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1

A Night to Remember: A Harm-Reduction Birthday Card Intervention Reduces High-Risk Drinking during 21st Birthday Celebrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In collaboration with Residence Life, the Heads UP research team developed a 21st birthday card program to help reduce the risky drinking often associated with these celebrations. Participants: 81 students (28 males, 53 females) completed a post-21st birthday survey. Of these, 74 reported drinking during their 21st birthday and were…

LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Cail, Jessica

2009-01-01

2

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Event-Specific Prevention Strategies for Reducing Problematic Drinking Associated with 21st Birthday Celebrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: While research has documented heavy drinking practices and associated negative consequences of college students turning 21, few studies have examined prevention efforts aimed at reducing high-risk drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The present study evaluated the comparative efficacy of a general prevention effort (i.e., Brief…

Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Geisner, Irene M.; Zheng, Cheng; Larimer, Mary E.

2012-01-01

3

A Hierarchy of 21st Birthday Drinking Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper offers preliminary evidence for a hierarchical organization of normative social influences on 21st birthday drinking. In recent years, 21st birthday celebratory drinking has received increasing attention, due largely to the propagation of dangerous and sometimes fatal drinking traditions, such as attempting to drink one shot for…

Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.

2012-01-01

4

Evaluation Results of a 21st Birthday Card Program Targeting High-Risk Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The B.R.A.D. Birthday Card initiative was started on the campus of Michigan State University (MSU) in April 1999. MSU administrators send the safe-drinking 21st birthday card (B.R.A.D.) and laminated wallet card to students shortly before their 21st birthday. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the 21st birthday card, MSU and B.R.A.D.,…

Hembroff, Larry; Atkin, Charles; Martell, Dennis; McCue, Cindy; Greenamyer, Jasmine T.

2007-01-01

5

21st birthday celebratory drinking: evaluation of a personalized normative feedback card intervention.  

PubMed

This research was designed to evaluate a personalized normative feedback birthday card intervention aimed at reducing normative perceptions, alcohol consumption, and negative consequences associated with 21st birthday celebrations among college students (N=281; 59.15% women). Students were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a birthday card about 1 week prior to their 21st birthday. Approximately 1 week following their birthday, students were asked to complete a brief survey concerning their birthday celebration activities. Findings indicated that the birthday card intervention was not successful at reducing drinking or consequences; however, the card did reduce normative misperceptions. Additional findings indicated that many students experienced negative consequences, such as passing out or driving after consuming alcohol. Combined, these findings suggest that prevention is needed for drinking associated with turning 21. However, prevention efforts should consist of more than a birthday card. PMID:18540715

Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M; Oster-Aaland, Laura

2008-06-01

6

The Effect of a Birthday Card Intervention on 21st Birthday Celebratory Drinking Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

birthday card was mailed to 2,380 college students who later completed an online instrument to assess the campaign's impact. Students reported drinking more during their 21st birthday celebrations than on a typical weekend night. Men consumed more drinks, reached higher…

Bass, Ellen J.; Bruce, Susan E.; Lee, Douglas W.

2013-01-01

7

Social Norms vs. Risk Reduction Approaches to 21st Birthday Celebrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Celebratory drinking among college students on their 21st birthday often involves dangerous levels of alcohol consumption. Purpose: This study utilized an experimental design to assess the efficacy of social norm and risk reduction strategies developed to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol related consequences among college students…

Glassman, Tavis; Dodd, Virginia; Kenzik, Kelly; Miller, E. Maureen; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye

2010-01-01

8

The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.  

PubMed

This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131

Yörük, Bar?? K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

2011-07-01

9

Reducing Harms from Youth Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American alcohol education and prevention efforts for youth emphasize abstinence. In support of this approach, epidemiologists conclude that early drinking by adolescents increases the lifetime likelihood of alcohol dependence and that overall drinking levels in a society are directly linked to drinking problems. At the same time, cultural,…

Peele, Stanton

2006-01-01

10

Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking  

PubMed Central

Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.

2010-01-01

11

Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

12

Case Management Reduces Drinking During Pregnancy among High Risk Women  

PubMed Central

Aim Estimate the efficacy of Case Management (CM) for women at high risk for bearing a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Design Women were recruited from antenatal clinics and engaged in 18 months of CM. Setting A South African community with a subculture of heavy, regular, weekend, recreational drinking and high documented rates of FASD. Participants Forty-one women who were high risk for bearing a child with FASD. Measures Statistical analysis of trends in drinking and other risk factors. Findings At intake 87.8% were pregnant, most had previous alcohol-exposed pregnancies, most/all of their friends drink alcohol (67.5%), and 50.0% had stressful lives. CM was particularly valuable for pregnant women, as statistically significant reductions in alcohol risk were obtained for them in multiple variables: total drinks on weekends after six months of CM (p = .026) and estimated peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at six (p < .001) and 18 months (p < .001). For participants completing 18 months of CM, AUDIT scores improved significantly by 6-month follow-up (from 19.8 to 9.7, p = .000), and even though rising at 12 and 18 months, AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking remained statistically significantly lower than baseline throughout CM. Happiness scale scores correlated significantly with reduced drinking in most time periods. Conclusions An enduring change in drinking behavior is difficult in this social setting. Yet, CM provided by skilled and empathic case managers reduced maternal drinking at critical times, and therefore, alcohol exposure levels to the fetus. PMID:24729823

May, Philip A.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Hendricks, Natalie; Roux, Sumien; Blom, Annalien; Steenekamp, Jeanetta; Alexander, Theresa; Andreas, Romena; Human, Suzanne; Snell, Cudore; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles C.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Blankenship, Jason

2014-01-01

13

Reducing Disinfection By-Products in Small Drinking Water Systems  

E-print Network

Reducing Disinfection By-Products in Small Drinking Water Systems by M. Robin Collins, James P Public Water Systems...Protecting Public Health #12;#12;4 Disinfection Byproducts Formation NOM + Disinfectant = DBPs NOM=Natural Organic Matter=Organic Precursor Disinfectants=Chlorine, Chloramination, UV

14

Reducing underage and young adult drinking: how to address critical drinking problems during this developmental period.  

PubMed

Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A

2010-01-01

15

Fluoride Is Unable to Reduce Dental Erosion from Soft Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of the present study was to compare the erosive capabilities of some fruit-flavoured drinks, fresh or saturated with CaF2, with their content of acids and with previous results from some carbonated soft drinks. The other aim was to measure and compare the rates of dissolution of CaF2 in some carbonated and non-carbonated drinks and water. Seven commercially

M. J. Larsen; A. Richards

2002-01-01

16

Reducing Lead in School Drinking Water: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Seattle School District began a program in 1990 to identify lead levels in the district's drinking water and to implement measures to lower any high lead levels. Recounts each of the seven steps of the program, discusses what the district found, and explains how it lowered lead levels in the drinking water. (MLF)

Odell, Lee

1991-01-01

17

Prevention of childhood obesity by reducing soft drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a global problem. There are a variety of environmental factors that may be contributing to this increase. One such factor may be the increased consumption of soft drinks.Objective:This review will describe some of the latest research that has examined the association between obesity and the consumption of soft drinks.Results:The association between the consumption

J James; D Kerr

2005-01-01

18

Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

2009-01-01

19

Alcohol Consumption and Women's Vulnerability to Sexual Victimization: Can Reducing Women's Drinking Prevent Rape?  

PubMed Central

Before effective prevention interventions can be developed, it is necessary to identify the mechanisms that contribute to the targeted negative outcomes. A review of the literature on women's substance use and sexual victimization points to women's heavy episodic drinking as a proximal risk factor, particularly among college samples. At least half of sexual victimization incidents involve alcohol use and the majority of rapes of college women occur when the victim is too intoxicated to resist (“incapacitated rape”). Despite the importance of women's heavy episodic drinking as being a risk factor, existing rape prevention programs have rarely addressed women's alcohol use and have shown little success in reducing rates of sexual victimization. We argue that given the strength of the association between heavy episodic drinking and sexual victimization among young women, prevention programs targeting drinking may prove more efficacious than programs targeting sexual vulnerability. Applications of existing drinking prevention strategies to reducing women's sexual victimization are discussed. PMID:19938922

Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.

2009-01-01

20

An upper-bound assessment of the benefits of reducing perchlorate in drinking water.  

PubMed

The Environmental Protection Agency plans to issue new federal regulations to limit drinking water concentrations of perchlorate, which occurs naturally and results from the combustion of rocket fuel. This article presents an upper-bound estimate of the potential benefits of alternative maximum contaminant levels for perchlorate in drinking water. The results suggest that the economic benefits of reducing perchlorate concentrations in drinking water are likely to be low, i.e., under $2.9 million per year nationally, for several reasons. First, the prevalence of detectable perchlorate in public drinking water systems is low. Second, the population especially sensitive to effects of perchlorate, pregnant women who are moderately iodide deficient, represents a minority of all pregnant women. Third, and perhaps most importantly, reducing exposure to perchlorate in drinking water is a relatively ineffective way of increasing iodide uptake, a crucial step linking perchlorate to health effects of concern. PMID:25196433

Lutter, Randall

2014-10-01

21

Ibudilast reduces alcohol drinking in multiple animal models of alcohol dependence.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammatory signaling pathways in the central nervous system are of current interest as potential pharmacotherapy targets for alcohol dependence. In this study, we examined the ability of ibudilast, a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, to reduce alcohol drinking and relapse in alcohol-preferring P rats, high-alcohol drinking HAD1 rats, and in mice made dependent on alcohol through cycles of alcohol vapor exposure. When administered twice daily, ibudilast reduced alcohol drinking in rats by approximately 50% and reduced drinking by alcohol-dependent mice at doses which had no effect in non-dependent mice. These findings support the viability of ibudilast as a possible treatment for alcohol dependence. PMID:24215262

Bell, Richard L; Lopez, Marcelo F; Cui, Changhai; Egli, Mark; Johnson, Kirk W; Franklin, Kelle M; Becker, Howard C

2015-01-01

22

Alcohol binge drinking during adolescence or dependence during adulthood reduces prefrontal myelin in male rats.  

PubMed

Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism. PMID:25355229

Vargas, Wanette M; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Whitcomb, Brian W; Richardson, Heather N

2014-10-29

23

Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…

Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

2010-01-01

24

Buprenorphine Reduces Alcohol Drinking Through Activation of the Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ-NOP Receptor System  

PubMed Central

Background Activation of the NOP receptor by its endogenous ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ reduces ethanol intake in genetically selected alcohol preferring Marchigian Sardinian alcohol preferring (msP) rats. Here we evaluated whether buprenorphine, a partial agonist at ?-opioid and NOP receptors, would reduce ethanol consumption in msP rats via activation of NOP receptors. Methods Marchigian Sardinian alcohol preferring rats trained to drink 10% alcohol 2 hours/day were injected with buprenorphine (.03, .3, 3.0, or 6.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally [IP]) 90 min before access to ethanol. Results Similar to prototypical ?-agonists, the two lowest doses of buprenorphine significantly increased ethanol consumption (p < .01); in contrast, the two highest doses reduced it (p < .05). Pretreatment with naltrexone (.25 mg/kg IP) prevented the increase of ethanol intake induced by .03 mg/kg of buprenorphine (p < .001) but did not affect the inhibition of ethanol drinking induced by 3.0 mg/kg of buprenorphine. Conversely, pretreatment with the selective NOP receptor antagonist UFP-101 (10.0 or 20.0 ?g/rat) abolished the suppression of ethanol drinking by 3.0 mg/kg of buprenorphine. Conclusions Buprenorphine has dualistic effects on ethanol drinking; low doses increase alcohol intake via stimulation of classic opioid receptors, whereas higher doses reduce it via activation of NOP receptors. We suggest that NOP agonistic properties of buprenorphine might be useful in the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:16533497

Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Economidou, Daina; Rimondini, Roberto; Sommer, Wolfgang; Massi, Maurizio; Heilig, Markus

2011-01-01

25

Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.  

PubMed

This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water. PMID:25320856

Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

2014-01-01

26

Is being mindful associated with reduced risk for internally-motivated drinking and alcohol use among undergraduates?  

PubMed

Mindfulness encompasses four core skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without judgment; which aim to increase one's awareness, tolerance, and acceptance of internal experiences (Baer et al., 2004). Despite promising clinical results that mindfulness reduces alcohol craving and relapse, complementary etiological research is underdeveloped. Theory suggests that those who are motivated to drink to change internal states (reduce negative/increase positive affect) are at risk for elevated alcohol use. The ability to accept one's affective state should preclude internally-motivated drinking, and thus, elevated alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to parse out which mindfulness skills are central to alcohol use. We hypothesized that accepting without judgment would be a unique negative predictor of internally-motivated drinking (drinking for coping and enhancement motives) and alcohol use. Students (N=76) completed self-report measures of past month alcohol use and four motives for drinking: to cope, for enhancement, to conform, and for social reasons. Partially supporting our hypotheses, accepting without judgment was negatively associated with drinking for coping motives, but was unassociated with drinking for enhancement motives. Interestingly, acceptance without judgment was negatively associated with drinking for conformity motives (to reduce social rejection). Unexpectedly, acting with awareness, but not accepting without judgment, was a negative predictor of alcohol use. Our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing coping- and conformity-motivated drinking and alcohol use by young adults may benefit from incorporating mindfulness skills training (i.e., accepting without judgment; acting with awareness). PMID:25489665

Reynolds, Ashley; Keough, Matthew T; O'Connor, Roisin M

2015-03-01

27

Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

2010-01-01

28

Can technology help to reduce underage drinking? Evidence from the false ID laws with scanner provision.  

PubMed

Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth. PMID:24732386

Yörük, Bar?? K

2014-07-01

29

Reducing Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water in Estonia—A Countrywide Study  

PubMed Central

Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004–2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%). PMID:24637908

Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

2014-01-01

30

Paternal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Alcohol Drinking and Increases Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol Selectively in Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is heritable, but the genetic basis for this disease remains poorly understood. Although numerous gene variants have been associated with AUD, these variants account for only a small fraction of the total risk. The idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, i.e. “epigenetic inheritance,” is re-emerging as a proven adjunct to traditional modes of genetic inheritance. We hypothesized that alcohol drinking and neurobiological sensitivity to alcohol are influenced by ancestral alcohol exposure. To test this hypothesis, we exposed male mice to chronic vapor ethanol or control conditions, mated them to ethanol-naïve females, and tested adult offspring for ethanol drinking, ethanol-induced behaviors, gene expression, and DNA methylation. We found that ethanol-sired male offspring had reduced ethanol preference and consumption, enhanced sensitivity to the anxiolytic and motor-enhancing effects of ethanol, and increased Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) compared to control-sired male offspring. There were no differences among ethanol- and control-sired female offspring on these assays. Ethanol exposure also decreased DNA methylation at the BdnfÆpromoter of sire's germ cells and hypomethylation was maintained in the VTA of both male and female ethanol-sired offspring. Our findings show that paternal alcohol exposure is a previously unrecognized regulator of alcohol drinking and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol in male, but not female, offspring. Paternal alcohol exposure also induces epigenetic alterations (DNA hypomethylation) and gene expression changes that persist in the VTA of offspring. These results provide new insight into the inheritance and development of alcohol drinking behaviors. PMID:24896617

Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E.

2014-01-01

31

Reducing diarrhoea in Guatemalan children: randomized controlled trial of flocculant-disinfectant for drinking-water.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a new point-of-use treatment for drinking-water, a commercially developed flocculant-disinfectant, on the prevalence of diarrhoea in children. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 514 rural Guatemalan households, divided into 42 neighbourhood clusters, for 13 weeks, from 4 November 2002 through 31 January 2003. Clusters assigned to water treatment with the flocculant-disinfectant were compared with those using their usual water-handling practices. The longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea was calculated as the proportion of total days with diarrhoea divided by the total number of days of observation. The prevalence of diarrhoea was compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. FINDINGS: The 1702 people in households receiving the disinfectant had a prevalence of diarrhoea that was 40% lower than that among the 1699 people using standard water-handling practices (0.9% versus 1.5%; P = 0.001). In households using the flocculant-disinfectant, children < 1 year of age had a 39% lower prevalence of diarrhoea than those in households using their standard practices (3.7% versus 6.0%; P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: In settings where families rarely treat drinking-water, we introduced a novel flocculant-disinfectant that reduced the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea, especially among children aged < 1 year, among whom diarrhoea has been strongly associated with mortality. Successful introduction and use of this product could contribute to preventing diarrhoeal disease globally. PMID:16501712

Chiller, Tom M.; Mendoza, Carlos E.; Lopez, M. Beatriz; Alvarez, Maricruz; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Keswick, Bruce H.; Luby, Stephen P.

2006-01-01

32

An interactive voice response program to reduce drinking relapse: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Substance-abusing patients often relapse soon after undergoing treatment, thus requiring intensive aftercare or re-treatment. More efficient monitoring and follow-up of patients could contribute to better treatment outcomes. This study evaluated the feasibility of a computer-automated interactive voice response (IVR) system to reduce relapse following discharge from residential treatment. Sixty participants completing a residential treatment program and meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence were randomized to three groups: (1) daily IVR reporting with personal follow-up on noncompliant callers; (2) daily IVR reporting without follow-up; or (3) no IVR reporting (control group). At 30, 90, and 180 days after discharge, participants were interviewed to obtain timeline follow-back drinking data and completed the Work and Social Adjustment Scale, Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale, SF-36, and Drinker Inventory of Consequences. This pilot study suggests that using automated IVR technology to monitor clients after discharge is feasible and warrants further research and development. IVR systems also provide the potential for delivering individualized feedback. PMID:16377449

Mundt, James C; Moore, Heidi K; Bean, Pamela

2006-01-01

33

A Case Study of University-Community Collaboration to Reduce the Negative Effects of Binge Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Binge drinking is a prevalent, persistent problem within U.S. university cities. Consequences of students' binge drinking can result in injury, assault, disruption in neighborhoods, and even death. Proponents of one potential solution to the problem, the environmental approach, propose changing the context of drinking by altering factors such…

Williams, Michael B.

2013-01-01

34

Supplementation of soft drinks with metallic ions reduces dissolution of bovine enamel  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of metallic ions to carbonated drinks on their erosive potential. Material and Methods Powdered enamel was added to carbonated beverages (Coca-ColaTM or Sprite ZeroTM and shaken for 30 s. The samples were then immediately centrifuged and the supernatant removed. This procedure was repeated 5 times with the beverages containing Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ or Zn2+ (1.25-60 mmol/L). For Coca-ColaTM, the concentration of each ion that exhibited the highest protection was also evaluated in combination with Fe2+. The phosphate or calcium released were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results For Coca-ColaTM, the best protective effect was observed for Zn2+ alone (10 mmol/L) or in combination (1 mmol/L) with other ions (12% and 27%, respectively, when compared with the control). Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the best protective effect was observed for Cu2+ at 15 and 30 mmol/L, which decreased the dissolution by 22-23%. Zn2+ at 2.5 mmol/L also reduced the dissolution of powdered enamel by 8%. Conclusions The results suggest that the combination of metallic ions can be an alternative to reduce the erosive potential of Coca-ColaTM. Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the addition of Cu2+ seems to be the best alternative. PMID:24037077

PEREIRA, Heloisa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva; LEITE, Aline de Lima; ITALIANI, Flávia de Moraes; KATO, Melissa Thiemi; PESSAN, Juliano Pelim; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo

2013-01-01

35

The Effectiveness of an Innovative Intervention Aimed at Reducing Binge Drinking among Young People: Results from a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a digital-story intervention (short videos made by young people) seeking to reduce the prevalence of young people's binge drinking in Caerphilly. Method: A quasi-experimental design was adopted with three intervention sites and one control site providing the sample (mainly aged 14-15 years). Three rounds of…

Coleman, Lester; Ramm, Josephine; Cooke, Richard

2010-01-01

36

A Multifaceted Social Norms Approach To Reduce High-Risk Drinking: Lessons from Hobart and Williams Smith Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Hobart and William Smith Colleges Alcohol Education Project (HWS) began in 1996 to test the social norms approach to reducing alcohol use by students. A social norms approach works on the premise that misperceived norms, perceptions that usually exaggerate what is typical for other students, lead to increased drinking as students attempt to…

Perkins, H. Wesley; Craig, David W.

37

Reducing Teenage Binge Drinking and Drunk Driving on the Reservation: The Pikanii Action Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pikanii Action Team project addressed the issues of teenage drinking and drunk driving on the Blackfeet Reservation. Basing their actions on locally-generated research, the Pikanii Action Team conducted a series of activities and initiatives to promote public awareness and action related to high-risk activities related to drinking. The team's…

Still Smoking, Dorothy; Bull Shoe, Debbie Whitegrass

2012-01-01

38

Radon in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... are here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Drinking Water Radon in Drinking Water Public Health ... States and community water systems for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, ...

39

Reduced risk estimations after remediation of lead (Pb) in drinking water at two US school districts.  

PubMed

The risk of students to develop elevated blood lead from drinking water consumption at schools was assessed, which is a different approach from predictions of geometric mean blood lead levels. Measured water lead levels (WLLs) from 63 elementary schools in Seattle and 601 elementary schools in Los Angeles were acquired before and after voluntary remediation of water lead contamination problems. Combined exposures to measured school WLLs (first-draw and flushed, 50% of water consumption) and home WLLs (50% of water consumption) were used as inputs to the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model for each school. In Seattle an average 11.2% of students were predicted to exceed a blood lead threshold of 5 ?g/dL across 63 schools pre-remediation, but predicted risks at individual schools varied (7% risk of exceedance at a "low exposure school", 11% risk at a "typical exposure school", and 31% risk at a "high exposure school"). Addition of water filters and removal of lead plumbing lowered school WLL inputs to the model, and reduced the predicted risk output to 4.8% on average for Seattle elementary students across all 63 schools. The remnant post-remediation risk was attributable to other assumed background lead sources in the model (air, soil, dust, diet and home WLLs), with school WLLs practically eliminated as a health threat. Los Angeles schools instead instituted a flushing program which was assumed to eliminate first-draw WLLs as inputs to the model. With assumed benefits of remedial flushing, the predicted average risk of students to exceed a BLL threshold of 5 ?g/dL dropped from 8.6% to 6.0% across 601 schools. In an era with increasingly stringent public health goals (e.g., reduction of blood lead safety threshold from 10 to 5 ?g/dL), quantifiable health benefits to students were predicted after water lead remediation at two large US school systems. PMID:23988746

Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Le, Trung; Gallagher, Daniel; Edwards, Marc

2014-01-01

40

The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

2010-01-01

41

Perceptions of adult trauma patients on the acceptability of text messaging as an aid to reduce harmful drinking behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background Brief interventions (BIs) have been shown to be effective in modifying hazardous drinking behaviours in a range of settings. However, they are underutilised in hospitals due to resource constraints. We explored the perspectives of admitted trauma patients about the appeal, acceptability and content of a Brief Intervention (BI) delivered via text messages. Methods Thirty mobile phone users (?16 years old) admitted to Auckland City Hospital as a result of injury were recruited (December 2010 – January 2011). Participants were interviewed face-to-face during their hospital stay using a semi-structured interview guide that explored topics including perceptions of the proposed intervention to reduce hazardous drinking and related harm, and perceived acceptability of an m-health program. Where issues relating to content of messages were raised by participants these were also captured. In addition, a brief survey captured information on demographic information, mobile phone usage and type of phone, along with the frequency of alcohol use. Results 22 of the 30 participants were male, and almost half were aged 20 to 39 years. The majority of participants identified as New Zealand Europeans, six as M?ori (New Zealand's indigenous population) and of the remainder two each identified as Pacific and of Asian ethnicity. Most (28/30) participants used a mobile phone daily. 18 participants were deemed to be drinking in a non-hazardous manner, seven were hazardous drinkers, and three were non-drinkers. Most participants (21/30) indicated that text messages could be effective in reducing hazardous drinking and related harms, with more than half (17/30) signalling they would sign-up. Factors identified that would increase receptiveness included: awareness that the intervention was evidence-based; participants readiness-to-change; informative messages that include the consequences of drinking and practical advice; non-judgemental messages; and ease-of-use. Areas of potential concern included: confidentiality and frequency of messages. The cultural relevance of the messages for M?ori was highlighted as important. Conclusions This study indicates that trauma patients recognize potential benefits of mobile-health interventions designed to reduce hazardous drinking. The feedback provided will inform the development of an intervention to be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:24387293

2014-01-01

42

The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking, 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Call to Action" serves as a reminder that underage drinking has serious social costs and tragic consequences, demonstrating the importance of prevention. Underage alcohol use is not inevitable, and schools, parents, and other adults are not powerless to stop it. The latest research demonstrates a compelling need to address alcohol use early,…

Powell, Patricia A., Ed.; Faden, Vivian B., Ed.; Wing, Stephen, Ed.

2007-01-01

43

Late-Night Programming Can Reduce High-risk Drinking, Provide Quality Student Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses late-night programming by college student unions as an alternative to high-risk drinking behavior, describing such programs at Michigan State, Penn State, and West Virginia universities. Addresses these programs' mission statement, goals, presidential support, staffing, food, programming ideas, promotion and publicity, assessment,…

Latta, Stan

2002-01-01

44

Community action to reduce rural drink and drive crashes in New Zealand: adapting approaches in dynamic environments.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the evolution of a two-and-a-half year pilot community action project aimed at developing strategies to reduce alcohol-use-related crashes in a rural police district in New Zealand. Formative evaluation aimed to assist an intersectoral coordinating group identify and implement strategies. Initially the idea was to establish community-based committees to mobilize on drinking and driving around the district. However, it became clear that the original concept impeded action. The focus was changed to provide more support to strengthen existing initiatives, particularly those relating to police traffic enforcement and drinking environments. This helped give the project renewed life and direction. The paper focuses on process, organizational, and external community issues affecting the project and the use of formative evaluation to assist the project to respond and adapt to dynamic circumstances. PMID:10677880

Stewart, L; Conway, K

2000-01-01

45

Reduced alcohol drinking in adult rats exposed to sucrose during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intake of sweet-alcoholic drinks during adolescence is believed to favor alcohol abuse and dependence in adulthood. This study examined the influence of early exposure to ethanol with or without sucrose on the consumption of sweet or alcoholic solutions in adulthood. Adolescent rats (from post-natal day 30–46) were given continuous free access to tap water and either 5% sucrose, 5% ethanol

Leandro F. Vendruscolo; Aliou Badara Gueye; Janaína C. M. Vendruscolo; Kelly J. Clemens; Pierre Mormède; Muriel Darnaudéry; Martine Cador

2010-01-01

46

Reducing youth alcohol drinking through a parent-targeted intervention: the Örebro Prevention Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To evaluate a 2.5-year prevention programme working through parents, targeting drinking among 13-16-year-olds. Design Quasi-experimental using matched controls with a pre-post, intention-to-treat design. Setting Schools located in inner city, public housing and small town areas. Participants A total of 900 pupils entering junior high school and their parents, followed longitudinally. Intervention Parents received information by mail and during parent

Nikolaus Koutakis; Håkan Stattin; Margaret Kerr

2008-01-01

47

The development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: an Intervention Mapping approach.  

PubMed

In the Netherlands, young adults' drinking practices have become an issue of public concern since their drinking levels are high. Heavy drinking can place young adults at an increased risk for developing short- and long-term health-related problems. Current national alcohol prevention programmes focus mainly on adolescents and their parents and paying less systematic attention to young adults. The present study describes the theory and evidence-based development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention entitled What Do You Drink (WDYD). We applied the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to combine theory and evidence in the development and implementation of WDYD. The WDYD intervention aims to detect and reduce heavy drinking of young adults who are willing to decrease their alcohol consumption, preferably below the Dutch guidelines of low-risk drinking. According to the IM protocol, the development of WDYD resulted in a structured intervention. Reducing heavy drinking to low-risk drinking was proposed as the behavioural outcome. Motivational interviewing principles and parts of the I-Change Model were used as methods in the development of WDYD, whereas computer tailoring was selected as main strategy. An effect and a process evaluation of the intervention will be conducted. IM was found to be a practical instrument for developing the WDYD intervention tailored to a specific target population in the area of alcohol prevention. PMID:23525645

Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

2014-12-01

48

New Research Findings Since the 2007 Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking: A Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: In 2007, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued The Surgeon General’s Call To Action To Prevent And Reduce Underage Drinking, a publication documenting a problem linked to nearly 5,000 injury deaths annually and poor academic performance, potential cognitive deficits, risky sexual behavior, physical and sexual assaults, and other substance use. This report reviews subsequent underage drinking and related traffic fatality trends and research on determinants, consequences, and prevention interventions. Method: New research reports, meta-analyses, and systematic literature reviews were examined. Results: Since the Call to Action, reductions in underage frequency of drinking, heavy drinking occasions, and alcohol-related traffic deaths that began in the 1980s when the drinking age nationally became 21 have continued. Knowledge regarding determinants and consequences, particularly the effects of early-onset drinking, parental alcohol provision, and cognitive effects, has expanded. Additional studies support associations between the legal drinking age of 21, zero tolerance laws, higher alcohol prices, and reduced drinking and related problems. New research suggests that use/lose laws, social host liability, internal possession laws, graduated licensing, and night driving restrictions reduce traffic deaths involving underage drinking drivers. Additional studies support the positive effects of individually oriented interventions, especially screening and brief motivational interventions, web and face-to-face social norms interventions, college web-based interventions, parental interventions, and multicomponent community interventions. Conclusions: Despite reductions in underage alcohol consumption and related traffic deaths, underage drinking remains an enduring problem. Continued research is warranted in minimally studied areas, such as prospective studies of alcohol and brain development, policy studies of use/lose laws, internal possession laws, social host liability, and parent–family interventions. PMID:24411808

Hingson, Ralph; White, Aaron

2014-01-01

49

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Rich

2010-09-30

50

Reducing the chlorine dioxide demand in final disinfection of drinking water treatment plants using activated carbon.  

PubMed

Abstract Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests were performed at laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests were performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30 minutes after the ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, meso-porous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes the organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and the UV absorbance at wavelength 254 using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral meso-porous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP. PMID:25465650

Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Crotti, Barbara Marianna

2014-12-01

51

Web-based personalized feedback: is this an appropriate approach for reducing drinking among high school students?  

PubMed

Research indicates that brief Web-based personalized feedback interventions are effective in reducing alcohol use and the negative associated consequences among college students. It is not clear, however, that this is an appropriate strategy for high school students. This study examined high school students' perceptions of a brief Web-based personalized feedback program to assess the appropriateness of this approach for this age group. Results indicated that the majority of students found the program to be user-friendly and to have high utility. Additionally, students reporting alcohol use found the program more useful and indicated that they would be more likely to recommend the program to other students relative to non-drinkers. Findings support the appropriateness of this approach for high school students, and suggest that Web-based personalized feedback may be more positively perceived by students who have initiated drinking. PMID:25448614

Doumas, Diana M

2015-03-01

52

Fetal death and reduced birth rates associated with exposure to lead-contaminated drinking water.  

PubMed

This ecologic study notes that fetal death rates (FDR) during the Washington DC drinking water "lead crisis" (2000-2004) peaked in 2001 when water lead levels (WLLs) were highest, and were minimized in 2004 after public health interventions were implemented to protect pregnant women. Changes in the DC FDR vs neighboring Baltimore City were correlated to DC WLL (R(2) = 0.72). Birth rates in DC also increased versus Baltimore City and versus the United States in 2004-2006, when consumers were protected from high WLLs. The increased births in DC neighborhoods comparing 2004 versus 2001 was correlated to the incidence of lead pipes (R(2) = 0.60). DC birth rates from 1999 to 2007 correlated with proxies for maternal blood lead including the geometric mean blood lead in DC children (R(2) = 0.68) and the incidence of lead poisoning in children under age 1.3 years (R(2) = 0.64). After public health protections were removed in 2006, DC FDR spiked in 2007-2009 versus 2004-2006 (p < 0.05), in a manner consistent with high WLL health risks to consumers arising from partial lead service line replacements, and DC FDR dropped to historically low levels in 2010-2011 after consumers were protected and the PSLR program was terminated. Re-evaluation of a historic construction-related miscarriage cluster in the USA Today Building (1987-1988), demonstrates that high WLLs from disturbed plumbing were a possible cause. Overall results are consistent with prior research linking increased lead exposure to higher incidence of miscarriages and fetal death, even at blood lead elevations (?5 ?g/dL) once considered relatively low. PMID:24321041

Edwards, Marc

2014-01-01

53

A Pre-Post Study on the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of a Web- and Text Messaging-Based Intervention to Reduce Problem Drinking in Emerging Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Problem drinking, particularly risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD), also called “binge drinking”, is widespread among adolescents and young adults in most Western countries. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of interventions to reduce RSOD in young people with heterogeneous and particularly lower educational background. Objective To test the appropriateness and initial effectiveness of a combined, individually tailored Web- and text messaging (SMS)–based intervention program to reduce problem drinking in vocational school students. Methods The fully automated program provided: (1) online feedback about an individual’s drinking pattern compared to the drinking norms of an age- and gender-specific reference group, and (2) recurrent individualized SMS messages over a time period of 3 months. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses were used to investigate the longitudinal courses of the following outcomes over the study period of 3 months: RSOD, alcohol-related problems, mean number of standard drinks per week, and maximum number of standard drinks on an occasion. Results The program was tested in 36 school classes at 7 vocational schools in Switzerland. Regardless of their drinking behavior, 477 vocational school students who owned a mobile phone were invited to participate in the program. Of these, 364 (76.3%) participated in the program. During the intervention period, 23 out of 364 (6.3%) persons unsubscribed from participating in the program. The GEE analyses revealed decreases in the percentage of persons with RSOD from baseline (75.5%, 210/278) to follow-up assessment (67.6%, 188/278, P<.001), in the percentage of persons with alcohol-related problems (20.4%, 57/280 to 14.3%, 40/280, P=.009), and in the mean number of standard drinks per week: 13.4 (SD 15.3) to 11.3 (SD 14.0), P=.002. They also revealed a trend toward a decrease in the mean of the maximum number of drinks consumed on an occasion: 11.3 (SD 10.3) to 10.5 (SD 10.3), P=.08. Conclusions The results show high acceptance and promising effectiveness of this interventional approach, which could be easily and economically implemented within school classes. PMID:23999406

Schaub, Michael P; Venzin, Vigeli; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Gmel, Gerhard

2013-01-01

54

Condensed tannin in drinking water reduces greenhouse gas precursor urea in sheep and cattle urine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ingestion of small amounts of naturally-occurring condensed tannin (CT) by ruminants can provide several benefits including potential reduction of ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions over the long-term by reducing their urine urea excretion. However, providing grazing ruminants with sufficient amou...

55

Effects of A 2.5-Year Campus-Wide Intervention to Reduce College Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study reports on the results of a 2.5-year college-wide, coordinated intervention that was implemented from June 2007 to December 2009 to reduce the amount and frequency of students' alcohol consumption. Design: Quasi-experimental study using a one-group (freshmen living on campus) pretest/posttest design ("N"…

Seo, Dong-Chul; Owens, Dee; Gassman, Ruth; Kingori, Caroline

2013-01-01

56

The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking: What It Means to You. A Guide to Action for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Surgeon General, the Nation's top public health officer, is appointed by the President of the United States to help protect and promote the health of the Nation. The recently published "Surgeon General's Call to Action To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking" [ED496083] highlights underage alcohol use as a major public health and safety issue.…

Wing, Stephen; Beazley, Hamilton; Fine, Theodora

2007-01-01

57

Hydrogen in Drinking Water Reduces Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that molecular hydrogen (H2) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant and suppresses brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we show that drinking H2-containing water significantly reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD model mice using both acute and chronic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The concentration-dependency of H2 showed that H2 as low as 0.08 ppm had almost the same effect as saturated H2 water (1.5 ppm). MPTP-induced accumulation of cellular 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a marker of DNA damage, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway in mice drinking H2-containing water, whereas production of superoxide (O2•?) detected by intravascular injection of dihydroethidium (DHE) was not reduced significantly. Our results indicated that low concentration of H2 in drinking water can reduce oxidative stress in the brain. Thus, drinking H2-containing water may be useful in daily life to prevent or minimize the risk of life style-related oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. PMID:19789628

Fujita, Kyota; Seike, Toshihiro; Yutsudo, Noriko; Ohno, Mizuki; Yamada, Hidetaka; Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Yamakawa, Yukiko; Kido, Mizuho A.; Takaki, Atsushi; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Yoshinori

2009-01-01

58

Consumption of mixed fruit-juice drink and vitamin C reduces postprandial stress induced by a high fat meal in healthy overweight subjects.  

PubMed

Postprandial stress induced by acute consumption of meals with a high fat content results in an increase of markers of cardiometabolic risk. Repeated acute dietary stress may induce a persistent low-grade inflammation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of functional gut diseases. This may cause an impairment of the complex immune response of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which results in a breakdown of oral tolerance. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a fruit-juice drink (FJD) composed by multiple fruit juice and extracts, green tea extracts and vitamin C on postprandial stress induced by a High Fat Meal (HFM) in healthy overweight subjects. Following a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design, 15 healthy overweight subjects were randomized to a HFM providing 1334 Kcal (55% fat, 30% carbohydrates and 15% proteins) in combination with 500 mL of a placebo drink (HFM-P) or a fruit-juice drink (HFM-FJD). Ingestion of HFM-P led to an increase in circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, TNF-? and IL-6. Ingestion of HFM-FJD significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing inflammatory response mediated by TNF-? and IL-6. Ingestion of a fruit-juice drink reduce markers of postprandial stress induced by a HFM. PMID:23701571

Peluso, Ilaria; Villano, Debora V; Roberts, Susan A; Cesqui, Eleonora; Raguzzini, Anna; Borges, Gina; Crozier, Alan; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

2014-01-01

59

Solar Drinking Water Disinfection (SODIS) to Reduce Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Bolivia: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost, point-of-use water purification method that has been disseminated globally. Laboratory studies suggest that SODIS is highly efficacious in inactivating waterborne pathogens. Previous field studies provided limited evidence for its effectiveness in reducing diarrhoea. Methods and Findings We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 rural communities in Bolivia to evaluate the effect of SODIS in reducing diarrhoea among children under the age of 5 y. A local nongovernmental organisation conducted a standardised interactive SODIS-promotion campaign in 11 communities targeting households, communities, and primary schools. Mothers completed a daily child health diary for 1 y. Within the intervention arm 225 households (376 children) were trained to expose water-filled polyethyleneteraphtalate bottles to sunlight. Eleven communities (200 households, 349 children) served as a control. We recorded 166,971 person-days of observation during the trial representing 79.9% and 78.9% of the total possible person-days of child observation in intervention and control arms, respectively. Mean compliance with SODIS was 32.1%. The reported incidence rate of gastrointestinal illness in children in the intervention arm was 3.6 compared to 4.3 episodes/year at risk in the control arm. The relative rate of diarrhoea adjusted for intracluster correlation was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.59–1.12). The median length of diarrhoea was 3 d in both groups. Conclusions Despite an extensive SODIS promotion campaign we found only moderate compliance with the intervention and no strong evidence for a substantive reduction in diarrhoea among children. These results suggest that there is a need for better evidence of how the well-established laboratory efficacy of this home-based water treatment method translates into field effectiveness under various cultural settings and intervention intensities. Further global promotion of SODIS for general use should be undertaken with care until such evidence is available. Trial Registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00731497 Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary PMID:19688036

Mäusezahl, Daniel; Christen, Andri; Pacheco, Gonzalo Duran; Tellez, Fidel Alvarez; Iriarte, Mercedes; Zapata, Maria E.; Cevallos, Myriam; Hattendorf, Jan; Cattaneo, Monica Daigl; Arnold, Benjamin; Smith, Thomas A.; Colford, John M.

2009-01-01

60

Energy Drinks  

MedlinePLUS

... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Energy Drinks Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

61

Energy Drinks  

MedlinePLUS

Energy Drinks Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase alertness and enhance physical and mental performance. Marketing targeted at ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

62

Underage Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol is the most widely abused substance among America's youth. Drinking by young people has big health ... interfere with brain development Increases the risk of alcohol problems later in life Kids often begin drinking ...

63

Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

64

Endogenous glucagon-like Peptide-1 reduces drinking behavior and is differentially engaged by water and food intakes in rats.  

PubMed

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the ileum and the nucleus of the solitary tract. It is well known that GLP-1 controls food intake, but there is a growing literature indicating that GLP-1 also is involved in fluid intake. It is not known, however, if the observed effects are pharmacological or if endogenous GLP-1 and its receptor contribute to physiological fluid intake control. Accordingly, we blocked endogenous GLP-1 by application of a receptor antagonist and measured subsequent drinking. Furthermore, we measured changes in GLP-1-associated gene expression after water intake, and compared the effects of fluid intake to those caused by food intake. Rats injected with the antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9) drank more fluid in response to either subcutaneous hypertonic saline or water deprivation with partial rehydration than did vehicle-treated rats. Analysis of licking behavior showed that Ex-9 increased fluid intake by increasing the number of licking bursts, without having an effect on the number of licks per burst, suggesting that endogenous GLP-1 suppresses fluid intake by influencing satiety. Subsequent experiments showed that water intake had a selective effect on central GLP-1-related gene expression, unlike food intake, which affected both central and peripheral GLP-1. Although water and food intakes both affected central GLP-1-relevant gene expression, there were notable differences in the timing of the effect. These results show a novel role of the endogenous GLP-1 system in fluid intake, and indicate that elements of the GLP-1 system can be engaged separately by different forms of ingestive behavior. PMID:25471579

McKay, Naomi J; Galante, Daniela L; Daniels, Derek

2014-12-01

65

Encouraging responsible drinking among underage drinkers.  

PubMed

Public Service Announcements tailored to specific college drinking rituals (Treise, Wolburg and Otnes 1999) were tested on 133 underage undergraduate drinkers. More significant reductions in drinking intentions were found when using appeals focusing on drinking rituals pertaining to Maturity/Order (older students drink moderately: "Don't drink like a freshman.") than to Transformation (desired personality and mood changes), Community (social bonding and camaraderie), or a no-message Control. Gender did not moderate this effect. Underage drinkers may drink, in part, to feel more "grown up." Emphasizing that more senior students actually drink responsibly may diminish this belief and result in reduced alcohol consumption among underage students. PMID:17182459

Brannon, Laura A; Pilling, Valerie K

2005-01-01

66

Energy Drinks  

PubMed Central

Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill. PMID:22347688

Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

2012-01-01

67

Does the minimum drinking age affect traffic fatalities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1970s numerous states have raised their minimum legal drinking age in an effort to reduce alcohol-related traffic accidents. This study examines determinants of a variety of traffic fatality rates at the state level for 1978, with particular attention to drinking age and drinking experience. The legal drinking age has no perceptible influence on fatalities, but inexperience in drinking

Peter Asch; David T. Levy

1987-01-01

68

Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

69

4/14/2009 1 HEP:HealthEd:ATOD:SafePartyInitiative:SaferUCDavisReport.doc Charting Progress in the Effort to Reduce High-Risk Drinking and  

E-print Network

environments and educating students on risk reduction strategies · Enhancing enforcement of alcohol in the Effort to Reduce High-Risk Drinking and Alcohol- Related Problems on the UC Davis Campus and within the Davis Community Executive Summary Alcohol-related incidents that occurred during Picnic Day weekend 2004

Ferrara, Katherine W.

70

How To Reduce High-Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies, Fill Research Gaps. Final Report of the Panel on Prevention and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol on college campuses is not a new problem, but recent concerns have centered on heavy episodic drinking, binge drinking. To address these concerns, the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established two panels of nongovernment experts to help develop a national research agenda. This report represents the work of the…

National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

71

Should You Drink Sports Drinks?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The questions in this activity help students to understand the effects of consuming sports drinks and when and how the consumption of sports drinks can be beneficial or harmful. This activity provides the opportunity to review some basic concepts related to osmosis, cellular respiration, mammalian temperature regulation, and how our different body systems cooperate to maintain homeostasis.

Waldron, Ingrid

72

Underage Drinking. Technical Assistance Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underage drinking is a major problem across the country. Many communities are trying to reduce the injuries and deaths that occur as a result of this problem. Community groups have been instrumental in working at the state level to pass stricter laws curbing underage drinking and to tighten the laws that already exist. This paper provides tips and…

Join Together, Boston, MA.

73

Binge Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... become angry or moody while drinking, for example. Alcoholism Some studies have shown that people who binge- ... 2 weeks — have some of the symptoms of alcoholism. Back Continue Getting Help If you think you ...

74

Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication, authored by Thodore B. Shelton of Rutgers University, summarizes the information necessary for interpreting drinking water quality analyses performed by water testing laboratories. It focuses on testing results obtained from drinking water supplies from public water systems and non-public water systems (home wells). It is intended primarily for homeowners, but environmental organizations, health departments, and commercial water testing laboratories and others should find this material of interest and value.

Shelton, Thodore B.

75

Measuring the Propensity to Drink and Drive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laws such as 0.08 blood alcohol content, open container, and license revocation provide a policy framework for reducing drinking and driving. Drinking and driving behavior is difficult to assess; unlike property and violent crimes, where incidence statistics can approximate behavior, most drink-driving trips go undetected. The authors develop a…

Bertelli, Anthony M.; Richardson, Lilliard E., Jr.

2007-01-01

76

The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15–20 years with a low educational background: a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the slightly modified version of the web-based brief alcohol intervention “What Do You Drink” (WDYD) among heavy drinking adolescents and young adults aged 15–20 years with a low educational background at one and six months follow-up. Methods A two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted online in the Netherlands in 2011–2012. Participants included in the trial were recruited from preparatory and secondary vocational education institutions and had to be between 15 and 20 years of age and report heavy drinking in the past six months. In total, 73 classes representing 609 (59.9% male) participants were allocated to the experimental condition (37 classes, 318 participants: WDYD intervention) or control condition (36 classes, 291 participants: no intervention). Outcomes were heavy drinking, weekly alcohol consumption, and frequency of binge drinking. Results Regressions analyses revealed no significant main intervention effects on any of the alcohol outcomes at one and six month’s follow-up according to the intention-to-treat principle. Additionally, there were no moderating effects of gender, age, educational level, and readiness to change on the relation between the WDYD intervention and the alcohol outcomes at follow-up. Conclusions The WDYD intervention was not effective in reducing alcohol consumption among heavy drinking adolescents and young adults aged 15–20 years with a low educational background at one and six months follow-up. However, the absence of intervention effectiveness cannot be used as an argument for not conducting these types of interventions with low educated individuals, since our study was the first to target this population. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971 PMID:23895403

2013-01-01

77

Drinking water and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water. PMID:8741788

Morris, R D

1995-01-01

78

Orange Drink  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides an opportunity for students to reason about ratio and proportion in the realistic context of mixing a fruit drink from concentrate. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and links to related problems (Blackcurrantiest is cataloged separately).

2004-12-01

79

Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…

Saylor, Drew K.

2011-01-01

80

Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of “binge drinking” on college campuses. However, such a policy change would remove one of the

Drew K. Saylor

2011-01-01

81

Amitifadine, a triple monoamine uptake inhibitor, reduces binge drinking and negative affect in an animal model of co-occurring alcoholism and depression symptomatology.  

PubMed

The co-occurrence of alcoholism and depression is highly prevalent and difficult to treat. In an animal model of binge drinking that exhibits abstinence-induced behaviors reminiscent of negative affective states, the triple monoamine uptake inhibitor, amitifadine, produced a selective, dose dependent attenuation of binge drinking. Amitifadine also reversed abstinence-induced increases in the intracranial self-stimulation threshold, a model of anhedonia, and immobility in the forced swim test, reflecting behavioral despair. In view of the safety profile of amitifadine in humans, including low risk for weight gain, lack of sexual side effects, and low potential for abuse, we hypothesize that amitifadine will be effective in treating co-occurring alcoholism and depression. PMID:22884707

Warnock, Kaitlin T; Yang, Andrew R S T; Yi, Heon S; June, Harry L; Kelly, Timothy; Basile, Anthony S; Skolnick, Phil; June, Harry L

2012-11-01

82

Amitifadine, a triple monoamine uptake inhibitor reduces binge drinking and negative affect in an animal model of co-occurring alcoholism and depression symptomatology  

PubMed Central

The co-occurrence of alcoholism and depression is highly prevalent and difficult to treat. In an animal model of binge drinking that exhibits abstinence-induced behaviors reminiscent of negative affective states, the triple monoamine uptake inhibitor, amitifadine, produced a selective, dose dependent attenuation of binge drinking. Amitifadine also reversed abstinence-induced increases in the intracranial self-stimulation threshold, a model of anhedonia, and immobility in the forced swim test, reflecting behavioral despair. In view of the safety profile of amitifadine in humans, including low risk for weight gain, lack of sexual side effects, and low potential for abuse, we hypothesize that amitifadine will be effective in treating co-occurring alcoholism and depression. PMID:22884707

Warnock, Kaitlin T.; Yang, Andrew R.S.T.; Yi, Heon S.; June, Harry L.; Kelly, Tim; Basile, Anthony S.; Skolnick, Phil; June, Harry L.

2012-01-01

83

Moderate and Binge Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Underage Drinking College Drinking Women Older Adults Minority Health & Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Drinking Levels Defined Moderate alcohol consumption: According to the Dietary Guidelines ...

84

Lesson 22: Drinks [vinywaji  

E-print Network

? [What drink / drinks do you like to buy?] a). Ninapenda kununua _______. [I like to buy ________.] 8. Unapenda kununua aina gani ya vinywaji? [What kind of drinks do you like to buy?] a). Ninapenda kununua _______. [I like buying ________.] #12;

85

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-print Network

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20

86

Arsenic in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Water Act Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic iHome Basic Information Arsenic Rule Compliance Help ... table. It is odorless and tasteless. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or ...

87

Will Increasing Alcohol Availability By Lowering the Minimum Legal Drinking Age Decrease Drinking and Related Consequences Among Youths?  

PubMed Central

Alcohol use health consequences are considerable; prevention efforts are needed, particularly for adolescents and college students. The national minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is a primary alcohol-control policy in the United States. An advocacy group supported by some college presidents seeks public debate on the minimum legal drinking age and proposes reducing it to 18 years. We reviewed recent trends in drinking and related consequences, evidence on effectiveness of the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years, research on drinking among college students related to the minimum legal drinking age, and the case to lower the minimum legal drinking age. Evidence supporting the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is strong and growing. A wide range of empirically supported interventions is available to reduce underage drinking. Public health professionals can play a role in advocating these interventions. PMID:20395573

Wechsler, Henry

2010-01-01

88

[Microbiological research methods of drinking water regulation in West Germany from 1986. Suitability of the specifications of DIN 38411, Part 7, for the detection of sulfite-reducing, spore-forming anaerobes (Clostridia)].  

PubMed

The drinking-water regulations of the Federal Republic of Germany, from 22.05.1986, contains in paragraph 1 the instructions: "Drinking-water must be free of pathogens", and further in paragraph 11, "Responsibilities of the employer or other owner of a water supplying facility", include that: "The official authority may direct, that the employer...of a water supplying facility has to extend or has to cause to extend the microbiological examinations in order to determine, that...sulfite-reducing, spore-forming anaerobes (Clostridia) can not be detected in 20 ml of water..." The drinking-water regulations do not prescribe a bacteriological examination method in detail. Appendix 1 rules only that the examination for sulfite-reducing, spore-forming anaerobes (Clostridia) has to be performed after heating the sample to 75 degrees C (+/- 5 degrees C) for 10 min, by either the multiple-tube or membrane filtration method and cultivation in DRCM1-medium. If growth occurs, the presence of Clostridia must be confirmed by anaerobic and aerobic subcultivation. Furthermore, a DIN-instruction (DIN 38411, part 7) exists, which prescribes a detailed procedure for multiple-tube and membrane filtration methods, but does not provide for strict anaerobiosis. We were, however, unable to detect Clostridia in a multitude of water samples with the methods of the DIN-regulation. In order to examine if neglect of strict anaerobiosis was the reason for these failures, we checked the suitability of the DIN-regulation for the isolation of Clostridia from drinking water. In preliminary tests we examined up to four strains of the species C. botulinum, C. cadaveris, C. cochlearium, C. difficile, C. innocuum, C. perfringens and C. tertium for their ability to form heat-resistent spores in four sporulation media. It was, however, not possible to find a medium, in which all strains could sporulate within one week. In order to characterize the detection of these anaerobes in water, one particularly well-sporulating strain of each of the following, C. cadaveris, C. difficile and C. perfringens, was selected and the multiple-tube and membrane-filtration methods were compared. Counts of C. difficile and C. perfringens detected by the multiple-tube method were identical with counts of test-suspensions determinded by the most probable number (MPN) method. It was found to be decisive that only freshly prepared DRCM-medium be used and that, disagreeing with the DIN-instruction, cultivation at 37 degrees C is continued for at least four days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2897749

Schneider, J; Edenharder, R; Borneff, J

1988-01-01

89

Sports drinks and dental  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To discuss the composition and rationale for the use of sports drinks along with recent studies investigating the relationship between sports drinks and dental erosion. Methods: A review of the literature of sports drinks and dental erosion was done. Results: For most athletes and individuals engaged in physical activity, the use of sports drinks does not provide a benefit

JEFF S. COOMBES

90

Ondansetron and sertraline may interact with 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 polymorphisms to reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent women: exploratory findings.  

PubMed

The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender-specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200 mg/day of sertraline or 0.5 mg/day of ondansetron for 3 weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for 3 weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for 3 weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7 days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e., sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a 3-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4?7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4<7 repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad libitum during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions may be essential to successfully treat alcohol dependence. PMID:25212749

Kenna, George A; Zywiak, William H; Swift, Robert M; McGeary, John E; Clifford, James S; Shoaff, Jessica R; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Leggio, Lorenzo

2014-09-01

91

Further Modification to Soft Drinks to Minimise Erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft drinks have been successfully modified to reduce enamel erosion. The aim of this study was to further modify an original low erosive blackcurrant drink product by the addition of a gum, to manipulate more favourably other drink parameters. The study was a single–blind, randomised four treatment crossover design involving 12 healthy volunteers. During 10 working–day study periods, subjects wore

J. A. Hughes; K. D. Jandt; N. Baker; D. Parker; R. G. Newcombe; M. Eisenburger; M. Addy

2002-01-01

92

Hazardous Drinking and Military Community Functioning: Identifying Mediating Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Hazardous drinking is a serious societal concern in military populations. Efforts to reduce hazardous drinking among military personnel have been limited in effectiveness. There is a need for a deeper understanding of how community-based prevention models apply to hazardous drinking in the military. Community-wide prevention efforts may…

Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

2011-01-01

93

It's Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... safewater/dwinfo.htm and click on your state. Database: EPA collects information on every public drinking water ... in the nation and stores it in a database called the Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS). ...

94

Natural drinking strategies  

E-print Network

We examine the fluid mechanics of drinking in nature. We classify the drinking strategies of a broad range of creatures according to the principal forces involved, and present physical pictures for each style. Simple scaling ...

Kim, Wonjung

95

Distinguishing between Positive and Negative Social Bonding in Problem Drinking among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To reduce problem drinking, interventions must be directed toward those factors associated with problem drinking. Purpose: This study examined how perceptions of the role of alcohol related to problem drinking among a convenience sample of 301 college students. Methods: Fifteen items concerned with drinking behavior or perceptions…

Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Hussain, Mohammad

2010-01-01

96

AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

97

Energy Drinks. Prevention Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink consumption and…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

2010-01-01

98

Drinking before drinking: pregaming and drinking games in mandated students.  

PubMed

Pregaming, the practice of consuming alcohol before attending a social function, has not received as much research attention as drinking games among college students. This study investigated the prevalence of both pregaming and drinking game participation in a sample of mandated students (N=334) who had been referred for an alcohol violation. Approximately one-third (31%) of the sample reported pregaming on the night of their referral event. Pregaming was associated with higher estimated blood alcohol content on that night, along with a greater history of pregaming and taking greater responsibility for the incident. A higher proportion of the students (49%) reported playing drinking games on the event night and reported the event to be less aversive than non-players. Neither drinking games nor pregaming was consistently related to recent alcohol consumption or problems, nor did they frequently occur together on the event night. Pregaming was a unique predictor of intoxication on the night of the referral, and drinking games were not. Therefore, pregaming and drinking games appear to be distinct activities. This research suggests methods of prevention for both activities as well as promising research directions for future research. PMID:17574344

Borsari, Brian; Boyle, Kelly E; Hustad, John T P; Barnett, Nancy P; O'Leary Tevyaw, Tracy; Kahler, Christopher W

2007-11-01

99

Benefits of Safer Drinking Water: The Value of Nitrate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrates in drinking water, which may come from nitrogen fertilizers applied to crops, are a potential health risk. This report evaluates the potential benefits of reducing human exposure to nitrates in the drinking water supply. In a survey, respondents were asked a series of questions about their willingness to pay for a hypothetical water filter, which would reduce their risk

Stephen R. Crutchfield; Joseph C. Cooper; Daniel Hellerstein

1997-01-01

100

Chronic treatment with novel brain-penetrating selective NOP receptor agonist MT-7716 reduces alcohol drinking and seeking in the rat.  

PubMed

Since its discovery, the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-NOP receptor system has been extensively investigated as a promising target to treat alcoholism. Encouraging results obtained with the endogenous ligand N/OFQ stimulated research towards the development of novel brain-penetrating NOP receptor agonists with a pharmacological and toxicological profile compatible with clinical development. Here we describe the biochemical and alcohol-related behavioral effects of the novel NOP receptor agonist MT-7716. MT-7716 has high affinity for human NOP receptors expressed in HEK293 cells with a Ki value of 0.21 nM. MT-7716 concentration-dependently stimulated GTP?(35)S binding with an EC50 value of 0.30 nM and its efficacy was similar to N/OFQ, suggesting that MT7716 is a full agonist at NOP receptors. In the two bottle choice test MT-7716 (0, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, bid) given orally for 14 days dose-dependently decreased voluntary alcohol intake in Marchigian Sardinian rats. The effect became gradually stronger following repeated administration, and was still significant 1 week after discontinuation of the drug. Oral naltrexone (30 mg/kg, bid) for 14 days also reduced ethanol intake; however, the effect decreased over the treatment period and rapidly disappeared when drug treatment was discontinued. MT-7716 is also effective for preventing reinstatement caused by both ethanol-associated environmental stimuli and stress. Finally, to investigate the effect of MT-7716 on alcohol withdrawal symptoms, Wistar rats were withdrawn from a 7-day alcohol liquid diet. MT-7716 significantly attenuated somatic alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Together these findings indicate that MT-7716 is a promising candidate for alcoholism treatment remaining effective with chronic administration. PMID:24863033

Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Stopponi, Serena; Economidou, Daina; Kuriyama, Makoto; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Heilig, Markus; Roberto, Marisa; Weiss, Friedbert; Teshima, Koji

2014-10-01

101

Caffeinated energy drink intoxication.  

PubMed

In recent years an increasing number of different energy drinks have been introduced to provide an energy boost. They contain high levels of caffeine and other additives that act as stimulants. Several recent studies present that energy drinks could increase the risk of seizures, acid-base disorders and cardiovascular events. The authors report a 28-year-old man who was brought to the emergency room after sudden onset of tonic-clonic seizures and metabolic acidosis after drinking several cans of a caffeinated energy drink. The authors believe that this clinical picture was caused by caffeine intoxication from an energetic drink causing a syndrome of catecholamine excess. The patient was discharged within a week with no complaints and no neurological signs. Finally, recognising the features of caffeine intoxication and its potential health consequences may be especially relevant when treating younger persons who may be more likely to consume energy drinks. PMID:22714613

Trabulo, Daniel; Marques, Susana; Pedroso, Ermelinda

2011-01-01

102

Drinking games, tailgating, and pregaming: Precollege predictors of risky college drinking  

PubMed Central

Background The transition from high school to college is a critical period for developing college drinking habits. Hazardous alcohol consumption increases during this period, as well as participation in drinking games, pregaming, and tailgating. All of these risky drinking practices are associated with higher levels of intoxication as well as an increased risk of alcohol-related problems. Objective The current study aimed to evaluate pre-college predictors (personality, social norms, and beliefs reflecting the internalization of the college drinking culture [ICDC]) of estimated peak BAC (pBAC) reached during drinking games, pregaming, and tailgating, as well as pBAC and alcohol-related problems during the first 30 days of college. Methods Participants (n =936) were incoming freshmen at a large university who completed a baseline assessment prior to college matriculation and a follow-up assessment after they had been on campus for 30 days. Results Using path analysis, ICDC was significantly associated with pBAC reached during the three risky drinking practices. ICDC had an indirect effect on both pBAC and alcohol-related problems via pBAC from drinking games, pregaming, and tailgating. Hopelessness and sensation seeking were significantly related to alcohol use outcomes. Conclusion Precollege perceptions of the college drinking culture are a stronger predictor of subsequent alcohol use than social norms. Interventions that target these beliefs may reduce peak intoxication and associated harms experienced during the first 30 days of college. PMID:25192204

Moser, Kevin; Pearson, Matthew R.; Hustad, John T. P.; Borsari, Brian

2014-01-01

103

What Is a Standard Drink?  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Underage Drinking College Drinking Women Older Adults Minority Health & Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS What Is A Standard Drink? Many people are surprised to learn ...

104

Deciding to quit drinking alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... or recovery program. These programs: Teach people about alcohol abuse and its effects Offer counseling and support about ...

105

Drinking Water and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

106

Quality of Drinking Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

107

Contaminants in drinking water.  

PubMed

An adequate supply of safe drinking water is one of the major prerequisites for a healthy life, but waterborne disease is still a major cause of death in many parts of the world, particularly in children, and it is also a significant economic constraint in many subsistence economies. The basis on which drinking water safety is judged is national standards or international guidelines. The most important of these are the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. The quality of drinking water and possible associated health risks vary throughout the world with some regions showing, for example, high levels of arsenic, fluoride or contamination of drinking water by pathogens, whereas elsewhere these are very low and no problem. Marked variations also occur on a more local level within countries due, for example, to agricultural and industrial activities. These and others are discussed in this chapter. PMID:14757718

Fawell, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

2003-01-01

108

Underage Drinking and the Drinking Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of underage drinking on college campuses has been brewing for many years to the continued vexation of higher education administrators. In 2008, John McCardell, president emeritus of Middlebury College, began to circulate for signature a public statement among colleagues titled "The Amethyst Initiative," which calls for elected…

Main, Carla T.

2009-01-01

109

Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a pa

Brook Carlsen

2010-12-01

110

Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC) at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%), Spanish (59.6%) and British (61.4%) samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%). In those drinking < 3 h at interview, there were no differences in BAC by gender or nationality. In UK participants, BAC increased significantly in those who had been drinking longer, reaching 0.13% (median) in females and 0.17% in males drinking > 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08%) was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife. PMID:22151744

2011-01-01

111

Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?  

MedlinePLUS

Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? KidsHealth > Parents > Sports Medicine Center > Q&As > Sports and Energy Drinks: Should ... a daily multivitamin formulated for kids. Back Continue Energy Drinks These are becoming increasingly popular with middle- ...

112

Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Enforcement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide details what coalitions and organizations need to do to insure the enforcement and judicial communities are active partners in the effort to reduce underage drinking. One of the first tasks discussed is the necessity for groups to understand the needs and concerns of law enforcement and to recognize that underage drinking enforcement…

National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

113

The Relationship between Student Engagement and Heavy Episodic Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College student alcohol use is a significant public health issue facing institutions of higher education. Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the areas of research and the identification of recommended best practices to reduce heavy episodic drinking. Yet, students engaged in the prevention of heavy episodic drinking

Wilcox, J. Delynne

2011-01-01

114

Preventing Dangerous College Drinking Is Possible. E-Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol is all too often seen as an accepted part of college life, but there are programs that can significantly reduce students' risky drinking, according to a series of studies in a special college drinking supplement of the "Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs." Fourteen studies detail results of projects funded by the National Institute on…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2009

2009-01-01

115

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

E-print Network

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile Catterina Ferreccio,1,2 Claudia- trations have since been reduced to 40 g/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung

California at Berkeley, University of

116

DOES THE MINIMUM LEGAL DRINKING AGE SAVE LIVES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) is widely believed to save lives by reducing traffic fatalities among underage drivers. Further, the Federal Uniform Drinking Age Act, which pressured all states to adopt an MLDA of 21, is regarded as having contributed enormously to this life-saving effect. This article challenges both claims. State-level panel data for the past 30 yr show

JEFFREY A. MIRON; ELINA TETELBAUM

2009-01-01

117

Does the Minimum Legal Drinking Age Save Lives?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) is widely believed to save lives by reducing traffic fatalities among underage drivers. Further, the Federal Uniform Drinking Age Act, which pressured all states to adopt an MLDA of 21, is regarded as having contributed enormously to this life saving effect. This paper challenges both claims. State-level panel data for the past 30 years

Jeffrey A. Miron; Elina Tetelbaum

2007-01-01

118

Drinking reductions following alcohol-related sanctions are associated with social norms among college students.  

PubMed

Students mandated for intervention following an alcohol-related sanction event often reduce their drinking prior to intervention. Knowing the determinants of self-initiated change may help identify intervention targets for individuals who do not reduce their drinking. Guided by self-regulation theory, we tested whether fewer past alcohol consequences and higher descriptive and injunctive norms would be associated with higher levels of postsanction drinking. College students referred for a campus alcohol violation (N = 658, 64% male) reported on their drinking during the month before and after their sanction event. Results show that postsanction drinking was significantly lower than presanction drinking across 4 outcomes: (a) drinks per drinking day, (b) drinks per week, (c) peak drinks, and (d) peak blood alcohol concentration. Hypothesized social influence variables (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) were consistently associated with all 4 drinking outcomes; that is, students who perceived that their friends drank more and held more accepting views of drinking were less reactive to alcohol-related sanctions. Past consequences of drinking did not consistently predict subsequent drinking. Therefore, we conclude that alcohol interventions for mandated students should target both descriptive and injunctive norms to optimize their efficacy. PMID:24274435

Merrill, Jennifer E; Carey, Kate B; Reid, Allecia E; Carey, Michael P

2014-06-01

119

Risks of underage drinking  

MedlinePLUS

Drinking can lead to making decisions that cause harm. Alcohol use means any of the following are more likely to occur: Car crashes Falls, drowning, and other accidents Suicide Violence and homicide Being a victim of violent crime

120

Drinking Water Problems: Benzene  

E-print Network

L-5513 4/09 Drinking Water Problems: Benzene Monty Dozier and Bruce Lesikar* enzene is a clear, colorless, aromatic, highly flam- mable liquid with a distinctive, sweet smell. Benzene occurs naturally and evaporates easily. Small amounts...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2009-04-16

121

Community Norms, Enforcement Of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws, Personal Beliefs And Underage Drinking: An Explanatory Model  

PubMed Central

Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources and deterring its possession and use. However, little is known about the processes through which enforcement strategies may affect underage drinking. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible direct and indirect relationships among adolescents’ perception of community alcohol norms, enforcement of underage drinking laws, personal beliefs (perceived parental disapproval of alcohol use, perceived alcohol availability, perceived drinking by peers, perceived harm and personal disapproval of alcohol use), and their past-30-day alcohol use. This study used data from 17,830 middle and high school students who participated in the 2007 Oregon Health Teens Survey. Structural equations modeling indicated that perceived community disapproval of adolescents’ alcohol use was directly and positively related to perceived local police enforcement of underage drinking laws. In addition, adolescents’ personal beliefs appeared to mediate the relationship between perceived enforcement of underage drinking laws and past-30-day alcohol use. Enforcement of underage drinking laws appeared to partially mediate the relationship between perceived community disapproval and personal beliefs related to alcohol use. Results of this study suggests that environmental prevention efforts to reduce underage drinking should target adults’ attitudes and community norms about underage drinking as well as the beliefs of youth themselves. PMID:20135210

Grube, Joel W.; Paschall, Mallie J.

2009-01-01

122

Drinking Bird (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drinking Bird: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". The drinking bird's felt-covered head dips into the beaker of water as it bobs up and down. The tube goes from the bottom of the body to its head. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

123

Caffeinated energy drink intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIn recent years an increasing number of different energy drinks have been introduced to provide an energy boost. They contain high levels of caffeine and other additives that act as stimulants. Several recent studies present that energy drinks could increase the risk of seizures, acid-base disorders and cardiovascular events. The authors report a 28-year-old man who was brought to the

Daniel Trabulo; Susana Marques; Ermelinda Pedroso

2011-01-01

124

Caffeinated energy drink intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years an increasing number of different energy drinks have been introduced to provide an energy boost. They contain high levels of caffeine and other additives that act as stimulants. Several recent studies present that energy drinks could increase the risk of seizures, acid-base disorders and cardiovascular events. The authors report a 28-year-old man who was brought to the

Daniel Trabulo; Susana Marques; Ermelinda Pedroso

2011-01-01

125

Ground Water and Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agencies Web site, Ground Water and Drinking Water (last mentioned in the March 29, 2002 Scout Report), has many additional high quality features not mentioned in previous reports. The site has continually updated information regarding drinking water regulation, as well as general facts such as where drinking water comes from, what's in it, drinking water standards, how you can protect your drinking water, a link for kids, and an extensive amount of additional material.

126

Physician Advice to Adolescents About Drinking and Other Health Behaviors  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: This report assessed the proportion of US 10th graders (average age, 16) who saw a physician in the past year and were asked and given advice about their drinking. We hypothesized that advice would vary by whether students were asked about drinking and their drinking, bingeing, and drunkenness frequency. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 10th graders in 2010 (N = 2519) were asked their past 30-day frequency of drinking, bingeing, and intoxication and whether, during their last medical examination, their drinking was explored and they received advice about alcohol’s risks and reducing or stopping. RESULTS: In the past month, 36% reported drinking, 28% reported bingeing, and 23% reported drunkenness (11%, 5%, and 7%, respectively, 6 or more times). In the past year, 82% saw a doctor. Of that group, 54% were asked about drinking, 40% were advised about related harms, and 17% were advised to reduce or stop. Proportions seeing a doctor and asked about drinking were similar across drinking patterns. Respondents asked about drinking were more often advised to reduce or stop. Frequent drinkers, bingers, and those drunk were more often advised to reduce or stop. Nonetheless, only 25% of them received that advice from physicians. In comparison, 36% of frequent smokers, 27% of frequent marijuana users, and 42% of frequent other drug users were advised to reduce or quit those behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts are warranted to increase the proportion of physicians who follow professional guidelines to screen and counsel adolescents about unhealthy alcohol use and other behaviors that pose health risks. PMID:23359580

Zha, Wenxing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

2013-01-01

127

Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

1978-01-01

128

Changing the Culture of Young People's Binge Drinking: From Motivations to Practical Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: This paper explores young people's own opinions about how the "drinking to get drunk" culture can be changed. More precisely, the two objectives of this study were to explore: (1) whether young people viewed binge drinking as a real "problem"; and (2) what they thought could be done to reduce binge drinking. Methods: Forty in-depth…

Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

2007-01-01

129

The complementarity of teen smoking and drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teen drinkers are over twice as likely as abstainers to smoke cigarettes. This empirical study provides evidence of a robust complementarity between these health behaviors by exploiting the “cross-price” effects. The results indicate that the movement away from minimum legal drinking ages of 18 reduced teen smoking participation by 3 to 5%. The corresponding instrumental variable estimates suggest that teen

Thomas S. Dee

1999-01-01

130

Lead in the School's Drinking Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this manual is to assist school officials by providing information on the effects of lead in school drinking water on children, how to detect the presence of lead, how to reduce the lead, and how to provide training for sampling and remedial programs. A protocol is provided for procedures to determine the location and source of lead…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

131

Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

2002-01-01

132

Dying To Drink: Confronting Binge Drinking on College Campuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book outlines the toll binge drinking is taking on college campuses and suggests steps that can be taken to take action against the binge drinking that has become part of college culture. The chapters of part 1, "The College Drinking Environment," are: (1) "A Culture of Alcohol"; (2) "Where's the Party?"; (3) "College Sports and Alcohol"; and…

Wechsler, Henry; Wuethrich, Bernice

133

Drinking and Your Immune System  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... hand corner of the player. Drinking and Your Immune System HealthDay January 8, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Immune System and Disorders Transcript Could a night of drinking ...

134

Arsenic in Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... sized swimming pool. FOR MORE INFORMATION Arsenic in drinking water http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic Arsenic health ... well http://www.epa.gov/safewater/privatewells Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1-800-426-4791 JUST THE FACTS ...

135

Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... any prepared drink, or for brushing teeth. Downloads & Translations You will need Adobe Reader to view some ... of Drinking Water (PDF) (4 pp, 317 K) Translations En Español Desinfección de Emergencia del Agua Potable ...

136

A field investigation of the effects of drinking consequences on young adults' readiness to change.  

PubMed

In the research on readiness to change (RTC) one's drinking, there has been little assessment of the influence of positive drinking consequences or other potential moderating variables. To address these limitations, we examined how young adults' RTC their alcohol consumption shortly following a drinking episode was associated with self-reported drinking consequences, as well as any potential moderating effects of gender and Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC). In street interviews outside bars, 238 young adults were administered questionnaires about their drinking, including a measure examining participants' current readiness to reduce their alcohol consumption. Within 72h of their drinking episode, 67 participants (36 males; entire sample Mage=20.90years, Range=18-26years) completed an online survey, once again measuring RTC as well as positive and negative drinking consequences. Consistent with our hypothesis, positive drinking consequences were negatively associated with participants' changes in RTC. Additionally, a three-way interaction of gender×BrAC×positive drinking consequences on RTC showed that females with low BrACs reported higher RTC scores when they had endorsed fewer positive drinking consequences. Interestingly, negative drinking consequences alone did not impact individuals' RTC. Because positive drinking consequences were a significantly better predictor of RTC than were negative drinking consequences, researchers are advised to examine both types of consequences in future studies. Finally, effective alcohol education programs for those who have never consumed alcohol as well as social drinkers should include consideration of the experience of positive outcomes. PMID:25452061

Usala, Julie M; Celio, Mark A; Lisman, Stephen A; Day, Anne M; Spear, Linda P

2015-02-01

137

Are energy drinks contributing to the obesity epidemic?  

PubMed

The consumption of energy drinks containing sucrose and caffeine is increasing worldwide. Ten healthy women aged 18 to 22 years and fasted overnight were randomly allocated to a standardised dose of sucrose either as an "energy" drink (containing sucrose and caffeine) or lemonade on the first day and then crossed over to the alternative drink on a second day. For thirty minutes before and thirty minutes after drinking oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured in the resting subject breath-by-breath by indirect calorimetry and the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation calculated. Energy drink consumption apparently caused increased carbohydrate oxidation (P = 0.004) and reduced lipid oxidation (P = 0.004) compared to lemonade. The longer term effects of combined caffeine and sucrose intake, particularly in sedentary individuals, on metabolism and body fatness needs further examination. PMID:16672210

Rush, Elaine; Schulz, Stephanie; Obolonkin, Vladimir; Simmons, David; Plank, Lindsay

2006-01-01

138

-fountain drinks, coffee, tea pritzkerclub  

E-print Network

drinks - fountain drinks, coffee, tea - fuze 2 3 pritzkerclub SOUP DU JOUR PRITZKER CLUB SANDWICH, with italian sausage slices BEEF coffee-crusted flat iron steak with sauteed vidalia onions VEGETARIAN stuffed -- SOUP COMBO 1/2 sandwich with cup of soup 9 3 PCLUB COMBO add SOUP and a DRINK to your ENTREE + $4 #12;

Heller, Barbara

139

Drinking among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of a study on the ways in which alcohol is built into the social role and social life of college students. Provides direct support for the idea that the patterns of drinking alcoholic beverages are integral to social and structural aspects of college. (LKS)

Rabow, Jerome; Duncan-Schill, Marilyn

1995-01-01

140

Antecedents of Collegiate Drinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model was proposed to explain variations in alcohol use among nonmarried, full-time undergraduate students. Sociocultural, familial characteristics, and age at onset of student drinking as predictor variables were analyzed. Findings indicated that the extent of adolescent alcohol consumption was the strongest overall predictor of undergraduate…

Freidman, Jennifer; Humphrey, John A.

1985-01-01

141

Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion  

E-print Network

Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion Mark L. McFarland, Tony L. Provin, and Diane E. Boellstorff and fail. Corrosion can cause three types of damage: · The entire metal surface gradually thins and red (Fig. 1). · Deep pits appear that can penetrate pipe or tank walls. This type of corrosion may not add

142

Drinking Water Problems: MTBE  

E-print Network

L-5502 8/08 Drinking Water Problems: MTBE Monty Dozier and Bruce Lesikar* M ethyl tertiary-butyl ether, commonly called MTBE, is a common gasoline additive that re- duces air pollution. However, it has been found Thirty-two areas in 18 states...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-08-28

143

Governing Adolescent Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the relationship between the drinking habits of Danish adolescents and the upbringing ideals and alcohol rules of their parents. It is based on three different data sets: a survey of 2,000 Danish young people born in 1989, a survey with the parents of these young people, and two waves of focus group interviews (in all 28)…

Jarvinen, Margaretha; Ostergaard, Jeanette

2009-01-01

144

Safe Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of types of drinking water contaminants, where they come from, and their effects on human health. Special topics include chemical and microbial contamination, health effects of microbes, pesticides, metals and various other contaminants, and causes of source water contamination. The site also features links to current news and other related resources and organizations.

Responsibility, Physicians F.; Envirohealthaction

145

Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Prevention & Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underage drinking prevention has two goals: prevent harm to the individual drinker and prevent harm to society. Modern prevention programs should be measured not by their intentions, but by their consequences: reducing the number of criminal events, reducing the amount of harm to individuals, and reducing the harm to society. This guide discusses…

National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

146

Excessive Drinking Among African American Men: Individual and Contextual Correlates  

PubMed Central

In this paper we explored associations of multiple domains with regular drinking and getting drunk among adult African American men. Questionnaire-based, computer-assisted interviews were conducted with 484 men in Atlanta, Georgia. Data analysis involved multivariate logistic regression analyses. Findings show that being older increased the odds of both drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking increased the odds of regular drinking and having experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse increased the odds of getting drunk. Having health insurance reduced the odds of both outcomes. Insurance coverage and the heterogeneity among adult African American men must be considered in risk reduction efforts. PMID:22679893

DePadilla, Lara; Elifson, Kirk; McCarty, Frances; Sterk, Claire

2012-01-01

147

Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers.  

PubMed

Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD) relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS.Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic) were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ.Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016), fruit squash (p = 0.042) and milk (p = 0.020) than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017) and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003). No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice.These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks. PMID:19055714

Sweetman, Claire; Wardle, Jane; Cooke, Lucy

2008-01-01

148

Drinking Straw Oboe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners will construct an oboe-like instrument from a plastic drinking straw by cutting the end to split it into two loose flaps, like reeds on an oboe. Blowing hard makes a sound. Cutting the straws to different lengths provides an opportunity for learners to predict how length will affect sound. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Music and Sound.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

149

Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.  

PubMed

Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff. PMID:25252352

Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

2014-09-01

150

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

2000-01-01

151

Young People Driving After Drinking and Riding with Drinking Drivers: Drinking Locations—What Do They Tell Us?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The present study investigated the extent to which drinking in specific locations and heavy drinking mediated the effects of overall alcohol use on driving after drinking (DD) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) among young people. Additionally, this study examined the relationships among ethnicity, gender, drinking in specific locations, and DD and RWDD.Method. Using random-digit dialing procedures, participants were

Samantha Walker; Elizabeth Waiters; Joel W. Grube; Meng-Jinn Chen

2005-01-01

152

Community Norms, Enforcement of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws, Personal Beliefs and Underage Drinking: An Explanatory Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources\\u000a and deterring its possession and use. However, little is known about the processes through which enforcement strategies may\\u000a affect underage drinking. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible\\u000a direct and indirect

Sharon Lipperman-KredaJoel; Joel W. Grube; Mallie J. Paschall

2010-01-01

153

You Are What You Drink!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contamination in drinking water sources or watersheds can negatively affect the organisms that come in contact with it. The affects can be severe â causing illness or, in some cases, even death. It is important for people to understand how they can contribute to the contaminants in drinking water and what treatment can be done to counter these harmful effects. Students will learn about the various methods developed by environmental engineers for treating drinking water in the United States.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

154

America's Drinking Water in 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided online access to two reports, America's Drinking Water in 1997 and the 1996 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report and Update on Implementation of the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. While both reports find that US drinking water is generally safe, the EPA also reviews initiatives to improve water quality. The brief summaries of these reports can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text articles are available in .pdf format.

1997-01-01

155

Modeling Longitudinal Drinking Data in Clinical Trials: An Application to the Combine Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is a lack of consensus in the literature as to how to define drinking outcomes in clinical trials. Typically, separate statistical models are fit to assess treatment effects on a number of summary drinking measures. These summary measures do not capture the complexity of drinking behavior. We used the COMBINE Study to illustrate a statistical approach for examining treatment effects on high-resolution drinking data, which takes into account abstinence and non zero drinking in the same analysis. Methods This is a secondary data analysis of COMBINE (n=1195) participants randomly assigned to naltrexone, acamprosate, with medical management and/or Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI). Using a Poisson hurdle model, abstinence and number of drinks were simultaneously modeled with treatment, prior drinking, week, and study center as covariates. Odds ratios (OR) for abstinence and relative risk (RR) for drinking are reported. A special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of “risky drinking” defined as 3 drinks per day for women and 4 for men. Results During treatment, naltrexone increased the odds of abstinence versus placebo naltrexone (OR=1.35[1.06,1.65]) but receiving CBI in addition to naltrexone (versus not) obscured this effect; thus, the naltrexone effect was largest in the group not receiving CBI (OR=1.87[1.29,2.46]). Naltrexone versus placebo naltrexone also reduced the risk of drinking in people who resumed risky drinking, defined as more than 3 and 4 drinks/day for women and men, respectively (RR=0.58[0.24,0.93]) and increased the odds of maintaining low risk drinking (OT=1.99[1.07,2.90]). Both effects were strongest in the absence of CBI when only “medical management” was provided. Conclusions Naltrexone promotes both abstinence and reduction in drinking once risky drinking is resumed. The finding that the rate of risky drinking is reduced once a slip has occurred bolsters support for the use of naltrexone, especially since this was observed in the context of a medical management approach that could be delivered in various health care settings. The utilization of a hurdle model adds to prior reports on summary drinking measures, which found no effect of naltrexone on abstinence, did not evaluate its effect closely on risk drinking, and did not analyze weekly drinking behavior. PMID:23566774

DeSantis, Stacia M.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Randall, Patrick K.; Anton, Raymond; Prisciandaro, James J.

2014-01-01

156

High-Risk Drinking in College  

E-print Network

High-Risk Drinking in College: What We Know and What We Need To Learn Final Report of the Panel.collegedrinkingprevention.gov #12;High-Risk Drinking in College:High-Risk Drinking in College:High-Risk Drinking in College: What We and ConsequencesContexts and ConsequencesContexts and Consequences High-Risk Drinking in College: What We Know

Royer, Dana

157

Drinking water and women's health.  

PubMed

Primary health providers in the community must be able to field questions and guide vulnerable populations to informed decisions about drinking water quality and health. This article offers an overview of selected contaminants in drinking water and their possible effects on the health of women over the life span. Historical concerns for drinking water safety, which led to the development of current drinking water regulations, are briefly explored. Several chemical, microbial, and radionuclide contaminants of particular concern to women and children are discussed. Short- and long-term tap water alternatives are suggested for when tap water is deemed unsuitable for use. PMID:16399605

Afzal, Brenda M

2006-01-01

158

The persistence of adolescent binge drinking into adulthood: findings from a 15-year prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the prevalence of binge drinking in adolescence and its persistence into adulthood in an Australian cohort. Design 15-year prospective cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants 1943 adolescents were recruited from secondary schools at age 14–15?years. Primary outcome measures Levels of past-week ‘binge’ drinking (5+ standard drinks on a day, each 10?g alcohol) and ‘heavy binge’ drinking (20+ standard drinks on a day for males, 11+ for females) were assessed during six adolescent waves, and across three adult waves up to age 29?years. Results Half of the males (52%) and a third of the females (34%) reported past-week adolescent binge drinking. 90% of male and 70% of female adolescent-onset binge drinkers continued to binge in young adulthood; 70% of males and 48% of females who were not adolescent-onset binge drinkers reported young adult binge drinking. Past-week heavy bingeing was less common in adolescence than adulthood. Overall, 35% of the sample (95% CI 33% to 38%) reported past-week binge drinking in adolescence and young adulthood and one-third (33%; 30% to 35%) first reported binge drinking in young adulthood; only 7% of the sample (6–8%) had binge drinking in adolescence but not young adulthood. ‘Heavy binge’ drinking occurred in adolescence and young adulthood for 9% (8% to 10%); 8% (7% to 10%) reported it in adolescence but no longer in young adulthood; and 24% (22% to 26%) began ‘heavy binge’ drinking in young adulthood. Among adolescent binge drinkers (n=821), young adult binge and heavy binge drinking were predicted by being male, adolescent antisocial behaviour and adverse consequences of drinking in adolescence. Conclusions Binge alcohol use is common and persistent among young Australians. Efforts to prevent the onset of binge drinking during adolescence may substantially reduce harmful patterns of alcohol use in young adulthood. PMID:23959750

Degenhardt, Louisa; O'Loughlin, Christina; Swift, Wendy; Romaniuk, Helena; Carlin, John; Coffey, Carolyn; Hall, Wayne; Patton, George

2013-01-01

159

Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Laposata, Matt

160

Drinking Patterns, Drinking Expectancies, and Coping after Spinal Cord Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drinking patterns, alcohol expectancies, and coping strategies were assessed for 121 persons with recent spinal cord injuries during hospitalization, 3 months after surgery, and 12 months after surgery. Although the rate of heavy drinking decreased, preinjury problem drinkers still had the lowest rate of positive reappraisal, problem solving, and…

Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

1994-01-01

161

The Need for Attitude Changes concerning Drinking and Drinking Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined attitudes toward alcohol use and abuse, drinking norms, and treatment of alcoholism among a representative sample of adults (N=933). Results indicated public concern about alcohol abuse and a desire to help, definite norms maintained against heavy drinking and drunkeness, and a belief in the value of treatment demonstrated. (Author)

Smart, R. G.; Liban, C. B.

1981-01-01

162

Memory, executive cognitive function, and readiness to change drinking behavior.  

PubMed

The transtheoretical model of Prochaska and DiClemente [Psychother. Theory Res. Prac. 19 (1982) 276] postulates that cognitive skills are critical for drinking behavior change. Memory and executive cognitive function likely influence the execution of skills that are implicated for both motivating and sustaining drinking behavior change. Participants who met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence (N=117) were administered a battery of standardized memory and executive cognitive function tests that included the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT), and Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST). Lower verbal and higher delayed recall memory score at baseline significantly predicted precontemplation, higher verbal memory scores predicted contemplation, and better attention-concentration at baseline significantly predicted reduced drinking at 3-month follow-up, after controlling for baseline alcohol consumption. The study findings indicate that explicit memory processes may have utility for predicting readiness to change drinking behavior. PMID:15621401

Blume, Arthur W; Schmaling, Karen B; Marlatt, G Alan

2005-02-01

163

College binge drinking: deviant versus mainstream behavior.  

PubMed

College binge drinking is examined from the perspectives of two cultures. The traditional culture views binging as deviant; the second culture promotes it. In this context, logit regression is used to explore the effects of various factors, including student employment and parental education. Employed students are less likely to binge than are students who are not employed. Also, students whose mother is a college graduate, but whose father is not, are more likely to binge than other students. The prescriptions for reducing binge drinking are different when the behavior is perceived as mainstream rather than deviant. The research calls for the development of a process for promoting cultural change in an environment of continually changing student leadership. PMID:17127539

Leppel, Karen

2006-01-01

164

CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Teen Drinking and Driving A Dangerous Mix October 2012 ... Drinking and driving can be deadly, especially for teens Fewer teens are drinking and driving, but this ...

165

Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... remove lead from my drinking water? Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is lead? Lead is ... page. Where and how does lead get into drinking water? Lead rarely occurs naturally in water; it usually ...

166

Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... remove Campylobacter from my drinking water? Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is campylobacteriosis? Campylobacteriosis (CAMP- ... page. Where and how does Campylobacter get into drinking water? Campylobacter is found in every part of the ...

167

30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

2010-07-01

168

Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... remove Giardia from my drinking water? Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE- ... website. Where and how does Giardia get into drinking water? Millions of Giardia parasites can be released in ...

169

Ensuring safer drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was developed in the mid-1980s by an independent, voluntary consensus standards organization called NSF International (formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation). This paper explains the need for and the structure of the Drinking Water Additives Program; the rationale for transferring responsibility for its execution from the EPA to the private sector; and the impact of its standards on users, manufacturers, and state and local regulatory bodies. Understanding the additives program is critically important to industry suppliers because, as it continues to gain greater awareness and acceptance, there are a growing number of manufacturers sourcing materials and products primarily from suppliers whose products meet the program's certification requirements.

Christensen, J. (Advanced Elastomer Systems, St. Louis, MO (United States). Fluid Delivery and Electrical Markets); Higgins, P. (PJ Higgins and Associates Inc., Frederick, MD (United States))

1994-09-01

170

Raising the minimum drinking age: Some unintended consequences of good intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986 the state of Florida raised its minimum drinking age from 19 to 21. The new legislation was meant in part to reduce the frequency of youthful drinking and driving. In the year when the law was implemented, half of Florida's 19-year-olds could drink legally; the other half could not. In this paper we analyze self-report data from a

Lonn Lanza-Kaduce; Pamela Richards

1989-01-01

171

Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)  

EPA Science Inventory

The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

172

Answering Questions About Underage Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... in Europe is younger than it is in the U.S. Why don't European kids have alcohol-related ... teen drinking and accidents. However, after careful study, the U.S. Department of Transportation concluded that the minimum drinking ...

173

Subfornical organ stimulation elicits drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subfornical organ is a specialized central nervous system structure known to be involved in the control of drinking. We report here that electrical activation of subfomical organ neurons (100 ?A, 10 Hz, 1 ms pulse width, for 5 min.) induced drinking in 67% (six of nine) of animals. This effect was site-specific as none of the animals with electrode

P. M. Smith; R. J. Beninger; A. V. Ferguson

1995-01-01

174

Lead in School Drinking Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

175

Controlling Underage Drinking: Fear of Law Enforcement or Internalized Normative Values?  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research on alcohol control policies has generally taken a deterrence perspective. Whether internalized normative values, consistent with the changes intended by alcohol policies, were a potential base for securing public compliance with them has received little research attention. To fill this gap, this study examined whether underage young adults’ support for underage drinking laws was associated with their alcohol use. Methods National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) data collected in 1995–2005 were used. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Covariates included: sex, race, education level, household income, positive alcohol expectancies, the perceived likelihood of law enforcement, and the availability and affordability of alcohol. Results Controlling for other covariates, support for underage drinking laws was significantly associated with some drinking outcomes. Underage young adults who were not supportive of the minimum legal drinking age law were more likely to engage in frequent binge drinking (OR=3.08) and drinking driving (OR=4.17), and to have initiated drinking at age 16 or younger (OR=2.37). Those who indicated a lower degree of support for the zero-tolerance drunk driving law had higher odds of drinking driving (OR=4.36), as well as higher odds of having ever had alcohol (OR=5.46), current drinking (OR=5.36), and having initiated drinking at the age of 16 or younger (OR=3.09). The perceived likelihood of law enforcement was protective only from frequent binge drinking (OR=0.09). Conclusion A clear articulation of potential harms associated with underage drinking to help legitimize underage drinking laws, along with their rigorous enforcement, may help reduce underage drinking. PMID:25243198

Cook, Won Kim

2014-01-01

176

Magnitude and Prevention of College Drinking and Related Problems  

PubMed Central

In 2002, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) issued a report entitled A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges. Data on the magnitude of college drinking problems in 1998 to 1999 were reported. From 1999 to 2005, the proportion of college students aged 18–24 who drank five or more drinks on a single occasion in the past month increased from 41.7 percent to 45.2 percent. The proportion who drove under the influence of alcohol increased from 26.1 percent to 29.2 percent. Higher percentages of 21- to 24-year-olds engaged in those behaviors than 18- to 20-year-olds, and between 1999 and 2005 the percentage increased among 21- to 24-year-olds but not among those aged 18–20. From 1998 to 2005, unintentional alcohol-related injury deaths increased 3 percent (from 1,442 to 1,825) per 100,000 college students aged 18–24. Alcohol misuse by college students often harms other people through traffic crashes and sexual/other assaults. Research regarding ways to reduce college drinking problems has shown that individual-oriented interventions, particularly screening and brief motivational counseling interventions, social norms interventions, environmental policy changes such as the minimum legal drinking age of 21 and drinking-and-driving laws, and comprehensive college–community programs, can reduce college drinking and related morbidity and mortality. There is a growing need for colleges and surrounding communities to implement interventions shown through research to reduce alcohol misuse among college-aged people. PMID:23579935

Hingson, Ralph W.

2010-01-01

177

Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems  

PubMed Central

Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

2013-01-01

178

[Energy drinks: an unknown risk].  

PubMed

The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801

Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

2012-05-01

179

Predictors of drinking outcomes among alcoholics.  

PubMed

Predicting outcomes for individual patients entering substance abuse treatment has long been a clinical goal in the addictions field. Intake data from the Addiction Severity Index and other standardized scales were collected on 248 alcohol dependent/abusing patients entering an urban hospital treatment program. The outcome measure was frequency of drinking days in the past 30 days. Baseline data were used to identify predictors of posttreatment drinking frequency at two follow-up interviews (3 and 12 months postbaseline). Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that a set of baseline predictors accounted for similar and substantial proportions of outcome variance at the two follow-ups. When psychosocial predictors were combined with an index of alcohol use severity (which included drinking frequency), the proportions of variance explained were 31% and 28% at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Two psychosocial predictors were significant at both time periods, and thus most likely to be replicated in future research: a treatment motivation index (a combination of measures of commitment to treatment success and internal motivation to seek treatment) and an index of 12-step (self-help) participation (a combination of measures of frequency of 12-step meeting attendance and perceived helpfulness of 12-step participation). While the predictability of short-term (3 month) outcomes could help clinicians tailor treatment strategies to maximize patient motivation and reduce drinking behavior, the predictability of longer term (12 month) outcomes could help counselors plan aftercare programs, encourage self-help participation, and promote recovery-oriented activities to sustain initial treatment-induced gains. PMID:12731689

Staines, Graham; Magura, Stephen; Rosenblum, Andrew; Fong, Chunki; Kosanke, Nicole; Foote, Jeffrey; Deluca, Alexander

2003-01-01

180

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

181

Incompatibility between propericiazine oral solution and tea-based drink.  

PubMed

Here, we studied the incompatibility between an oral solution of propericiazine (PCZ), an antipsychotic drug, and various commercially available bottled tea-based drinks. When 0.5 mL of the PCZ oral solution (10 mg/mL) was mixed with 16.5 mL of a tea-based drink (such as green tea, oolong tea, and black tea), the residual PCZ content declined to approximately 50% in some mixed solutions. After mixing with other tea-based drinks, the residual PCZ content declined to approximately 30%, while in others, it changed very little. The residual PCZ content declined immediately after mixing with tea-based drinks, but the rate remained almost unchanged for the next 24 h. Furthermore, the pH of the mixture increased to 4.5-5.1 after the oral solution of PCZ (original pH 3.8) was diluted with various tea-based drinks. Afterwards, the pH did not change for 24 h. The mixture became cloudy immediately after diluting PCZ oral solution with tea-based drinks, and the insoluble substance gradually precipitated. In order to elucidate factors responsible for the decline in the content of PCZ, a (-)-epigallocatechin gallate solution, which is a main ingredient of green tea polyphenol, was mixed with the PCZ oral solution. After mixing, the residual PCZ content declined to approximately 60-75%. On the other hand, the content of PCZ did not decline when a (-)-epigallocatechin solution was mixed with the PCZ oral solution. The results from this study demonstrated that PCZ content was reduced after dilution in tea-based drinks because of the interaction between PCZ and polyphenol with a galloyl group in tea-based drinks. PMID:22976331

Ikeda, Hirohito; Tsuji, Erika; Matsubara, Tomonori; Yukawa, Miho; Fujisawa, Masao; Yukawa, Eiji; Aki, Hatsumi

2012-01-01

182

A behavioral economic analysis of the effect of next-day responsibilities on drinking.  

PubMed

Approximately 37% of college students report heavy episodic drinking (5 or more drinks in an occasion for men and 4 or more for women) in the past month. This pattern of drinking is often associated with high blood alcohol levels, accidents, injuries, and negative social and academic outcomes. There is a need for novel theoretical approaches to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral economics emphasizes the role of contextual determinants, such as drink price and the presence and amount of alternative reinforcement as determinants of drinking levels and has received strong empirical support in basic laboratory research. This translational research study used a hypothetical behavioral economic measure to investigate the impact of a variety of next-day responsibilities on night-before drinking intentions in a sample of first-year college students (N = 80; 50% female) who reported recent heavy episodic drinking. Drinking estimates were significantly lower in all of the responsibility conditions relative to the no-responsibility condition; internships were associated with the greatest reduction (drm = 1.72), and earlier class times were associated with greater reductions in drinking intentions (drm range = 1.22-1.35) than later class times (drm range = 0.83-1.00). These results suggest that increasing morning responsibilities should be further investigated as a potential strategy to reduce drinking in college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25402835

Gilbert, Lindsey J; Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

2014-12-01

183

Association of Solitary Binge Drinking and Suicidal Behavior Among Emerging Adult College Students  

PubMed Central

Emerging adult college students who binge drink in solitary contexts (i.e., while alone) experience greater depression and suicidal ideation than students who only binge drink in social contexts, suggesting that they may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior. This study examined the association of a previous suicide attempt, one of the best predictors of future suicide attempts and suicide, and severity of recent suicidal ideation with drinking in solitary and social contexts. Participants were binge drinking emerging adult (18- to 25-year-old) college students (N = 182) drawn from two studies of college drinkers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that both suicide attempt history and severity of suicidal ideation were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of being a solitary binge drinker as opposed to only a social binge drinker. Students with a previous suicide attempt were nearly 4 times more likely to be solitary binge drinkers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that suicide attempt history was significantly associated with greater frequency and quantity of drinking in solitary, but not social contexts. Suicidal ideation was significantly associated with drinks per solitary drinking day, but not frequency of solitary drinking once suicide attempt history was accounted for. Given the associations found between solitary binge drinking and a history of suicide attempts, as well as greater severity of recent suicidal ideation, it would appear that these students are in need of suicide prevention efforts, including treatment efforts aimed at reducing binge drinking. PMID:22288976

Gonzalez, Vivian M.

2012-01-01

184

Evaluation of a College Policy Mandating Treatment for Students with Substantiated Drinking Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study reports the results of two surveys in which 215 students react to a policy mandating treatment for students receiving emergency room care due to alcohol abuse. Respondents identify many drinking problems that prompt student-to-student help, and predict that the policy would discourage helping but not reduce drinking. Proposes that college…

Colby, John J.; Raymond, George A.; Colby, Suzanne M.

2000-01-01

185

Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

186

The effect of schooling on problem drinking: evidence from Australian twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We relate differences in problem drinking symptoms within pairs of identical twins to their respective differences in years of schooling. Isolating in this way the influences of family background and genes, we find that an increase in schooling attainment results in a significantly lower incidence of problem drinking for men. Thus, an extra year of schooling reduces the number of

N. Zubanov; H. D. Webbink; N. G. Martin

2013-01-01

187

Which Heavy Drinking College Students Benefit from a Brief Motivational Intervention?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heavy drinking among college students is common and is often harmful. A previously reported randomized trial revealed that a brief motivational intervention (BMI) reduced the alcohol consumption of heavy drinking college students (K. B. Carey, M. P. Carey, S. A. Maisto, & J. M. Henson, 2006). For this study, the researchers conducted supplemental…

Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

2007-01-01

188

ETV COLLABORATIVE EVALUATIONS OF MARKET-READY TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

How well do some commercially marketed package treatment systems perform to reduce arsenic from drinking water supplies? The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Drinking Water Systems (DWS) Center is a partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA...

189

Teen Drinking and Education Attainment: Evidence From Two-Sample Instrumental Variables (TSIV) Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that one of the important consequences of teen drinking is reduced scholastic achievement and that state excise taxes on beer and minimum legal drinking ages (MLDA) as policy instruments can have a positive impact on educational attainment. But there is reason to ask whether the results are empirically sound. Prior research as assumed the decision to

Thomas S. Dee; William N. Evans

1997-01-01

190

Changes in Drinking Patterns Across the Transition to College Among First-Year College Males  

PubMed Central

Few studies examine changes in drinking behavior during the transition from high school to college. Using a sample of 239 first-year males, we hypothesized that participants would increase drinking from pre-college to the first month of college. Results reveal a general trend toward increased drinking upon entering college. Caucasians increased drinking more than non-Caucasians. Social expectancies of alcohol moderated increases in drinking behavior. These findings indicate that differential changes in drinking behavior occur among incoming college males. Interventions with college students need to address both preventing heavy consumption and alcohol-related problems in pre-college light drinkers and in reducing these behaviors among pre-college heavy drinkers.

LABRIE, JOSEPH; LAMB, TOBY; PEDERSEN, ERIC

2014-01-01

191

Maori Identification, Drinking Motivation and Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…

Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin

2010-01-01

192

Underage Drinking: Does Current Policy Make Sense?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article examines the history of laws and policies regulating consumption of alcoholic beverages by young people in the United States, and examines youth drinking patterns that have emerged over time. Currently, all 50 states have a minimum drinking age of 21. Various rationales are offered for the 21 drinking age, such as the claim that earlier drinking hinders cognitive

Judith G. McMullen

2006-01-01

193

Solitary and social heavy drinking, suicidal ideation, and drinking motives in underage college drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In college students, solitary heavy drinking (i.e., while alone) is associated with depression and with higher rates of drinking problems than heavy drinking in social contexts. This study explored the relationship among heavy episodic drinking context, suicidal ideation, and drinking motives among underage college drinkers (n=91) with a history of passive suicidal ideation. Participants completed measures of depression, suicidal ideation,

Vivian M. Gonzalez; R. Lorraine Collins; Clara M. Bradizza

2009-01-01

194

The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

2012-01-01

195

Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... down the road. A related "all or nothing" misconception is that all heavy drinkers are automatically alcoholics. ... year. This helps to counter a commonly held misconception that “everybody” drinks a lot. The second purpose ...

196

College Drinking - Changing the Culture  

MedlinePLUS

... by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). CollegeDrinkingPrevention.gov is your one-stop resource ... About Alcohol Poisoning FAQs on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism High School Graduation Fact Sheet How to Cut ...

197

Molecular Ecology of Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation consists of examples of molecular research: ?Detection and control (removal and/or inactivation) of microbes in drinking source waters ?Changing microbial quality of water during distribution and storage ?Detection and identification of microbial agents, incl...

198

Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity T his month’s Archives focuses on new research about childhood obesity. Being overweight is now the most common medical condition of childhood. Nearly ...

199

Hurting, helping, or neutral? The effects of parental permissiveness toward adolescent drinking on college student alcohol use and problems.  

PubMed

To enhance prevention efforts to reduce college drinking, parents have been identified as an important source of influence that can be modified with brief interventions. Research suggests parental permissiveness toward drinking in adolescence is positively related to college student drinking, though existing studies have not comprehensively accounted for potential confounders (e.g., parental drinking). The present study used propensity modeling to estimate the effects of pre-college parental permissiveness on college student drinking and consequences while accounting for an inclusive range of confounders. A random sample of 1,518 incoming students at a large university completed baseline measures of parental permissiveness and a list of confounders (e.g., parental drinking, family history). At follow-up 15 months later, participants reported on their drinking and alcohol-related consequences. To control for potential confounders, individuals were weighted based on their propensity scores to obtain less biased estimates of the effects of parental permissiveness on drinking and consequences. Analyses revealed parental permissiveness was consistently and positively associated with college drinking and consequences when the confounders were not accounted for, but these effects were attenuated after weighting. Parents' allowance of drinking was not related to college drinking or consequences after weighting. Students' perceived parental limits for consumption were related to drinking and consequences in the weighted models. Prevention efforts may benefit from targeting parents' communication of acceptable limits for alcohol consumption. PMID:23934443

Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Crowley, D Max; Turrisi, Rob; Greenberg, Mark T; Mallett, Kimberly A

2014-10-01

200

Societal Costs of Underage Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Despite minimum-purchase-age laws, young people regularly drink alcohol. This study estimated the magnitude and costs of problems resulting from underage drinking by category—traf- fic crashes, violence, property crime, suicide, burns, drownings, fetal alcohol syndrome, high-risk sex, poisonings, psychoses, and dependency treatment—and compared those costs with associated alcohol sales. Pre- vious studies did not break out costs of alcohol problems

TED R. MILLER; DAVID T. LEVY; REBECCA S. SPICER; DEXTER M. TAYLOR

201

Drinking Water Database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

Murray, ShaTerea R.

2004-01-01

202

The equal right to drink.  

PubMed

The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls. PMID:25303360

Schmidt, Laura A

2014-11-01

203

The risks of drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

Reichhardt, Tony

1984-04-01

204

THE FETOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER IN THE MOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mice (CD-1 strain) were placed on diets containing either municipal drinking water (Durham, North Carolina) or water that had been distilled and passed through cartridges to reduce organics and remove inorganics. After a two-week acclimation period, animals were bred and pregnanc...

205

"It's better for me to drink, at least the stress is going away": perspectives on alcohol use during pregnancy among South African women attending drinking establishments.  

PubMed

The Western Cape of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) globally. Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority for this region, but insight into the experiences of women who drink during pregnancy is lacking. Convenience sampling in alcohol-serving venues was used to identify women who were currently pregnant (n = 12) or recently post-partum (n = 12) and reported drinking during the pregnancy period. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between April and August 2013. Interviews explored drinking narratives, with textual data analyzed for themes related to factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy. All but one woman reported her pregnancy as unplanned. The majority sustained or increased drinking after pregnancy recognition, with patterns typically including multiple days of binge drinking per week. Analysis of the textual data revealed five primary factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy: 1) women used alcohol as a strategy to cope with stressors and negative emotions, including those associated with pregnancy; 2) women drank as a way to retain social connection, often during a difficult period of life transition; 3) social norms in women's peer groups supported drinking during pregnancy; 4) women lacked attachment to the pregnancy or were resistant to motherhood; and 5) women were driven physiologically by alcohol addiction. Our data suggest that alcohol-serving settings are important sites to identify and target women at risk of drinking during pregnancy. Intervention approaches to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy should include counseling and contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies, mental health and coping interventions targeting pregnant women, peer-based interventions to change norms around perinatal drinking, and treatment for alcohol dependence during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that innovative interventions that go beyond the boundaries of the health care system are urgently needed to address FASD in this region. PMID:24997441

Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Velloza, Jennifer; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J

2014-09-01

206

Preventing underage drinking: a "roll of the dice".  

PubMed

This study examines the efficacy of a video entitled "Underage Drinking: A Roll of the Dice," and accompanying discussion guide. The video illustrates the civil and criminal consequences of underage drinking. The video and discussion aimed to: (1) increase awareness about the problem of underage drinking; (2) increase viewers' and participants' knowledge and perceptions of the risks and responsibilities and reduce the perceived acceptability of underage drinking; and (3) encourage discussion between youths and adults about underage drinking. The "Roll of the Dice" was evaluated in 19 school and community groups in Hawaii. Groups were randomly assigned to receive follow-up materials or no follow-up materials. Evaluation involved three surveys: pretest, posttest, and follow-up. Three hundred youths and adults responded to the first two surveys, and 220 people completed a third survey. Youths and adults showed increases in short-term knowledge, perceived risk, and perceived responsibility, and a decrease in perceived acceptability of underage drinking after viewing the video. Significant improvement between the pretest and follow-up was observed, although the changes were not entirely maintained at the time of the posttest. The results showed that legal consequences of underage drinking are not common knowledge, and that a well-designed one-time program can make a difference. This video and discussion session provide an inexpensive way to raise adults' and youths' awareness of the laws and penalties, resulting in effects maintained for at least a month after the program. Additional follow-up materials did not enhance retention of changes in knowledge and attitudes. PMID:12507525

Glanz, Karen; Maddock, Jason E; Shigaki, Dorothy; Sorensen, Catherine A

2003-01-01

207

College versus the real world: student perceptions and implications for understanding heavy drinking among college students.  

PubMed

College student heavy drinking is a persistent problem despite widespread initiatives. Using focus group methodology, this study examined student perceptions of factors that promote and limit drinking during and after college. The goal was to better understand factors that reduce drinking post-college to develop strategies to moderate college drinking. Twelve groups (N=75) were conducted with undergraduates at a northeastern Catholic college. Most participants drank; the majority exceeded a clinical indicator of problematic drinking. Transcript analysis identified themes that were coded with high reliability. Drinking in college was perceived to enhance socialization, bonding, and disinhibition. College, characterized by a high level of freedom and low level of responsibility, was seen as time-out from the "real world". In that context, heavy drinking was permissible. Students expected their future lifestyle to be burdensome and tedious; nostalgia for the good times associated with heavy drinking was anticipated. They imagined post-college drinking to be a threat to career and family and therefore irresponsible. Implications for intervention development and future research are described. PMID:18774233

Colby, Suzanne M; Colby, John J; Raymond, George A

2009-01-01

208

Revictimization as a Moderator of Psychosocial Risk Factors for Problem Drinking in Female Sexual Assault Survivors*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Adult sexual assault (ASA) survivors report greater levels of problem drinking than do other women, and research suggests that their coping strategies, reactions from their social networks, and traumatic life events affect their problem drinking. The links between these factors and problem drinking may be moderated by whether survivors are revictimized, yet research has not examined this possibility. Therefore, the current study examined psychosocial factors, problem drinking, and revictimization in women ASA survivors. Method: Community-dwelling urban women (n = 555) who had experienced an ASA completed a mail survey at Time 1 (T1) and were resurveyed 1 year later to examine how revictimization between survey waves moderated the effects of coping strategies, social reactions to assault disclosures, and traumatic life events on problem drinking at Time 2 (T2). Results: The findings showed that recent revictimization that occurred between surveys was related to increased problem drinking at T2, after T1 problem drinking was controlled for. Moderated hierarchical multiple regressions showed that survivors who engaged in drinking to cope with distress, who received negative social reactions in response to recent assault disclosures, or who experienced additional traumatic events had increased T2 problem drinking only if they were revictimized since T1. Conclusions: Psychosocial factors relate to increases in problem drinking for sexually revictimized women but not for nonrevictimized women. Interventions to reduce problem drinking in women ASA survivors should target drinking to cope with assault-related symptomatology, informal social networks to improve their supportiveness, and safety issues through risk-reduction education and self-defense training for women when appropriate. PMID:19118390

Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.

2009-01-01

209

The Effect of the 18-Year Old Drinking Age on Auto Accidents  

E-print Network

The effect of Massachusetts' reduced drinking age on auto accidents is examined by employing an interrupted time series analysis of monthly accident data covering the period January, 1969, through September 1973. The data ...

Cucchiaro, Stephen

210

A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

2012-01-01

211

Drinking water constituents and disease.  

PubMed

Several epidemiological investigations over the last 50 y have demonstrated a relation between risk for cardiovascular disease and drinking water hardness or its content of magnesium and calcium. An additional parameter, first suggested in a study from Japan 50 y ago, is the acidity of the water. It is known that acid load influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in the renal tubuli. Intervention studies have shown that acid-base conditions influence the homeostasis of minerals. Data from intervention studies using magnesium, calcium, and hydrogen carbonate are reviewed. It is suggested that the health effects related to drinking water found in some studies may be caused by an increased urinary excretion of minerals induced by acid conditions in the body and that drinking water should contain sufficient amounts of hydrogen carbonate to prevent this effect. PMID:18203915

Rylander, Ragnar

2008-02-01

212

Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits  

MedlinePLUS

... Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

213

CDC Vital Signs: Drinking and Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... to prevent people from drinking and driving. At sobriety checkpoints, police stop drivers to judge if they ... legal drinking age laws. Expand the use of sobriety checkpoints. Require ignition interlocks for everyone convicted of ...

214

Young Children, Energy Drinks a Dangerous Mix  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Young Children, Energy Drinks a Dangerous Mix Study finds more than ... 16, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The potential dangers of energy drinks, those highly caffeinated beverages that promise to ...

215

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

216

Drinking water safely during cancer treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... for Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

217

Basic Information about Asbestos in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... an increased risk of developing benign intestinal polyps. Drinking Water Health Advisories provide more information on health effects ... 396 K, About PDF ) EPA regulates asbestos in drinking water to protect public health. Asbestos may cause health ...

218

Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

MedlinePLUS

... Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Drinking Water The Basics A cool glass of tap water ... of medicines can find their way to our drinking water supply when people flush unused medicines down the ...

219

Safe Water Drinking Act Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... created in commemoration of the anniversary . (ALL ABOUT PDF FILES) Source Water Protection Operator Certification Drinking Water ... Act EPA 816-F-04-030 June 2004 PDF (291 K PDF FILE, 4 pgs) Drinking Water ...

220

Drinking Water and Ground Water: Kids' Stuff  

MedlinePLUS

... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...

221

Perceived Danger while Intoxicated Uniquely Contributes to Driving after Drinking  

PubMed Central

Background Previous findings suggest that alcohol alters perceptions of risky behaviors such as drinking and driving. However, studies testing these perceptions as a predictor of drinking and driving typically measure these perceptions while participants are sober. The present study tested whether the perceived danger of driving after drinking assessed while intoxicated was associated with increased willingness to drive and self-reported drinking-and-driving behavior over and above perceptions assessed while sober. Additionally, we tested the effect of acute tolerance on the perceived danger of driving after drinking assessed on the ascending and descending limbs of the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) curve. Methods Eighty-two young adults attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions. In one session, participants consumed a moderate dose of alcohol (men: .72 g/kg, women: .65 g/kg) and reported the perceived danger of driving and their willingness to drive at multiple points across the BrAC curve. On a separate occasion, participants remained sober and appraised the dangerousness of driving at a hypothetical, illegal BrAC. Results Perceptions of the dangerousness of driving following alcohol administration were associated with increased willingness to drive and higher rates of self-reported drinking-and-driving behavior over and above perceptions reported when sober. Furthermore, perceived danger was reduced on the descending limb of the BrAC curve, compared to the ascending limb, suggesting the occurrence of acute tolerance. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that intoxicated perceptions are uniquely associated with drinking-and-driving decisions and that the perceived danger of drinking and driving is lower on the descending limb of the BrAC curve. Efforts to prevent alcohol-impaired driving have focused on increasing awareness of the danger of driving after drinking. Prevention efforts may be enhanced by educating drivers about how intoxication can alter perceived danger, and interventions may benefit from targeting perceptions of dangerousness while individuals are intoxicated in addition to when they are sober. PMID:24033630

Morris, David H.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Niculete, Maria E.; McCarthy, Denis M.

2013-01-01

222

Underage Drinking Underage drinking is a serious public health problem in the  

E-print Network

Underage Drinking Underage drinking is a serious public health problem in the United States poses enormous health and safety risks. The consequences of underage drinking can affect everyone, injuries, violence, and deaths that can result from underage drinking. This is not simply a problem

Bandettini, Peter A.

223

Relationship of Fluoride in Drinking Water to Other Drinking Water Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride in drinking water and 32 other drinking water variables were evaluated in an epidemiologic study of 158 municipalities in the State of Iowa. The study included three study groups: two for controlled fluoridation and one for natural fluoride. Previous epidemiologic studies of fluoride in drinking water have rarely addressed other drinking water parameters. The results indicated that controlled fluoridation

Charles F. Lynch

1987-01-01

224

The Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Mortality: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from the Minimum Drinking Age†  

PubMed Central

We estimate the effect of alcohol consumption on mortality using the minimum drinking age in a regression discontinuity design. We find large and immediate increases in drinking at age 21, including a 21 percent increase in recent drinking days. We also find a discrete 9 percent increase in the mortality rate at age 21, primarily due to motor vehicle accidents, alcohol-related deaths, and suicides. We estimate a 10 percent increase in the number of drinking days for young adults results in a 4.3 percent increase in mortality. Our results suggest policies that reduce drinking among young adults can have substantial public health benefits. (JEL I12, I18) PMID:20351794

Carpenter, Christopher

2009-01-01

225

The Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Mortality: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from the Minimum Drinking Age.  

PubMed

We estimate the effect of alcohol consumption on mortality using the minimum drinking age in a regression discontinuity design. We find large and immediate increases in drinking at age 21, including a 21 percent increase in recent drinking days. We also find a discrete 9 percent increase in the mortality rate at age 21, primarily due to motor vehicle accidents, alcohol-related deaths, and suicides. We estimate a 10 percent increase in the number of drinking days for young adults results in a 4.3 percent increase in mortality. Our results suggest policies that reduce drinking among young adults can have substantial public health benefits. (JEL I12, I18). PMID:20351794

Carpenter, Christopher; Dobkin, Carlos

2009-01-01

226

Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.  

PubMed Central

There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions. Images Figure 3 PMID:10229719

Boorman, G A

1999-01-01

227

Chromatin remodeling — a novel strategy to control excessive alcohol drinking  

PubMed Central

Harmful excessive use of alcohol has a severe impact on society and it remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. However, mechanisms that underlie excessive alcohol consumption are still poorly understood, and thus available medications for alcohol use disorders are limited. Here, we report that changing the level of chromatin condensation by affecting DNA methylation or histone acetylation limits excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in rodents. Specifically, we show that decreasing DNA methylation by inhibiting the activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with systemic administration of the FDA-approved drug, 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) prevents excessive alcohol use in mice. Similarly, we find that increasing histone acetylation via systemic treatment with several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduces mice binge-like alcohol drinking. We further report that systemic administration of the FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor, SAHA, inhibits the motivation of rats to seek alcohol. Importantly, the actions of both DNMT and HDAC inhibitors are specific for alcohol, as no changes in saccharin or sucrose intake were observed. In line with these behavioral findings, we demonstrate that excessive alcohol drinking increases DNMT1 levels and reduces histone H4 acetylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents. Together, our findings illustrate that DNA methylation and histone acetylation control the level of excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in preclinical rodent models. Our study therefore highlights the possibility that DNMT and HDAC inhibitors can be used to treat harmful alcohol abuse. PMID:23423140

Warnault, V; Darcq, E; Levine, A; Barak, S; Ron, D

2013-01-01

228

Accommodation & Alcohol and Responsible Drinking Policy  

E-print Network

to less than seven days. · We will provide reasonably priced soft drinks in all our licensed premises and ensure that soft/non alcoholic drinks are given prominent positions and adequately promoted. · WeAccommodation & Campus Services. Alcohol and Responsible Drinking Policy The University

Stevenson, Mark

229

Teen Tipplers: America's Underage Drinking Epidemic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In preparing for this report, surveys and focus groups were conducted with adults (N=900), with or without children under the legal drinking age, to determine their attitudes, views, and thoughts regarding the problem of underage drinking. The survey was designed to identify opportunities for civic engagement on the issue of underage drinking and…

Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

230

A Discriminant Analysis of Adolescent Problem Drinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performed a discriminant analysis on a sample of 1,715 sixth- and eighth-grade students to determine which children drink alcohol and which sociocultural factors influence their decision. Parental drinking patterns, race, sex, and grade level have predictive ability. Suggests targeting individuals prone to drink heavily for special counseling.…

Forney, Mary Ann; And Others

1984-01-01

231

THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

232

THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

233

Training Responsible Drinking with College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a description of a program designed to teach responsible drinking practices in a college student population. The aim of this program is to prevent problem drinking or alocholism in students who report concern about their drinking behavior, and volunteer to participate in a treatment-prevention program aimed at controlling their…

Marlatt, G. Alan

234

Risk management for assuring safe drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics

Steve E. Hrudey; Elizabeth J. Hrudey; Simon J. T. Pollard

2006-01-01

235

Drinking water standards and risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role and use of risk assessment methods in the establishment of drinking water standards are described with emphasis on recent applications. The process essentially includes an attempt to quantify human exposure from all routes including drinking water, animal toxicology, and human epidemiology, when available, to arrive at drinking water concentrations at which exposure would result in ''no known or

J COTRUVO

1988-01-01

236

Drinking Behavior and Sources of Alcohol: Differences Between Native American and White Youths*  

PubMed Central

Objective: We investigated drinking behavior and sources of alcohol among Native American and White youths, as well as how underage drinking behavior and sources of alcohol may be related to environmental factors. Method: Survey data from a sample of 18,916 youths (8th, 10th, and 12th grades) from Montana were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Survey data were supplemented with county-level economic and census data. Results: Native American youths were more likely than White youths to report drinking and heavy episodic drinking and initiate drinking at a younger age. Native Americans were less likely than Whites to get alcohol from home or from someone younger than age 21 but were more likely to get it from other social sources or through theft from a store. Living in a county with more Native Americans was inversely related to access to alcohol for both White and Native American youths, as well as reduced lifetime, 30-day, and heavy episodic drinking. Living in a county with more single-parent households was positively related to lifetime drinking, 30-day drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and increased access to alcohol through someone younger than age 21 or a stranger. Median income was negatively related to lifetime drinking and ease of access to alcohol and was positively related to accessing alcohol from home without permission, theft, or purchase with a fake ID. Conclusions: Because Native American and White youths have different drinking patterns and obtain alcohol from different sources, strategies to prevent alcohol problems in these groups should take these differences into consideration. PMID:21138711

Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Seninger, Steve; Paschall, Mallie I.; Moore, Roland S.

2011-01-01

237

Examining differences in drinking patterns among Jewish and Arab university students in Israel.  

PubMed

Objectives. Worldwide there is a dearth of studies examining drinking patterns in Arabs and how these compare to other populations. The few studies that exist have suggested distinct drinking patterns in Arabs, with not only high rates of abstinence but also high rates of heavy drinking among current drinkers. No studies have yet examined potential socio-cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to this distinct drinking pattern. Israel represents a unique and valuable resource for studying Arab population drinking patterns because Israeli Arabs are nonimmigrants living in areas where exposure to Western lifestyles, including alcohol consumption, is prevalent. The current study was set out to examine differences in alcohol consumption in a convenience sample of 1310 Jewish and Arab students from Israeli universities and colleges and to explore alcohol expectancies as potential mediators of ethno-religious differences. Design. Logistic regressions were used to produce odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to test differences between Jewish and Arab students on binary outcomes (lifetime, last month, and heavy drinking). Mediation of ethno-religious differences by alcohol expectancies was tested with bootstrapping procedures. Results. Results show that while Israeli Arab students tend to be more likely to abstain from alcohol than Israeli Jewish students, among current drinkers, Israeli Arab students are at a particular high risk of heavy drinking. Results also show that this is partly mediated by the expectancy that alcohol only influences the drinker at high levels of intake. Conclusion. The current study confirms distinct Arab drinking patterns found in previous studies. The present study is the first demonstration that drinking expectations mediate ethno-religious differences in heavy drinking among Israeli Arabs and Jews. This work contributes to the understanding of ethno-religious group differences in harmful drinking, potentially informing future etiologic research and public health interventions aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. PMID:25257830

Sznitman, Sharon R; Bord, Shiran; Elias, Wafa; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shiftan, Yoram; Baron-Epel, Orna

2014-09-26

238

Strategies to Prevent Underage Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol use by underage drinkers is a persistent public health problem in the United States, and alcohol is the most commonly used drug among adolescents. Accordingly, numerous approaches have been developed and studied that aim to prevent underage drinking. Some approaches are school based, involving curricula targeted at preventing alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana use. Other approaches are extracurricular, offering activities

Kelli A. Komro; Traci L. Toomey

2002-01-01

239

INJURED COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after convent...

240

Alcohol Impairment and Social Drinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive abilities of social drinkers are generally thought to be affected by alcohol only during acute intoxication, but several studies suggest that sober-state performance may be affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking episode. Although the findings regarding sober-state mental deficits in social drinkers are inconclusive,…

Bates, Marsha E.

241

DRINKING BEHAVIOR AND DRINKING REFUSAL SELF-EFFICACY IN KOREAN COLLEGE STUDENTS.  

PubMed

Summary.-The prevalence of drinking behavior and sex differences were examined. A possible relationship between drinking behavior and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) also was investigated among a convenience sample of 582 Korean college students (309 men, 273 women). A drinking habit scale (from AUDIT-K) and drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire (DRSEQ-R) were administered. Results indicated 74.4% of the students drank alcohol and 80.1% of the students were regular drinkers (> 2 to 4 times per month). There were significant differences in drinking behavior by sex and in the DRSE constructs for current drinking statuses. Drinking behavior was significantly associated with sex and DRSE. The present study offers more information about practical interventions aimed at reasonably controlling the drinking behavior of Korean college students in a university setting. The findings may provide better understanding of Korean students' drinking behavior. PMID:25457098

Oh, Hwajung; Kim, YoungHo

2014-12-01

242

Arsenic exposure to drinking water in the Mekong Delta.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater drinking sources was investigated in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in order to assess the occurrence of As in the groundwater, and the magnitude of As exposure of local residents through measurements of As in toenails of residents consuming groundwater as their major drinking water source. Groundwater (n=68) and toenail (n=62) samples were collected in Dong Thap Province, adjacent to the Mekong River, in southern Vietnam. Fifty-three percent (n=36) of the wells tested had As content above the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended limit of 10ppb. Samples were divided into Northern (mean As=4.0ppb) and Southern (329.0ppb) groups; wells from the Southern group were located closer to the Mekong River. Elevated As contents were associated with depth (<200m), salinity (low salinity), and redox state (reducing conditions) of the study groundwater. In 79% of the wells, As was primarily composed of the reduced As(III) species. Arsenic content in nails collected from local residents was significantly correlated to As in drinking water (r=0.49, p<0.001), and the relationship improved for pairs in which As in drinking water was higher than 1ppb (r=0.56, p<0.001). Survey data show that the ratio of As in nail to As in water varied among residents, reflecting differential As bioaccumulation in specific exposed sub-populations. The data show that water filtration and diet, particularly increased consumption of animal protein and dairy, and reduced consumption of seafood, were associated with lower ratios of As in nail to As in water and thus could play important roles in mitigating As exposure in areas where As-rich groundwater is the primary drinking water source. PMID:25585157

Merola, R B; Hien, T T; Quyen, D T T; Vengosh, A

2015-04-01

243

[Risks of energy drinks in youths].  

PubMed

The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy episodic drinking is at risk of serious injury, sexual assault, drunk driving, and death. However, even after adjusting for alcohol consumption, students who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks had dramatically higher rates of serious alcohol-related consequences. It has been reported that the subjective perceptions of some symptoms of alcohol intoxication are less intense after the combined ingestion of the alcohol plus energy drink; however, these effects are not detected in objective measures of motor coordination and visual reaction time. PMID:20926266

Bigard, A-X

2010-11-01

244

Bacteriological quality of drinks from vending machines.  

PubMed

A survey on the bacteriological quality of both drinking water and flavoured drinks from coin-operated vending machines is reported. Forty-four per cent of 25 drinking water samples examined contained coliforms and 84% had viable counts of greater than 1000 organisms ml at 30 degrees C. Thirty-one flavoured drinks were examined; 6% contained coliforms and 39% had total counts greater than 1000 organisms ml. It is suggested that the D.H.S.S. code of practice on coin-operated vending machines is not being followed. It is also suggested that drinking water alone should not be dispensed from such machines. PMID:3794325

Hunter, P R; Burge, S H

1986-12-01

245

Heavy drinking in college students: who is at risk and what is being done about it?  

PubMed

Problem drinking and related consequences are a major social issue plaguing college campuses across the United States. Each year, alcohol is responsible for fatalities, assaults, serious injuries, and arrests that occur among college students. The authors review and discuss the risk factors, drinking patterns, and consequences that are relevant to the general student population. In addition, the authors highlight individuals at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, such as Greek-letter social organization members and student athletes. The authors also discuss the interventions that attempt to reduce risky drinking and related problems in these subgroups as well as the future directions for research. PMID:17128959

Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Larimer, Mary E

2006-10-01

246

Proximal relationships between PTSD symptoms and drinking among female college students: results from a daily monitoring study.  

PubMed

Self-medication has been theorized to explain comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drinking, whereupon problem drinking develops in order to modulate negative affect and ameliorate PTSD symptoms. Daily monitoring methodologies may help refine our understanding of proximal relations between PTSD, affect, and alcohol use. One hundred thirty-six female college drinkers with a past history of sexual victimization and 38 female college drinkers with no past trauma history completed electronic monitoring of PTSD symptoms, affect, alcohol use, and alcohol cravings, daily for 4 weeks. A two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine likelihood of drinking and amount of alcohol consumed on drinking days. We found significant relationships between daily PTSD symptoms, affect, and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms of PTSD, they experienced stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink on that day. On days in which women experienced more negative affect than their average, they experienced stronger urges to drink, whereas on days in which women experienced more of the dysphoric symptoms associated with PTSD than their average, they drank less. On days with higher positive affect, women reported stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink. Results suggest the need to examine both aspects of affect and specific PTSD symptoms as they may differentially predict drinking behavior. Differences in the ways in which PTSD symptoms and affect influence drinking suggest that interventions more specifically address the function of drinking behaviors in reducing alcohol use among college women. PMID:23915369

Kaysen, Debra; Atkins, David C; Simpson, Tracy L; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Blayney, Jessica A; Lee, Christine M; Larimer, Mary E

2014-03-01

247

Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water  

SciTech Connect

Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

Manke, Kristin L.

2007-08-01

248

Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.  

PubMed

Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay. PMID:25086698

Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

2014-11-01

249

The Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Ages on Teen Childbearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides empirical evidence on the structural relationship between alcohol use and teen childbearing by exploiting the exogenous variation in youth alcohol availability generated by changes in state minimum legal drinking ages. The reduced-form childbearing models are based on state-level panel data and two-way fixed effect specifications as well as models that incorporate as controls the contemporaneous childbearing data

Thomas S. Dee

2001-01-01

250

Pilot-scale demonstration of phytofiltration for treatment of arsenic in New Mexico drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination of drinking water poses serious health risks to millions of people worldwide. To reduce such risks, the United States Environmental Protection Agency recently lowered the Maximum Contaminant Level for arsenic in drinking water from 50 to 10?gL?1. The majority of water systems requiring compliance are small systems that serve less than 10,000 people. Current technologies used to clean

Mark P. Elless; Charissa Y. Poynton; Cari A. Willms; Mike P. Doyle; Alisa C. Lopez; Dale A. Sokkary; Bruce W. Ferguson; Michael J. Blaylock

2005-01-01

251

Using multi-criteria decision analysis to assess the vulnerability of drinking water utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outbreaks of microbiological waterborne disease have increased governmental concern regarding the importance of drinking water\\u000a safety. Considering the multi-barrier approach to safe drinking water may improve management decisions to reduce contamination\\u000a risks. However, the application of this approach must consider numerous and diverse kinds of information simultaneously. This\\u000a makes it difficult for authorities to apply the approach to decision making.

Florent Joerin; Geneviève Cool; Manuel J. Rodriguez; Marc Gignac; Christian Bouchard

2010-01-01

252

Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: An evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE. PMID:24169372

Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M.

2014-01-01

253

Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.  

PubMed

Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration. PMID:22990947

Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

2013-01-01

254

EPA?s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

255

Drinking in snakes: resolving a biomechanical puzzle.  

PubMed

Snakes have long been thought to drink with a two-phase buccal-pump mechanism, but observations that some snakes can drink without sealing the margins of their mouths suggest that buccal pumping may not be the only drinking mechanism used by snakes. Here, we report that some snakes appear to drink using sponge-like qualities of specific regions of the oropharyngeal and esophageal mucosa and sponge-compressing functions of certain muscles and bones of the head. The resulting mechanism allows them to transport water upward against the effects of gravity using movements much slower than those of many other vertebrates. To arrive at this model, drinking was examined in three snake species using synchronized ciné and electromyographic recordings of muscle activity and in a fourth species using synchronized video and pressure recordings. Functional data were correlated with a variety of anatomical features to test specific predictions of the buccal-pump model. The anatomical data suggest explanations for the lack of conformity between a buccal-pump model of drinking and the performance of the drinking apparatus in many species. Electromyographic data show that many muscles with major functions in feeding play minor roles in drinking and, conversely, some muscles with minor roles in feeding play major roles in drinking. Mouth sealing by either the tongue or mental scale, previously considered critical to drinking in snakes, is incidental to drinking performance in some species. The sponge mechanism of drinking may represent a macrostomatan exaptation of mucosal folds, the evolution of which was driven primarily by the demands of feeding. PMID:22311729

Cundall, David; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Constantino, Joseph; Deufel, Alexandra; Grapski, Douglas; Kley, Nathan J

2012-03-01

256

Impact of Hydraulic Well Restoration on Native Bacterial Communities in Drinking Water Wells  

PubMed Central

The microbial monitoring of drinking water production systems is essential to assure water quality and minimize possible risks. However, the comparative impact of microbes from the surrounding aquifer and of those established within drinking water wells on water parameters remains poorly understood. High pressure jetting is a routine method to impede well clogging by fine sediments and also biofilms. In the present study, bacterial communities were investigated in a drinking water production system before, during, and after hydraulic purging. Variations were observed in bacterial communities between different wells of the same production system before maintenance, despite them having practically identical water chemistries. This may have reflected the distinct usage practices of the different wells, and also local aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic jetting of one well preferentially purged a subset of the dominating taxa, including lineages related to Diaphorobacter, Nitrospira, Sphingobium, Ralstonia, Alkanindiges, Janthinobacterium, and Pseudomonas spp, suggesting their tendency for growth in well-associated biofilms. Lineages of potential drinking water concern (i.e. Legionellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Acinetobacter spp.) reacted distinctly to hydraulic jetting. Bacterial diversity was markedly reduced in drinking water 2 weeks after the cleaning procedure. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of drinking water wells as a microbial habitat, as well as their role in the microbiology of drinking water systems.

Karwautz, Clemens; Lueders, Tillmann

2014-01-01

257

Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.  

PubMed

Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the particular drink. This study measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of drinks thickened with a widely used starch-based thickener. Experiments simulated a possible clinical scenario whereby saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Citric acid (E330) was added to water to produce a controlled range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0, and several commercially available drinks with naturally low pH were investigated. When saliva was added to thickened water, viscosity was reduced to less than 1% of its original value after 10-15 min. However, lowering pH systematically slowed the reduction in viscosity attributable to saliva. At pH 3.5 and below, saliva was found to have no significant effect on viscosity. The pH of drinks in this study ranged from 2.6 for Coca Cola to 6.2 for black coffee. Again, low pH slowed the effect of saliva. For many popular drinks, having pH of 3.6 or less, viscosity was not significantly affected by the addition of saliva. PMID:22210234

Hanson, Ben; Cox, Ben; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Smith, Christina H

2012-09-01

258

Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2??mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10??days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24??h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gibs, J.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Lippincott, R.L.

2007-01-01

259

Impact of Hydraulic Well Restoration on Native Bacterial Communities in Drinking Water Wells.  

PubMed

The microbial monitoring of drinking water production systems is essential to assure water quality and minimize possible risks. However, the comparative impact of microbes from the surrounding aquifer and of those established within drinking water wells on water parameters remains poorly understood. High pressure jetting is a routine method to impede well clogging by fine sediments and also biofilms. In the present study, bacterial communities were investigated in a drinking water production system before, during, and after hydraulic purging. Variations were observed in bacterial communities between different wells of the same production system before maintenance, despite them having practically identical water chemistries. This may have reflected the distinct usage practices of the different wells, and also local aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic jetting of one well preferentially purged a subset of the dominating taxa, including lineages related to Diaphorobacter, Nitrospira, Sphingobium, Ralstonia, Alkanindiges, Janthinobacterium, and Pseudomonas spp, suggesting their tendency for growth in well-associated biofilms. Lineages of potential drinking water concern (i.e. Legionellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Acinetobacter spp.) reacted distinctly to hydraulic jetting. Bacterial diversity was markedly reduced in drinking water 2 weeks after the cleaning procedure. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of drinking water wells as a microbial habitat, as well as their role in the microbiology of drinking water systems. PMID:25273229

Karwautz, Clemens; Lueders, Tillmann

2014-10-01

260

Personality, cognition and hazardous drinking: Support for the 2-Component Approach to Reinforcing Substances Model.  

PubMed

Personality and cognitive processes are both related to alcohol use and misuse. A recent model of hazardous drinking referred, the 2-CARS model, postulates two major pathways to hazardous drinking. One pathway primarily involves the association between Reward Drive and Positive Outcome Expectancies, the second involves the association between Rash Impulsiveness and Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy. In previous tests of the model, Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy was found to have the most proximal impact on drinking, being directly influenced by Rash Impulsiveness, and indirectly influenced by Reward Drive through Positive Outcome Expectancies. The aim of the current study was to test the 2-CARS model in a larger independent sample. Results found that individuals with a strong Reward Drive showed higher Positive Outcome Expectancies, while individuals high in Rash Impulsiveness were more likely to report reduced Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy. The present results also showed a theoretically unexpected pathway with a direct association between Rash Impulsiveness and Positive Outcome Expectancies. However, overall the results support the view that a greater understanding of hazardous drinking can be achieved by investigating the relationship between these personality and cognitive variables. PMID:24064194

Harnett, Paul H; Lynch, Samantha J; Gullo, Matthew J; Dawe, Sharon; Loxton, Natalie

2013-12-01

261

Drinking water and health research: a look to the future in the United States and globally.  

PubMed

Drinking water supplies continue to be a major source of human disease and death globally because many of them remain unsafe and vulnerable. Greater efforts are needed to address the key issues and questions which influence the provision of safe drinking water. Efforts are needed to re-evaluate and set new and better priorities for drinking water research and practice. More stakeholders need to be included in the processes of identifying key issues and setting priorities for safe drinking water. The overall approach to drinking water research and the provision of safe drinking water needs to become more rational and scientific, and become more visionary and anticipatory of the ever-present and emerging risks to drinking water safety. Collectively, we need to do a better job of making safe water available, accessible and affordable for all. One such approach to safe water for all is household water treatment and safe storage, which is being promoted globally by the World Health Organization and many other stakeholders and partners to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. PMID:16493895

Sobsey, Mark D

2006-01-01

262

Drinking and smoking patterns amongst women attending an antenatal clinic--II. During pregnancy.  

PubMed

This paper describes smoking and drinking patterns during pregnancy amongst a cohort of 2266 women who enrolled at a London antenatal clinic 1982-1983. Only 12% of mothers were non-drinkers before pregnancy, but 44% abstained in the first trimester, 38% in the second and 50% in the third. Before pregnancy 20% of mothers were drinking more than the recommended 10 units of alcohol per week. This dropped to 6% during pregnancy. Mean consumption at each of the three stages of pregnancy was highest amongst those mothers who were the heaviest drinkers before pregnancy. The heaviest pre-pregnancy drinkers were also the least likely to abstain at any point in pregnancy. Of those mothers who were drinking less than 10 units of alcohol per week before pregnancy, 3% increased during pregnancy. Wine was the most popular beverage choice but heavier drinkers were more likely to drink beers and spirits in addition. Before pregnancy 29% of mothers smoked. This dropped to 23% in pregnancy. Consumption levels fell amongst those who continued smoking. The heaviest pre-pregnancy smokers were the most likely to reduce but the least likely to stop. Smoking was positively associated with the level of both pre-pregnancy and pregnancy drinking. The most commonly cited reasons for changes in drinking and smoking habits in pregnancy were concern for the child, concern for self or concern for both. Feeling sick or ill was a more commonly stated reason for reduction of drinking than smoking. Social pressures were important in reducing smoking, but the mass media were quoted as a more important influence in reducing drinking. Mothers who drank more than 10 units of alcohol per week during pregnancy were more likely to be older, of higher social status and primiparous. In contrast those who smoked in pregnancy were more likely to be younger, of lower social status and multiparous. This has important implications for planning antenatal health education. PMID:2785805

Waterson, E J; Murray-Lyon, I M

1989-01-01

263

Sexual assault related distress and drinking: The influence of daily reports of social support and coping control.  

PubMed

Introduction. A history of sexual assault (SA) is often associated with increased distress and heavy drinking. One's ability to cope with the distress and seek social support has been associated with drinking more generally. However, SA-related distress, drinking, and the extent to which a woman engages in adaptive coping or seeks social support is known to vary day-to-day. The goal of the present investigation was to examine the moderating influence of perceived coping control and social support on the event-level association between SA-related distress and drinking. Methods. This study included 133 college women with a history of SA who reported recent heavy drinking. Participants provided daily reports of their SA-related distress, perceived coping control, perceived social support, and alcohol consumption every day for 30days. Results. Results of generalized estimating equation models suggest that coping control moderated the association between distress and drinking such that those with less perceived coping control drank more as their SA-related distress increased from their average. Although social support did not moderate between distress and drinking, decreases in perceived social support were associated with more drinking on that day. Conclusions. The results suggest that daily deviations in SA-related distress may influence alcohol consumption more than average levels of distress, especially among women with low coping control. Interventions for women with SA histories should help them build coping skills as well as adequate social support in order to reduce drinking. PMID:25437266

Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hassija, Christina M; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

2015-03-01

264

Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

McDermott, James H.

1978-01-01

265

Triple monoamine uptake inhibitors demonstrate a pharmacologic association between excessive drinking and impulsivity in high-alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice.  

PubMed

Approximately 30% of current drinkers in the United States drink excessively, and are referred to as problem/hazardous drinkers. These individuals, who may not meet criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, comprise binge, heavy drinkers, or both. Given their high prevalence, interventions that reduce the risk of binge and heavy drinking have important public health implications. Impulsivity has been repeatedly associated with excessive drinking in the clinical literature. As impulsivity is correlated with, and may play a critical role in, the initiation and maintenance of excessive drinking, this behavior may be an important target for therapeutic intervention. Hence, a better understanding of pharmacological treatments capable of attenuating excessive drinking and impulsivity may markedly improve clinical outcomes. The high-alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice represent a strong rodent model to study the relationship between impulsivity and excessive alcohol drinking, as recent evidence indicates they consume high levels of alcohol throughout their active cycle and are innately impulsive. Using this model, the present study demonstrates that the triple monoamine uptake inhibitors (TUIs) amitifadine and DOV 102, 677 effectively attenuate binge drinking, heavy drinking assessed via a 24-hour free-choice assay, and impulsivity measured by the delay discounting procedure. In contrast, 3-PBC, a GABA-A ?1 preferring ligand with mixed agonist-antagonist properties, attenuates excessive drinking without affecting impulsivity. These findings suggest that in HAP mice, monoamine pathways may predominate as a common mechanism underlying impulsivity and excessive drinking, while the GABAergic system may be more salient in regulating excessive drinking. We further propose that TUIs such as amitifadine and DOV 102, 677 may be used to treat the co-occurrence of impulsivity and excessive drinking. PMID:24118509

O'Tousa, David S; Warnock, Kaitlin T; Matson, Liana M; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Linn, Michael Van; Tiruveedhula, Veera Venkata; Halcomb, Meredith E; Cook, James; Grahame, Nicholas J; June, Harry L

2015-03-01

266

A Drop to Drink. . .A Report on the Quality of Our Drinking Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water…

Tait, Jack

267

Through the Drinking Glass: An Analysis of the Cultural Meanings of College Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the…

Tan, Andy Soon Leong

2012-01-01

268

Measuring College Student Drinking: Illustrating the Feasibility of a Composite Drinking Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the feasibility of a "Composite Drinking Scale" (CDS) designed to capture fully the phenomenon of problem drinking among college students while allowing easy public understanding. A survey conducted at 32 four-year U.S. colleges included four consumption measures: 30-day frequency; average number of drinks per week; number of…

Huang, Jiun-Hau; Dejong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg

2006-01-01

269

Stability and Contradiction in College Students' Drinking Following a Drinking-Age Law Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined college students' drinking behavior before and after increase in minimum-legal-drinking age for alcohol from 18 to 19 in New York. Comparison of students before (N=797) and after (N=860) age raise revealed than under-age students were not particularly affected in terms of consumption rates, alcohol use attitudes, reasons for drinking, or…

Perkins, H. Wesley; Berkowitz, Alan D.

1989-01-01

270

Effects of number of cagemates on home cage ethanol drinking during proximal cagemate drinking (PCD) procedures in male and female CD-1 mice.  

PubMed

The present experiment evaluated the effects of the Number of Cagemates (0 vs 1 vs 2) on home cage ethanol drinking during Proximal Cagemate Drinking (PCD) procedures in Male and Female CD-1 mice. Continuous-access home cage 2-bottle (ethanol vs. water) free-choice procedures were employed. PCD procedures eliminate the distracting effects of direct physical contact between Drinkers and their Cagemates on ethanol drinking by imposing a translucent plastic barrier strip between them. If direct physical contact distracts from drinking, then one Cagemate would drink more ethanol and more water than two Cagemates housed together on the same side of the barrier. This would be the case even if two Cagemates stimulated more ethanol drinking in the Drinker housed on the other side of the barrier, due to the social stimulation effects of additional Cagemates. Results revealed that the ethanol intake of Female Drinkers was directly related to the number of Cagemates on the other side of the barrier strip, but this social stimulation effect was not observed in Male Drinkers. For Male Cagemates and Female Cagemates, the single Cagemate provided elevated ethanol intake and elevated water intake relative to the ethanol intake and water intake of each Cagemate in the two Cagemates condition. The data revealed that direct physical contact between Cagemates reduced their ethanol intake, even while stimulating ethanol intake of the Drinker on the other side of the barrier, indicating that the effects of social stimulation on ethanol drinking are not entirely due to effects of modeling or peer pressure. The PCD procedures allow the evaluation of effects of a broad range of social factors on home cage ethanol drinking in mice. PMID:25447404

Tomie, Arthur; Samuel, Allison Gayle; Sprung, Dana Michelle; Malul, Yael; Yu, Lei

2015-03-01

271

Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory  

SciTech Connect

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

Not Available

1990-03-01

272

Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

O'Hare, Thomas

2005-01-01

273

How to Identify Lead-Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Materials - Presentation  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2011, Congress passed the ?Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,? which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of ?lead-free? by reducing allowed...

274

Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

2013-08-01

275

Enhancing physical performance in male volleyball players with a caffeine-containing energy drink.  

PubMed

There are no scientific data about the effects of caffeine intake on volleyball performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink to enhance physical performance in male volleyball players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used. In 2 different sessions separated by 1 wk, 15 college volleyball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed volleyball-specific tests: standing spike test, maximal squat jump (SJ), maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), 15-s rebound jump test (15RJ), and agility T-test. Later, a simulated volleyball match was played and recorded. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased ball velocity in the spike test (73 ± 9 vs 75 ± 10 km/h, P < .05) and the mean jump height in SJ (31.1 ± 4.3 vs 32.7 ± 4.2 cm, P < .05), CMJ (35.9 ± 4.6 vs 37.7 ± 4.4 cm, P < .05), and 15RJ (29.0 ± 4.0 vs 30.5 ± 4.6 cm, P < .05). The time to complete the agility test was significantly reduced with the caffeinated energy drink (10.8 ± 0.7 vs 10.3 ± 0.4 s, P < .05). In addition, players performed successful volleyball actions more frequently (24.6% ± 14.3% vs 34.3% ± 16.5%, P < .05) with the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink than with the placebo drink during the simulated game. A caffeine-containing energy drink, with a dose equivalent to 3 mg of caffeine per kg body mass, might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance and accuracy in male volleyball players. PMID:24664858

Del Coso, Juan; Pérez-López, Alberto; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Salinero, Juan Jose; Lara, Beatriz; Valadés, David

2014-11-01

276

Geospatial Analysis on the Distributions of Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking in India  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood. Methodology We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at the district and postal code levels. We used kriging interpolation to generate smoking and drinking distributions at the postal code level. We also examined spatial autocorrelations and identified spatial clusters of high and low prevalence of smoking and drinking. Finally, we used bivariate analyses to examine the spatial correlations between smoking and drinking, and between cigarette and bidi smoking. Results There was a high prevalence of any smoking in the central and northeastern states, and a high prevalence of any drinking in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Madhya Pradesh. Spatial clusters of early smoking (started smoking before age 20) were identified in the central states. Cigarette and bidi smoking showed distinctly different geographic patterns, with high levels of cigarette smoking in the northeastern states and high levels of bidi smoking in the central states. The geographic pattern of bidi smoking was similar to early smoking. Cigarette smoking was spatially associated with any drinking. Smoking prevalences in 1998 were correlated with prevalences in 2004 at the district level and 2010 at the state level. Conclusion These results along with earlier evidence on the complementarities between tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking suggest that local public health action on smoking might also help to reduce alcohol consumption, and vice versa. Surveys that properly represent tobacco and alcohol consumptions at the district level are recommended. PMID:25025379

Fu, Sze Hang; Jha, Prabhat; Gupta, Prakash C.; Kumar, Rajesh; Dikshit, Rajesh; Sinha, Dhirendra

2014-01-01

277

Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review*  

PubMed Central

Soft drinks have many potential health problems. The inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential, resulting in dental caries and potential enamel erosion. In this report we present a 25-year-old man complaining with the severe worn-out of the front teeth during the past 3 years. He had a history of drinking cola for more than 7 years and had a poor oral hygiene. Severe decays were present in the incisors and the canines, while less severe lesions were noted on the premolars and the molars. The review is to show the relationship between dental erosion and caries and soft drinks. Some efforts have been taken to reduce the harmful effect of soft drinks. PMID:19434767

Cheng, Ran; Yang, Hui; Shao, Mei-ying; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Xue-dong

2009-01-01

278

Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.  

PubMed

Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534

Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

2014-04-01

279

Removing lead in drinking water with activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

A point-of-use (POU) granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed adsorber (FBA) was evaluated for reduction of soluble and insoluble lead from drinking water. Some of the factors which affect lead removal by GAC were evaluated, such as carbon type, solution pH, and a limited amount of work on competitive interactions. The design criteria for lead reduction by a POU device are also addressed. Minicolumns were used to evaluate the capacity of carbon for lead under a variety of conditions. The importance of surface chemistry of the carbon and the relationship with the pH of the water for lead reduction was demonstrated. Results indicate that a properly designed POU-GAC-FBA can reduce lead in drinking water to below the EPA action level of 15 ppb while being tested under a variety of conditions as specified under the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International Standard 53 test protocol. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Taylor, R.M.; Kuennen, R.W. (Amway Corp., Ada, MI (United States))

1994-02-01

280

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2014-07-01

281

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2012-07-01

282

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2013-07-01

283

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2011-07-01

284

EPA List of Drinking Water Contaminants and MCLs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains listings of drinking water contaminants and the EPA regulatory limit for each contaminant. Tables include the national primary drinking water regulations, the national secondary drinking water regulations, and unregulated contaminants.

Agency, Us E.

285

THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

286

ADHD May Raise Teens' Odds for Smoking, Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. ADHD May Raise Teens' Odds for Smoking, Drinking Researchers found each additional ... Underage Drinking WEDNESDAY, Dec. 24, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Teens are more likely to start smoking or drinking ...

287

21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section 520...520.2325a Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor . See...Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows: (1)...

2010-04-01

288

75 FR 48329 - Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY [FRL-9186-8] Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program...details of EPA's voluntary Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program...The program enables qualified drinking water operators at public water...

2010-08-10

289

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71.602...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be...

2010-07-01

290

30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

2010-07-01

291

30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 ...Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water...minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or...

2010-07-01

292

9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable...

2010-01-01

293

Drinking Water in Schools and Child Care Facilities  

MedlinePLUS

... Schools & Child Care Facilities Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities This one-stop EPA site provides information about drinking water quality in schools and child care facilities. Ensuring drinking water quality at these facilities ...

294

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2010-07-01

295

Voluntary drinking versus imposed drinking in the methodology of investigations about the drinking-induced thermoregulatory sweating  

PubMed Central

Studies have shown that dehydrated humans or animals in a warm environment begin to sweat within seconds to minutes after drinking. This phenomenon is one of the drinking-induced thermoregulatory responses; being investigated from different aspects. Our objective is to show the difference of voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the methodology of these experiments. Six healthy subjects 23.7 ± 0.6 yr old and 80.7 ± 5.7 kg wt were dehydrated by performing mild exercise (ergometer cycling) in a hot and humid chamber (38-40°C, 20-28% relative humidity). We incorporated two protocols: after dehydration, subjects were allowed to drink water with 1) imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/kg and 2) voluntary volumes; on four separate days. The sweating rate was measured on the forehead area before and after drinking. Sweating increased markedly just a few minutes after the onset of drinking. The mean sweat rates of the imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/Kg were 0.33 ± 0.15, 0.31 ± 0.17, 0.47 ± 0.21 respectively and for the voluntary volume it was 0.54 ± 0.19. The mean intake in the voluntary trial was 6.58 ± 1.14 ml/Kg, more than the imposed volume of 5 ml/Kg. The trend of the rate of the sweating response in the imposed trials was distinct from the response in the voluntary trial. Conclusion: There exists a difference between voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the sweating response that follows rehydration. So it is suggested to use the methods of voluntary drinking in the investigations of this phenomenon, to reveal the natural events that happen in the actual circumstances. PMID:25419429

Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Khamnei, Saeed; Zamanlu, Masumeh

2014-01-01

296

Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…

Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

2011-01-01

297

Middle School Drinking: Who, Where, and when  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this research was to describe the most common drinking situations for young adolescents (N = 1171; 46.6% girls), as well as determine predictors of their drinking in the seventh and eighth grades. Middle school students most frequently drank at parties with three to four teens, in their home or at a friend's home, and reported…

Anderson, Kristen G.; Brown, Sandra A.

2011-01-01

298

The Economics of Safe Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a drinking water market in which a water company, faced with random contamination, chooses a treatment system, treatment levels, and whether to notify consumers that they should drink bottled water rather than risk exposure to contaminants in the tap water. The paper describes efi cient practices including protocols which prescribe when a company should notify customers to

Robert Innes; Dennis Cory

2001-01-01

299

Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs  

E-print Network

Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs Technical Appendix H Wei-Hsiang Chen Kristine-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center for Watershed Sciences (University Acknowledgments v Acronyms vi Introduction 1 1. WATER QUALITY IN AND NEAR DELTA 2 Delta Drinking Water Intakes 2

Pasternack, Gregory B.

300

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (Poster)  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, recogni...

301

Disinfection by-products in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organic contaminants have been identified in drinking water, some of which are introduced during treatment. Whereas chlorination of drinking water prevents the transmission of infectious diseases, free chlorine can react with precursors in water, such as humic and fulvic acids, to produce halogenated and oxidized by-products. Many disinfection by-products have been detected, including haloketones, haloaldehydes, haloacids, haloacetonitrile, cyanogen chloride,

Craun

2008-01-01

302

The Young Drinking Driver: Cause or Effect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drunk driving is a major public health problem and young people suffer disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality as a result of drinking and driving. Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 in this country, and alcohol is implicated in many of these deaths. Countermeasures to drinking and driving…

Waller, Patricia F.; Waller, Marcus B.

303

Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Communicator's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underage drinking is a serious national problem--alcohol-related injuries are a leading cause of death and injury among young people in the United States today. This guide is designed to help individuals who wish to be involved in a national effort to prevent underage drinking. It includes materials and messages that can be reproduced, as well as…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

304

Monitoring of Microbes in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Internationally there is a move towards managing the provision of safe drinking water by direct assessment of the performance of key pathogen barriers (critical control points), rather than end point testing (i.e. in drinking water). For fecal pathogens that breakthrough the vari...

305

Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

306

GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigations into the mutagenicity and mutational mechanisms of single chemicals within drinking water as well as of organic extracts of drinking water are being pursued using the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay as well as in human samples. For example, the semi-volatile ...

307

RESEARCH ARTICLE Drinking in Snakes: Resolving a  

E-print Network

-like qualities of specific regions of the oropharyngeal and esophageal mucosa and sponge-compressing functions not be the only drinking mechanism used by snakes. Here, we report that some snakes appear to drink using sponge. Functional data were correlated with a variety of anatomical features to test specific predictions

Behe, Michael J.

308

ARSENIC COMPLIANCE DATABASE FOR DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Section 1412(b)(12)(A) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. ? 300f-300j), as amended in 1996, required EPA to propose a National Primary Drinking Water Regulation for arsenic by January 1, 2000, and to issue a final regulation by January 1, 20...

309

Age Norms for Straw-Drinking Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 28 infants (ages 8-12 months) investigated their ability to drink from a straw. Results indicate 22 percent were not able to drink from a straw, whereas 78 percent were able to do so. Data failed to reveal any significant differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity. (Contains nine references.) (Author/CR)

Hunt, Lauren; Lewis, Danielle; Reisel, Sharon; Waldrup, Lanae; Wooster, Donna M. Adam

2000-01-01

310

Drinking Attitudes and Behavior of Incoming Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…

Johnson, Deborah H.; Sedlacek, William E.

311

MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

312

New Website Provides Essential Drinking Water Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

he United States National Acad- emy of Sciences and the Global Health and Education Founda- tion, along with more than 125 science, engineering and medical academies around the world have joined forces to provide comprehensive and informative Web resources aimed at providing essen- tial information related to safe global drinking water. The website is titled Safe Drinking Water is Essential

Kelly A. Reynolds

2007-01-01

313

Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among US secondary school students  

PubMed Central

Objectives Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among US secondary school students in 2010–2011, and associations between such use and substance use. Methods We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use controlling for individual and school characteristics. Results Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. Conclusions This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is wide-spread, and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users. PMID:24481080

Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

2014-01-01

314

The Effects of Drinking Goal on Treatment Outcome for Alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Objective It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective of this study is to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method Participants were 1226 alcohol dependent individuals enrolled in a large, multi-site trial of Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI), acamprosate, and naltrexone. Drinking goal was coded as follows: (a) controlled drinking, (b) conditional abstinence, and (c) complete abstinence. Results Analysis revealed a main effect of drinking goal on percent days abstinent (p < .0001), days to relapse to heavy drinking (p < 0.0001), and global clinical outcome (p < .001). These results were such that a goal of complete abstinence was associated with the best outcomes, followed by conditional abstinence; controlled drinking was associated with the poorest outcomes. Conversely, a main effect of drinking goal was observed on drinks per drinking day (p < .01), such that controlled drinking was associated with fewer drinks per drinking day whereas complete abstinence was associated with the highest drinks per drinking day. CBI performed better than medical management alone for participants whose drinking goal was not complete abstinence. Conclusion These results suggest that drinking goal represents a highly predictive clinical variable and should be an integral part of the clinical assessment of patients with alcohol dependence. Assessment of patients' drinking goals may also help match patients to interventions best suited to address their goals and clinical needs. PMID:23231573

Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.

2014-01-01

315

The Persistent Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Drinking Patterns Later in Life  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws not only affects young adults in the short term, but also later in life; for example, individuals who could legally purchase alcohol before age 21 are more likely to suffer from drinking problems as older adults, long after the laws had been changed. However, it is not known how permissive MLDA exposure affects specific drinking behavior. This present study uses changes in MLDA laws during the 1970s and 1980s as a natural experiment to investigate the potential impact of permissive MLDA exposure on average alcohol consumption, frequency of drinking, and on patterns of binging and more moderate, non-heavy drinking. Methods Policy exposure data were paired with alcohol use data from the 1991–1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey and the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Past-year drinkers born between 1949 and 1972 (n = 24,088) were included. Average daily intake, overall drinking frequency, and frequency of both binge episodes (5+ drinks) and days without a binge episode (non-heavy drinking) for the previous year at the time of interview were tracked for each respondent. Results Exposure to permissive MLDAs was associated with higher odds to report frequent binging and lower odds to report any moderate drinking; these associations were largely driven by men and those who did not attend college. Overall drinking frequency and average alcohol consumption were not affected by MLDA exposure. Conclusions The ability to legally purchase alcohol before age 21 does not seem to increase overall drinking frequency, but our findings suggest that it is associated with certain types of problematic drinking behaviors that persist into later adulthood: more frequent binge episodes and less frequent non-heavy drinking. We also propose that policymakers and critics should not focus on college drinking when evaluating the effectiveness of MLDAs. PMID:23347177

Plunk, Andrew D.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

2012-01-01

316

Gender and Social Pressure to Change Drinking Behavior: Results from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1984–2010  

PubMed Central

Objective Research shows social and institutional pressure influences drinking, yet determinants of who receives pressure are understudied. This paper examines age, time period, and birth cohort (APC) effects on pressure to stop or reduce drinking among U.S. men and women. Methods Data were drawn from six National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) conducted from 1984 to 2010 (N=32,534). Receipt of pressure during the past year to quit or change drinking from formal (police, doctor, work) and informal (spouse, family, friends) sources was assessed. Results Determinants of pressure were similar for men and women but varied in strength. They included younger age, less education, and younger cohort groups. Cohort effects were stronger for women than men. Conclusions Cohort effects among women may be due to increased alcohol marketing to younger women and the changing social contexts of their drinking. Future studies should assess associations between drinking contexts, pressures, and outcomes. PMID:25395917

Polcin, Douglas L.; Korcha, Rachael A.; Kerr, William C.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason

2014-01-01

317

Pretreatment alcohol drinking goals are associated with treatment outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background A large subset of patients who enter treatment for alcohol dependence report nonabstinent drinking goals (e.g., reduction in drinking) rather than abstinence, and this pretreatment goal choice may be associated with drinking outcomes and alcohol-related problems. Methods An analysis of the 16-week Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions (COMBINE) study was conducted to determine the association between self-reported pretreatment drinking goal and drinking outcomes and alcohol-related problems. Participants who reported a nonabstinent drinking goal (n=340) were matched with participants who reported an abstinent drinking goal (n=340) on three variables believed to contribute to treatment outcomes: COMBINE experimental group, gender, and number of prebaseline heavy drinking days. Results Analyses revealed no interaction between the COMBINE experimental group and drinking goal on outcome measures, so results were collapsed and examined as a function of drinking goal group. Participants who chose an abstinent drinking goal had significantly more weeks with no drinking or no heavy drinking, reported fewer heavy drinking days, reported fewer days with >1 drink, and were more likely to have a ?50% decrease in drinks per day between baseline and week 16 of the intervention. However both groups reported reductions over time in percent drinking days, mean drinks per day, number of heavy drinking days, and number of drinking days per week, and participants in both groups experienced significant reductions in alcohol-related problems and improvements in psychosocial functioning. Conclusions Results replicate and expand upon previous studies examining the association between drinking goal and treatment outcome. These data also provide support for the standard inclusion of drinking treatment goal as a stratification variable in study interventions, or as a covariate in outcome analyses, and highlight several areas that warrant additional research regarding patients who enter alcohol treatment with a nonabstinent drinking goal. PMID:23800222

Dunn, Kelly E.; Strain, Eric C.

2013-01-01

318

Drinking motives for self and others predict alcohol use and consequences among college women: the moderating effects of PTSD.  

PubMed

Although drinking motives have been shown to influence drinking behavior among women with trauma histories and PTSD, no known research has examined the influence of drinking motives on alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences for women with PTSD as compared to women with a trauma history but no PTSD and women with no trauma history. Therefore, the present study sought to examine the associations between drinking motives women held for themselves as well as their perception of the drinking motives of others and their own alcohol use and consequences, and whether this was moderated by a history of trauma and/or PTSD. College women (N=827) were categorized as either having no trauma exposure (n=105), trauma exposure but no PTSD (n=580), or PTSD (n=142). Results of regression analyses revealed that women with trauma exposure and PTSD consume more alcohol and are at greatest risk of experiencing alcohol-related consequences. A diagnosis of PTSD moderated the association between one's own depression and anxiety coping and conformity drinking motives and alcohol-related consequences. PTSD also moderated the association between the perception of others' depression coping motives and one's own consequences. These findings highlight the importance of providing alternative coping strategies to women with PTSD to help reduce their alcohol use and consequences, and also suggest a possible role for the perceptions regarding the reasons other women drink alcohol and one's own drinking behavior that may have important clinical implications. PMID:23261496

Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

2013-03-01

319

Tears in your beer: Gender differences in coping drinking motives, depressive symptoms and drinking  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies.

Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton

2014-01-01

320

Ethanol Withdrawal-Associated Drinking and Drinking in the Dark: Common and Discrete Genetic Contributions  

PubMed Central

Individual mice differ in the dose of ethanol they will ingest voluntarily when it is offered during limited access periods in the circadian dark, a phenotype called drinking in the dark (DID). Substantial genetic variation in DID has been reported across a few standard inbred mouse strains, and a line of High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) mice has been established through selective breeding on the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) they attain at the end of a drinking session. Here, we report ethanol DID data for 23 inbred mouse strains, including 11 not previously reported, corroborating the genetic contributions to this trait. We also report data on a different ethanol drinking trait, the increased intake seen after multiple cycles of chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor (CIE). Drinking escalated significantly during ethanol withdrawal. However, HDID mice and their HS controls showed equivalent escalation during withdrawal, demonstrating that withdrawal-associated drinking escalation is not a clear genetic correlate of selection on DID. Across inbred strains, DID is substantially genetically correlated with previously-published two-bottle ethanol preference drinking data assessed under conditions of continuous ethanol access. Although inbred strain data for withdrawal-associated drinking are not available, the current pattern of results suggests that withdrawal-associated drinking is genetically distinct from DID, while genetic contributions to DID and two-bottle preference drinking are substantially similar. PMID:24533180

Crabbe, John C.; Metten, Pamela; Huang, Lawrence C.; Schlumbohm, Jason P.; Spence, Stephanie E.; Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Finn, Deborah A.; Rhodes, Justin S.; Cameron, Andy J.

2014-01-01

321

Impact of a Randomized Campus/Community Trial to Prevent High-Risk Drinking among College Students  

PubMed Central

Background High-risk drinking by college students continues to pose a significant threat to public health. Despite increasing evidence of the contribution of community-level and campus-level environmental factors to high risk drinking, there have been few rigorous tests of interventions that focus on changing these interlinked environments. The Study to Prevent Alcohol Related Consequences (SPARC) assessed the efficacy of a comprehensive intervention using a community organizing approach to implement environmental strategies in and around college campuses. The goal of SPARC was to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol-related consequences among college students. Methods Ten universities in North Carolina were randomized to an Intervention or Comparison condition. Each Intervention school was assigned a campus/community organizer. The organizer worked to form a campus-community coalition, which developed and implemented a strategic plan to use environmental strategies to reduce high-risk drinking and its consequences. The intervention was implemented over a period of 3 years. Primary outcome measures were assessed using a web-based survey of students. Measures of high-risk drinking included number of days alcohol was consumed, number of days of binge drinking, and greatest number of drinks consumed (all in the past 30 days); and number of days one gets drunk in a typical week. Measures of alcohol-related consequences included indices of moderate consequences due to one’s own drinking, severe consequences due to one’s own drinking, interpersonal consequences due to others’ drinking, and community consequences due to others’ drinking (all using a past 30-day timeframe). Measure of alcohol-related injuries included (1) experiencing alcohol-related injuries and (2) alcohol-related injuries caused to others. Results We found significant decreases in the Intervention group compared to the Comparison group in severe consequences due to students’ own drinking and alcohol-related injuries caused to others. In secondary analyses, higher levels of implementation of the intervention were associated with reductions in interpersonal consequences due to others’ drinking and alcohol-related injuries caused to others. Conclusions A community organizing approach promoting implementation of environmental interventions can significantly affect high-risk drinking and its consequences among college students. PMID:22823091

Wolfson, Mark; Champion, Heather; McCoy, Thomas P.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Ip, Edward H.; Blocker, Jill N.; Martin, Barbara Alvarez; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; O’Brien, Mary Claire; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mitra, Ananda; DuRant, Robert H.

2013-01-01

322

Fatality from drinking denatured alcohol and hypothermia.  

PubMed

A 19-year-old non-diabetic female suffering from irritable bowel syndrome was found unconscious outdoors in the month of October. She was severely hypothermic and rushed to hospital for life-saving treatment. Evidence emerged that the victim had attempted suicide by drinking denatured alcohol (T-Red). According to the manufacturer of this product, it contains > 85% (v/v) ethanol, ~5% (v/v) acetone, 1-2% (v/v) ethyl acetate, and ?3% (v/v) methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), but no isopropanol. A venous blood sample taken on admission to hospital contained ethanol (660 mg/100 mL), acetone (25 mg/100 mL), isopropanol (78 mg/100 mL), and MEK, although the latter was not quantified. Despite intensive care, the patient died 21 h after admission and postmortem femoral blood contained ethanol (390 mg/100 mL), acetone (14 mg/100 mL), isopropanol (53 mg/100 mL), and MEK. During oxidative metabolism of ethanol, there is a shift in the redox state of the liver to a more reduced potential as reflected in a raised NADH/NAD(+) ratio, which impacts on other NAD-dependent biochemical reactions, including reduction of acetone to isopropanol. The lower concentrations of ethanol, acetone, and isopropanol in postmortem blood compared with antemortem blood indicate the metabolism of these substances during the 21-h survival period when the patient received emergency hospital treatment. PMID:21619727

Jones, Alan Wayne

2011-06-01

323

Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior  

PubMed Central

Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history), a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms, they were more likely to drink. For a 2 SD increase in symptoms, there was a 5% increased likelihood of drinking, and for a 2 SD increase in dysphoric symptoms or negative affect, women drank approximately half drink less. Daily-level coping self-efficacy moderated the association between distress and drinking (IRR=0.91, p<0.01). Women who reported less coping drank more as their distress increased on a certain day whereas women who reported more coping drank about the same regardless of distress. Overall, findings suggest that specific PTSD symptoms are associated with higher alcohol use and that these relationships are moderated by daily coping self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for informing models of PTSD/AUD comorbidity, as well as clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:25511723

Kaysen, Debra; Stappenbeck, Cynthia; Rhew, Issac; Simpson, Tracy

2014-01-01

324

Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior.  

PubMed

Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history), a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms, they were more likely to drink. For a 2 SD increase in symptoms, there was a 5% increased likelihood of drinking, and for a 2 SD increase in dysphoric symptoms or negative affect, women drank approximately half drink less. Daily-level coping self-efficacy moderated the association between distress and drinking (IRR=0.91, p<0.01). Women who reported less coping drank more as their distress increased on a certain day whereas women who reported more coping drank about the same regardless of distress. Overall, findings suggest that specific PTSD symptoms are associated with higher alcohol use and that these relationships are moderated by daily coping self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for informing models of PTSD/AUD comorbidity, as well as clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:25511723

Kaysen, Debra; Stappenbeck, Cynthia; Rhew, Issac; Simpson, Tracy

2014-01-01

325

Prevalence of At-Risk Drinking among a National Sample of Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Background Limited research exists on medical students’ substance use patterns including over-consumption of alcohol. Objective To determine prevalence and correlates of at-risk drinking among a national sample of medical students. Design Cross-sectional, anonymous, web-based survey. 2710 medical students from 36 U.S. medical schools (1st – 4th year) completed the survey. Included in the instruments was a 10-item scale (AUDIT) to assess at-risk drinking behaviors within the last 12 months. Results Over 15% of the subjects (n= 412) scored positive for at-risk drinking (8?). Multivariate analysis of the data revealed the following independent predictors were statistically significant (p ? 0.05) for at-risk drinking: being of younger age, male, unmarried, using illicit drugs, smoking tobacco products within the last 30 days, having low perception of risk, showing impulsive behavior, being depressed, and having gambling problems. Conclusions Findings from this study provides initial data for investigating further associations between risky drinking behavior, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors, as well as effectiveness of curriculum or campus wide policy interventions to reduce over-consumption of drinking among this population. PMID:19347753

Shah, Ameet Arvind; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lindstrom, Richard W.; Wolf, Kenneth E.

2009-01-01

326

Ethnic Drinking Cultures and Alcohol Use among Asian American Adults: Findings from a National Survey  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Results: Controlling for financial stress, discrimination and demographic variables, a hypothesized, positive relationship between ethnic drinking cultures and alcohol outcomes held for most drinking outcomes. A hypothesis on the moderating effect of integration into ethnic cultures indicated by ethnic language use was supported for US-born Asian Americans. Conclusion: Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence alcohol use by Asian Americans. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures may be conditioned by the degree of integration into the ethnic cultures. To inform alcohol interventions for reducing harmful and hazardous alcohol use among immigrants, future research needs to explore the cultural and social processes occurring in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking. PMID:22378829

Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine

2012-01-01

327

[Erosive Drinks on the Icelandic Market.  

PubMed

Objective: Dental erosion seems to be a growing health problem in Iceland. The international literature indicates that beverages such as carbonated drinks and fruit juices have considerable potential to causes tooth erosion. The aim of this study was to assess the erosive potential of drinks on the Icelandic market. Materials and method: This study measured, on three occasions: (1) pH before titration and (2) the volume of 1.0M sodium hydroxide required to raise the pH of 50 ml of the beverages to pH 5.5, pH 7.0 and pH 10.0. Results: The pH before titration ranged from pH 2.03-6.79 and the volume of 0.1M sodium hydroxide required to bring the beverages to pH 5.5 ranged from 0.54 to 5.92ml, pH 7.0 ranged from 0.42 to 7.73ml and pH 10.0 ranged from 2.23 to 9.10ml. This study showed that citrus fruit juices (grapefruit and orange juice) needed the most base to neutralize of the beverages tested. The milk-based beverages had an initial pH above 5.5 and are therefore non-erosive, with the exception of milk-derived lactic acid and drinks containing lactic acid aimed especially at the child market. Carbonated drinks, sport drinks and energy drinks were relatively easy to neutralize despite having a lower pH than fruit drinks. Conclusions: It is concluded that many soft drinks have considerable erosive potential and several of these are particularly targeted at the age groups found in other Icelandic studies to consume large amounts of soft drinks and to have tooth erosion. PMID:16940606

Jensdóttir, Thornorbjœrg; Thornórsdóttir, Inga; Arnadóttir, Inga B; Holbrook, W Peter

328

The Impact of Underage Drinking Laws on Alcohol-Related Fatal Crashes of Young Drivers  

PubMed Central

Background This study used a pre-post design to evaluate the influence on drinking-and-driving fatal crashes of six laws directed at youth aged 20 and younger and four laws targeting all drivers. Methods Data on the laws were drawn from the Alcohol Policy Information System data set (1998–2005), the Digests of State Alcohol-Highway Safety Related Legislation (1983-2006), and the Westlaw database. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set (1982-2004) was used to assess the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers involved in fatal crashes (fatal crash incidence ratio [CIR]). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Results Significant decreases in the underage fatal CIR were associated with presence of four of the laws targeting youth (possession, purchase, use and lose, and zero tolerance) and three of the laws targeting all drivers (.08 blood alcohol concentration illegal per se law, secondary or upgrade to a primary seat belt law, and an administrative license revocation law). Beer consumption was associated with a significant increase in the underage fatal CIR. The direct effects of laws targeting drivers of all ages on adult drinking drivers aged 26 and older were similar but of a smaller magnitude compared to the findings for those aged 20 and younger. It is estimated that the two core underage drinking laws (purchase and possession) and the zero-tolerance law are currently saving an estimated 732 lives per year controlling for other exposure factors. If all states adopted use and lose laws, an additional 165 lives could be saved annually. Conclusions These results provide substantial support for the effectiveness of under age 21 drinking laws with four of the six laws examined having significant associations with reductions in underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes. These findings point to the importance of key underage drinking and traffic safety laws in efforts to reduce underage drinking-driver crashes. PMID:19389192

Fell, James C.; Fisher, Deborah A.; Voas, Robert B.; Blackman, Kenneth; Tippetts, A. Scott

2009-01-01

329

Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

1987-01-01

330

Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Chemical Society (ACS) provides online access to the article, Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water. The article reports that domestic wells rather than municipal wells in New Hampshire are more likely to contain ten times the recommended federal levels of arsenic for drinking water. This is a relevant finding since "arsenic in drinking water is linked to certain types of cancer in humans." The abstract can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text article is available in both HTML and .pdf format.

331

The influence of conformity and group identity on drink walking intentions: comparing intentions to drink walk across risky pedestrian crossing scenarios.  

PubMed

Despite the dangers associated with drink walking, limited research is currently available regarding the factors which influence individuals to engage in this risky behaviour. This study examined the influence of psychosocial factors upon individuals' intentions to drink walk across four experimental scenarios (and a control condition). Specifically, a 2×2 repeated measures design was utilised in which all of the scenarios incorporated a risky pedestrian crossing situation (i.e., a pedestrian crossing against a red man signal) but differed according to the level of group identity (i.e., low/strangers and high/friends) and conformity (low and high). Individuals were assessed for their intentions to drink walk within each of these different scenarios. Undergraduate students (N=151), aged 17-30 years, completed a questionnaire. Overall, most of the study's hypotheses were supported with individuals reporting the highest intentions to drink walk when in the presence of friends (i.e., high group identity) and their friends were said to be also crossing against the red man signal (i.e., high conformity). The findings may have significant implications for the design of countermeasures to reduce drink walking. For instance, the current findings would suggest that potentially effective strategies may be to promote resilience to peer influence as well as highlight the negative consequences associated with following the behaviour of other intoxicated pedestrians who are crossing against a red signal. PMID:22269552

McGhie, Alexandra; Lewis, Ioni; Hyde, Melissa K

2012-03-01

332

Sexual assault, drinking norms, and drinking behavior among a national sample of lesbian and bisexual women.  

PubMed

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) are strongly associated with women's alcohol use and the rates of both alcohol use and sexual assault history are higher among lesbian and bisexual women than heterosexual women. Although descriptive drinking norms are one of the highest predictors of alcohol use in emerging adults, this is the first study to examine the relationship between sexual assault history, drinking norms, and alcohol use in lesbian and bisexual women. We found that CSA severity was associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing more severe alcohol-involved ASA, more severe physically forced ASA, and was indirectly associated with more drinking behavior and higher drinking norms. Additionally, more severe alcohol-involved ASA was associated with higher drinking norms and more drinking behavior, but physically forced ASA was not. These findings help explain previous contradictory findings and provide information for interventions. PMID:24360780

Gilmore, Amanda K; Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Granato, Hollie F; Hughes, Tonda L; Kaysen, Debra

2014-03-01

333

Driving while drinking: performance impairments resulting from social drinking.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that the effects of alcohol on drivers' performance can differ depending on whether blood alcohol concentrations are increasing or decreasing. The present research used a more ecologically representative alcohol consumption protocol in order to determine whether the same pattern of driver impairment would occur when drinking occurred in social groups over a longer period of time. Forty-four participants were assigned to one of two alcohol dose conditions or a placebo control group and consumed alcohol in groups of three (typically one participant from each condition) such that they gradually reached their target BAC (.05 or .08) and maintained it for 1h. The participants completed a series of cognitive tests (Cogstate test battery) and a simulated driving task (driver attention inhibition and reaction test) over the course of their intoxication curve (approximately 4h). The results showed strong placebo effects on ratings of subjective intoxication. Driving and cognitive performance both showed dose-dependent alcohol impairment, and some measures displayed acute protracted error. The findings provide strong evidence of expectancy effects in contributing to self-perceptions of intoxication. PMID:25463962

Charlton, Samuel G; Starkey, Nicola J

2015-01-01

334

A Practical Guide to Preventing and Dispersing Underage Drinking Parties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes the role of enforcement and community organizations or groups in preventing underage drinking parties and how to safely disperse them. It describes the problem of underage drinking, in general, and youth-drinking parties in particular. It provides step-by-step information on how to address underage drinking parties and how to…

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 2011

2011-01-01

335

EATING, DRINKING AND RE-THINKING: MARGUERITE DURAS'S  

E-print Network

and drinking to demonstrate how re-thinking representations of food and drink can stimulate critical appetitesEATING, DRINKING AND RE-THINKING: MARGUERITE DURAS'S MODERATO CANTABILE (1958) RUTH CRUICKSHANK ABSTRACT Re-thinking food, drink and appetite offers new ways of exploring subjectivity, self

Sheldon, Nathan D.

336

Product Differentiation and Mergers in the Carbonated Soft Drink Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

I simulate the competitive impact of several soft drink mergers from the 1980s on equilibrium prices and quantities. An unusual feature of soft drink demand is that, at the individual purchase level, households regularly select a variety of soft drink products. Specifically, on a given trip households may select multiple soft drink products and multiple units of each. A concern

Jean-Pierre Dubé

2005-01-01

337

Trends in Drink Driving Accidents and Convictions in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objective of this article is to describe the long-term trends in injury accidents involving drink drivers and in drink driving convictions in Denmark. The article also identifies drink drivers' characteristics useful for targeted countermeasures. Method. Accident-involved drink drivers have been divided into subgroups by age and gender. The database of convicted drivers has been linked to databases with

Inger Marie Bernhoft; Tove Hels; Allan Steen Hansen

2008-01-01

338

Structural Equation Modeling of Drinking Motives in Male DUI Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures completed by 250 men convicted of drinking under the influence of alcohol were analyzed to examine the direct effects of parental problem drinking and the mediational influence of drinking motives on alcohol use. The findings extend predictive utility of specific drinking motive dimensions on alcohol use and problem outcomes from previous…

Woldt, Bradley D.; Bradley, John R.

2002-01-01

339

The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distribution materials and the drinking water treatment process. Chemical contaminants for which epidemiologic studies have reported associations include the following: aluminium, arsenic, disinfection by-products, fluoride, lead,

R. L. Calderon

2000-01-01

340

The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amethyst Initiative, signed by more than 100 college presidents and other higher education officials calls for a reexamination of the minimum legal drinking age in the United States. A central argument of the initiative is that the U.S. minimum legal drinking age policy results in more dangerous drinking than would occur if the legal drinking age were lower. A

Christopher Carpenter; Carlos Dobkin

2011-01-01

341

Salt intake is related to soft drink consumption in children and adolescents: a link to obesity?  

PubMed

Dietary salt is a major determinant of fluid intake in adults; however, little is known about this relationship in children. Sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption is related to childhood obesity, but it is unclear whether there is a link between salt and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. We analyzed the data of a cross-sectional study, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for young people in Great Britain. Salt intake and fluid intake were assessed in 1688 participants aged 4 to 18 years, using a 7-day dietary record. There was a significant association between salt intake and total fluid, as well as sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption (P<0.001), after adjusting for potential confounding factors. A difference of 1 g/d in salt intake was associated with a difference of 100 and 27 g/d in total fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption, respectively. These results, in conjunction with other evidence, particularly that from experimental studies where only salt intake was changed, demonstrate that salt is a major determinant of fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption during childhood. If salt intake in children in the United Kingdom was reduced by half (mean decrease: 3 g/d), there would be an average reduction of approximately 2.3 sugar-sweetened soft drinks per week per child. A reduction in salt intake could, therefore, play a role in helping to reduce childhood obesity through its effect on sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. This would have a beneficial effect on preventing cardiovascular disease independent of and additive to the effect of salt reduction on blood pressure. PMID:18287345

He, Feng J; Marrero, Naomi M; MacGregor, Graham A

2008-03-01

342

Commentary on Fitzpatrick et al. (2012): Forecasting the Effect of the Amethyst Initiative on College Drinking  

PubMed Central

Background There is considerable evidence that heavy episodic drinking (HED) is a serious problem among college students. Concern with this problem has led 135 college presidents to endorse the Amethyst Initiative, which promotes the lowering of the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) from 21 to 18. The Amethyst Initiative claims that the current MLDA of 21 encourages underage college students to drink in unsupervised locations where they adopt misconceptions regarding the normative level of student drinking that leads to excessive consumption or HED. The study by Fitzpatrick et al. (2012) in this issue challenges this hypothesis by contrasting the potential reduction in misapprehension of the drinking norm against the increase in consumption that would be expected if the MLDA were lowered to 18. Method This commentary places the Fitzpatrick study within the larger context of the MLDA, noting that full consideration of the lowering the MLDA requires the inclusion of 18- to 20-year-old noncollege youths in the work force and 15- to 17-year-old high school students who will have increased access to alcohol through their 18-year-old peers. Results Research suggests that alcohol consumption and its associated problems will increase for 15- to 20-year-olds if the MLDA were lowered. This commentary also identifies alternative strategies for reducing college student HED that do not require lowering the MLDA. Conclusion Although college binge drinking is a significant problem, reducing the drinking age is unlikely to be effective. Instead, it will increase the risk of alcohol problems faced by even younger high school students. PMID:22835033

Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

2012-01-01

343

Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students  

PubMed Central

Background Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. Methods This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January – December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Result Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43?±?1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p < 0.05)], for studying or completing major projects [users184 (45.0%), nonusers 225 (55.0%) (p < 0.05)] and for refreshment purposes [users179 (44.9%), nonusers 220 (55.1%) (p < 0.05)]. Two main reasons of not using energy drinks by non-users were “awareness from its side effects” 247 (47.8%) and “have no specific reason” 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). Conclusion In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical students, particularly because they are ever ready to boost their energy level and reduce sleep hours due to stress of exams and projects. This warrants the creation of continued public health awareness about the appropriate use of caffeinated beverages, their potential benefits, side effects and correction of wrong perceptions. PMID:24351105

2013-01-01

344

Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia.  

PubMed

Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States. PMID:22869743

Crown, Patricia L; Emerson, Thomas E; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R; Ward, Timothy

2012-08-28

345

Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

1978-01-01

346

TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

347

Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will enable a systematic approach to characterizing the value of condition assessment of drinking water mains that will provide the basis for better communication among, and decisions by, stakeholders regarding goals and priorities for research, development, and tech...

348

OVERVIEW OF RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Invited presentation at the 2007 National Rural Water Association National Conference, Philadelphia, PA, September 23-26, 2007. The presentation reviews the chemistry of radium and uranium in drinking water sources, treatment options, and guidelines for disposal. Presentation giv...

349

Alcohol Taxes Up, Binge Drinking Down?  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol Taxes Up, Binge Drinking Down? Study finds lower ... Preidt Thursday, January 8, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alcohol Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse THURSDAY, Jan. 8, 2015 ( ...

350

ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

351

A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

352

Drinking Water Plant Lecture-Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple way to demonstrate the principles involved in a drinking water plant. This demonstration developed for a general public lecture can be used in chemistry and biology courses for an ecological and environmental emphasis. (HM)

Vestling, Martha M.

1977-01-01

353

MONITORING TRICHLOROACETIC ACID IN MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientific interest has recently focused on the hydrophobic halogenated byproducts of drinking water disinfection with chlorine, principally chloroform and its sister trihalomethanes (THMs). There is, however, a growing body of literature indicating that THM formation cannot acco...

354

Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

Wade, Nicholas

1977-01-01

355

Tips for Cutting Down on Drinking  

MedlinePLUS

... mL (25-oz.) bottle = 5 For 80-proof spirits , or “hard liquor,” the approximate number of standard ... Depending on factors such as the type of spirits and the recipe, a mixed drink can contain ...

356

Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report  

SciTech Connect

EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG&G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a {open_quotes}community water system{close_quotes} (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG&G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG&G Idaho production wells.

Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

1993-08-01

357

State Profiles of Underage Drinking Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... of Underage Drinking Laws This section of the APIS Web site provides State-by-State summaries of ... a jurisdiction from the drop-down menu. The APIS Policy Topics section of this Web site presents ...

358

Evaluating Alcoholics Anonymous's Effect on Drinking in Project MATCH Using Cross-Lagged Regression Panel Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the study is to determine whether Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation leads to reduced drinking and problems related to drinking within Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity), an existing national alcoholism treatment data set. Method: The method used is structural equation modeling of panel data with cross-lagged partial regression coefficients. The main advantage of this technique for the analysis of AA outcomes is that potential reciprocal causation between AA participation and drinking behavior can be explicitly modeled through the specification of finite causal lags. Results: For the outpatient subsample (n = 952), the results strongly support the hypothesis that AA attendance leads to increases in alcohol abstinence and reduces drinking/problems, whereas a causal effect in the reverse direction is unsupported. For the aftercare subsample (n = 774), the results are not as clear but also suggest that AA attendance leads to better outcomes. Conclusions: Although randomized controlled trials are the surest means of establishing causal relations between interventions and outcomes, such trials are rare in AA research for practical reasons. The current study successfully exploited the multiple data waves in Project MATCH to examine evidence of causality between AA participation and drinking outcomes. The study obtained unique statistical results supporting the effectiveness of AA primarily in the context of primary outpatient treatment for alcoholism. PMID:23490566

Magura, Stephen; Cleland, Charles M.; Tonigan, J. Scott

2013-01-01

359

Increasing the effectiveness of messages promoting responsible undergraduate drinking: tailoring to personality and matching to context.  

PubMed

This study addressed the serious problem of college student binge drinking by identifying factors that improve the effectiveness of messages encouraging responsible drinking presented through a website simulation. We tested schema matching (i.e., whether the message matches the person's self-schema type or not) and two types of context matching (i.e., whether the message matches the topic or values of the message context) to determine their relative influence on the effectiveness of the message. We expected that messages matched to any of these factors would be more effective than messages not matched. Schema matching reduced intentions to drink while staying in/home, but topic matching reduced intentions to drink when going out, suggesting that different factors are important for messages targeting drinking behavior in different locations. Significant interactions between topic matching and value matching on message evaluation variables indicated that the message should not match the message context too closely. That is, there appears to be a matching threshold: Increasing the number of factors the message matches does not increase message effectiveness, possibly because it makes the message too redundant with the surrounding content. PMID:21951016

York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Miller, Megan M

2012-01-01

360

HPLC Determination of Taurine in Sports Drinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is present as a nutritional supplement in many sports drinks. An experiment, suitable for a junior-senior level instrumental analysis course, is described to measure the amount of taurine in these sports drinks. A pre-column derivatization with Sanger's reagent, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, is followed by an HPLC separation utilizing a gradient elution, and detection at 360 nm.

Orth, Dale L.

2001-06-01

361

Middle School Drinking: Who, Where, and When  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research was to describe the most common drinking situations for young adolescents (N = 1171; 46.6% girls), as well as determine predictors of their drinking in the seventh and eighth grades. Middle school students most frequently drank at parties with three to four teens, in their home or at a friend's home, and reported alcohol-related problems including conflicts

Kristen G. Anderson; Sandra A. Brown

2010-01-01

362

Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

2013-01-01

363

Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.  

PubMed

Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water. PMID:16839605

Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

2006-12-01

364

Hopelessness and Excessive Drinking among Aboriginal Adolescents: The Mediating Roles of Depressive Symptoms and Drinking to Cope  

PubMed Central

Canadian Aboriginal youth show high rates of excessive drinking, hopelessness, and depressive symptoms. We propose that Aboriginal adolescents with higher levels of hopelessness are more susceptible to depressive symptoms, which in turn predispose them to drinking to cope—which ultimately puts them at risk for excessive drinking. Adolescent drinkers (n = 551; 52% boys; mean age = 15.9 years) from 10 Canadian schools completed a survey consisting of the substance use risk profile scale (hopelessness), the brief symptom inventory (depressive symptoms), the drinking motives questionnaire—revised (drinking to cope), and quantity, frequency, and binge measures of excessive drinking. Structural equation modeling demonstrated the excellent fit of a model linking hopelessness to excessive drinking indirectly via depressive symptoms and drinking to cope. Bootstrapping indicated that this indirect effect was significant. Both depressive symptoms and drinking to cope should be intervention targets to prevent/decrease excessive drinking among Aboriginal youth high in hopelessness. PMID:21197100

Stewart, Sherry H.; Sherry, Simon B.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Collins, Pamela; Van Wilgenburg, Hendricus

2011-01-01

365

Protective behavioral strategies, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives in a model of college student drinking.  

PubMed

An extensive body of research asserts alcohol expectancies, or beliefs regarding the effects of alcohol, as an important influence on drinking. However, the extent to which expectancies are related to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has yet to be examined. Existing alcohol mediational models suggest associations between expectancies and drinking motives as well as positive drinking motives and PBS use. Thus, it is possible that drinking motives and PBS use act as intervening factors in the relationship between expectancies and alcohol outcomes. Consequently, the cross-sectional study presented here aimed to test the indirect effect of expectancies (i.e., social facilitation) on alcohol outcomes through drinking motives and PBS use. Participants were 520 (358 female) college student drinkers with a mean age of 20.80 (SD = 4.61) years. Students completed measures of expectancies, drinking motives, PBS use, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that drinking motives and PBS mediated the relationship between social expectancies and alcohol use. In particular, expectancies were associated with greater positive drinking motives, drinking motives were associated with less PBS use, and PBS was associated with less alcohol use and fewer alcohol-related problems. Given the key role of PBS in explaining drinking outcomes in our model, active efforts to incorporate PBS in alcohol interventions may be particularly beneficial for college students. Further, our findings support the consideration of PBS use as a part of the motivational model of alcohol use in future work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25134035

Linden, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J

2014-12-01

366

Protective Behaviors and High-Risk Drinking among Entering College Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To explore the use of protective behaviors to reduce risks associated with alcohol consumption among adolescents during the summer preceding college enrollment. Methods: Survey data were collected in fall 2006 and 2007 that assessed demographic characteristics, drinking behaviors, and use of protective behaviors in the 3 months…

Sutfin, Erin L.; Light, Laney S.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Thompson, Martie P.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Spitler, Hugh D.

2009-01-01

367

September 3, 1999 Characterization of Arsenic Occurrence in US Drinking Water Treatment  

E-print Network

September 3, 1999 Characterization of Arsenic Occurrence in US Drinking Water Treatment Facility in treatment facility finished water may not be low enough to adequately reduce exposure to the carcinogen occurrence in raw water and the costs and removal efficiencies of various treatment options. J.R. Lockwood

368

WHITE PAPER ON IMPROVEMENT OF STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY MONITORING FOR DRINKING WATER MAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

This white paper explores the improvement of water main structural integrity monitoring (SIM) capability as an approach for reducing (1) high risk drinking water main breaks and (2) inefficient maintenance scheduling. Inadequate SIM capability for water mains can cause repair, r...

369

The Moderation Management programme in 2004: What type of drinker seeks controlled drinking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveModeration Management (MM) is a mutual aid support group that helps problem drinkers reduce drinking to non-harmful levels. This study describes member characteristics as part of an organisational evaluation. The results are compared to those of an earlier survey.

Ana Kosok

2006-01-01

370

Inhibition of Three Fungal Isolates from Sorrel Drink (Zobo) Using Hurdle Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Studies were carried out on the inhibition of three fungi isolated from sorrel drink (Zobo) using water extracts of Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Piper guineense (West African Black Pepper) as well as heat as hurdles. The fungi isolated and identified were Aspergillus flavus, A.. niger and unidentified Yeast. The spice extracts at concentrations 1-6 ml reduced fungal growth. As

E. M. Ilondu; A. C. Iloh

371

A Review of Exercise as Intervention for Sedentary Hazardous Drinking College Students: Rationale and Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity--exercise--as an intervention for…

Weinstock, Jeremiah

2010-01-01

372

Inorganic Oxyhalide By-Products in Drinking Water and Ion Chromatographic Determination Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many drinking water utilities are changing their primary disinfectant from chlorine to alternative dis- infectants such as ozone, chlorine dioxide and chloramines, which reduce regulated trihalomethanes and some organochlorine compounds levels, but often increase levels of others potentially toxicologically im- portant compounds. The hazardous inorganic oxyhalide by-products are bromate, chlorite and chlorate, some of which have been classified as probable

R. Michalski

2005-01-01

373

1 INTRODUCTION Chlorine is a common disinfectant used in drinking water distribution systems to ensure  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION Chlorine is a common disinfectant used in drinking water distribution systems of chlorine is reduced as water travels through the distribution system interacting with the physical, chemical and biological environment (Powell et al. 2000). To ensure satisfactory chlorine levels

Coello, Carlos A. Coello

374

Migration of trace metals in Italian drinking waters from distribution networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Council Directive 98\\/83\\/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption establishes a high level of protection for the consumer and requires Member States to ensure that substances and materials used in preparation and distribution of drinking water do not reduce that level of protection. The Directive's point of compliance is at consumers’ taps. This implies a need for

Enrico Veschetti; Laura Achene; Emanuele Ferretti; Luca Lucentini; Giovanni Citti; Massimo Ottaviani

2010-01-01

375

Hypervolemia from Drinking Hyperhydration Solutions at Rest and Exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism of muscular fatigue from physical work and exercise (high metabolism) is not clear, but involves disturbances of muscle surface membrane excitation-contraction coupling from changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, cell H+ and Pi responses, and carbohydrate metabolism. Fatigue in people at rest (low metabolism) involves both psychological and physiological factors, probably in different proportions. One common factor appears to be the level and distribution of water and electrolytes within muscle cells and other vascular, interstitial, body fluid compartments. The vascular fluid volume, composed of plasma and red blood cells, is a primary regulatory factor for cardiovascular function; reduction of vascular volume (hypovolemia) and total body water (hypohydration) adversely affect exercise performance. Plasma volume and plasma ionic-osmotic constituent concentrations are also regulatory factors for body thermoregulation, which is often compromised from exercise induced hypovolemia and hypohydration. Rehydration of dehydrated people on earth is relatively easy with appropriate food (osmols), fluid, and a restful environment. But ad libitum drinking under stressful conditions; e.g., heat, exercise, or prior dehydration, results in involuntary dehydration defined as the delay in full fluid replacement (euhydration) during and following loss of body fluid. Astronauts, with their reduced total body water are euhydrated while in weightlessness, but become "dehydrated" during reentry and landing. Thus, people subjected to acute or chronic stress are probably somewhat "dehydrated" as well as fatigued. Many rehydration drinks are more concentrated (hypertonic-hyperosmotic) with respect to the normal plasma osmolality of 285 mOsm/kg H2O and more of the drink osmols are contributed by carbohydrates than by ionized substances. There have been few studies on the efficacy of various drink formulations for increasing body fluid compartment volumes, especially plasma volume, in rested hydrated subjects. Recent findings from our laboratory have indicated that drinks containing greater concentrations of ionized substances (Performance 1 and AstroAde) up to 157 mEq/L Na+ induced greater levels of hypervolemia in resting, moderately dehydrated men, and were also better than water for attenuating the characteristic hypovolemia during supine, submaximal, leg ergometer exercise.

Greenleaf, John E.; Looft-Wilson, Robin; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Geelen, Ghislaine; Barnes, Paul R.; Jensen, Christopher D.; Whittam, James H.

1995-01-01

376

Drinking water biofilm cohesiveness changes under chlorination or hydrodynamic stress.  

PubMed

Attempts at removal of drinking water biofilms rely on various preventive and curative strategies such as nutrient reduction in drinking water, disinfection or water flushing, which have demonstrated limited efficiency. The main reason for these failures is the cohesiveness of the biofilm driven by the physico-chemical properties of its exopolymeric matrix (EPS). Effective cleaning procedures should break up the matrix and/or change the elastic properties of bacterial biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the cohesive strength of two-month-old drinking water biofilms under increasing hydrodynamic shear stress ?w (from ?0.2 to ?10 Pa) and shock chlorination (applied concentration at T0: 10 mg Cl2/L; 60 min contact time). Biofilm erosion (cell loss per unit surface area) and cohesiveness (changes in the detachment shear stress and cluster volumes measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM)) were studied. When rapidly increasing the hydrodynamic constraint, biofilm removal was found to be dependent on a dual process of erosion and coalescence of the biofilm clusters. Indeed, 56% of the biofilm cells were removed with, concomitantly, a decrease in the number of the 50-300 ?m(3) clusters and an increase in the number of the smaller (i.e., <50 ?m(3)) and larger (i.e., >600 ?m(3)) ones. Moreover, AFM evidenced the strengthening of the biofilm structure along with the doubling of the number of contact points, NC, per cluster volume unit following the hydrodynamic disturbance. This suggests that the compactness of the biofilm exopolymers increases with hydrodynamic stress. Shock chlorination removed cells (-75%) from the biofilm while reducing the volume of biofilm clusters. Oxidation stress resulted in a decrease in the cohesive strength profile of the remaining drinking water biofilms linked to a reduction in the number of contact points within the biofilm network structure in particular for the largest biofilm cluster volumes (>200 ?m(3)). Changes in the cohesive strength of drinking water biofilms subsequent to cleaning/disinfection operations call into question the effectiveness of cleaning-in-place procedures. The combined alternating use of oxidation and shear stress sequences needs to be investigated as it could be an important adjunct to improving biofilm removal/reduction procedures. PMID:24607313

Mathieu, L; Bertrand, I; Abe, Y; Angel, E; Block, J C; Skali-Lami, S; Francius, G

2014-05-15

377

Gender differences in relationships among PTSD severity, drinking motives, and alcohol use in a comorbid alcohol dependence and PTSD sample.  

PubMed

Alcohol dependence (AD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions associated with a significant level of impairment. Little systematic study has focused on gender differences specific to individuals with both AD and PTSD. The current study examined gender-specific associations between PTSD symptom severity, drinking to cope (i.e., reduce negative affect), drinking for enhancement (i.e., increase positive affect), and average alcohol use in a clinical sample of men (n = 46) and women (n = 46) with comorbid AD and PTSD. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were highly associated with drinking-to-cope motives for both men and women, but with greater drinking for enhancement motives for men only. Enhancement motives were positively associated with average alcohol quantity for both men and women, but coping motives were significantly associated with average alcohol quantity for women only. These findings suggest that for individuals with comorbid AD and PTSD, interventions that focus on reducing PTSD symptoms are likely to lower coping motives for both genders, and targeting coping motives is likely to result in decreased drinking for women but not for men, whereas targeting enhancement motives is likely to lead to reduced drinking for both genders. PMID:23647151

Lehavot, Keren; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Luterek, Jane A; Kaysen, Debra; Simpson, Tracy L

2014-03-01

378

Lead in drinking water and human blood lead levels in the United States.  

PubMed

Lead is a pervasive environmental contaminant. The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children and adults are well documented, and no safe blood lead threshold in children has been identified. Lead can be ingested from various sources, including lead paint and house dust contaminated by lead paint, as well as soil, drinking water, and food. The concentration of lead, total amount of lead consumed, and duration of lead exposure influence the severity of health effects. Because lead accumulates in the body, all sources of lead should be controlled or eliminated to prevent childhood lead poisoning. Beginning in the 1970s, lead concentrations in air, tap water, food, dust, and soil began to be substantially reduced, resulting in significantly reduced blood lead levels (BLLs) in children throughout the United States. However, children are still being exposed to lead, and many of these children live in housing built before the 1978 ban on lead-based residential paint. These homes might contain lead paint hazards, as well as drinking water service lines made from lead, lead solder, or plumbing materials that contain lead. Adequate corrosion control reduces the leaching of lead plumbing components or solder into drinking water. The majority of public water utilities are in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) of 1991. However, some children are still exposed to lead in drinking water. EPA is reviewing LCR, and additional changes to the rule are expected that will further protect public health. Childhood lead poisoning prevention programs should be made aware of the results of local public water system lead monitoring measurement under LCR and consider drinking water as a potential cause of increased BLLs, especially when other sources of lead exposure are not identified. PMID:22874873

Brown, Mary Jean; Margolis, Stephen

2012-08-10

379

Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.  

PubMed

Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in untreated Ottawa River water, with a dissolved organic carbon concentration of 6 mg/L, was significantly higher than the stability of the nano-silver dispersions in distilled, organic-free water. Nano-silver particles suspended in the groundwater agglomerated and were quickly and quantitatively removed from the solution. Our data confirm previous observations that natural dissolved organic matter stabilizes nano-silver particles, while the high-ionic strength of groundwater appears to favor their agglomeration and precipitation. As expected, nano-silver was not stable in Ottawa River water through the chlorination process, but survived for many days when added to the Ottawa River water after treatment with chlorine or chloramines. Stirring appeared to have minimal effect on nano-silver stability in untreated and treated Ottawa River water. The profile of DBPs formed in the presence of nAg differed significantly from the profile of DBPs formed in the absence of nAg only at the 1 mg/L nAg concentration. The differences observed consisted mainly in reduced formation of some brominated DBPs and a small increase in the formation of cyanogen chloride. The reduced formation of brominated congeners may be explained by the decrease in available bromide due to the presence of Ag(+) ions. It should be noted that a concentration of 1 mg/L is significantly higher than nAg concentrations that would be expected to be present in surface waters, but these results could be significant for the disinfection of some wastewaters with comparably high nano-silver concentrations. PMID:24458938

Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

2014-10-01

380

Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Are There Associated Negative Consequences beyond Hazardous Drinking in College Students?  

PubMed Central

Objective The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is prevalent among college students as is hazardous drinking, a drinking pattern that places one at risk for alcohol-related harm. The present study, therefore, examined associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences in college students. Methods Based on a probability sample conducted in 2010, participants were 606 undergraduate students aged 18-25. AmED consumption included lifetime and past year use. Hazardous drinking and alcohol-related consequences were measured during the past year. Point prevalence was used to estimate rates of AmED use, and chi-square, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used to examine associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Results Lifetime and past year AmED use prevalence rates were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively. Hazardous drinkers who engaged in AmED use were significantly more likely than past year hazardous drinkers who did not engage in AmED use to have had unprotected sex (OR = 2.35, CI 1.27-4.32). Conclusions AmED use appears to be highly prevalent among college students, and AmED use may confer additional risk for unprotected sex beyond hazardous drinking. Unprotected sex has implications for public health, and students who drink hazardously and consume AmED may be at greater risk. PMID:23685329

Berger, Lisa; Fendrich, Michael; Fuhrmann, Daniel

2013-01-01

381

Binge Drinking and Drinking and Driving among South Korean International College Students in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate two risky behaviours (i.e. binge drinking and drinking and driving) and their individual- and college-level correlates among South Korean international college students in the USA Design: Cross-sectional online survey (student response rate = 41.6%). Setting: South Korean college students (N = 1201) were recruited from 52…

Sa, J.; Seo, D.-C.; Nelson, T. F.; Lohrmann, D. K.; Ellis, N. T.

2015-01-01

382

Sports drinks and energy drinks for children and adolescents: are they appropriate?  

PubMed

Sports and energy drinks are being marketed to children and adolescents for a wide variety of inappropriate uses. Sports drinks and energy drinks are significantly different products, and the terms should not be used interchangeably. The primary objectives of this clinical report are to define the ingredients of sports and energy drinks, categorize the similarities and differences between the products, and discuss misuses and abuses. Secondary objectives are to encourage screening during annual physical examinations for sports and energy drink use, to understand the reasons why youth consumption is widespread, and to improve education aimed at decreasing or eliminating the inappropriate use of these beverages by children and adolescents. Rigorous review and analysis of the literature reveal that caffeine and other stimulant substances contained in energy drinks have no place in the diet of children and adolescents. Furthermore, frequent or excessive intake of caloric sports drinks can substantially increase the risk for overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. Discussion regarding the appropriate use of sports drinks in the youth athlete who participates regularly in endurance or high-intensity sports and vigorous physical activity is beyond the scope of this report. PMID:21624882

2011-06-01

383

Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay the Growth of Adolescent Drinking and Binge Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…

Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

2008-01-01

384

Heavy Episodic Drinking on College Campuses: Does Changing the Legal Drinking Age Make a Difference?*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This article extends the compartmental model previously developed by Scribner et al. in the context of college drinking to a mathematical model of the consequences of lowering the legal drinking age. Method: Using data available from 32 U.S. campuses, the analyses separate underage and legal age drinking groups into an eight-compartment model with different alcohol availability (wetness) for the underage and legal age groups. The model evaluates the likelihood that underage students will incorrectly perceive normative drinking levels to be higher than they actually are (i.e., misperception) and adjust their drinking accordingly by varying the interaction between underage students in social and heavy episodic drinking compartments. Results: The results evaluate the total heavy episodic drinker population and its dependence on the difference in misperception, as well as its dependence on underage wetness, legal age wetness, and drinking age. Conclusions: Results suggest that an unrealistically extreme combination of high wetness and low enforcement would be needed for the policies related to lowering the drinking age to be effective. PMID:21138707

Rasul, Jawaid W.; Rommel, Robert G.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Fitzpatrick, Ben G.; Ackleh, Azmy S.; Simonsen, Neal; Scribner, Richard A.

2011-01-01

385

National survey of MTBE and other VOCs in community drinking-water sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is added to gasoline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone levels in the air. The chemical properties and widespread use of MTBE can result in contamination of private and public drinking-water sources. MTBE contamination is a concern in drinking water because of the compound's low taste and odor threshold and potential human-health effects.

Clawges, Rick M.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.

2001-01-01

386

Some effects of ozonation of humic substances in drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozonation is employed as a method for removal of colour due to humic substances in drinking water. We have examined some effects of ozonation of humic water in the laboratory. Ozonation reduced colour by 80% but had little influence on the DOC concentration and only moderate effect on the UV absorbance at 254 nm. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that the content of high-molecular-weight substances was reduced while a nearly corresponding amount of low-molecular-weight compounds was produced. The produced substances have acidic properties, are uncoloured and do not absorb UV light at 254 nm. Ozonation also led to higher BOD values. The formed low-molecular-weight compounds were consumed by microorganisms. In the original humic water sample the microbial degradation affected only high-molecular-weight compounds. The higher content of biodegradable organic compounds in ozonated drinking water is probably responsible for accelerated growth of bacteria and production of sludge in the distribution systems of a Norwegian waterwork. The obtained colour reduction seems to be temporary, since the colour of ozonated water increases under the influence of microorganisms.

Hongve, Dag; Lund, Vidar; Åkesson, Gunvor; Becher, Georg

387

Forecasting the Effect of the Amethyst Initiative on College Drinking  

PubMed Central

Background A number of college presidents have endorsed the Amethyst Initiative, a call to consider lowering the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA). Our objective is to forecast the effect of the Amethyst Initiative on college drinking. Methods A system model of college drinking siumlates MLDA changes through (1) a decrease in heavy episodic drinking (HED) due to the lower likelihood of students drinking in unsupervised settings where they model irresponsible drinking (misperception), and (2) an increase in overall drinking among currently underage students due to increased social availability of alcohol (wetness). Results For the proportion of HEDs on campus, effects of large decreases in misperception of responsible drinking behavior were more than offset by modest increases in wetness. Conclusions For the effect of lowering the MLDA, it appears that increases in social availability of alcohol have a stronger impact on drinking behavior than decreases in misperceptions. PMID:22432502

Fitzpatrick, Ben G.; Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S.; Rasul, Jawaid; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Simonsen, Neal; Rommel, Robert

2012-01-01

388

The Impact of Adolescent Binge Drinking and Sustained Abstinence on Affective State  

PubMed Central

Background While it is clear that affect is negatively impacted by heavy drinking in adulthood and that it improves with abstinence, little is known about effects of heavy drinking on mood during adolescence. Methods The present study examined negative mood states among 16–18 year-old high school students with a history of recent heavy episodic drinking (HED; n = 39) and comparison youth with limited lifetime drinking experience (CON; n = 26). Affect was assessed at three time points during a 4–6 week period of monitored abstinence using the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and Depression; self-reports were obtained with the state portion of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and experience sampling of current affect was assessed via daily text messages sent at randomly determined times in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Results Youth with a recent history of HED reported more negative affect compared to non-drinking youth during early stages of abstinence (days since last HED at assessment 1: m = 6.46; SD = 5.06); however differences in affect were not observed after 4–6 weeks of abstinence. Sex differences were evident, with HED girls reporting greater depression and anxiety than HED male peers. Although not significant, response patterns indicated that males may experience faster resolution of negative emotional states than females with sustained abstinence. Conclusions Findings suggest that high dose drinking is associated with elevated negative affect for adolescents and that negative mood states may take longer to resolve for girls than for boys following heavy drinking episodes. Future research clarifying naturally occurring changes in affective response during early and sustained abstinence is necessary for improving programs designed to promote adolescent decision-making and to reduce risk for relapse. PMID:23550712

Bekman, Nicole M.; Winward, Jennifer L.; Lau, Lily L.; Wagner, Chase C.; Brown, Sandra A.

2013-01-01

389

Underage drinking in the UK: changing trends, impact and interventions. A rapid evidence synthesis.  

PubMed

The UK is a high prevalence country for underage alcohol use. We conducted an evidence synthesis to examine (1) the changing trends in underage drinking in the UK compared to Europe and the USA, (2) the impact of underage drinking in terms of hospital admissions, (3) the association between underage drinking and violent youth offending, and (4) the evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction interventions aimed at children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. The following databases were searched from November 2002 until November 2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, The Evidence for Policy and Practice Information, DARE, Medline, The Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Psych INFO and Social Care Online. Our findings revealed changes in the way children drink in the UK and how much they drink. Alcohol related harms are increasing in the UK despite overall population levels of consumption reducing in this age group. Girls aged 15-16 years report binge drinking and drunkenness more than boys. Girls are also more likely than boys to be admitted to hospital for alcohol related harm. The evidence suggests a strong association between heavy episodic binge drinking and violent youth offending. Only 7 out of 45 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified for this review included children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. Most were delivered in the emergency department (ED) and involved a brief intervention. All were characterised by a wide age range of participants, heterogeneous samples and high rates of refusal and attrition. The authors conclude that whilst the ED might be the best place to identify children and adolescents at risk of harm related to alcohol use it might not be the best place to deliver an intervention. Issues related to a lack of engagement with alcohol harm reduction interventions have been previously overlooked and warrant further investigation. PMID:24095678

Healey, Christine; Rahman, Atif; Faizal, Mohammad; Kinderman, Peter

2014-01-01

390

Smoking Is Associated with Increased Risk of Binge Drinking in a Young Adult Hispanic Population at the US/Mexico Border.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: We examine factors related to general health and health behavior, including smoking, that may be associated with binge drinking, drinking 'at risk' and potential for alcohol use disorder among young adults of Mexican ancestry. Methods: 2191 young adult emergency department (ED) patients (18-30) of Mexican ancestry in a public hospital proximate to the US/Mexican border completed health surveys while they were waiting to be treated including questions on general health, drinking, smoking and drug use. Results: 37% of the study participants reported binge drinking, 38% were "at risk" alcohol users (above NIAAA guidelines and 22% were RAPS positive (indicating potential for alcohol use disorder). Smoking was reported by 31%, marijuana use by 16%, and other drug use by 9%. Multiple variable models revealed that smoking was the strongest factor associated with binge drinking. Those who smoked were 3.1(p<0.0001) times more likely to binge drink. Other factors independently associated with binge drinking were age 22-25 year old (OR = 1.5, p = 0.003), male gender (OR = 1.5, p = 0.0001), and ED visit for injury (OR = 1.4, p = 0.007). Conclusions: There is a strong association of smoking and binge drinking. Study findings suggest that brief interventions designed to reduce preventable health risks for young Hispanics should include discussion of both binge drinking and smoking behaviors. PMID:25492554

Woolard, Robert; Liu, Jiayang; Parsa, Michael; Merriman, Garrett; Tarwater, Patrick; Alba, Israel; Villalobos, Susana; Ramos, Rebecca; Bernstein, Judith; Bernstein, Edward; Bond, Jason; Cherpitel, Cheryl J

2014-12-01

391

Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem  

PubMed Central

Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects. There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance. Genetic factors may also contribute to an individual’s vulnerability to caffeine related disorders including caffeine intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal. The combined use of caffeine and alcohol is increasing sharply, and studies suggest that such combined use may increase the rate of alcohol-related injury. Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence. Regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:18809264

Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

2009-01-01

392

Quantitative risk assessment of drinking water contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The development of criteria and standards for the regulation of drinking water contaminants involves a variety of processes, one of which is risk estimation. This estimation process, called quantitative risk assessment, involves combining data on the occurrence of the contaminant in drinking water and its toxicity. The human exposure to a contaminant can be estimated from occurrence data. Usually the toxicity or number of health effects per concentration level is estimated from animal bioassay studies using the multistage model. For comparison, other models will be used including the Weibull, probit, logit and quadratic ones. Because exposure and toxicity data are generally incomplete, assumptions need to be made and this generally results in a wide range of certainty in the estimates. This range can be as wide as four to six orders of magnitude in the case of the volatile organic compounds in drinking water and a factor of four to five for estimation of risk due to radionuclides in drinking water. As examples of the differences encountered in risk assessment of drinking water contaminants, discussions are presented on benzene, lead, radon and alachlor. The lifetime population risk estimates for these contaminants are, respectively, in the ranges of: <1 - 3000, <1 - 8000, 2000-40,000 and <1 - 80. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Cothern, C.R.; Coniglio, W.A.; Marcus, W.L.

1986-01-01

393

Medical Risks for Women Who Drink Alcohol  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To summarize for clinicians recent epidemiologic evidence regarding medical risks of alcohol use for women. METHODS MEDLINE and PsychINFO, 1990 through 1996, were searched using key words “women” or “woman,” and “alcohol.” MEDLINE was also searched for other specific topics and authors from 1980 through 1996. Data were extracted and reviewed regarding levels of alcohol consumption associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, alcohol-related liver disease, injury, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity, fetal alcohol syndrome, spontaneous abortion, infertility, menstrual symptoms, breast cancer, and gynecologic malignancies. Gender-specific data from cohort studies of general population or large clinical samples are primarily reviewed. MAIN RESULTS Women develop many alcohol-related medical problems at lower levels of consumption than men, probably reflecting women's lower total body water, gender differences in alcohol metabolism, and effects of alcohol on postmenopausal estrogen levels. Mortality and breast cancer are increased in women who report drinking more than two drinks daily. Higher levels of alcohol consumption by women are associated with increased menstrual symptoms, hypertension, and stroke. Women who drink heavily also appear to have increased infertility and spontaneous abortion. Adverse fetal effects occur after variable amounts of alcohol consumption, making any alcohol use during pregnancy potentially harmful. CONCLUSIONS In general, advising nonpregnant women who drink alcohol to have fewer than two drinks daily is strongly supported by the epidemiologic literature, although specific recommendations for a particular woman should depend on her medical history and risk factors. PMID:9754520

Bradley, Katharine A; Badrinath, Seeta; Bush, Kristen; Boyd-Wickizer, Jodie; Anawalt, Bradley

1998-01-01

394

A six year longitudinal study of the occupational consequences of drinking over "safe limits" of alcohol.  

PubMed

Although much research has focused on the psychological, social, and economic consequences of heavy problem drinking, there has been far less attention paid to the consequences of "moderate" drinking. This study used a unique opportunity to carry out a six year follow up of a cohort of male and female white collar workers in whom there was baseline information on alcohol consumption and access to details on sickness absence, labour turnover, and promotion. It has provided evidence that even moderate alcohol consumption in the working population is associated with social costs for the employer and the employee, including substantial sickness absence, and lack of promotion in men, although the increase in labour turnover was not statistically significant. The longitudinal examination of consumption in this study suggests that early intervention in a drinking career may reduce alcohol consumption and consequently avoid years of morbidity and sickness absence, as well as having a favourable influence on performance and labour turnover. PMID:1599875

Jenkins, R; Harvey, S; Butler, T; Thomas, R L

1992-05-01

395

Access to drinking water and health of populations in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

Water is at the center of the plant and animal life, the foundation upon which the health of human settlement and development of civilizations rely on. In tropical regions, 80% of diseases are transmitted either by germs in the water, or by vectors staying in it. In Sub-Saharan Africa, statistics show particularly high levels of unmet needs of populations in access to drinking water in a context of socioeconomic development. For this purpose, this study aims to determine the influence of access to drinking water on the health of populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from Cameroon, Senegal and Chad, it is clear from the descriptive analysis that 60% (Cameroon), and 59% (Chad) of the cases of childhood diarrhea in these two countries are due to the consumption of dirty water. In terms of explanatory analysis, we note that when a household in Cameroon, Senegal or Chad does not have access to drinking water, children under 5 years old residing there are respectively 1.29, 1.27 and 1.03 times more likely to have diarrhea than those residing in households with easy access to drinking water. In view of these results, it is recommended to increase access to drinking water in particular by reducing disparities between the rich and poor people. PMID:23916208

Ntouda, Julien; Sikodf, Fondo; Ibrahim, Mohamadou; Abba, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

396

Changing network support for drinking: initial findings from the network support project.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether a socially focused treatment can effect change in the patient's social network from one that reinforces drinking to one that reinforces sobriety. Alcohol dependent men and women (N = 210) recruited from the community were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient treatment conditions: network support (NS), network support + contingency management (NS + CM), or case management (CaseM; a control condition). Analysis of drinking rates for 186 participants at 15 months indicated a significant interaction effect of Treatment x Time, with both NS conditions yielding better outcomes than the CaseM condition. Analyses of social network variables at posttreatment indicated that the NS conditions did not reduce social support for drinking relative to the CaseM condition but did increase behavioral and attitudinal support for abstinence as well as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement. Both the NS variables and AA involvement variables were significantly correlated with drinking outcomes. These findings indicate that drinkers' social networks can be changed by a treatment that is specifically designed to do so, and that these changes contribute to improved drinking outcomes. PMID:17663609

Litt, Mark D; Kadden, Ronald M; Kabela-Cormier, Elise; Petry, Nancy

2007-08-01

397

Spatial scale of land-use impacts on riverine drinking source water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drinking water purveyors are increasingly relying on land conservation and management to ensure the safety of the water that they provide to consumers. To cost-effectively implement any such landscape initiatives, resources must be targeted to the appropriate spatial scale to address quality impairments of concern in a cost-effective manner. Using data gathered from 40 Canadian rivers across four ecozones, we examined the spatial scales at which land use was most closely associated with drinking source water quality metrics. Exploratory linear mixed-effects models accounting for climatic, hydrological, and physiographic variation among sites suggested that different spatial areas of land-use influence drinking source water quality depending on the parameter and season investigated. Escherichia coli spatial variability was only associated with land use at a local (5-10 km) spatial scale. Turbidity measures exhibited a complex association with land use, suggesting that the land-use areas of greatest influence can range from a 1 km subcatchment to the entire watershed depending on the season. Total organic carbon concentrations were only associated with land use characterized at the entire watershed scale. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index was used to calculate a composite measure of seasonal drinking source water quality but did not provide additional information beyond the analyses of individual parameters. These results suggest that entire watershed management is required to safeguard drinking water sources with more focused efforts at targeted spatial scales to reduce specific risk parameters.

Hurley, Tim; Mazumder, Asit

2013-03-01

398

Identifying Social Mechanisms for the Prevention of Adolescent Drinking and Driving  

PubMed Central

This study identifies social mechanisms that might help prevent youth from being involved in driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD). Data collected through telephone surveys with 1,534 adolescents and young adults aged 15–20 years (mean = 17.6, SD = 1.6) in California, USA were analyzed. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that DUI and RWDD were strongly related to drinking in unstructured situations, modeling of DUI by peers and parents, and perceived peer approval or disapproval of DUI. DUI outcome expectancies were indirectly related to DUI and RWDD through situational drinking. Parental monitoring and DUI law enforcement were also indirectly related to DUI and RWDD through DUI expectancies and other mechanisms. The findings, overall, suggest that parental influence remains important even through late adolescence. Parental monitoring, in particular, might help to reduce unstructured socializing with peers, drinking, and affiliation with peers who engage in DUI. Parental monitoring may also foster beliefs about the risks of DUI. Conversely, parents’ own DUI behavior may normalize drinking and DUI behaviors, thus countering monitoring efforts. PMID:18329409

Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W.; Nygaard, Peter; Miller, Brenda A.

2008-01-01

399

Microbiological effectiveness of locally produced ceramic filters for drinking water treatment in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Low-cost options for the treatment of drinking water at the household level are being explored by the Cambodian government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Cambodia, where many lack access to improved drinking water sources and diarrhoeal diseases are the most prevalent cause of death in children under 5 years of age. The ceramic water purifier (CWP), a locally produced, low-cost ceramic filter, is now being implemented by several NGOs, and an estimated 100,000+households in the country now use them for drinking water treatment. Two candidate filters were tested for the reduction of bacterial and viral surrogates for waterborne pathogens using representative Cambodian drinking water sources (rainwater and surface water) spiked with Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Results indicate that filters were capable of reducing key microbes in the laboratory with mean reductions of E. coli of approximately 99% and mean reduction of bacteriophages of 90-99% over >600 litres throughput. Increased effectiveness was not observed in filters with an AgNO3 amendment. At under US$10 per filter, locally produced ceramic filters may be a promising option for drinking water treatment and safe storage at the household level. PMID:20009242

Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D

2010-03-01

400

Evaluating pond sand filter as sustainable drinking water supplier in the Southwest coastal region of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates existing water supply scenario, and evaluates the performance of pond sand filter (PSF) in meeting drinking water demand of Dacope Upazila in southwest coastal Bangladesh. Questionnaire survey to the villagers reveals that PSF is the major drinking water sources (38 %) of the study area followed by tubewells (30.4 %), rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems (12.6 %), ponds (10.3 %) and others (8.7 %). The spot test and laboratory analysis show that odour, colour, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate and phosphate of the PSFs water meet Bangladesh standard. The efficiency of PSF in reducing total dissolved solids (TDS) (15 %) and potassium (8.2 %) is not enough to meet the standard of 20 % PSFs for TDS and one-third PSFs for potassium. The study proves that PSF is unable to remove coliform bacteria by 100 % from highly contaminated water. Hence, disinfection should be adopted before distribution to ensure safe drinking water. Majority of the PSF's users (80 %) are either partially satisfied or dissatisfied with the existing system. The beneficiary's willingness to pay for drinking water technologies seems that the combination of PSF and RWH could ensure sustainable drinking water in coastal region of Bangladesh.

Harun, M. A. Y. A.; Kabir, G. M. M.

2013-03-01

401

Alcohol Policy, Social Context, and Infant Health: The Impact of Minimum Legal Drinking Age  

PubMed Central

Objective The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) was increased in the U.S. in the late 1980s in an effort to reduce intoxication-associated injuries, especially those related to motor vehicle accidents. This paper explores distal (secondary) effects of changing MLDA on indices of infant health, and whether changes in drinking behaviors or birth composition contributed to these effects. Methods State- and year-fixed-effects models are used to analyze the relationship between MLDA, drinking behaviors, and birth outcomes. We studied the effects of different MLDA (age 18, 19, 20, or 21 years) when potential mothers were 14 years old by merging two population-based datasets, the Natality Detailed Files and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 1985 and 2002. Results A MLDA of 18 years old (when potential mothers were 14 years old) increased the prevalence of low birth weight, low Apgar scores, and premature births. Effects were stronger among children born to black women compared with white women. Moreover, a younger MLDA was associated with an increasing proportion of very young and high school dropouts for black women. Furthermore, older MLDA laws at age 14 years decreased the prevalence of binge drinking among black women. Conclusions Increasing the MLDA had longer term, distal impacts beyond the initially intended outcomes, specifically on birth outcomes (particularly among infants born to black women) as well as school drop-outs and binge drinking patterns among black young females. The older MLDA, intended initially to reduce problematic drinking behaviors, appeared to alter broader social contexts that influenced young women during their early childbearing years. PMID:22016717

Zhang, Ning; Caine, Eric

2011-01-01

402

The Effectiveness of Drinking and Driving Policies for Different Alcohol-Related Fatalities: A Quantile Regression Analysis  

PubMed Central

To understand the impact of drinking and driving laws on drinking and driving fatality rates, this study explored the different effects these laws have on areas with varying severity rates for drinking and driving. Unlike previous studies, this study employed quantile regression analysis. Empirical results showed that policies based on local conditions must be used to effectively reduce drinking and driving fatality rates; that is, different measures should be adopted to target the specific conditions in various regions. For areas with low fatality rates (low quantiles), people’s habits and attitudes toward alcohol should be emphasized instead of transportation safety laws because “preemptive regulations” are more effective. For areas with high fatality rates (or high quantiles), “ex-post regulations” are more effective, and impact these areas approximately 0.01% to 0.05% more than they do areas with low fatality rates. PMID:24084673

Ying, Yung-Hsiang; Wu, Chin-Chih; Chang, Koyin

2013-01-01

403

Late ventricular potentials and heavy drinking.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic drinking on detection of low amplitude signals, and to determine the relation between late ventricular potentials (LVP) and liver biopsy findings. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: General hospital. PATIENTS: 41 consecutive chronic alcoholics without known pre-existing heart disease. METHODS: About four days after each patient's last alcoholic drink, ECG, echocardiography, signal averaged electrocardiogram, liver biopsy, and blood tests were performed. RESULTS: Twenty eight per cent of patients had evidence of LVP. There was a correlation between the percentage of steatosis of the hepatic biopsy and the amplitude of the last 40 ms of average QRS (P = 0.04), the duration of the terminal low amplitude QRS signal (P = 0.05), and the number of positive criteria of late potentials (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic drinking sufficient to cause steatosis is associated with positive findings on the signal averaged ECG. PMID:9326991

Pochmalicki, G.; Genest, M.; Jibril, H.

1997-01-01

404

Problem: Thirst, Drinking Behavior, and Involuntary Dehydration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of involuntary dehydration, the delay in full restoration of a body water deficit by drinking, has been described extensively but relatively little is known about its physiological mechanism. It occurs primarily in humans when they are exposed to various stresses including exercise, environmental heat and cold, altitude, water immersion, dehydration, and perhaps microgravity, singly and in various combinations. The level of involuntary dehydration is approximately proportional to the degree of total stress imposed on the body. Involuntary dehydration appears to be controlled by more than one factor including social customs that influence what is consumed, the capacity and rate of fluid absorption from the gastrointestinal system, the level of cellular hydration involving the osmotic-vasopressin interaction with sensitive cells or structures in the central nervous system, and, to a lesser extent, hypovolemic-angiotensin II stimuli. Since humans drink when there is no apparent physiological stimulus, the psychological component should always be considered when investigating the total mechanisms for drinking.

Greenleaf, John E.

1992-01-01

405

Implicit Drinking Identity: Drinker + Me Associations Predict College Student Drinking Consistently  

PubMed Central

Predicting hazardous drinking in college students continues to be a serious priority. Emerging evidence suggests that implicit measures may offer additional insight in predicting unique variance in alcohol outcomes. Implicit drinking identity, in particular, may be a powerful predictor of alcohol use. The current study examined the predictive validity of three alcohol-related associations (e.g., drinking identity, alcohol approach, and alcohol cope) using adaptations of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in a sample of 243 undergraduates. Confirming previous findings, drinking identity associations were the most consistent predictor of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. They were the only associations that were unique predictors of alcohol use after controlling for other implicit associations. In comparison, alcohol cope and alcohol approach associations were weak but consistent predictors of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Although positively correlated with all drinking outcomes, neither set of associations predicted unique variance in the drinking outcomes when all implicit associations were included in the same model. Collectively, these results extend previous findings that implicit drinking identity may be a uniquely powerful tool for predicting alcohol outcomes and a potential target for clinical intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:23454880

Lindgren, Kristen P.; Foster, Dawn W.; Westgate, Erin C.; Neighbors, Clayton

2013-01-01

406

Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment, Arsenic, Adsorption, Coagulation, Drinking Water, Bangladesh

Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

2013-12-01

407

Who Suggests Drinking Less? Demographic and National Differences in Informal Social Controls on Drinking  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine variation in reports of pressuring others to drink less, as a form of informal social control of drinking, across countries and different types of relationship to the respondent. Method: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 19,945 respondents ages 18–69 years in 14 countries included in the data set of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Outcome variables were respondents’ reports of pressuring others to drink less (yes/no) across a variety of relationships (their partners, other family members, workmates, or friends). Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out on each outcome variable. The fixed-effects components included the Level 1 (individual) covariates of respondent age, gender, drinking status, and education level as well as the Level 2 (country level) covariates of percentage female drinkers and purchasing power parity. The random-effects components included country and current drinking status. Results: Respondents most frequently reported pressuring male friends to drink less (18%), followed by male family members (other than partners, 15%), partners (15%), work colleagues (12%), female friends (9%), female family members (other than partners, 6%), and children (5%). There was marked variation across countries, with pressuring frequently reported in Uganda, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua across most relationship types. Multivariable logistic regression revealed consistent effects of gender, with women more likely than men to report pressuring others to drink less across most relationship types. The patterns in relation to education status and age were less consistent and varied across relationship type. Conclusions: Informal social control of drinking varies dramatically according to whom is most likely to pressure whom to drink less as well as the country in which people live. PMID:24172112

Dietze, Paul; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin

2013-01-01

408

Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE): Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MTBE, a gasoline oxygenater additive, has been detected in ground water sources throughout different parts of the country. These ground water sources are often the source of drinking water, and the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether in even minute quantities can make the water undrinkable. Research to date has not conclusively identified any quantitative level at which serious health risks may occur. This site provides information on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency on the concerns and occurence of MTBE in drinking water.

409

Times to drink: cross-cultural variations in drinking in the rhythm of the week  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The time of drinking in terms of daytime versus evening and weekday versus weekend is charted for regular drinkers in 14 countries\\u000a in Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa and Oceania.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  National or regional adult population surveys from the GENACIS project.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The weekly rhythm of drinking varies greatly between societies. Drinking was generally more likely after 5 p.m. and on weekends.

Robin Room; Pia Mäkelä; Vivek Benegal; Thomas K. Greenfield; Siri Hettige; Nazarius M. Tumwesigye; Richard Wilsnack

410

An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

411

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR PENTACHLOROPHENOL (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on pentachlorophenol. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of pentachlorophenol, Toxicokineti...

412

Drinking to Excess: Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... disclaimer . Subscribe Drinking to Excess Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems Some people enjoy an occasional glass of ... while watching a football game. Most people drink alcohol moderately, within their limits. Others overdo it occasionally. ...

413

[Epidemiological evaluation of soft drinks consumption--students surveys].  

PubMed

Non carious lesions, including erosion changes, are becoming increasingly apparent. There are multiple factors involved in the etiology of dental erosion i.a. acids in commercially available drinks. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of soft drink consumption that promote dental erosion among young adults. The 266 subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. The questionnaire inquired questions about consumption of drinks favouring tooth erosion. The students declared frequent drinking of isotonic drinks, energetic drinks, fizzy drinks and coca-cola type drinks. On the basis of a survey of Pozna? University of Medical Sciences students it can be determined, that they have relatively high risk of dental erosion. To minimize the risk of dental erosion occurrence in young population there is a need to disseminate knowledge about the etiology. PMID:23421055

Ch?apowska, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Kamie?ska, Tamara

2012-01-01

414

Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?  

MedlinePLUS

... News Anxiety Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth > ... Downsides Cutting Through the Hype The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

415

Energy Drinks Tied to Inattention, Hyper Behavior in Middle Schoolers  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Energy Drinks Tied to Inattention, Hyper Behavior in Middle ... Child Nutrition MONDAY, Feb. 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Energy drinks are linked to hyperactivity and inattention in ...

416

21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2240a Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N...

2010-04-01

417

Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

418

Basic Information about Mercury (inorganic) in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... MCL over many years could experience kidney damage. Drinking Water Health Advisories provide more information on health effects ... 396 K, About PDF ) EPA regulates mercury in drinking water to protect public health. Mercury may cause health ...

419

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

420

RESPONDING TO THREATS AND INCIDENTS OF INTENTIONAL DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

All drinking water systems have some degree of vulnerability to contamination, and analysis shows that it is possible to contaminate drinking water at levels causing varying degrees of harm. Furthermore, experience indicates that the threat of contamination, overt or circumstant...

421

Daily Drinking May Raise Risk of Liver Cirrhosis  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Daily Drinking May Raise Risk of Liver Cirrhosis, Study Warns Everyday habits appear to matter ... Daily drinking increases the risk of alcohol-related liver cirrhosis, a new study found. It's generally believed ...

422

ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

423

Roles of Drinking Motives, Alcohol Consequences, and Season Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

populations at risk for heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. In this study, 63 (56% female, 62% Caucasian) first-year student-athletes completed a preliminary questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, athlete-specific drinking motives,…

Wahesh, Edward; Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Lewis, Todd F.; Orsini, Muhsin M.; Wyrick, David L.

2013-01-01

424

The Contribution of Education and Public Information to Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laws aimed at alcohol-impaired driving have been shown to change behavior in ways that reduce the problem. Alcohol education and public information programs, in contrast, rarely result in short-term behavior change. In part, this is because drinking, and combining drinking with driving, are lifestyle behaviors shaped and supported by many ongoing…

Williams, Allan F.

425

Low level of alcohol drinking among two generations of non-Western immigrants in Oslo: a multi-ethnic comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol drinking is a risk factor for harm and disease. A low level of drinking among non-Western immigrants may lead to less alcohol-related harm and disease. The first aim of this study was to describe frequency of drinking in two generations of immigrants in Oslo, contrasting the result to drinking frequency among ethnic Norwegians. The second aim was to study how frequency of drinking among adult immigrants was associated with social interaction with their own countrymen and ethnic Norwegians, acculturation, age, gender, socioeconomic factors and the Muslim faith. Method The Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) was conducted during the period 2000 to 2002 and consisted of three separate surveys: a youth study (15-16-year-olds, a total of 7343 respondents, response rate 88.3%); adult cohorts from 30 to 75?years old (18,770 respondents, response rate 46%); the five largest immigrant groups in Oslo (aged 20–60?years, a total of 3019 respondents, response rate 39.7%). Based on these three surveys, studies of frequency of drinking in the previous year (four categories) were conducted among 15-16-year-olds and their parents’ generation, 30-60-year-old Iranians, Pakistanis, Turks and ethnic Norwegians. A structural equation model with drinking frequency as outcome was established for the adult immigrants. Results Adults and youth of ethnic Norwegian background reported more frequent alcohol use than immigrants with backgrounds from Iran, Turkey and Pakistan. Iranians reported a higher drinking frequency than Turks and Pakistanis. In the structural equation model high drinking frequency was associated with high host culture competence and social interaction, while high own culture competence was associated with low drinking frequency. Adult first-generation immigrants with a longer stay in Norway, those of a higher age, and females drank alcohol less frequently, while those with a higher level of education and work participation drank more frequently. Muslim immigrants reported a significantly lower drinking frequency than non-Muslims, although this did not apply to Iranians. Conclusions The existence and growth in Western societies of immigrant groups with low-level alcohol consumption contributed to a lower level of consumption at the population level. This may imply reduced drinking and alcohol-related harm and disease even among ethnic Norwegians. PMID:22824456

2012-01-01

426

Lithium in drinking water and suicide prevention: a review of the evidence.  

PubMed

Suicide is a serious public health problem worldwide, and many nations are committed to developing prevention programmes to reduce the incidence of suicide. To date, several strategies have been proposed for suicide prevention, both at the population and at the individual level, some of which may be pharmacological. In particular, a substantial amount of data show that lithium significantly reduces mortality in patients with mood disorders. Initiating from this evidence, some recent studies have investigated whether a relationship might exist between levels of lithium in drinking water and mortality rates for suicide in the general population. We have systematically reviewed all the articles published on this issue to date. The available literature indicates that higher lithium levels in drinking water may be associated with reduced risk of suicide in the general population. PMID:25025988

Vita, Antonio; De Peri, Luca; Sacchetti, Emilio

2015-01-01

427

Recovery and diversity of heterotrophic bacteria from chlorinated drinking waters.  

PubMed Central

Heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated from the Seattle drinking water catchment basins and distribution system. The highest bacterial recoveries were obtained by using a very dilute medium containing 0.01% peptone as the primary carbon source. Other factors favoring high recovery were the use of incubation temperatures close to that of the habitat and an extended incubation (28 days or longer provided the highest counts). Total bacterial counts were determined by using acridine orange staining. With one exception, all acridine orange counts in chlorinated samples were lower than those in prechlorinated reservoir water, indicating that chlorination often reduces the number of acridine orange-detectable bacteria. Source waters had higher diversity index values than did samples examined following chlorination and storage in reservoirs. Shannon index values based upon colony morphology were in excess of 4.0 for prechlorinated source waters, whereas the values for final chlorinated tap waters were lower than 2.9. It is not known whether the reduction in diversity was due solely to chlorination or in part to other factors in the water treatment and distribution system. Based upon the results of this investigation, we provide a list of recommendations for changes in the procedures used for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking waters. Images PMID:3524453

Maki, J S; LaCroix, S J; Hopkins, B S; Staley, J T

1986-01-01

428

My Student Body: A High-Risk Drinking Prevention Web Site for College Students  

PubMed Central

The authors investigated the efficacy of an interactive Web site, MyStudentBody.com: Alcohol (MSB:Alcohol) that offers a brief, tailored intervention to help heavy drinking college students reduce their alcohol use. They conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to compare the intervention with an alcohol education Web site at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Students were assessed on various drinking measures and their readiness to change their drinking habits. The intervention was especially effective for women and persistent binge drinkers. Compared with women who used the control Web site, women who used the intervention significantly reduced their peak and total consumption during special occasions and also reported significantly fewer negative consequences related to drinking. In addition, persistent heavy binge drinkers in the experimental group experienced a more rapid decrease in average consumption and peak consumption compared with those in the control group. The authors judged MSB:Alcohol a useful intervention for reaching important subgroups of college binge drinkers. PMID:15900990

Chiauzzi, Emil; Green, Traci Craig; Lord, Sarah; Thum, Christina; Goldstein, Marion

2007-01-01

429

Regulating Availability: How Access to Alcohol Affects Drinking and Problems in Youth and Adults  

PubMed Central

Regulations on the availability of alcohol have been used to moderate alcohol problems in communities throughout the world for thousands of years. In the latter half of the 20th century, quantitative studies of the effects of these regulations on drinking and related problems began in earnest as public health practitioners began to recognize the full extent of the harmful consequences related to drinking. This article briefly outlines the history of this work over four areas, focusing on the minimum legal drinking age, the privatization of alcohol control systems, outlet densities, and hours and days of sale. Some historical background is provided to emphasize the theoretical and empirical roots of this work and to highlight the substantial progress that has been made in each area. In general, this assessment suggests that higher minimum legal drinking ages, greater monopoly controls over alcohol sales, lower outlet numbers and reduced outlet densities, and limited hours and days of sale can effectively reduce alcohol sales, use, and problems. There are, however, substantial gaps in the research literature and a near absence of the quantitative theoretical work needed to direct alcohol-control efforts. Local community responses to alcohol policies are complex and heterogeneous, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes mitigating the effects of availability regulations. Quantitative models of policy effects are essential to accelerate progress toward the formulation and testing of optimal control strategies for the reduction of alcohol problems. PMID:22330225

Gruenewald, Paul J.

2011-01-01

430

Residual demand analysis of the carbonated soft drink industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, residual demand analysis is applied to test whether carbonated soft drinks is a relevant product market. The residual demand elasticity for carbonated soft drinks is estimated using weekly A.C. Nielsen Scanner price and quantity data for carbonated soft drink products purchased in supermarkets in the United States. The estimated residual demand elasticity and average contribution margin for

Richard S. Higgins; David P. Kaplan; Michael J. Mcdonald; Robert D. Tollison

1995-01-01

431

Drinking Motives and Alcoholic Beverage Preferences among Italian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although drinking motives have been largely studied, research taking into account the Mediterranean drinking culture and focusing on motives specifically associated to adolescents' developmental tasks is lacking. For these reasons the study investigates drinking motives in a group of Italian adolescents and their relationships with drunkenness and…

Graziano, Federica; Bina, Manuela; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia

2012-01-01

432

How Can I Cut Back on My Drinking?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... it early, when you’re first starting to see an increase in your drinking and so you need to know what a drink is. You need to know what the safer levels of drinking are, so you have to keep track. I say, know your number if you’re going to ...

433

Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

2008-01-01

434

Combating An Odorless, Tasteless, Unseen Problem in Nebraska Drinking Water  

E-print Network

with the specter of arsenic contamination in their drinking water. For more than 60 years, the maximum allowable limit for arsenic in public drinking water supplies has been 50 parts per billion (ppb) and most public.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may have underestimated the cancer risks of arsenic in drinking water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

435

Parental Problem-Drinking and Adult Children's Labor Market Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current estimates of the societal costs of alcoholism do not consider the impact of parental drinking on children. This paper analyzes the consequences of parental problem-drinking on children's labor market outcomes in adulthood. Using the NLSY79, I show that having a problem-drinking parent is associated with longer periods out of the labor…

Balsa, Ana I.

2008-01-01

436

Binge Drinking in Young Adults: Data, Definitions and Determinants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Binge drinking is an increasingly important topic in alcohol research, but the field lacks empirical cohesion and definitional precision. The present review summarizes findings and viewpoints from the scientific binge-drinking literature. Epidemiological studies quantify the seriousness of alcohol-related problems arising from binge drinking, with…

Courtney, Kelly E.; Polich, John

2009-01-01

437

Drinking Age Laws and Highway Mortality Rates: Cause and Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents estimates of the effects of the drinking age and beer taxes on youth motor vehicle mortality. A simultaneous equation model is used and the resu lts show that the drinking age is a function of mortality rates. The results also show that for eighteen to twenty year-old drivers, an in crease in the drinking age to twenty-one,

Henry Saffer; Michael Grossman

1987-01-01

438

Influence of Raising the Legal Minimum Drinking Age in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The minimum legal drinking age in Illinois was returned to 21 effective January 1, 1980. To examine the effect of this change on accident involvement by young drivers, data from the last 3 years of the lowered drinking age (1977-1979) were compared to the first 3 years of the restored drinking age (1980-1982). Data were obtained from the Illinois…

Schroeder, Joyce K.; Meyer, E. Dewayne

439

Set Pair Analysis for Rural Drinking Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of uncertain problems existing in rural drinking water safety system, it is of great significances to apply Set Pair Analysis (SPA) theory to analyze and study these uncertain problems in rural drinking water safety system. This study applies SPA theory to conduct an integrated evaluation of water quality to rural drinking water safety in Ya'an City, based

Ni Fuquan; Liu Guo-dong; Gao Yang-yang; Xu Li-ping; Fu Cheng-wei

2010-01-01

440

Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of many new compounds in surface water, groundwater and drinking water raises considerable public concern, especially when human health based guideline values are not available it is questioned if detected concentrations affect human health. In an attempt to address this question, we derived provisional drinking water guideline values for a selection of 50 emerging contaminants relevant for drinking

Merijn Schriks; Minne B. Heringa; Margaretha M. E. van der Kooi; Pim de Voogt; Annemarie P. van Wezel

2010-01-01

441

Safe Drinking Water Policy for Canada - Turning Hindsight into Foresight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of Canada lags international leaders in adopting management systems for assuring safe drinking water. Despite some clear progress in individual provinces, Canada, and small communities in particular, need a system that better promotes and rewards competence among drinking water providers. In much of the developed, industrialized world, including most of urbanized Canada, public drinking water poses a negligible health

Steve E. Hrudey

2011-01-01

442

Recommended combat drinking water standards for organophosphorus nerve agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents may be used on an integrated battlefield and US Army preventive medicine and quartermaster personnel are required to ensure the safety of drinking water supplies in such combat situations. We developed improved drinking water standards for OP nerve agents, recommending interim drinking water standards for OP nerve agents for consumption rates of 5 and 15 L\\/d

J. I. Daniels; S. A. Schaub

1989-01-01

443

Amending the Safe Drinking Water Act: View from Congress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, the last time Congress amended the Safe Drinking Water Act, the legislative process was a model of cooperative progress. Across the nation, the message is clear: Safe drinking water can no longer be taken for granted. Polls show that drinking water safety is a growing public concern, with one industry survey showing that more than 80 percent of

2009-01-01

444

'The English Drink a Lot of Tea!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents statistics on the most commonly held stereotypes in Germany of Britain and the British including drinking a lot of tea, eating bacon and eggs for breakfast, consumption of whiskey and beer, and the occurrence of fog in England. Suggests these stereotypes were developed in the early 1950s and are not as prevalent today. (BK)

Taborn, Stretton

1981-01-01

445

Biofilm accumulation in drinking water distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to classify the relative importance of the parameters governing the accumulation of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems, a study has been carried out, using an industrial pilot plant fed with finished waters, with three main objectives, viz. (i) determination of biofilm density on pipe surfaces (PVC or cement lined cast iron) as a function of the distance

J. C. Block; K. Haudidier; J. L. Paquin; J. Miazga; Y. Levi

1993-01-01

446

Uses of ozone in drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone has been used continuously for the treatment of drinking water since 1906, when it was first installed in the city of Nice, France, for disinfection purposes. Although many water treatment plants throughout the world still utilize ozone primarily for disinfection, most modern plants rely on ozone to perform one or more oxidation functions. Applications for ozonation now include oxidation

Rip G. Rice; C. Michael Robson; G. Wade Miller; Archibald G. Hill

1981-01-01

447

EPA?s Drinking Water Treatment Research  

EPA Science Inventory

Riverbank filtration has been utilized for decades as a pretreatment for waters that will be used for drinking water. A study investigating the occurrence and potential for removal of suspected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during riverbank filtration at a municipal well...

448

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CHLORAMINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Critical to establishing a regulatory strategy for drinking water is identifying those contaminants which pose the greatest risk to human health and consequently, what treatments could be developed to address those risks and at what cost. The National Center for Environmental Ass...

449

Drinking patterns in French adult men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Background: Establishing patterns of alcohol consumption may be useful for investigating the relationship between alcohol and diseases. Methods: We used a hierarchical agglomerative clustering method to describe the intake of eight types of alcoholic beverages and to determine drinking patterns in a cohort of 1797 men enrolled in a French 8-year intervention study involving nutritional doses of vitamins and

Philippe Rouillier; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Sandrine Bertrais; Nathalie Arnault; Jean-Jacques Daudin; Jean-Noël Bacro; Serge Hercberg

2004-01-01

450

Drinking Well in a BEN Village  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A well, typical of those found in both Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) villages and non-BEN villages in the affected countries. Wells and springs are the primary drinking water supplies for these rural villages. In the BEN areas, these shallow wells are fed by groundwater that leaches nearby immatu...

2009-09-10

451

Renal Effects of Uranium in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albu- min, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects.

Päivi Kurttio; Anssi Auvinen; Laina Salonen; Heikki Saha; Juha Pekkanen; Ilona Mäkeläinen; Sari B. Väisänen; Ilkka M. Penttilä; Hannu Komulainen

2002-01-01

452

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle.  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-¿g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

453

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-µg/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

454

Acid Precipitation and Drinking Water Supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three areas of concern about the effect of acid precipitation on drinking water supplies are evaluated— the increased levels of heavy metals in raw water, biological imbalances in water supplies, and increased corrosivity of delivered water. Although two thirds of the US water supplies are corrosive, the extent to which this corrosivity is related to acid precipitation is unknown. Shallow

John S. Reed; John C. Henningson

1984-01-01

455

MEMBRANES FOR REMOVING ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Membranes have historically been used to remove salts and other inorganic compounds from water but recently both bench-scale and field studies have shown their effectiveness for removing organic compounds from drinking water. wo different membrane types have been evaluated by the...

456

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-print Network

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

Saldin, Dilano

457

DETERIORATION OF DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A frequently overlooked fact, but one that is becoming of increasing concern, is the effect that the drinking water delivery system can have on the quality of water received at the tap. Deterioration of aging water supply systems can result in pipeline failures, pressure losses, ...

458

CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

459

CHLORINE DIOXIDE FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to comply with the trihalomethane regulation, many drinking water utilities have had to alter their treatment methods. ne option available to these utilities is to use a disinfectant other than chlorine such as chlorine dioxide. ith chlorine dioxide disinfection, trihalo...

460

DRINKING WATER FROM AGRICULTURALLY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Sharp increases in fertilizer and pesticide use throughout the 1960s and 1970s along with generally less attachment to soil particles may result in more widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. he purpose of this study was to highlight the use of agricultural chemical...

461

DEFLUORIDATION OF DRINKING WATER IN SMALL COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the results of a study of defluoridation of drinking water in small communities using either central or point-of-use treatment. The ten sites used for project data collection had natural fluoride in their groundwater supplies in excess of the Maximum Contamin...

462

Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

Frost, Helen

463

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT: AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

In February 1977, a massive discharge of carbon tetrachloride into the Kanawha River in West Virginia threatened much of the Ohio River Valley with contaminated drinking water potentially affecting over one million consumers. The episode heightened the awareness of consumers and ...

464

SAFE DRINKING WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM (STATE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Safe Drinking Water Information System (STATE) (SDWIS/STATE) is an information system OGWDW is developing for states and EPA regions to manage their water industry. SDWIS/STATE is not an information system for which EPA HQ is using to store or retrie...

465

TREATABILITY DATABASE FOR DRINKING WATER CHEMICALS (CCL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Treatability Data Base will assemble referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It will be an interactive data base, housed in an EPA, web-accessible site. It may be used for many purposes, including: identifying an effective treatment process or a se...

466

INVESTIGATION OF 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA' IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

An investigation of Legionella pneumophila in drinking water systems and home plumbing appurtenances was done. In Phase 1, 68 water samples were collected from kitchen sink faucets in homes on 17 community water systems. No. L. pneumophila organisms were isolated. In Phase 1A, th...

467

Aeromonas sobria in chlorinated drinking water supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeromonas species were recovered from over 27% of 183 chlorinated drinking water samples collected during an 18-month period. Sixteen of 20 isolates tested elicited a cytotoxic response by Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. None of the strains was either enterotoxigenic by the rabbit ligated ileal loop assay, exhibited piliation, or showed significant mannose resistant adherence to human buccal cells. TheAeromonas isolates

M. W. LeChevallier; T. M. Evans; R. J. Seidler; O. P. Daily; B. R. Merrell; D. M. Rollins; S. W. Joseph

1982-01-01

468

Yes Please No Thanks Drinks bottles  

E-print Network

· Directories (inc Yellow Pages) · Envelopes (inc windows) · Kitchen and tissue paper (even clean) · Jiffy bagsYes Please No Thanks PLASTIC · Drinks bottles · Milk bottles · Shampoo bottles · Cleaning product jars · Window panes and mirrors · Glass cookware METAL CANS / TINS · Aerosols (fully discharged

Capdeboscq, Yves

469

Assessing college students' attitudes toward responsible drinking messages to identify promising binge drinking intervention strategies.  

PubMed

Health communication appeals were utilized through a Web site simulation to evaluate the potential effectiveness of 3 intervention approaches to promote responsible drinking among college students. Within the Web site simulation, participants were exposed to a persuasive message designed to represent either the generalized social norms advertising approach (based on others' behavior), the personalized behavioral feedback approach (tailored to the individual's behavior), or the schema-based approach (tailored to the individual's self-schema, or personality). A control group was exposed to a message that was designed to be neutral (it was designed to discourage heavy drinking, but it did not represent any of the previously mentioned approaches). It was hypothesized that the more personalized the message was to the individual, the more favorable college students' attitudes would be toward the responsible drinking message. Participants receiving the more personalized messages did report more favorable attitudes toward the responsible drinking message. PMID:17967148

Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A

2007-01-01

470

One-Per-Occasion or Less: Are Moderate Drinking Postmenopausal Women Really Healthier than their Non-Drinking and Heavier-Drinking Peers?  

PubMed Central

Background While some reported benefits of moderate drinking are thought to be the direct results of physiological mechanisms associated with consumption, other effects may be attributable to mediating factors. Both explanations suggest that moderate drinkers may be healthier than non-drinking and heavier-drinking peers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether moderate drinking postmenopausal women report healthier dietary and exercise patterns, and whether they demonstrate better physiological functioning compared to peers. This study also aimed to describe patterns of relationships between alcohol and measures of general health functioning in postmenopausal women. Methods One-hundred-fifteen women, aged 50–65 participated. Participants completed alcohol interviews, diet and exercise questionnaires, and bone density examination. Blood pressure, height, and weight were assessed, and blood was collected to conduct basic chemistry and complete blood count tests. Results Postmenopausal moderate drinkers failed to demonstrate healthier dietary or exercise habits, and did not exhibit significantly better health-functioning compared to peers. They did evidence positive associations between drinking and healthy behavior, and between drinking and cardiovascular health. Relationships between alcohol and blood analytes differed between drinking groups, some of which suggested possible negative health consequences for higher-end drinkers in both drinking groups. Conclusions These data suggested that moderate drinking postmenopausal women are not significantly healthier than their non- or heavier drinking peers, but may drink as part of a larger effort to take care of their health. Despite this, even one-drink-per-drinking-day moderate drinkers may have tendencies toward unhealthy conditions. Limitations include small sample size, inability to assess specific cardiac risk and socio-economic status, small number of correlations, and clinical relevance of analyte values. PMID:18616686

Tivis, Laura J.; Tivis, Rick D.

2008-01-01

471

Caffeinated Cocktails: Energy Drink Consumption, High-risk Drinking, and Alcohol-related Consequences among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is popular on college cam- puses in the United States. Limited research suggests that energy drink consumption lessens subjective intoxication in persons who also have consumed alcohol. This study examines the relationship between energy drink use, high-risk drinking behavior, and alcohol-related consequences. Methods: In Fall 2006, a Web-based survey was

Mary Claire O’Brien; Thomas P. McCoy; Scott D. Rhodes; Ashley Wagoner; Mark Wolfson

2008-01-01

472

Athletes and Energy Drinks: Reported Risk-Taking and Consequences from the Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measured athletes’ alcohol, energy drink, and combined-use. It also compared athletes’ reported risk-taking and consequences while using alcohol-only and in combination with energy drinks. From the total sample of 401 intercollegiate student-athletes, 315 (78%) used alcohol, 150 (37%) combined alcohol with energy drinks, and 194 (48%) used energy drinks (EDs) without alcohol. Ninety-two percent of drinkers participated in

Conrad Woolsey; Alex Waigandt; Niels C. Beck

2010-01-01

473

Adolescent alcohol use: a reflection of national drinking patterns and policy?  

PubMed Central

Aims To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study in 2010 (n = 144 788) were linked to national-level indicators on alcohol control policies and adult drinking patterns. Measurements Outcome measures were self-reported weekly drinking and life-time drunkenness (drunk once or more). Data were analysed using multi-level logistic regression models. Findings In the mutually adjusted models, adolescent drunkenness was associated significantly with high adult alcohol consumption [odds ratio (OR) = 3.15 among boys, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.13–4.64, OR girls = 2.44, CI = 1.57–3.80] and risky drinking patterns in the adult population (OR boys = 2.02, CI = 1.33–3.05, OR girls = 1.61, CI = 1.18–2.18). The level of abstainers in the adult population was also associated significantly with girls’ drunkenness; a 10% increase in the number of abstainers in a country reduced the odds of drunkenness with 21% (OR = 0.79, CI = 0.68–0.90). Weekly drinking was associated significantly with weak restrictions on availability (OR boys = 2.82, CI = 1.74–4.54, OR girls = 2.00, CI = 1.15–3.46) and advertising (OR boys = 1.56, CI = 1.02–2.40, OR girls = 1.79, CI = 1.10–2.94). Conclusions Comparing data cross-nationally, high levels of adult alcohol consumption and limited alcohol control policies are associated with high levels of alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:25041190

Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia; Casswell, Sally; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Arnold, Petra; de Looze, Margreet E.; Hofmann, Felix; Hublet, Anne; Simons-Morton, Bruce; ter Bogt, Tom; Holstein, Bjørn E.

2014-01-01

474

Determinants of binge drinking in a permissive environment: focus group interviews with Dutch adolescents and parents  

PubMed Central

Background Compared to other European countries, the Netherlands score among the highest of binge drinking rates of 16 to 18 year old adolescents. Dutch adolescents aged 16 are legally allowed to buy and consume low strength alcoholic beverages. This study focused on determinants of binge drinking in such a permissive environment from the perspectives of adolescents and parents. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 16 to 18 (N?=?83), and parents of adolescents from this age group (N?=?24). Data was analysed using thematic analyses methods. Results Most reasons adolescents mentioned for drinking were to relax, increase a good mood and to be social. Also peers around them influenced and increased adolescents’ drinking. Comparing adolescents and parental statements about their perspectives how alcohol use is handled and accepted by the parents we found that generally, those perspectives match. Parents as well as adolescents stated that alcohol use is accepted by parents. However, when looking at essential details, like the acceptable amounts that children may consume, the perspectives differ enormously. Adolescents think their parents accept any amount of drinking as long as they do not get drunk, whereas parents reported acceptable limits of 1 or 2 glasses every two weeks. Parents further indicated that they felt unsupported by the Dutch policies and regulations of alcohol use. Most of them were in favour of an increase of the legal purchasing age to 18 years. Conclusions Parents and adolescents should both be targeted in interventions to reduce alcohol use among adolescents. In particular, communication between parents and children should be improved, in order to avoid misconceptions about acceptable alcohol use. Further, adolescents should be supported to handle difficult social situations with peers where they feel obliged to drink. Additionally, revisions of policies towards a less permissive standpoint are advised to support parents and to impede availability of alcoholic beverages for adolescents/children younger than 18 years. PMID:24063544

2013-01-01

475

Short-Term Prospective Effects of Impulsivity on Binge Drinking: Mediation by Positive and Negative Drinking Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Although the association of impulsivity with diverse alcohol outcomes has been documented, the mechanisms by which impulsivity predicts drinking over time remain to be fully characterized. The authors examined whether positive drinking consequences, but not negative drinking consequences, mediated the association between impulsivity and…

Park, Aesoon; Kim, Jueun; Gellis, Les A.; Zaso, Michelle J.; Maisto, Stephen A.

2014-01-01

476

The effect of drink price and next-day responsibilities on college student drinking: a behavioral economic analysis.  

PubMed

More than [3/4] of U.S. college students report a heavy drinking episode (HDE; 5 (for men) and 4 (for women) drinks during an occasion) in the previous 90 days. This pattern of drinking is associated with various risks and social problems for both the heavy drinkers and the larger college community. According to behavioral economics, college student drinking is a contextually bound phenomenon that is impacted by contingencies such as price and competing alternative reinforcers, including next-day responsibilities such as college classes. This study systematically examines the role of these variables by using hypothetical alcohol purchase tasks to analyze alcohol consumption and expenditures among college students who reported recent heavy drinking (N = 207, 53.1% women). The impact of gender and the personality risk factor sensation seeking (SS) were also assessed. Students were asked how many drinks they would purchase and consume across 17 drink prices and 3 next-day responsibility scenarios. Mean levels of hypothetical consumption were highly sensitive to both drink price and next-day responsibility, with the lowest drinking levels associated with high drink prices and a next-day test. Men and participants with greater levels of SS reported more demand overall (greater consumption and expenditures) than women and students with low SS personality. Contrary to our hypotheses women appeared to be less sensitive to increases in price than men. The results suggest that increasing drink prices and morning academic requirements may be useful in preventing heavy drinking among college students. PMID:21142332

Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G

2011-03-01

477

Categorizing US State Drinking Practices and Consumption Trends  

PubMed Central

US state alcohol consumption patterns and trends are examined in order to identify groups of states with similar drinking habits or cultures. Rates of heavy drinking and current abstention and per capita apparent consumption levels are used to categorize states. Six state groupings were identified: North Central and New England with the highest consumption and heavy drinking levels; Middle Atlantic, Pacific and South Coast with moderate drinking levels; and Dry South with the lowest drinking levels. Analyses of relationships between beer and spirits series for states within groups as compared to those in different groups failed to clearly indicate group cohesiveness. PMID:20195444

Kerr, William C.

2010-01-01

478

Efficacy of a multi micronutrient-fortified drink in improving iron and micronutrient status among schoolchildren with low iron stores in India: A randomised, double-masked placebo-controlled trial  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A multiple micronutrient-fortified drink could be an effective strategy to combating micronutrient deficiencies in school-going children. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of a multiple micronutrient-fortified drink in reducing iron deficiency (ID), ID anemia (IDA), anemia and improving micro...

479

The influence of individualism and drinking identity on alcohol problems  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the interactive association between individualism and drinking identity predicting alcohol use and problems. Seven hundred and ten undergraduates (Mean age =22.84, SD = 5.31, 83.1% female) completed study materials. We expected that drinking identity and individualism would positively correlate with drinking variables. We further expected that individualism would moderate the association between drinking identity and drinking such that the relationship between drinking identity and alcohol outcomes would be positively associated, particularly among those high in individualism. Our findings supported our hypotheses. These findings better explain the relationship between drinking identity, individualism, and alcohol use. Furthermore, this research encourages the consideration of individual factors and personality characteristics in order to develop culturally tailored materials to maximize intervention efficacy across cultures.

Foster, Dawn W.; Yeung, Nelson; Quist, Michelle C.

2014-01-01

480

Drinking-water safety: challenges for community-managed systems.  

PubMed

A targeted review of documented waterborne disease outbreaks over the past decades reveals some recurring themes that should be understood by drinking-water suppliers. Evidence indicates the outbreaks are often linked to some significant change in conditions that provides a sudden challenge to a water system. Severe weather events, such as heavy rainfall or runoff from snow melt, as well as treatment process and system changes, are common risk factors for drinking-water outbreaks. Failure to recognise warning signs and complacency are important contributors to drinking water becoming unsafe. Drinking-water suppliers must focus on competence and vigilance in maintaining effective multiple barriers appropriate to the challenges facing the drinking-water system. Understanding the risk factors and failure modes of waterborne disease outbreaks is an essential component for effective management of community drinking-water supplies and ensuring the delivery of safe drinking-water to consumers. PMID:18401127

Rizak, S; Hrudey, Steve E

2008-01-01