measures: 30-day frequency; average number of drinks per week; number of drinks usually consumed when partying; and greatest number of drinks

Jiun-Hau Huang; William Dejong; Shari Kessel Schneider; Laura Gomberg Towvim

2006-01-01

101

Natural drinking strategies  

E-print Network

We examine the fluid mechanics of drinking in nature. We classify the drinking strategies of a broad range of creatures according to the principal forces involved, and present physical pictures for each style. Simple scaling ...

Kim, Wonjung

102

AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

103

Energy Drinks. Prevention Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink consumption and…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

2010-01-01

104

Distinguishing between Positive and Negative Social Bonding in Problem Drinking among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To reduce problem drinking, interventions must be directed toward those factors associated with problem drinking. Purpose: This study examined how perceptions of the role of alcohol related to problem drinking among a convenience sample of 301 college students. Methods: Fifteen items concerned with drinking behavior or perceptions…

Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Hussain, Mohammad

2010-01-01

105

Ceramic filters for purifying drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic filters made of A12O3 and TiC for purifying drinking water are described. A study conducted by the ROSA analytic center shows that the filters\\u000a quite efficiently clean drinking water of an elevated content of Fe, Mn, Ba, Ce, Zn, U, and other elements contained in it.\\u000a The filters also reduce the content of dissolved organic carbon and some toxic

Zh. Matcheré; A. G. Mirzhanov; I. P. Borovinskaya; V. N. Prusakov; A. V. Zagnit’ko; N. M. Trotsenko; V. I. Uvarov; A. V. Chamaev; E. S. Lukin

1999-01-01

106

Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent\\u000a need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the\\u000a Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in\\u000a this protocol will test the effectiveness of

Carmen V Voogt; Evelien AP Poelen; Marloes Kleinjan; Lex ACJ Lemmers; Rutger CME Engels

2011-01-01

107

Quality of Drinking Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

108

Drinking Water and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

109

Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates  

E-print Network

High levels of nitrates in drinking water can be harmful for very young infants and susceptible adults. This publication explains how people are exposed to nitrates, what health effects are caused by them in drinking water and how to remove them....

Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-03-28

110

Nanoparticles in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic nanoparticles are increasingly being used in everyday products, but little is known about environmental releases of these materials. Our knowledge of how many natural nanoparticles occur in drinking water is also inadequate. An initial assessment is presented here. Drinking water is clear, and yet it contains millions of particles. Substances are described as particulate - as opposed to dissolved

Ralf Kaegi

111

The Drinking Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

Poe, Marshall

2010-01-01

112

Normative Misperceptions of Drinking Among College Students: A Look at the Specific Contexts of Prepartying and Drinking Games*  

PubMed Central

Objective In the collegiate context, misperceptions of student drinking norms are among the most salient predictors of heavy drinking, Despite overall overestimations of peer alcohol use, misperceptions of context-specific behaviors have been infrequently studied. The present study examines students' perceptions of the high-risk behaviors of prepartying and drinking games and investigates the relationship between perceived and actual behaviors. Method A sample of 524 college students completed an online assessment of actual and perceived alcohol use related to prepartying and drinking games. Quantity and frequency of overall drinking, prepartying, and drinking games were assessed for perceptions of all students at the university, as well as for male and female students separately. Questions also assessed participants' overall drinking, prepartying, and drinking game behaviors. Results Participants significantly overestimated the prepartying and drinking game behaviors of all students, male students, and female students at their university. For men, perceptions of same-sex prepartying quantity and drinking game frequency and quantity were associated with actual behavior. For women, perceptions of both same-sex and other-sex prepartying quantity were associated with actual behavior. Conclusions These findings provide preliminary support for the association between context-specific perceived norms and actual prepartying and drinking game behaviors. Addressing these same-sex and opposite-sex norms during interventions may help students reduce their own engagement in these risky behaviors PMID:18432383

Pedersen, Eric R.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

2014-01-01

113

GEOCHEMISTRY OF SULFUR IN IRON CORROSION SCALES FOUND IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Iron-sulfur geochemistry is important in many natural and engineered environments, including drinking water systems. In the anaerobic environment beneath scales of corroding iron drinking water distribution system pipes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulfide from natu...

114

Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a pa

Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

2010-12-01

115

Underage Drinking and the Drinking Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of underage drinking on college campuses has been brewing for many years to the continued vexation of higher education administrators. In 2008, John McCardell, president emeritus of Middlebury College, began to circulate for signature a public statement among colleagues titled "The Amethyst Initiative," which calls for elected…

Main, Carla T.

2009-01-01

116

Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC) at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%), Spanish (59.6%) and British (61.4%) samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%). In those drinking < 3 h at interview, there were no differences in BAC by gender or nationality. In UK participants, BAC increased significantly in those who had been drinking longer, reaching 0.13% (median) in females and 0.17% in males drinking > 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08%) was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife. PMID:22151744

2011-01-01

117

Alcohol use and safe drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... the past month, despite the fact that the legal drinking age is 21 years old in the U.S. About ... do not have a drinking problem, are of legal age to drink alcohol, and are not pregnant: Never drink alcohol and ...

118

Thinking and Drinking: Alcohol-Related Cognitions across Stages of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement  

PubMed Central

Purpose Alcohol-related cognitions, particularly expectancies for drinking and non-drinking and motives for non-drinking, are involved in the initiation, maintenance, and cessation of alcohol use and are hypothesized to play key roles in adolescent decision making. This study explored (a) the relationships between alcohol use expectancies, non-drinking expectancies and non-drinking motives, (b) the roles of these cognitions across hypothesized developmental stages of adolescent alcohol use and (c) the relationships between these cognitions and recent or intended future changes in drinking behavior in a cross-sectional sample. Methods Surveys assessing alcohol use behaviors and attitudes were administered to 1648 high school students. Results Heavier drinkers reported more positive alcohol use expectancies and fewer non-drinking motives than lighter drinkers or non-drinkers, however non-drinking expectancies only differed between non- and rare- drinkers and all subsequent drinking classes. Alcohol use expectancies, non-drinking expectancies and non-drinking motives differentiated students who recently initiated alcohol from those who had not, while non-drinking expectancies and non-drinking motives differentiated binge drinking students who had made recent efforts to reduce/stop their drinking from those who had not. Intentions to initiate or reduce drinking in the coming month were also associated with these alcohol-related cognitions. Conclusion Drinking and non-drinking expectancies, and motives for not drinking may play critical roles in decisions to alter alcohol-use behavior during adolescence. Future exploration of temporal relationships between changes in alcohol-related cognitions and behavioral decision making will be useful in the refinement of effective prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:21534645

Bekman, Nicole M.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Trim, Ryan S.; Metrik, Jane; Diulio, Andrea R.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.

2012-01-01

119

Reinforcement expectancies for studying predict drinking problems among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molar behavioral choice theories point to the important role reinforcement for alternative behaviors may play in reducing problem drinking [Psychol. Addict. Behav. 9 (1995) 223.]. A similar molar choice perspective may apply to a cognitive mediational level of analysis: the molecular link between alcohol expectancies and drinking behavior depends on expectancies for alternative behaviors. In this study, 82 college students

Boaz Levy; Mitchell Earleywine

2003-01-01

120

DOES THE MINIMUM LEGAL DRINKING AGE SAVE LIVES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) is widely believed to save lives by reducing traffic fatalities among underage drivers. Further, the Federal Uniform Drinking Age Act, which pressured all states to adopt an MLDA of 21, is regarded as having contributed enormously to this life-saving effect. This article challenges both claims. State-level panel data for the past 30 yr show

JEFFREY A. MIRON; ELINA TETELBAUM

2009-01-01

121

Does the Minimum Legal Drinking Age Save Lives?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) is widely believed to save lives by reducing traffic fatalities among underage drivers. Further, the Federal Uniform Drinking Age Act, which pressured all states to adopt an MLDA of 21, is regarded as having contributed enormously to this life saving effect. This paper challenges both claims. State-level panel data for the past 30 years

Jeffrey A. Miron; Elina Tetelbaum

2007-01-01

122

Preventing Dangerous College Drinking Is Possible. E-Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol is all too often seen as an accepted part of college life, but there are programs that can significantly reduce students' risky drinking, according to a series of studies in a special college drinking supplement of the "Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs." Fourteen studies detail results of projects funded by the National Institute on…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2009

2009-01-01

123

Drinking Water FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... or ground water. Surface water collects in streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Ground water is water located ... protect drinking water and its sources, which include rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. Top ...

124

Creating Safer Drinking Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the chapter is violence and crime in the licensed drinking environment. The central argument is that creating safer licensed environments is primarily a regulatory problem, not just an \\

Ross Homel; Gillian McIlwain

125

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-print Network

Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04

126

Not just fun and games: a review of college drinking games research from 2004 to 2013.  

PubMed

Drinking games are a high-risk social drinking activity consisting of rules and guidelines that determine when and how much to drink (Polizzotto et al., 2007). Borsari's (2004) seminal review paper on drinking games in the college environment succinctly captured the published literature as of February 2004. However, research on college drinking games has grown exponentially during the last decade, necessitating an updated review of the literature. This review provides an in-depth summary and synthesis of current drinking games research (e.g., characteristics of drinking games, and behavioral, demographic, social, and psychological influences on participation) and suggests several promising areas for future drinking games research. This review is intended to foster a better understanding of drinking game behaviors among college students and improve efforts to reduce the negative impact of this practice on college campuses. PMID:25222171

Zamboanga, Byron L; Olthuis, Janine V; Kenney, Shannon R; Correia, Christopher J; Van Tyne, Kathryne; Ham, Lindsay S; Borsari, Brian

2014-09-01

127

The complementarity of teen smoking and drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teen drinkers are over twice as likely as abstainers to smoke cigarettes. This empirical study provides evidence of a robust complementarity between these health behaviors by exploiting the “cross-price” effects. The results indicate that the movement away from minimum legal drinking ages of 18 reduced teen smoking participation by 3 to 5%. The corresponding instrumental variable estimates suggest that teen

Thomas S. Dee

1999-01-01

128

Ethanol Drinking in Rodents  

PubMed Central

Many studies have used voluntary ethanol consumption by animals to assess the influence of genetic and environmental manipulations on ethanol drinking. However, the relationship between home cage ethanol consumption and more formal assessments of ethanol-reinforced behavior using operant and instrumental conditioning procedures is not always clear. The present review attempted to evaluate whether there are consistent correlations between mouse and rat home cage ethanol drinking on the one hand, and either operant oral self-administration (OSA), conditioned taste aversion (CTA) or conditioned place preference (CPP) with ethanol on the other. We also review literature on intravenous ethanol self-administration (IVSA). To collect data, we evaluated a range of genetic manipulations that can change both genes and ethanol drinking behavior including selective breeding, transgenic and knock-out models, and inbred and recombinant inbred strain panels. For a genetic model to be included in the analysis, there had to be published data resulting in differences on home cage drinking and data for at least one of the other behavioral measures. A consistent, positive correlation was observed between ethanol drinking and OSA, suggesting that instrumental behavior is closely genetically related to consummatory and ingestive behavior directed at ethanol. A negative correlation was observed between CTA and drinking, suggesting that ethanol’s aversive actions may limit oral consumption of ethanol. A more modest, positive relationship was observed between drinking and CPP, and there were not enough studies available to determine a relationship with IVSA. That some consistent outcomes were observed between widely disparate behavioral procedures and genetic populations may increase confidence in the validity of findings from these assays. These findings may also have important implications when researchers decide which phenotypes to use in measuring alcohol-reward relevant behaviors in novel animal models. PMID:18164576

Green, Alexis S.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

2008-01-01

129

Tax Policy, Adult Binge Drinking, and Youth Alcohol Consumption in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research attributed youth alcohol consumption to the attitudes and drinking patterns among adults. Yet at a population level, few have examined the relationship between state-level adult binge drinking prevalence and youth drinking behaviors, or whether tax policy plays a role in this relationship. Methods We analyzed 6 biennial surveys (1999 to 2009) of individual-level youth alcohol use and related behaviors from state-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and corresponding years of state-level adult binge drinking prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We employed logistic regression with generalized estimating equations method to assess the extent to which state adult binge drinking predicted individual-level youth drinking outcomes and examined the role of alcohol taxes in that relationship. Results Population-aggregate analyses based on 194 state-year strata showed a positive correlation between state adult binge drinking and youth binge drinking (Pearson r = 0.40, p < 0.01). For individual-level youth drinking outcomes, a 5 percentage point increase in binge drinking prevalence among adults was associated with a 12% relative increase in the odds of alcohol use (adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.16). Taxes were strongly inversely related with adult and youth drinking measures, and the effect of tax on youth drinking was attenuated after controlling for adult binge drinking. Conclusions Both tax and adult binge drinking are strong predictors of youth drinking. Tax may affect youth drinking through its effect on adult alcohol consumption. Implementing effective alcohol policies to reduce excessive drinking in the general population is an important strategy to reduce youth drinking. PMID:23711219

Xuan, Ziming; Nelson, Toben F.; Heeren, Timothy; Blanchette, Jason; Nelson, David E.; Gruenewald, Paul; Naimi, Timothy S.

2013-01-01

130

Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

1978-01-01

131

Impact of Legislation Raising the Legal Drinking Age in Massachusetts from 18 to 21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares interview and fatal crash data from Massachusetts after the legal drinking age was raised, with data from New York, where drinking is legal from age 18. Suggests that without intensive, coordinated enforcement efforts, raising the legal drinking age does not reduce fatalities significantly. (GC)

Hingson, Ralph W.; And Others

1983-01-01

132

Changing the Culture of Young People's Binge Drinking: From Motivations to Practical Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: This paper explores young people's own opinions about how the "drinking to get drunk" culture can be changed. More precisely, the two objectives of this study were to explore: (1) whether young people viewed binge drinking as a real "problem"; and (2) what they thought could be done to reduce binge drinking. Methods: Forty in-depth…

Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

2007-01-01

133

Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

2002-01-01

134

Screening for problem drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare self-administered versions of three questionnaires for detecting heavy and problem drinking: the CAGE, the Alcohol\\u000a Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and an augmented version of the CAGE.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Three Department of Veterans Affairs general medical clinics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PATIENTS: Random sample of consenting male outpatients who consumed at least 5 drinks over the past year (“drinkers”).

Katharine A. Bradley; Kristen R. Bush; Mary B. McDonell; Timothy Malone; Stephan D. Fihn

1998-01-01

135

Drinking Motives, Alcohol Expectancies, Self-Efficacy, and Drinking Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study focused on the associations between drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and drinking behavior in a representative sample of 553 Dutch adolescents and adults. Data were gathered by means of self-report questionnaires and a 14-days drinking diary. A model was postulated in which negative expectancies and…

Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Wiers, Reinout; Lemmers, Lex; Overbeek, Geertjan

2005-01-01

136

Dying To Drink: Confronting Binge Drinking on College Campuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book outlines the toll binge drinking is taking on college campuses and suggests steps that can be taken to take action against the binge drinking that has become part of college culture. The chapters of part 1, "The College Drinking Environment," are: (1) "A Culture of Alcohol"; (2) "Where's the Party?"; (3) "College Sports and Alcohol"; and…

Wechsler, Henry; Wuethrich, Bernice

137

-fountain drinks, coffee, tea pritzkerclub  

E-print Network

drinks - fountain drinks, coffee, tea - fuze 2 3 pritzkerclub SOUP DU JOUR PRITZKER CLUB SANDWICH, with italian sausage slices BEEF coffee-crusted flat iron steak with sauteed vidalia onions VEGETARIAN stuffed

Heller, Barbara

138

Answering Questions About Underage Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... can respond. Please share. Q. Doesn't the legal drinking age just make teens want alcohol more, because it ... friends when you're not around. Q. The legal drinking age in Europe is younger than it is in ...

139

DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Conducted every 4 years, the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey (DWINS) is an EPA-conducted statistically-based survey of the infrastructure investment needs of the Nation's drinking water systems for the next 20 years....

140

College Drinking - Changing the Culture  

MedlinePLUS

Welcome to College Drinking: Changing the Culture, created by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). CollegeDrinkingPrevention.gov is your one-stop resource for comprehensive research-based ...

141

Why Do They Drink?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares opinions of students from secondary, vocational, and technicums technical schools in the USSR on why Soviet students drink alcohol. Reasons include companionship, celebrations, curiosity, and imitation. Investigates gender differences. Underscores student naivete about alcohol's effects. Indicates discrepancies between students' stated…

Levin, Boris Mikhailovich; Levin, Mikhail Borisovich

1990-01-01

142

Water Fit to Drink.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

Donovan, Edward P.

143

DrinkingWater Newsletter  

Microsoft Academic Search

he purpose of the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), and the rule's 2007 Short-Term Revisions, is to protect the consumers of public water systems from exposure to lead and copper in drinking water. This article emphasizes the lead public education requirements of the rule since there are no comparable requirements for copper. The LCR requires community and non-transient non- community

2009-01-01

144

Antecedents of Collegiate Drinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model was proposed to explain variations in alcohol use among nonmarried, full-time undergraduate students. Sociocultural, familial characteristics, and age at onset of student drinking as predictor variables were analyzed. Findings indicated that the extent of adolescent alcohol consumption was the strongest overall predictor of undergraduate…

Freidman, Jennifer; Humphrey, John A.

1985-01-01

145

Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks Table A43. Alcoholic drinks: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 number of drinks Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 19-30 1113 0.9

146

Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574 PMID:23933526

Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

2013-01-01

147

Evaluating the believability and effectiveness of the social norms message "most students drink 0 to 4 drinks when they party".  

PubMed

In an effort to reduce dangerous drinking levels among college students, university health educators have initiated social norms campaigns based on the rationale that students will be more likely to reduce their own drinking behaviors if they think that most students on campus are not heavy or binge drinkers. Within the framework of social comparisons theory, this study reports the findings of a survey of 277 college students and explores the correlates of accuracy and bias in students' estimates of whether or not most other students think that binge drinking on campus is a problem and whether or not most other students believe the campaign message. The overwhelming majority (72.6%) of students did not believe the norms message that most students on campus drink "0 to 4" drinks when they party, and 52.7% reported drinking "5 or more" drinks in a sitting. The social norms campaign was effective in motivating 61% of the respondents to think about binge drinking as a problem. For the most part, group or social network norms were more influential on students' own drinking behavior than were their estimates of the campus drinking norm. The findings also clarify that accuracy in estimating the campus social norm in and of itself does not necessarily lead to an increase or reduction in alcohol consumption. The social comparisons approach underscores the complex and social nature of human interaction and reinforces the need for the development of multiple approaches to alcohol education with messages that are designed to target the specific needs of students based on their orientations toward alcohol consumption. PMID:16813486

Polonec, Lindsey D; Major, Ann Marie; Atwood, L Erwin

2006-01-01

148

Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers.  

PubMed

Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD) relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS.Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic) were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ.Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016), fruit squash (p = 0.042) and milk (p = 0.020) than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017) and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003). No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice.These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks. PMID:19055714

Sweetman, Claire; Wardle, Jane; Cooke, Lucy

2008-01-01

149

CUTTING DOWN ON DRINKING  

E-print Network

% alcohol 12 oz. malt liquor ~7% alcohol 8.5 oz. table wine ~12% alcohol 5 oz. 80-proof spirits gin. = 1.3 · 40 oz. = 3.3 For malt liquor, the approximate number of standard drinks in · 12 oz. = 1.5 · 22 in · a standard 750-mL (25-oz.) bottle = 5 For 80-proof spirits, or "hard liquor," the approximate number

Bezrukov, Sergey M.

150

Drinking up the data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In one advertisement, the headline above a clear glass of water reads, “Now it comes with a list of ingredients.” Another headline, positioned above a tipped water pitcher, reads, “Drinking water. Pour over the facts.” These catchy ads are part of an educational campaign begun by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on July 19 to notify the public about the first annual Consumer Confidence Reports about tap water.

Showstack, Randy

151

Drinking Straw Oboe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners will construct an oboe-like instrument from a plastic drinking straw by cutting the end to split it into two loose flaps, like reeds on an oboe. Blowing hard makes a sound. Cutting the straws to different lengths provides an opportunity for learners to predict how length will affect sound. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Music and Sound.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

152

Excessive Drinking Among African American Men: Individual and Contextual Correlates  

PubMed Central

In this paper we explored associations of multiple domains with regular drinking and getting drunk among adult African American men. Questionnaire-based, computer-assisted interviews were conducted with 484 men in Atlanta, Georgia. Data analysis involved multivariate logistic regression analyses. Findings show that being older increased the odds of both drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking increased the odds of regular drinking and having experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse increased the odds of getting drunk. Having health insurance reduced the odds of both outcomes. Insurance coverage and the heterogeneity among adult African American men must be considered in risk reduction efforts. PMID:22679893

DePadilla, Lara; Elifson, Kirk; McCarty, Frances; Sterk, Claire

2012-01-01

153

Response of colleges to risky drinking college students.  

PubMed

Heavy drinking and related consequences continue to affect college campuses due to fatalities, assaults, serious injuries, and arrests that occur among students. Several approaches aimed at reducing the harm incurred by students and the college communities as a result of heavy drinking are being used with varying success. A review of interventions including educational, individual, and environmental approaches are described, as well as new, promising, strategies. Despite some success, elevated and risky drinking patterns continue. As such, concerns over implementation of evidence-based treatments and areas in need of further study are discussed. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-10.asp, free with no login]. PMID:25271660

Mastroleo, Nadine R; Logan, Diane E

2014-01-01

154

Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students  

PubMed Central

Background Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behavior among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviors such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. Objective This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. Design A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Results Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. Conclusion These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviors among students of various ethnic groups. PMID:23986901

Skewes, Monica C.; DeCou, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.

2013-01-01

155

Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.  

PubMed

Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff. PMID:25252352

Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

2014-09-01

156

'Drinking is our modern way of bonding': young people's beliefs about interventions to encourage moderate drinking.  

PubMed

Efforts to discourage excessive alcohol use among young people can only be effective if the target audience is exposed to, attends to, and comprehends key messages. The aim of this study was to examine age and sex differences in drinking motives to better inform development of targeted interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm. Thirty individual interviews and 12 group interviews were conducted with English 13-25?year olds. Interviewees gave multiple motivations for drinking - especially those related to image and reputation, and played down the health implications of heavy drinking. Negative aspects of drinking - caring for drunk friends, being cared for when drunk and suffering through hangovers with friends - were considered to offer opportunities for closer interpersonal bonding than other social activities. Respondents distanced themselves from 'problem' drinkers, but disapproved of others' problematic drinking or antisocial behaviour. Narrative messages demonstrating the social consequences of excessive consumption were preferred to single, static messages emphasising risk or harm. Interviewees noted that interventions must use an engaging tone or pitch: they considered many campaigns to be patronising or preaching. A lack of consensus between age and sex groups highlighted a need for multifaceted, multi-modal approaches that utilise mobile technologies and new media. PMID:23947783

de Visser, Richard O; Wheeler, Zoe; Abraham, Charles; Smith, Jonathan A

2013-01-01

157

ADOLESCENT EXPOSURE TO DRINK DRIVING AS A PREDICTOR OF YOUNG ADULTS' DRINK DRIVING  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exposure to others’ drink driving during adolescence on self-reported driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol in young adulthood. Data were drawn from 1,956 participants with a driving license enrolled in the International Youth Development Study from Victoria, Australia. During 2003 and 2004, adolescents in Grades 7, 9 and 10 (aged 12 – 17) completed questionnaires examining whether they had ridden in a vehicle with a driver who had been drinking, as well as other demographic, individual, peer and family risk factors for DUI. In 2010, the same participants (aged 18 to 24) then reported on their own DUI behaviour. 18% of young adults with a driving license reported DUI in the past 12 months. Exposure to others’ drink driving during adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of DUI as a young adult (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.68 – 2.69). This association remained after accounting for the effects of other potential confounding factors from the individual, peer and family domains (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.23 – 2.13). Observing the drink driving behaviours of others during adolescence may increase the likelihood of DUI as a young adult. Strategies to reduce youth exposure to drink driving are warranted. PMID:23246711

Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Olsson, Craig; Rowland, Bosco; Hemphill, Sheryl A.

2013-01-01

158

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

2000-01-01

159

Risky Drinking Patterns Are Being Continued into Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Risky patterns of alcohol use prior to pregnancy increase the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes. It is important to understand how consumption changes once women become pregnant. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of women that partake in risky drinking patterns before pregnancy and to examine how these patterns change once they become pregnant. Methods A sample of 1577 women from the 1973–78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health were included if they first reported being pregnant in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 and reported risky drinking patterns prior to that pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine which risky drinking patterns were most likely to continue into pregnancy. Results When reporting risky drinking patterns prior to pregnancy only 6% of women reported weekly drinking only, whereas 46% reported binge drinking only and 48% reported both. Women in both binge categories were more likely to have experienced financial stress, not been partnered, smoked, used drugs, been nulliparous, experienced a violent relationship, and were less educated. Most women (46%) continued these risky drinking patterns into pregnancy, with 40% reducing these behaviors, and 14% completely ceasing alcohol consumption. Once pregnant, women who binged only prior to pregnancy were more likely to continue (55%) rather than reduce drinking (29%). Of the combined drinking group 61% continued to binge and 47% continued weekly drinking. Compared with the combined drinking group, binge only drinkers prior to pregnancy were less likely to reduce rather than continue their drinking once pregnant (OR?=?0.37, 95% CI ?=? 0.29, 0.47). Conclusions Over a third of women continued risky drinking into pregnancy, especially binge drinking, suggesting a need to address alcohol consumption prior to pregnancy. PMID:24454959

Anderson, Amy E.; Hure, Alexis J.; Forder, Peta M.; Powers, Jennifer; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Loxton, Deborah J.

2014-01-01

160

Community Norms, Enforcement of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws, Personal Beliefs and Underage Drinking: An Explanatory Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources\\u000a and deterring its possession and use. However, little is known about the processes through which enforcement strategies may\\u000a affect underage drinking. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible\\u000a direct and indirect

Sharon Lipperman-KredaJoel; Joel W. Grube; Mallie J. Paschall

2010-01-01

161

College Students' Estimation and Accuracy of Other Students' Drinking and Believability of Advertisements Featured in a Social Norms Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms campaigns, which are based on correcting misperceptions of alcohol consumption, have frequently been applied to reduce college students' alcohol consumption. This study examined estimation and accuracy of normative perceptions for students during everyday drinking occasions. Students who reported having 4 or fewer drinks underestimated the percentage of other students who had 4 or fewer drinks, while those who

Hee Sun Park; Sandi W. Smith; Katherine A. Klein; Dennis Martell

2011-01-01

162

Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Laposata, Matt

163

Why do young people drink? A review of drinking motives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews evidence of adolescent and young adult drinking motives and their relation to possible consequences over the last 15 years. To this end, a computer-assisted search of relevant articles was conducted. Results revealed that most young people reported drinking for social motives, some indicated enhancement motives, and only a few reported coping motives. Social motives appear to be

Emmanuel Kuntsche; Ronald Knibbe; Gerhard Gmel; Rutger Engels

2005-01-01

164

Differences in College Student Typical Drinking and Celebration Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…

Woodyard, Catherine Dane; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

2010-01-01

165

Environmental Predictors of Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems in Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationships among drinking norms, peer alcohol use, alcohol availability, drinking location, alcohol consumption, and drinking-related problems among young adult drinkers (N=3,095). Results show that drinking norms and peer alcohol use influenced alcohol consumption and drinking consequences. Drinking in public contributed to alcohol…

Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Short, Brian; Wagenaar, Alexander; Toomey, Tracie; Murray, David; Wolfson, Mark; Forster, Jean

1997-01-01

166

Alcohol Use Disorders and Perceived Drinking Norms: Ethnic Differences in Israeli Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective: Individuals’ perceptions of drinking acceptability in their society (perceived injunctive drinking norms) are widely assumed to explain ethnic group differences in drinking and alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but this has never been formally tested. Immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) are more likely to drink and report AUD symptoms than other Israelis. We tested perceived drinking norms as a mediator of differences between FSU immigrants and other Israelis in drinking and AUDs. Method: Adult household residents (N = 1,349) selected from the Israeli population register were assessed with a structured interview measuring drinking, AUD symptoms, and perceived drinking norms. Regression analyses were used to produce odds ratios (OR) and risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to test differences between FSU immigrants and other Israelis on binary and graded outcomes. Mediation of FSU effects by perceived drinking norms was tested with bootstrapping procedures. Results: FSU immigrants were more likely than other Israelis to be current drinkers (OR = 2.39, CI [1.61, 3.55]), have higher maximum number of drinks per day (RR = 1.88, CI [1.64, 2.16]), have any AUD (OR = 1.75, CI [1.16, 2.64]), score higher on a continuous measure of AUD (RR = 1.44, CI [1.12, 1.84]), and perceive more permissive drinking norms (p < .0001). For all four drinking variables, the FSU group effect was at least partially mediated by perceived drinking norms. Conclusions: This is the first demonstration that drinking norms mediate ethnic differences in AUDs. This work contributes to understanding ethnic group differences in drinking and AUDs, potentially informing etiologic research and public policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. PMID:23036217

Shmulewitz, Dvora; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Aharonovich, Efrat; Aivadyan, Christina; Greenstein, Eliana; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Hasin, Deborah

2012-01-01

167

Ensuring safer drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was developed in the mid-1980s by an independent, voluntary consensus standards organization called NSF International (formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation). This paper explains the need for and the structure of the Drinking Water Additives Program; the rationale for transferring responsibility for its execution from the EPA to the private sector; and the impact of its standards on users, manufacturers, and state and local regulatory bodies. Understanding the additives program is critically important to industry suppliers because, as it continues to gain greater awareness and acceptance, there are a growing number of manufacturers sourcing materials and products primarily from suppliers whose products meet the program's certification requirements.

Christensen, J. (Advanced Elastomer Systems, St. Louis, MO (United States). Fluid Delivery and Electrical Markets); Higgins, P. (PJ Higgins and Associates Inc., Frederick, MD (United States))

1994-09-01

168

Abi Williams Drink and be merry  

E-print Network

drink to Christ! and be merry! Sanitized warm parsnip smells tender goose and the great pudding drink the window clad in lights, closed against the great grey sky drink! and be merry! Green spindles stick

Robertson, Stephen

169

Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Pore Sizes Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

170

Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Pore Sizes Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

171

Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Pore Sizes Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

172

Cross-border college drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Universities have a major problem with binge drinking by students. This problem is greater for universities near national borders where underage students can cross into areas where the legal drinking age is younger than in the United States. Method: A telephone survey of students at two large universities, within an hour drive of the Mexican border, was conducted to

John D. Clapp; Robert B. Voas; James E. Lange

2001-01-01

173

Alcohol-Related Information in Multi-Component Interventions and College Students' Drinking Behavior  

PubMed Central

Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students’ alcohol consumption. Intervention and control group students completed pre and postintervention assessments of drinking behaviors, and a postintervention assessment of alcohol-knowledge. Intervention students outperformed control students on the measure of alcohol knowledge. However knowledge did not predict drinking outcomes for this group, and it was positively correlated with drinking behaviors for control students. The findings suggest that, although learning took place through the intervention, it was not the mechanism by which the intervention reduced drinking behaviors.

Thadani, Vandana; Huchting, Karen; LaBrie, Joseph

2014-01-01

174

The Interactive Effects of Affect Lability, Negative Urgency, and Sensation Seeking on Young Adult Problematic Drinking  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have suggested that affect lability might reduce the risk for problematic drinking among sensation seekers by compensating for their deficiencies in emotional reactivity and among individuals high on negative urgency by disrupting stable negative emotions. Due to the high prevalence of college drinking, this study examined whether affect lability interacted with sensation seeking and negative urgency to influence college student problematic drinking. 414 college drinkers (mean age: 20, 77% female, and 74% Caucasian) from a US Midwestern University completed self-administered questionnaires online. Consistent with our hypotheses, our results indicated that the effects of sensation seeking and negative urgency on problematic drinking weakened at higher levels of affect lability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering specific emotional contexts in understanding how negative urgency and sensation seeking create risk for problematic drinking among college students. These findings might also help us better understand how to reduce problematic drinking among sensation seekers and individuals high on negative urgency. PMID:24826366

Karyadi, Kenny; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Dir, Allyson L.; Cyders, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

175

Binge Drinking on College Campuses. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest discusses binge drinking on U.S. college campuses. Male binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks in a row one or more times during a 2-week period; female binge drinking is defined as four or more drinks in a row one or more times during a two-week period. A drink is defined as twelve ounces of beer or wine cooler, four ounces…

Kellogg, Karen

176

Interactive effects of drinking history and impulsivity on college drinking.  

PubMed

The transition from adolescence into emerging adulthood is a critical developmental period for changes in alcohol use and drinking related problems. Prior research has identified a number of distinct developmental alcohol use trajectories, which appear to be differentially related to young adult drinking outcomes. Another correlate of alcohol use in early adulthood is impulsivity. The primary aim of this study was to examine the moderating role of impulsivity in the relation between patterns of past alcohol use and hazardous drinking during the first year of college. Participants (N=452; 49% male; mean age 18.5years; 82% Caucasian) completed self-report measures during the first year of college, including retrospective alcohol use calendars, current alcohol use and drinking problems, and personality. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify groups with similar adolescent drinking history from retrospective, self-report. Four groups were identified: abstainers/very light users, late/moderate users, early/moderate users, and steep increase/heavy users. The abstainer/very light user group reported the lowest levels of alcohol use and problematic drinking in college; the steep increase/heavy use group reported the highest levels of alcohol use and problematic drinking. As predicted, the role of personality-specifically urgency, or emotion-based rash action-was strongest among moderate use groups. These findings may be helpful in guiding targeted prevention and intervention programs for alcohol use and abuse. PMID:24018231

Adams, Zachary W; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R; Charnigo, Richard J

2013-12-01

177

Identifying and Intervening With Drinking Drivers in Various Venues: A Research Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on intervention (e.g., treatment, education, probation) effectiveness with drinking drivers has a long history in the criminal justice context. Recently, interventions with high risk drinking drivers in other settings (e.g., medical) have been investigated. Definitive research on intervening to reduce drinking driving\\/crashes faces difficulties that influence what we know\\/do not yet know about intervening in Dill systems. Furthermore, as

E. Wells-Parker; M. Williams

178

Raising the minimum drinking age: Some unintended consequences of good intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986 the state of Florida raised its minimum drinking age from 19 to 21. The new legislation was meant in part to reduce the frequency of youthful drinking and driving. In the year when the law was implemented, half of Florida's 19-year-olds could drink legally; the other half could not. In this paper we analyze self-report data from a

Lonn Lanza-Kaduce; Pamela Richards

1989-01-01

179

Toward prevention of alcohol exposed pregnancies: characteristics that relate to ineffective contraception and risky drinking  

PubMed Central

Alcohol-exposed pregnancy is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the United States. This paper describes the motivational patterns that relate to risky drinking and ineffective contraception, two behaviors that can result in alcohol-exposed pregnancy. As part of an intervention study aimed at reducing alcohol-exposed pregnancy 124 women were recruited and reported demographic characteristics, readiness to change, stages of change, drinking, contraception, and sexual behavior history. Our results showed the following. Drinking: A significant positive correlation was found between the number of drinks consumed in 90 days and the Importance to reduce drinking (r = .23, p = .008). A significant negative correlation between number of drinks and confidence to reduce drinking (r = ?.39, p = .000) was found as well. Significant differences were found in the total number of drinks consumed in 90 days between the five stages of change (F = (4,118), 3.12, p = .01). Women in Preparation reported drinking a significantly higher number of drinks than women in other stages of change. Contraception: There were significant negative correlations between ineffective contraception and Importance (r = ?.38, p = .00), confidence (r = ?.20, p = .02) and Readiness (r = ?.43, p = .00) to use contraception effectively. Significant differences in contraception ineffectiveness were found for women in different stages of change (F = (4,115) 8.58, p = .000). Women in Precontemplation reported significantly higher levels of contraception ineffectiveness compared to women in other stages of change. Results show a clear relationship between higher alcohol consumption and higher levels of motivation to reduce drinking. In contrast, higher levels of ineffective contraception were related to lower levels of motivation to use contraception effectively. This suggests risky drinking may be better targeted with brief skills building interventions and ineffective contraception may require interventions that enhance problem awareness and motivation. PMID:19459039

Fabbri, Stefania; Farrell, Leah V.; Penberthy, J. Kim; Ceperich, Sherry Dyche; Ingersoll, Karen S.

2010-01-01

180

Controlling Underage Drinking: Fear of Law Enforcement or Internalized Normative Values?  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research on alcohol control policies has generally taken a deterrence perspective. Whether internalized normative values, consistent with the changes intended by alcohol policies, were a potential base for securing public compliance with them has received little research attention. To fill this gap, this study examined whether underage young adults’ support for underage drinking laws was associated with their alcohol use. Methods National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) data collected in 1995–2005 were used. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Covariates included: sex, race, education level, household income, positive alcohol expectancies, the perceived likelihood of law enforcement, and the availability and affordability of alcohol. Results Controlling for other covariates, support for underage drinking laws was significantly associated with some drinking outcomes. Underage young adults who were not supportive of the minimum legal drinking age law were more likely to engage in frequent binge drinking (OR=3.08) and drinking driving (OR=4.17), and to have initiated drinking at age 16 or younger (OR=2.37). Those who indicated a lower degree of support for the zero-tolerance drunk driving law had higher odds of drinking driving (OR=4.36), as well as higher odds of having ever had alcohol (OR=5.46), current drinking (OR=5.36), and having initiated drinking at the age of 16 or younger (OR=3.09). The perceived likelihood of law enforcement was protective only from frequent binge drinking (OR=0.09). Conclusion A clear articulation of potential harms associated with underage drinking to help legitimize underage drinking laws, along with their rigorous enforcement, may help reduce underage drinking.

Cook, Won Kim

2014-01-01

181

Less drinking, yet more problems: understanding African American drinking and related problems.  

PubMed

Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T

2014-01-01

182

The equal right to drink.  

PubMed

The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls. [Schmidt LA. The equal right to drink. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014;33:581-7]. PMID:25303360

Schmidt, Laura A

2014-11-01

183

[Energy drinks: an unknown risk].  

PubMed

The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801

Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

2012-05-01

184

Binge Drinking and the American College Student: What's Five Drinks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the term binge drinking and the 5\\/4 measure have helped to advance the understanding of college alcohol use over the past 10 years. The present article discusses the importance, relevance, and utility of this measure.

Henry Wechsler; Toben F. Nelson

2001-01-01

185

Sustained Parenting and College Drinking in First-Year Students  

PubMed Central

Research indicates that for many students excessive drinking in college is a continuation of high school drinking tendencies. However, there have been limited theory-driven, systematic interventions targeting students so as to prevent alcohol misuse in their transition to college. Almost all current prevention approaches tend to be focused on younger populations and college-drinking interventions are typically delivered to students when they are already on campus. These analyses draw from a novel program of research involving parents of college freshmen based on the work of Turrisi et al. and focuses on examining: (1) the relationship between parenting and student drinking tendencies during the transitional period between high school and college and into the first year of college, and (2) the mediation process by which sustained parenting throughout the first year is related to college-drinking outcomes and consequences so as to inform future intervention efforts. The empirical evidence from this study suggests that sustained parental efforts have a beneficial effect on reducing high-risk drinking and preventing harm even at this late stage of late adolescent/early adult development. PMID:20213752

Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E.

2014-01-01

186

Association of solitary binge drinking and suicidal behavior among emerging adult college students.  

PubMed

Emerging adult college students who binge drink in solitary contexts (i.e., while alone) experience greater depression and suicidal ideation than do students who only binge drink in social contexts, suggesting that they may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior. This study examined the association of a previous suicide attempt, one of the best predictors of future suicide attempts and suicide, and severity of recent suicidal ideation with drinking in solitary and social contexts. Participants were binge drinking, emerging adult (18- to 25-year-old) college students (N=182) drawn from two studies of college drinkers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that both suicide attempt history and severity of suicidal ideation were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of being a solitary binge drinker as opposed to only a social binge drinker. Students with a previous suicide attempt were nearly four times more likely to be solitary binge drinkers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that suicide attempt history was significantly associated with greater frequency and quantity of drinking in solitary, but not social contexts. Suicidal ideation was significantly associated with drinks per solitary drinking day, but not frequency of solitary drinking once suicide attempt history was accounted for. Given the associations found between solitary binge drinking and a history of suicide attempts, as well as greater severity of recent suicidal ideation, it appears that these students are in need of suicide prevention efforts, including treatment efforts aimed at reducing binge drinking. PMID:22288976

Gonzalez, Vivian M

2012-09-01

187

Association of Solitary Binge Drinking and Suicidal Behavior Among Emerging Adult College Students  

PubMed Central

Emerging adult college students who binge drink in solitary contexts (i.e., while alone) experience greater depression and suicidal ideation than students who only binge drink in social contexts, suggesting that they may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior. This study examined the association of a previous suicide attempt, one of the best predictors of future suicide attempts and suicide, and severity of recent suicidal ideation with drinking in solitary and social contexts. Participants were binge drinking emerging adult (18- to 25-year-old) college students (N = 182) drawn from two studies of college drinkers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that both suicide attempt history and severity of suicidal ideation were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of being a solitary binge drinker as opposed to only a social binge drinker. Students with a previous suicide attempt were nearly 4 times more likely to be solitary binge drinkers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that suicide attempt history was significantly associated with greater frequency and quantity of drinking in solitary, but not social contexts. Suicidal ideation was significantly associated with drinks per solitary drinking day, but not frequency of solitary drinking once suicide attempt history was accounted for. Given the associations found between solitary binge drinking and a history of suicide attempts, as well as greater severity of recent suicidal ideation, it would appear that these students are in need of suicide prevention efforts, including treatment efforts aimed at reducing binge drinking. PMID:22288976

Gonzalez, Vivian M.

2012-01-01

188

Drinking Age 21: Facts, Myths and Fictions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents justification for a legal drinking age of 21 in all states. The introduction reviews the history of the raising and lowering of the drinking age and the rise in highway accidents and deaths resulting from lowered drinking ages. The federal response of mandating a 21-year-old drinking age for states with the threat of loss of…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

189

Underage Drinking: Does Current Policy Make Sense?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article examines the history of laws and policies regulating consumption of alcoholic beverages by young people in the United States, and examines youth drinking patterns that have emerged over time. Currently, all 50 states have a minimum drinking age of 21. Various rationales are offered for the 21 drinking age, such as the claim that earlier drinking hinders cognitive

Judith G. McMullen

2006-01-01

190

Maori Identification, Drinking Motivation and Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…

Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin

2010-01-01

191

College Binge Drinking. Technical Assistance Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students are engaging in a form of destructive behavior known as binge drinking. The Harvard University College Alcohol Study defines binge drinking as consuming five or more drinks in a row for males and four or more drinks in a row for females. This Join Together packet provides tips, and resources to help professionals undertake…

Join Together, Boston, MA.

192

Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

193

Effects of Subchronic Exposure of Monochloramine in Drinking Water on Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subchronic rat study with paired-water control was conducted to resolve the question of whether monochloramine at 200 ppm in drinking water can cause reduced body weight gain and other changes observed in earlier investigations. Male Sprague–Dawley rats (93 ± 5 g) were divided into three groups of 10 rats each: the treatment group was fed drinking water containing 200

Raymond Poon; Pierre Lecavalier; Helen Tryphonas; Genevieve Bondy; Min Chen; Ih Chu; Algis Yagminas; Victor E Valli; Monique D'amour; Barry Thomas

1997-01-01

194

Health effects of soda drinking in adolescent girls in the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is a growing concern in the medical and scientific communities about the harmful effects associated with carbonated soft drinks. In several observational studies, intake of carbonated beverages was associated with reduced bone mass, decreased calcium level in the blood, and increased fracture risk. Soda drinks is a contributing factor in the prevalence and incidence of both dental caries and

Mona Mahmood; Abeer Saleh; Fatema Al-Alawi; Fatema Ahmed

2008-01-01

195

Which Heavy Drinking College Students Benefit From a Brief Motivational Intervention?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy drinking among college students is common and is often harmful. A previously reported randomized trial revealed that a brief motivational intervention (BMI) reduced the alcohol consumption of heavy drinking college students (K. B. Carey, M. P. Carey, S. A. Maisto, & J. M. Henson, 2006). For this study, the reseachers conducted supplemental analyses of hypothesized predictors of change using

Kate B. Carey; James M. Henson; Michael P. Carey; Stephen A. Maisto

2007-01-01

196

Teen Drinking and Education Attainment: Evidence From Two-Sample Instrumental Variables (TSIV) Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that one of the important consequences of teen drinking is reduced scholastic achievement and that state excise taxes on beer and minimum legal drinking ages (MLDA) as policy instruments can have a positive impact on educational attainment. But there is reason to ask whether the results are empirically sound. Prior research as assumed the decision to

Thomas S. Dee; William N. Evans

1997-01-01

197

EFFECTS OF HEAVY DRINKING IN COLLEGE ON STUDY EFFORT, GRADE POINT AVERAGE, AND MAJOR CHOICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article measures the effects of college drinking on study hours, grade point average (GPA), and major choice using simultaneous equation models and data from the 1993 College Alcohol Study. Binging and intoxication decrease GPA directly and indirectly by reducing study hours. Greater frequency of drinking increases the effect on study hours but not the total effect on GPA. College

Amy M. Wolaver

2002-01-01

198

Curricular Infusion and High-Risk Drinking among First-Year Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the curricular contexts effective at reducing high-risk drinking behaviors among 206 first-year undergraduate students. Results showed that infusing alcohol prevention messages into curricular content presented to first-year students who lived and studied together may have helped curb their high-risk drinking behaviors. This…

Mayhew, Matthew J.; Klein, Sara; Behringer, Laurie Bartell; Ulrich, Anastasia Stacy; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Hourigan, Aimee

2011-01-01

199

A Naturalistic Experiment on Alcohol Availability Patterns of Consumption and the Context for Drinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reduced alcohol availability following the closure of the sole hotels in two rural towns afforded a naturalistic experiment to study the effects of alcohol availability and context for drinking on consumption. Measures of consumption derived from interviews, total dollars of liquor sales, and police drink-driving data were compared across two…

Kraushaar, Kevin; Alsop, Brent

200

A Review of Motivational Interviewing-Based Interventions Targeting Problematic Drinking Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews motivational interviewing (MI) -based interventions targeting heavy drinking college students published between 2003 and 2008. A total of 11 MI-based interventions were included in this study. Students receiving the interventions were generally heavy drinkers or adjudicated students. Based on this review MI-based interventions appear to be consistently effective at reducing alcohol use and drinking problems. Most of

Paul Branscum; Manoj Sharma

2009-01-01

201

The Effects of Fatal Vision Goggles on Drinking and Driving Intentions in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was designed to examine the effectiveness of Fatal Vision Goggles in reducing intentions to drink and drive. Participants performed a field sobriety task and drove in a traffic simulator while wearing the goggles. A regression analysis was performed in order to predict changes in intentions to drink and drive, using typical…

Hennessy, Dwight A.; Lanni-Manley, Elizabeth; Maiorana, Nicole

2006-01-01

202

What Is a Standard Drink?  

MedlinePLUS

... actually in your drink. Different types of beer, wine, or malt liquor can have very different amounts ... is usually about 5% alcohol 5 ounces of wine, which is typically about 12% alcohol 1.5 ...

203

Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.  

PubMed

Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink. PMID:19570614

Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

2009-10-01

204

Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... drinking water. If it is not available and river or lake water must be used, avoid sources ... lamblia and Cryptosporidium , which are frequently found in rivers and lakes. These disease-causing organisms are less ...

205

Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... down the road. A related "all or nothing" misconception is that all heavy drinkers are automatically alcoholics. ... year. This helps to counter a commonly held misconception that “everybody” drinks a lot. The second purpose ...

206

Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity T his month’s Archives focuses on new research about childhood obesity. Being overweight is now the most common medical condition of childhood. Nearly ...

207

Molecular Ecology of Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation consists of examples of molecular research: ?Detection and control (removal and/or inactivation) of microbes in drinking source waters ?Changing microbial quality of water during distribution and storage ?Detection and identification of microbial agents, incl...

208

GUIDELINES FOR EATING & DRINKING 1. After vomiting, do not eat or drink  

E-print Network

or Vomiting (first 24 hours) Drink Clear Liquids at room temperature: Sports Drinks (i.e. PowerAde® /GatoradeGUIDELINES FOR EATING & DRINKING 1. After vomiting, do not eat or drink anything for 1 to 2 hours. 2. Next 2 hours: sips every 10 minutes. 3. Next 2 hours: increase sipping. 4. Next 2 hours, drink

Virginia Tech

209

Sports drinks hazard to teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental hazards associated with sports supplement drinks by investigating the chemicophysical properties of eight brands of sports drinks. METHODS: The pH and titratable acidity against 0.1 M NaOH was measured. Calcium, phosphate, and fluoride concentrations and viscosities of Carbolode, Gatorade, High Five, Isostar, Lucozade Sport Lemon, Lucozade Sport Orange, Maxim, and PSP22 were determined. RESULTS: The

A Milosevic

1997-01-01

210

Biochemical effects of feeding soft drink and ethanol.  

PubMed

This work was undertaken to study whether consumption of alcoholic beverage mixed with soft drinks could reduce the metabolic effect caused by ethanol. When 24 hr fasted rats were intragastrically fed rum (with 40% ethanol) diluted (1:1) with water, 3.0 ml (0.5 g ethanol) per 100 g body weight and sacrificed 12 hr later in fasting condition, exhibited higher levels of triacyl glycerol, glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum, higher levels of total cholesterol, triacyl glycerol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in both liver and kidneys, and lower levels of serum albumin. When fasted rats were fed 3.0 ml soft drink (0.31 mg caffeine), they showed increased levels of triacyl glycerol, glucose, ALT and ALP in the serum, TBARS in liver and kidneys, triacyl glycerol and total cholesterol in kidneys and lower levels of serum albumin. Soft drink feeding did not reduce serum total cholesterol but reduced HDL levels. Also soft drink did not alter liver lipids. When a mixture of 1.5 ml diluted rum (0.25 g ethanol) and 1.5 ml soft drink (0.154 mg caffeine) were fed to the fasted rats, the serum parameters increased similar to rats fed rum only except that total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were unaltered. TBARS in kidneys and liver were also increased but triacyl glycerol levels were not altered. Thus feeding ethanol with soft drink does not reduce the metabolic effects of ethanol but it will prevent ethanol induced serum HDL cholesterol rise. PMID:19579797

Raj, Arun; Praveen, K V; Varghese, Sheeba; Mukkadan, J K; Joseph, P K

2009-05-01

211

Hurting, helping, or neutral? The effects of parental permissiveness toward adolescent drinking on college student alcohol use and problems.  

PubMed

To enhance prevention efforts to reduce college drinking, parents have been identified as an important source of influence that can be modified with brief interventions. Research suggests parental permissiveness toward drinking in adolescence is positively related to college student drinking, though existing studies have not comprehensively accounted for potential confounders (e.g., parental drinking). The present study used propensity modeling to estimate the effects of pre-college parental permissiveness on college student drinking and consequences while accounting for an inclusive range of confounders. A random sample of 1,518 incoming students at a large university completed baseline measures of parental permissiveness and a list of confounders (e.g., parental drinking, family history). At follow-up 15 months later, participants reported on their drinking and alcohol-related consequences. To control for potential confounders, individuals were weighted based on their propensity scores to obtain less biased estimates of the effects of parental permissiveness on drinking and consequences. Analyses revealed parental permissiveness was consistently and positively associated with college drinking and consequences when the confounders were not accounted for, but these effects were attenuated after weighting. Parents' allowance of drinking was not related to college drinking or consequences after weighting. Students' perceived parental limits for consumption were related to drinking and consequences in the weighted models. Prevention efforts may benefit from targeting parents' communication of acceptable limits for alcohol consumption. PMID:23934443

Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Crowley, D Max; Turrisi, Rob; Greenberg, Mark T; Mallett, Kimberly A

2014-10-01

212

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

E-print Network

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile Catterina Ferreccio,1,2 Claudia- trations have since been reduced to 40 g/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung

California at Berkeley, University of

213

Prevention of Deaths From Harmful Drinking in the United States: The Potential Effects of Tax Increases and Advertising Bans on Young Drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Harmful alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death in the United States. The majority of people who die from alcohol use begin drinking in their youth. In this study, we estimate the impact of interventions to reduce the prevalence of drinking among youth on subsequent drinking patterns and alcohol-attributable mortal- ity. Method: We first estimated the effect of

WILLIAM HOLLINGWORTH; BETH E. EBEL; CAROLYN A. MCCARTY; MICHELLE M. GARRISON; DIMITRI A. CHRISTAKIS; FREDERICK P. RIVARA

214

Reduction in cryptosporidiosis associated with introduction of enhanced filtration of drinking water at Loch Katrine, Scotland.  

PubMed

Previous evidence has suggested an association between cryptosporidiosis and consumption of unfiltered drinking water from Loch Katrine in Scotland. Before September 2007, the water was only micro-strained and chlorinated; however, since that time, coagulation and rapid gravity filtration have been installed. In order to determine risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis, including drinking water, we analysed data on microbiologically confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from 2004 to 2010. We identified an association between the incidence of cryptosporidiosis and unfiltered Loch Katrine drinking water supplied to the home (odds ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.11, P = 0.019). However, while filtration appears to be associated with initially reduced rates of cryptosporidiosis, evidence suggests it may paradoxically make those consumers more susceptible to other transmission routes in the long-term. These findings support implementation of similar treatment for other unfiltered drinking-water supplies, as a means of reducing cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking water. PMID:23591075

Pollock, K G J; Young, D; Robertson, C; Ahmed, S; Ramsay, C N

2014-01-01

215

Preventing underage drinking: a "roll of the dice".  

PubMed

This study examines the efficacy of a video entitled "Underage Drinking: A Roll of the Dice," and accompanying discussion guide. The video illustrates the civil and criminal consequences of underage drinking. The video and discussion aimed to: (1) increase awareness about the problem of underage drinking; (2) increase viewers' and participants' knowledge and perceptions of the risks and responsibilities and reduce the perceived acceptability of underage drinking; and (3) encourage discussion between youths and adults about underage drinking. The "Roll of the Dice" was evaluated in 19 school and community groups in Hawaii. Groups were randomly assigned to receive follow-up materials or no follow-up materials. Evaluation involved three surveys: pretest, posttest, and follow-up. Three hundred youths and adults responded to the first two surveys, and 220 people completed a third survey. Youths and adults showed increases in short-term knowledge, perceived risk, and perceived responsibility, and a decrease in perceived acceptability of underage drinking after viewing the video. Significant improvement between the pretest and follow-up was observed, although the changes were not entirely maintained at the time of the posttest. The results showed that legal consequences of underage drinking are not common knowledge, and that a well-designed one-time program can make a difference. This video and discussion session provide an inexpensive way to raise adults' and youths' awareness of the laws and penalties, resulting in effects maintained for at least a month after the program. Additional follow-up materials did not enhance retention of changes in knowledge and attitudes. PMID:12507525

Glanz, Karen; Maddock, Jason E; Shigaki, Dorothy; Sorensen, Catherine A

2003-01-01

216

Disinfectant Penetration into Nitrifying Drinking Water Distribution System Biofilm Using Microelectrodes  

EPA Science Inventory

Nitrification within drinking water distribution systems reduces water quality, causes difficulties maintaining adequate disinfectant residual, and poses public health concerns including exposure to nitrite, nitrate, and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms. Monochloramine is...

217

The Effect of the 18-Year Old Drinking Age on Auto Accidents  

E-print Network

The effect of Massachusetts' reduced drinking age on auto accidents is examined by employing an interrupted time series analysis of monthly accident data covering the period January, 1969, through September 1973. The data ...

Cucchiaro, Stephen

218

A review of arsenic presence in China drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chronic endemic arsenicosis areas have been discovered in China since 1960s. Up to 2012, 19 provinces had been found to have As concentration in drinking water exceeding the standard level (0.05 mg/L). Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Shanxi Province are historical well-known “hotspots” of geogenic As-contaminated drinking water. The goal of this review is to examine, summarize and discuss the information of As in drinking water for all provinces and territories in China. Possible natural As sources for elevating As level in drinking water, were documented. Geogenic As-contaminated drinking water examples were taken to introduce typical environmental conditions where the problems occurred: closed basins in arid or semi-arid areas and reducing aquifers under high pH conditions. Geothermal water or mineral water in mountains areas can be high-As water as well. For undiscovered areas, prediction of potential As-affected groundwater has been carried out by some research groups by use of logistic regression. Modeled maps of probability of geogenic As contamination in groundwater are promising to be used as references to discover unknown areas. Furthermore, anthropogenic As contaminations were summarized and mining, smelters and chemical industries were found to be major sources for As pollution in China.

He, Jing; Charlet, Laurent

2013-06-01

219

Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems.  

PubMed

The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age=22.95, SD=5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

2014-01-01

220

Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems  

PubMed Central

The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

2014-01-01

221

School Soft Drink Availability and Consumption Among U.S. Secondary Students  

PubMed Central

Background Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) such as soft drinks has been associated with significantly increased energy intake and body weight. One strategy used to reduce soft drink consumption among adolescents has been reducing availability in schools; however, research is limited on associations between availability of soft drinks in school and student consumption. Purpose This study examines associations between regular and diet soft drink availability in schools and student consumption using data from 329 secondary schools and 9284 students. Methods Data were obtained from two sources: (1) nationally representative cross-sectional samples of students in Grades 8, 10, and 12 from U.S. public and private schools in 2010 and 2011 in the Monitoring the Future study; and (2) administrators of the same schools in the Youth, Education, and Society study. Multilevel modeling conducted in 2012 examined associations between school availability and student consumption controlling for student sociodemographics and school characteristics. Results In the total sample of more than 9000 students, regular and diet soft drink availability in school was not related to student consumption of these beverages in multivariate models. Yet, among African-American high school students, school regular and diet soft drink availability was significantly related to higher daily consumption (both before and after controlling for student and school factors). Conclusions Although removal of soft drinks from schools may not result in significantly lower overall student consumption, such actions may result in significant decreases in soft drink consumption for specific student groups. PMID:23683974

Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

2013-01-01

222

A prospective investigation of coffee drinking and endometrial cancer incidence.  

PubMed

Coffee drinking may be associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer; however, prospective data are limited. Further, it is not clear whether any association between coffee and endometrial cancer differs according to coffee caffeine content. The association of coffee drinking with incidence of endometrial cancer was evaluated among 226,732 women, aged 50-71, enrolled in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study who completed a baseline epidemiologic questionnaire. Following a mean 9.3 years of follow-up, data were available for 1,486 incident endometrial cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence. Sub-group analyses were performed according to smoking status, hormone therapy use (HT) and body habitus. Coffee drinking was inversely related to incidence of endometrial cancer (hazard ratio [HR] comparing drinking of >3 cups/day versus no cups = 0.64, 95% CI, 0.51-0.80; P(trend) = 0.0004). The association of coffee with endometrial cancer risk was apparent for consumption of both regular (HR per cup = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.86-0.95) and decaffeinated coffee (HR per cup = 0.93, 95% CI, 0.87-0.99). The relation of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence varied significantly by HT use (P(interaction) = 0.03) with an association only apparent among HT-never users (HR comparing drinking >3 cups/day versus no cups = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.41-0.72; P(trend) = 0.0005). Endometrial cancer incidence appears to be reduced among women that habitually drink coffee, an association that does not differ according to caffeine content. PMID:22021096

Gunter, Marc J; Schaub, Jennifer A; Xue, Xiaonan; Freedman, Neal D; Gaudet, Mia M; Rohan, Thomas E; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Sinha, Rashmi

2012-08-15

223

The effect of legal drinking age on fatal injuries of adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of legal drinking age (LDA) on fatal injuries in persons aged 15 to 24 years in the United States between 1979 and 1984. Effects on pre-LDA teens, adolescents targeted by LDA, initiation at LDA, and post-LDA drinking experience were assessed. A higher LDA was also associated with reduced death rates for motor vehicle drivers, pedestrians, unintentional injuries excluding motor vehicle injuries, and suicide. An initiation effect on homicides was identified. Reductions in injury deaths related to drinking experience were not found. In general, a higher LDA reduced deaths among adolescents and young adults for various categories of violent death. PMID:1536313

Jones, N E; Pieper, C F; Robertson, L S

1992-01-01

224

Drinking and driving, and alcohol drinking patterns in Argentinean drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important human risk factors for road traffic crashes is alcohol consumption. The relationship between acute alcohol consumption and road traffic crashes has been much studied, nevertheless, less is known about the relationship between chronic consumption and accident involvement. The objective of this study is to characterise Argentinean drivers according to their alcohol drinking pattern, tendency to

R Peltzer; M Cremonte; C Ubeda; R Ledesma

2010-01-01

225

A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

2012-01-01

226

Longitudinal associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks, and binge drinking behavior in adolescence.  

PubMed

Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior. PMID:23435271

van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E

2013-05-01

227

Young Children, Energy Drinks a Dangerous Mix  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Young Children, Energy Drinks a Dangerous Mix Study finds more than ... 16, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The potential dangers of energy drinks, those highly caffeinated beverages that promise to ...

228

Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits  

MedlinePLUS

... Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

229

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

230

Underage Drinking: Frequency, Consequences, and Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the frequency of underage drinking, driving after drinking and alcohol-related crashes, trends in these behaviors, and promising interventions.Methods: We examined drinking and drinking- and-driving behaviors reported in the United States in the 2001 U.S. National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol

RALPH W. HINGSON; JEAN-PASCAL Assailly; ALLAN F. WILLIAMS

2004-01-01

231

Turning 21 and the Associated Changes in Drinking and Driving After Drinking Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The authors examined drinking and driving after drinking before and after turning 21. Participants: Participants were drawn from first time college students who were taking part in a 4-year longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks. Methods: Web-based longitudinal surveys collected data on drinking and driving after drinking from August 2004 through November 2007 (n = 1,817). A

Kim Fromme; Reagan R. Wetherill; Dan J. Neal

2011-01-01

232

Through the drinking glass: an analysis of the cultural meanings of college drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

College drinking and its adverse consequences on students’ health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the college drinking culture. From an analysis of a

Andy Soon Leong Tan

2011-01-01

233

Through the drinking glass: an analysis of the cultural meanings of college drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the college drinking culture. From an analysis of a

Andy Soon Leong Tan

2012-01-01

234

Drinking and Drinking Problems: A Cross-National Comparison of Irish and American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking and drinking problems were compared for American high school students (n = 1,928) and Irish postprimary students (n = 1,702). Irish students began drinking at an older age than American students, but reported higher prevalence rates for lifetime drinking, drank more frequently, and reported more frequent intoxication. Overall, the Irish students were more likely to report alcohol problems. American

Joel W. Grube; Meng-Jinn Chen; Patricia A. Madden; Mark Morgan

1997-01-01

235

Multivariate Analyses of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines predictors of heavy drinking frequency and drinking-related problems among more than 600 college students. Controlling for high school drinking frequency, results of multiple regression analyses showed that more frequent heavy drinking was predicted by being male and risk factors of more frequent marijuana and tobacco…

Fenzel, L. Mickey

2005-01-01

236

Homeland, Gender and Chinese Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan and Hong Kong represent areas of rapid industrial development and the attenuation of traditional Chinese attitudes toward drinking. To measure the influence of the different homelands on alcohol consumption, a survey of 150 foreign Chinese students (94 males and 56 females) was conducted. In terms of homeland, 95 participants (63.3%) were from mainland China, 29 (19.3%) were from Taiwan,

Israel Colón; Cindy A. Wuollet

1994-01-01

237

French drinking: tradition or dependence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to primarily identify the reasons behind the cultural shift which has taken place in France over the past few years regarding alcohol consumption, and concentrates on distinctive population categories in order to highlight characteristics of, and changes in, drinking behaviour amongst male, female, youth and senior drinkers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The author reviews the current governmental

Nathalie Geraldine Ormrod

2009-01-01

238

Decisional Balance and Collegiate Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the perceived benefits and costs of alcohol use among undergraduates (N=462) perceiving their drinking as normal or abnormal as well as those undergraduates who met or did not meet the DSM-IV-TR criteria for an alcohol disorder. A 2x2 MANOVA and univariate analyses on the benefits (pros) and costs (cons) scales of the Alcohol…

Morgen, Keith; Gunneson, Lauren

2008-01-01

239

Strategies to Prevent Underage Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol use by underage drinkers is a persistent public health problem in the United States, and alcohol is the most commonly used drug among adolescents. Accordingly, numerous approaches have been developed and studied that aim to prevent underage drinking. Some approaches are school based, involving curricula targeted at preventing alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana use. Other approaches are extracurricular, offering activities

Kelli A. Komro; Traci L. Toomey

2002-01-01

240

Training Responsible Drinking with College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a description of a program designed to teach responsible drinking practices in a college student population. The aim of this program is to prevent problem drinking or alocholism in students who report concern about their drinking behavior, and volunteer to participate in a treatment-prevention program aimed at controlling their…

Marlatt, G. Alan

241

Teen Drinking Prevention Program: Teen Action Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was designed to help teenagers become involved in fun, alcohol-free activities. It provides youth with ideas on how to influence and change the factors that encourage teenage drinking. The guide has four purposes: (1) raise public awareness of the underage drinking crisis; (2) change community norms that encourage underage drinking; (3)…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

242

College Drinking Needs More Research, Scientists Say.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes presentations at a symposium (Denver, CO, June 5, 1998) on college drinking which examined: the impact of developmental issues of late adolescence; influence of college drinking on human biology and on substance abuse in later life; student drinking during the academic year; and campus program evaluation. Concluded there was a need for…

Donodeo, Fred

2000-01-01

243

Teen Tipplers: America's Underage Drinking Epidemic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In preparing for this report, surveys and focus groups were conducted with adults (N=900), with or without children under the legal drinking age, to determine their attitudes, views, and thoughts regarding the problem of underage drinking. The survey was designed to identify opportunities for civic engagement on the issue of underage drinking and…

Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

244

Age of Drinking Onset and Injuries, Motor Vehicle Crashes, and Physical Fights After Drinking and When Not Drinking  

PubMed Central

Background Earlier age of drinking onset has been associated with greater odds of involvement in motor vehicle crashes, unintentional injuries, and physical fights after drinking. This study explores whether early drinkers take more risks even when sober by comparing potential associations between age of drinking onset and these outcomes after drinking relative to when respondents have not been drinking. Method From a national sample, 4,021 ever-drinkers ages 18 to 39 were asked age of drinking onset, not counting tastes or sips. They were also asked if they were ever in motor vehicle crashes, unintentionally injured, or in physical fights after drinking and when not drinking. GEE logistic regression models for repeated measures dichotomous outcomes compared whether odds ratios between age of onset and these adverse outcomes significantly differed when they occurred after drinking vs. when not drinking, controlling for respondents’ demographic characteristics, cigarette and marijuana use, family history of alcoholism, ever experiencing alcohol dependence, and frequency of binge drinking. Results Compared with persons who started drinking at age 21+, those who started at ages <14, 14–15, 16–17, and 18–20 had, after drinking, respectively greater odds: 6.3 (2.6, 15.3), 5.2 (2.2, 12.3), 3.3 (1.5, 7.3), and 2.2 (0.9, 5.1) of having been in a motor vehicle crash; 6.0 (3.4, 10.5), 4.9 (3.0, 8.6), 3.7 (2.4, 5.6), and 1.9 (1.2, 2.9) of ever being in a fight; and 4.6 (2.4, 8.7), 4.7 (2.6, 8.6), 3.2 (1.9, 5.6), and 2.3 (1.3, 4.0) of ever being accidentally injured. The odds of experiencing motor vehicle accidents or injuries when not drinking were not significantly elevated among early onset drinkers. The odds of earlier onset drinkers being in fights were also significantly greater when respondents had been drinking than not drinking. Conclusion Starting to drink at an earlier age is associated with greater odds of experiencing motor vehicle crash involvement, unintentional injuries, and physical fights when respondents were drinking, but less so when respondents had not been drinking. These findings reinforce the need for programs and policies to delay drinking onset. PMID:19298330

Hingson, Ralph W.; Edwards, Erika M.; Heeren, Timothy; Rosenbloom, David

2010-01-01

245

Experimental Test of Social Norms Theory in a Real-World Drinking Environment  

PubMed Central

Objective: Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory’s limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Method: Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. Results: We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reduce drinking via changing normative perceptions. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduced drinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small. PMID:22846251

Johnson, Mark B.

2012-01-01

246

Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.  

PubMed

There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions. PMID:10229719

Boorman, G A

1999-02-01

247

Student article How children's and adolescents' soft drink consumption is affecting their health: A look at building peak bone mass and preventing osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building peak bone mass during adolescence is important to reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Calcium is important for building bone; however, milk consumption is declining while soft drink consumption is increasing among children and adolescents. There is disagreement regarding whether soft drink is leading to replacement of milk, reduced calcium intake, reduced bone mass and an increased

Stephanie Wheler

248

[Risks of energy drinks in youths].  

PubMed

The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy episodic drinking is at risk of serious injury, sexual assault, drunk driving, and death. However, even after adjusting for alcohol consumption, students who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks had dramatically higher rates of serious alcohol-related consequences. It has been reported that the subjective perceptions of some symptoms of alcohol intoxication are less intense after the combined ingestion of the alcohol plus energy drink; however, these effects are not detected in objective measures of motor coordination and visual reaction time. PMID:20926266

Bigard, A-X

2010-11-01

249

Influences on consumption of soft drinks and fast foods in adolescents.  

PubMed

Soft drink and fast food are energy dense foodstuffs that are heavily marketed to adolescents, and are likely to be important in terms of risk of obesity. This study sought to examine the influences on soft drink and fast food consumption among adolescents as part of a cross-sectional survey of 2,719 adolescents (aged 11-16) from 93 randomly selected schools in New South Wales, Australia. Students provided information on soft drink and fast food consumption, and responded to statements examining influences over consumption. Over half of the boys and more than one third of the girls reported drinking soft drink daily, and consumption peaked in Grade 8 students. A quarter of students reported choosing soft drinks instead of water or milk, and around 40% agreed that soft drink was usually available in their homes. Availability in the home and drinking soft drinks with meals was most strongly associated with consumption in all age groups. Fast food consumption was higher among boys than girls in all age groups. Convenience and value for money yielded the strongest associations with fast food consumption in boys, while preferring fast food to meals at home and preferring to "upsize" meals were most strongly associated with consumption in girls. Interventions to reduce consumption of soft drinks should target availability in both the home and school environment by removing soft drinks and replacing them with more nutritive beverages. Fast food outlets should be encouraged to provide a greater range of healthy and competitively priced options in reasonable portions. PMID:19786394

Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Crawford, David; Dobbins, Timothy; Hardy, Louise; Okely, Anthony D

2009-01-01

250

Mental Health, Sleep Quality, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol-Related Consequences: A Path-Analytic Model  

PubMed Central

Objective: Poor mental health, sleep problems, drinking motivations, and high-risk drinking are prevalent among college students. However, research designed to explicate the interrelationships among these health risk behaviors is lacking. This study was designed to assess the direct and indirect influences of poor mental health (a latent factor consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress) to alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences through the mediators of global sleep quality and drinking motives in a comprehensive model. Method: Participants were 1,044 heavy-drinking college students (66.3% female) who completed online surveys. Results: A hybrid structural equation model tested hypotheses involving relations leading from poor mental health to drinking motives and poorer global sleep quality to drinking outcomes. Results showed that poor mental health significantly predicted all four subscales of drinking motivations (social, coping, conformity, and enhancement) as well as poor sleep. Most of the drinking motives and poor sleep were found to explain alcohol use and negative alcohol consequences. Poor sleep predicted alcohol consequences, even after controlling for all other variables in the model. The hypothesized mediational pathways were examined with tests of indirect effects. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess concomitantly the relationships among three vital health-related domains (mental health, sleep behavior, and alcohol risk) in college students. Findings offer important implications for college personnel and interventionists interested in reducing alcohol risk by focusing on alleviating mental health problems and poor sleep quality. PMID:24172110

Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer,, Justin F.; Pham, Andy

2013-01-01

251

A Pilot Study of Naltrexone and BASICS for Heavy Drinking Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Heavy drinking young adults often have limited motivation to change their drinking behavior. Adding pharmacotherapy to brief counseling is a novel approach to treating this population. A small open-label pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of offering eight weeks of daily and targeted (i.e., taken as needed in anticipation of drinking) naltrexone with BASICS (brief motivational) counseling to heavy drinking young adults; to assess the tolerability of the medication in this population and to obtain preliminary efficacy data. The sample (N = 14) showed strong adherence to study appointments and medication taking, supporting the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the medication was well-tolerated. Significant reductions from baseline were observed in drinks per drinking day and in percent heavy drinking days and these gains were maintained one month after treatment ended. A significant decrease in alcohol-related consequences was also observed. Findings from this small pilot study suggest that naltrexone in combination with BASICS represents a promising strategy to reduce heavy drinking among young adults. PMID:18502591

Leeman, Robert F.; Palmer, Rebekka S.; Corbin, William R.; Romano, Denise M.; Meandzija, Boris; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

2008-01-01

252

Naturally Occurring Changes in Women's Drinking From High School to College and Implications for Sexual Victimization  

PubMed Central

Objective: The current study examined the natural trajectories of alcohol use among women as they transitioned from high school to college, considering changes in drinking for students at initially different levels of drinking. We examined the hypothesis that the association between college drinking and sexual victimization would be stronger for women with less high school drinking experience. Method: Female, college-bound, high school seniors were recruited from the community at the time of graduation (N = 437). Alcohol consumption and sexual victimization were assessed at the time of high school graduation (Time 0 [T0]) and at the end of the first (T1) and second (T2) semesters of college. Results: Abstainers and light drinkers increased alcohol consumption from T0 to T1; however, consumption by those already engaging in heavy episodic drinking remained stable. Consumption did not increase for any group from T1 to T2. As expected, maximum consumption in college was strongly associated with experiencing incapacitated rape or other sexual victimization during the same semester; however, prior drinking experience did not moderate the relationship. Conclusions: Occasions of heavy drinking in college are a significant risk factor for sexual victimization for both experienced and inexperienced drinkers. Findings point toward universal prevention, ideally before college entry, as a strategy for reducing heavy episodic drinking and hence, college sexual victimization. PMID:22152659

Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.

2012-01-01

253

Reducing Youth Exposure to Alcohol Ads: Targeting Public Transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underage drinking is a major public health problem. Youth drink more heavily than adults and are more vulnerable to the adverse\\u000a effects of alcohol. Previous research has demonstrated the connection between alcohol advertising and underage drinking. Restricting\\u000a outdoor advertising in general and transit ads in particular, represents an important opportunity to reduce youth exposure.\\u000a To address this problem, the Marin

Michele Simon

2008-01-01

254

The relationship of 16 underage drinking laws to reductions in underage drinking drivers in fatal crashes in the United States.  

PubMed

The minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA 21) legislation in the United States (U.S.) has been documented as one of the most effective public health measures adopted in recent times. This study reports on an effort to evaluate and interrelate a basic set of 16 laws directed at younger than age 21 youth that are designed to (a) control the sales of alcohol to youth, (b) prevent possession and consumption of alcohol by youth, and (c) prevent alcohol impaired driving by those younger than age 21. The first objective of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between the existence and strength of the various underage drinking laws in a State and the percentage of younger than age 21 drivers involved in fatal crashes who were drinking. After controlling for various factors, the only significant finding that emerged was for the existence and strength of the law making it illegal for an underage person to use fake identification ( p <0.016). The second objective was to determine if the enactment of two of the sixteen provisions (possession and purchase laws) was associated with a reduction in the rate of underage drinking driver involvements in fatal crashes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a national 11.2% reduction ( p <0.05) in the ratio of underage drinking drivers to underage non-drinking drivers in fatal crashes after the possession and purchase laws were adopted in 36 States and the District of Columbia (DC). This suggests that the two mandatory elements of the Federal MLDA 21 law are having the desired effect of reducing underage alcohol-related highway deaths. PMID:18184512

Fell, J C; Fisher, D A; Voas, R B; Blackman, K; Tippetts, A S

2007-01-01

255

The Relationship of 16 Underage Drinking Laws to Reductions in Underage Drinking Drivers in Fatal Crashes in the United States  

PubMed Central

The minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA 21) legislation in the United States (U.S.) has been documented as one of the most effective public health measures adopted in recent times. This study reports on an effort to evaluate and interrelate a basic set of 16 laws directed at younger than age 21 youth that are designed to (a) control the sales of alcohol to youth, (b) prevent possession and consumption of alcohol by youth, and (c) prevent alcohol impaired driving by those younger than age 21. The first objective of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between the existence and strength of the various underage drinking laws in a State and the percentage of younger than age 21 drivers involved in fatal crashes who were drinking. After controlling for various factors, the only significant finding that emerged was for the existence and strength of the law making it illegal for an underage person to use fake identification (p<0.016). The second objective was to determine if the enactment of two of the sixteen provisions (possession and purchase laws) was associated with a reduction in the rate of underage drinking driver involvements in fatal crashes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a national 11.2% reduction (p<0.05) in the ratio of underage drinking drivers to underage non-drinking drivers in fatal crashes after the possession and purchase laws were adopted in 36 States and the District of Columbia (DC). This suggests that the two mandatory elements of the Federal MLDA 21 law are having the desired effect of reducing underage alcohol-related highway deaths. PMID:18184512

Fell, J.C.; Fisher, D.A.; Voas, R.B.; Blackman, K.; Tippetts, A.S.

2007-01-01

256

Examination of the mediational influences of peer norms, environmental influences, and parent communications on heavy drinking in athletes and nonathletes.  

PubMed

The present study used perspectives from the general literature on college alcohol consumption to examine mediational influences of peer, environmental, and parental variables on heavy drinking for student athlete and nonathlete samples. Eight hundred thirty-five freshmen who differed in organized sports involvement were compared on heavy drinking outcomes, peer norms, environmental influences, and parental communication. College athletes reported significantly more heavy drinking experiences than nonathletes. Peer norms, environmental influences, and parental communication were all significant mediators of the athlete-heavy drinking relationship. Athletes reported a higher perception of peer drinking, peer approval of drinking, higher alcohol availability, and direct drink offers, which, in turn, were related to higher rates of heavy drinking. Parental communication mediated the athlete-heavy drinking relationship differently, depending on the specific topic of conversation. Discussion surrounding the importance of incorporating a variety of interventions aimed at reducing collegiate athlete drinking on the basis of the peer, environmental, and parental influences observed in the present analyses are presented. Limitations and directions for future research are also noted. PMID:18072827

Turrisi, Rob; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Mallett, Kimberly A; Larimer, Mary E; Kilmer, Jason R

2007-12-01

257

Effects of naltrexone on alcohol drinking patterns and extinction of alcohol seeking in baboons  

PubMed Central

Rationale Understanding naltrexone’s effect on motivation to drink and pattern of drinking is important for better treatment outcomes and for comparison with novel medications. Objectives Naltrexone’s effects on number and pattern of seeking, self-administration, and extinction responses were evaluated in two groups of baboons trained under a 3 component chained schedule of reinforcement (CSR). Methods Alcohol (4% w/v; n=4; Alcohol Group) or a preferred non-alcoholic beverage (n=4; Control Group) was available for self-administration only in Component 3 of the CSR. Responses in Component 2 provided indices of motivation to drink (seeking). Naltrexone (0.32 – 3.2 mg/kg) and saline were administered before drinking and Component 2 extinction sessions. Results Acute doses of naltrexone significantly decreased total self-administration responses (p<0.01), intake volume (p<0.001) and g/kg of alcohol (p<0.01) in the Alcohol Group only. Pattern of drinking did not change, but number of drinks during the initial drinking bout was decreased significantly by naltrexone for both groups (P<0.05). During within-session extinction tests, acute naltrexone significantly decreased time to reach extinction (p<0.01) and number of seeking responses (p<0.05), particularly early in the extinction period in the Alcohol Group only. When administered chronically, naltrexone did not decrease progressive-ratio breaking points to gain access to alcohol, but dose-dependently reduced alcohol self-administration (p<0.05) by decreasing the magnitude of the initial drinking bout. Conclusions The results support clinical observations that naltrexone may be most effective at reducing self-administration in the context of ongoing alcohol availability and may reduce motivation to drink in the presence of alcohol-related cues. PMID:22451093

Kaminski, Barbara J.; Duke, Angela N.; Weerts, Elise M.

2012-01-01

258

Colorectal cancer and beer drinking.  

PubMed Central

Evidence is presented of a significant statistical association between beer drinking and colorectal cancer, particularly rectal cancer. This finding is based on correlations between consumption and cancer mortality and between changes in consumption and changes in cancer mortality for 47 states in the United States of America. Also various secular trends, an urban-rural gradient, socioeconomic gradients and sex ratios in the United States are shown to be generally consistent with a relationship between beer consumption and colorectal cancer, particularly rectal cancer. The limitations on drawing sound aetiological inferences from such data are acknowledged. In particular, several other variables are shown to be associated with both beer drinking and colorectal cancer. Also, a discussion of previous epidemiological studies is given, and it appears there is only a limited amount of direct evidence in humans to support the statistical demographic relationships. PMID:324508

Enstrom, J. E.

1977-01-01

259

A Randomized Clinical Trial of Naltrexone and Behavioral Therapy for Problem Drinking Men Who Have Sex with Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study tested the comparative effectiveness of modified behavioral self-control therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the 2, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N = 200) were recruited and urn randomized to 1 of 2…

Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kranzler, Henry R.

2012-01-01

260

Effects of Topiramate on Urge to Drink and the Subjective Effects of Alcohol: A Preliminary Laboratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Topiramate was recently reported to be efficacious in reducing drinking rates and craving among individuals with alcohol dependence in a randomized controlled trial, but dose effects could not be determined. This laboratory study systematically examined the dose-depen- dent effects of topiramate on cue-elicited craving and other putative mechanisms of its pharmaco- therapeutic effects on drinking. Methods: Male and female

Robert Miranda Jr; James MacKillop; Peter M. Monti; Damaris J. Rohsenow; Jennifer Tidey; Chad Gwaltney; Robert Swift; Lara Ray; John McGeary

2008-01-01

261

Adolescent drinking behavior: an observational study of the influence of situational factors on adolescent drinking rates.  

PubMed

Adolescent drinking behavior was observed on weekend nights (9 PM until midnight) in three youth bars, three youth centers and two discos located in the most southern part of the Netherlands. Drinking rates, individual characteristics, drinking group variables and aspects of the overall drinking situation were recorded. Boys and girls appeared to differ in the variables of influence on their drinking rates. Boys were observed to drink at a higher rate on evenings with loud music, when they participated in large, all-male groups and when their (estimated) age was less than 20. Together these variables explain 24% of the variance in boys' drinking rates. Girls drank less fast when they participated in a group not buying rounds and in a drinking group of constant composition. Although analysis showed that girls' drinking rates did not vary significantly with aspects of the overall situation and individual variables, still 14% of the total variance here could be explained by the drinking group variables. These results are to some extent consistent with findings from other observational studies on drinking behavior. Most of these studies showed males in large groups to drink at the highest rates. However, only a few observational studies were aimed exclusively at young people's drinking behavior and those studies did not include aspects of the overall drinking situation. PMID:2270064

van de Goor, L A; Knibbe, R A; Drop, M J

1990-11-01

262

Repeated Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking Alters Ethanol Drinking Patterns and Depresses Striatal GABAergic Transmission  

PubMed Central

Repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and abstinence are key components in the development of dependence. However, the precise behavioral mechanisms underlying binge-like drinking and its consequences on striatal synaptic physiology remain unclear. In the present study, ethanol and water drinking patterns were recorded with high temporal resolution over 6 weeks of binge-like ethanol drinking using the ‘drinking in the dark' (DID) protocol. The bottle exchange occurring at the beginning of each session prompted a transient increase in the drinking rate that might facilitate the acquisition of ethanol binge-like drinking. Ethanol drinking mice also displayed a ‘front-loading' behavior, in which the highest rate of drinking was recorded during the first 15?min. This rate increased over weeks and paralleled the mild escalation of blood ethanol concentrations. GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal striatum were examined following DID. Spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and the density of dendritic spines were unchanged after ethanol drinking. However, the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents was depressed in medium spiny neurons of ethanol drinking mice. A history of ethanol drinking also increased ethanol preference and altered the acute ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission differentially in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum. Together, the study shows that the bottle exchange during DID promotes fast, voluntary ethanol drinking and that this intermittent pattern of ethanol drinking causes a depression of GABAergic transmission in the dorsal striatum. PMID:23995582

Wilcox, Mark V; Carlson, Verginia C Cuzon; Sherazee, Nyssa; Sprow, Gretchen M; Bock, Roland; Thiele, Todd E; Lovinger, David M; Alvarez, Veronica A

2014-01-01

263

Heavy Drinking in College Students: Who Is at Risk and What Is Being Done About It?  

PubMed Central

Problem drinking and related consequences are a major social issue plaguing college campuses across the United States. Each year, alcohol is responsible for fatalities, assaults, serious injuries, and arrests that occur among college students. The authors review and discuss the risk factors, drinking patterns, and consequences that are relevant to the general student population. In addition, the authors highlight individuals at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, such as Greek-letter social organization members and student athletes. The authors also discuss the interventions that attempt to reduce risky drinking and related problems in these subgroups as well as the future directions for research. PMID:17128959

TURRISI, ROB; MALLETT, KIMBERLY A.; MASTROLEO, NADINE R.; LARIMER, MARY E.

2008-01-01

264

Taxing soft drinks and restricting access to vending machines to curb child obesity.  

PubMed

One of the largest drivers of the current obesity epidemic is thought to be excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Some have proposed vending machine restrictions and taxing soft drinks to curb children's consumption of soft drinks; to a large extent, these policies have not been evaluated empirically. We examine these policies using two nationally representative data sets and find no evidence that, as currently practiced, either is effective at reducing children's weight. We conclude by outlining changes that may increase their effectiveness, such as implementing comprehensive restrictions on access to soft drinks in schools and imposing higher tax rates than are currently in place in many jurisdictions. PMID:20360172

Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

2010-05-01

265

A Review of Exercise as Intervention for Sedentary Hazardous Drinking College Students: Rationale and Issues  

PubMed Central

College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity – exercise – as an intervention for hazardous drinking. Exercise has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and data suggest that students who engage in exercise regularly are less likely to drink heavily. However, the adherence to exercise necessary to achieve these benefits and possibly reduce drinking is poor, and improved exercise adherence interventions are needed. A novel combination of motivational enhancement therapy and contingency management is discussed as a means to address the critical issue of exercise adherence. PMID:20452930

Weinstock, Jeremiah

2010-01-01

266

Influence of Grade-Level Drinking Norms on Individual Drinking Behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate which points of the middle-school drinking distribution are the most influential in the social contagion of drinking across the middle-school years, in order to identify potential social multipliers. Methods We measured drinking intentions and behaviors by gender, school, and grade among urban middle-school students who participated in Project Northland Chicago in a longitudinal cohort design. Results Individual drinking behaviors were consistently influenced by extreme (80th percentile) drinking intentions and behaviors. This effect was mediated through normal or average levels of drinking, over time. Conclusions Interventions can target extreme drinkers as the influential persons in middle-school grades. PMID:22943103

Yarnell, Lisa M.; Brown, H. Shelton; Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

2013-01-01

267

Contingency Management in the Treatment of Adolescent Alcohol Drinking Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three case studies demonstrated that social and monetary reinforcement for abstinence reduced the rate of excessive alcohol drinking in adolescents. The self-monitoring and extrinsic reinforcement procedures (ABA reversal design) resulted in complete abstinence in a 15-year-old boy with a 10-year history of excessive alcohol abuse and hospitalization for an alcohol-induced psychosis. In the cases of the 13-year-old and 15-year-old girls

Steven L. Brigham; George A. Rekers; Alexander C. Rosen; Judson J. Swihart; Gene Pfrimmer; Larry N. Ferguson

1981-01-01

268

The Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Ages on Teen Childbearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides empirical evidence on the structural relationship between alcohol use and teen childbearing by exploiting the exogenous variation in youth alcohol availability generated by changes in state minimum legal drinking ages. The reduced-form childbearing models are based on state-level panel data and two-way fixed effect specifications as well as models that incorporate as controls the contemporaneous childbearing data

Thomas S. Dee

2001-01-01

269

A Review of Exercise as Intervention for Sedentary Hazardous Drinking College Students: Rationale and Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity—exercise—as an intervention for hazardous drinking. Exercise has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and data suggest that

Jeremiah Weinstock

2010-01-01

270

Monitoring drinking behaviour and motivation to drink over successive doses of alcohol.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare alcohol urge, drinking behaviour and mood across two beverage conditions (alcohol/soft drink), over multiple drinks. Forty-five (22 men) participants completed two conditions (alcohol/soft-drink). Baseline alcohol urge and mood was measured before an initial drink consumed (0.2 g/kg alcohol or lemonade). Four drinking phases, which provided alcohol and lemonade, followed. Alcohol urge, mood and liking/enjoyment of beverages were measured. Participants' typical drinking habits were recorded, allowing comparisons across drinking factors. Alcohol urge was greater in the alcohol condition (P<0.03), which positively correlated with liking and drinking enjoyment of the alcohol beverage (P<0.04). Binge drinking and weekly alcohol consumption positively related to alcohol urge during the first half of the alcohol condition (P<0.02). Feeling stimulated was positively related to alcohol urge (P<0.01). Sip latency was quickest for alcohol in the alcohol condition (P<0.001) and did not increase over time as in the soft-drink condition (P<0.001). This study presents a paradigm in which alcohol motivation can be assessed within more typical drinking occasion parameters. Urge related to alcohol's positive reinforcing effects. As more alcohol was consumed, a disassociation of liking and wanting alcohol occurred, indicating that different processes may underlie behaviour during different periods of a drinking occasion. PMID:20847645

Rose, Abigail Katherine; Hobbs, Malcolm; Klipp, Laura; Bell, Steven; Edwards, Kendra; O?hara, Pat; Drummond, Colin

2010-12-01

271

Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: an evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE. PMID:24169372

Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M

2014-01-01

272

Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: An evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE. PMID:24169372

Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M.

2014-01-01

273

Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.  

PubMed

Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration. PMID:22990947

Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

2013-01-01

274

Promoting healthy drinking habits in children.  

PubMed

Good fluid intake in children is vitally important as they have immature thirst mechanisms, relatively high rates of fluid loss and are physically active. Poor fluid intake may affect children's cognitive functioning as well as bladder control. Research shows that children drink seven times as much soft drink as water. Schools have a vital role to play in ensuring that children develop healthy drinking patterns. PMID:23252101

Jacques, Eileen

275

Drinking Motives in Clinical and General Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This paper had three aims: (1) to validate a Spanish adaptation of the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M DMQ-R), (2) to explore the relationship of each drinking motive with different patterns of alcohol use, and (3) to compare the drinking motives of moderate drinkers, heavy drinkers, and alcohol abusing\\/dependent individuals. Methods: Two studies were carried out. In Study 1,

Laura Mezquita; Sherry H. Stewart; Manuel I. Ibáñez; María A. Ruipérez; Helena Villa; Jorge Moya; Generós Ortet

2011-01-01

276

EPA?s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

277

[Controlled drinking for alcohol-dependent patients].  

PubMed

Controlled drinking should be included in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. Research has showed that treatment plans which allow controlled drinking as a possible outcome yield better results in the long run than those in which abstinence is imposed. Controlled drinking can be a goal in itself, a step towards abstinence or a way of limiting alcohol-related problems. Accepting that the patient set his own treatment goals helps reinforce therapeutic rapport and diminish drop-out. Furthermore, the treatment approach becomes more finely-shaded, as it helps patients not to waver continuously between abstinence and massive drinking. PMID:17726899

Albrecht, Anais; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

2007-07-01

278

Flaming alcoholic drinks: flirting with danger.  

PubMed

Alcohol-related burn injuries carry significant mortality and morbidity rates. Flaming alcoholic beverages served in trendy bars and clubs are becoming increasingly popular. The dangers associated with an ignited alcoholic drink are often underestimated by party goers whose risk assessment ability is already impaired by heavy alcohol consumption. The authors present two cases demonstrating the varied severity of burn injuries associated with flaming alcoholic drinks, and their clinical management. Consumption of flaming alcoholic drinks poses potential risks for burn injuries. Further support is required to enable national and local agencies to implement effective interventions in drinking environments. PMID:24043236

Tan, Alethea; Frew, Quentin; Yousif, Ali; Ueckermann, Nicola; Dziewulksi, Peter

2014-01-01

279

Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

McDermott, James H.

1978-01-01

280

Update on energy drinks and youth.  

PubMed

Energy drinks are attractive and readily available in every grocery store and gas station. While most youth verbalize an understanding that too much caffeine is bad for one's health, at an age of multiple demands, an over-the-counter offer of increased energy and alertness is hard to ignore. What makes energy drinks different from regular coffee? Although the heavily caffeinated drinks promise increased energy and stamina and are loaded with healthy natural ingredients, excessive consumption is of concern on many levels. This article will discuss some of the effects of excessive caffeine, as well as risks associated with energy drinks mixed with alcohol. PMID:22085613

Fogger, Susanne; McGuinness, Teena M

2011-12-01

281

HAZARDOUS DRINKING IN NEW ZEALAND SPORTSPEOPLE: LEVEL OF SPORTING PARTICIPATION AND DRINKING MOTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine the relationship between athlete drinking motives and hazardous drinking across differing levels of sporting participation (club vs elite-provincial vs elite-international). Methods: Data from 1214 New Zealand sportspeople was collected. We assessed hazardous drinking with the WHO's AUDIT questionnaire and sportspeople's psychosocial reasons for drinking with the ADS. Level of sporting participation (club\\/social, provincial\\/state, or international\\/olympic level) was

KERRY S. O'BRIEN; AJMOL ALI; JAMES D. COTTER; R OBERT P. O'SHEA; STEVE STANNARD

2007-01-01

282

Negative-reinforcement drinking motives mediate the relation between anxiety sensitivity and increased drinking behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether certain “risky” drinking motives mediate the previously established relation between elevated anxiety sensitivity (AS) and increased drinking behavior in college student drinkers (n=109 women, 73 men). Specifically, we administered the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Revised Drinking Motives Questionnaire, and a quantity-frequency measure of typical drinking levels. Participants were parceled according to high (n=30), moderate (n=29), and low

Sherry H Stewart; Michael J Zvolensky; Georg H Eifert

2001-01-01

283

A Multi-Modal Treatment Approach to Controlled Drinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental treatment approach to teaching alcoholics controlled drinking utilizing a multi-modal treatment approach is presented. This approach included aversion conditioning contingent upon emission of such undesirable drinking behaviors as gulping, drinking straight drinks, Blood Alcohol Level of 0.065 or greater, and time between drinks.…

Lapac, Paul S.; And Others

284

College students and problematic drinking: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem drinking during the college years is a significant public health concern. The goal of the current review was to examine the primary psychosocial factors that predict problem drinking in college students. Variables examined included demographic variables, personality, drinking history, alcohol expectancies, drinking motives, stress and coping, activity involvement, and peer and family influence. Evidence from studies of college drinking

Lindsay S. Ham; Debra A. Hope

2003-01-01

285

Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory  

SciTech Connect

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

Not Available

1990-03-01

286

Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.  

PubMed

Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the particular drink. This study measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of drinks thickened with a widely used starch-based thickener. Experiments simulated a possible clinical scenario whereby saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Citric acid (E330) was added to water to produce a controlled range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0, and several commercially available drinks with naturally low pH were investigated. When saliva was added to thickened water, viscosity was reduced to less than 1% of its original value after 10-15 min. However, lowering pH systematically slowed the reduction in viscosity attributable to saliva. At pH 3.5 and below, saliva was found to have no significant effect on viscosity. The pH of drinks in this study ranged from 2.6 for Coca Cola to 6.2 for black coffee. Again, low pH slowed the effect of saliva. For many popular drinks, having pH of 3.6 or less, viscosity was not significantly affected by the addition of saliva. PMID:22210234

Hanson, Ben; Cox, Ben; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Smith, Christina H

2012-09-01

287

Parents' and Students' Reports of Parenting: Which are more Reliably Associated with College Student Drinking?  

PubMed Central

Recent efforts to reduce college student heavy episodic drinking have examined parental influences, with the goal of continually refining parent-based interventions (PBIs). This research has primarily relied on student-reported data, which is often cited as a methodological limitation although the degree to which parent- and student-reported data on parenting behaviors correspond is unknown. The goals of the present study were to assess the level of consistency between parent- and student-reported data for commonly examined parenting constructs and compare their associations with college student drinking. Data were collected from a sample of 145 parent-student dyads using a longitudinal design. At baseline, parents and students reported on parental monitoring, approval of light and moderate/heavy drinking, and permissiveness. At a 10-month follow up, students reported on their typical weekly drinking and consequences. Parents' and students' reports of parenting behavior at baseline were compared and their associations with student drinking and consequences at follow up were assessed. Agreement between parents' and students' reports of parenting was fair to moderate, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .34 to .61. Student-reported data were more reliably associated with student drinking at follow up. Studies examining parent influences on college student drinking, including research on PBIs, do not appear to be limited by using student-reported data. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23254221

Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Turrisi, Rob; Scaglione, Nichole; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Ray, Anne E.

2012-01-01

288

Personality, cognition and hazardous drinking: Support for the 2-Component Approach to Reinforcing Substances Model.  

PubMed

Personality and cognitive processes are both related to alcohol use and misuse. A recent model of hazardous drinking referred, the 2-CARS model, postulates two major pathways to hazardous drinking. One pathway primarily involves the association between Reward Drive and Positive Outcome Expectancies, the second involves the association between Rash Impulsiveness and Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy. In previous tests of the model, Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy was found to have the most proximal impact on drinking, being directly influenced by Rash Impulsiveness, and indirectly influenced by Reward Drive through Positive Outcome Expectancies. The aim of the current study was to test the 2-CARS model in a larger independent sample. Results found that individuals with a strong Reward Drive showed higher Positive Outcome Expectancies, while individuals high in Rash Impulsiveness were more likely to report reduced Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy. The present results also showed a theoretically unexpected pathway with a direct association between Rash Impulsiveness and Positive Outcome Expectancies. However, overall the results support the view that a greater understanding of hazardous drinking can be achieved by investigating the relationship between these personality and cognitive variables. PMID:24064194

Harnett, Paul H; Lynch, Samantha J; Gullo, Matthew J; Dawe, Sharon; Loxton, Natalie

2013-12-01

289

Through the Drinking Glass: An Analysis of the Cultural Meanings of College Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the…

Tan, Andy Soon Leong

2012-01-01

290

Stability and Contradiction in College Students' Drinking Following a Drinking-Age Law Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined college students' drinking behavior before and after increase in minimum-legal-drinking age for alcohol from 18 to 19 in New York. Comparison of students before (N=797) and after (N=860) age raise revealed than under-age students were not particularly affected in terms of consumption rates, alcohol use attitudes, reasons for drinking, or…

Perkins, H. Wesley; Berkowitz, Alan D.

1989-01-01

291

Turning 21 and the Associated Changes in Drinking and Driving after Drinking among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors examined drinking and driving after drinking before and after turning 21. Participants: Participants were drawn from first time college students who were taking part in a 4-year longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks. Methods: Web-based longitudinal surveys collected data on drinking and driving after…

Fromme, Kim; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Neal, Dan J.

2010-01-01

292

Age of drinking onset, driving after drinking, and involvement in alcohol related motor-vehicle crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed whether persons who begin drinking at younger ages are more likely to report drunk driving and alcohol-related crash involvement over the life course, even after controlling analytically for diagnosis of alcohol dependence, years of drinking alcohol, and other personal characteristics associated with the age respondents started drinking. A national survey asked 42?862 respondents the age that they

Ralph Hingson; Tim Heeren; Suzette Levenson; Amber Jamanka; Robert Voas

2002-01-01

293

Protective behavioral strategy use and motivations for drinking: exploring Alternatives to Drinking strategies.  

PubMed

Protective behavioral strategy (PBS) use is associated with less alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related problems. Further, greater endorsement of social or enhancement drinking motives (i.e., positive motives) is associated with less frequent PBS use. Limited research has, however, explored coping or conformity motives (i.e., negative motives) in relation to PBS. Consequently, the present study aimed to (1) identify the types of PBS most strongly associated with negative and positive motives and (2) examine different types of PBS as mediators of the relationship between each drinking motive and alcohol outcomes. Participants were college students (n=303; 70% women) who completed measures of drinking motives, PBS, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that greater endorsement of positive drinking motives were more strongly associated with less frequent use of PBS while drinking whereas negative motives were more strongly related to less frequent Alternatives to Drinking strategy use. Further, strategies used while drinking were more relevant in a model of positive drinking motives and Alternatives to Drinking strategies were more relevant in a model of negative motives. These findings may suggest that whereas individuals with stronger positive motives have difficulty using strategies while drinking, individuals who drink to cope or conform have greater difficulty utilizing Alternatives to Drinking strategies. Based on our results demonstrating that different types of PBS are more relevant for various types of drinkers, it may be important for future interventions to discuss not only the participant's PBS use but also their motivations for consuming alcohol. PMID:24229844

Linden, Ashley N; Kite, Benjamin A; Braitman, Abby L; Henson, James M

2014-02-01

294

Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.  

PubMed

The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:24841178

Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

2014-09-01

295

Binge-Drinking-Related Consequences in College Students: Role of Drinking Beliefs and Mother–Teen Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research contrasted theoretical models depicting the nature of the relation among drinking beliefs, drinking tendencies, and behavioral consequences in 266 incoming freshman college students. It also examined the theoretical relations between mother–teen communications and drinking beliefs relevant to behavioral consequences. The findings revealed direct relations between binge-drinking consequences and the drinking beliefs: Alcohol can make positive transformations, can

Rob Turrisi; Kimberly A. Wiersma; Kelli K. Hughes

2000-01-01

296

Changes in drinking patterns in the first years after onset: A latent transition analysis of National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data.  

PubMed

This study examined adult drinking patterns in the first year after onset and whether these patterns changed after 3 years. We also investigated whether specific demographic characteristics or DSM-IV alcohol use disorder symptoms were related to drinking transitions. Data from National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were analyzed. "Newly onset alcohol users" (NOAUs; n = 854) were adults who initiated drinking in the year prior to Wave 1 (2001-2002) and who were followed-up at Wave 2 (2004-2005). Latent class models were estimated for 10 frequency-type drinking patterns at both waves. Latent transition analysis explored changes in drinking patterns from baseline to follow-up. Three drinker classes emerged at Wave 1: (a) low risk (41%); (b) sporadic hazardous (35%); and (c) regular hazardous (24%). One in 5 (18%) NOAUs stopped drinking by Wave 2 and were assigned to an "abstainer" class. The transition probability into the "abstainer" class was highest for the Wave 1 low risk drinkers (86%). The remaining NOAUs (82%) continued to drink at Wave 2. Of these, 70% of regular hazardous drinkers at Wave 1 maintained this drinking pattern at Wave 2, with approximately 30% reducing their pattern of drinking. One third of sporadic hazardous drinkers at Wave 1 remained at this level of drinking at Wave 2; the remainder escalated the drinking. Tolerance, larger/longer, cut down/quit and withdrawal were common among regular hazardous drinkers. Adult drinkers who engage in a low frequency and quantity drinking pattern are most likely to stop drinking soon after onset. Drinking patterns adopted in the first year after onset were indicative of drinking involvement 3 years later. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24841179

McBride, Orla; Adamson, Gary; Cheng, Hui G; Slade, Tim

2014-09-01

297

Effects of vagotomy on drinking in the rat.  

PubMed Central

1. Left or right cervical vagotomy caused elevated intakes of water after hypertonic saline, isoprenaline and polyethylene glycol compared with normal rats. In cervically vagotomized rats sodium nitrite caused a dose-dependent water intake whereas in normal rats it produced a smaller, more variable response. The same procedure also reduced the extent to which drinking following overnight water deprivation was inhibited by plasma volume expansion. Drinking after diazoxide or in response to ligation of the abdominal inferior vena cava was not affected by cervical vagotomy. 2. The antidiuresis that followed isoprenaline treatment was greater in cervically vagotomized than normal rats; that which occurred after caval ligation was unaffected. 3. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy did not alter water intake in response to hypertonic saline, isoprenaline or polyethylene glycol. 4. It is concluded that nerves within the supradiaphragmatic distribution of the vagi modify water intake in response to changes in the degree of vascular filling. PMID:7230024

Moore-Gillon, M J

1980-01-01

298

Removing lead in drinking water with activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

A point-of-use (POU) granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed adsorber (FBA) was evaluated for reduction of soluble and insoluble lead from drinking water. Some of the factors which affect lead removal by GAC were evaluated, such as carbon type, solution pH, and a limited amount of work on competitive interactions. The design criteria for lead reduction by a POU device are also addressed. Minicolumns were used to evaluate the capacity of carbon for lead under a variety of conditions. The importance of surface chemistry of the carbon and the relationship with the pH of the water for lead reduction was demonstrated. Results indicate that a properly designed POU-GAC-FBA can reduce lead in drinking water to below the EPA action level of 15 ppb while being tested under a variety of conditions as specified under the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International Standard 53 test protocol. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Taylor, R.M.; Kuennen, R.W. (Amway Corp., Ada, MI (United States))

1994-02-01

299

Voluntary drinking versus imposed drinking in the methodology of investigations about the drinking-induced thermoregulatory sweating  

PubMed Central

Studies have shown that dehydrated humans or animals in a warm environment begin to sweat within seconds to minutes after drinking. This phenomenon is one of the drinking-induced thermoregulatory responses; being investigated from different aspects. Our objective is to show the difference of voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the methodology of these experiments. Six healthy subjects 23.7 ± 0.6 yr old and 80.7 ± 5.7 kg wt were dehydrated by performing mild exercise (ergometer cycling) in a hot and humid chamber (38-40°C, 20-28% relative humidity). We incorporated two protocols: after dehydration, subjects were allowed to drink water with 1) imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/kg and 2) voluntary volumes; on four separate days. The sweating rate was measured on the forehead area before and after drinking. Sweating increased markedly just a few minutes after the onset of drinking. The mean sweat rates of the imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/Kg were 0.33 ± 0.15, 0.31 ± 0.17, 0.47 ± 0.21 respectively and for the voluntary volume it was 0.54 ± 0.19. The mean intake in the voluntary trial was 6.58 ± 1.14 ml/Kg, more than the imposed volume of 5 ml/Kg. The trend of the rate of the sweating response in the imposed trials was distinct from the response in the voluntary trial. Conclusion: There exists a difference between voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the sweating response that follows rehydration. So it is suggested to use the methods of voluntary drinking in the investigations of this phenomenon, to reveal the natural events that happen in the actual circumstances.

Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Khamnei, Saeed; Zamanlu, Masumeh

2014-01-01

300

How to Identify Lead-Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Materials - Presentation  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2011, Congress passed the ?Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,? which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of ?lead-free? by reducing allowed...

301

How to Identify Lead-Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Materials  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2011, Congress passed the ?Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,? which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of ?lead-free? by reducing allowed...

302

Geospatial Analysis on the Distributions of Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking in India  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood. Methodology We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at the district and postal code levels. We used kriging interpolation to generate smoking and drinking distributions at the postal code level. We also examined spatial autocorrelations and identified spatial clusters of high and low prevalence of smoking and drinking. Finally, we used bivariate analyses to examine the spatial correlations between smoking and drinking, and between cigarette and bidi smoking. Results There was a high prevalence of any smoking in the central and northeastern states, and a high prevalence of any drinking in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Madhya Pradesh. Spatial clusters of early smoking (started smoking before age 20) were identified in the central states. Cigarette and bidi smoking showed distinctly different geographic patterns, with high levels of cigarette smoking in the northeastern states and high levels of bidi smoking in the central states. The geographic pattern of bidi smoking was similar to early smoking. Cigarette smoking was spatially associated with any drinking. Smoking prevalences in 1998 were correlated with prevalences in 2004 at the district level and 2010 at the state level. Conclusion These results along with earlier evidence on the complementarities between tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking suggest that local public health action on smoking might also help to reduce alcohol consumption, and vice versa. Surveys that properly represent tobacco and alcohol consumptions at the district level are recommended. PMID:25025379

Fu, Sze Hang; Jha, Prabhat; Gupta, Prakash C.; Kumar, Rajesh; Dikshit, Rajesh; Sinha, Dhirendra

2014-01-01

303

Enhancing physical performance in male volleyball players with a caffeine-containing energy drink.  

PubMed

There are no scientific data about the effects of caffeine intake on volleyball performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink to enhance physical performance in male volleyball players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used. In 2 different sessions separated by 1 wk, 15 college volleyball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed volleyball-specific tests: standing spike test, maximal squat jump (SJ), maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), 15-s rebound jump test (15RJ), and agility T-test. Later, a simulated volleyball match was played and recorded. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased ball velocity in the spike test (73 ± 9 vs 75 ± 10 km/h, P < .05) and the mean jump height in SJ (31.1 ± 4.3 vs 32.7 ± 4.2 cm, P < .05), CMJ (35.9 ± 4.6 vs 37.7 ± 4.4 cm, P < .05), and 15RJ (29.0 ± 4.0 vs 30.5 ± 4.6 cm, P < .05). The time to complete the agility test was significantly reduced with the caffeinated energy drink (10.8 ± 0.7 vs 10.3 ± 0.4 s, P < .05). In addition, players performed successful volleyball actions more frequently (24.6% ± 14.3% vs 34.3% ± 16.5%, P < .05) with the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink than with the placebo drink during the simulated game. A caffeine-containing energy drink, with a dose equivalent to 3 mg of caffeine per kg body mass, might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance and accuracy in male volleyball players. PMID:24664858

Del Coso, Juan; Pérez-López, Alberto; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Salinero, Juan Jose; Lara, Beatriz; Valadés, David

2014-11-01

304

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2011-07-01

305

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2012-07-01

306

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71.602...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped...

2014-07-01

307

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2014-07-01

308

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2013-07-01

309

30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

2012-07-01

310

30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

2011-07-01

311

30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

2013-07-01

312

How Can I Cut Back on My Drinking?  

MedlinePLUS

... when you’re drinking, insert a non-alcoholic beverage between alcoholic beverages. Don’t have more than about one drink ... habit and then kind of start over. Drink beverages that have a lower alcohol concentration rather than ...

313

30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided...

2014-07-01

314

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR LEGIONELLA (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has prepared a drinking water criteria document on Legionella. The document includes an extensive review of the following topics: general information and properties, occurrence in drinking water, worldwide distri...

315

The motive to drink due to social anxiety and its relation to hazardous alcohol use.  

PubMed

Although studies on social anxiety and alcohol-related problems are numerous, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate how the motive to drink due to social anxiety is associated with hazardous alcohol use over and above habitual alcohol use, social anxiety, and alcohol outcome expectancies. We also examine which factors define the motive to drink due to social anxiety and clarify the impact of the type of social situation. Drinking due to social anxiety, habitual alcohol use, and gender, but not social anxiety, were associated with hazardous alcohol use. Social anxiety increased the motive to drink due to social anxiety, but fear of cognitive performance deficits after drinking reduced it. Alcohol was used to reduce anxiety more frequently in situations where intake of alcohol is deemed socially acceptable. These findings suggest that the motive drinking due to social anxiety, not social anxiety per se, is related to hazardous alcohol use. The motive is weakened by the expectation of alcohol-induced cognitive deficits, as well as by the type of social situation in which alcohol is to be used. PMID:23586457

Cludius, Barbara; Stevens, Stephan; Bantin, Trisha; Gerlach, Alexander L; Hermann, Christiane

2013-09-01

316

Pharmacological characterization of the 20% alcohol intermittent access model in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats: a model of binge-like drinking  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Binge drinking is defined as a pattern of alcohol drinking that brings blood alcohol levels to 80 mg/dl or above. In this study, we pharmacologically characterized the intermittent-access to 20% ethanol model (Wise, Psychopharmacologia 29 (1973), 203) in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats to determine to which of the compounds known to reduce drinking in specific animal models their binge-like drinking was sensitive to. METHODS Adult male Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats were divided into two groups and allowed to drink either 20% v/v alcohol or water for 24 hours on alternate days (Monday, Wednesday and Friday) or 10% v/v alcohol and water for 24 hours every day. After stabilization of their intake, both groups were administered three pharmacological agents with different mechanisms of action, naltrexone –an opioid receptor antagonist-, SCH 39166 –a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist-, and R121919 –a CRF1 receptor antagonist-, and their effects on alcohol and water intake were determined. RESULTS Intermittent, 20% alcohol (“Wise”) procedure in sP rats led to binge-like drinking. Alcohol drinking was suppressed by naltrexone and by SCH 39166, but not by R121919. Finally, naltrexone was more potent in reducing alcohol drinking in the intermittent 20% binge drinking group than in the 10% continuous access drinking group. DISCUSSION The Wise procedure in sP rats induces binge-like drinking, which appears opioid- and dopamine-receptor mediated; the CRF1 system, on the other hand, does not appear to be involved. In addition, our results suggest that naltrexone, and perhaps also SCH 39166, is particularly effective in reducing binge drinking. Such different pharmacological responses may apply to subtypes of alcoholic patients who differ in their motivation to drink, and may eventually contribute to treatment response. PMID:23126554

Sabino, Valentina; Kwak, Jina; Rice, Kenner C.; Cottone, Pietro

2012-01-01

317

Teenage Drinking, Symbolic Capital and Distinction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses alcohol-related lifestyles among Danish teenagers. Building on Bourdieu's reasoning on symbolic capital and distinction, we analyse three interrelated themes. First, we show that alcohol-related variables (drinking patterns, drinking debut, experience of intoxication, etc.) can be used to identify some very distinctive life…

Jarvinen, Margaretha; Gundelach, Peter

2007-01-01

318

Gender Congruence in Confirmatory and Compensatory Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between gender-stereotypical traits and drinking behaviors was examined in 422 university students via both positive and negative measures of masculinity and femininity. Two canonical variates summarized the underlying relationships. The 1 st canonical variate indicated that both high negative masculinity and low positive femininity predicted alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. This behavior was labeled confirmatory drinking because it

Robert J. Williams; Lina A. Ricciardelli

1999-01-01

319

Gender, Parental Monitoring and Binge Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between gender, alcohol consumption and parental monitoring, including television monitoring, were examined. Student volunteers (N = 149; 90% Caucasian, 79% female) participated by reporting retrospective general parental monitoring, television monitoring and recent drinking behaviors. Analyses showed that men received less monitoring than did women growing up concerning overall parental monitoring but not television monitoring. Women's drinking quantity was

Maribeth Lyndsey Veal; Lisa Thomson Ross

320

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT ADVISOR - USER DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...

321

MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

322

Middle School Drinking: Who, Where, and when  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this research was to describe the most common drinking situations for young adolescents (N = 1171; 46.6% girls), as well as determine predictors of their drinking in the seventh and eighth grades. Middle school students most frequently drank at parties with three to four teens, in their home or at a friend's home, and reported…

Anderson, Kristen G.; Brown, Sandra A.

2011-01-01

323

Social anxiety and drinking in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is reviewed that indicates that social anxiety is a significant motivation for drinking among college students. Although the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has been studied from a variety of perspectives, there has been little integration of data. Drawing from the alcohol and anxiety literature, the relationship between social anxiety and heavy drinking in college students is

Randy S Burke; Robert S Stephens

1999-01-01

324

Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

325

The Young Drinking Driver: Cause or Effect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drunk driving is a major public health problem and young people suffer disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality as a result of drinking and driving. Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 in this country, and alcohol is implicated in many of these deaths. Countermeasures to drinking and driving…

Waller, Patricia F.; Waller, Marcus B.

326

The Drink Driving Situation in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was carried out to assess the magnitude and nature of the drink-drive problem in Nigeria and evaluate the institutional capacities for preventing drinking and driving, using the methodology developed by the International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) described in the overview paper in this issue.Methods: Data and information were collected using existing reports and by consulting officials

CHIDI OGAZI; E MA EDISON

2012-01-01

327

Gastric Emptying Rates (or Selected Athletic Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this study was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks: Gatorade (GA), Stokely-Van Camp; Braketime (BT), Johnson and Johnson; Body Punch (BP), Starting Line Sports against water (W). In so doing it was also possible to assess eac~ drink's contribution of water, carbohydrate, and electrolytes 15minutes after ingestion. Nine men and

EDWARD F. COYLE; DAVID L. COSTILL; WILLIAM J. FINK; DAVID G. HOOPES

1978-01-01

328

Biological Drinking Water Treatment: Benefiting from Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the use of microbial biomass for the degradation of contaminants, nutrients, and organics has been commonly used in the wastewater field since the early 1900s, the biological treatment of drinking water has been limited, particularly in the United States. However, recent developments in the drinking water treatment field are beginning to broaden the applicability, feasibility, and favorability of biological

Jess C. Brown; Carollo Engineers

329

Drinking and academic performance in high school  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigate the extent to which negative alcohol use coefficients in Grade Point Average regressions reflect unobserved heterogeneity rather than direct effects of drinking, using 2001 and 2003 Youth Risk Behaviour Survey data on high school students. Results illustrate that omitted factors are quite important. Drinking coefficient magnitudes fall substantially in regressions that control for risk and time preference, mental

Jeff DeSimone

2010-01-01

330

Drinking Attitudes and Behavior of Incoming Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…

Johnson, Deborah H.; Sedlacek, William E.

331

Characteristics associated with consumption of sports and energy drinks among US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010.  

PubMed

Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in need of encouragement to reduce sports and energy drink intake and increase healthier beverage intake. PMID:23260728

Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou

2013-01-01

332

Magnetically imploded soft drink can  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A demonstration apparatus is described suitable for use in a large lecture hall, in which the ``pinch effect'' applied to an empty aluminum soft drink can provides a dramatic and instructive example of induction and of the repulsion of oppositely directed current elements. The can is placed in a coil into which a short pulse of electrical current is driven from a charged capacitor. The current in the primary coil induces an oppositely directed current in the can wall, and the portion of the can under the coil is driven violently inward, pinching the can down to form a waist, or with a larger charge on the storage capacitor, separating it into two pieces.

DeSilva, A. W.

1994-01-01

333

The combination of short rest and energy drink consumption as fatigue countermeasures during a prolonged drive of professional truck drivers.  

PubMed

One of the major concerns for professional drivers is fatigue. Many studies evaluated specific fatigue countermeasures, in many cases comparing the efficiency of each method separately. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of rest areas combined with consumption of energy drinks on professional truck drivers during a prolonged simulated drive. Fifteen professional truck drivers participated in three experimental sessions: control-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of a placebo drink prior to the beginning of the drive. Energy drink-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink containing 160 mg of caffeine prior to the beginning of the drive, and an Energy drink+Rest session--where the drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink prior to driving, and rest for 10 min at a designated rest area zone 100 min into the drive. For all sessions, driving duration was approximately 150 min and consisted of driving on a monotonous, two-way rural road. In addition to driving performance measures, subjective measures, and heart rate variability were obtained. Results indicated that consumption of an energy drink (in both sessions) facilitated lower lane position deviations and reduced steering wheel deviations during the first 80-100 min of the drive relative to the control sessions. Resting after 100 min of driving, in addition to the energy drink that was consumed before the drive, enabled the drivers to maintain these abilities throughout the remainder of the driving session. Practical applications: Practical applications arising from the results of this research may give indication on the possible added value of combining fatigue counter measures methods during a prolonged drive and the importance of the timing of the use for each method. PMID:24913484

Ronen, Adi; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Gershon, Pnina

2014-06-01

334

Daily mood-drinking slopes as predictors: a new take on drinking motives and related outcomes.  

PubMed

Motivational models of alcohol consumption have articulated the manner in which positive and negative experiences motivate drinking in unique social contexts (e.g., M. L. Cooper, M. R. Frone, M. Russell & P. Mudar, 1995, Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: A motivational model of alcohol use, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 69, pp. 990-1005). Daily process methodology, in which daily events, moods, and drinking behaviors are reported daily or multiple times per day, has been used to examine behavioral patterns that are consistent with discrete motivations. We advance the notion that repeated patterns of drinking in various social contexts as a function of positive or negative mood increases can provide evidence of individual-level if-then drinking signatures, which in turn can predict drinking-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of slopes to predict longer term drinking motivations and alcohol problems by employing a daily-process study of nonclinical moderate alcohol drinkers (N = 47; 49% women). Participants responded to thrice daily interviews administered via handheld computer for 30 days, followed by a longitudinal telephone survey for 12 months. Participants' daily mood-drinking relationships were extracted from hierarchical linear modeling and employed as predictors of 12-month outcomes in multiple regression analyses. Daily mood-drinking patterns demonstrated significant variability across persons, such that moderate drinkers could be reliably differentiated based on those patterns in terms of distinct drinking-related outcomes. Among the results, negative-mood-solitary-drinking slopes were associated with lower subsequent coping motives but positive-mood-solitary-drinking slopes were predictive of higher coping and lower social motives. Conversely, positive-mood-social-drinking associations were predictive of higher enhancement motives and brief Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test scores. Results are interpreted in light of motivational models of consumption. PMID:23647154

Mohr, Cynthia D; Brannan, Debi; Wendt, Staci; Jacobs, Laurie; Wright, Robert; Wang, Mo

2013-12-01

335

College drinking problems and social anxiety: The importance of drinking context.  

PubMed

Social anxiety more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to heavy alcohol use. Elucidation of the relation between social anxiety and alcohol use is an important next step in treating and preventing risky drinking. College students routinely face potentially anxiety-provoking social situations (e.g., meeting new people) and socially anxious undergraduates are especially vulnerable to alcohol-related impairment. Drinking to cope with social anxiety is thought to reinforce alcohol use, yet research on coping-motivated drinking among socially anxious students has yielded inconsistent findings. Further, undergraduate drinking varies by drinking context, yet the role of context in drinking behaviors among socially anxious individuals remains unclear. The current study sought to examine the relationship of social anxiety and drinking quantity in specific drinking contexts among undergraduates (N = 611). We also evaluated whether relevant drinking contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol-related problems. Clinically elevated social anxiety was related to heavier consumption in negative emotion (e.g., feeling sad or angry) and personal/intimate (e.g., before sexual intercourse) contexts, but not social/convivial contexts (e.g., parties, bars). Quantity of alcohol consumed in negative emotion and personal/intimate contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and drinking problem severity. Drinking in personal/intimate contexts demonstrated a unique mediational role. Findings suggest that heavy drinking in particular contexts (especially personal/intimate and negative emotion) may play an important role in drinking problems among socially anxious individuals. PMID:24955673

Terlecki, Meredith A; Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

2014-06-01

336

Preclinical studies of alcohol binge drinking  

PubMed Central

Binge drinking is prevalent and has serious biomedical consequences. In children, adolescents, and young adults, it is a prominent risk factor for later development of alcohol-use disorders. Many preclinical models have been employed to study the genetic risks for and biomedical consequences of alcohol drinking. However, these models historically did not result in blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) exceding 80 mg%; this relatively modest level is the threshold that currently defines a binge session, according to the NIAAA and CDC. Nevertheless, in alcohol-dependent rodents, binge drinking has been well documented. Key neurobiological substrates localized to brain reward and stress systems have been identified. Studies of newer models of binge drinking without dependence are reviewed here. In these models, rodents, non-human primates, and flies will drink enough to reach high BACs. They often display observable signs of intoxication. The neurobiological consequences of these episodes of binge drinking without dependence are reviewed, preliminary evidence for roles for GABA, glutamate, opioid peptides, and corticotropin releasing factor are discussed, as is the need for more work to identify the antecedents and consequences of binge drinking in both animal models and humans. PMID:21272009

Crabbe, John C.; Harris, R. Adron; Koob, George F.

2011-01-01

337

Harm Reduction Text Messages Delivered During Alcohol Drinking: Feasibility Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent research using mobile phone interventions to address public health issues such as smoking, obesity, depression, and diabetes provides a basis for trialing a similar approach toward reducing the negative consequences of risky drinking. Objective: This feasibility study aims to recruit drinkers between 18–34 years to a website where they will design and enter their own personal messages (repeating or one-off) to be sent to their mobile phones when they are drinking to remind them of their pre-drinking safety intentions. Methods/Design: Participants in the treatment group will have access to the messaging function for 3 months and will be compared to a control group who will have 3 months access to a web chat site only. Data collection will occur at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary outcome is a change in unintended negative consequences from drinking at 3 months. Secondary outcomes include the acceptability of the intervention to this population, recruitment rate, participant retention, reduction in alcohol consumption, and the self-motivation discourse in participant messages. Discussion: Existing alcohol interventions in New Zealand attempt to reduce alcohol consumption in the population, but with little effect. This study aims to target unintended negative consequences resulting from drinking by empowering the drinkers themselves to deliver safety messages during the drinking session. If proven effective, this strategy could provide a cost-effective means of reducing the public health burden associated with risky drinking. Trial Registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000242921 PMID:23611773

2012-01-01

338

Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

2008-01-01

339

Fatality from drinking denatured alcohol and hypothermia.  

PubMed

A 19-year-old non-diabetic female suffering from irritable bowel syndrome was found unconscious outdoors in the month of October. She was severely hypothermic and rushed to hospital for life-saving treatment. Evidence emerged that the victim had attempted suicide by drinking denatured alcohol (T-Red). According to the manufacturer of this product, it contains > 85% (v/v) ethanol, ~5% (v/v) acetone, 1-2% (v/v) ethyl acetate, and ?3% (v/v) methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), but no isopropanol. A venous blood sample taken on admission to hospital contained ethanol (660 mg/100 mL), acetone (25 mg/100 mL), isopropanol (78 mg/100 mL), and MEK, although the latter was not quantified. Despite intensive care, the patient died 21 h after admission and postmortem femoral blood contained ethanol (390 mg/100 mL), acetone (14 mg/100 mL), isopropanol (53 mg/100 mL), and MEK. During oxidative metabolism of ethanol, there is a shift in the redox state of the liver to a more reduced potential as reflected in a raised NADH/NAD(+) ratio, which impacts on other NAD-dependent biochemical reactions, including reduction of acetone to isopropanol. The lower concentrations of ethanol, acetone, and isopropanol in postmortem blood compared with antemortem blood indicate the metabolism of these substances during the 21-h survival period when the patient received emergency hospital treatment. PMID:21619727

Jones, Alan Wayne

2011-06-01

340

Effect of drinking water temperature on broiler performance.  

PubMed

In the first experiment, higher body weight gain and feed comsumption were attained with water at a temperature of 23.9 degrees C. as compared with 35.0 degrees C. No significant differences in feed efficiency due to water temperature were evident. Livability was significantly reduced during brooding for the birds given warm water (35.0 degree C). A significant interaction for body weight gain was observed between the initial ambient air brooding temperatures and water temperatures during the growing period. In the second experiment six water temperatures during brooding to three weeks of age were studied. Body weight gain and feed comsumption were significantly depressed at a drinking water temperature of 40.6 degrees C. as compared with drinking water temperatures between 17.8 degrees C. and 35.0 degrees C. No differences in livability were noted which was in contrast to the results of the first experiment. A drinking water temperature below ambient air temperature is apparently beneficial to the growth of the broiler chick. The placement of the waterers in relation to the brooder stoves could influence water temperature which would affect the growth of broilers. PMID:1153376

Harris, G C; Nelson, G S; Seay, R L; Dodgen, W H

1975-05-01

341

Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Chemical Society (ACS) provides online access to the article, Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water. The article reports that domestic wells rather than municipal wells in New Hampshire are more likely to contain ten times the recommended federal levels of arsenic for drinking water. This is a relevant finding since "arsenic in drinking water is linked to certain types of cancer in humans." The abstract can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text article is available in both HTML and .pdf format.

342

Ethnic Drinking Cultures and Alcohol Use among Asian American Adults: Findings from a National Survey  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Results: Controlling for financial stress, discrimination and demographic variables, a hypothesized, positive relationship between ethnic drinking cultures and alcohol outcomes held for most drinking outcomes. A hypothesis on the moderating effect of integration into ethnic cultures indicated by ethnic language use was supported for US-born Asian Americans. Conclusion: Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence alcohol use by Asian Americans. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures may be conditioned by the degree of integration into the ethnic cultures. To inform alcohol interventions for reducing harmful and hazardous alcohol use among immigrants, future research needs to explore the cultural and social processes occurring in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking. PMID:22378829

Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine

2012-01-01

343

Prevalence of At-Risk Drinking among a National Sample of Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Background Limited research exists on medical students’ substance use patterns including over-consumption of alcohol. Objective To determine prevalence and correlates of at-risk drinking among a national sample of medical students. Design Cross-sectional, anonymous, web-based survey. 2710 medical students from 36 U.S. medical schools (1st – 4th year) completed the survey. Included in the instruments was a 10-item scale (AUDIT) to assess at-risk drinking behaviors within the last 12 months. Results Over 15% of the subjects (n= 412) scored positive for at-risk drinking (8?). Multivariate analysis of the data revealed the following independent predictors were statistically significant (p ? 0.05) for at-risk drinking: being of younger age, male, unmarried, using illicit drugs, smoking tobacco products within the last 30 days, having low perception of risk, showing impulsive behavior, being depressed, and having gambling problems. Conclusions Findings from this study provides initial data for investigating further associations between risky drinking behavior, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors, as well as effectiveness of curriculum or campus wide policy interventions to reduce over-consumption of drinking among this population. PMID:19347753

Shah, Ameet Arvind; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lindstrom, Richard W.; Wolf, Kenneth E.

2009-01-01

344

Longitudinal examination of underage drinking and subsequent drinking and risky driving  

PubMed Central

Introduction Alcohol use, alcohol misuse, and risky driving from adolescence into young adulthood were compared by drinking onset age. Methods Surveys were administered in Grades 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, 10, 12, and at approximately age 23. Participants were placed into Drinking Onset groups based on self-reported alcohol use frequency on the adolescent surveys. Driving records were examined in three age periods: under 21, 21–25, and 26+. Results The earliest drinking initiators reported higher alcohol use and misuse on each survey, and were more likely to have risky driving offenses before age 21 and to have alcohol driving offenses in all three age periods. Discussion The earliest drinking initiators engaged in risky drinking behavior and risky driving behavior that was consistently higher than those with later drinking initiation, beginning in adolescence and persisting well into young adulthood. PMID:17123546

Zakrajsek, Jennifer S.; Shope, Jean T.

2007-01-01

345

Pharmacologic dissociation between impulsivity and alcohol drinking in High Alcohol Preferring mice  

PubMed Central

Background Impulsivity is genetically correlated with, and precedes addictive behaviors and alcoholism. If impulsivity or attention is causally related to addiction, certain pharmacological manipulations of impulsivity and/or attention may affect alcohol drinking, and vice versa. The current studies were designed to explore the relationship among impulsivity, drinking, and vigilance in selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice, a line that has previously demonstrated both high impulsivity and high alcohol consumption. Amphetamine, naltrexone and memantine were tested in a delay discounting (DD) task for their effects on impulsivity and vigilance. The same drugs and doses were also assessed for effects on alcohol drinking in a two-bottle choice test. Methods HAP mice were subjected to a modified version of adjusting amount DD using 0.5 sec and 10 sec delays to detect decreases and increases, respectively, in impulsive responding. In 2 experiments, mice were given amphetamine (0.4, 0.8 or 1.2 mg/kg), naltrexone (3 and 10 mg/kg), and memantine (1 and 5 mg/kg) before DD testing. Another pair of studies used scheduled access, two-bottle choice drinking to assess effects of amphetamine (0.4, 1.2, or 3.0 mg/kg), naltrexone (3 and 10 mg/kg), and memantine (1 and 5 mg/kg) on alcohol consumption. Results Amphetamine dose-dependently reduced impulsivity and vigilance decrement in DD, but similar doses left alcohol drinking unaffected. Naltrexone and memantine decreased alcohol intake at doses that did not affect water drinking, but had no effects on impulsivity or vigilance decrement in the DD task. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, none of the drugs tested here, while effective either on alcohol drinking or impulsivity, decreased both behaviors. These findings suggest that the genetic association between drinking and impulsivity observed in this population is mediated by mechanisms other than those targeted by the drugs tested in these studies. PMID:20491739

Oberlin, Brandon G.; Bristow, R. Evan; Heighton, Meredith E.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

2014-01-01

346

Ethnic, Social Class, and Gender Differences in Adolescent Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The independent effects of ethnicity and social class on multiple aspects of adolescent drinking were examined. African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students (1,134 females, 740 males) from three social classes completed measures of drinking frequency and quantity, drinking consequences, reasons for drinking, and…

Stewart, Cindy; Power, Thomas G.

2003-01-01

347

EATING, DRINKING AND RE-THINKING: MARGUERITE DURAS'S  

E-print Network

and drinking to demonstrate how re-thinking representations of food and drink can stimulate critical appetitesEATING, DRINKING AND RE-THINKING: MARGUERITE DURAS'S MODERATO CANTABILE (1958) RUTH CRUICKSHANK ABSTRACT Re-thinking food, drink and appetite offers new ways of exploring subjectivity, self

Sheldon, Nathan D.

348

Predictors of Re-offence among Australian Drink Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract As part of the evaluation of a drink driver rehabilitation program in a non-metropolitan area of Queensland we collected retrospective and prospective information on close to 900 drink drivers who undertook the program and over 800 contemporaneous drink driving offenders from the same area who did not. The data collected included details of the index drink driving offence, traffic

V Siskind; C Schonfeld; M Sheehan

349

The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amethyst Initiative, signed by more than 100 college presidents and other higher education officials calls for a reexamination of the minimum legal drinking age in the United States. A central argument of the initiative is that the U.S. minimum legal drinking age policy results in more dangerous drinking than would occur if the legal drinking age were lower. A

Christopher Carpenter; Carlos Dobkin

2011-01-01

350

Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required. PMID:9040387

Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.

1997-01-01

351

Parents Should Start Talking Before They Start Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most Oakland County youth who drink alcohol usually began drinking in the seventh, eighth or ninth grades. When youth drink alcohol at such young ages, serious harm begins. More children are killed by alcohol than all illegal drugs combined. In addition, children who begin drinking alcohol before the age of 15 are 5 times more likely than those who start

Donnis Reese

352

Drinking and desired self-images: path models of self-image goals, coping motives, heavy-episodic drinking, and alcohol problems.  

PubMed

Coping motives for drinking initiate alcohol-related problems. Interpersonal goals, which powerfully influence affect, could provide a starting point for this relation. Here we tested effects of self-image goals (which aim to construct and defend desired self-views) and compassionate goals (which aim to support others) on heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Undergraduate drinkers (N=258) completed measures of self-image and compassionate goals in academics and friendships, coping and enhancement drinking motives, heavy-episodic drinking, and alcohol-related problems in a cross-sectional design. As predicted, self-image goals, but not compassionate goals, positively related to alcohol-related problems. Path models showed that self-image goals relate to coping motives, but not enhancement motives; coping motives then relate to heavy-episodic drinking, which in turn relate to alcohol-related problems. Self-image goals remained a significant predictor in the final model, which accounted for 34% of the variance in alcohol-related problems. These findings indicate that self-image goals contribute to alcohol-related problems in college students both independently and through coping motives. Interventions can center on reducing self-image goals and their attendant negative affect. PMID:19586150

Moeller, Scott J; Crocker, Jennifer

2009-06-01

353

The influence of conformity and group identity on drink walking intentions: comparing intentions to drink walk across risky pedestrian crossing scenarios.  

PubMed

Despite the dangers associated with drink walking, limited research is currently available regarding the factors which influence individuals to engage in this risky behaviour. This study examined the influence of psychosocial factors upon individuals' intentions to drink walk across four experimental scenarios (and a control condition). Specifically, a 2×2 repeated measures design was utilised in which all of the scenarios incorporated a risky pedestrian crossing situation (i.e., a pedestrian crossing against a red man signal) but differed according to the level of group identity (i.e., low/strangers and high/friends) and conformity (low and high). Individuals were assessed for their intentions to drink walk within each of these different scenarios. Undergraduate students (N=151), aged 17-30 years, completed a questionnaire. Overall, most of the study's hypotheses were supported with individuals reporting the highest intentions to drink walk when in the presence of friends (i.e., high group identity) and their friends were said to be also crossing against the red man signal (i.e., high conformity). The findings may have significant implications for the design of countermeasures to reduce drink walking. For instance, the current findings would suggest that potentially effective strategies may be to promote resilience to peer influence as well as highlight the negative consequences associated with following the behaviour of other intoxicated pedestrians who are crossing against a red signal. PMID:22269552

McGhie, Alexandra; Lewis, Ioni; Hyde, Melissa K

2012-03-01

354

Quality of drinking-water at source and point-of-consumption--drinking cup as a high potential recontamination risk: a field study in Bolivia.  

PubMed

In-house contamination of drinking-water is a persistent problem in developing countries. This study aimed at identifying critical points of contamination and determining the extent of recontamination after water treatment. In total, 81 households were visited, and 347 water samples from their current sources of water, transport vessels, treated water, and drinking vessels were analyzed. The quality of water was assessed using Escherichia coli as an indicator for faecal contamination. The concentration of E. coli increased significantly from the water source [median=0 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL, interquartile range (IQR: 0-13)] to the drinking cup (median=8 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0-550; n=81, z=-3.7, p<0.001). About two-thirds (34/52) of drinking vessels were contaminated with E. coli. Although boiling and solar disinfection of water (SODIS) improved the quality of drinking-water (median=0 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0-0.05), recontamination at the point-of-consumption significantly reduced the quality of water in the cups (median=8, IQR: 0-500; n=45, z=-2.4, p=0.015). Home-based interventions in disinfection of water may not guarantee health benefits without complementary hygiene education due to the risk of posttreatment contamination. PMID:20214084

Rufener, Simonne; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Weingartner, Rolf

2010-02-01

355

Quality of Drinking-water at Source and Point-of-consumption--Drinking Cup As a High Potential Recontamination Risk: A Field Study in Bolivia  

PubMed Central

In-house contamination of drinking-water is a persistent problem in developing countries. This study aimed at identifying critical points of contamination and determining the extent of recontamination after water treatment. In total, 81 households were visited, and 347 water samples from their current sources of water, transport vessels, treated water, and drinking vessels were analyzed. The quality of water was assessed using Escherichia coli as an indicator for faecal contamination. The concentration of E. coli increased significantly from the water source [median=0 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL, interquartile range (IQR: 0–13)] to the drinking cup (median=8 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0–550; n=81, z=?3.7, p<0.001). About two-thirds (34/52) of drinking vessels were contaminated with E. coli. Although boiling and solar disinfection of water (SODIS) improved the quality of drinking-water (median=0 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0–0.05), recontamination at the point-of-consumption significantly reduced the quality of water in the cups (median=8, IQR: 0–500; n=45, z=?2.4, p=0.015). Home-based interventions in disinfection of water may not guarantee health benefits without complementary hygiene education due to the risk of post-treatment contamination. PMID:20214084

Mausezahl, Daniel; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Weingartner, Rolf

2010-01-01

356

Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

1978-01-01

357

Radon in private drinking water wells.  

PubMed

At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. PMID:24714110

Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

2014-07-01

358

Carbonated soft drinks and carbonyl stress burden.  

PubMed

Carbonated soft drinks reportedly contain methylglyoxal (MG), which is strongly associated with human carbonyl stress. We sought to evaluate the effects of carbonated drink intake on human carbonyl stress. We measured MG levels in 4 commercial beverage brands, and evaluated the changes in plasma MG in healthy subjects following the intake of carbonated drinks. By 30 min after intake of samples containing high glucose and high MG, the levels of plasma MG, glucose, insulin and uric acid had increased significantly, and then returned to basal levels by 120 min. After intake of the low-calorie carbonated samples containing little MG, there were no increases in plasma MG. Our results suggest that glucose-containing carbonated soft drinks are associated with increases in not only glucose but also carbonyl burden. PMID:19952506

Nakayama, Keisuke; Nakayama, Masaaki; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yaeko; Sato, Toshinobu; Kohno, Masahiro; Ito, Sadayoshi

2009-12-01

359

Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report  

SciTech Connect

EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG&G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a {open_quotes}community water system{close_quotes} (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG&G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG&G Idaho production wells.

Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

1993-08-01

360

THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

361

Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will enable a systematic approach to characterizing the value of condition assessment of drinking water mains that will provide the basis for better communication among, and decisions by, stakeholders regarding goals and priorities for research, development, and tech...

362

Alcohol Education and the Pleasures of Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol education must face the challenge of presenting alcohol use and abuse in a balanced framework that does not obscure the pervasive reality of responsible and enjoyable drinking in America. (MM)

Finn, Peter

1977-01-01

363

Biomonitoring Methods for Drinking Water Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two biomonitoring approaches are being developed to rapidly identify toxicity associated with toxic industrial chemicals in Army drinking water supplies. An aquatic biomonitor continuously monitors water at fixed facilities such as water treatment plants ...

W. H. Schalie, T. R. Shedd, M. W. Widder, T. P. Gargan

2004-01-01

364

OVERVIEW OF RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Invited presentation at the 2007 National Rural Water Association National Conference, Philadelphia, PA, September 23-26, 2007. The presentation reviews the chemistry of radium and uranium in drinking water sources, treatment options, and guidelines for disposal. Presentation giv...

365

Binge Drinking and High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... October 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse High Blood Pressure Underage Drinking Transcript New ... the study.The team looked at patterns of alcohol use, the amount of alcohol consumed, the age ...

366

Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia  

PubMed Central

Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States. PMID:22869743

Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy

2012-01-01

367

A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

368

Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

Wade, Nicholas

1977-01-01

369

The Association between Cultural Orientation and Drinking Behaviors among University Students in Wuhan, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study examines the association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students. Cultural orientation is the measure of how the cultural values of individuals living in their own society are influenced by cultural values introduced from the outside. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey collected data from 1279 university students from six universities in central China. Participants used a likert scale to rank a series of statements reflecting cultural values from the previously validated Chinese Cultural Orientation Scale and answered questions about their drinking behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics. Results Statistically significant differences in cultural orientation were observed for gender, hometown and type of university attendance. Traditional-oriented students were more likely to be occasional drinkers or nondrinkers, while marginal-oriented students, bicultural-oriented students and western-oriented students were more likely to be regular drinkers. Bicultural orientation (OR?=?1.80, P<0.05) and marginal orientation (OR?=?1.64, P<0.05) increased the likelihood of the student being regular drinking, compared to students with traditional orientations. Males (OR?=?4.40, P<0.05) had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than females, graduate students (OR?=?2.59, P<0.05) had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than undergraduates, students from urban areas (OR?=?1.79, P<0.05) had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than those from towns/rural areas, and students attending key universities (OR?=?0.48, P<0.05) had a lower likelihood of regular drinking than those attending general universities. Conclusions Cultural orientation influences drinking behaviors. Traditional cultural orientation was associated with less drinking while western cultural orientation, marginal cultural orientation and bicultural orientation were associated with more drinking. The role of gender, hometown and university attendance is partially moderated through the influence of cultural orientation. The relationship between a traditional cultural orientation and alcohol drinking suggests that traditional Chinese cultural values should be examined for their role in possibly reducing alcohol-related risks through education and policy initiatives. PMID:23359611

Tang, Hongxiu; Cai, Weibin; Wang, Hongjing; Zhang, Qing; Qian, Ling; Shell, Duane F.; Newman, Ian M.; Yin, Ping

2013-01-01

370

Times to drink: cross-cultural variations in drinking in the rhythm of the week  

PubMed Central

Objectives The time of drinking in terms of daytime versus evening and weekday versus weekend is charted for regular drinkers in 14 countries in Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa and Oceania. Methods national or regional adult population surveys from the GENACIS project. Results: The weekly rhythm of drinking varies greatly between societies. Drinking was generally more likely after 5 pm and on weekends. To this extent, alcohol consumption is now regulated by a universal clock. The relation of time of day and of the week of drinking to problems from drinking varied between societies. Drinking at specific times was more likely to predict problems among men than women, though for men the particular time varied, while weekday evenings were the most problematic time for women. The relation of drinking at a particular time to problems in part reflected that heavy drinkers were more likely to be drinking at that time. Conclusions There are commonalities across cultures in drinking by time of day and day of the week, but the implications of the timing for alcohol-related problems are fairly culture-specific. PMID:21553132

Room, Robin; Mäkelä, Pia; Benegal, Vivek; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Hettige, Siri; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.; Wilsnack, Richard

2011-01-01

371

Drinking reasons, alcohol consumption levels, and drinking locations among drunken drivers.  

PubMed

In a DUI offender sample, four drinking reason factors are regressed on alcohol consumption variables and frequency of drinking in seven types of locations. Drinking for "pleasure" and "opposite sex/drunkenness" reasons are associated with both quantity consumed per occasion and away-from-home locations such as automobiles, bars, and parties, suggesting high traffic accident risk. "Escapism" reasons are related to quantity consumed per occasion, but are only weakly associated with specific locations; and "sociability" reasons are associated with drinking in friends' homes, but are not related to high consumption levels. Implications for DUI countermeasures are discussed. PMID:3744618

Snow, R W; Wells-Parker, E

1986-06-01

372

On the construction of drinking norms in work organizations.  

PubMed

Alcohol abuse and dependence is the result of multiple risk factors. Although this article focuses primarily on workplace risk factors, it discusses them within a framework of biological, psychological, familial, social class and sociocultural risks, and argues that a comprehensive explanation of alcohol problems must encompass all of these factors. In addition, the article argues that by constructing drinking norms, especially within the context of the workplace, these risks may be contained and reduced. Consequently, the article also reviews data on the workplace strategy of constructive confrontation and calls for research on similar interventions for containing risks from outside the workplace. PMID:2188048

Trice, H M; Sonnenstuhl, W J

1990-05-01

373

Binge Drinking & Sex in High School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the impact of binge drinking on sexual activity among a nationally representative set of high school students during the 1990s and 2000s. The main innovations are explicitly controlling for time-invariant preferences regarding sexual behavior and alcohol use, and eliminating non-drinkers from the comparison group. I find that binge drinking significantly increases participation in sex, promiscuity, and the

Jeffrey S. DeSimone

2010-01-01

374

HPLC Determination of Taurine in Sports Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is present as a nutritional supplement in many sports drinks. An experiment, suitable for a junior-senior level instrumental analysis course, is described to measure the amount of taurine in these sports drinks. A pre-column derivatization with Sanger's reagent, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, is followed by an HPLC separation utilizing a gradient elution, and detection at 360 nm.

Dale L. Orth

2001-01-01

375

Should California Reconsider Its Legal Drinking Age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent call by 120 American college presidents for reassessment of the legal drinking age of 21 occurs as earlier studies prove to be increasingly limited and outdated. This study tests drinking age effects during the 1975-2005 period using Incidence Rate Ratio analysis of fatal traffic accident and violent death trends among persons ages 16-17, 18-20, and 21-24, as states

Mike Males

376

Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved\\u000a solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.\\u000a Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the\\u000a supermarkets of

Nazeer B. Khan; Arham N. Chohan

2010-01-01

377

Pollution of drinking water with nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg\\/l to 50 mg\\/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg\\/l, and for babies 10 mg\\/l nitrate should

B. Cabel; R. Kozicki; U. Lahl; A. Podbielshi; B. Stachel; S. Struss

1982-01-01

378

Commentary on Fitzpatrick et al. (2012): Forecasting the Effect of the Amethyst Initiative on College Drinking  

PubMed Central

Background There is considerable evidence that heavy episodic drinking (HED) is a serious problem among college students. Concern with this problem has led 135 college presidents to endorse the Amethyst Initiative, which promotes the lowering of the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) from 21 to 18. The Amethyst Initiative claims that the current MLDA of 21 encourages underage college students to drink in unsupervised locations where they adopt misconceptions regarding the normative level of student drinking that leads to excessive consumption or HED. The study by Fitzpatrick et al. (2012) in this issue challenges this hypothesis by contrasting the potential reduction in misapprehension of the drinking norm against the increase in consumption that would be expected if the MLDA were lowered to 18. Method This commentary places the Fitzpatrick study within the larger context of the MLDA, noting that full consideration of the lowering the MLDA requires the inclusion of 18- to 20-year-old noncollege youths in the work force and 15- to 17-year-old high school students who will have increased access to alcohol through their 18-year-old peers. Results Research suggests that alcohol consumption and its associated problems will increase for 15- to 20-year-olds if the MLDA were lowered. This commentary also identifies alternative strategies for reducing college student HED that do not require lowering the MLDA. Conclusion Although college binge drinking is a significant problem, reducing the drinking age is unlikely to be effective. Instead, it will increase the risk of alcohol problems faced by even younger high school students. PMID:22835033

Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

2012-01-01

379

Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students  

PubMed Central

Background Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. Methods This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January – December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Result Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43?±?1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p < 0.05)], for studying or completing major projects [users184 (45.0%), nonusers 225 (55.0%) (p < 0.05)] and for refreshment purposes [users179 (44.9%), nonusers 220 (55.1%) (p < 0.05)]. Two main reasons of not using energy drinks by non-users were “awareness from its side effects” 247 (47.8%) and “have no specific reason” 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). Conclusion In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical students, particularly because they are ever ready to boost their energy level and reduce sleep hours due to stress of exams and projects. This warrants the creation of continued public health awareness about the appropriate use of caffeinated beverages, their potential benefits, side effects and correction of wrong perceptions. PMID:24351105

2013-01-01

380

Factors affecting thermogenic drinking in rats.  

PubMed

After as little as 6 h of exposure to cold air, drinking was induced in rats following transfer from air at 5 degreesC to air at 26 degreesC. Drinking began within 15 min after transfer from the cold enviroment and lasted approximately 1 h. The stimulus for initiation of drinking was most likely the temperature change resulting from the transfer, since an ambient temperature difference of 10 centigrade degrees or more was required to initiate a drinking response after transfer from air at 5 degreesC. Thermogenic drinking was not thwarted by preventing access to water for either 1 or 2h following transfer to warm air, but either intragastric or intraperitoneal administration of a water load equal to 3% of body weight inhibited water intake following transfer.The characteristics of the drinking response following transfer than 5 to 26 degrees C were similiar to those observed following 24 h of dehydration at 26 degrees C. Thus, the cold-exposed rat is relatively dehydrated compared with controls. PMID:1155617

Nelson, E L; Fregly, M J; Tyler, P E

1975-06-01

381

Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

2013-01-01

382

Investigation of drinking water quality in Kosovo.  

PubMed

In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

2013-01-01

383

Sports Drinks Fact Sheet The electrolytes (sodium and potassium) in sports drinks help with the replacement of  

E-print Network

Sports Drinks Fact Sheet · The electrolytes (sodium and potassium) in sports drinks help functioning and repair. · The best sports drinks contain a balanced ratio of carbohydrates and electrolytes to replenish losses and enhance the body's uptake of water. Many commercial sports drinks contain extremely

New Hampshire, University of

384

The Effect of Drink Price and Next-Day Responsibilities on College Student Drinking: A Behavioral Economic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than [3\\/4] of U.S. college students report a heavy drinking episode (HDE; 5 (for men) and 4 (for women) drinks during an occasion) in the previous 90 days. This pattern of drinking is associated with various risks and social problems for both the heavy drinkers and the larger college community. According to behavioral economics, college student drinking is a

Jessica R. Skidmore; James G. Murphy

2011-01-01

385

College student heavy drinking in social contexts versus alone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy drinking is common among college students and typically occurs in social contexts. Heavy drinking when alone, however, is less common. The present study hypothesized that students who drink heavily when alone (HD-Alone) would differ from college students who only drink heavily in social contexts (Social HD). Forty-nine HD-Alone students (at least one heavy-drinking episode when alone), 213 Social HDs,

Matthew Christiansen; Peter W Vik; Amy Jarchow

2002-01-01

386

'Responsible drinking' programs and the alcohol industry in Brazil: killing two birds with one stone?  

PubMed

Over the last decade, the Brazilian alcohol industry - which for years has ignored alcohol problems - inaugurated responsible drinking programs (RDPs). This paper reports findings from an exploratory study that investigated the RDP-related activities of six leading alcohol companies in Brazil (three national, three transnational) focusing on program goals and components, target populations and evaluation methods. Interviews were conducted from October 2007 to February 2008 with nine key-informants, and 71 corporate documents were collected along with additional web information about the programs. Content analysis of interviews and institutional documents was used to identify the companies' RDP activities. Three types of RDPs were found that focused respectively on institutional action, drinking and driving, and underage drinking. All three transnational firms were involved in RDPs, whereas national firms demonstrated limited involvement. The majority of RDPs were implemented using television. No targeted research appears to have been undertaken by the companies to assess the efficacy of the strategies in terms of changes in drinking behavior. The evidence for both national and transnational firms means that is difficult to confirm that the responsible drinking programs produced so far in Brazil have been undertaken to systematically reduce alcohol problems, or mainly as part of a public relations strategy to reduce criticism and potentially forestall government regulations (Babor, 2006, 2009; Jernigan, 2009). PMID:22800917

Pantani, Daniela; Sparks, Robert; Sanchez, Zila M; Pinsky, Ilana

2012-10-01

387

The association of drinking levels and drinking attitudes among Japanese in Japan and Japanese-Americans in Hawaii and California.  

PubMed

This study examined cross-cultural differences in drinking attitudes and drinking levels and their correlation among Japanese in Japan and Japanese-Americans in Hawaii or California. In most situations, an increase in drinking levels was associated with more tolerant drinking attitudes in all three groups. Abstainers were less likely to say that getting drunk is sometimes all right, whereas the reverse was true for heavier drinkers. Drinking levels among Japanese, especially among Japanese women, were not highly associated with how much drinking was perceived as acceptable in each situation, whereas among Japanese-Americans, drinking levels were highly associated with drinking attitudes. Although the Japanese had generally tolerant attitudes toward drinking, they indicated higher abstention rates before driving than Japanese-Americans regardless of their drinking levels. This may reflect the impact of public education on drunken driving in Japan. PMID:1504641

Parrish, K M; Higuchi, S; Stinson, F S; Towle, L H; Dufour, M C; Harford, T C

1992-01-01

388

Effect of two sports drinks on urinary lithogenicity.  

PubMed

The effect of commercial oral rehydration solutions ("sports drinks") relative to water on risk of nephrolithiasis has not been studied previously. We studied the effect of two sports drinks, Performance (Shaklee Corp., Pleasanton, CA, USA) and Gatorade (Gatorade, Chicago, IL, USA) on urinary chemistry and measures of lithogenicity in non-stone formers. Performance has a pH of 4.3, and contains 21 mmol/L of sodium, 5.3 mmol/L of potassium, 0.8 mmol/L of calcium, and 19.5 mmol/L of citrate. Gatorade pH ranges from 2.9 to 3.2, and contains 20 mmol/L of sodium, 3.2 mmol/L of potassium, negligible calcium, and 13.9 mmol/L of citrate. Subjects drank 946 ml (32 oz) of tap water daily for 3 days, and recorded diet history. This was followed by a second 3-day experimental period during which subjects drank 946 ml (32 oz) of sports drink daily, duplicating diets from part 1. In each 3-day period, urine was collected for 24 h during days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, and supersaturations of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid were calculated. Nine subjects completed the study using Performance, ten used Gatorade. Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not different during the control and experimental periods. Performance increased mean citrate excretion by 170 mg/day (95% CI 57-284 mg/day; P = 0.01) and increased urine pH by 0.31 (95% CI 0.03-0.59; P = 0.03). Gatorade did not significantly change urinary citrate excretion or pH. Neither drink caused significant differences in the excretion of sodium and calcium or any supersaturation value. Ingestion of Performance, but not Gatorade, led to an increase in mean urinary citrate excretion and pH as compared to water. The increase in citrate is likely to be a clinically significant effect. pH is an important determinant of alkali load in beverages containing organic anions. Performance, with more citrate and a higher pH than Gatorade, could represent a superior alternative to water for reducing urinary lithogenicity. Most sports drinks with significant carbohydrate content however may contain too many calories, and fructose, to be preferred beverages for stone prevention. PMID:19066876

Goodman, Jeffrey W; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S

2009-02-01

389

Drinking water biofilm cohesiveness changes under chlorination or hydrodynamic stress.  

PubMed

Attempts at removal of drinking water biofilms rely on various preventive and curative strategies such as nutrient reduction in drinking water, disinfection or water flushing, which have demonstrated limited efficiency. The main reason for these failures is the cohesiveness of the biofilm driven by the physico-chemical properties of its exopolymeric matrix (EPS). Effective cleaning procedures should break up the matrix and/or change the elastic properties of bacterial biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the cohesive strength of two-month-old drinking water biofilms under increasing hydrodynamic shear stress ?w (from ?0.2 to ?10 Pa) and shock chlorination (applied concentration at T0: 10 mg Cl2/L; 60 min contact time). Biofilm erosion (cell loss per unit surface area) and cohesiveness (changes in the detachment shear stress and cluster volumes measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM)) were studied. When rapidly increasing the hydrodynamic constraint, biofilm removal was found to be dependent on a dual process of erosion and coalescence of the biofilm clusters. Indeed, 56% of the biofilm cells were removed with, concomitantly, a decrease in the number of the 50-300 ?m(3) clusters and an increase in the number of the smaller (i.e., <50 ?m(3)) and larger (i.e., >600 ?m(3)) ones. Moreover, AFM evidenced the strengthening of the biofilm structure along with the doubling of the number of contact points, NC, per cluster volume unit following the hydrodynamic disturbance. This suggests that the compactness of the biofilm exopolymers increases with hydrodynamic stress. Shock chlorination removed cells (-75%) from the biofilm while reducing the volume of biofilm clusters. Oxidation stress resulted in a decrease in the cohesive strength profile of the remaining drinking water biofilms linked to a reduction in the number of contact points within the biofilm network structure in particular for the largest biofilm cluster volumes (>200 ?m(3)). Changes in the cohesive strength of drinking water biofilms subsequent to cleaning/disinfection operations call into question the effectiveness of cleaning-in-place procedures. The combined alternating use of oxidation and shear stress sequences needs to be investigated as it could be an important adjunct to improving biofilm removal/reduction procedures. PMID:24607313

Mathieu, L; Bertrand, I; Abe, Y; Angel, E; Block, J C; Skali-Lami, S; Francius, G

2014-05-15

390

My Student Body: A High-Risk Drinking Prevention Web Site for College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the efficacy of an interactive Web site, MyStudentBody.com: Alcohol (MSB:Alcohol) that offers a brief, tailored intervention to help heavy drinking college students reduce their alcohol use. They conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to compare the intervention with an alcohol education Web site at baseline,…

Chiauzzi, Emil; Green, Traci Craig; Lord, Sarah; Thum, Christina; Goldstein, Marion

2005-01-01

391

Believe It or Not: Examining to the Emergence of New Drinking Norms in College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paper examines impact of a six-month social norms marketing intervention designed to reduce alcohol use among students attending a small, private university. Results indicate that little change in student alcohol use or perception of drinking norms occurred following the intervention. Gender effect was noted in the analysis with female students…

Granfield, Robert

2002-01-01

392

WHITE PAPER ON IMPROVEMENT OF STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY MONITORING FOR DRINKING WATER MAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

This white paper explores the improvement of water main structural integrity monitoring (SIM) capability as an approach for reducing (1) high risk drinking water main breaks and (2) inefficient maintenance scheduling. Inadequate SIM capability for water mains can cause repair, r...

393

Restriction of Drinking Water Abrogates Splanchnic Vasodilation and Portal Hypertension in Portal Vein-Ligated Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portal hypertension is associated with splanchnic vasodilation which is claimed responsible for the maintenance of chronically elevated portal pressure. Vasopressin analogues are used in the treatment of acute variceal bleeding, since they effectively reduce splanchnic blood flow and portal pressure. Dehydration stimulates the release of endogenous vasopressin release. Here we compared the effects of deprivation of drinking water for 18

Akos Heinemann; Rufina Schuligoi; Irmgard T. Lippe; Rudolf E. Stauber

2009-01-01

394

Trends in Alcohol Knowledge and Drinking Patterns Among Students: 1981-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports data assessing recent changes in college students' knowledge of alcohol and their drinking patterns gathered by Boost Alcohol Consciousness Concerning the Health of University Students (BACCHUS) during spring break at Daytona Beach. Found an emerging trend toward reduced consumption of alcoholic beverages among students. (Author/ABB)

Gonzalez, Gerardo M.

1986-01-01

395

USING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RISKS TO HEALTH FROM MICROBES IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States goal to reduce health risks from environmental exposures of all kinds of hazards has resulted in the need to assess the risks from exposure to microbes in drinking water. The model for a risk-based conceptual framework and strategy is provided by the US Environm...

396

Targeting Misperceptions of Descriptive Drinking Norms: Efficacy of a Computer-Delivered Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors evaluated the efficacy of a computer-delivered personalized normative feedback intervention in reducing alcohol consumption among heavy-drinking college students. Participants included 252 students who were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group following a baseline assessment. Immediately after completing measures of…

Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.; Lewis, Melissa A.

2004-01-01

397

Does an Energy Drink Modify the Effects of Alcohol in a Maximal Effort Test?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are popular reports on the combined use of alcohol and energy drinks (such as Red Bull® and similar beverages, which contain caffeine, taurine, carbohydrates, etc.) to reduce the depressant effects of alcohol on central nervous system, but no controlled studies have been performed. The main purpose of this study was to verify the effects of alcohol, and alcohol

Sionaldo Eduardo Ferreira; Marcio Vinicius Rossi; Maria Lucia O. Souza-Formigoni

2004-01-01

398

Adolescent Drinking and Adolescent Stress: A Domain-Specific Relationship in Northern Irish Schoolchildren  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has suggested an association between heightened levels of stress among adolescents and reduced levels of mental, physical and emotional well-being. This study sought to examine the relationship between 10 domains of adolescent stress and self-reported drinking behaviour. A total of 610 adolescents, aged 12-16 years old, were…

McKay, Michael Thomas; Cole, Jon C.

2013-01-01

399

Inorganic Oxyhalide By-Products in Drinking Water and Ion Chromatographic Determination Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many drinking water utilities are changing their primary disinfectant from chlorine to alternative dis- infectants such as ozone, chlorine dioxide and chloramines, which reduce regulated trihalomethanes and some organochlorine compounds levels, but often increase levels of others potentially toxicologically im- portant compounds. The hazardous inorganic oxyhalide by-products are bromate, chlorite and chlorate, some of which have been classified as probable

R. Michalski

2005-01-01

400

Responses to saline drinking water in offspring born to ewes fed high salt during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the fetal programming of lambs born to ewes exposed to high salt during pregnancy. In the present study, we hypothesise that salt-programmed lambs may not need to drink as much saline water as control lambs and that voluntary feed intake of salt-programmed lambs would be reduced. We used two groups of lambs born to ewes fed either

S. N. Digby; D. Blache; D. G. Masters; D. K. Revell

2010-01-01

401

Counteracting Fusarium proliferatum Toxicity in Broiler Chicks by Supplementing Drinking Water with Poultry Aid Plus®1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether Poultry Aid Plus® (PAP, a commercial product for drinking water application) could reduce the stress on broiler chicks caused by Fusarium proliferatum contamination of feed, water (with or without PAP application, according to the manufac- turer's instructions), and feed (experimentally infected with F. proliferatum fermented and dried corn culture material, CM) were provided to broiler chicks for

W. WU

402

Protective Behaviors and High-Risk Drinking among Entering College Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To explore the use of protective behaviors to reduce risks associated with alcohol consumption among adolescents during the summer preceding college enrollment. Methods: Survey data were collected in fall 2006 and 2007 that assessed demographic characteristics, drinking behaviors, and use of protective behaviors in the 3 months…

Sutfin, Erin L.; Light, Laney S.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Thompson, Martie P.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Spitler, Hugh D.

2009-01-01

403

hat water you're drinking --or sprinkling onto your flowers, or  

E-print Network

? T. L. Provin, Extension Soil Chemist J. L. Pitt, Extension Associate The Texas A&M University System ratings Salinity limits Where to get more information E-176 4-03 #12;Alkalinity Caused by bicarbonates Water with low alkalinity is Acidifying the water will reduce Household water: No EPA1 drinking water

404

Replacing Sweetened Caloric Beverages with Drinking Water Is Associated with Lower Energy Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs.Research Methods and Procedures: Secondary

Jodi D. Stookey; Florence Constant; Christopher D. Gardner; Barry M. Popkin

2007-01-01

405

Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.  

PubMed

Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in untreated Ottawa River water, with a dissolved organic carbon concentration of 6 mg/L, was significantly higher than the stability of the nano-silver dispersions in distilled, organic-free water. Nano-silver particles suspended in the groundwater agglomerated and were quickly and quantitatively removed from the solution. Our data confirm previous observations that natural dissolved organic matter stabilizes nano-silver particles, while the high-ionic strength of groundwater appears to favor their agglomeration and precipitation. As expected, nano-silver was not stable in Ottawa River water through the chlorination process, but survived for many days when added to the Ottawa River water after treatment with chlorine or chloramines. Stirring appeared to have minimal effect on nano-silver stability in untreated and treated Ottawa River water. The profile of DBPs formed in the presence of nAg differed significantly from the profile of DBPs formed in the absence of nAg only at the 1 mg/L nAg concentration. The differences observed consisted mainly in reduced formation of some brominated DBPs and a small increase in the formation of cyanogen chloride. The reduced formation of brominated congeners may be explained by the decrease in available bromide due to the presence of Ag(+) ions. It should be noted that a concentration of 1 mg/L is significantly higher than nAg concentrations that would be expected to be present in surface waters, but these results could be significant for the disinfection of some wastewaters with comparably high nano-silver concentrations. PMID:24458938

Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

2014-10-01

406

Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Are There Associated Negative Consequences beyond Hazardous Drinking in College Students?  

PubMed Central

Objective The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is prevalent among college students as is hazardous drinking, a drinking pattern that places one at risk for alcohol-related harm. The present study, therefore, examined associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences in college students. Methods Based on a probability sample conducted in 2010, participants were 606 undergraduate students aged 18-25. AmED consumption included lifetime and past year use. Hazardous drinking and alcohol-related consequences were measured during the past year. Point prevalence was used to estimate rates of AmED use, and chi-square, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used to examine associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Results Lifetime and past year AmED use prevalence rates were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively. Hazardous drinkers who engaged in AmED use were significantly more likely than past year hazardous drinkers who did not engage in AmED use to have had unprotected sex (OR = 2.35, CI 1.27-4.32). Conclusions AmED use appears to be highly prevalent among college students, and AmED use may confer additional risk for unprotected sex beyond hazardous drinking. Unprotected sex has implications for public health, and students who drink hazardously and consume AmED may be at greater risk. PMID:23685329

Berger, Lisa; Fendrich, Michael; Fuhrmann, Daniel

2013-01-01

407

Sports drinks and energy drinks for children and adolescents: are they appropriate?  

PubMed

Sports and energy drinks are being marketed to children and adolescents for a wide variety of inappropriate uses. Sports drinks and energy drinks are significantly different products, and the terms should not be used interchangeably. The primary objectives of this clinical report are to define the ingredients of sports and energy drinks, categorize the similarities and differences between the products, and discuss misuses and abuses. Secondary objectives are to encourage screening during annual physical examinations for sports and energy drink use, to understand the reasons why youth consumption is widespread, and to improve education aimed at decreasing or eliminating the inappropriate use of these beverages by children and adolescents. Rigorous review and analysis of the literature reveal that caffeine and other stimulant substances contained in energy drinks have no place in the diet of children and adolescents. Furthermore, frequent or excessive intake of caloric sports drinks can substantially increase the risk for overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. Discussion regarding the appropriate use of sports drinks in the youth athlete who participates regularly in endurance or high-intensity sports and vigorous physical activity is beyond the scope of this report. PMID:21624882

2011-06-01

408

They Drink How Much and Where? Normative Perceptions by Drinking Contexts and Their Association to College Students'Alcohol Consumption*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Prior research has shown that normative perceptions of others’ drinking behavior strongly relates to one's own drinking behavior. Most research examining the perceived drinking of others has generally focused on specificity of the normative referent (i.e., gender, ethnicity). The present study expands the research literature on social norms by examining normative perceptions by various drinking contexts. Specifically, this research aimed to determine if college students overestimate peer drinking by several drinking contexts (i.e., bar, fraternity/sorority party, non-fraternity/sorority party, sporting event) and to examine whether normative perceptions for drinking by contexts relate to one's own drinking behavior specific to these contexts. Method: Students (N= 1,468; 56.4% female) participated in a web-based survey by completing measures assessing drinking behavior and perceived descriptive drinking norms for various contexts. Results: Findings demonstrated that students consistently overestimated the drinking behavior for the typical same-sex student in various drinking contexts, with the most prominent being fraternity/sorority parties. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for drinking by contexts were associated with personal drinking behavior within these contexts. Conclusions: Results stress the importance of specificity of social norms beyond those related to the normative referent. Clinical implications are discussed in terms of preventions and intervention efforts as well as risks associated with drinking in a novel context. PMID:21906511

Lewis, Melissa A.; Litt, Dana M.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Granato, Hollie; Kilmer, Jason R.; Lee, Christine M.

2011-01-01

409

Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L. PMID:11940450

Kurttio, Paivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Makelainen, Ilona; Vaisanen, Sari B; Penttila, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

2002-01-01

410

Forecasting the Effect of the Amethyst Initiative on College Drinking  

PubMed Central

Background A number of college presidents have endorsed the Amethyst Initiative, a call to consider lowering the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA). Our objective is to forecast the effect of the Amethyst Initiative on college drinking. Methods A system model of college drinking siumlates MLDA changes through (1) a decrease in heavy episodic drinking (HED) due to the lower likelihood of students drinking in unsupervised settings where they model irresponsible drinking (misperception), and (2) an increase in overall drinking among currently underage students due to increased social availability of alcohol (wetness). Results For the proportion of HEDs on campus, effects of large decreases in misperception of responsible drinking behavior were more than offset by modest increases in wetness. Conclusions For the effect of lowering the MLDA, it appears that increases in social availability of alcohol have a stronger impact on drinking behavior than decreases in misperceptions. PMID:22432502

Fitzpatrick, Ben G.; Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S.; Rasul, Jawaid; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Simonsen, Neal; Rommel, Robert

2012-01-01

411

Transitions in First-Year College Student Drinking Behaviors: Does Pre-College Drinking Moderate the Effects of Parent- and Peer-Based Intervention Components?  

PubMed Central

This study used Latent Transition Analysis (LTA) to examine a stage-sequential model of alcohol use among a sample of high-risk matriculating college students (N = 1275). Measures of alcohol use were collected via web-administered surveys during the summer before entering college and followed-up during the fall semester of college. Seven indicators of alcohol use were used in the LTA models, including temporal measures of typical drinking throughout the week. The results indicated that four latent statuses characterized patterns of drinking at both times, though the proportion of students in each status changed during the transition to college: (a) non-drinkers; (b) weekend non-bingers; (c) weekend bingers; and (d) heavy drinkers. Heavy drinkers were distinguished by heavy episodic drinking (HED), and increased likelihood of drinking throughout the week, especially on Thursdays. Covariates were added to the LTA model to examine the main and interaction effects of parent- and peer-based intervention components. Results indicated that participants in the parent and peer conditions were least likely to transition to the heavy drinkers status. Results also indicated that the parent condition was most effective at preventing baseline nondrinkers from transitioning to heavy drinkers whereas the peer condition was most effective at preventing escalation of use among weekend non-bingers. The results underscore the value of considering multiple dimensions of alcohol use within a person-centered approach. Differential treatment effects were found across baseline drinking class, suggesting the benefit for tailored intervention programs to reduce high-risk drinking among college students. PMID:22061340

Cleveland, Michael J.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Ray, Anne E.; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A.

2012-01-01

412

Does staying in school (and not working) prevent teen smoking and drinking?  

PubMed

Previous work suggests but cannot prove that education improves health behaviors. We exploit a randomized intervention that increased schooling (and reduced working) among male students in the Dominican Republic, by providing information on the returns to schooling. We find that treated youths were much less likely to smoke at age 18 and had delayed onset of daily or regular drinking. The effects appear to be due to changes in peer networks and disposable income. We find no evidence of a direct impact of schooling on rates of time preference, attitudes towards risk or perceptions that drinking or smoking are harmful to health, though our measures of these factors are more limited. PMID:22705390

Jensen, Robert; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

2012-07-01

413

Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem  

PubMed Central

Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects. There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance. Genetic factors may also contribute to an individual’s vulnerability to caffeine related disorders including caffeine intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal. The combined use of caffeine and alcohol is increasing sharply, and studies suggest that such combined use may increase the rate of alcohol-related injury. Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence. Regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:18809264

Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

2009-01-01

414

Managing the microbiological risks of drinking water.  

PubMed

The microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies can have serious health consequences for consumers, and this has been dramatically illustrated in recent years by two disease outbreaks in Canada. In this paper, some factors that can influence the microbiological quality of drinking water and its management are examined. Frameworks have been proposed that help to clarify the main elements of health risk assessment and risk management, and, in accordance with these, risks can be logically characterized, evaluated and controlled. A protocol has been developed for microbiological risk assessment and a risk management framework now guides the development of Canada's national guidelines for drinking-water quality. Monitoring of indicator organisms and the application of adequate water treatment are the primary means recommended in the Canadian guidelines to safeguard health from the presence of water-borne pathogens. Understanding the biological characteristics of microbial pathogens is necessary for assessing their impact on community health and appraising the rationale behind drinking-water testing methods and their limitations. Improvements in health surveillance, monitoring, and risk characterization and application of concepts such as multiple barriers (source-to-tap) and total quality management should contribute to better management of the microbiological quality of drinking water. PMID:15371204

Krewski, Daniel; Balbus, John; Butler-Jones, David; Haas, Charles; Isaac-Renton, Judith; Roberts, Kenneth; Sinclair, Martha

415

Pre-drinking and alcohol-related harm in undergraduates: the influence of explicit motives and implicit alcohol identity.  

PubMed

The present study investigated how pre-drinking could be explained using a model based on dual-systems theory, incorporating measures of explicit and implicit constructs. Undergraduate students (N = 144; 44 male; 100 female; M age = 20.1 years), completed an online survey comprising measures of pre-drinking motives, a measure of pre-drinking cost motives, and an alcohol identity implicit association test. Variance-based structural equation modelling revealed that the predictors explained 34.8 % of the variance in typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption and 25 % of the variance in alcohol-related harm. Cost, interpersonal enhancement, and barriers to consumption motives predicted higher typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption and greater alcohol-related harm. Higher situational control scores predicted lower typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption, and lower alcohol-related harm. Positive implicit alcohol identity predicted alcohol-related harm, but not typical alcohol consumption. Results indicate that a dual-systems approach to pre-drinking has utility in predicting alcohol-related harm and may inform interventions to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and associated harm. PMID:24863376

Caudwell, Kim M; Hagger, Martin S

2014-12-01

416

Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drinking water wells are often placed near streams because streams often overly permeable sediments and the water table is near the surface in valleys, and so pumping costs are reduced. The lowering of the water table by pumping wells can reverse the natural flow from the groundwater to the stream, inducing infiltration of surface water to groundwater and consequently to the drinking water well. Many attenuation processes can take place in the riparian zone, mainly due to mixing, biodegradation and sorption. However, if the water travel time from the surface water to the pumping well is too short, or if the compounds are poorly degradable, contaminants can reach the drinking water well at high concentrations, jeopardizing drinking water quality. Here we developed a reactive transport model to evaluate the risk of contamination of drinking water wells by surface water pollution. The model was validated using data of a tracer experiment in a riparian zone. Three compounds were considered: an older pesticide MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and persistent, glyphosate (Roundup), a new biodegradable and strongly sorbed pesticide, and its degradation product AMPA. Global sensitivity analysis using the method of Morris was employed to identify the dominant model parameters. Results showed that the presence of an aquitard and its characteristics (degree of fracturing and thickness), pollutant properties and well depth are the crucial factors affecting the risk of drinking water well contamination from surface water. Global sensitivity analysis results were compared with rank correlation statistics between pesticide concentrations and geological parameters derived from a comprehensive database of Danish drinking water wells. Aquitard thickness and well depth are the most critical parameters in both the model and observed data.

Malaguerra, F.; Albrechtsen, H.; Binning, P. J.

2010-12-01

417

Underage drinking in the UK: changing trends, impact and interventions. A rapid evidence synthesis.  

PubMed

The UK is a high prevalence country for underage alcohol use. We conducted an evidence synthesis to examine (1) the changing trends in underage drinking in the UK compared to Europe and the USA, (2) the impact of underage drinking in terms of hospital admissions, (3) the association between underage drinking and violent youth offending, and (4) the evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction interventions aimed at children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. The following databases were searched from November 2002 until November 2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, The Evidence for Policy and Practice Information, DARE, Medline, The Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Psych INFO and Social Care Online. Our findings revealed changes in the way children drink in the UK and how much they drink. Alcohol related harms are increasing in the UK despite overall population levels of consumption reducing in this age group. Girls aged 15-16 years report binge drinking and drunkenness more than boys. Girls are also more likely than boys to be admitted to hospital for alcohol related harm. The evidence suggests a strong association between heavy episodic binge drinking and violent youth offending. Only 7 out of 45 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified for this review included children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. Most were delivered in the emergency department (ED) and involved a brief intervention. All were characterised by a wide age range of participants, heterogeneous samples and high rates of refusal and attrition. The authors conclude that whilst the ED might be the best place to identify children and adolescents at risk of harm related to alcohol use it might not be the best place to deliver an intervention. Issues related to a lack of engagement with alcohol harm reduction interventions have been previously overlooked and warrant further investigation. PMID:24095678

Healey, Christine; Rahman, Atif; Faizal, Mohammad; Kinderman, Peter

2014-01-01

418

Lifetime Drinking Course of Driving-While-Impaired Offenders  

PubMed Central

Aims This retrospective study compared drinking histories of 283 men and 413 women convicted of driving while impaired (DWI) in New Mexico and interviewed 15 years following a first conviction and screening referral. Design We characterized drinking course and plotted drinking status (stable abstainers, abstainers, moderate, or risky drinkers) from age 15 to 60. Setting Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Participants Community sample of previously convicted DWI offenders. Measurements Psychiatric disorders from the Comprehensive International Diagnostic Interview; drinking histories from the Cognitive Lifetime Drinking History. Findings Risky drinking was prevalent at all ages for both genders. Almost half the population reported either a lifetime drinking course of risky drinking (19%) or resumed risky drinking after at least one interval of abstinence or moderate drinking (25%), while about one fifth followed a never-risky or risky-to-moderate drinking course. Offenders with a lifetime diagnosis of substance dependence more often transitioned to risky drinking, and those with lifetime alcohol dependence were more prone to transition to abstinence. Across time, those who began risky drinking at age 15 or later quit at double the rate of those who began before age 15. Women’s and men’s drinking courses were similar, but women began risky drinking at a later age and more often moved to abstinence. Conclusions Among people convicted of driving while impaired in the US, younger age of initiation of drinking and co-occurrence of psychiatric and substance use appear to be associated with a poorer trajectory of subsequent risky drinking behaviour. Women who are convicted of driving while impaired appear to start drinking later in life and be more likely subsequently to become abstainers. PMID:22681457

Lapham, Sandra C.; Skipper, Betty J.; Russell, Marcia

2012-01-01

419

Drinking Motives as Mediators of the Impulsivity-Substance Use Relation: Pathways for Negative Urgency, Lack of Premeditation, and Sensation Seeking  

PubMed Central

Trait impulsivity is a reliable, robust predictor of risky, problematic alcohol use. Mounting evidence supports a multidimensional model of impulsivity, whereby several distinct traits serve as personality pathways to rash action. Different impulsivity-related traits may predispose individuals to drink for different reasons (e.g., to enhance pleasure, to cope with distress) and these different motives may, in turn, influence drinking behavior. Previous findings support such a mediational model for two well-studied traits: sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. This study addresses other impulsivity-related traits, including negative urgency. College students (N = 432) completed questionnaires assessing personality, drinking motives, and multiple indicators of problematic drinking. Negative urgency, sensation seeking, and lack of premeditation were all significantly related to problematic drinking. When drinking motives were included in the model, direct effects for sensation seeking and lack of premeditation remained significant, and indirect effects of sensation seeking and lack of premeditation on problematic drinking were observed through enhancement motives. A distinct pathway was observed for negative urgency. Negative urgency bore a significant total effect on problematic drinking through both coping and enhancement motives. This study highlights unique motivational pathways through which different impulsive traits may operate, suggesting that interventions aimed at preventing or reducing problematic drinking should be tailored to individuals' personalities. For instance, individuals high in negative urgency may benefit from learning healthier strategies for coping with distress. PMID:22472524

Adams, Zachary W.; Kaiser, Alison J.; Lynam, Donald R.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Milich, Richard

2012-01-01

420

Effect of home-used water purifier on fluoride concentration of drinking water in southern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Fluoride in drinking water plays a key role in dental health. Due to the increasing use of water-purifier, the effect of these devices on fluoride concentration of drinking water was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Drinking water samples were collected before and after passing through a home water-purifier, from four different water sources. The fluoride, calcium and magnesium concentration of the samples were measured using the quantitative spectrophotometery technique. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test. P value < 0.1 was considered as significant. Results: The result showed that the concentration of fluoride was 0.05-0.61 ppm before purification and was removed completely afterward. Furthermore, other ions reduced significantly after treatment by the water purifier. Conclusion: This study revealed that this device decreases the fluoride content of water, an issue which should be considered in low and high-fluoridated water sources. PMID:24130584

Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kheirmand, Mehdi

2013-01-01

421

Identifying Social Mechanisms for the Prevention of Adolescent Drinking and Driving  

PubMed Central

This study identifies social mechanisms that might help prevent youth from being involved in driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD). Data collected through telephone surveys with 1,534 adolescents and young adults aged 15–20 years (mean = 17.6, SD = 1.6) in California, USA were analyzed. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that DUI and RWDD were strongly related to drinking in unstructured situations, modeling of DUI by peers and parents, and perceived peer approval or disapproval of DUI. DUI outcome expectancies were indirectly related to DUI and RWDD through situational drinking. Parental monitoring and DUI law enforcement were also indirectly related to DUI and RWDD through DUI expectancies and other mechanisms. The findings, overall, suggest that parental influence remains important even through late adolescence. Parental monitoring, in particular, might help to reduce unstructured socializing with peers, drinking, and affiliation with peers who engage in DUI. Parental monitoring may also foster beliefs about the risks of DUI. Conversely, parents’ own DUI behavior may normalize drinking and DUI behaviors, thus countering monitoring efforts. PMID:18329409

Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W.; Nygaard, Peter; Miller, Brenda A.

2008-01-01

422

Evaluating pond sand filter as sustainable drinking water supplier in the Southwest coastal region of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates existing water supply scenario, and evaluates the performance of pond sand filter (PSF) in meeting drinking water demand of Dacope Upazila in southwest coastal Bangladesh. Questionnaire survey to the villagers reveals that PSF is the major drinking water sources (38 %) of the study area followed by tubewells (30.4 %), rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems (12.6 %), ponds (10.3 %) and others (8.7 %). The spot test and laboratory analysis show that odour, colour, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate and phosphate of the PSFs water meet Bangladesh standard. The efficiency of PSF in reducing total dissolved solids (TDS) (15 %) and potassium (8.2 %) is not enough to meet the standard of 20 % PSFs for TDS and one-third PSFs for potassium. The study proves that PSF is unable to remove coliform bacteria by 100 % from highly contaminated water. Hence, disinfection should be adopted before distribution to ensure safe drinking water. Majority of the PSF's users (80 %) are either partially satisfied or dissatisfied with the existing system. The beneficiary's willingness to pay for drinking water technologies seems that the combination of PSF and RWH could ensure sustainable drinking water in coastal region of Bangladesh.

Harun, M. A. Y. A.; Kabir, G. M. M.

2013-03-01

423

Influence of drinking water composition on quantitation and biological activity of dissolved microcystin (cyanotoxin).  

PubMed

Toxic cyanobacteria in aquatic environments have been implicated in many poisoning incidents of livestock, wildlife, and domestic animals. Microcystins (MCYSTs) in water supplies represent a risk to public health. This work investigated the effect of water composition on the quantitation and biological activity of MCYSTs analyzed by different methods (HPLC, ELISA, and protein phosphatase 1 inhibition assay). Different MCYST concentrations were added to deionized water and quantified, confirming the efficiency of these analytical methods. MCYST concentrations diluted in drinking water had reduced detection by all methods tested. The drinking water used contained a free chlorine concentration of 2.5 mg/L and an Fe concentration of 0.45 mg/L, and the conductivity was 69.8 microS cm(-1), whereas in deionized water, free chlorine and Fe were not detectable, and the conductivity was 1.6 microS cm(-1). Drinking water also interfered with the biological activity of MYCSTs, as these toxins showed reduced protein phosphatase-1 inhibition. A free chlorine concentration of 2.5 mg/L in deionized water was completely effective in preventing any detection of 10 microg/L of added MCYSTs. Fe and Al ions also were very effective in reducing MCYST detection. The chemical composition of drinking water thus affected MCYST detection, indicating a significant reduction in quantitation of this molecule either because of its decomposition or through complexation with metal ions. PMID:15793828

Oliveira, Ana C P; Magalhães, Valéria F; Soares, Raquel M; Azevedo, Sandra M F O

2005-04-01

424

Drinking less and drinking smarter: direct and indirect protective strategies in young adults.  

PubMed

Efforts to increase the use of protective behavioral strategies are a common component in interventions for young adult drinking. Some strategies, including those utilized while drinking, are directly correlated with lower drinking levels (cf. Martens et al., 2005). Other strategies, however, may be indirectly related to drinking and instead be more closely associated with alcohol-related consequences. Two studies assessed the Protective Strategies Questionnaire (PSQ; Palmer, 2004), which may be well suited to the assessment of direct and indirect strategies. In Study 1, data from a sample of undergraduate drinkers (N = 370) [corrected] was used to examine the structure of the PSQ with principle components analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 2, data from a clinical sample of young adult drinkers (N = 168) [corrected] was used to replicate the CFA model. In both studies, relationships among the factors, alcohol use, and consequences were examined. PCA and CFA in split halves of the undergraduate sample and CFA in the clinical sample confirmed two factors: a Direct Strategies (e.g., "space drinks out over time") factor and an Indirect Strategies (e.g., "have a designated driver") factor. Direct strategies were associated with lower alcohol consumption. Indirect strategies were less strongly associated with drinking but were associated with fewer alcohol-related consequences. Interventions for young adult drinking may be tailored to patient goals to decrease consumption and/or consequences. PMID:23088406

DeMartini, Kelly S; Palmer, Rebekka S; Leeman, Robert F; Corbin, William R; Toll, Benjamin A; Fucito, Lisa M; O'Malley, Stephanie S

2013-09-01

425

Normative Misperceptions and Temporal Precedence of Perceived Norms and Drinking*  

PubMed Central

Objective Previous research has shown that students overestimate the drinking of their peers, and that perceived norms are strongly associated with drinking behavior. Explanations for these findings have been based largely on cross-sectional data, precluding the ability to evaluate the stability of normative misperceptions or to disentangle the direction of influence between perceived norms and drinking. The present research was designed to evaluate (1) the stability of normative misperceptions and (2) temporal precedence of perceived norms and drinking. Method Participants were college students (N = 164; 94 women) who completed assessments of perceived norms and reported behavior for drinking frequency and weekly quantity. Most participants (68%) completed the same measures again two months later. Results Results indicated large and stable overestimations of peer drinking for frequency and weekly quantity. Results also showed that for weekly quantity, perceived norms predicted later drinking, but drinking also predicted later perceived norms. Results for frequency revealed perceived norms predicted later drinking, but drinking did not predict later perceived norms. Conclusion These findings underscore the importance of longitudinal designs in evaluating normative influences on drinking. The present findings suggest that normative misperceptions are stable, at least over a relatively short time period. Findings support a mutual influence model of the relationship between perceived norms and drinking quantity but are more strongly associated with conformity explanations for the relationship between perceived norms and drinking frequency. Results are discussed in terms of implications for prevention interventions. PMID:16562412

NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; DILLARD, AMANDA J.; LEWIS, MELlSSA A.; BERGSTROM, ROCHELLE L.; NEIL, TERYL A.

2008-01-01

426

Alcohol Policy, Social Context, and Infant Health: The Impact of Minimum Legal Drinking Age  

PubMed Central

Objective The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) was increased in the U.S. in the late 1980s in an effort to reduce intoxication-associated injuries, especially those related to motor vehicle accidents. This paper explores distal (secondary) effects of changing MLDA on indices of infant health, and whether changes in drinking behaviors or birth composition contributed to these effects. Methods State- and year-fixed-effects models are used to analyze the relationship between MLDA, drinking behaviors, and birth outcomes. We studied the effects of different MLDA (age 18, 19, 20, or 21 years) when potential mothers were 14 years old by merging two population-based datasets, the Natality Detailed Files and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 1985 and 2002. Results A MLDA of 18 years old (when potential mothers were 14 years old) increased the prevalence of low birth weight, low Apgar scores, and premature births. Effects were stronger among children born to black women compared with white women. Moreover, a younger MLDA was associated with an increasing proportion of very young and high school dropouts for black women. Furthermore, older MLDA laws at age 14 years decreased the prevalence of binge drinking among black women. Conclusions Increasing the MLDA had longer term, distal impacts beyond the initially intended outcomes, specifically on birth outcomes (particularly among infants born to black women) as well as school drop-outs and binge drinking patterns among black young females. The older MLDA, intended initially to reduce problematic drinking behaviors, appeared to alter broader social contexts that influenced young women during their early childbearing years. PMID:22016717

Zhang, Ning; Caine, Eric

2011-01-01

427

Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Consumption Patterns and Motivations for Use in U.S. College Students  

PubMed Central

Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking. PMID:21909303

Marczinski, Cecile A.

2011-01-01

428

Undergraduate student drinking and related harms at an Australian university: web-based survey of a large random sample  

PubMed Central

Background There is considerable interest in university student hazardous drinking among the media and policy makers. However there have been no population-based studies in Australia to date. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of hazardous drinking and secondhand effects among undergraduates at a Western Australian university. Method We invited 13,000 randomly selected undergraduate students from a commuter university in Australia to participate in an online survey of university drinking. Responses were received from 7,237 students (56%), who served as participants in this study. Results Ninety percent had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months and 34% met criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT score ? 8 and greater than 6 standard drinks in one sitting in the previous month). Men and Australian/New Zealand residents had significantly increased odds (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.9-2.3; OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 4.4-6.2) of being categorised as dependent (AUDIT score 20 or over) than women and non-residents. In the previous 4 weeks, 13% of students had been insulted or humiliated and 6% had been pushed, hit or otherwise assaulted by others who were drinking. One percent of respondents had experienced sexual assault in this time period. Conclusions Half of men and over a third of women were drinking at hazardous levels and a relatively large proportion of students were negatively affected by their own and other students' drinking. There is a need for intervention to reduce hazardous drinking early in university participation. Trial registration ACTRN12608000104358 PMID:22248011

2012-01-01

429

Implementation of new water quality model into EPANET in hopes of reducing  

E-print Network

Implementation of new water quality model into EPANET in hopes of reducing Arizona Public Drinking to pollute the public drinking water supply. Using current water quality prediction models programs are based on a modeling software called EPANET whose water quality model hasn't been updated

Fay, Noah

430

ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

431

Close Friends May Be Key to Teens' Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Close Friends May Be Key to Teens' Drinking Larger peer ... Drinking FRIDAY, Nov. 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Close friends have more influence on teens' alcohol use than ...

432

An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

433

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR PENTACHLOROPHENOL (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on pentachlorophenol. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of pentachlorophenol, Toxicokineti...

434

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR HEXACHLOROBENZENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on hexachlorobenzene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of hexachlorobenzene ; Toxicokine...

435

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR EPICHLOROHYDRIN (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on epichlorohydrin. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of epichlorohydrin; Toxicokinetics ...

436

When you are drinking too much - tips for cutting back  

MedlinePLUS

... too much; Alcohol use disorder - drinking too much; Alcohol abuse - drinking too much ... VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder: a comparison between ...

437

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

438

Drinking Water Contaminant Linked to Pregnancy Complications in Study  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drinking Water Contaminant Linked to Pregnancy Complications in Study Women ... Friday, October 3, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Drinking Water Reproductive Hazards FRIDAY, Oct. 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

439

Regulatory Considerations to Ensure Clean and Safe Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Federal drinking water regulations are based on risk assessment of human health effects and research conducted on source water, treatment technologies, residuals, and distribution systems. The book chapter summarizes the role that EPA research plays in ensuring pure drinking wat...

440

Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

441

Binge Drinking May Boost Blood Pressure in Young Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Binge Drinking May Boost Blood Pressure in Young Men Study didn't find same effect in young ... 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Binge drinking among young adult men may lead to increased blood pressure, according to ...