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|Objective: In collaboration with Residence Life, the Heads UP research team developed a 21stbirthday card program to help reduce the risky drinking often associated with these celebrations. Participants: 81 students (28 males, 53 females) completed a post-21stbirthday survey. Of these, 74 reported drinking during their 21stbirthday and were…
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Cail, Jessica
Objective While research has documented heavy drinking practices and associated negative consequences of college students turning 21, few studies have examined prevention efforts aimed to reduce high-risk drinking during 21stbirthday celebrations. The present study evaluated the comparative efficacy of a general prevention effort (i.e., BASICS) and event specific prevention in reducing21stbirthdaydrinking and related negative consequences. Furthermore, this study evaluated inclusion of peers in interventions and mode of intervention delivery (i.e., in-person vs. web). Method Participants included 599 college students (46% male) who intended to consume at least five/four drinks (men/women respectively) on their 21stbirthday. After completing a screening/baseline assessment approximately one week before turning 21, participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions: 21stbirthday in-person BASICS, 21stbirthday web BASICS, 21stbirthday in-person BASICS plus friend intervention, 21stbirthday web BASICS plus friend intervention, BASICS, or an attention control. A follow-up assessment was completed approximately one week after students’ birthdays. Results Results indicated a significant intervention effect for BASICS in reducing blood alcohol content reached and number of negative consequences experienced. All three in-person interventions reduced negative consequences experienced. Results for the web-based interventions varied by drinking outcome and whether or not a friend was included. Conclusions Overall, results provide support for both general intervention and ESP approaches across modalities for reducing extreme drinking and negative consequences associated with turning 21. These results suggest there are several promising options for campuses seeking to reduce both use and consequences associated with 21stbirthday celebrations.
Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Geisner, Irene M.; Zheng, Cheng; Larimer, Mary E.
|Objective: While research has documented heavy drinking practices and associated negative consequences of college students turning 21, few studies have examined prevention efforts aimed at reducing high-risk drinking during 21stbirthday celebrations. The present study evaluated the comparative efficacy of a general prevention effort (i.e., Brief…
Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Geisner, Irene M.; Zheng, Cheng; Larimer, Mary E.
Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21stbirthdaydrinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21stbirthdaydrinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday drinkers indicated high levels of consumption, (c) 12% of birthday drinkers (men and women) reported consuming 21 drinks, and (d) about half of birthday drinkers exceeded their prior maximum number of drinks. Current problematic alcohol involvement and its typical correlates strongly predicted both the occurrence and severity of 21stbirthdaydrinking. It is imperative that investigators consider a variety of potential interventions to minimize the harm associated with this rite of passage. PMID:18540744
Rutledge, Patricia C; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J
|The present paper offers preliminary evidence for a hierarchical organization of normative social influences on 21stbirthdaydrinking. In recent years, 21stbirthday celebratory drinking has received increasing attention, due largely to the propagation of dangerous and sometimes fatal drinking traditions, such as attempting to drink one shot for…
Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.
|This article presents an initial randomized controlled trial of an event-specific prevention intervention. Participants included 295 college students (41.69% male, 58.31% female) who intended to consume 2 or more drinks on their 21stbirthday. Participants completed a screening/baseline assessment approximately 1 week before they turned 21 and…
|The B.R.A.D. Birthday Card initiative was started on the campus of Michigan State University (MSU) in April 1999. MSU administrators send the safe-drinking21stbirthday card (B.R.A.D.) and laminated wallet card to students shortly before their 21stbirthday. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the 21stbirthday card, MSU and B.R.A.D.,…
Twenty-first birthday celebrations often involve dangerously high levels of alcohol consumption, yet little is known about risk factors for excessive drinking on this occasion. Participants (N = 150) from a larger prospective study who consumed at least one drink during their celebration completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews about their 21stbirthday within four days after the event. Assessments were designed to characterize 21stbirthday alcohol use, adjusted for alcohol content, as well as situational/contextual factors (e.g., celebration location, peer influence) that contribute to event-level drinking. Participants reported an average of 10.85 drinks (9.76 adjusted drinks), with experienced drinkers consuming significantly more than relatively naïve drinkers who had no previous binge or drunken episodes. Men consumed more drinks, whereas age of first drunken episode and heavier drinking during the 3-months preceding the 21stbirthday predicted higher estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs) on the 21stbirthday. Celebrating in bars and engaging in birthday-specific drinking traditions (free drinks at bars) explained additional variance in 21stbirthday eBACs. Both physical consequences (e.g., blacking out or having a hangover) and behavioral risks (e.g., sexually provocative behaviors) were prevalent and were predicted by higher eBACs. Together these findings indicate that 21stbirthday celebrations are associated with heavy drinking and a variety of physical consequences and behavioral risks.
Brister, Heather A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Fromme, Kim
|The authors designed this study to evaluate the prevalence and magnitude of heavy drinking among college students in celebrating their 21stbirthdays and the impact of a birthday card suggesting moderation. The authors randomly assigned subjects to receive or not receive the card approximately 1 week prior to their birthday. Approximately 1 week…
Because of its legal significance, the 21stbirthday is considered a milestone event. Research reveals that turning 21 is an occasion that is often marked by the ingestion of excessive, perhaps even lethal, amounts of alcohol. Peer pressure and lack of knowledge about the potentially life-threatening effects of alcohol overconsumption can make this birthday a perilous event. Birthday rituals have developed that encourage reckless consumption. Literature addressing the prevalence of excessive drinking among college students is abundant. However, the authors found minimal literature addressing the potential contribution of nurses toward the reduction of unsafe alcohol consumption among young adults celebrating their 21stbirthday. This article provides a brief review of the physiological effects of alcohol and practical suggestions for promoting safety among young adults celebrating this milestone birthday. PMID:19489512
The purpose of the present study was to examine between- and within-person relationships among protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption, and related negative consequences during the 21stbirthday week. Participants for the present study included undergraduate college students (n = 1,028) who turned 21 during three academic quarters at a large public northwestern university in the United States. Students completed a Web-based survey that comprised measures of 21stbirthday PBS, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related negative consequences. Between-person findings indicated that participants who used more manner of drinking PBS and fewer serious harm reduction PBS consumed fewer drinks and reached lower BACs. Results also showed that participants who used a greater number of limiting/stopping PBS and who used more manner of drinking PBS experienced fewer negative consequences. Within-person findings demonstrated that on days when participants used more limiting/stopping PBS, fewer manner of drinking PBS, and more serious harm reduction PBS than average they also consumed more drinks and reached higher BACs. When examining negative consequences, within-person results showed that on days when participants used more limiting/stopping PBS, fewer manner of drinking PBS, and more serious harm reduction PBS than usual they experienced more negative consequences. Discussion focuses on clarification of the association between PBS and drinking and implications for preventive interventions. PMID:21553945
College represents a period of risk for heavy drinking and experiencing unwanted consequences associated with drinking. Previous research has identified specific events including holidays (e.g., New Years), school breaks (e.g., Spring Break) and personally relevant events (e.g., 21stbirthdays) that are associated with elevated risk of heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The systematic evaluation of relative risk offers insights into event specific drinking and an empirical basis upon which to consider allocation of limited prevention resources. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to provide a comparative index of drinking across a wide range of holidays and compare holiday drinking to 21stbirthdaydrinking. Participants were 1,124 students (55% female) who had turned 21 within the previous three weeks in 2008 and provided 90-day retrospective reports of their drinking using the Timeline Follow-back. Results based on a hurdle mixed model for blood alcohol content (BAC) revealed several holidays that stand out for elevated drinking, including New Year’s Eve and July 4th, whereas other holidays appear more similar to weekend drinking, such as Spring Break (approximately last week of March) and graduation (mid-June). Drinking on holidays or special days was substantially lower than drinking on 21stbirthdays. Results are discussed in terms of practical applications for targeted intervention efforts on college campuses toward specific events where elevated drinking is known to occur.
Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.
This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21stbirthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reducedrinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131
American alcohol education and prevention efforts for youth emphasize abstinence. In support of this approach, epidemiologists conclude that early drinking by adolescents increases the lifetime likelihood of alcohol dependence and that overall drinking levels in a society are directly linked to drinking problems. At the same time, cultural,…
Tijuana's loosely enforced age-18 drinking limit and low-priced alcohol entices thousands of young Americans to drink. On two weekends in 1997 and 1998, the Mexican government held elections during which alcohol sales were prohibited from midnight Friday night through 10 a.m. Monday. This study reports the effects of the election closings. To detect changes on two election nights, we analyzed
Tara Kelley Baker; Mark B. Johnson; Robert B. Voas; James E. Lange
Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude.
Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an over- view of environmental strategies that may reduce college drinking. Drinking behavior is influenced by many environmental factors, includ- ing messages in the media, community norms and attitudes, public and institutional policies and practices and economic factors. College stu- dent drinking may be influenced by environmental factors on and off
The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducingdrinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers. PMID:24064189
Young, Chelsie M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton
This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…
|This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools?…
Based on evidence that the color red elicits avoidance motivation across contexts (Mehta & Zhu, 2009), two studies investigated the effect of the color red on snack food and soft drink consumption. In line with our hypothesis, participants drank less from a red labeled cup than from a blue labeled cup (Study 1), and ate less snack food from a red plate than from a blue or white plate (Study 2). The results suggest that red functions as a subtle stop signal that works outside of focused awareness and thereby reduces incidental food and drink intake. PMID:22245725
Objective: Pre-college drinking has been shown to be a predictor of risky drinking and harmful outcomes in college. By contrast, less is known about how pre-college alcohol consequences influence subsequent consequences during the freshman year. The present study examined pre-college drinking and consequences in relationship to consequences experienced during the freshman year to better understand alcohol-related problems in this population. Method: Incoming freshmen (N = 340, 58% female) were randomly selected and completed measures of drinking quantity, alcohol-related consequences, and drinking style behaviors at pre-college baseline and at 10-month follow-up. Results: Pre-college consequences demonstrated a unique relationship with consequences at 10-month follow-up controlling for both pre-college and freshman-year alcohol consumption. Furthermore, pre-college consequences moderated the relationship between pre-college drinking and consequences at 10-month follow-up. For individuals who reported above-average pre-college consequences, no differences in 10-month follow-up consequences were observed across different levels of drinking. Finally, drinking style significantly mediated the relationship between the interaction between pre-college drinking and consequences and consequences at follow-up. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate the need to identify students who are at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems during their freshman year based on their history of consequences before college. Interventions aimed at these students may benefit from examining the usefulness of increasing protective behaviors as a method to reduce consequences in addition to reducingdrinking quantity.
Mallett, Kimberly A.; Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob
The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21stbirthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut’s efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort.
Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T.; Lee, Christine M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William
The current study employs an adaptation to Motivational Interviewing (AMI) group intervention with freshmen male undergraduates. The program follows suggestions of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism for effective interventions with problematic college student drinking, and combines several empirically validated strategies to prevent drinking problems throughout college. All participants reduceddrinking and alcohol-related problems; heavier drinkers and those
Joseph W. LaBrie; Eric R. Pedersen; Toby F. Lamb; Thomas Quinlan
This report describes the development of a program to reducedrinking on a college campus. The ultimate goal of the program is to reduce motor vehicle crashes resulting from driving after drinking, as well as other health and social problems that result f...
Aims:The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a global problem. There are a variety of environmental factors that may be contributing to this increase. One such factor may be the increased consumption of soft drinks.Objective:This review will describe some of the latest research that has examined the association between obesity and the consumption of soft drinks.Results:The association between the consumption
The Surgeon Generals Call to Action To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking seeks to engage all levels of government as well as individuals and private sector institutions and organizations in a coordinated, multifaceted effort to prevent and reduce under...
Baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist, reduces ethanol intake in animals and humans, but the contrary or no effect was also reported. Our previous study demonstrated that mice characterized as "loss of control over ethanol intake" had different Gabbr1 and Gabbr2 transcription levels, which express, respectively, the GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits in brain areas related to addictive behavior. In the present study, we tested baclofen on ethanol intake in mice exposed to the free-choice paradigm. Adult male Swiss mice, individually housed, had free access to three bottles: ethanol (5% and 10%) and water. The protocol had four phases: acquisition (AC, 10 weeks), withdrawal (W, 4 cycles during 2 weeks of 2 day-free-choice and 2 day-only-water), reexposure (RE, 2 weeks), and adulteration of ethanol solutions with quinine (AD, 2 weeks). Mice characterized as "loss of control" (A, n=11, preference for ethanol in AC and maintenance of ethanol intake levels in AD), heavy (H, n=11, preference for ethanol in AC and reduction of ethanol intake levels in AD), and light (L, n=16, preference for water in all phases) drinkers were randomly distributed into two subgroups receiving either intraperitoneal injections of all doses of baclofen (1.25, 2.5, and 5.0mg/kg, given each dose twice in consecutive days) or saline, being exposed to free-choice. Fluid consumption was measured 24h later. Baclofen reduced ethanol intake in group L. In group H a reduction compared to AC was observed. Group A maintained their high ethanol intake even after baclofen treatment. Activation of the GABA(B) receptor depends on the precise balance between the GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits, so the disproportionate transcription levels, we reported in group A, could explain this lack of response to baclofen. These data highlight the importance to test baclofen in individuals with different ethanol drinking profiles, including humans. PMID:22579911
Objective: This article categorizes and describes current media campaigns to reduce college student drinking, reviews key prin- ciples of campaign design and outlines recommendations for future cam- paigns. Method: The article describes three types of media campaigns on student drinking: information, social norms marketing, and advocacy. Key principles of campaign design are derived from work in commer- cial marketing, advertising,
|The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related…
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul
The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul
This review describes and discusses studies related to reduced-risk drinking as an additional treatment option for patients with problematic alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The review provides some empirical support for the following statements: (a) reduced-risk drinking is a viable option for at least some problem and dependent drinkers; (b) abstinence and non-abstinence-based treatments appear to be equally effective; (c) allowing patients to choose their treatment goal increases the success rate. The relatively short follow-up period (1-2 years) of the studies hampers a proper evaluation of the added value of the reduced-risk drinking approach. PMID:23824247
Before effective prevention interventions can be developed, it is necessary to identify the mechanisms that contribute to the targeted negative outcomes. A review of the literature on women's substance use and sexual victimization points to women's heavy episodic drinking as a proximal risk factor, particularly among college samples. At least half of sexual victimization incidents involve alcohol use and the majority of rapes of college women occur when the victim is too intoxicated to resist (“incapacitated rape”). Despite the importance of women's heavy episodic drinking as being a risk factor, existing rape prevention programs have rarely addressed women's alcohol use and have shown little success in reducing rates of sexual victimization. We argue that given the strength of the association between heavy episodic drinking and sexual victimization among young women, prevention programs targeting drinking may prove more efficacious than programs targeting sexual vulnerability. Applications of existing drinking prevention strategies to reducing women's sexual victimization are discussed.
The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative consequences) among first-year college females ( N = 128). Findings revealed that protective
Drinking environments, including bars, nightclubs and their surrounds are associated with high levels of acute alcohol-related harms. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of interventions implemented in drinking environments to reduce alcohol use and associated harms. The findings of the review were limited by the methodological shortcomings of the included studies. However, three studies indicated that multicomponent programmes combining community mobilisation, RBS training, house policies and stricter enforcement of licensing laws may be effective in reducing assaults, traffic crashes, and underage sales depending on the focus of the intervention. The effectiveness of other intervention approaches was limited. Future studies of interventions in drinking environments should focus on using appropriate and robust study designs. PMID:21257334
Jones, Lisa; Hughes, Karen; Atkinson, Amanda M; Bellis, Mark A
Background Activation of the NOP receptor by its endogenous ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ reduces ethanol intake in genetically selected alcohol preferring Marchigian Sardinian alcohol preferring (msP) rats. Here we evaluated whether buprenorphine, a partial agonist at ?-opioid and NOP receptors, would reduce ethanol consumption in msP rats via activation of NOP receptors. Methods Marchigian Sardinian alcohol preferring rats trained to drink 10% alcohol 2 hours/day were injected with buprenorphine (.03, .3, 3.0, or 6.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally [IP]) 90 min before access to ethanol. Results Similar to prototypical ?-agonists, the two lowest doses of buprenorphine significantly increased ethanol consumption (p < .01); in contrast, the two highest doses reduced it (p < .05). Pretreatment with naltrexone (.25 mg/kg IP) prevented the increase of ethanol intake induced by .03 mg/kg of buprenorphine (p < .001) but did not affect the inhibition of ethanol drinking induced by 3.0 mg/kg of buprenorphine. Conversely, pretreatment with the selective NOP receptor antagonist UFP-101 (10.0 or 20.0 ?g/rat) abolished the suppression of ethanol drinking by 3.0 mg/kg of buprenorphine. Conclusions Buprenorphine has dualistic effects on ethanol drinking; low doses increase alcohol intake via stimulation of classic opioid receptors, whereas higher doses reduce it via activation of NOP receptors. We suggest that NOP agonistic properties of buprenorphine might be useful in the treatment of alcoholism.
|Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…
Objectives. We investigated whether a price increase on regular (sugary) soft drinks and an educational intervention would reduce their sales. Methods. We implemented a 5-phase intervention at the Brigham and Women's Hospital cafeteria in Boston, Massachusetts. After posting existing prices of regular and diet soft drinks and water during baseline, we imposed several interventions in series: a price increase of 35% on regular soft drinks, a reversion to baseline prices (washout), an educational campaign, and a combination price and educational period. We collected data from a comparison site, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, also in Boston, for the final 3 phases. Results. Sales of regular soft drinks declined by 26% during the price increase phase. This reduction in sales persisted throughout the study period, with an additional decline of 18% during the combination phase compared with the washout period. Education had no independent effect on sales. Analysis of the comparison site showed no change in regular soft drink sales during the study period. Conclusions. A price increase may be an effective policy mechanism to decrease sales of regular soda. Further multisite studies in varied populations are warranted to confirm these results.
Chandra, Amitabh; McManus, Katherine D.; Willett, Walter C.
Alcohol abuse disrupts core executive functions, including working memory (WM)--the ability to maintain and manipulate goal-relevant information. When executive functions like WM are weakened, drinking behavior gets out of control and is guided more strongly by automatic impulses. This study investigated whether training WM restores control over drinking behavior. Forty-eight problem drinkers performed WM training tasks or control tasks during 25 sessions over at least 25 days. Before and after training, we measured WM and drinking behavior. Training WM improved WM and reduced alcohol intake for more than 1 month after the training. Further, the indirect effect of training on alcohol use through improved WM was moderated by participants' levels of automatic impulses: Increased WM reduced alcohol consumption in participants with relatively strong automatic preferences for alcohol. These findings are consistent with the theoretical framework and demonstrate that training WM may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol use by increasing control over automatic impulses to drink alcohol. PMID:21685380
The present study tested the proposition that an intervention to reduce alcohol use among college students will also reduce their risky sexual behavior. In a randomized controlled trial, 154 heavy-drinking, predominantly White, heterosexual college students at behavioral risk for infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases were assigned to receive no intervention or a two-session, in-person, motivational interviewing-based intervention
A great deal of progress has been made in reducing alcohol-impaired driving crashes and the related injuries and deaths in countries around the world. Unfortunately, this progress has not been shared by many low- and middle-income countries. In response to this disparity, a variety of international efforts have been undertaken, including the Drink Driving Initiative of Global Actions on Harmful Drinking, being carried out with a focus on 6 low- and middle-income countries where drink driving is a significant issue. These countries are China, Colombia, Mexico, Nigeria, Russia, and Vietnam. This article provides an overview of situational assessments that describe the current drink driving problems in these countries and the laws, policies, enforcement efforts, and public attitudes related to drink driving. These descriptions show clearly that there are particular challenges faced by the countries discussed here. Some, such as a lack of reliable traffic safety data, are common to most of the countries. This lack of data may be interrelated with the lack of well-developed drink driving policies. Other challenges vary depending on the particular geographic, economic, cultural, and social situations in each country. The assessments indicate the need for a focus on capacity building at the organizational and individual level in the target countries. The assessments also indicate that a long-term commitment to strengthening policies, implementation, and evaluation will be needed. This deeper understanding of the situations in each of these countries is already being put to use in what we hope is the beginning of an important and lifesaving process. PMID:22458784
Interventions challenging alcohol expectancies may lead to reductions in alcohol consumption. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of alcohol expectancy challenge (EC) interventions for college alcohol abuse prevention. Included were 14 studies (19 EC interventions) that measured alcohol expectancies and consumption, provided sufficient information to calculate effect sizes, and were available as of June 2010 (N = 1,415; M age = 20; 40% women; 88% White). Independent raters coded participant characteristics, design and methodological features, and intervention content, and calculated weighted mean effect sizes at first follow-up, using both fixed- and random-effects models. Compared to controls, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s ranged from 0.23 to 0.28). Within-group improvements in alcohol expectancies and consumption emerged for the EC group only; relative to their own baseline, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s range from 0.13 to 0.36). Supplemental analyses found improvements in specific alcohol expectancies (social, sexual, tension, and arousal) both between- and within-group. The short-term effects of EC interventions on college student drinking are not maintained at follow-ups greater than 4 weeks.
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Terry, Danielle L.; Carey, Kate B.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Michael P.
This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of
H. Wesley Perkins; Jeffrey W. Linkenbach; Melissa A. Lewis; Clayton Neighbors
Background: The long-term health consequences of acute bacter- ial gastroenteritis remain uncertain. We studied the risk of hy- pertension and reduced kidney function after an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to contamination of a regional drink- ing water supply with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campy- lobacter species. Methods: A total of 1958 adults with no known history of hyper- tension
Amit X. Garg; Douglas Matsell; Heather R. Thiessen-Philbrook; R. Brian Haynes; Rita S. Suri; Marina Salvadori; William F. Clark
This study compares the alcohol consumption and motivation to reducedrinking among injured and non injured patients in a Swedish emergency department (ED). Patients aged 18–69 registered at the ED triage room were requested to answer alcohol-related questions on a touch-screen computer. Injury patients drank alcohol significantly more often than patients without injuries and in a significantly higher typical quantity
Anna Trinks; Karin Festin; Preben Bendtsen; Per Nilsen
The present study tested the proposition that an intervention to reduce alcohol use among college students will also reduce their risky sexual behavior. In a randomized, controlled trial, 154 heavy-drinking, predominantly White, heterosexual college students at behavioral risk for infection with HIV and other STDs were assigned to receive no intervention or a two-session, in-person, motivational interviewing-based intervention focused on either: (a) reducing alcohol risk behavior, (b) reducing HIV risk behavior, or (c) reducing both alcohol and HIV risk behavior. Three-month retrospective assessments of alcohol use and sexual behavior were conducted at intake and at 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, and 15-month follow-up appointments. During follow-up, participants who received the single-focus Alcohol risk-reduction intervention drank less frequently and consumed fewer drinks per drinking day compared to no-intervention control participants, but did not differ from control participants in their frequency of intercourse without a condom or number of sexual partners. Participants who received the single-focus HIV risk-reduction intervention evidenced fewer unprotected sex events during follow-up, compared to control participants. The number of sexual partners reported during follow-up did not differ by condition. Effects of the interventions did not vary significantly over time and were not moderated by participant gender. Results suggest that intervening to reduce alcohol use may not reduce risky sexual behavior among non-minority college students, but that a brief motivational intervention targeting HIV risk behavior may have utility for reducing the frequency of unprotected sex in this population.
The present study tested the proposition that an intervention to reduce alcohol use among college students will also reduce their risky sexual behavior. In a randomized controlled trial, 154 heavy-drinking, predominantly White, heterosexual college students at behavioral risk for infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases were assigned to receive no intervention or a two-session, in-person, motivational interviewing-based intervention focused on (a) reducing alcohol risk behavior, (b) reducing HIV risk behavior, or (c) reducing both alcohol and HIV risk behavior. Three-month retrospective assessments of alcohol use and sexual behavior were conducted at intake and at 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, and 15-month follow-up appointments. During follow-up, participants who received the single-focus alcohol risk-reduction intervention drank less frequently and consumed fewer drinks per drinking day as compared with no-intervention control participants, but did not differ from control participants in their frequency of intercourse without a condom or number of sexual partners. Participants who received the single-focus HIV risk-reduction intervention evidenced fewer unprotected sex events during follow-up, as compared with control participants. The number of sexual partners reported during follow-up did not differ by condition. Effects of the interventions did not vary significantly over time and were not moderated by participant gender. Results suggest that intervening to reduce alcohol use may not reduce risky sexual behavior among nonminority college students, but that a brief motivational intervention targeting HIV risk behavior may have utility for reducing the frequency of unprotected sex in this population. PMID:21928866
|Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions…
Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.
This paper describes a programme, conducted over a 5-year period, that effectively reduced heavy drinking and alcohol-related harms among university students. The programme was organised around strategies to change the environment in which binge drinking occurred and involved input and cooperation from officials and students of the university, representatives from the city and the neighbourhood near the university, law enforcement,
Ian M. Newman; Duane F. Shell; Linda J. Major; Thomas A. Workman
The impact of drinking and driving is one focus of the mounting concern in the West over the widespread incidence of alcohol-related problems. Conventional wisdom, in the United Kingdom as well as in other countries, suggests that reducing average consumption levels will diminish the impact of the negative effects of alcohol including drinking and driving. But whether policies designed to achieve changes in per capita consumption by increasing alcohol taxes across the board constitute the most effective strategy to reducedrinking and driving is called into question. A number of competing interventions directed at the alcohol beverage industry are analysed and new directions for producers and policymakers are proposed. PMID:3689551
BACKGROUND Preliminary evidence suggest that noradrenergic signaling may play a role in mediating alcohol drinking behavior in both humans and rats. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that blockade of ?1-adrenergic receptors will suppress alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for alcohol preference (P line). METHODS Adult male P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to a 15% (v/v) alcohol solution for two hours daily. Rats were injected IP with the ?1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mg/kg BW), once a day at 15 min prior to onset of the daily two hour two-bottle choice, alcohol versus water, access period for two consecutive days and then three weeks later for five consecutive days. RESULTS Prazosin significantly reduced (p<0.01) alcohol intake during the initial two daily administrations, and this reduction of alcohol intake was maintained for five consecutive days by daily prazosin treatment in the subsequent more prolonged trial (p<0.05). The prazosin-induced reduction of alcohol intake was not dependent upon drug-induced motor impairment since increases in water drinking (p<0.05) were exhibited during the two hour access periods during both two day and five day prazosin treatment. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that the noradrenergic system plays a role in mediating alcohol drinking in rats of the P line, and suggest that prazosin - a safe, well-characterized and well-tolerated drug - may be an effective pharmacotherapeutic agent for the treatment of alcohol use disorders.
Rasmussen, Dennis D.; Alexander, Laura L.; Raskind, Murray A.; Froehlich, Janice C.
Acamprosate is clinically used to treat alcoholism. However, the precise molecular functionality of acamprosate in the central nervous system remains unclear, although it is known to antagonize glutamate action in the brain. Since elevated glutamate signaling, especially in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), is implicated in several aspects of alcoholism, we utilized mice lacking type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1), which exhibit increased glutamate levels in the NAc as well as increased ethanol drinking behaviors. We found that acamprosate significantly reduced ethanol drinking of mice lacking ENT1 (ENT1–/–) while having no such effect in wild-type littermates. We then analyzed the basal and acamprosate-treated accumbal metabolite profiles of ENT1–/– and wild-type mice using in vivo 16.4T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Our data show that basal glutamate+glutamine (Glx), glutamate, glutamine and N-acetylaspartatic acid (NAA) levels are increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of ENT1–/– compared to wild-type mice. We then found that acamprosate treatment significantly reduced Glx and glutamine levels while increasing taurine levels in the NAc of only ENT1–/– compared to their saline-treated group while normalizing other metabolite compared to wild-type mice. This study will be useful in the understanding of the molecular basis of acamprosate in the brain.
Lee, Moonnoh R.; Hinton, David J.; Wu, Jinhua; Mishra, Prasanna K.; Port, John D.; Macura, Slobodan I.; Choi, Doo-Sup
Abstract Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. Methods: Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) law. Results: In the short term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. Conclusion: These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MLDA laws simply leads to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse. PMID:23930747
Marchell, Timothy C; Lewis, Deborah D; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L; Murphy, Susan H; Reyna, Valerie F; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa
Following a radioactive fallout event, there are a number of possible intervention measures to reduce radioactive doses to the public via the surface water pathway. We have critically reviewed the options available to decision-makers in the event of radioactive contamination of surface waters. We believe that the most effective and viable measures to reduce radioactivity in drinking water are those
J. T Smith; O. V Voitsekhovitch; L Håkanson; J Hilton
As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities;
Aims This meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy and moderators of computer-delivered interventions (CDIs) to reduce alcohol use among college students. Methods We included 35 manuscripts with 43 separate interventions, and calculated both between-group and within-group effect sizes for alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Effects sizes were calculated for short-term (? 5 weeks) and longer-term (? 6 weeks) intervals. All studies were coded for study descriptors, participant characteristics, and intervention components. Results The effects of CDIs depended on the nature of the comparison condition: CDIs reduced quantity and frequency measures relative to assessment-only controls, but rarely differed from comparison conditions that included alcohol content. Small-to-medium within-group effect sizes can be expected for CDIs at short- and longer-term follow-ups; these changes are less than or equivalent to the within-group effect sizes observed for more intensive interventions. Conclusions CDIs reduce the quantity and frequency of drinking among college students. CDIs are generally equivalent to alternative alcohol-related comparison interventions.
Carey, Kate B.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Elliott, Jennifer C.; Bolles, Jamie R.; Carey, Michael P.
experience the highest levels of binge-drinking and life-time drunkenness in Europe. Youth drinking trends in North Tyneside reflect the national picture and many young people drink unsupervised on the streets, placing them at increased risk of alcohol-related harm (e.g. violence and assaults) and environmental danger (e.g. accidents and injuries), as well as contributing to residents’ fear of crime. The National
Previous investigations established that elementary and high school students residing in Reading, Massachusetts, displayed significantly higher blood pressure than their counterparts in the adjacent community of Stoneham, Massachusetts. Extensive evaluations of family history, dietary patterns, socio?demographic variables and chemical measurements of drinking water revealed that the level of sodium in the drinking water was the variable most strongly associated with
Underage drinking, or binge drinking, has become a major concern in U.S. society. At The University of Tennessee (UT) a computer-based intervention was put into place for the past 3 years with funding from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The intervention was provided to all college students via UT's computer network system and was completed mostly
John S. Wodarski; Samuel MacMaster; Nichole K. Miller
The Hobart and William Smith Colleges Alcohol Education Project (HWS) began in 1996 to test the social norms approach to reducing alcohol use by students. A social norms approach works on the premise that misperceived norms, perceptions that usually exaggerate what is typical for other students, lead to increased drinking as students attempt to…
|The Hobart and William Smith Colleges Alcohol Education Project (HWS) began in 1996 to test the social norms approach to reducing alcohol use by students. A social norms approach works on the premise that misperceived norms, perceptions that usually exaggerate what is typical for other students, lead to increased drinking as students attempt to…
|Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a digital-story intervention (short videos made by young people) seeking to reduce the prevalence of young people's binge drinking in Caerphilly. Method: A quasi-experimental design was adopted with three intervention sites and one control site providing the sample (mainly aged 14-15 years). Three rounds of…
Amending poultry litter with alum (aluminum sulfate) effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) concentrations, but the practice can be expensive. Aluminum (Al)?based drinking?water treatment residuals (WTRs) can be obtained free of charge and are enriched in Al hydr(oxides) that make them efficient P sorbents. Substituting Al?WTRs for alum would be a cost?effective practice to reduce soluble P in manures when compared
K. C. Makris; G. A. OConnor; W. G. Harris; T. A. Obreza
Alcoholism and depression show high degrees of comorbidity. Clinical evidence also indicates that depression that emerges during abstinence from chronic alcohol use has a greater negative impact on relapse than pre-existing depression. Although no single neurobiological mechanism can account for the behavioral pathologies associated with these devastating disorders, converging evidence suggests that aspects of both alcoholism and depression are linked to reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we report results from a novel preclinical behavioral model showing that abstinence from voluntary alcohol drinking leads to the emergence of depression-like behavior and reductions in neurogenesis. C57BL/6J mice were allowed to self-administer ethanol (10% v/v) vs H(2)O in the home cage for 28 days. Alcohol was then removed for 1 or 14 days, and mice were tested in the forced swim test to measure depression-like behavior. After 14 days, but not 1 day of abstinence from alcohol drinking, mice showed a significant increase in depression-like behavior. The significant increase in depression-like behavior during abstinence was associated with a reduction in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and doublecortin (DCX) immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus indicating that both the number of proliferating neural progenitor cells (NPC) and immature neurons were reduced, respectively. The number of NPCs that were labeled with bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at the beginning of alcohol exposure was not altered indicating that survival of NPCs is not linked to abstinence-induced depression. Chronic treatment (14 days) with the antidepressant desipramine during abstinence prevented both the emergence of depression-like behavior and the reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis indicating that abstinence-induced depression is associated with structural plasticity in the hippocampus. Overall, the results of this study support the conclusion that profound functional (i.e. behavioral) and structural changes occur during abstinence from alcohol use and suggest that antidepressant treatment may alleviate some of these pathological neurobehavioral adaptations. PMID:18563059
Stevenson, Jennie R; Schroeder, Jason P; Nixon, Kimberly; Besheer, Joyce; Crews, Fulton T; Hodge, Clyde W
Background Risky drinking in pregnancy by UK women is likely to result in many alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Studies from the USA suggest that brief intervention has promise for alcohol risk reduction in antenatal care. However, further research is needed to establish whether this evidence from the USA is applicable to the UK.?This pilot study aims to investigate whether pregnant women can be recruited and retained in a randomized controlled trial of brief intervention aimed at reducing risky drinking in women receiving antenatal care. Methods The trial will rehearse the parallel-group, non-blinded design and procedures of a subsequent definitive trial. Over 8 months, women aged 18 years and over (target number 2,742) attending their booking appointment with a community midwife (n?=?31) in north-east England will be screened for alcohol consumption using the consumption questions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Those screening positive, without a history of substance use or alcohol dependence, with no pregnancy complication, and able to give informed consent, will be invited to participate in the trial (target number 120). Midwives will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to deliver either treatment as usual (control) or structured brief advice and referral for a 20-minute motivational interviewing session with an alcohol health worker (intervention). As well as demographic and health information, baseline measures will include two 7-day time line follow-back questionnaires and the EuroQoL EQ-5D-3 L questionnaire. Measures will be repeated in telephone follow-ups in the third trimester and at 6 months post-partum, when a questionnaire on use of National Health Service and social care resources will also be completed. Information on pregnancy outcomes and stillbirths will be accessed from central health service records before the follow-ups. Primary outcomes will be rates of eligibility, recruitment, intervention delivery, and retention in the study population, to inform power calculations for a definitive trial. The health-economics component will establish how cost-effectiveness will be assessed, and examine which data on health service resource use should be collected in a main trial. Participants’ views on instruments and procedures will be sought to confirm their acceptability. Discussion The study will produce a full trial protocol with robust sample-size calculations to extend evidence on effectiveness of screening and brief intervention. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43218782
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed this guidance manual because the Agency is concerned about the potential for elevated lead levels in drinking water in schools. Children are most susceptible to the effects of lead, because their bodies ...
Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...
OBJECTIVE This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. PARTICIPANTS Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. METHODS Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum age drinking law (MADL). RESULTS In the short-term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. CONCLUSION These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MADLs simply lead to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse.
Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa
Thirty-six Native American tribal leaders and members living on contiguous rural Southwest California reservations were surveyed concerning their view of the acceptability of a Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention to youth (ages 8–18 years) who are drinking and their families. The results suggest that: (1) a substantial proportion of reservation youth would be willing to accept MI for behavior change; (2) relatively few are actually ready to change; (3) most reservation youth are in the pre-contemplation stage of change; and (4) MI may be well suited as an intervention to prevent underage drinking in that population. Supported by NIH.
Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Calac, Daniel; Moore, Roland S.; Monti, Peter M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.
Following a radioactive fallout event, there are a number of possible intervention measures to reduce radioactive doses to the public via the surface water pathway. We have critically reviewed the options available to decision-makers in the event of radioactive contamination of surface waters. We believe that the most effective and viable measures to reduce radioactivity in drinking water are those which operate at the water treatment and distribution stage. Intervention measures to reduce concentrations of radioactivity in rivers and reservoirs are expected to be much less viable and efficient at reducing doses via the drinking water pathway. Bans on consumption of freshwater fish can be effective, but there are few viable measures to reduce radioactivity in fish prior to the preparation stage. Lake liming and biomanipulation have been found to be ineffective for radiocaesium, although the addition of potassium to lakewaters appears promising in some situations. Lake liming may be effective in reducing radiostrontium in fish, though this has not, to our knowledge, been tested. De-boning fish contaminated by strontium is probably the most effective food preparation measure, but salting and freezing can also reduce radiocaesium concentrations in fish. The provision of accurate information to the public is highlighted as a key element of countermeasure implementation. PMID:11446114
Smith, J T; Voitsekhovitch, O V; Håkanson, L; Hilton, J
|The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew
The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Many groundwaters that have arsenic in their source water also have iron in their water. As a result, arsenic treatment at these sites will most likely b...
Underage drinking, or binge drinking, has become a major concern in U.S. society. At The University of Tennessee (UT) a computer-based intervention was put into place for the past 3 years with funding from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The intervention was provided to all college students via UT's computer network system and was completed mostly online. Students were given a computerized, standardized assessment of alcohol use, and then a brief intervention was given based on the students' information. The intervention targeted students who were at highest risk for developing unsafe alcohol behaviors and/or increasing prior alcohol consumption habits in their first year of college. More than 54,000 graduate and undergraduate students completed the program. Since the launch of the program binge drinking has dropped 27% on campus, frequent binge drinking dropped 44%, and the number of liquor law violations to 18- to 20-year-olds decreased from 542 in 2004 to approximately 158 in 2007. The use of a computer-based intervention was comprehensive, low cost, and required low maintenance. PMID:22486431
Wodarski, John S; Macmaster, Samuel; Miller, Nichole K
The addition of a sanitiser, containing a mixture of organic acids and other approved additives, to water offered to broiler chickens was effective in eliminating salmonella from the drinking water. However, it failed to influence salmonella carriage by the chickens which were still shedding salmonella at market age (seven weeks old). PMID:3992854
Conservation dollars applied in the Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed have achieved a significant reduction in the atrazine levels in Hover Reservoir, a major drinking water source for Columbus, Ohio. During the 1990s, atrazine levels in this reservoir periodically exceeded the health advisory limit ...
Although the popularization of the combined use of alcoholic beverages and energy drinks (ED) containing caffeine, taurine and other substances has increased, there are no controlled experimental studies on the effects of ED alone or combined with ethanol. This work aimed at evaluating the effects of different doses of ED combined or not with ethanol, on the locomotor activity of
Sionaldo E. Ferreira; Isabel M. Hartmann Quadros; Ágatha A. Trindade; Shirley Takahashi; Renata G. Koyama; Maria Lucia O. Souza-Formigoni
|This study examines the effectiveness of a single-session group motivational enhancement intervention with college students adjudicated for violation of alcohol policy. The intervention consisted of a timeline Followback assessment of drinking, social norms re-education, decisional balance for behavior change, relapse prevention, expectancy…
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Lamb, Toby F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Quinlan, Thomas
Aims To evaluate a 2.5-year prevention programme working through parents, targeting drinking among 13-16-year-olds. Design Quasi-experimental using matched controls with a pre-post, intention-to-treat design. Setting Schools located in inner city, public housing and small town areas. Participants A total of 900 pupils entering junior high school and their parents, followed longitudinally. Intervention Parents received information by mail and during parent
We studied the effects of different preoperative oral fluid protocols on preoperative discomfort, residual gastric fluid volumes, and gastric acidity. Two- hundred-fifty-two elective abdominal surgery patients (ASA physical status I-II) were randomized to prepara- tion with a 12.5% carbohydrate drink (CHO), placebo (flavored water), or overnight fasting. The CHO and Placebo groups were double-blinded and were given 800 mL to
Jonatan Hausel; Jonas Nygren; Michael Lagerkranser; Folke Hammarqvist; Annika Lindh; Anders Thorell; Olle Ljungqvist
... national, state, and local levels, such as enforcement of minimum legal drinking age laws, national media campaigns targeting youth and adults, increasing alcohol excise taxes, reducing youth exposure to alcohol advertising, ...
As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively im...
As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.
... for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, a unique multimedia framework authorized in the 1996 Amendments to the Safewater Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Information about the proposed rule and ...
Background Problem drinking, particularly risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD), also called “binge drinking”, is widespread among adolescents and young adults in most Western countries. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of interventions to reduce RSOD in young people with heterogeneous and particularly lower educational background. Objective To test the appropriateness and initial effectiveness of a combined, individually tailored Web- and text messaging (SMS)–based intervention program to reduce problem drinking in vocational school students. Methods The fully automated program provided: (1) online feedback about an individual’s drinking pattern compared to the drinking norms of an age- and gender-specific reference group, and (2) recurrent individualized SMS messages over a time period of 3 months. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses were used to investigate the longitudinal courses of the following outcomes over the study period of 3 months: RSOD, alcohol-related problems, mean number of standard drinks per week, and maximum number of standard drinks on an occasion. Results The program was tested in 36 school classes at 7 vocational schools in Switzerland. Regardless of their drinking behavior, 477 vocational school students who owned a mobile phone were invited to participate in the program. Of these, 364 (76.3%) participated in the program. During the intervention period, 23 out of 364 (6.3%) persons unsubscribed from participating in the program. The GEE analyses revealed decreases in the percentage of persons with RSOD from baseline (75.5%, 210/278) to follow-up assessment (67.6%, 188/278, P<.001), in the percentage of persons with alcohol-related problems (20.4%, 57/280 to 14.3%, 40/280, P=.009), and in the mean number of standard drinks per week: 13.4 (SD 15.3) to 11.3 (SD 14.0), P=.002. They also revealed a trend toward a decrease in the mean of the maximum number of drinks consumed on an occasion: 11.3 (SD 10.3) to 10.5 (SD 10.3), P=.08. Conclusions The results show high acceptance and promising effectiveness of this interventional approach, which could be easily and economically implemented within school classes.
Schaub, Michael P; Venzin, Vigeli; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Gmel, Gerhard
Prejudice and stereotyping cause social problems and intergroup tension. The current work examined whether bolstering self-control by giving participants glucose would reduce stereotype use for an impression formation task. Previous work has demonstrated that self-control depends on biologically expensive brain processes that consume energy derived from glucose in the bloodstream. In the current study, glucose was manipulated via lemonade sweetened
Matthew T. Gailliot; B. Michelle Peruche; E. Ashby Plant; Roy F. Baumeister
The Institute of Transport Economics, Norway has carried out a survey on the effect of the reduced BAC (blood alcohol concentration) limit of 0.02 per cent in Norway which took effect January 1, 2001. 3001 driver's license holders were interviewed before ...
Objective Severe alcohol consumption can cause serious morbidity and death. Because the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is an important regulator of neuronal 5-HT function, allelic differences at that gene may modulate the severity of alcohol consumption and predict therapeutic response to the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. Method We randomized 283 alcoholics by genotype in the 5?-regulatory region of the 5-HTT gene (LL/LS/SS), with additional genotyping for another functional single nucleotide polymorphism (T/G), rs1042173, in the 3?-untranslated region, in a controlled double-blind trial. Subjects received ondansetron (4 ?g/kg twice daily) or placebo for 11 weeks, plus standardized cognitive behavioral therapy. Results LL subjects who received ondansetron vs. placebo had fewer mean drinks per drinking day (DDD) and a higher percentage of days abstinent (PDA) (?1.62; p=0.007 and 11.27%; p=0.023). Within ondansetron recipients, DDD was lower and PDA higher in LL vs. LS/SS subjects (?1.53; p=0.005 and 9.73%; p=0.03). Ondansetron LL subjects also had fewer DDD and greater PDA than all other genotype and treatment groups combined (?1.45; p=0.002 and 9.65%; p=0.013). For both DDD and PDA, 5?-HTTLPR and rs1042173 variants interacted significantly (p=0.023 and 0.009). Ondansetron LL/TT had fewer DDD and a greater PDA than all other genotype and treatment groups combined (?2.63; p<0.0001 and 16.99%; p=0.002). Conclusions We propose a new pharmacogenetic approach using ondansetron to reduce the severity of alcohol consumption and improve abstinence in alcoholics.
Johnson, Bankole A.; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Seneviratne, Chamindi; Roache, John D.; Javors, Martin A.; Wang, Xin-Qun; Liu, Lei; Penberthy, J. Kim; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Li, Ming D.
A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. Two surveys provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors…
|A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. Two surveys provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors…
A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to examine multiple drinking outcomes, taking
William DeJong; Shari Kessel Schneider; Laura Gomberg Towvim; Melissa J. Murphy; Emily E. Doerr; Neal R. Simonsen; Karen E. Mason; Richard A. Scribner
This report presents the results of a demonstration project to test the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media intervention to reduce the prevalence of driving after drinking among 21 to 34-year-olds living in western Montana. A baseline survey w...
Introduction and Aims Misperceptions of how members of one’s social group think and act influence behaviour. The current study was designed to extend the research of group-specific normative feedback interventions among salient campus groups with heightened risk. Although not a randomised controlled trial, this research used normative feedback that was obtained using wireless keypad technology during a live session, within sex-specific student athlete groups to extend the proof of concept of using this brief interactive intervention. Design and Methods Participants included 660 intercollegiate athletes from all varsity athletic teams at two private, mid-size universities. Intervention data were gathered in vivo using computerised handheld keypads into which group members entered in personal responses to a series of alcohol-related questions. These questions assessed perceptions of normative group behaviour and attitudes as well as actual individual behaviour and attitudes. These data were then immediately presented back in graphical form to illustrate discrepancies between perceived and actual group norms. Results Results revealed that at 1 month post-intervention, perceived group norms, behaviour, attitudes and consequences reduced compared with baseline. These reductions were maintained at 2 month follow up. Latent growth modelling suggested that the reductions in perceived norms and attitudes were associated with reductions in individual drinking behaviour and negative consequences. Discussion and Conclusions These results are among the first to suggest the effectiveness of a novel, group-based normative alcohol intervention among student athletes. Limitations of the design preclude strong inferences about efficacy; however, the findings support further trialling of such information technology in alcohol treatment research.
Background Current insights indicate that Web-based delivery may enhance the implementation of brief alcohol interventions. Previous research showed that electronically delivered brief alcohol interventions decreased alcohol use in college students and adult problem drinkers. To date, no study has investigated the effectiveness of Web-based brief alcohol interventions in reducing alcohol use in younger populations. Objective The present study tested 2 main hypotheses, that is, whether an online multicomponent brief alcohol intervention was effective in reducing alcohol use among 15- to 20-year-old binge drinkers and whether inclusion of normative feedback would increase the effectiveness of this intervention. In additional analyses, we examined possible moderation effects of participant’s sex, which we had not a priori hypothesized. Method A total of 575 online panel members (aged 15 to 20 years) who were screened as binge drinkers were randomly assigned to (1) a Web-based brief alcohol intervention without normative feedback, (2) a Web-based brief alcohol intervention with normative feedback, or (3) a control group (no intervention). Alcohol use and moderate drinking were assessed at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months after the intervention. Separate analyses were conducted for participants in the original sample (n = 575) and those who completed both posttests (n = 278). Missing values in the original sample were imputed by using the multiple imputation procedure of PASW Statistics 18. Results Main effects of the intervention were found only in the multiple imputed dataset for the original sample suggesting that the intervention without normative feedback reduced weekly drinking in the total group both 1 and 3 months after the intervention (n =575, at the 1-month follow-up, beta = -.24, P = .05; at the 3-month follow-up, beta = -.25, P = .04). Furthermore, the intervention with normative feedback reduced weekly drinking only at 1 month after the intervention (n=575, beta = -.24, P = .008). There was also a marginally significant trend of the intervention without normative feedback on responsible drinking at the 3-month follow-up (n =575, beta = .40, P =.07) implying a small increase in moderate drinking at the 3-month follow-up. Additional analyses on both datasets testing our post hoc hypothesis about a possible differential intervention effect for males and females revealed that this was the case for the impact of the intervention without normative feedback on weekly drinking and moderate drinking at the 1-month follow-up (weekly drinking for n = 278, beta = -.80, P = .01, and for n = 575, beta = -.69, P = .009; moderate drinking for n = 278, odds ratio [OR] = 3.76, confidence interval [CI] 1.05 - 13.49, P = .04, and for n = 575, OR = 3.00, CI = 0.89 - 10.12, P = .08) and at the 3-month follow-up (weekly drinking for n = 278, beta = -.58, P = .05, and for n = 575, beta = -.75, P = .004; moderate drinking for n = 278, OR = 4.34, CI = 1.18 - 15.95, P = .04, and for n = 575, OR = 3.65, CI = 1.44 - 9.25, P = .006). Furthermore, both datasets showed an interaction effect between the intervention with normative feedback and participant’s sex on weekly alcohol use at the 1-month follow-up (for n = 278, beta = -.74, P =.02, and for n = 575, beta = -.64, P =.01) and for moderate drinking at the 3-month follow-up (for n = 278, OR = 3.10, CI = 0.81 - 11.85, P = .07, and for n = 575, OR = 3.00, CI = 1.23 - 7.27, P = .01). Post hoc probing indicated that males who received the intervention showed less weekly drinking and were more likely to drink moderately at 1 month and at 3 months following the intervention. For females, the interventions yielded no effects: the intervention without normative feedback even showed a small unfavorable effect at the 1-month follow-up. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that exposure to a Web-based brief alcohol intervention generated a decrease in weekly drinking among 15- to 20-year-old binge drinkers but did not encourage moderate drinking in the total sample. Additional analy
|A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…
DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.
... Research shows that more than 80 percent of college students drink alcohol, and almost half report binge drinking in the past 2 weeks. Virtually all college students experience the effects of college drinking—whether they ...
... if you drink too much at any age, alcohol can be especially risky. Many kids begin drinking ... are also more likely to develop problems with alcohol later in life. Kids often begin drinking to ...
This study evaluated the efficacy of a web-based personalized normative feedback program targeting heavy drinking in first-year intercollegiate athletes. The program was offered through the Athletic Department first-year seminar at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university. Athletes were randomly assigned to either a web-based feedback group or a comparison condition. Results indicated high-risk athletes receiving the intervention
Background Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem which may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Methods Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 wk) and adult (10 wk) male C57BL/6J mice for 2-4 h/day for 16 d. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Results Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. Conclusions These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kg body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking, and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during adolescence occurs, in part, via a reduced sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol.
Holstein, Sarah E.; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W.
|Tested the effectiveness of Behavioral Self-Control Training in reducing alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, drinking-and-driving incidents, and life problems. No significant differences were found between conditions on these variables suggesting that a controlled drinking goal may not be feasible for all drinking-and-driving…
... national surveys indicates that rates of underage alcohol consumption over the past decade remain at unacceptably high ... is the high prevalence of binge drinking – the consumption of five or more drinks for males, and ...
Background The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20?years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific target group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that aims to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking adolescents aged 15 to 20?years with a low educational background. Methods/design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink (WDYD) web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 750 low-educated, heavy drinking adolescents. It will use a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Classes of adolescents from educational institutions will be randomly assigned to either the experimental (n?=?375: web-based brief alcohol intervention) or control condition (n?=?375: no intervention). Primary outcomes measures will be: 1) the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking, 2) reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption, and 3) frequency of binge drinking. The secondary outcome measures include the alcohol-related cognitions, attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective norms, which will be measured at baseline and at one and six months after the intervention. Discussion This study protocol presents the study design of a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention. We hypothesized a reduction in mean weekly alcohol consumption and in the frequency of binge drinking in the experimental condition, resulting from the web-based brief alcohol intervention, compared to the control condition. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971
Public Service Announcements tailored to specific college drinking rituals (Treise, Wolburg and Otnes 1999) were tested on 133 underage undergraduate drinkers. More significant reductions in drinking intentions were found when using appeals focusing on drinking rituals pertaining to Maturity/Order (older students drink moderately: "Don't drink like a freshman.") than to Transformation (desired personality and mood changes), Community (social bonding and camaraderie), or a no-message Control. Gender did not moderate this effect. Underage drinkers may drink, in part, to feel more "grown up." Emphasizing that more senior students actually drink responsibly may diminish this belief and result in reduced alcohol consumption among underage students. PMID:17182459
Synopsis Our study attempts to find out the role of various information sources in the implementation of the rainwater harvesting tanks to reduce water pollution risks in the coastal Bangladesh. An extensive field survey has shown that adopters of the tanks mostly have come to know the tank by interpersonal sources rather than mass media. By mapping interpersonal information networks
Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill.
Since the mid-1970s numerous states have raised their minimum legal drinking age in an effort to reduce alcohol-related traffic accidents. This study examines determinants of a variety of traffic fatality rates at the state level for 1978, with particular attention to drinking age and drinking experience. The legal drinking age has no perceptible influence on fatalities, but inexperience in drinking
Benzylamine is found in Moringa oleifera, a plant used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine. In mammals, benzylamine is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) to benzaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This latter product has insulin-mimicking action, and is involved in the effects of benzylamine on human adipocytes: stimulation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis. This study examined whether chronic, oral administration of benzylamine could improve glucose tolerance and the circulating lipid profile without increasing oxidative stress in overweight and pre-diabetic mice. The benzylamine diffusion across the intestine was verified using everted gut sacs. Then, glucose handling and metabolic markers were measured in mice rendered insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and receiving or not benzylamine in their drinking water (3600micromol/(kgday)) for 17 weeks. HFD-benzylamine mice showed lower body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, total plasma cholesterol and hyperglycaemic response to glucose load when compared to HFD control. In adipocytes, insulin-induced activation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis remained unchanged. In aorta, benzylamine treatment partially restored the nitrite levels that were reduced by HFD. In liver, lipid peroxidation markers were reduced. Resistin and uric acid, surrogate plasma markers of metabolic syndrome, were decreased. In spite of the putative deleterious nature of the hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation, and in agreement with its in vitro insulin-like actions found on adipocytes, the SSAO-substrate benzylamine could be considered as a potential oral agent to treat metabolic syndrome. PMID:20045461
Bush K,Kivlahan DR,McDonellMB,FihnSD, Bradley KA. The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C): an effective brief screening test for problem drinking. Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). Alcohol Use ...
... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...
Background To evaluate the slightly modified version of the web-based brief alcohol intervention “What Do You Drink” (WDYD) among heavy drinking adolescents and young adults aged 15–20 years with a low educational background at one and six months follow-up. Methods A two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted online in the Netherlands in 2011–2012. Participants included in the trial were recruited from preparatory and secondary vocational education institutions and had to be between 15 and 20 years of age and report heavy drinking in the past six months. In total, 73 classes representing 609 (59.9% male) participants were allocated to the experimental condition (37 classes, 318 participants: WDYD intervention) or control condition (36 classes, 291 participants: no intervention). Outcomes were heavy drinking, weekly alcohol consumption, and frequency of binge drinking. Results Regressions analyses revealed no significant main intervention effects on any of the alcohol outcomes at one and six month’s follow-up according to the intention-to-treat principle. Additionally, there were no moderating effects of gender, age, educational level, and readiness to change on the relation between the WDYD intervention and the alcohol outcomes at follow-up. Conclusions The WDYD intervention was not effective in reducing alcohol consumption among heavy drinking adolescents and young adults aged 15–20 years with a low educational background at one and six months follow-up. However, the absence of intervention effectiveness cannot be used as an argument for not conducting these types of interventions with low educated individuals, since our study was the first to target this population. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971
BACKGROUND: College drinking is a significant public health problem. Although parental monitoring and supervision reduces the risk for alcohol consumption among younger adolescents, few studies have investigated the impact of earlier parental monitoring on later college drinking. This study examined whether parental monitoring indirectly exerts a protective effect on college drinking by reducing high school alcohol consumption. METHODS: A longitudinal
Amelia M Arria; Vanessa Kuhn; Kimberly M Caldeira; Kevin E O'Grady; Kathryn B Vincent; Eric D Wish
|Laws such as 0.08 blood alcohol content, open container, and license revocation provide a policy framework for reducingdrinking and driving. Drinking and driving behavior is difficult to assess; unlike property and violent crimes, where incidence statistics can approximate behavior, most drink-driving trips go undetected. The authors develop a…
Bertelli, Anthony M.; Richardson, Lilliard E., Jr.
... are here Home » Alcohol & Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption » Moderate & Binge Drinking In this Section Overview of Alcohol Consumption Drinking Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Moderate & ...
Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water.
Objective: This study evaluated a gender-specific, computer-mediated intervention program to prevent underage drinking among early adolescent girls. Method: Study participants were adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants completed pretests online and were randomly divided between intervention and control arms. Intervention-arm girls and their mothers interacted with a computer program aimed to enhance mother-daughter relationships and to teach girls skills for managing conflict, resisting media influences, refusing alcohol and drugs, and correcting peer norms about underage drinking, smoking, and drug use. After intervention, all participants (control and intervention) completed posttest and follow-up measurements. Results: Two months following program delivery and relative to control-arm participants, intervention-arm girls and mothers had improved their mother-daughter communication skills and their perceptions and applications of parental monitoring and rule-setting relative to girls' alcohol use. Also at follow-up, intervention-arm girls had improved their conflict management and alcohol use-refusal skills; reported healthier normative beliefs about underage drinking; demonstrated greater self-efficacy about their ability to avoid underage drinking; reported less alcohol consumption in the past 7 days, 30 days, and year; and expressed lower intentions to drink as adults. Conclusions: Study findings modestly support the viability of a mother-daughter, computer-mediated program to prevent underage drinking among adolescent girls. The data have implications for the further development of gender-specific approaches to combat increases in alcohol and other substance use among American girls.
Schinke, Steven P.; Cole, Kristin C. A.; Fang, Lin
Social host policies focused on underage drinking parties are implemented to reduce social availability of alcohol and high-risk drinking by adolescents in private locations. We examined the policies' relationship with drinking location, peer-group drinking size, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences. Cross-sectional data from 11,205, 14-20-year olds, were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Policies were not associated with drinking location, decreased heavy episodic drinking, or nonviolent consequences. However, adolescents from communities with a preexisting policy had lower odds of drinking in large peer groups compared to those from communities without a policy at baseline. Additional research is needed to examine their effectiveness. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:23003215
Wagoner, Kimberly G; Sparks, Michael; Francisco, Vincent T; Wyrick, David; Nichols, Tracy; Wolfson, Mark
This problem provides an opportunity for students to reason about ratio and proportion in the realistic context of mixing a fruit drink from concentrate. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and links to related problems (Blackcurrantiest is cataloged separately).
For the first time a direct ion chromatographic routine method was developed for the simultaneous determination of selected inorganic anions and organic acids from raw and drinking waters. The inorganic anions included the common inorganic anions (fluoride, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, and phosphate) and also the iodide. Organic acids were lactate, acetate, propionate, formate, oxalate, and citrate. A hydrogen
Panu Rantakokko; Satu Mustonen; Miljamartta Yritys; Terttu Vartiainen
The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of “binge drinking” on college campuses. However, such a policy change would remove one of the
|The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…
Motives to drink alcohol are widely thought to be the proximal cognitive factors involved in the decision to consume alcohol beverages. However it has also been argued that the ability to restrain drinking may be a more proximal predictor of drinking behaviour. The current study aimed to examine the relationships between drinking motives, drinking restraint and both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in a sample of young adults. A sample of 221 young adults (aged 17-34 years) completed self-report measures assessing drinking behaviour, motives for drinking and drinking restraint. Multiple regression analyses revealed that coping, enhancement and social motives were related to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, while Cognitive and Emotional Preoccupation with drinking was related to all criterion variables. Further, the relationship between coping motives and drinking behaviour was mediated by preoccupation with drinking. The results are discussed in light of the roles of drinking motives and drinking restraint in risky drinking among young people, and implications for prevention and early intervention are presented. PMID:19775821
The co-occurrence of alcoholism and depression is highly prevalent and difficult to treat. In an animal model of binge drinking that exhibits abstinence-induced behaviors reminiscent of negative affective states, the triple monoamine uptake inhibitor, amitifadine, produced a selective, dose dependent attenuation of binge drinking. Amitifadine also reversed abstinence-induced increases in the intracranial self-stimulation threshold, a model of anhedonia, and immobility in the forced swim test, reflecting behavioral despair. In view of the safety profile of amitifadine in humans, including low risk for weight gain, lack of sexual side effects, and low potential for abuse, we hypothesize that amitifadine will be effective in treating co-occurring alcoholism and depression. PMID:22884707
Warnock, Kaitlin T; Yang, Andrew R S T; Yi, Heon S; June, Harry L; Kelly, Timothy; Basile, Anthony S; Skolnick, Phil; June, Harry L
Aim: To test whether a single session of Motivational Interviewing (MI) focussing on drinking alcohol, and cigarette and cannabis smoking, would successfully lead to reductions in use or problems. Methods: Naturalistic quasi-experimental study, in 162 young people (mean age 17 years) who were daily cigarette smokers, weekly drinkers or weekly cannabis smokers, comparing 59 receiving MI with 103 non-intervention assessment-only
This 'Community How to Guide on Underage Drinking Enforcement' detail what coalitions and organizations need to do to insure the enforcement and judicial communities are active partners in the effort to reduce underage drinking. One of the first tasks dis...
... the fact that manufactures of these drinks are marketing to teens may play a role, suggested Dr. ... companies that spend hundreds of millions of dollars marketing sugary drinks to them, including deceptively healthy-sounding ...
This study tests the hypothesis that the relationship between parenthood and heavy drinking is mediated by drinking locations. The analysis is based on a random sample of 4180 female and 3630 male Canadian drinkers aged between 18 and 55 years old. A multiple mediator model is tested. Results show that the parental role may be associated with variation in where people drink, and where people drink may be associated with variation in heavy drinking. For women, parenthood is related to a reduction in heavy drinking associated with a reduction of drinking occasions that occur at bars, offset to some extent by the fact that drinking in restaurants is also less common among mothers than non-mothers. For men, parenthood is related to a reduction in heavy drinking partly because fathers more often drink at friends' homes and the proportion of drinking occasions that occur at bars is smaller among fathers than non-fathers. The results of this study correspond with a refined version of the opportunity perspective. Given the nature of the processes by which parenthood is related to heavy drinking, alcohol consumption needs to be understood through a perspective that includes both individual and contextual factors. PMID:21454004
Alcohol use health consequences are considerable; prevention efforts are needed, particularly for adolescents and college students. The national minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is a primary alcohol-control policy in the United States. An advocacy group supported by some college presidents seeks public debate on the minimum legal drinking age and proposes reducing it to 18 years. We reviewed recent trends in drinking and related consequences, evidence on effectiveness of the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years, research on drinking among college students related to the minimum legal drinking age, and the case to lower the minimum legal drinking age. Evidence supporting the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is strong and growing. A wide range of empirically supported interventions is available to reduce underage drinking. Public health professionals can play a role in advocating these interventions.
Introduction and Aims For consumers to follow drinking guidelines and limit their risk of negative consequences they need to track their ethanol consumption. This paper reviews published research on the ability of consumers to utilise information about the alcohol content of beverages when expressed in different forms e.g. in standard drinks or units versus percentage alcohol content.. Design and Methods A review of the literature on standard drink definitions and consumer understanding of these, actual drink pouring, use of standard drinks in guidelines and consumer understanding and use of these. Results Standard drink definitions vary across countries and typically contain less alcohol than actual drinks. Drinkers have difficulty defining and pouring standard drinks with over-pouring being the norm such that intake volume is typically underestimated. Drinkers have difficulty using percentage alcohol by volume and pour size information in calculating intake but can effectively utilise standard drink labeling to track intake. Discussion and Conclusions Standard drink labeling is an effective but little used strategy for enabling drinkers to track their alcohol intake and potentially conform to safe or low risk drinking guidelines.
Purpose: To discuss the composition and rationale for the use of sports drinks along with recent studies investigating the relationship between sports drinks and dental erosion. Methods: A review of the literature of sports drinks and dental erosion was done. Results: For most athletes and individuals engaged in physical activity, the use of sports drinks does not provide a benefit
|Objective: Hazardous drinking is a serious societal concern in military populations. Efforts to reduce hazardous drinking among military personnel have been limited in effectiveness. There is a need for a deeper understanding of how community-based prevention models apply to hazardous drinking in the military. Community-wide prevention efforts…
Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on how drinking water consumption could be potentially reduced by the introduction of dual water distribution networks. Since water of this quality is required only for drinking, cooking, bathing, and washing, delivering such water for uses that require non-drinking water quality represents a tremendous waste of water
This study examines the efficacy of a video entitled “Underage Drinking: A Roll of the Dice,” and accompanying discussion guide. The video illustrates the civil and criminal consequences of underage drinking. The video and discussion aimed to: (1) increase awareness about the problem of underage drinking; (2) increase viewers' and participants' knowledge and perceptions of the risks and responsibilities and
Karen Glanz; Jason E Maddock; Dorothy Shigaki; Catherine A Sorensen
High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink consumption and…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010
Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...
Background: Current insights indicate that Web-based delivery may enhance the implementation of brief alcohol interventions. Previous research showed that electronically delivered brief alcohol interventions decreased alcohol use in college students and adult problem drinkers. To date, no study has investigated the effectiveness of Web-based brief alcohol interventions in reducing alcohol use in younger populations.\\u000aObjective: The present study tested 2
R. Spijkerman; M. A. E. Roek; A. A. Vermulst; A. C. J. Lemmers; A. M. P. Huiberts; R. C. M. E. Engels
Pregaming, the practice of consuming alcohol before attending a social function, has not received as much research attention as drinking games among college students. This study investigated the prevalence of both pregaming and drinking game participation in a sample of mandated students (N=334) who had been referred for an alcohol violation. Approximately one-third (31%) of the sample reported pregaming on the night of their referral event. Pregaming was associated with higher estimated blood alcohol content on that night, along with a greater history of pregaming and taking greater responsibility for the incident. A higher proportion of the students (49%) reported playing drinking games on the event night and reported the event to be less aversive than non-players. Neither drinking games nor pregaming was consistently related to recent alcohol consumption or problems, nor did they frequently occur together on the event night. Pregaming was a unique predictor of intoxication on the night of the referral, and drinking games were not. Therefore, pregaming and drinking games appear to be distinct activities. This research suggests methods of prevention for both activities as well as promising research directions for future research. PMID:17574344
Borsari, Brian; Boyle, Kelly E; Hustad, John T P; Barnett, Nancy P; O'Leary Tevyaw, Tracy; Kahler, Christopher W
Background College drinking is a significant public health problem. Although parental monitoring and supervision reduces the risk for alcohol consumption among younger adolescents, few studies have investigated the impact of earlier parental monitoring on later college drinking. This study examined whether parental monitoring indirectly exerts a protective effect on college drinking by reducing high school alcohol consumption. Methods A longitudinal cohort of 1,253 male and female students, ages 17 to 19, attending a large, public, mid-Atlantic university was studied at two time points. First, data on high school parental monitoring and alcohol consumption were gathered via questionnaire during the summer prior to college entry. Second, during the first year of college, past-year alcohol consumption was measured via a personal interview. Multiple regression models tested the relationship between parental monitoring and past year alcohol use (i.e., number of drinks per drinking day). Results Holding constant demographics, SAT score, and religiosity, parental monitoring had a significant protective effect on both high school and college drinking level. However, the association between parental monitoring and college drinking level became non-significant once high school drinking level was held constant. Conclusion While parental monitoring did not directly influence college alcohol consumption, evidence for mediation was observed, whereby parental monitoring had an indirect influence on college drinking through reductions in high school drinking. Initiatives that promote effective parenting might be an important strategy to curb high-risk drinking among older adolescents. More research is needed to understand the nature and degree of parent-child communication that is necessary to extend the protective influence of parents into the college years.
Arria, Amelia M; Kuhn, Vanessa; Caldeira, Kimberly M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vincent, Kathryn B; Wish, Eric D
To evaluate the role of the functional Asn40Asp polymorphism in the mu-opioid receptor gene on drinking behavior and naltrexone's ability to attenuate drinking, we used a daily diary method in a 12-week, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone to reducedrinking. Participants (n = 158 problem drinkers) were assigned to receive either daily or targeted naltrexone 50 mg (n = 81) or matching placebo (n = 77). Patients reported by telephone each evening their current desire to drink and their drinking during the previous night and during the reporting day. We examined genotype, medication, desire to drink and their interactions as predictors of nighttime drinks consumed, controlling for drinking earlier in the day. Asp40 carriers showed a stronger positive association between evening desire (deviations from their mean levels) and later night drinking levels than Asn40 homozygotes (P = 0.019). The desire × genotype × medication condition interaction was also significant (P = 0.009), with a significant desire × genotype interaction for the placebo group (P = 0.001) but not for the naltrexone group (P = 0.74). In summary, when the evening level of desire to drink was relatively high, Asp40 allele carriers were at greater risk than Asn40 homozygotes to drink more, which was attenuated by naltrexone. Although average measures across the study were not informative, daily reports helped to demonstrate the moderating effects of genetic variation on the relation between desire to drink and alcohol consumption and the effects of naltrexone on that phenotype. PMID:22784013
Kranzler, Henry R; Armeli, Stephen; Covault, Jonathan; Tennen, Howard
In recent years an increasing number of different energy drinks have been introduced to provide an energy boost. They contain high levels of caffeine and other additives that act as stimulants. Several recent studies present that energy drinks could increase the risk of seizures, acid-base disorders and cardiovascular events. The authors report a 28-year-old man who was brought to the emergency room after sudden onset of tonic-clonic seizures and metabolic acidosis after drinking several cans of a caffeinated energy drink. The authors believe that this clinical picture was caused by caffeine intoxication from an energetic drink causing a syndrome of catecholamine excess. The patient was discharged within a week with no complaints and no neurological signs. Finally, recognising the features of caffeine intoxication and its potential health consequences may be especially relevant when treating younger persons who may be more likely to consume energy drinks. PMID:22714613
Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent\\u000a need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the\\u000a Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in\\u000a this protocol will test the effectiveness of
Carmen V Voogt; Evelien AP Poelen; Marloes Kleinjan; Lex ACJ Lemmers; Rutger CME Engels
Background Alcohol consumption and drink/driving are positively correlated and many predictors of alcohol use also predict drink/driving. Past research has not fully distinguished the contributions of personal risk factors from the level of alcohol use in the prediction of drink/driving. As a result, the extent to which predictors are specific to drink/driving, versus due to a mutual association to alcohol use, is unclear. Methods This study examined the unique and shared risk factors for drink/driving and alcohol use, and examined the attributable risk (AR) associated with predictors of drink/driving while adjusting for alcohol use. Study data were from a telephone survey of 3,480 Michigan-licensed young adults who were drinkers. Four groups of drink/drivers were formed based on the prior 12-month maximum severity of drink/driving: (1) never drink/driving; (2) driving at least once within an hour of 1 or 2 drinks; (3) driving within an hour of 3 or more drinks or while feeling the effects of alcohol; and (4) drinking while driving. Results Lower perceived risk of drink/driving, greater social support for drinking and drink/driving, greater aggression and delinquency, more cigarette smoking, and more risky driving behaviors uniquely predicted drink/driving severity in models adjusted for alcohol use. The largest ARs were associated with social support for drinking and drink/driving and perceived risk of drink/driving. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol use and drink/driving share risk factors, but also indicate that part of the variation in these factors is specific to drink/driving. Implications for interventions to reducedrink/driving are discussed.
Bingham, C. Raymond; Elliott, Michael R.; Shope, Jean T.
... are here Home » Alcohol & Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption » What Is A Standard Drink? In this Section Overview of Alcohol Consumption Drinking Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Moderate & ...
The influence of social networks on the drinking practices of pregnant women was examined. Pregnant women (n = 153) were classified according to whether they were heavy or light drinkers just before pregnancy and whether they reduced their alcohol risk status after pregnancy recognition. Failure to reduce alcohol risk status following pregnancy recognition among initially heavy drinkers was associated with
... the past 30 days. (4) Underage Drinking by College Students • • • • • Among full-time college students, 60.8 percent were current drinkers, 39.1 ... 5 percent, respectively. (2) Approximately 25 percent of college students report academic consequences of their drinking, including missing ...
This study focuses on drinking and the socially associated behavior of young people in discotheques and restaurants serving alcoholic beverages in Helsinki, Finland. Patterns of entering, seating, drinking, contact-making, and social control are discussed with respect to their inter-relationships and sexual differences are noted. (EH)
|The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…
This paper discussed the revising of the primary and secondary drinking-water regulations by EPA in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Since consideration of risk is playing an increasing role in setting environmental standards, questions were raised regarding the adequacy of human health protection afforded by some of the existing and proposed standards. 1 table.
This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.
Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. (Northeast Regional Environmental Public Health Center, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (US))
A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide water that is both microbiologically and chemically safe for human consumption. Drinking water chlorination, therefore, poses a dilemma. Chemical disinfection reduces the risk of infectious disease but the interaction be...
Objective: Hazardous drinking is a serious societal concern in military populations. Efforts to reduce hazardous drinking among military personnel have been limited in effectiveness. There is a need for a deeper understanding of how community-based prevention models apply to hazardous drinking in the military. Community-wide prevention efforts may be most effective in targeting community functioning (e.g., support from formal agencies,
Heather M. Foran; Richard E. Heyman; Amy M. Smith Slep
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide secreted by hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic neurons, is thought to\\u000a mediate stress-related behaviors. The tension reduction hypothesis suggests that ethanol drinkingreduces stress; that drinking\\u000a is reinforced by this reduced stress; and that the probability of drinking therefore subsequently increases. CRF also decrease\\u000a food intake, and might decrease ethanol drinking similarly. We addressed these hypotheses
S. Michael Bell; James G. Reynolds; Todd E. Thiele; Jane Gan; Dianne P. Figlewicz; Stephen C. Woods
|The problem of underage drinking on college campuses has been brewing for many years to the continued vexation of higher education administrators. In 2008, John McCardell, president emeritus of Middlebury College, began to circulate for signature a public statement among colleagues titled "The Amethyst Initiative," which calls for elected…
Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a pa
Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? KidsHealth > Parents > Sports Medicine Center > Q&As > Sports and Energy Drinks: Should ... a daily multivitamin formulated for kids. Back Continue Energy Drinks These are becoming increasingly popular with middle- ...
Purpose Alcohol-related cognitions, particularly expectancies for drinking and non-drinking and motives for non-drinking, are involved in the initiation, maintenance, and cessation of alcohol use and are hypothesized to play key roles in adolescent decision making. This study explored (a) the relationships between alcohol use expectancies, non-drinking expectancies and non-drinking motives, (b) the roles of these cognitions across hypothesized developmental stages of adolescent alcohol use and (c) the relationships between these cognitions and recent or intended future changes in drinking behavior in a cross-sectional sample. Methods Surveys assessing alcohol use behaviors and attitudes were administered to 1648 high school students. Results Heavier drinkers reported more positive alcohol use expectancies and fewer non-drinking motives than lighter drinkers or non-drinkers, however non-drinking expectancies only differed between non- and rare- drinkers and all subsequent drinking classes. Alcohol use expectancies, non-drinking expectancies and non-drinking motives differentiated students who recently initiated alcohol from those who had not, while non-drinking expectancies and non-drinking motives differentiated binge drinking students who had made recent efforts to reduce/stop their drinking from those who had not. Intentions to initiate or reducedrinking in the coming month were also associated with these alcohol-related cognitions. Conclusion Drinking and non-drinking expectancies, and motives for not drinking may play critical roles in decisions to alter alcohol-use behavior during adolescence. Future exploration of temporal relationships between changes in alcohol-related cognitions and behavioral decision making will be useful in the refinement of effective prevention and intervention strategies.
Bekman, Nicole M.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Trim, Ryan S.; Metrik, Jane; Diulio, Andrea R.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.
...the principal alien's application for LIFE Legalization...approval of the Form I-817, or the day before the alien's 21stbirthday...approval of the Form I-817, or the day before the alien's 21stbirthday...benefits under the LIFE Act...
... sources: Consumer Confidence Report: Starting in 1999, these water quality reports will be prepared annually by each community ... first consumer confidence report (also called a drinking water quality report) available to the public. Beginning in 2000, ...
Sodium is included on the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). The CCL is a list of ... are priorities for consideration for rulemaking. Why was sodium included on the Contaminant Candidate List? Will EPA ...
In recent years an increasing number of different energy drinks have been introduced to provide an energy boost. They contain high levels of caffeine and other additives that act as stimulants. Several recent studies present that energy drinks could increase the risk of seizures, acid-base disorders and cardiovascular events. The authors report a 28-year-old man who was brought to the
SummaryIn recent years an increasing number of different energy drinks have been introduced to provide an energy boost. They contain high levels of caffeine and other additives that act as stimulants. Several recent studies present that energy drinks could increase the risk of seizures, acid-base disorders and cardiovascular events. The authors report a 28-year-old man who was brought to the
Background Prior research attributed youth alcohol consumption to the attitudes and drinking patterns among adults. Yet at a population level, few have examined the relationship between state-level adult binge drinking prevalence and youth drinking behaviors, or whether tax policy plays a role in this relationship. Methods We analyzed 6 biennial surveys (1999 to 2009) of individual-level youth alcohol use and related behaviors from state-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and corresponding years of state-level adult binge drinking prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We employed logistic regression with generalized estimating equations method to assess the extent to which state adult binge drinking predicted individual-level youth drinking outcomes and examined the role of alcohol taxes in that relationship. Results Population-aggregate analyses based on 194 state-year strata showed a positive correlation between state adult binge drinking and youth binge drinking (Pearson r = 0.40, p < 0.01). For individual-level youth drinking outcomes, a 5 percentage point increase in binge drinking prevalence among adults was associated with a 12% relative increase in the odds of alcohol use (adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.16). Taxes were strongly inversely related with adult and youth drinking measures, and the effect of tax on youth drinking was attenuated after controlling for adult binge drinking. Conclusions Both tax and adult binge drinking are strong predictors of youth drinking. Tax may affect youth drinking through its effect on adult alcohol consumption. Implementing effective alcohol policies to reduce excessive drinking in the general population is an important strategy to reduce youth drinking.
Xuan, Ziming; Nelson, Toben F.; Heeren, Timothy; Blanchette, Jason; Nelson, David E.; Gruenewald, Paul; Naimi, Timothy S.
BACKGROUND: Prior research attributed youth alcohol consumption to the attitudes and drinking patterns among adults. Yet at a population level, few have examined the relationship between state-level adult binge drinking prevalence and youth drinking behaviors, or whether tax policy plays a role in this relationship. METHODS: We analyzed 6 biennial surveys (1999 to 2009) of individual-level youth alcohol use and related behaviors from state-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and corresponding years of state-level adult binge drinking prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We employed logistic regression with generalized estimating equations method to assess the extent to which state adult binge drinking predicted individual-level youth drinking outcomes and examined the role of alcohol taxes in that relationship. RESULTS: Population-aggregate analyses based on 194 state-year strata showed a positive correlation between state adult binge drinking and youth binge drinking (Pearson r = 0.40, p < 0.01). For individual-level youth drinking outcomes, a 5 percentage point increase in binge drinking prevalence among adults was associated with a 12% relative increase in the odds of alcohol use (adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.16). Taxes were strongly inversely related with adult and youth drinking measures, and the effect of tax on youth drinking was attenuated after controlling for adult binge drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Both tax and adult binge drinking are strong predictors of youth drinking. Tax may affect youth drinking through its effect on adult alcohol consumption. Implementing effective alcohol policies to reduce excessive drinking in the general population is an important strategy to reduce youth drinking. PMID:23711219
Xuan, Ziming; Nelson, Toben F; Heeren, Timothy; Blanchette, Jason; Nelson, David E; Gruenewald, Paul; Naimi, Timothy S
The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would remove one of the most researched and supported policies in the nation's alcohol control arsenal. There is little evidence that other interventions or policies are capable of working on the same broad level as MLDA 21, and there could also be a deleterious ripple effect in related legislation because MLDA 21 works in conjunction with other drinking laws. In addition, historic and international experiences with a lowered MLDA indicate there are serious social and public health consequences. Instead of removing efficacious interventions, we must remain committed to implementing and enforcing evidence-based practices and legislation. PMID:21308595
|Aims: This paper explores young people's own opinions about how the "drinking to get drunk" culture can be changed. More precisely, the two objectives of this study were to explore: (1) whether young people viewed binge drinking as a real "problem"; and (2) what they thought could be done to reduce binge drinking. Methods: Forty in-depth…
Interventions designed to reduce heavy drinking among college students often contain suggestions for drinking control strategies. However, little is known about the relationship between the use of these strategies and alcohol consumption. The authors developed a measure of drinking control strategies and investigated its psychometric properties in a sample of 250 college drinkers. Strategies clustered into three factors: selective avoidance
This study evaluated methods of enhancing college students' retention of information provided to them in a computer-delivered personalized drinking feedback intervention and whether enhanced retention reduced alcohol consumption during the two-week period following the intervention. Participants were 98 college students who reported at least one heavy drinking episode in the past two weeks. After participating in an online, personalized drinking
Ernest N. Jouriles; Alan S. Brown; David Rosenfield; Renee McDonald; Kathryn Croft; Matthew M. Leahy; Scott T. Walters
|The purpose of this manual is to assist school officials by providing information on the effects of lead in school drinking water on children, how to detect the presence of lead, how to reduce the lead, and how to provide training for sampling and remedial programs. A protocol is provided for procedures to determine the location and source of…
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.
Many studies have used voluntary ethanol consumption by animals to assess the influence of genetic and environmental manipulations on ethanol drinking. However, the relationship between home cage ethanol consumption and more formal assessments of ethanol-reinforced behavior using operant and instrumental conditioning procedures is not always clear. The present review attempted to evaluate whether there are consistent correlations between mouse and rat home cage ethanol drinking on the one hand, and either operant oral self-administration (OSA), conditioned taste aversion (CTA) or conditioned place preference (CPP) with ethanol on the other. We also review literature on intravenous ethanol self-administration (IVSA). To collect data, we evaluated a range of genetic manipulations that can change both genes and ethanol drinking behavior including selective breeding, transgenic and knock-out models, and inbred and recombinant inbred strain panels. For a genetic model to be included in the analysis, there had to be published data resulting in differences on home cage drinking and data for at least one of the other behavioral measures. A consistent, positive correlation was observed between ethanol drinking and OSA, suggesting that instrumental behavior is closely genetically related to consummatory and ingestive behavior directed at ethanol. A negative correlation was observed between CTA and drinking, suggesting that ethanol’s aversive actions may limit oral consumption of ethanol. A more modest, positive relationship was observed between drinking and CPP, and there were not enough studies available to determine a relationship with IVSA. That some consistent outcomes were observed between widely disparate behavioral procedures and genetic populations may increase confidence in the validity of findings from these assays. These findings may also have important implications when researchers decide which phenotypes to use in measuring alcohol-reward relevant behaviors in novel animal models.
Purpose (1) To determine the effectiveness of classroom health promotion/prevention training designed to improve work climate and alcohol outcomes; (2) to assess whether such training contributes to improvements in problem drinking beyond standard workplace alcohol policies. Design A cross-sectional survey assessed employee problem drinking across three time periods. This was followed by a prevention intervention study; work groups were randomly assigned to an 8-hour training course in workplace social health promotion (Team Awareness), a 4-hour informational training course, or a control group. Surveys were administered 2 to 4 weeks before and after training and 6 months after posttest. Setting and Subjects Employees were surveyed from work departments in a large municipality of 3000 workers at three points in time (year, sample, and response rates are shown): (1) 1992, n = 1081, 95%; (2) 1995, n = 856, 97%; and (3) 1999, n = 587, 73%. Employees in the 1999 survey were recruited from safety-sensitive departments and were randomly assigned to receive the psychosocial (n = 201), informational (n = 192), or control (n = 194) condition. Intervention The psychosocial program (Team Awareness) provided skills training in peer referral, team building, and stress management. Informational training used a didactic review of policy, employee assistance, and drug testing. Measures Self-reports measured alcohol use (frequency, drunkenness, hangovers, and problems) and work drinking climate (enabling, responsiveness, drinking norms, stigma, and drink with coworkers). Results Employees receiving Team Awareness reduced problem drinking from 20% to 11% and working with or missing work because of a hangover from 16% to 6%. Information-trained workers also reduced problem drinking from 18% to 10%. These rates of change contrast with changes in problem drinking seen from 1992 (24%) to 1999 (17%). Team Awareness improvements differed significantly from control subjects, which showed no change at 13%. Employees receiving Team Awareness also showed significant improvements in drinking climate. For example, scores on the measure of coworker enabling decreased from pretest (mean = 2.19) to posttest (mean = 2.05) and follow up (mean = 1.94). Posttest measures of drinking climate also predicted alcohol outcomes at 6 months. Conclusion Employers should consider the use of prevention programming as an enhancement to standard drug-free workplace efforts. Team Awareness training targets work group social health, aligns with employee assistance efforts, and contributes to reductions in problem drinking.
Bennett, Joel B.; Patterson, Camille R.; Reynolds, G. Shawn; Wiitala, Wyndy L.; Lehman, Wayne E. K.
Nine, food-deprived rats were each given daily sessions during which 60 45-mg food pellets were delivered individually at 60-sec intervals, independently of behaviour. Water spouts were available to the animals and the intermittent delivery of food induced high levels of adjunctive drinking. The administration of scopolamine (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-related attenuation of this drinking. A dose of physostigmine (0.2 mg/kg) was found to slightly reduce levels of drinking but this dose did not consistently modify the action of scopolamine on this behaviour. Tolerance was found to occur to the action of the highest dose of scopolamine (1.0 mg/kg). PMID:823587
|This book outlines the toll binge drinking is taking on college campuses and suggests steps that can be taken to take action against the binge drinking that has become part of college culture. The chapters of part 1, "The College Drinking Environment," are: (1) "A Culture of Alcohol"; (2) "Where's the Party?"; (3) "College Sports and Alcohol";…
|As the adolescent matures, drinking situations occur outside of the home with friends. This period is characterized by drinking habits, patterns, and attitudes which are different from those of the parent population; the peer group and situational factors are significant influences on drinking behavior during this phase. (Author)|
Reports the results of a study on the ways in which alcohol is built into the social role and social life of college students. Provides direct support for the idea that the patterns of drinking alcoholic beverages are integral to social and structural aspects of college. (LKS)
This article examines the relationship between the drinking habits of Danish adolescents and the upbringing ideals and alcohol rules of their parents. It is based on three different data sets: a survey of 2,000 Danish young people born in 1989, a survey with the parents of these young people, and two waves of focus group interviews (in all 28)…
Foodborne botulism occurred among inmates at 2 prisons in California in 2004 and 2005. In the first outbreak, 4 inmates were hospitalized, 2 of whom required intubation. In the second event, 1 inmate required intubation. Pruno, an alcoholic drink made illicitly in prisons, was the novel vehicle for these cases. PMID:19116055
Impending new maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for radionuclides, plus increased concern for radon in the air inside homes, have sparked new interest in these substances. An assessment of research needs,* which also provided background information on completed and ongoing research projects, showed that Rn-222 represents the most serious threat to health of all the radionuclides in drinking water, leading to
Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was
Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between contaminants in drinking water and cancer is reviewed. The reviewed studies cover exposure to: disinfection byproducts; nitrate; arsenic and other metals; volatiles and contaminants from hazardous waste sites; asbestiform fibers; radionuclides; and fluoride. Most investigations are ecologic, with some confirmation of elevated risk from individual-based studies. In the case of waterborne arsenic, and possibly
|This article examines the relationship between the drinking habits of Danish adolescents and the upbringing ideals and alcohol rules of their parents. It is based on three different data sets: a survey of 2,000 Danish young people born in 1989, a survey with the parents of these young people, and two waves of focus group interviews (in all 28)…
The consumption of energy drinks containing sucrose and caffeine is increasing worldwide. Ten healthy women aged 18 to 22 years and fasted overnight were randomly allocated to a standardised dose of sucrose either as an "energy" drink (containing sucrose and caffeine) or lemonade on the first day and then crossed over to the alternative drink on a second day. For thirty minutes before and thirty minutes after drinking oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured in the resting subject breath-by-breath by indirect calorimetry and the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation calculated. Energy drink consumption apparently caused increased carbohydrate oxidation (P = 0.004) and reduced lipid oxidation (P = 0.004) compared to lemonade. The longer term effects of combined caffeine and sucrose intake, particularly in sedentary individuals, on metabolism and body fatness needs further examination. PMID:16672210
Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574
Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of energy drink consumption in children and very young adolescents and to study the sociodemographic and environmental-behavioral factors associated with regular, at least once a week, energy drink consumption in early adolescence. This survey was conducted during the 2011-2012 school year in the Province of Rovigo, in the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy), and involved a sample of 916 students. The usage of energy drinks increased significantly with age, from 17.8 % among sixth graders to 56.2 % among eighth graders. Among the male student population, 16.5 % of those in the eighth grade and 6.21 % of those in the sixth grade, respectively, drank them at least once a week. The independent variables conferring a higher likelihood of being at least once-a-week energy drink consumers were smoking and alcohol consumption. Awareness of the damage caused by energy drinks emerged as a protective factor that reduced the likelihood of young students consuming such drinks. Conclusions: This study showed that energy drink consumption is rising steadily in children and early adolescents. Energy drink consumption was found associated with the abuse of other substances, such as tobacco and alcohol. PMID:23708215
This study examined relationships among drinking intentions, environments, and outcomes in a random sample of 566 undergraduate college students. Telephone interviews were conducted with respondents before and after a single weekend assessing drinking intentions for the coming weekend related to subsequent drinking behaviors. Latent class analyses…
Trim, Ryan S.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey; Thombs, Dennis
|This study examined relationships among drinking intentions, environments, and outcomes in a random sample of 566 undergraduate college students. Telephone interviews were conducted with respondents before and after a single weekend assessing drinking intentions for the coming weekend related to subsequent drinking behaviors. Latent class…
Trim, Ryan S.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey; Thombs, Dennis
In an effort to reduce dangerous drinking levels among college students, university health educators have initiated social norms campaigns based on the rationale that students will be more likely to reduce their own drinking behaviors if they think that most students on campus are not heavy or binge drinkers. Within the framework of social comparisons theory, this study reports the findings of a survey of 277 college students and explores the correlates of accuracy and bias in students' estimates of whether or not most other students think that binge drinking on campus is a problem and whether or not most other students believe the campaign message. The overwhelming majority (72.6%) of students did not believe the norms message that most students on campus drink "0 to 4" drinks when they party, and 52.7% reported drinking "5 or more" drinks in a sitting. The social norms campaign was effective in motivating 61% of the respondents to think about binge drinking as a problem. For the most part, group or social network norms were more influential on students' own drinking behavior than were their estimates of the campus drinking norm. The findings also clarify that accuracy in estimating the campus social norm in and of itself does not necessarily lead to an increase or reduction in alcohol consumption. The social comparisons approach underscores the complex and social nature of human interaction and reinforces the need for the development of multiple approaches to alcohol education with messages that are designed to target the specific needs of students based on their orientations toward alcohol consumption. PMID:16813486
Polonec, Lindsey D; Major, Ann Marie; Atwood, L Erwin
Several serotonin uptake inhibitors, including the long-acting fluoxetine, have been found to decrease alcohol intake in moderately dependent alcoholics. While the mechanism of their effect is not fully elucidated, a previous study with citalopram indicated that decreased desire to drink may be an important factor. Therefore, we tested fluoxetine effects on alcohol intake and desire to drink in a placebo-controlled study. Subjects, recruited by advertisement, were mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (12 male, four female, aged 19-59 years, healthy, non-depressed) who did not believe they had a drinking problem and were not requesting treatment. After a 1 week baseline they received, single-blind, 2 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks fluoxetine 60 mg/day. As out-patients, subjects recorded daily standard drinks (13.6 g ethanol) and rated interest, desire, craving and liking for alcohol biweekly. Each out-patient period was immediately followed by a double-blind experimental drinking session. Out-patient daily drinks slightly decreased during fluoxetine to 6.6 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with during placebo (7.16 +/- 0.95, p = 0.07, N.S.) and baseline (7.18 +/- 1.0, p > 0.1, N.S.). Desire, interest and craving for alcohol decreased during fluoxetine vs placebo baseline (p < 0.05), but not vs placebo. Appetite loss and decrease in food intake (p < 0.01, fluoxetine vs placebo) correlated with each other (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) but neither correlated with decrease in alcohol intake (appetite: r = 0.26, N.S.; food intake: r = 0.22, N.S.). Weight loss occurred during fluoxetine (p < 0.05 vs placebo) but did not correlate with decrease in alcohol intake (r = 0.1, N.S.). In the experimental drinking sessions after placebo and fluoxetine treatments subjects rated their desire for each of 18 mini-drinks (each one-third of a standard drink) offered at 5 min intervals. Fluoxetine decreased desire to drink throughout the sessions; both mean and maximum desire ratings were lower after fluoxetine than after placebo (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Therefore, fluoxetine seems to have a robust effect on decreasing desire for alcohol. We propose that in the absence of intention by subjects to reducedrinking, their habitual drinking patterns mitigated against reduced consumption in the out-patient phase. However, fluoxetine could be a useful adjunct for patients in a treatment context who are motivated to reduce their drinking. PMID:7814825
Naranjo, C A; Poulos, C X; Bremner, K E; Lanctot, K L
|Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol is a major public health concern. By distinguishing the type of individuals violating driving while intoxicated (DWI) sanctions, intervention programs will be better suited to reducedrinking and driving. The purpose of this study was to examine the personal characteristics of DWI offenders and…
This secondary data analysis of the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse examines the influence of individual, interpersonal, and contextual social risk and protective factors on high risk drinking, focusing on the influence of minority status and college enrollment among 5,895 young adults. Hierarchical regression predicted 39.4% of the variance in high-risk drinking. Being male, increased risk-taking behavior, being older, and higher numbers of friends getting drunk all positively influenced high-risk drinking, and disapproval of daily drinkingreduced high-risk drinking. Interaction effects showed all significant variables to be more influential for Whites than Blacks, including college attendance. PMID:17994480
Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD) relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS. Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic) were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ. Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016), fruit squash (p = 0.042) and milk (p = 0.020) than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017) and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003). No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice. These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks.
In this paper we explored associations of multiple domains with regular drinking and getting drunk among adult African American men. Questionnaire-based, computer-assisted interviews were conducted with 484 men in Atlanta, Georgia. Data analysis involved multivariate logistic regression analyses. Findings show that being older increased the odds of both drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking increased the odds of regular drinking and having experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse increased the odds of getting drunk. Having health insurance reduced the odds of both outcomes. Insurance coverage and the heterogeneity among adult African American men must be considered in risk reduction efforts.
Hospital patients are at risk of dehydration, especially if they cannot drink unaided due to physical or mental incapacity. Dehydration may lead to complications and result in costly interventions. A sports-style bottle has been developed into a hands-free drinking system by fitting a drinking tube into the screw top. We trialled the bottle on acute wards and in the community to test claims that it improves hydration and reduces infection risks and length of hospital stays. The Hydrant is useful and even transformative for some patients. However, it is less suitable for older people, especially those in rehabilitation programmes. PMID:23980460
Cryptosporidium: A microorganism commonly found in lakes and rivers which is highly resistant to disinfection. Cryptosporidium has caused several large outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness, with symptoms that include diarrhea, nausea, and/or stomach cramps. People with severely weakened immune systems (that is, severely immuno-compromised) are likely to have more severe and more persistent symptoms than healthy individuals. From Drinking Water Glossary - Search all glossaries for terms containing "cryptosporidium"
The present study tests the perceived norms hypothesis in relation to different levels of heavy episodic drinking (HED) among university students. In 2007, 303 students from residence halls and the School of Psychology at the University of Wollongong, Australia, completed a questionnaire about their alcohol consumption and associated attitudes and behaviors. Between-groups analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed significantly higher AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) scores among students in higher-frequency HED groups. Students who engaged in HED tended to underestimate their own drinking when comparing themselves with others. Improving the accuracy of perceptions about one's own drinking in relation to others (normative information) may help reduce levels of HED among students. PMID:22217126
Efforts to discourage excessive alcohol use among young people can only be effective if the target audience is exposed to, attends to, and comprehends key messages. The aim of this study was to examine age and sex differences in drinking motives to better inform development of targeted interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm. Thirty individual interviews and 12 group interviews were conducted with English 13-25?year olds. Interviewees gave multiple motivations for drinking - especially those related to image and reputation, and played down the health implications of heavy drinking. Negative aspects of drinking - caring for drunk friends, being cared for when drunk and suffering through hangovers with friends - were considered to offer opportunities for closer interpersonal bonding than other social activities. Respondents distanced themselves from 'problem' drinkers, but disapproved of others' problematic drinking or antisocial behaviour. Narrative messages demonstrating the social consequences of excessive consumption were preferred to single, static messages emphasising risk or harm. Interviewees noted that interventions must use an engaging tone or pitch: they considered many campaigns to be patronising or preaching. A lack of consensus between age and sex groups highlighted a need for multifaceted, multi-modal approaches that utilise mobile technologies and new media. PMID:23947783
de Visser, Richard O; Wheeler, Zoe; Abraham, Charles; Smith, Jonathan A
Obesity prevalence is increasing all over the world. Most affected are people changing from a traditional lifestyle to an environment with both availability of high energy diet and less physical activity. Glycemic index (GI) is a measure of dietary glycemic carbohydrates, representing their ability to raise blood glucose concentrations. It refers to the postprandial blood glucose response expressed as a percentage of the response to a reference food (glucose or white bread) containing the same carbohydrate content. Given the present high consumption of sugary drinks, the putative contribution of these products to obesity deserves investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the GI of some drinks from the Portuguese market. Postprandial glycemia after ingestion of apple Frutis, peach Frutis, Green tea Frutea, green tea, black tea, lupin infusion, rooibos infusion, raftilose solution or bran solution has been determined for two hours in a caucasian population of young adults of any sex, 17 to 24 years of age. Apple Frutis GI was found to be 54.3, i.e., a low GI; Frutea Green tea had a GI of 64.7, considered as a moderate GI; peach Frutis showed a high GI, 86.6. Green and Black teas as well as rooibos and lupin infusions, all with added glucose (25 g), did not change glycemic response in comparison with the reference solution (water with 25 g glucose). No differences were seen after raftilose and bran solutions by comparison with the reference solution. GI information may help the choice of carbohydrates to include in a healthy diet. Formerly considered as a parameter of interest to diabetic patients, it may actually interest anybody concerned with a healthy diet. This study has been performed by medical and nutritional science students, who observed glycemic excursions in themselves, after drink ingestion. This experiment allowed them to see the impressive rise of glycemia after ingestion of a sugary drink, by comparison with basal levels which would not rise if plain water or other nonsugary drink had been ingested. PMID:20687984
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the likelihood that women of different racial and ethnic groups would reduce\\u000a their alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Methods Data came from 22 states participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from 2001 to 2005. After stratifying\\u000a the sample by preconception drinking level, logistic regressions were used to predict drinking reduction
Leigh E. Tenkku; Daniel S. Morris; Joanne Salas; Pamela K. Xaverius
Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital
Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith
Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources\\u000a and deterring its possession and use. However, little is known about the processes through which enforcement strategies may\\u000a affect underage drinking. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible\\u000a direct and indirect
Sharon Lipperman-KredaJoel; Joel W. Grube; Mallie J. Paschall
Educators and researchers strive to use terms that reflect a replicable measure of behavior. A term commonly used to describe drinking of a problematic nature is "binge drinking". Binge drinking defines behavior by a number of drinks of an alcoholic beverage consumed in a space of time. The authors argue that the term does not describe drinking…
Goodhart, Fern Walter; Lederman, Linda C.; Stewart, Lea P.; Laitman, Lisa
|Educators and researchers strive to use terms that reflect a replicable measure of behavior. A term commonly used to describe drinking of a problematic nature is "binge drinking". Binge drinking defines behavior by a number of drinks of an alcoholic beverage consumed in a space of time. The authors argue that the term does not describe drinking…
Goodhart, Fern Walter; Lederman, Linda C.; Stewart, Lea P.; Laitman, Lisa
This paper aims to explore causes of binge drinking in young people and the effects that they seek when they drink alcohol, based on age and alcohol intake. 4,083 questionnaires were administered to 1,361 university students and 2,722 adolescents at their educational institutions. The findings corresponding to those who reported practising binge drinking -2,917 subjects- are presented in the paper. Taking into account the regularity of the practice and the alcohol intake, cluster analysis differentiated two consumer types in each group: the radical type (21.2% university students-18.2% adolescents): 10-11 drinks 3 days a week and for more than 10 months a year; and the average type (78.7% university students-81.7% adolescents): 4-5 drinks twice a week and for 8-9 months. Drinking as a way of having fun (75.2%) and drinking for the sake of drinking (81.9%) are two of the main causes underlying binge drinking, economical reasons being secondary for adolescents As for the expected effects, the short-term positive aspects of moderate consumption (being more talkative, euphoric...) stand out. Adolescents also expect to improve some of their personal skills (more self-confidence...). These results corroborate and increase the information currently available and allow us to propose alternatives adapted to young people's real needs. PMID:18674433
Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Espejo Tort, Begoña; Giménez Costa, José Antonio
This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.
Objectives To examine the prevalence of binge drinking in adolescence and its persistence into adulthood in an Australian cohort. Design 15-year prospective cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants 1943 adolescents were recruited from secondary schools at age 14–15?years. Primary outcome measures Levels of past-week ‘binge’ drinking (5+ standard drinks on a day, each 10?g alcohol) and ‘heavy binge’ drinking (20+ standard drinks on a day for males, 11+ for females) were assessed during six adolescent waves, and across three adult waves up to age 29?years. Results Half of the males (52%) and a third of the females (34%) reported past-week adolescent binge drinking. 90% of male and 70% of female adolescent-onset binge drinkers continued to binge in young adulthood; 70% of males and 48% of females who were not adolescent-onset binge drinkers reported young adult binge drinking. Past-week heavy bingeing was less common in adolescence than adulthood. Overall, 35% of the sample (95% CI 33% to 38%) reported past-week binge drinking in adolescence and young adulthood and one-third (33%; 30% to 35%) first reported binge drinking in young adulthood; only 7% of the sample (6–8%) had binge drinking in adolescence but not young adulthood. ‘Heavy binge’ drinking occurred in adolescence and young adulthood for 9% (8% to 10%); 8% (7% to 10%) reported it in adolescence but no longer in young adulthood; and 24% (22% to 26%) began ‘heavy binge’ drinking in young adulthood. Among adolescent binge drinkers (n=821), young adult binge and heavy binge drinking were predicted by being male, adolescent antisocial behaviour and adverse consequences of drinking in adolescence. Conclusions Binge alcohol use is common and persistent among young Australians. Efforts to prevent the onset of binge drinking during adolescence may substantially reduce harmful patterns of alcohol use in young adulthood.
Objective: Individuals’ perceptions of drinking acceptability in their society (perceived injunctive drinking norms) are widely assumed to explain ethnic group differences in drinking and alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but this has never been formally tested. Immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) are more likely to drink and report AUD symptoms than other Israelis. We tested perceived drinking norms as a mediator of differences between FSU immigrants and other Israelis in drinking and AUDs. Method: Adult household residents (N = 1,349) selected from the Israeli population register were assessed with a structured interview measuring drinking, AUD symptoms, and perceived drinking norms. Regression analyses were used to produce odds ratios (OR) and risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to test differences between FSU immigrants and other Israelis on binary and graded outcomes. Mediation of FSU effects by perceived drinking norms was tested with bootstrapping procedures. Results: FSU immigrants were more likely than other Israelis to be current drinkers (OR = 2.39, CI [1.61, 3.55]), have higher maximum number of drinks per day (RR = 1.88, CI [1.64, 2.16]), have any AUD (OR = 1.75, CI [1.16, 2.64]), score higher on a continuous measure of AUD (RR = 1.44, CI [1.12, 1.84]), and perceive more permissive drinking norms (p < .0001). For all four drinking variables, the FSU group effect was at least partially mediated by perceived drinking norms. Conclusions: This is the first demonstration that drinking norms mediate ethnic differences in AUDs. This work contributes to understanding ethnic group differences in drinking and AUDs, potentially informing etiologic research and public policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm.
This article reviews evidence of adolescent and young adult drinking motives and their relation to possible consequences over the last 15 years. To this end, a computer-assisted search of relevant articles was conducted. Results revealed that most young people reported drinking for social motives, some indicated enhancement motives, and only a few reported coping motives. Social motives appear to be
Emmanuel Kuntsche; Ronald Knibbe; Gerhard Gmel; Rutger Engels
|Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…
Examined attitudes toward alcohol use and abuse, drinking norms, and treatment of alcoholism among a representative sample of adults (N=933). Results indicated public concern about alcohol abuse and a desire to help, definite norms maintained against heavy drinking and drunkeness, and a belief in the value of treatment demonstrated. (Author)
The present paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to the impact of alcohol intake on cardiovascular disease. Both cross-sectional and prospective studies have disclosed a negative association between moderate intake of alcoholic beverages and cardiovascular disease. The relationship appears to be present for both wine, beer and spirits. Effects of alcohol itself and also the role of different cardio-protective substances in alcoholic beverages are discussed. Alcohol has been suggested to beneficially affect the blood lipid profile, as it increases plasma HDL-cholesterol level. Furthermore, it may inhibit thrombogenesis by reducing thromboxan formation and decreasing the plasma level of fibrinogen. However, high blood concentrations of alcohol may impair fibrinolysis by increasing plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 level. This action could contribute to explaining the 'U'-shaped association between alcohol intake and cardiac events. Alcohol seems to promote abdominal fat distribution, but the importance of this effect in non-obese individuals is uncertain. Wine in particular, but also beer, contains polyphenols which act as antioxidants. Their action could maintain the integrity of the endothelial function by reducing the formation of superoxide. Moreover, these antioxidants may protect against LDL oxidation and modulate the macrophage attack on the endothelium. Although the cardio-protective effect of alcohol can hardly be addressed in healthy individuals by intervention studies with hard end points, there are many observational and experimental findings indicating that moderate alcohol drinking possesses properties preventive of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19087400
The following 11 important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) U.S. Environmental Agency Water Programs, National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations; (2) New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act; (3) Summary of New J...
The following 12 important documents are compiled for a manual entitled 'Drinking Water Standards and Regulations': (1) Rules and Regulations for Public Water Systems; (2) Drinking Water Standards Governing Drinking Water Quality and Reporting Requirement...
... 2013-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous Â§ 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...
This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the 1994-95 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to conduct logistic regression analyses that revealed adolescents in two biological married parent families were least likely to smoke or drink, whereas adolescents in cohabiting stepfamilies were most likely. Those in single-mother families and married stepfamilies were in between. Maternal socialization was related to reduced odds of smoking and drinking. Maternal modeling was positively associated with smoking and drinking. Family structure is indicative of distinct family processes that are linked to risky behaviors among adolescents.
There is abundant evidence that excessive alcohol use can adversely affect physical and mental health. Prior to incarceration, heavy drinking is common among prisoners. In this study, AUDIT information was examined in a sample of 126 male prisoners. Hazardous drinking was identified in 81%, and half had severe alcohol problems. Perpetrators of alcohol-related violence are the most problematic drinkers of
Residents in the southwest coast of Taiwan sui'fer from high levels of skin, liver, lung and bladder cancers. The high content of arsenic in the drinking well water may be associated with the high incidence of cancers in the area (Chen et al. 1985). This paper reports that mutagens (or carcinogens) other than arsenic are present in the drinking well
The drinking habits here in Finland are something that I, as a foreigner, have always regarded as a defining feature of Finnish culture. The Finnish drinking culture is ever present in the society, whether seen on the streets or experienced in social settings. It permeates work, school and home life, regardless whether one uses alcohol or not. It is something
|Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on…
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.
According to the latest round of monitoring completed at the end of 1992, more than 10 percent of all large and medium-sized public water systems in the United States provide drinking water that contains lead levels exceeding the action level'' of 15 parts per billion established by EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Those systems that exceed the action
The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...
Question A 14-year-old boy came to my office to discuss his frequent consumption of energy drinks to enhance his performance at school and while playing soccer. What is the recommended use of energy drinks in children and is there any harm in consuming them? Answer Energy drinks are beverages with a high concentration of caffeine and additional stimulants. They are sold in numerous places and are easily accessed by children, adolescents, and young adults. Many reports warn about potential adverse effects associated with their consumption, especially in combination with alcohol among adolescents, and in combination with stimulant medications among children treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children and adolescents should avoid energy drinks, and health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks. PMID:24029508
Abstract Question A 14-year-old boy came to my office to discuss his frequent consumption of energy drinks to enhance his performance at school and while playing soccer. What is the recommended use of energy drinks in children and is there any harm in consuming them? Answer Energy drinks are beverages with a high concentration of caffeine and additional stimulants. They are sold in numerous places and are easily accessed by children, adolescents, and young adults. Many reports warn about potential adverse effects associated with their consumption, especially in combination with alcohol among adolescents, and in combination with stimulant medications among children treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children and adolescents should avoid energy drinks, and health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks.
The literature on drinking motives suggests that individuals drink for three distinct reasons: coping motives (CM: to reduce and\\/or avoid negative emotional states); social motives (SM: to affiliate with others); and enhancement motives (EM: to facilitate positive emotions). Cooper, Russell, Skinner and Windle (1992) [Psychological Assessment, 4, 123–132] developed a 3-dimensional self-report instrument, the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ), with subscales
Sherry H. Stewart; Sharon B. Zeitlin; Sarah Barton Samoluk
The transition from adolescence into emerging adulthood is a critical developmental period for changes in alcohol use and drinking related problems. Prior research has identified a number of distinct developmental alcohol use trajectories, which appear to be differentially related to young adult drinking outcomes. Another correlate of alcohol use in early adulthood is impulsivity. The primary aim of this study was to examine the moderating role of impulsivity in the relation between patterns of past alcohol use and hazardous drinking during the first year of college. Participants (N=452; 49% male; mean age 18.5years; 82% Caucasian) completed self-report measures during the first year of college, including retrospective alcohol use calendars, current alcohol use and drinking problems, and personality. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify groups with similar adolescent drinking history from retrospective, self-report. Four groups were identified: abstainers/very light users, late/moderate users, early/moderate users, and steep increase/heavy users. The abstainer/very light user group reported the lowest levels of alcohol use and problematic drinking in college; the steep increase/heavy use group reported the highest levels of alcohol use and problematic drinking. As predicted, the role of personality-specifically urgency, or emotion-based rash action-was strongest among moderate use groups. These findings may be helpful in guiding targeted prevention and intervention programs for alcohol use and abuse. PMID:24018231
Adams, Zachary W; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R; Charnigo, Richard J
The objective of this study was to determine the drinking patterns of high school students in central Thailand. Eleven thousand three hundred sixty high school students from central Thailand were divided into 2 groups (drinkers and nondrinkers) according to their alcohol consumption. Information was obtained by an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire which consisted of 2 parts: general characteristics, and characteristics of alcohol drinking behavior. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by a computerized statistical package. The socio-demographic factors related to the student's alcohol consumption during the previous 12 months were: age > 15 years old, male sex, grades 9 and 11 education level, living in a private dormitory, staying with a relative or a friend, having a grade point average <2.0 or >3.0, having a job earning money and having family members with alcohol/drug problems (p<0.05). Drinking patterns were classified into 5 categories: life time drinking, drinking during the previous year, drinking during the previous 30 days, binge drinking during the previous 30 days and drinking until intoxication during the previous 30 days. A higher proportion of drinking was reported by boys than girls. The prevalence of drinking increased in proportion to the educational level. The 3 main drinking places were parties (48.5%), at home or in the dormitory (37.5%) and in shops around the school (12.4%). Boys drank alcohol on average 1-2 times per month in 59.8% and 1-2 standard drinks per time in 38.6%. Eighty point one percent of girls drank alcohol 1-2 times per month and 1-2 standard drinks per time in 55.6%. Drinking alcohol among high school students should be controlled by limiting access to alcoholic beverages in order to reduce accidents, injuries, violence and alcohol-related health problems among young people. PMID:21329325
Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat.Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs-silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)-into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment.Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2-20%, 3-8%, and 48-99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1-45% for Ag, 0-44% for TiO2, and 36-83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0-2%, 0-4%, and 2-96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions.Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes.Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161-1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574. PMID:23933526
The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801
The use of the term binge drinking and the 5\\/4 measure have helped to advance the understanding of college alcohol use over the past 10 years. The present article discusses the importance, relevance, and utility of this measure.
Context Soft drink consumption in the United States has tripled in recent decades, paralleling the dramatic increases in obesity prevalence. The purpose of this clinical review is to evaluate the extent to which current scientific evidence supports a causal link between sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption and weight gain. Evidence acquisition MEDLINE search of articles published in all languages between 1966 and December 2006 containing key words or medical subheadings, such as “soft drinks” and “weight.” Additional articles were obtained by reviewing references of retrieved articles, including a recent systematic review. All reports with cross-sectional, prospective cohort, or clinical trial data in humans were considered. Evidence synthesis Six of 15 cross-sectional and 6 of 10 prospective cohort studies identified statistically significant associations between soft drink consumption and increased body weight. There were 5 clinical trials; the two that involved adolescents indicated that efforts to reduce sugar-sweetened soft drinks slowed weight gain. In adults, 3 small experimental studies suggested that consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks caused weight gain; however, no trial in adults was longer than 10 weeks or included more than 41 participants. No trial reported the effects on lipids. Conclusions Although observational studies support the hypothesis that sugar-sweetened soft drinks cause weight gain, a paucity of hypothesis-confirming clinical trial data has left the issue open to debate. Given the magnitude of the public health concern, larger and longer intervention trials should be considered to clarify the specific effects of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors.
This study adds to a growing literature showing that definitions for “standard drinks” are often difficult to conceptualize and that people often underestimate their actual drink sizes. As part of an intervention aimed at reducing negative neonatal and maternal outcomes, insured at-risk women were asked to identify the vessels from which they drank each of 6 beverages (n=266). We calculated differences between their actual and standard drink sizes. Additionally, differences were compared to those reported in an earlier study of uninsured inner city minority women that used identical vessels methodology. Over half of the spirits, fortified wine and malt liquor drinkers underestimated the actual number of ounces their drinks contained. Most spirits drinkers (90%) and approximately three-quarters of the wine and malt liquor drinkers drank larger-than-standard drink sizes, with the median drink size 1.5 to 2.0 times larger than the standard size for those beverages. Heavier drinkers (?3 drinks per sitting) were more likely than lighter drinkers to underestimate their drink sizes. Findings were similar to those in the previous study using identical drink size measurements. Accurately assessing true drink sizes is underscored when the social, health and epidemiologic consequences associated with miscalculation are considered.
Witbrodt, Jane; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Korcha, Rachael; Armstrong, Mary Anne
The viewpoint presented in this article is that soft drink consumption is a contributing factor in the rising incidence of overweight among school-aged children. Misinformation must be dispelled so that resources can be directed to real, evidence-based concerns. Child nutrition advocates have called for reducing access to soft drinks in schools as an important step in optimizing healthful environments for children. School nutrition policies are being revised at national, state, and local levels. Along with other stakeholders, soft drink manufacturers must acknowledge the problem of rising rates of overweight in children and work within their spheres of influence to limit access to soft drinks in schools. PMID:15707550
White, Adrienne A; Nitzke, Susan; Peterson, Karen E
Different types of water treatment equipment, normally installed for other types of non-wanted elements, were tested for their ability to remove radon. The measurements show that the only types of equipment that reduce radon content in water to a large ex...
|This document presents justification for a legal drinking age of 21 in all states. The introduction reviews the history of the raising and lowering of the drinking age and the rise in highway accidents and deaths resulting from lowered drinking ages. The federal response of mandating a 21-year-old drinking age for states with the threat of loss…
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
In the year 2006 over 500 new energy drink brands were put on the market and over 7 million adolescents reported consuming energy drinks (Meadows-Oliver & Ryan-Krause 2007). Estimates of consumer spending on energy drinks in 2008 exceeded $744 million dollars (International Food Information Council). Consumers often perceive energy drinks as healthy without knowledge of the amounts of ingredients in
Shay Yost; Whitney Crum; Katie Derden; Jessica Holland; Darcy Jensen; Rebecca McKelvey; Juli Scott
Research in the field of teenage drinking behavior has shown relationships between both social skills and drinking and alcohol expectancies and drinking. The present research investigated the comparative power of both of these sets of variables in predicting teenage drinking behavior, as well as looking at the contribution of more global cognitive structures. It was hypothesised that adolescents with high
Lisa Rosenthal Gaffney; Karen Thorpe; Ross Young; Robyn Collett; Stefano Occhipinti
Background. Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excessive total fluoride intake during tooth development. Some children may receive substantial intake from soft drinks, but few studies have reported fluoride levels in soft drinks. The authors examined the fluoride concentrations of 332 soft drinks. Methods. Soft drinks were purchased from Iowa grocery stores. To identify production sites, the authors recorded
JUDY R. HEILMAN; MARY C. KIRITSY; STEVEN M. LEVY; JAMES S. WEFEL
|Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…
Heavy drinking among college students is common and is often harmful. A previously reported randomized trial revealed that a brief motivational intervention (BMI) reduced the alcohol consumption of heavy drinking college students (K. B. Carey, M. P. Carey, S. A. Maisto, & J. M. Henson, 2006). For this study, the reseachers conducted supplemental analyses of hypothesized predictors of change using
Kate B. Carey; James M. Henson; Michael P. Carey; Stephen A. Maisto
BackgroundThere is a growing concern in the medical and scientific communities about the harmful effects associated with carbonated soft drinks. In several observational studies, intake of carbonated beverages was associated with reduced bone mass, decreased calcium level in the blood, and increased fracture risk. Soda drinks is a contributing factor in the prevalence and incidence of both dental caries and
Mona Mahmood; Abeer Saleh; Fatema Al-Alawi; Fatema Ahmed
|This study explored the curricular contexts effective at reducing high-risk drinking behaviors among 206 first-year undergraduate students. Results showed that infusing alcohol prevention messages into curricular content presented to first-year students who lived and studied together may have helped curb their high-risk drinking behaviors. This…
Although research has found an association between social anxiety and alcohol use in noncollege samples, results have been mixed for college samples. College students face many novel social situations in which they may drink to reduce social anxiety. In the current study, the authors tested a model of college problem drinking, incorporating social anxiety and related psychosocial variables among 228
The present study was designed to examine the effectiveness of Fatal Vision Goggles in reducing intentions to drink and drive. Participants performed a field sobriety task and drove in a traffic simulator while wearing the goggles. A regression analysis was performed in order to predict changes in intentions to drink and drive, using typical…
|Reduced alcohol availability following the closure of the sole hotels in two rural towns afforded a naturalistic experiment to study the effects of alcohol availability and context for drinking on consumption. Measures of consumption derived from interviews, total dollars of liquor sales, and police drink-driving data were compared across two…
How well do some commercially marketed package treatment systems perform to reduce arsenic from drinking water supplies? The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Drinking Water Systems (DWS) Center is a partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA...
This article reviews motivational interviewing (MI) -based interventions targeting heavy drinking college students published between 2003 and 2008. A total of 11 MI-based interventions were included in this study. Students receiving the interventions were generally heavy drinkers or adjudicated students. Based on this review MI-based interventions appear to be consistently effective at reducing alcohol use and drinking problems. Most of
USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...
|Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students' alcohol…
It is well-established that coping and enhancement drinking motives predict college student drinking and that personality traits predict drinking motives. Little is known, however, about personality and drinking patterns among individuals who drink for both enhancement and coping reasons. University students in the current study completed…
|Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…
Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.
Objectives. We investigated sociodemographic disparities in alcohol environments and their relationship with adolescent drinking. Methods. We geocoded and mapped alcohol license data with ArcMap to construct circular buffers centered at 14 595 households with children that participated in the California Health Interview Survey. We calculated commercial sources of alcohol in each buffer. Multivariate logistic regression differentiated the effects of alcohol sales on adolescents' drinking from their individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics. Results. Alcohol availability, measured by mean and median number of licenses, was significantly higher around residences of minority and lower-income families. Binge drinking and driving after drinking among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were significantly associated with the presence of alcohol retailers within 0.5 miles of home. Simulation of changes in the alcohol environment showed that if alcohol sales were reduced from the mean number of alcohol outlets around the lowest-income quartile of households to that of the highest quartile, prevalence of binge drinking would fall from 6.4% to 5.6% and driving after drinking from 7.9% to 5.9%. Conclusions. Alcohol outlets are concentrated in disadvantaged neighborhoods and can contribute to adolescent drinking. To reduce underage drinking, environmental interventions need to curb opportunities for youth to obtain alcohol from commercial sources by tightening licensure, enforcing minimum-age drinking laws, or other measures.
|Assessed impact of television commercial based on controlled-drinking principles. Measures were taken 12 months prior to start of campaign and 3 weeks after campaign from regular drinkers of general public whose drinking behavior was known to be unaffected by previous antidrug advertising campaign. Found that advertisement reduced intake provided…
Assessed impact of television commercial based on controlled-drinking principles. Measures were taken 12 months prior to start of campaign and 3 weeks after campaign from regular drinkers of general public whose drinking behavior was known to be unaffected by previous antidrug advertising campaign. Found that advertisement reduced intake provided…
... waters, especially ones made with sugar or corn syrup. These drinks are full of calories and can lead to weight gain, even in active children. If needed, choose beverages with artificial (man-made) sweeteners. Children aged 2 - ...
Bush K,Kivlahan DR,McDonellMB,FihnSD, Bradley KA. The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C): an effective brief screening test for problem drinking. Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). Alcohol Use ...
The problem of understanding the possible adverse health effects of organic chemical contaminants in drinking water is not new, but national concern has intensified in recent years. Despite this concern and regulatory efforts, no definitive relationship has been established betwe...
ABSTRACT Andrea,M. Dietrich Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA,24061-0246, USA Tel: 540-231-5773 Fax: 540-231-7916 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Although many people expect their drinking water to be “flavorless”, natural and processed drinking waters have flavors due to minerals and organics in the natural water, inputs from any step of water processing or transport, and interaction of
Objective: Despite minimum-purchase-age laws, young people regularly drink alcohol. This study estimated the magnitude and costs of problems resulting from underage drinking by category—traf- fic crashes, violence, property crime, suicide, burns, drownings, fetal alcohol syndrome, high-risk sex, poisonings, psychoses, and dependency treatment—and compared those costs with associated alcohol sales. Pre- vious studies did not break out costs of alcohol problems
TED R. MILLER; DAVID T. LEVY; REBECCA S. SPICER; DEXTER M. TAYLOR
OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental hazards associated with sports supplement drinks by investigating the chemicophysical properties of eight brands of sports drinks. METHODS: The pH and titratable acidity against 0.1 M NaOH was measured. Calcium, phosphate, and fluoride concentrations and viscosities of Carbolode, Gatorade, High Five, Isostar, Lucozade Sport Lemon, Lucozade Sport Orange, Maxim, and PSP22 were determined. RESULTS: The
This work was undertaken to study whether consumption of alcoholic beverage mixed with soft drinks could reduce the metabolic effect caused by ethanol. When 24 hr fasted rats were intragastrically fed rum (with 40% ethanol) diluted (1:1) with water, 3.0 ml (0.5 g ethanol) per 100 g body weight and sacrificed 12 hr later in fasting condition, exhibited higher levels of triacyl glycerol, glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum, higher levels of total cholesterol, triacyl glycerol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in both liver and kidneys, and lower levels of serum albumin. When fasted rats were fed 3.0 ml soft drink (0.31 mg caffeine), they showed increased levels of triacyl glycerol, glucose, ALT and ALP in the serum, TBARS in liver and kidneys, triacyl glycerol and total cholesterol in kidneys and lower levels of serum albumin. Soft drink feeding did not reduce serum total cholesterol but reduced HDL levels. Also soft drink did not alter liver lipids. When a mixture of 1.5 ml diluted rum (0.25 g ethanol) and 1.5 ml soft drink (0.154 mg caffeine) were fed to the fasted rats, the serum parameters increased similar to rats fed rum only except that total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were unaltered. TBARS in kidneys and liver were also increased but triacyl glycerol levels were not altered. Thus feeding ethanol with soft drink does not reduce the metabolic effects of ethanol but it will prevent ethanol induced serum HDL cholesterol rise. PMID:19579797
Raj, Arun; Praveen, K V; Varghese, Sheeba; Mukkadan, J K; Joseph, P K
Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.
The transition from high school to college provides a potentially critical window to intervene and reduce risky behavior among adolescents. Understanding the motivations (e.g., social, coping, enhancement) behind high school seniors' alcohol use could provide one important avenue to reducing risky drinking behaviors. In the present study, latent class analysis was used to examine the relationship between different patterns of drinking motivations and behaviors in a sample of 12th graders (N = 1,877) from the 2004 Monitoring the Future survey. Unlike previous variable-centered analyses, this person-centered approach identifies types of motivations that cluster together within individuals and relates membership in these profiles to drinking behaviors. Results suggest four profiles of drinking motivations for both boys and girls, including Experimenters, Thrill-seekers, Multi-reasoners, and Relaxers. Early initiation of alcohol use, past year drunkenness, and drinking before 4 P.M. were associated with greater odds of membership in the Multi-reasoners class as compared to the Experimenters class. Although the strength of these relationships varied for boys and girls, findings were similar across gender suggesting that the riskiest drinking behavior was related to membership in the Multi-reasoners class. These findings can be used to inform prevention programming. Specifically, targeted interventions that tailor program content to the distinct drinking motivation profiles described above may prove to be effective in reducing risky drinking behavior among high school seniors. PMID:17963040
Coffman, Donna L; Patrick, Megan E; Palen, Lori Ann; Rhoades, Brittany L; Ventura, Alison K
Objective: Harmful alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death in the United States. The majority of people who die from alcohol use begin drinking in their youth. In this study, we estimate the impact of interventions to reduce the prevalence of drinking among youth on subsequent drinking patterns and alcohol-attributable mortal- ity. Method: We first estimated the effect of
WILLIAM HOLLINGWORTH; BETH E. EBEL; CAROLYN A. MCCARTY; MICHELLE M. GARRISON; DIMITRI A. CHRISTAKIS; FREDERICK P. RIVARA
|College student alcohol use is a significant public health issue facing institutions of higher education. Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the areas of research and the identification of recommended best practices to reduce heavy episodic drinking. Yet, students engaged in the prevention of heavy episodic…
EPA proposed the Radon in Drinking Water Rule in the Federal Register on November 2, 1999 (64 FR 59246). The proposed rule was designed to promote a multimedia approach that would reduce radon risks in indoor air, where the problem is the greatest, while ...
... Only have a minute? [PODCAST - 0:59 seconds] Impaired Driving Teen Drivers VitalSigns: Drinking and Driving: A Threat ... Other Web Sites The Community Guide: Reducing Alcohol-impaired Driving MedlinePlus - Motor Vehicle Safety MedlinePlus - Impaired Driving Fatality ...
Ozonation is employed as a method for removal of colour due to humic substances in drinking water. We have examined some effects of ozonation of humic water in the laboratory. Ozonation reduced colour by 80% but had little influence on the DOC concentration and only moderate effect on the UV absorbance at 254 nm. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that
Dag Hongve; Vidar Lund; Gunvor Åkesson; Georg Becher
Ozonation is employed as a method for removal of colour due to humic substances in drinking water. We have examined some effects of ozonation of humic water in the laboratory. Ozonation reduced colour by 80% but had little influence on the DOC concentration and only moderate effect on the UV absorbance at 254 nm. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that
Dag Hongve; Vidar Lund; Gunvor Åkesson; Georg Becher
SUMMARY Previous evidence has suggested an association between cryptosporidiosis and consumption of unfiltered drinking water from Loch Katrine in Scotland. Before September 2007, the water was only micro-strained and chlorinated; however, since that time, coagulation and rapid gravity filtration have been installed. In order to determine risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis, including drinking water, we analysed data on microbiologically confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from 2004 to 2010. We identified an association between the incidence of cryptosporidiosis and unfiltered Loch Katrine drinking water supplied to the home (odds ratio 1·86, 95% confidence interval 1·11-3·11, P = 0·019). However, while filtration appears to be associated with initially reduced rates of cryptosporidiosis, evidence suggests it may paradoxically make those consumers more susceptible to other transmission routes in the long-term. These findings support implementation of similar treatment for other unfiltered drinking-water supplies, as a means of reducing cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking water. PMID:23591075
Pollock, K G J; Young, D; Robertson, C; Ahmed, S; Ramsay, C N
Examinations of heavy drinking and dating violence have typically focused on either female victimization or male perpetration; yet recent findings indicate that mutual aggression is the most common pattern of dating violence. The current study investigated the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence for both men and women. Participants (N = 2,247) completed surveys that assessed their heavy drinking and dating violence frequency across the first three years of college. Findings indicated that heavy drinking and dating violence were both relatively stable across time for men and women, but the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence differed by gender. For men, heavy drinking and dating violence were concurrently associated during their freshman year (Year 1), whereas for women heavy drinking during sophomore year (Year 2) predicted dating violence in their junior year (Year 3). In addition to providing educational material on healthy relationships and conflict resolution techniques, intervention efforts should target both heavy drinking and dating violence for men during or prior to their freshman year of college, whereas women may primarily benefit from efforts to reduce their heavy drinking.
The aim of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship of readiness to change, drinking pattern, amount of alcohol consumed, and alcohol-related negative consequences among at-risk and dependent drinkers enrolled in a Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) trial in an emergency department in southern Poland. The study examined 299 patients randomized to either an assessment or intervention condition and followed at 3 and 12 months after initial presentation. Patients indicating a readiness or were unsure of changing drinking behavior were significantly more likely to decrease the maximum number of drinks per occasion and the usual number of drinks in a sitting in the 3-months following study entry when compared to those that rated changing drinking behavior as unimportant. Readiness to change was not predictive of outcomes between the baseline and 12-month follow-up. Drinking outcomes and negative consequences by readiness and research condition were non-significant. This is the first Polish study utilizing SBIRT to enable patients to identify their hazardous drinking and reduce alcohol consumption. While some drinking outcomes improved with motivation, these improvements were not maintained at 12-months following SBIRT. Attention to additional constructs of readiness to change and drinking patterns may augment the effectiveness of SBIRT. PMID:22119521
A previous study examined the deterrent effects of Wisconsin's 1982 law mandating three to six month license suspension for first-time convicted drinking drivers. The earlier study found that: crashes and violations were reduced during the first three to ...
Nitrification within drinking water distribution systems reduces water quality, causes difficulties maintaining adequate disinfectant residual, and poses public health concerns including exposure to nitrite, nitrate, and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms. Monochloramine is...
The limit value of 0.1 µg/liter for “substances used in plant treatment and pest control including their main toxic degradation products” (PBSM) established in the German Drinking Water Regulations (Trinkwasserverordnung) serves comprehensively to protect drinking water from unexpected toxicological risks and thus corresponds to the axiom of concern (Besorgnisgrundsatz) contained in §11,2 of the Federal Communicable Disease Control Act (Bundesseuchengesetz), which is an essential cornerstone of the Drinking Water Regulations. Furthermore, precautionary values that are specific to the particular substance and near the valid limit can be found for about 10% of all registered active substances. The goal of the PBSM Recommendations of the Federal Health Office (BGA) issued in July 1989 is to preserve and restore groundwater and drinking water through measures to be taken by the causal party, while reducing consumer health risks to the greatest extent possible. The EC commission's drawbacks on these recommendations and the imminent EC-wide directive for the uniform registration of pesticides being based solely on Article 43 of the European Treaty would seriously endanger this goal. Therefore, a situation threatens in Europe similar to that in the United States, where at least 18 active ingredients have been detected in groundwater in concentrations of up to 1000 times the toxicologically established limits for drinking water.
Objective Despite extensive research exploring affect in alcohol dependent individuals in recovery, empirical research on affective changes over the course of psychosocial treatment and their role on drinking outcomes has been minimal. The present study examined the relationship between changes in positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and drinking outcomes during a pharmacobehavioral trial. Method Data for these post-hoc exploratory analyses were derived from a clinical trial of 321 alcohol dependent male and female individuals. The study design had four treatment arms for medication: three levels of dose of ondansetron as well as a control condition (placebo). All participants received weekly cognitive behavioral therapy for twelve weeks. We conducted an exploratory evaluation of changes in negative and positive affect and drinking behavior over time during the treatment phase of the trial using multilevel modeling. Results Participants experienced substantial reductions in drinking, decreases in NA, and increases in PA over the course of treatment. Individuals who experienced increases in PA over the course of treatment significantly reduced their drinking in subsequent weeks, while those who had reductions in NA only experienced reductions in drinking later in treatment if they also reported increases in PA. These results support the role of affect regulation in treatment. Conclusions These results suggest that affective change during the course of treatment may serve as one potential mechanism of action for changes in drinking behavior. The interaction between reductions in NA and increases in PA may be particularly important in promoting new coping skills and reducingdrinking.
Vaughan, Michelle D.; Hook, Joshua N.; Wagley, J. Nile; Davis, Don; Hill, Christina; Johnson, Bankole A.; Penberthy, J. Kim
Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.
Coffee drinking may be associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer; however, prospective data are limited. Further, it is not clear whether any association between coffee and endometrial cancer differs according to coffee caffeine content. The association of coffee drinking with incidence of endometrial cancer was evaluated among 226,732 women, aged 50–71, enrolled in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study who completed a baseline epidemiologic questionnaire. Following a mean 9.3 years of follow-up, data were available for 1,486 incident endometrial cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence. Sub-group analyses were performed according to smoking status, hormone therapy use (HT) and body habitus. Coffee drinking was inversely related to incidence of endometrial cancer (Hazard Ratio [HR] comparing drinking of >3 cups/day versus no cups=0.64, 95%CI, 0.51–0.80; Ptrend= 0.0004). The association of coffee with endometrial cancer risk was apparent for consumption of both regular (HR per cup= 0.90, 95%CI, 0.86–0.95) and decaffeinated coffee (HR per cup=0.93, 95%CI, 0.87–0.99). The relation of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence varied significantly by HT use (Pinteraction=0.03) with an association only apparent among HT-never users (HR comparing drinking >3 cups/day versus no cups= 0.54, 95%CI, 0.41–0.72; Ptrend=0.0005). Endometrial cancer incidence appears to be reduced among women that habitually drink coffee, an association that does not differ according to caffeine content.
Gunter, Marc J.; Schaub, Jennifer A.; Xue, Xiaonan; Freedman, Neal D.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Sinha, Rashmi
The crop is a known source of Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination. Previously, we evalu- ated lactic acid in the drinking water during a simulated pretransport feed withdrawal (FW) and reported 0.44% lactic acid significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the number of Salmonella recovered in market-age broiler crops. How- ever, total consumption of the organic acid-treated drink- ing water was reduced.
J. A. Byrd; R. C. Anderson; T. R. Callaway; R. W. Moore; K. D. Knape; L. F. Kubena; R. L. Ziprin; D. J. Nisbet
Randomized trials of water treatment have demonstrated the ability of simple water treatments to significantly reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal illnesses in developing countries where drinking water is of poor quality. Whether or not additional treatment at the tap reduc...
|The authors explored alcohol policies at 5 historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) to gain an understanding of how students' awareness of these policies might correlate with campus binge drinking rates. Findings indicated that male students who reported being unaware of certain alcohol policies were more likely to report binge…
Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23477449
Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T
... are approximate, since different brands and types of beverages vary in their actual alcohol content. beer or ... and so don’t realize how many standard drinks are in the containers in which these drinks are often sold. Some ...
... of beverages vary in their actual alcohol content. beer or cooler ~5% alcohol ? 12 oz. malt liquor ~ ... these drinks are often sold. Some examples: For beer, the approximate number of standard drinks in • 12 ...
Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...
|Surveyed teenagers (grades 7-12) about their drinking behavior, their exposure to alcohol advertising, relevant demographic information, and other communication influences. Concluded that exposure to alcohol advertising is significantly associated with teenage drinking behavior and intentions. (PD)|
The paper presents the methods of generation, biocidal effectiveness, field applications, and problems with using chlorine dioxide for disinfecting drinking water brought about by the need to comply with the trihalomethane regulation. Many drinking water ...
The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Fluoride. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of fluoride; Toxi...
UNDERAGE DRINKING PREVENTION NATIONAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN WHY YOUR CHILD MIGHT START DRINKING ALCOHOL As children approach their teen years, they begin to experience many emotional and physical changes, and ...
Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (?postnatal days 28–42) in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA), a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity), an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects with implications for anxiety and alcohol use disorders.
Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Karanikas, Chrisanthi A.; Richardson, Heather N.
The relationship between self-reported reasons for drinking and the DSM–IV alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption was examined. Participants were 777 heavy drinking community residents (424 men and 353 women) who completed the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (B. F. Grant & D. Hasin, 1992) and a self-report assessment battery. Drinking to reduce negative affect was greater
Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental\\u000a health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with\\u000a lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or sociability (positive\\u000a reinforcement) and better mental health. Maori identification and mental health would be
Objectives: To examine the frequency of underage drinking, driving after drinking and alcohol-related crashes, trends in these behaviors, and promising interventions.Methods: We examined drinking and drinking- and-driving behaviors reported in the United States in the 2001 U.S. National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol
RALPH W. HINGSON; JEAN-PASCAL Assailly; ALLAN F. WILLIAMS
We examined among college students (N = 530; 276 women) the moderating effects of avoidance (coping) and appetitive (social-enhancement) drinking motives on the within-person associations between anxious and depressive affect and drinking frequency and quantity. Once per year for up to 4 years participants completed standard measures of drinking motives and retrospective reports of affect and drinking in the previous
Stephen Armeli; Tamlin S. Conner; Jerry Cullum; Howard Tennen
College drinking and its adverse consequences on students’ health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the college drinking culture. From an analysis of a
College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the college drinking culture. From an analysis of a
|This paper provides a description of a program designed to teach responsible drinking practices in a college student population. The aim of this program is to prevent problem drinking or alocholism in students who report concern about their drinking behavior, and volunteer to participate in a treatment-prevention program aimed at controlling…
The report covers eight important documents: (1) 'The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act Title XIV, as amended by the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986,' by U.S. EPA; (2) 'Summary of the Safe Drinking Water Act Regulations,' by CDM, June 1988; (3) 'Sam...
|In preparing for this report, surveys and focus groups were conducted with adults (N=900), with or without children under the legal drinking age, to determine their attitudes, views, and thoughts regarding the problem of underage drinking. The survey was designed to identify opportunities for civic engagement on the issue of underage drinking and…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
Past research shows consistent associations between individuals' drinking patterns and the drinking patterns of their social network members. This association has usually been attributed to the influence of social networks on individual behavior. Recent studies concerning adolescent drinking behavior suggest that such associations may be due, in part, to selection effects in which individuals form social ties with those who
|Although binge drinking remains a major problem on college campuses, it is unclear what causes students to binge. Without this understanding, approaches to addressing binge drinking can only be superficial. This article investigates how students' living environments affect their drinking behavior. (GCP)|
|This guide was designed to help teenagers become involved in fun, alcohol-free activities. It provides youth with ideas on how to influence and change the factors that encourage teenage drinking. The guide has four purposes: (1) raise public awareness of the underage drinking crisis; (2) change community norms that encourage underage drinking;…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.
Background: Recent research using mobile phone interventions to address public health issues such as smoking, obesity, depression, and diabetes provides a basis for trialing a similar approach toward reducing the negative consequences of risky drinking. Objective: This feasibility study aims to recruit drinkers between 18–34 years to a website where they will design and enter their own personal messages (repeating or one-off) to be sent to their mobile phones when they are drinking to remind them of their pre-drinking safety intentions. Methods/Design: Participants in the treatment group will have access to the messaging function for 3 months and will be compared to a control group who will have 3 months access to a web chat site only. Data collection will occur at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary outcome is a change in unintended negative consequences from drinking at 3 months. Secondary outcomes include the acceptability of the intervention to this population, recruitment rate, participant retention, reduction in alcohol consumption, and the self-motivation discourse in participant messages. Discussion: Existing alcohol interventions in New Zealand attempt to reduce alcohol consumption in the population, but with little effect. This study aims to target unintended negative consequences resulting from drinking by empowering the drinkers themselves to deliver safety messages during the drinking session. If proven effective, this strategy could provide a cost-effective means of reducing the public health burden associated with risky drinking. Trial Registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000242921
Objective: Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory’s limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Method: Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. Results: We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reducedrinking via changing normative perceptions. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduceddrinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small.
Purpose – This paper aims to primarily identify the reasons behind the cultural shift which has taken place in France over the past few years regarding alcohol consumption, and concentrates on distinctive population categories in order to highlight characteristics of, and changes in, drinking behaviour amongst male, female, youth and senior drinkers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The author reviews the current governmental
Alcohol use by underage drinkers is a persistent public health problem in the United States, and alcohol is the most commonly used drug among adolescents. Accordingly, numerous approaches have been developed and studied that aim to prevent underage drinking. Some approaches are school based, involving curricula targeted at preventing alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana use. Other approaches are extracurricular, offering activities
Objective: The purpose of this article is to examine the aspects of collegiate environments, rather than student characteristics, that influence drinking. Unfortunately, the existing literature is scant on this topic. Method: A literature review of articles primarily published within the last 10 years, along with some earlier \\
CHERYL A. PRESLEY; PHILIP W. MEILMAN; JAMI S. LEICHLITER
This paper reviews studies which describe the potential damage to human health caused by increased levels of contaminants in drinking water mobilized by acid deposition. The contaminants of concern include mercury, aluminum, copper, cadmium, lead and asbestos. The need for research to provide a better estimate of the at-risk population is discussed. 45 references.
... Drinking Vital Signs Web Feature Motor Vehicle Safety: Impaired_Driving Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders website On Other Web ... Guide: Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption MedlinePlus - Alcohol MedlinePlus – Impaired Driving MedlinePlus – Alcoholism Back to Top Email page link ...
The lack of safe drinking water is one of the major causes of diarrhoea epidemics. This problem becomes acute after disasters when existing systems further deteriorate. Disasters, including floods, cyclones and tornadoes, are almost annual events in Bangladesh. This paper presents data collected following the cyclone of 1991. After the cyclone, people were supplied with water purifying tablets (WPTs). We
The first of two experiments monitored the water consumption of 11 chinchillas for 83 consecutive hr. Ss displayed not only a diurnal rhythm of drinking, but faster rhythms as well. Ss drank at a consistent rate of 3 to 4 licks/sec. Significant between-S ...
Taiwan and Hong Kong represent areas of rapid industrial development and the attenuation of traditional Chinese attitudes toward drinking. To measure the influence of the different homelands on alcohol consumption, a survey of 150 foreign Chinese students (94 males and 56 females) was conducted. In terms of homeland, 95 participants (63.3%) were from mainland China, 29 (19.3%) were from Taiwan,
|The study examined the perceived benefits and costs of alcohol use among undergraduates (N=462) perceiving their drinking as normal or abnormal as well as those undergraduates who met or did not meet the DSM-IV-TR criteria for an alcohol disorder. A 2x2 MANOVA and univariate analyses on the benefits (pros) and costs (cons) scales of the Alcohol…
Alcohol consumption has been linked with considerable mortality, and reduction of drinking, especially of heavy drinking, has been suggested as one of the main measures to reduce alcohol-attributable mortality. Aggregate-level studies including but not limited to natural experiments support this suggestion; however, causality cannot be established in ecological analysis. The results of individual-level cohort studies are ambiguous. On the other hand, randomized clinical trials with problem drinkers show that brief interventions leading to a reduction of average drinking also led to a reduction of all-cause mortality within 1 year. The results of these studies were pooled and a model for reduction of drinking in heavy drinkers and its consequences for all-cause mortality risk was estimated. Ceteris paribus, the higher the level of drinking, the stronger the effects of a given reduction. Implications for interventions and public health are discussed. PMID:23531718
Numerous studies show that sexual assault victims are likely to develop PTSD and have a greater risk of drinking problems than nonvictims. However, little is known about what differentiates survivors with PTSD only from those with comorbid PTSD and drinking problems. In this study, a large, diverse sample of community-residing women who had experienced adult sexual assault was surveyed. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify pre-assault, assault, and post-assault factors differentiating survivors with PTSD only from those with PTSD and drinking problems. Results showed that survivors with less education, histories of other traumas, who blamed their character more for the assault, believed drinking could reduce distress, drank to cope with the assault's effects, and received negative social reactions were more likely to have comorbid PTSD and drinking problems than those with PTSD only. Implications for future research and treatment with sexual assault victims are discussed. PMID:15899554
Ullman, Sarah E; Filipas, Henrietta H; Townsend, Stephanie M; Starzynski, Laura L
Moderate drinking of alcohol decreases the progress of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rate and total mortality. The mechanisms of action have not been clarified yet, but changes of lipid metabolism, antioxidative effect and changes in hemostasis are accused to play the major role. Moderate drinking leads to the increase of HDL cholesterol and decrease of LDL cholesterol. Antioxidants are distributed throughout the skin of grapes and therefore are present in higher concentration in red wine. Alcohol decreases the fibrinogen level and increases tPA, inhibits platelet aggregation and reduces factor VIIc. It positively influences stress, fear, anxiety and depression. Optimal daily consumption should be 20 to 40 g in men and half of it in women. Everyday drinking is important. There is no big difference between drinking beer, wine or drinks. The most crucial is to keep the moderate level of consumption. PMID:11262912
Building peak bone mass during adolescence is important to reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Calcium is important for building bone; however, milk consumption is declining while soft drink consumption is increasing among children and adolescents. There is disagreement regarding whether soft drink is leading to replacement of milk, reduced calcium intake, reduced bone mass and an increased
The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy episodic drinking is at risk of serious injury, sexual assault, drunk driving, and death. However, even after adjusting for alcohol consumption, students who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks had dramatically higher rates of serious alcohol-related consequences. It has been reported that the subjective perceptions of some symptoms of alcohol intoxication are less intense after the combined ingestion of the alcohol plus energy drink; however, these effects are not detected in objective measures of motor coordination and visual reaction time. PMID:20926266
Objectives To investigate whether binge drinking pattern influences blood pressure independently from drinking volume or whether it modifies the effect of volume of drinking. Methods We used cross-sectional data from population samples of 7559 men and 7471 women aged 45–69 years in 2002-05, not on antihypertensive medication, from Russia, Poland and Czech Republic. Annual alcohol intake, drinking frequency and binge drinking (?100 g in men and ?60 g in women in one session at least once a month) were estimated from graduated frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was analysed as continuous variables (systolic and diastolic pressure) and a binary outcome (?140/90 mm Hg). Results In men, annual alcohol intake and drinking frequency were strongly associated with blood pressure. The odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking in men was 1.62 (95% CI 1.45–1.82) after controlling for age, country, body mass index, education and smoking; additional adjustment for annual alcohol intake reduced it to 1.20 (1.03–1.39). In women, the fully adjusted odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking was 1.31 (1.05–1.63). Binge drinking did not modify the effect of annual alcohol intake. Consuming alcohol as wine, beer or spirits had similar effects. Conclusions The results suggest that the independent long-term effect of binge drinking was modest, that binge drinking did not modify the effect of alcohol intake, and that different alcoholic beverages had similar effects on blood pressure.
Objective: We investigated drinking behavior and sources of alcohol among Native American and White youths, as well as how underage drinking behavior and sources of alcohol may be related to environmental factors. Method: Survey data from a sample of 18,916 youths (8th, 10th, and 12th grades) from Montana were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Survey data were supplemented with county-level economic and census data. Results: Native American youths were more likely than White youths to report drinking and heavy episodic drinking and initiate drinking at a younger age. Native Americans were less likely than Whites to get alcohol from home or from someone younger than age 21 but were more likely to get it from other social sources or through theft from a store. Living in a county with more Native Americans was inversely related to access to alcohol for both White and Native American youths, as well as reduced lifetime, 30-day, and heavy episodic drinking. Living in a county with more single-parent households was positively related to lifetime drinking, 30-day drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and increased access to alcohol through someone younger than age 21 or a stranger. Median income was negatively related to lifetime drinking and ease of access to alcohol and was positively related to accessing alcohol from home without permission, theft, or purchase with a fake ID. Conclusions: Because Native American and White youths have different drinking patterns and obtain alcohol from different sources, strategies to prevent alcohol problems in these groups should take these differences into consideration.
Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Seninger, Steve; Paschall, Mallie I.; Moore, Roland S.
Harmful excessive use of alcohol has a severe impact on society and it remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. However, mechanisms that underlie excessive alcohol consumption are still poorly understood, and thus available medications for alcohol use disorders are limited. Here, we report that changing the level of chromatin condensation by affecting DNA methylation or histone acetylation limits excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in rodents. Specifically, we show that decreasing DNA methylation by inhibiting the activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with systemic administration of the FDA-approved drug, 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) prevents excessive alcohol use in mice. Similarly, we find that increasing histone acetylation via systemic treatment with several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduces mice binge-like alcohol drinking. We further report that systemic administration of the FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor, SAHA, inhibits the motivation of rats to seek alcohol. Importantly, the actions of both DNMT and HDAC inhibitors are specific for alcohol, as no changes in saccharin or sucrose intake were observed. In line with these behavioral findings, we demonstrate that excessive alcohol drinking increases DNMT1 levels and reduces histone H4 acetylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents. Together, our findings illustrate that DNA methylation and histone acetylation control the level of excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in preclinical rodent models. Our study therefore highlights the possibility that DNMT and HDAC inhibitors can be used to treat harmful alcohol abuse.
Warnault, V; Darcq, E; Levine, A; Barak, S; Ron, D
Green tea is a commonly consumed beverage in China. Epidemiological and animal data suggest tea and tea polyphenols may be preventive against various cancers, including breast cancer. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes catechol estrogens and tea polyphenols. The COMT rs4680 AA genotype leads to lower COMT activity, which may affect the relationship between green tea consumption and breast cancer risk. We evaluated
Martha J. Shrubsole; W. Lu; Z. Chen; X. O. Shu; Y. Zheng; Q. Dai; Q. Cai; K. Gu; Z. X. Ruan; Y.-T. Gao; W. Zheng
Heavy drinking young adults often have limited motivation to change their drinking behavior. Adding pharmacotherapy to brief counseling is a novel approach to treating this population. A small open-label pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of offering eight weeks of daily and targeted (i.e., taken as needed in anticipation of drinking) naltrexone with BASICS (brief motivational) counseling to heavy drinking young adults; to assess the tolerability of the medication in this population and to obtain preliminary efficacy data. The sample (N = 14) showed strong adherence to study appointments and medication taking, supporting the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the medication was well-tolerated. Significant reductions from baseline were observed in drinks per drinking day and in percent heavy drinking days and these gains were maintained one month after treatment ended. A significant decrease in alcohol-related consequences was also observed. Findings from this small pilot study suggest that naltrexone in combination with BASICS represents a promising strategy to reduce heavy drinking among young adults.
Leeman, Robert F.; Palmer, Rebekka S.; Corbin, William R.; Romano, Denise M.; Meandzija, Boris; O'Malley, Stephanie S.
Objective: The current study examined the natural trajectories of alcohol use among women as they transitioned from high school to college, considering changes in drinking for students at initially different levels of drinking. We examined the hypothesis that the association between college drinking and sexual victimization would be stronger for women with less high school drinking experience. Method: Female, college-bound, high school seniors were recruited from the community at the time of graduation (N = 437). Alcohol consumption and sexual victimization were assessed at the time of high school graduation (Time 0 [T0]) and at the end of the first (T1) and second (T2) semesters of college. Results: Abstainers and light drinkers increased alcohol consumption from T0 to T1; however, consumption by those already engaging in heavy episodic drinking remained stable. Consumption did not increase for any group from T1 to T2. As expected, maximum consumption in college was strongly associated with experiencing incapacitated rape or other sexual victimization during the same semester; however, prior drinking experience did not moderate the relationship. Conclusions: Occasions of heavy drinking in college are a significant risk factor for sexual victimization for both experienced and inexperienced drinkers. Findings point toward universal prevention, ideally before college entry, as a strategy for reducing heavy episodic drinking and hence, college sexual victimization.
Purpose: To improve understanding of black (African American and Haitian Blacks) adolescents’ drinking behaviors and sexual patterns that put them at risk for human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS) to determine whether specific cultural differences affect beliefs and behaviors about alcohol use.Methods: The study used ethnographic interviewing to provide information about the alcohol norms, beliefs, context, and behavior of African-American
Heavy episodic drinking is strongly associated with driving after drinking, yet there has been mixed evidence regarding whether the disinhibiting effects of alcohol intoxication contribute to the decision to drive after drinking. This investigation tested whether greater alcohol intoxication increased the probability of driving after drinking particularly during drinking episodes in which students experienced reduced subjective feelings of intoxication. A sample of 1,350 college students completed up to 30 days of Web-based daily diary monitoring in each of 4 consecutive years. Participants reported daily on their alcohol consumption, subjective intoxication, and whether they drove after drinking on the previous day or night. In generalized estimating equation models, daily estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) was more strongly associated with driving after drinking during episodes in which subjective intoxication was lower. That is, students were most likely to drive after drinking when they were objectively more intoxicated but perceived themselves as less intoxicated. These event-level associations did not change over time nor did they differ as a function of gender. Further, the effects persisted when predicting driving at eBACs above the legal limit for operating a motor vehicle. Greater subjective intoxication may serve to inhibit driving after drinking, particularly when students are objectively more intoxicated. In the absence of subjective intoxication, however, other salient pressures might impel driving after drinking. Prevention efforts should incorporate the importance of variability in subjective intoxication.
Heavy episodic drinking is strongly associated with driving after drinking, yet there has been mixed evidence regarding whether the disinhibiting effects of alcohol intoxication contribute to the decision to drive after drinking. This investigation tested whether greater alcohol intoxication increased the probability of driving after drinking particularly during drinking episodes in which students experienced reduced subjective feelings of intoxication. A sample of 1,350 college students completed up to 30 days of web-based daily diary monitoring in each of 4 consecutive years. Participants reported daily on their alcohol consumption, subjective intoxication, and whether they drove after drinking on the previous day or night. In generalized estimating equation models, daily estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) was more strongly associated with driving after drinking during episodes in which subjective intoxication was lower. That is, students were most likely to drive after drinking when they were objectively more intoxicated but perceived themselves as less intoxicated. These event-level associations did not change over time nor did they differ as a function of gender. Further, the effects persisted when predicting driving at eBACs above the legal limit for operating a motor vehicle. Greater subjective intoxication may serve to inhibit driving after drinking, particularly when students are objectively more intoxicated. In the absence of subjective intoxication, however, other salient pressures might impel driving after drinking. Prevention efforts should incorporate the importance of variability in subjective intoxication. PMID:21688876
|Objective: This study tested the comparative effectiveness of modified behavioral self-control therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the 2, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N = 200) were recruited and urn randomized to 1 of…
Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kranzler, Henry R.
Objective: This study tested the comparative effectiveness of modified behavioral self-control therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the 2, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N = 200) were recruited and urn randomized to 1 of 2…
Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kranzler, Henry R.
For many young people, binge drinking is the most common form of alcohol misuse, particularly in those with a depressive disorder. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about the effects that the combination of depression and binge drinking has on neuropsychological outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether binge drinkers with depression show more pronounced neuropsychological dysfunction compared to their peers with depression alone or binge drinking alone. Neuropsychological testing was conducted on help-seeking young people (18-30 years) recently diagnosed with a depressive disorder and classified as either 'binge drinkers' (n=43) or 'non-bingers' (n=48). Two healthy control groups (i.e. binge drinkers, n=24 and non-bingers, n=21) were additionally recruited and also underwent the same testing. Qualitatively, binge-drinking patients with depression performed consistently below controls, depression alone, or binge drinking alone. In keeping with our hypotheses, visual learning and memory was significantly reduced in depressed binge drinkers, whereas mental flexibility was reduced at a trend level. There were no significant differences in neuropsychological performance in depressed alone or binge drinking alone individuals compared to controls. The findings suggest that when treating young people with a depressive disorder, strategies targeting binge drinking may contribute to preventing potential neurobiological changes underlying poorer long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:23721946
Hermens, Daniel F; Lee, Rico S C; De Regt, Tamara; Lagopoulos, Jim; Naismith, Sharon L; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B
Underage drinking is a major public health problem. Youth drink more heavily than adults and are more vulnerable to the adverse\\u000a effects of alcohol. Previous research has demonstrated the connection between alcohol advertising and underage drinking. Restricting\\u000a outdoor advertising in general and transit ads in particular, represents an important opportunity to reduce youth exposure.\\u000a To address this problem, the Marin
Objective: Motivational interviewing (MI) therapies are effective in reducing high-risk drinking in college populations. Although research supports efficacy of MI prevention strategies in reducing alcohol use, there are little data examining readiness to change (RTC), the underlying theoretical model of MI interventions. The purpose of the present study was to explore RTC variability and drinking behavior and whether MI increases RTC in an intervention group compared with controls. Method: Two-hundred eighty-five first-year female college students participated in the study. Present analyses focused on those students who consumed alcohol in the month before the study (n = 182). RTC was measured using the Readiness to Change Ruler. Results: Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. There was significant variability in RTC: 71.86% of variance in RTC was between- person differences, and 28.14% was within-person differences. Higher RTC was associated with lower intentions to drink and future drinking behavior. However, in weeks in which students drank more, they experienced a decrease in RTC. Based on the significant cross-level interaction, the intervention group had significantly higher RTC than controls. Conclusions: These results provided partial support for our hypotheses. The overall theoretical construct of RTC varies both across and within individuals. These results also offer support for the utility of MI-based prevention strategies in increasing RTC within individuals. However, we did not consistently find that these changes related to drinking changes. Findings provide support for both the construct of RTC and utility of MI interventions in changing these beliefs in female college students.
Kaysen, Debra L.; Lee, Christine M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Tollison, Sean J.
One of the largest drivers of the current obesity epidemic is thought to be excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Some have proposed vending machine restrictions and taxing soft drinks to curb children's consumption of soft drinks; to a large extent, these policies have not been evaluated empirically. We examine these policies using two nationally representative data sets and find no evidence that, as currently practiced, either is effective at reducing children's weight. We conclude by outlining changes that may increase their effectiveness, such as implementing comprehensive restrictions on access to soft drinks in schools and imposing higher tax rates than are currently in place in many jurisdictions. PMID:20360172
Summary. Recent literature suggests that both caffeine and taurine can induce diuresis and natriuresis in rat and man. Although they\\u000a act via different cellular mechanisms, their diuretic actions might be additive. This is of considerable interest, as several\\u000a commercially available energy drinks contain both substances.\\u000a \\u000a In this study we examined the possible diuretic effects of caffeine and taurine in a cross-over-design
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 represents an important step in improving the quality of public water supply in the United States. However, it fails to address two important problems: (1) The 1970 Public Health Service Community Water Supply Survey revealed that small public water supply systems often deliver poor quality water. The Act does not assure that these supplies will now receive appropriate attention; furthermore, the Act does not address the needs of the 50 million people not now served by public water systems; (2) About one-third of our population draws its drinking waters from polluted sources. The decisions to use these low cost sources were made generations ago when consumers could be protected from water-borne infectious disease. A new problem has now arisen--the presence of numerous synthetic organic chemicals of uncertain health consequence, not removed by conventional water treatment. The Act does not address this problem. Regionalization and the integration of water resource and water pollution control authorities are proposed as a reasonable solution to these problems. The development of dual water supply systems in order to conserve scarce pure water sources for human consumption appears to be a feasible way to avoid using polluted waters for drinking. The development of dual supplies would be enhanced by regionalization and integration of water authorities.
Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.
College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity – exercise – as an intervention for hazardous drinking. Exercise has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and data suggest that students who engage in exercise regularly are less likely to drink heavily. However, the adherence to exercise necessary to achieve these benefits and possibly reducedrinking is poor, and improved exercise adherence interventions are needed. A novel combination of motivational enhancement therapy and contingency management is discussed as a means to address the critical issue of exercise adherence.
Powdered thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. These thickeners are composed of primarily modified maize starch; some varieties also incorporate powdered gums. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva that initiates the breakdown of starch. To determine the significance of this process in dysphagia management, we measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of thickened drinks. Two thickeners were studied: one comprising modified maize starch alone and one that included additional gums. These were added to drinks with neutral and acidic pH: water and orange juice. Two clinical scenarios were simulated: (1) the effect of saliva on fluid as it is swallowed and (2) the effect when saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Saliva was found to reduce the viscosity of water thickened with maize starch in both scenarios: (1) 90% reduction after 10 s and (2) almost 100% reduction in viscosity after 20 min. The thickener composed of gums and maize starch showed a significant reduction but retained a level of thickening. In contrast, thickened orange juice (pH 3.8) was not observed to undergo any measurable reduction in viscosity under the action of saliva. PMID:21374083
College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity—exercise—as an intervention for hazardous drinking. Exercise has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and data suggest that
The objective of this study was to compare alcohol urge, drinking behaviour and mood across two beverage conditions (alcohol/soft drink), over multiple drinks. Forty-five (22 men) participants completed two conditions (alcohol/soft-drink). Baseline alcohol urge and mood was measured before an initial drink consumed (0.2?g/kg alcohol or lemonade). Four drinking phases, which provided alcohol and lemonade, followed. Alcohol urge, mood and liking/enjoyment of beverages were measured. Participants' typical drinking habits were recorded, allowing comparisons across drinking factors. Alcohol urge was greater in the alcohol condition (P<0.03), which positively correlated with liking and drinking enjoyment of the alcohol beverage (P<0.04). Binge drinking and weekly alcohol consumption positively related to alcohol urge during the first half of the alcohol condition (P<0.02). Feeling stimulated was positively related to alcohol urge (P<0.01). Sip latency was quickest for alcohol in the alcohol condition (P<0.001) and did not increase over time as in the soft-drink condition (P<0.001). This study presents a paradigm in which alcohol motivation can be assessed within more typical drinking occasion parameters. Urge related to alcohol's positive reinforcing effects. As more alcohol was consumed, a disassociation of liking and wanting alcohol occurred, indicating that different processes may underlie behaviour during different periods of a drinking occasion. PMID:20847645
Relapse following alcohol treatment is a major problem for individuals who are alcohol dependent, yet little is known about the course of drinking after the initial lapse. In the current study, discrete-time survival analysis and latent growth mixture modeling were used to evaluate the time to first lapse and the trajectories of postlapse drinking in a sample of 563 individuals who received community alcohol treatment. Results showed a decreasing risk of lapsing over time. After the initial lapse, 3 trajectory subgroups provided a parsimonious representation of the heterogeneity in postlapse drinking frequency and quantity, with the majority of individuals reporting light, infrequent drinking. Covariate analyses incorporating demographics, distal risk factors, time to first lapse, and coping behavior as predictors of time to lapse and postlapse drinking trajectories indicated that alcohol dependence and coping behavior were the strongest predictors of lapsing and postlapse drinking behavior.
Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration. PMID:22990947
Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James
This annual report describes the 1990 annual sampling event for the primary and secondary parameters for drinking water. Sampling was performed under the Environmental Monitoring (EM) Unit Drinking Water Monitoring Program of EG&G Idaho, Inc. This program...
CAFFEINE is one of the world's most widely-used drugs and coffee drinking is a major form of its use1. The levels of caffeine intake in coffee drinking have significant, predominantly stimulatory, physiological and behavioural effects2. Surprisingly, the role of caffeine in the self-administration of coffee has not yet been studied. This research indicates that coffee drinkers drink more low-caffeine coffee
Aims: This paper had three aims: (1) to validate a Spanish adaptation of the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M DMQ-R), (2) to explore the relationship of each drinking motive with different patterns of alcohol use, and (3) to compare the drinking motives of moderate drinkers, heavy drinkers, and alcohol abusing\\/dependent individuals. Methods: Two studies were carried out. In Study 1,
Laura Mezquita; Sherry H. Stewart; Manuel I. Ibáñez; María A. Ruipérez; Helena Villa; Jorge Moya; Generós Ortet
Underage drinking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for American youths and young adults. The negative consequences of underage drinking range from academic problems to intentional and unintentional injuries, acts directed toward self or others, and death. Nurses, regardless of practice settings, are on the frontline of defense. The take-home message is to delay/deter the first drink of alcohol. PMID:23998767
|An experimental treatment approach to teaching alcoholics controlled drinking utilizing a multi-modal treatment approach is presented. This approach included aversion conditioning contingent upon emission of such undesirable drinking behaviors as gulping, drinking straight drinks, Blood Alcohol Level of 0.065 or greater, and time between drinks.…
Drinking together has important roles in human relationships and social interactions. In this paper, we suggest drinking as an implicit communication channel and an enhancer of communications. We present Lover's Cups as drinking-together interfaces that promote sharing the drinking time with someone you care about. The drinking interfaces are a pair of cups with a wireless connection that communicate with
Studies have shown that divers may lose large volumes of body fluids in hot water suit (HWS) dives lasting for four hours or longer, and that this dehydration is mainly caused by sweating. Body fluid balance may be impaired and the diver's alertness and power of judgement could be influenced by such imbalance. The main objective of the present study was to obtain a subjective judgement of a drinking system for divers (DSFD) and to obtain information related to body fluid loss during long saturation lock-out dives. Via a suction pipe imbedded in the microphone unit in the oronasal mask, the DSFD makes it possible for the diver to drink while in the water. Ten divers tested the drinking system during 12 saturation lock-out dives lasting on average for 5.5 h. A questionnaire was answered after each dive. The divers drank 21 times (range 5-30 times) during the dives, and the average drinking volume was 1.4 litre (range 1.0-1.5 litre) but only drank 0.04 litre (range 0-0.3 litre) in the bell after diving. The system was easy to operate and preparation and clothing did not cause any delay. The suction pipe did not intrude and the microphone performed excellently. The work in water was not hindered by DSFD and all divers were very satisfied with the drinking system. It was obvious that the need for fluid intake after a dive with DSFD was markedly reduced; another good indication of maintained body fluid balance. PMID:23111833
Personality and cognitive processes are both related to alcohol use and misuse. A recent model of hazardous drinking referred, the 2-CARS model, postulates two major pathways to hazardous drinking. One pathway primarily involves the association between Reward Drive and Positive Outcome Expectancies, the second involves the association between Rash Impulsiveness and Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy. In previous tests of the model, Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy was found to have the most proximal impact on drinking, being directly influenced by Rash Impulsiveness, and indirectly influenced by Reward Drive through Positive Outcome Expectancies. The aim of the current study was to test the 2-CARS model in a larger independent sample. Results found that individuals with a strong Reward Drive showed higher Positive Outcome Expectancies, while individuals high in Rash Impulsiveness were more likely to report reducedDrinking Refusal Self-Efficacy. The present results also showed a theoretically unexpected pathway with a direct association between Rash Impulsiveness and Positive Outcome Expectancies. However, overall the results support the view that a greater understanding of hazardous drinking can be achieved by investigating the relationship between these personality and cognitive variables. PMID:24064194
Harnett, Paul H; Lynch, Samantha J; Gullo, Matthew J; Dawe, Sharon; Loxton, Natalie
For several years now, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. In Canada, this is a subject of particular concern, because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. It is concluded that the risk to health associated with the ingestion of asbestos, at the levels found in municipal drinking water supplies, is so small that it cannot be detected by currently available epidemiologic techniques.
Energy drinks are attractive and readily available in every grocery store and gas station. While most youth verbalize an understanding that too much caffeine is bad for one's health, at an age of multiple demands, an over-the-counter offer of increased energy and alertness is hard to ignore. What makes energy drinks different from regular coffee? Although the heavily caffeinated drinks promise increased energy and stamina and are loaded with healthy natural ingredients, excessive consumption is of concern on many levels. This article will discuss some of the effects of excessive caffeine, as well as risks associated with energy drinks mixed with alcohol. PMID:22085613
... Bottled Water & Carbonated Soft Drinks Guidance Documents & Regulatory Information. ... Small Entity Compliance Guides for Bottled Water. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation
We examined whether certain “risky” drinking motives mediate the previously established relation between elevated anxiety sensitivity (AS) and increased drinking behavior in college student drinkers (n=109 women, 73 men). Specifically, we administered the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Revised Drinking Motives Questionnaire, and a quantity-frequency measure of typical drinking levels. Participants were parceled according to high (n=30), moderate (n=29), and low
Sherry H Stewart; Michael J Zvolensky; Georg H Eifert
This paper describes smoking and drinking patterns during pregnancy amongst a cohort of 2266 women who enrolled at a London antenatal clinic 1982-1983. Only 12% of mothers were non-drinkers before pregnancy, but 44% abstained in the first trimester, 38% in the second and 50% in the third. Before pregnancy 20% of mothers were drinking more than the recommended 10 units of alcohol per week. This dropped to 6% during pregnancy. Mean consumption at each of the three stages of pregnancy was highest amongst those mothers who were the heaviest drinkers before pregnancy. The heaviest pre-pregnancy drinkers were also the least likely to abstain at any point in pregnancy. Of those mothers who were drinking less than 10 units of alcohol per week before pregnancy, 3% increased during pregnancy. Wine was the most popular beverage choice but heavier drinkers were more likely to drink beers and spirits in addition. Before pregnancy 29% of mothers smoked. This dropped to 23% in pregnancy. Consumption levels fell amongst those who continued smoking. The heaviest pre-pregnancy smokers were the most likely to reduce but the least likely to stop. Smoking was positively associated with the level of both pre-pregnancy and pregnancy drinking. The most commonly cited reasons for changes in drinking and smoking habits in pregnancy were concern for the child, concern for self or concern for both. Feeling sick or ill was a more commonly stated reason for reduction of drinking than smoking. Social pressures were important in reducing smoking, but the mass media were quoted as a more important influence in reducingdrinking. Mothers who drank more than 10 units of alcohol per week during pregnancy were more likely to be older, of higher social status and primiparous. In contrast those who smoked in pregnancy were more likely to be younger, of lower social status and multiparous. This has important implications for planning antenatal health education. PMID:2785805
Despite a long history of prevention efforts and federal laws prohibiting the consumption of alcohol for those below the age of 21 years, underage drinking continues at both a high prevalence rate and high incidence rate. The purpose of this research study is to explain underage drinking of alcohol conditioned by perception of peer drinking. An acquisition model is conjectured
A study of drinking behavior at four sites in the upper midwest found considerable variation by site in the reported drinking behaviors of adults and teenagers. The degree of attachment to either parents or friends seemed to be related to drinking among both teenagers and their younger brothers and sisters. (JHZ)
|Objective: The authors examined drinking and driving after drinking before and after turning 21. Participants: Participants were drawn from first time college students who were taking part in a 4-year longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks. Methods: Web-based longitudinal surveys collected data on drinking and driving after…
|Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water…
Identifies a natural typology of drinking partnerships in early marriage. Results show an interpretable five-cluster solution that evidenced significant and meaningful relationships with both marital functioning and drinking consequences. This multidimensional notion of a drinking partnership may be useful in future efforts to understand the…
Data currently available on drinking water intakes do not support dietary exposure estimates for contaminants that have acute effects lasting less than 24 h. Realistic exposure estimates for these types of contaminants in drinking water require detailed information on amounts and time of consumption for each drinking occasion during a day. A nationwide water consumption survey was conducted to address
Leila Barraj; Carolyn Scrafford; Jennifer Lantz; Carrie Daniels; Gary Mihlan
Numerous models have been proposed in an attempt to explain both alcohol use and alcohol abuse. Many of these models propose that drinking behaviour is the result of a complex interplay of cognitive and behavioural variables including coping strategies, alcohol expectancies and motives for drinking. However few studies have explored how these elements may work together to predict drinking. The
Penelope Hasking; Michael Lyvers; Cassandra Carlopio
|College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of…
The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.
The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…
|The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test…
The present research contrasted theoretical models depicting the nature of the relation among drinking beliefs, drinking tendencies, and behavioral consequences in 266 incoming freshman college students. It also examined the theoretical relations between mother-teen communications and drinking beliefs relevant to behavioral consequences. The findings revealed direct relations between binge- drinking consequences and the drinking beliefs: Alcohol can make positive trans-
Early of onset of alcohol consumption increases the risk for the development of dependence. Whether adolescent consumption of other highly palatable solutions may also affect alcohol drinking in adulthood is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adolescent consumption of four solutions: water, sucrose, sucrose-milk and milk on ethanol drinking in adult rats. Rats had limited access to one of the four solutions from day PND 29 to PND 51 and were subsequently trained to consume ethanol (E) using a sucrose(S) fade-out procedure. Adolescent consumption of sucrose and sucrose-milk solutions increased intake of 2.5%E when it was combined with 10%S but it had no effect on the drinking of 10%E alone. Adolescent consumption of milk and sucrose-milk significantly decreased the intake of 10%E when it was combined with 10%S, and milk significantly reduced 10%E consumption alone and when it was combined with 5%S. Adolescent exposure to the sucrose-milk and sucrose solutions was also found to increase sucrose and sucrose-milk consumption. Our findings suggest adolescent exposure to sucrose increases, whereas, exposure to milk reduces ethanol consumption in adult rats. Our results may provide a new theoretical approach to the early prevention of alcoholism.
Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Walker, Brendan M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.
Risks to universal drinking water security are accelerating due to rapid demographic, climate and economic change. Policy responses are slow, uneven and largely inadequate to address the nature and scale of the global challenges. The challenges relate both to maintaining water security in increasingly fragile supply systems and to accelerating reliable access to the hundreds of millions who remain water-insecure. A conceptual framework illustrates the relationship between institutional, operational and financial risks and drinking water security outcomes. We apply the framework to nine case studies from rural and urban contexts in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Case studies are purposively selected based on established and emerging examples of political, technological or institutional reforms that address water security risks. We find broad evidence that improved information flows reduce institutional costs and promote stronger and more transparent operational performance to increase financial sustainability. However, political barriers need to be overcome in all cases through internal or external interventions that require often decadal time frames and catalytic investments. No single model exists, though there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate that risks to drinking water security can be reduced even in the most difficult and challenging contexts. PMID:24080626
Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Nutrition Basics > Energy Drinks and ... Downsides Cutting Through the Hype The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...
...2009-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section 520...520.2325a Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor . See...Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows: (1)...
The Office of Drinking Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has prepared a drinking water criteria document on Legionella. The document includes an extensive review of the following topics: general information and properties, occurrence in drinking water, worldwide distri...
A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...
... Schools & Child Care Facilities Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities This one-stop EPA site provides information about drinking water quality in schools and child care facilities. Ensuring drinking water quality at these facilities ...
Although studies on social anxiety and alcohol-related problems are numerous, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate how the motive to drink due to social anxiety is associated with hazardous alcohol use over and above habitual alcohol use, social anxiety, and alcohol outcome expectancies. We also examine which factors define the motive to drink due to social anxiety and clarify the impact of the type of social situation. Drinking due to social anxiety, habitual alcohol use, and gender, but not social anxiety, were associated with hazardous alcohol use. Social anxiety increased the motive to drink due to social anxiety, but fear of cognitive performance deficits after drinkingreduced it. Alcohol was used to reduce anxiety more frequently in situations where intake of alcohol is deemed socially acceptable. These findings suggest that the motive drinking due to social anxiety, not social anxiety per se, is related to hazardous alcohol use. The motive is weakened by the expectation of alcohol-induced cognitive deficits, as well as by the type of social situation in which alcohol is to be used. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23586457
Objective: Given that most effective alcohol harm-reduction laws specify the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) that constitutes illegal behavior (e.g., the .08% breath alcohol concentration legal limit), interventions that allow drinkers to accurately estimate their BACs, and thus better assess their risk, have potential importance to long-term driving-under-the-influence prevention efforts. This study describes a field experiment designed to test the impact on drinking of providing “Know Your Limit” (KYL) BAC estimation cards to individuals in a natural drinking environment. Method: We randomly sampled 1,215 U.S. residents as they entered Mexico for a night of drinking, interviewed them, and randomly assigned them to one of six experimental conditions. Participants were reinterviewed and breath-tested when they returned to the United States. The experimental conditions included providing generic warnings about drinking and driving, giving out gender-specific BAC calculator cards (KYL cards), and providing incentives to moderate their drinking. Results: Cueing participants about the risks of drunk driving resulted in significantly lower BACs (relative to control) for participants who indicated that they would drive home. Providing KYL matrixes did not reduce BACs, and, in fact, some evidence suggests that KYL cards undermined the effect of the warning. Conclusions: KYL information does not appear to be an effective tool for reducingdrinking and driving. Implications for prevention and future research are discussed.
Recent observed feminization of aquatic animals has raised concerns about estrogenic compounds in water supplies and the potential for these chemicals to reach drinking water. Public perception frequently attributes this feminization to oral contraceptives (OCs) in wastewater and raises concerns that exposure to OCs in drinking water may contribute to the recent rise in human reproductive problems. This paper reviews the literature regarding various sources of estrogens, in surface, source and drinking water, with an emphasis on the active molecule that comes from OCs. It includes discussion of the various agricultural, industrial, and municipal sources and outlines the contributions of estrogenic chemicals to the estrogenicity of waterways and estimates that the risk of exposure to synthetic estrogens in drinking water on human health is negligible. This paper also provides recommendations for strategies to better understand all the potential sources of estrogenic compounds in the environment and possibilities to reduce the levels of estrogenic chemicals in the water supply. PMID:20977246
Heavy drinking among college students is common and is often harmful. A previously reported randomized trial revealed that a brief motivational intervention (BMI) reduced the alcohol consumption of heavy drinking college students (Carey, Carey, Maisto, & Henson, 2006). For this study, we conducted supplemental analyses of hypothesized predictors of change using the same sample (N = 495). Greater readiness-to-change, higher levels of self-regulation, and less engagement in social comparison all independently predicted reductions in drinking outcomes. Furthermore, self-regulation, social comparison, and future time perspective interacted with BMI and predicted drinks per week. As expected, greater self-regulation skills enhanced response to the BMI; the remaining interaction effects were unexpected. Overall, these findings suggest that BMIs produce relatively robust effects.
Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.
A point-of-use (POU) granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed adsorber (FBA) was evaluated for reduction of soluble and insoluble lead from drinking water. Some of the factors which affect lead removal by GAC were evaluated, such as carbon type, solution pH, and a limited amount of work on competitive interactions. The design criteria for lead reduction by a POU device are also addressed. Minicolumns were used to evaluate the capacity of carbon for lead under a variety of conditions. The importance of surface chemistry of the carbon and the relationship with the pH of the water for lead reduction was demonstrated. Results indicate that a properly designed POU-GAC-FBA can reduce lead in drinking water to below the EPA action level of 15 ppb while being tested under a variety of conditions as specified under the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International Standard 53 test protocol. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
Taylor, R.M.; Kuennen, R.W. (Amway Corp., Ada, MI (United States))
In 2011, Congress passed the ?Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,? which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of ?lead-free? by reducing allowed...
|Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…
Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan
Investigated the extent to which alcoholic beverages are consumed by high school teenagers (N=622) in rural communities of middle Tennessee. Results showed that about 63 percent of the subjects do drink alcoholic beverages, and that most of the drinking is done in the company of friends. (LLL)
Drunk driving is a major public health problem and young people suffer disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality as a result of drinking and driving. Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 in this country, and alcohol is implicated in many of these deaths. Countermeasures to drinking and driving…
An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…
The intent of this study was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks: Gatorade (GA), Stokely-Van Camp; Braketime (BT), Johnson and Johnson; Body Punch (BP), Starting Line Sports against water (W). In so doing it was also possible to assess eac~ drink's contribution of water, carbohydrate, and electrolytes 15minutes after ingestion. Nine men and
EDWARD F. COYLE; DAVID L. COSTILL; WILLIAM J. FINK; DAVID G. HOOPES
The protection of drinking water quality is one of the most important mandates of government environment departments. During the past 2 decades, more and more attention has been spent on the trace organic chemical pollutants that may be present in potable water. Consequently, the detection, identification, and quantitation of trace organics in drinking water has been the subject of considerable
Evidence is reviewed that indicates that social anxiety is a significant motivation for drinking among college students. Although the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has been studied from a variety of perspectives, there has been little integration of data. Drawing from the alcohol and anxiety literature, the relationship between social anxiety and heavy drinking in college students is
|While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…
A new apparatus for continuous recording of drinking rate is described together with results of its application with distilled water and 0.3% saccharine solution. Drinking rate is higher at night, and is increased for saccharine. Preference tests show preponderance of preference for saccharine, although there are individual differences in all of the rate variables.
The public's, or at least the mass media's attention to the problem of college student drinking have seemed to come and go over the past decades. This may be due to the periodic appearance of a cluster of student deaths related to drinking, perhaps due to some element of randomness in what captures the media's attention as a trend or
Throughout history, societies have been predicated on ready access to sources of drinking water, whether in the cisterns of Masada high above the Dead Sea, the graceful aqueducts carrying water into Rome, or the sacred Aboriginal water holes in Australia’s outback. But access is not enough. The water has to be safe to drink. And this presupposes a deceptively simple
While the use of microbial biomass for the degradation of contaminants, nutrients, and organics has been commonly used in the wastewater field since the early 1900s, the biological treatment of drinking water has been limited, particularly in the United States. However, recent developments in the drinking water treatment field are beginning to broaden the applicability, feasibility, and favorability of biological
Chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant in drinking water in many parts of the world. It is produced relatively easily, cheap and is more effective in low consumptions. Chlorination of water by liquid chlorine is a common practice in water treatment plants, while by chlorine gas is made just before reaching the consumer's premises at special stations. Tehran's drinking
The reevaluation of drinking water treatment practices in a desire to minimize the formation of disinfection byproducts while assuring minimum levels of public health protection against infectious organisms has caused it to become necessary to consider the problem of estimation of risks posed from exposure to low levels of microorganisms, such as virus or protozoans, found in treated drinking water.
Charles N. Haas; Joan B. Rose; Charles Gerba; Stig Regli
|An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…
The relationships between gender, alcohol consumption and parental monitoring, including television monitoring, were examined. Student volunteers (N = 149; 90% Caucasian, 79% female) participated by reporting retrospective general parental monitoring, television monitoring and recent drinking behaviors. Analyses showed that men received less monitoring than did women growing up concerning overall parental monitoring but not television monitoring. Women's drinking quantity was
Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50mg to an alarming 505mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries,
Chad J. Reissig; Eric C. Strain; Roland R. Griffiths
Data gathered in a study of palatability (“liking”) and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males, two for females). Palatability ratings were
Jim Lemon; Richard Stevenson; Peter Gates; Jan Copeland
|Drunk driving is a major public health problem and young people suffer disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality as a result of drinking and driving. Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 in this country, and alcohol is implicated in many of these deaths. Countermeasures to drinking and…
The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...
The production of adequate and safe drinking water is a high priority issue for safeguarding the health and well-being of humans all over the world. Traditionally, microbiological quality of drinking water has been the main concern, but over the last decades the attention of the general public and health officials on the importance of chemical quality and the threat of
|The relative importance of a number of predictors of binge drinking and of high- versus low-frequency binge drinking among undergraduate students was studied. Findings demonstrated that race, class, fraternity or sorority membership, use of other drugs in the past 30 days, positive alcohol expectancies, perception of minimal risk, perception that…
Strano, Donald A.; Cuomo, Michael J.; Venable, Riley H.
... influences such as peers, family members, and the media. Help boost your child's confidence by helping them learn different ways to ... Prevent Your Child From Drinking 53kb Why Your Child Might Start Drinking 4mb Customizable Posters Social Media Tools Sample Social Media Posts 53kb Web Banners ...
|This article analyses alcohol-related lifestyles among Danish teenagers. Building on Bourdieu's reasoning on symbolic capital and distinction, we analyse three interrelated themes. First, we show that alcohol-related variables (drinking patterns, drinking debut, experience of intoxication, etc.) can be used to identify some very distinctive life…
This study set out to investigate the pressures experienced by different individuals to drink, or drink a little more than intended, by someone who drinks or drinks more than they do. A total of 2099 Nigerian adults between the ages of 18 and 65 years were randomly sampled. The frequency with which they experienced such other drinkers encouraging them to drink or drink more than intended from various sources was examined. Logistic regression was used to identify significant individual predictors of receiving pressure by sources of influence. Focus group discussions were also held to examine how these pressures are applied in various settings. Results indicated that male friends or acquaintances were the sources respondents reported influenced them the most to drink or drink more. Significant predictors of pressure varied by source but tended to include religion (5 of 6 sources) and gender (3 of 6). Results showed that pressure to drink or drink a little more was seen to come more from males than from females. It raises the need to have a better knowledge of these factors, particularly as they may relate to heavy or problematic drinking, and their implications for prevention and treatment.
Ibanga, Akanidomo K J; Adetula, Victor A. O.; Dagona, Zubairu K
Although the heavy episodic drinking (HED) measure of 5+ drinks (sometimes 4+ for women) is used extensively, there is no empirical basis for the designation of 5 drinks as the threshold (vs. another threshold that may perform equally). The present study sought to determine the threshold for HED that maximally predicts proximal and distal adverse-drinking-related outcomes. Participants included 115 young adults (57% female; 96% Caucasian) who partook in an 8-week Internet survey that assessed daily drinking as well as next-day hangover; 10 months later, adverse outcomes (problem drinking, alcohol-related problems, maximum number of drinks, and drug use) were surveyed. Thresholds were computed, with a range from 1+ drinks to 15+ drinks, and outcomes were predicted from each threshold. Findings for hangover measures showed relatively good convergence across multiple indicators, with greatest prediction occurring at a threshold of 10+ drinks per occasion. Different thresholds were observed for long-term outcomes, with higher thresholds indicative of outcomes with greater severity. Although alternatives to HED, such as subjective effects and blood alcohol concentration, can indicate risky drinking, a threshold measure of HED may have advantages in terms of prevention and of intervention efforts.
Objective This study examined the association between restricting calories on intended drinking days and drunkenness frequency and alcohol-related consequences. Participants Participants included a random sample of 4,271 undergraduate college students from 10 universities. Methods Students completed a web-based survey regarding their high-risk drinking behaviors and calorie restriction on intended drinking days. Results Thirty-nine percent of past 30-day drinkers reported restricting calories on days they planned to drink alcohol, of which 67% restricted because of weight concerns. Restricting calories on drinking days was associated with greater odds of getting drunk in a typical week. Women who restricted were more likely to report memory loss, being injured, being taken advantage of sexually and having unprotected sex while drinking. Men were more likely to get into a physical fight. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of considering weight control behaviors in the examination of high-risk college drinking.
Giles, Steven M.; Champion, Heather; Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.
This paper investigates the relationship between macroeconomic conditions and drinking using individual-level data from 1987 to 1999 interview years of the "behavioral risk factor surveillance system" (BRFSS). We confirm the procyclical variation in overall drinking identified in previous research using aggregate sales data and show that this largely results from changes in consumption by existing drinkers, rather than movements into or out of drinking. Moreover, the decrease occurring during bad economic times is concentrated among heavy consumers, with light drinking actually rising. We also find no evidence that the decline in overall alcohol use masks a rise for persons becoming unemployed during contractions. These results suggest that any stress-induced increases in drinking during bad economic times are more than offset by declines resulting from changes in economic factors such as lower incomes. PMID:12146596
As college students are returning to campuses, their parents are concerned over the risks of binge drinking, which is particularly high among the college-aged set. In a national survey released this week by the American Medical Association (AMA), 95% of parents believe that binge drinking is a serious threat to their children, and 85% say that easy access to alcohol contributes to too much drinking. Visitors to the "Binge Drinking: Community Problem, Community Solution" Website can not only read the results of the AMA poll results and associated graphics but also read about prevention strategies employed by colleges and communities and learn about the people spearheading the prevention movement. Other features of the site are a FAQ list and advisory for parents concerned about binge drinking among college students. The easiest way to download the poll results is to go to the site's downloads page where you can choose from .pdf, .zip or .sit formats.
Data currently available on drinking water intakes do not support dietary exposure estimates for contaminants that have acute effects lasting less than 24 h. Realistic exposure estimates for these types of contaminants in drinking water require detailed information on amounts and time of consumption for each drinking occasion during a day. A nationwide water consumption survey was conducted to address how often, when, and how much water is consumed at specific times during the day. The survey was conducted in two waves, to represent two seasons, and the survey instrument consisted of 7-day water consumption diaries. Data on total daily amounts consumed, number of drinking occasions per day, amounts consumed per drinking occasion, and intervals between drinking occasions show larger between-subjects variation than within-subject variation. Statistically significant associations were also observed between drinking water consumption patterns and participants’ ages and sex and geographical regions in which these participants live. The number of drinking occasions on a given day varied from 0 to 19, with the majority of respondents reporting 6 or less drinking occasions per day. The average interval between drinking occasions varied from 1 to 17 h, with 57% of the person-days reporting average intervals at least 3 h apart. The mean amount consumed per drinking occasion showed little association with the number of drinking occasions and fluctuated between 8 and 10 oz. To our knowledge, this survey is the only source of information on within-day patterns (i.e., when and how much) of drinking water consumption for a nationally representative sample of the US population. The detailed water consumption data from this survey can be used to support less than 24-h dietary exposure estimates for contaminants in drinking water.
BARRAJ, LEILA; SCRAFFORD, CAROLYN; LANTZ, JENNIFER; DANIELS, CARRIE; MIHLAN, GARY
Sexual assault and problem drinking are both prevalent in college women and are interrelated. Findings from cross-sectional research indicate that motives to drink to decrease negative affect (coping motives) or to increase positive affect (enhancement motives) are partial mediators of the sexual assault-problem drinking relation. However, no published longitudinal studies have examined these relations. The current study tests a longitudinal model and examines coping and enhancement motives as potential mediators. Participants were 131 female undergraduates who completed baseline measures of self-reported sexual assault victimization and problem drinking. Coping and enhancement motives were measured at three-month follow up; problem drinking was measured at six-month follow-up. Analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated direct and indirect paths in the sexual assault-problem drinking relation. Zero-order correlations indicated significant, positive relations between among drinking motives, sexual assault, and drinking variables. Longitudinally, mediation was evident for coping but not enhancement motives. Ultimately, findings were most consistent with self-medication hypotheses -- i.e., drinking in order to gain relief from symptoms or problems -- regarding the sexual assault-problem drinking relation.
Lindgren, Kristen P.; Neighbors, Clayton; Blayney, Jessica A.; Mullins, Peter M.; Kaysen, Debra
The overriding objective of this research is to reduce hazardous drinking in a military sample by implementing two motivational interventions and comparing them with a treatment-as-usual condition. Individuals who are referred to the Air Force Alcohol and...
Cottage cheese whey protein concentrates, prepared by preconcentration by ultrafiltration followed by gel permeation to remove low molecular weight materials, have the solubility, stability and flavor that make them suitable for fortification of soft drinks and related products. These concentrates are characterized by high levels of "available" lysine and by amino acid compositions indicating good nutritional value. Carbonated beverages prepared with conventional beverage ingredients and containing up to 1% by weight of the total beverage of added whey protein maintained clarity, color, and flavor during 203 days storage at room temperature. Spray dried whey protein concentrates were incorporated without adverse effects into commercial "ade" type powders. Clarity of 1% protein solutions at pH 2--3.5 was not impaired by heating for 6h at 80 degree, but some structural change occurred since an average of 37% of the protein precipitated on shifting pH to 4.7. Increased stability against heat denaturation under acidic conditions was conferred by some soft drink ingredients. Added sucrose reduced protein denaturation by 1/2 but sodium saccharin had no effect. The type of acid used also altered protein denaturation rate. While properly isolated whey protein concentrates have functional properties necessary for soft drink fortification, feasibility of use will depend upon cost. PMID:727030
This double-blind experiment examined the effects of a caffeinated sports drink during prolonged cycling in a warm environment. Sixteen highly trained cyclists completed 3 trials: placebo, carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (CES), and caffeinated sports drink (CES+CAF). Subjects cycled for 135 min, alternating between 60% and 75% VO2max every 15 min for the first 120 min, followed by a 15-min performance ride. Maximal voluntary (MVC) and electrically evoked contractile properties of the knee extensors were measured before and after cycling. Work completed during the performance ride was 15-23% greater for CES+CAF than for the other beverages. Ratings of perceived exertion were lower with CES+CAF than with placebo and CES. After cycling, the MVC strength loss was two-thirds less for CES+CAF than for the other beverages (5% vs. 15%). Data from the interpolated-twitch technique indicated that attenuated strength loss with CES+CAF was explained by reduced intrinsic muscle fatigue. PMID:17460332
Cureton, Kirk J; Warren, Gordon L; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Wingo, Jonathan E; Trilk, Jennifer; Buyckx, Maxine
Background High-risk drinking by college students continues to pose a significant threat to public health. Despite increasing evidence of the contribution of community-level and campus-level environmental factors to high risk drinking, there have been few rigorous tests of interventions that focus on changing these interlinked environments. The Study to Prevent Alcohol Related Consequences (SPARC) assessed the efficacy of a comprehensive intervention using a community organizing approach to implement environmental strategies in and around college campuses. The goal of SPARC was to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol-related consequences among college students. Methods Ten universities in North Carolina were randomized to an Intervention or Comparison condition. Each Intervention school was assigned a campus/community organizer. The organizer worked to form a campus-community coalition, which developed and implemented a strategic plan to use environmental strategies to reduce high-risk drinking and its consequences. The intervention was implemented over a period of 3 years. Primary outcome measures were assessed using a web-based survey of students. Measures of high-risk drinking included number of days alcohol was consumed, number of days of binge drinking, and greatest number of drinks consumed (all in the past 30 days); and number of days one gets drunk in a typical week. Measures of alcohol-related consequences included indices of moderate consequences due to one’s own drinking, severe consequences due to one’s own drinking, interpersonal consequences due to others’ drinking, and community consequences due to others’ drinking (all using a past 30-day timeframe). Measure of alcohol-related injuries included (1) experiencing alcohol-related injuries and (2) alcohol-related injuries caused to others. Results We found significant decreases in the Intervention group compared to the Comparison group in severe consequences due to students’ own drinking and alcohol-related injuries caused to others. In secondary analyses, higher levels of implementation of the intervention were associated with reductions in interpersonal consequences due to others’ drinking and alcohol-related injuries caused to others. Conclusions A community organizing approach promoting implementation of environmental interventions can significantly affect high-risk drinking and its consequences among college students.
Wolfson, Mark; Champion, Heather; McCoy, Thomas P.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Ip, Edward H.; Blocker, Jill N.; Martin, Barbara Alvarez; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mitra, Ananda; DuRant, Robert H.
Ingestion of arsenic, both from water supplies and medicinal preparations, is known to cause skin cancer. The evidence assessed here indicates that arsenic can also cause liver, lung, kidney, and bladder cancer and that the population cancer risks due to arsenic in U.S. water supplies may be comparable to those from environmental tobacco smoke and radon in homes. Large population studies in an area of Taiwan with high arsenic levels in well water (170-800 micrograms/L) were used to establish dose-response relationships between cancer risks and the concentration of inorganic arsenic naturally present in water supplies. It was estimated that at the current EPA standard of 50 micrograms/L, the lifetime risk of dying from cancer of the liver, lung, kidney, or bladder from drinking 1 L/day of water could be as high as 13 per 1000 persons. It has been estimated that more than 350,000 people in the United States may be supplied with water containing more than 50 micrograms/L arsenic, and more than 2.5 million people may be supplied with water with levels above 25 micrograms/L. For average arsenic levels and water consumption patterns in the United States, the risk estimate was around 1/1000. Although further research is needed to validate these findings, measures to reduce arsenic levels in water supplies should be considered.
Smith, A H; Hopenhayn-Rich, C; Bates, M N; Goeden, H M; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Duggan, H M; Wood, R; Kosnett, M J; Smith, M T
Binge drinking is a public health concern due to its association with negative health outcomes as well as increased legal and social consequences. Previous studies have frequently used self-reported alcohol consumption to classify binge drinking episodes; however, these measures are often limited in both detail and accuracy. Some researchers have begun using additional measures such as blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol concentrations to supplement self-report data. Transdermal alcohol testing, or the detection of alcohol expiration through the skin, offers advantages over BAC and BrAC measures by allowing for continuous and noninvasive monitoring of an individual's drinking behavior in real-time. Despite these advantages, this technology has not been widely used or studied outside of forensic applications. The present research compares transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) and BrAC readings during the consumption of alcohol ranging from moderate drinking to binge drinking in 22 adult regular drinkers in order to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of the TAC monitors. We observed that BrAC and TAC measures were broadly consistent. Additionally, we were able to develop an equation that could predict BrAC results using TAC data, indicating TAC data would be an appropriate substitute in research and clinical contexts where BrAC readings are typically used. Finally, we were able to determine a cutoff point for peak TAC data that could reliably predict whether a participant had engaged in moderate or more than moderate drinking, suggesting TAC monitors could be used in settings where moderate or reduceddrinking is the goal.
Dougherty, Donald M.; Charles, Nora E.; Acheson, Ashley; John, Samantha; Furr, R. Michael; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie
Aims: To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Results: Controlling for financial stress, discrimination and demographic variables, a hypothesized, positive relationship between ethnic drinking cultures and alcohol outcomes held for most drinking outcomes. A hypothesis on the moderating effect of integration into ethnic cultures indicated by ethnic language use was supported for US-born Asian Americans. Conclusion: Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence alcohol use by Asian Americans. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures may be conditioned by the degree of integration into the ethnic cultures. To inform alcohol interventions for reducing harmful and hazardous alcohol use among immigrants, future research needs to explore the cultural and social processes occurring in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking.
Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine
Background Alcohol consumption is strongly associated with cigarette smoking in young adults. Purpose To evaluate the acceptability and estimate the magnitude of the effect of a novel integrated smoking cessation and binge drinking intervention for young adults compared to standard treatment control. Methods Participants were 41 young adult smokers (? 10 cigarettes per day) who regularly (? 2 times per month) binge drank who were randomly assigned to Standard Treatment (n=19) involving eight individual treatment visits plus eight weeks of nicotine patch therapy or the identical smoking cessation treatment integrated with a binge drinking intervention (Integrated Intervention; n=22). Results Participants rated Integrated Intervention as highly acceptable as indicated by 100% of participants rating helpfulness as 5 on 5-point scale. Using an intent-to-treat analysis for tobacco abstinence, at both week 12 end of treatment and week 24 follow-up, more participants who received Integrated Intervention were biochemically confirmed abstinent from tobacco than those who received Standard Treatment (36% vs. 21% at week 12; 23% vs. 11% at week 24). At week 24, change from baseline in binge drinking episodes, drinks consumed, and drinking days between treatment groups were similar (intent-to-treat analysis was not used for alcohol data). Conclusions Preliminary data supports the intriguing possibility that Integrated Intervention may enhance smoking cessation and reduce binge drinking.
Ames, Steven C.; Werch, Chudley E.; Ames, Gretchen E.; Lange, Lori J.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Hanson, Andrew C.; Patten, Christi A.
Background Limited research exists on medical students’ substance use patterns including over-consumption of alcohol. Objective To determine prevalence and correlates of at-risk drinking among a national sample of medical students. Design Cross-sectional, anonymous, web-based survey. 2710 medical students from 36 U.S. medical schools (1st – 4th year) completed the survey. Included in the instruments was a 10-item scale (AUDIT) to assess at-risk drinking behaviors within the last 12 months. Results Over 15% of the subjects (n= 412) scored positive for at-risk drinking (8?). Multivariate analysis of the data revealed the following independent predictors were statistically significant (p ? 0.05) for at-risk drinking: being of younger age, male, unmarried, using illicit drugs, smoking tobacco products within the last 30 days, having low perception of risk, showing impulsive behavior, being depressed, and having gambling problems. Conclusions Findings from this study provides initial data for investigating further associations between risky drinking behavior, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors, as well as effectiveness of curriculum or campus wide policy interventions to reduce over-consumption of drinking among this population.
Shah, Ameet Arvind; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lindstrom, Richard W.; Wolf, Kenneth E.
Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs.
Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.
Background This study used a pre-post design to evaluate the influence on drinking-and-driving fatal crashes of six laws directed at youth aged 20 and younger and four laws targeting all drivers. Methods Data on the laws were drawn from the Alcohol Policy Information System data set (1998–2005), the Digests of State Alcohol-Highway Safety Related Legislation (1983-2006), and the Westlaw database. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set (1982-2004) was used to assess the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers involved in fatal crashes (fatal crash incidence ratio [CIR]). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Results Significant decreases in the underage fatal CIR were associated with presence of four of the laws targeting youth (possession, purchase, use and lose, and zero tolerance) and three of the laws targeting all drivers (.08 blood alcohol concentration illegal per se law, secondary or upgrade to a primary seat belt law, and an administrative license revocation law). Beer consumption was associated with a significant increase in the underage fatal CIR. The direct effects of laws targeting drivers of all ages on adult drinking drivers aged 26 and older were similar but of a smaller magnitude compared to the findings for those aged 20 and younger. It is estimated that the two core underage drinking laws (purchase and possession) and the zero-tolerance law are currently saving an estimated 732 lives per year controlling for other exposure factors. If all states adopted use and lose laws, an additional 165 lives could be saved annually. Conclusions These results provide substantial support for the effectiveness of under age 21 drinking laws with four of the six laws examined having significant associations with reductions in underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes. These findings point to the importance of key underage drinking and traffic safety laws in efforts to reduce underage drinking-driver crashes.
Fell, James C.; Fisher, Deborah A.; Voas, Robert B.; Blackman, Kenneth; Tippetts, A. Scott
Fluoride in drinking water and 32 other drinking water variables were evaluated in an epidemiologic study of 158 municipalities in the State of Iowa. The study included three study groups: two for controlled fluoridation and one for natural fluoride. Previous epidemiologic studies of fluoride in drinking water have rarely addressed other drinking water parameters. The results indicated that controlled fluoridation municipalities were more likely to have initiated other treatment practices such as chlorination. Natural fluoride drinking water concentrations were positively correlated with water source depth, and thereby related to other depth-associated variables such as radium 226, strontium, and nitrogen. Future epidemiologic studies evaluating the safety of fluoride in drinking water should address the potential for confounding by other water variables and treatment processes.
Introduction Alcohol use, alcohol misuse, and risky driving from adolescence into young adulthood were compared by drinking onset age. Methods Surveys were administered in Grades 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, 10, 12, and at approximately age 23. Participants were placed into Drinking Onset groups based on self-reported alcohol use frequency on the adolescent surveys. Driving records were examined in three age periods: under 21, 21–25, and 26+. Results The earliest drinking initiators reported higher alcohol use and misuse on each survey, and were more likely to have risky driving offenses before age 21 and to have alcohol driving offenses in all three age periods. Discussion The earliest drinking initiators engaged in risky drinking behavior and risky driving behavior that was consistently higher than those with later drinking initiation, beginning in adolescence and persisting well into young adulthood.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required.
Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.
Retrospective data on drinking behavior and related life experiences have been a neglected resource in research on alcohol use in the general population. Data from a 1981 national survey of women's drinking indicate the potential value of retrospective data analysis. The 1981 data provide comparative ages of onset for drinking behavior, drinking consequences, and health problems, and allow comparisons among
Richard W. Wilsnack; Albert D. Klassen Jr; Sharon C. Wilsnack
The first drinking experience has been suggested as an important point in etiological processes associated with alcohol use and abuse. In this study, initial drinking experiences were assessed among populations of alcoholics, problem drinkers, and nonproblem drinkers. Results showed that the alcoholics and problem drinkers more frequently consumed 5 or more drinks during their initial drinking occasion than the nonproblem
Gerard J Connors; Timothy J. OFarrell; Henry S. G. Cutter
This article presents historical background on the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act, the regulatory development process for the drinking water standards in the United States, new initiatives currently being discussed in the U.S. Congress to rewrite the Safe Drinking Water Act, and a detailed list of the drinking water standards currently promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Major sources
Most Oakland County youth who drink alcohol usually began drinking in the seventh, eighth or ninth grades. When youth drink alcohol at such young ages, serious harm begins. More children are killed by alcohol than all illegal drugs combined. In addition, children who begin drinking alcohol before the age of 15 are 5 times more likely than those who start
BACKGROUND: Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy
Brenda M Malinauskas; Victor G Aeby; Reginald F Overton; Tracy Carpenter-Aeby; Kimberly Barber-Heidal
BackgroundAlcohol abuse is a major public health problem in the United States. Binge drinking and drinking among youth are of special concern. The purpose of this study is to examine trends in alcohol use and binge drinking and correlates of the behaviors with a focus on drinking among persons 18 to 20 years of age.
Mary K Serdula; Robert D Brewer; Cathleen Gillespie; Clark H Denny; Ali Mokdad
|Two studies investigated undergraduates' knowledge of the UK government recommendations about binge drinking and sensible drinking, and also examined how labelling oneself as a binge drinker is associated with binge drinking perceptions. In Study 1, 325 undergraduates reported how many units constitute binge drinking, and labelled themselves as a…
Cooke, Richard; French, David P.; Sniehotta, Falko F.
Despite the dangers associated with drink walking, limited research is currently available regarding the factors which influence individuals to engage in this risky behaviour. This study examined the influence of psychosocial factors upon individuals' intentions to drink walk across four experimental scenarios (and a control condition). Specifically, a 2×2 repeated measures design was utilised in which all of the scenarios incorporated a risky pedestrian crossing situation (i.e., a pedestrian crossing against a red man signal) but differed according to the level of group identity (i.e., low/strangers and high/friends) and conformity (low and high). Individuals were assessed for their intentions to drink walk within each of these different scenarios. Undergraduate students (N=151), aged 17-30 years, completed a questionnaire. Overall, most of the study's hypotheses were supported with individuals reporting the highest intentions to drink walk when in the presence of friends (i.e., high group identity) and their friends were said to be also crossing against the red man signal (i.e., high conformity). The findings may have significant implications for the design of countermeasures to reducedrink walking. For instance, the current findings would suggest that potentially effective strategies may be to promote resilience to peer influence as well as highlight the negative consequences associated with following the behaviour of other intoxicated pedestrians who are crossing against a red signal. PMID:22269552
We have selectively bred mice that reach very high blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) after drinking from a single bottle of 20% ethanol. High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1) mice drink nearly 6g\\/kg ethanol in 4h and reach average BECs of more than 1.0mg\\/mL. Previous studies suggest that DID and two-bottle preference for 10% ethanol with continuous access are influenced by
John C. Crabbe; Stephanie E. Spence; Lauren L. Brown; Pamela Metten
Objectives This study examines the association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students. Cultural orientation is the measure of how the cultural values of individuals living in their own society are influenced by cultural values introduced from the outside. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey collected data from 1279 university students from six universities in central China. Participants used a likert scale to rank a series of statements reflecting cultural values from the previously validated Chinese Cultural Orientation Scale and answered questions about their drinking behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics. Results Statistically significant differences in cultural orientation were observed for gender, hometown and type of university attendance. Traditional-oriented students were more likely to be occasional drinkers or nondrinkers, while marginal-oriented students, bicultural-oriented students and western-oriented students were more likely to be regular drinkers. Bicultural orientation (OR?=?1.80, P<0.05) and marginal orientation (OR?=?1.64, P<0.05) increased the likelihood of the student being regular drinking, compared to students with traditional orientations. Males (OR?=?4.40, P<0.05) had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than females, graduate students (OR?=?2.59, P<0.05) had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than undergraduates, students from urban areas (OR?=?1.79, P<0.05) had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than those from towns/rural areas, and students attending key universities (OR?=?0.48, P<0.05) had a lower likelihood of regular drinking than those attending general universities. Conclusions Cultural orientation influences drinking behaviors. Traditional cultural orientation was associated with less drinking while western cultural orientation, marginal cultural orientation and bicultural orientation were associated with more drinking. The role of gender, hometown and university attendance is partially moderated through the influence of cultural orientation. The relationship between a traditional cultural orientation and alcohol drinking suggests that traditional Chinese cultural values should be examined for their role in possibly reducing alcohol-related risks through education and policy initiatives.
Tang, Hongxiu; Cai, Weibin; Wang, Hongjing; Zhang, Qing; Qian, Ling; Shell, Duane F.; Newman, Ian M.; Yin, Ping
Underage drinking continues to be an important public health problem and a challenge to the substance abuse prevention field. Community-based interventions designed to more rigorously control underage access to alcohol through retailer education and greater enforcement of underage drinking laws have been advocated as potentially effective strategies to help address this problem, but studies designed to evaluate such interventions are sparse. To address this issue we conducted a randomized trial involving 36 communities to test the combined effectiveness of five interrelated intervention components designed to reduce underage access to alcohol. The intervention was found to be effective in reducing the likelihood that retail clerks would sell alcohol to underage-looking buyers, but did not reduce underage drinking or the perceived availability of alcohol among high school students. Post hoc analyses, however, revealed significant associations between the level of underage drinking law enforcement in the intervention communities and reductions in both 30-day use of alcohol and binge drinking. The findings highlight the difficulty in reducing youth drinking even when efforts to curtail retail access are successful. Study findings also suggest that high intensity implementation of underage drinking law enforcement can reduce underage drinking. Any such effects of enhanced enforcement on underage drinking appear to be more directly attributable to an increase in perceived likelihood of enforcement and the resultant perceived inconveniences and/or sanctions to potential drinkers, than to a reduction in access to alcohol per se. PMID:22688848
Flewelling, Robert L; Grube, Joel W; Paschall, M J; Biglan, Anthony; Kraft, Anne; Black, Carol; Hanley, Sean M; Ringwalt, Christopher; Wiesen, Chris; Ruscoe, Jeff
We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hours worked were positively related to number of drinks consumed. Workload was unrelated to alcohol consumption, and work-school conflict was negatively related to consumption, particularly when students expressed strong beliefs in the tension reducing properties of alcohol. There was no evidence that the effects of work stressors were moderated by gender. The results illustrate that employment during the academic year plays a significant role in college student drinking and suggest that the employment context may be an appropriate intervention site to address the problem of student drinking.
This bill was introduced into the Senate of the United States on July 10, 1991 to amend the Safe Drinking Water Act to reduce human exposure to lead in drinking water. Key features of the bill revolve around reducing lead in drinking by corrosion control in water systems and monitoring requirements. Other elements include: analytical methods to ascertain lead levels; reporting, record keeping and implementation requirements; EPA review of implementation of NPDWR for lead; and variances and exemptions.
The article emphasizes the importance of enumerating injured coliforms in drinking water and reviews the sources of injury, factors influencing the extent of injury, problems in enumerating stressed coliforms, recent advances in enumeration techniques, and the health implications...
Bush K,Kivlahan DR,McDonellMB,FihnSD, Bradley KA. The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C): an effective brief screening test for problem drinking. Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). Alcohol Use ...
A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...
|The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)|
... person might lose his or her balance and have trouble walking properly. The person might feel relaxed and happy, and later start crying or get in an argument. When people drink too much, they might do ...
In addition to many other halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), a number of halonitromethanes including chlorinated, brominated, and mixed bromochlorinated nitromethanes, have been identified in drinking water. These halonitromethanes, especially the brominated ones, are ...
Guidelines based on evidence-based practices1 help direct the roles of community supervision professionals who work with underage drinkers. Adapting evidence-based practices when working with underage drinking offenders requires juvenile justice professio...
COMMENCING JUNE 24, 1977, COMMUNITIES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES ARE REQUIRED TO COMPLY WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY NATIONAL INTERIM PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATION DATED 24 DECEMBER 1975. THIS REPORT IS BASED UPON PILOT PLANT EXPERIMENTS...
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Implementation: DefinitionsNational Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) GlossaryImproving Air Quality in Your Community GlossaryAmerica's Children and the Environment TermsAmerica's Children and the Environment Terms
Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...
Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States. PMID:22869743
Crown, Patricia L; Emerson, Thomas E; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R; Ward, Timothy
Occupational and environmental health nurses play a key role in raising awareness, advocating for public health and safety, and preventing deleterious health consequences for individuals who consume energy drinks. [Workplace Health Saf 2013;61(10):468. PMID:24088377
Based on previous contamination incidents, civilian and military water supply personnel have improved their drinking water surveillance practices. One of the biggest challenges though is that no single device can detect all chemical, biological, and radio...
A. J. Whelton A. M. Dietrich G. A. Burlingame M. F. Cooney
Contamination of drinking water by traces of organic chemicals is of special concern because of health effects of these materials. Louisiana waters are especially susceptible to this contamination because of industrial discharges stemming from large petro...
... You describe the finding of benzene in soft drinks as a "clear health threat." You have not provided any rationale why the presence of benzene in ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/chemicalcontaminants
Objectives The time of drinking in terms of daytime versus evening and weekday versus weekend is charted for regular drinkers in 14 countries in Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa and Oceania. Methods national or regional adult population surveys from the GENACIS project. Results: The weekly rhythm of drinking varies greatly between societies. Drinking was generally more likely after 5 pm and on weekends. To this extent, alcohol consumption is now regulated by a universal clock. The relation of time of day and of the week of drinking to problems from drinking varied between societies. Drinking at specific times was more likely to predict problems among men than women, though for men the particular time varied, while weekday evenings were the most problematic time for women. The relation of drinking at a particular time to problems in part reflected that heavy drinkers were more likely to be drinking at that time. Conclusions There are commonalities across cultures in drinking by time of day and day of the week, but the implications of the timing for alcohol-related problems are fairly culture-specific.
Room, Robin; Makela, Pia; Benegal, Vivek; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Hettige, Siri; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.; Wilsnack, Richard
Supported by a National Institute of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse grant, this study examined associations between health care access and heavy drinking in patients with hypertension and diabetes. Using a sample of 7,428 US adults from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey data, multivariate logistic regressions were performed. Better access to health care, as indicated by regular source of care and frequent use of primary care, was associated with reduced odds of heavy drinking. Alcohol interventions may be more effective if targeted at patients with chronic conditions adversely affected by drinking. Future research needs to investigate factors facilitating such interventions. PMID:22432456
Background Excessive alcohol consumption causes 79,000 deaths annually in the U.S., shortening the lives of those who die by approximately 30 years. Although alcohol taxation is an effective measure to reduce excessive consumption and related harms, some argue that increasing alcohol taxes places an unfair economic burden on “responsible” drinkers and socially disadvantaged persons. Purpose To examine the impact of a hypothetical tax increase based on alcohol consumption and socio-demographic characteristics of current drinkers, individually and in aggregate. Methods Data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey was analyzed from 2010–2011 to determine the net financial impact of a hypothetical 25 cent-per-drink tax increase on current drinkers in the U.S. Higher-risk drinkers were defined as those whose past-30 day consumption included binge drinking, heavy drinking, drinking in excess of the U.S. Dietary Guidelines, and alcohol-impaired driving. Results Of current drinkers in the U.S., 50.4% (or approximately 25% of the total U.S. population) were classified as higher-risk drinkers. The tax increase would result in a 9.2% reduction in alcohol consumption, including an 11.4% reduction in heavy drinking. Compared with lower-risk drinkers, higher-risk drinkers paid 4.7 times more in net increased annual per capita taxes, and paid 82.7% of net increased annual aggregate taxes. Lower-risk drinkers paid less than $30 in net increased taxes annually. In aggregate, groups who paid the most in net tax increases included those who were white, male, between the ages of 21 and 50, earning ?$50,000 per year, employed, and had a college degree. Conclusions A 25 cent-per-drink alcohol tax increase would reduce excessive drinking, and higher-risk drinkers would pay the substantial majority of the net tax increase.
Daley, James I.; Stahre, Mandy A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Naimi, Timothy S.
Lead poisoning as a result of drinking water carried through lead service lines has been well-documented in the literature. A case of childhood lead poisoning is presented in which the only identified source of lead was lead solder from newly installed water pipes. Partly as a result of this case, the Massachusetts Bourd of Plumbers and Gas Fitters banned the use of 50/50 lead-tin solder or potable water lines. It is anticipated that this ban will increase the cost of new housing by only $16 per unit but will significantly reduce one environmental source of lead.
The amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is present as a nutritional supplement in many sports drinks. An experiment, suitable for a junior-senior level instrumental analysis course, is described to measure the amount of taurine in these sports drinks. A pre-column derivatization with Sanger's reagent, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, is followed by an HPLC separation utilizing a gradient elution, and detection at 360 nm.
Nine, food-deprived rats were each given daily sessions during which 60 45-mg food pellets were delivered individually at 60-sec intervals, independently of behaviour. Water spouts were available to the animals and the intermittent delivery of food induced high levels of adjunctive drinking. The administration of scopolamine (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mg\\/kg) produced a dose-related attenuation of this drinking. A dose
The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved\\u000a solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.\\u000a Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the\\u000a supermarkets of
|During the year 2004, 20% of eighth-graders and 60.3% of twelfth-graders reported that they had gotten drunk at least once over the course of just one year, according to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Of the 10.7 million underage youth who drink, 7.2 million or 31% of all high school students binge drink with a frequency of at least…
Studied the development of drinking behavior in 3–20 day old Sprague-Dawley rats by tracing their ability to perform progressively more complex components of the drinking act. Even 3-day-old Ss responded to cellular dehydration by actively swallowing intraoral infusions of milk and water or by licking these fluids when they were spread in a thin film across the floor of the
This research examined alcohol-induced motivation to drink as a factor that contributes to preoccupation with drinking. Forty undergraduates rated their degree of preoccupation with drinking. The author determined the relationship between the undergraduates' preoccupation and the degree to which alcohol primed their motivation to drink by having them rate their desire for alcohol after they consumed a dose of alcohol