Sample records for reduce 21st-birthday drinking

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Event Specific Prevention Strategies for Reducing Problematic Drinking Associated with 21st Birthday Celebrations

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Geisner, Irene M.; Zheng, Cheng; Larimer, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective While research has documented heavy drinking practices and associated negative consequences of college students turning 21, few studies have examined prevention efforts aimed to reduce high-risk drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The present study evaluated the comparative efficacy of a general prevention effort (i.e., BASICS) and event specific prevention in reducing 21st birthday drinking and related negative consequences. Furthermore, this study evaluated inclusion of peers in interventions and mode of intervention delivery (i.e., in-person vs. web). Method Participants included 599 college students (46% male) who intended to consume at least five/four drinks (men/women respectively) on their 21st birthday. After completing a screening/baseline assessment approximately one week before turning 21, participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions: 21st birthday in-person BASICS, 21st birthday web BASICS, 21st birthday in-person BASICS plus friend intervention, 21st birthday web BASICS plus friend intervention, BASICS, or an attention control. A follow-up assessment was completed approximately one week after students’ birthdays. Results Results indicated a significant intervention effect for BASICS in reducing blood alcohol content reached and number of negative consequences experienced. All three in-person interventions reduced negative consequences experienced. Results for the web-based interventions varied by drinking outcome and whether or not a friend was included. Conclusions Overall, results provide support for both general intervention and ESP approaches across modalities for reducing extreme drinking and negative consequences associated with turning 21. These results suggest there are several promising options for campuses seeking to reduce both use and consequences associated with 21st birthday celebrations. PMID:22823855

  2. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday drinkers indicated high levels of consumption, (c) 12% of birthday drinkers (men and women) reported consuming 21 drinks, and (d) about half of birthday drinkers exceeded their prior maximum number of drinks. Current problematic alcohol involvement and its typical correlates strongly predicted both the occurrence and severity of 21st birthday drinking. It is imperative that investigators consider a variety of potential interventions to minimize the harm associated with this rite of passage. PMID:18540744

  3. A Hierarchy of 21st Birthday Drinking Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper offers preliminary evidence for a hierarchical organization of normative social influences on 21st birthday drinking. In recent years, 21st birthday celebratory drinking has received increasing attention, due largely to the propagation of dangerous and sometimes fatal drinking traditions, such as attempting to drink one shot for…

  4. Evaluation Results of a 21st Birthday Card Program Targeting High-Risk Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembroff, Larry; Atkin, Charles; Martell, Dennis; McCue, Cindy; Greenamyer, Jasmine T.

    2007-01-01

    The B.R.A.D. Birthday Card initiative was started on the campus of Michigan State University (MSU) in April 1999. MSU administrators send the safe-drinking 21st birthday card (B.R.A.D.) and laminated wallet card to students shortly before their 21st birthday. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the 21st birthday card, MSU and B.R.A.D.,…

  5. 21st birthday celebratory drinking: evaluation of a personalized normative feedback card intervention.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M; Oster-Aaland, Laura

    2008-06-01

    This research was designed to evaluate a personalized normative feedback birthday card intervention aimed at reducing normative perceptions, alcohol consumption, and negative consequences associated with 21st birthday celebrations among college students (N=281; 59.15% women). Students were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a birthday card about 1 week prior to their 21st birthday. Approximately 1 week following their birthday, students were asked to complete a brief survey concerning their birthday celebration activities. Findings indicated that the birthday card intervention was not successful at reducing drinking or consequences; however, the card did reduce normative misperceptions. Additional findings indicated that many students experienced negative consequences, such as passing out or driving after consuming alcohol. Combined, these findings suggest that prevention is needed for drinking associated with turning 21. However, prevention efforts should consist of more than a birthday card. PMID:18540715

  6. Event-specific drinking among college students.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C; Lewis, Melissa A; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Rodriguez, Lindsey M

    2011-12-01

    College represents a period of risk for heavy drinking and experiencing unwanted consequences associated with drinking. Previous research has identified specific events, including holidays (e.g., New Years), school breaks (e.g., Spring Break) and personally relevant events (e.g., 21st birthdays), that are associated with elevated risk of heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The systematic evaluation of relative risk offers insights into event-specific drinking and an empirical basis upon which to consider allocation of limited prevention resources. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to provide a comparative index of drinking across a wide range of holidays and compare holiday drinking to 21st birthday drinking. Participants were 1,124 students (55% female) who had turned 21 within the previous three weeks in 2008 and provided 90-day retrospective reports of their drinking using the Timeline Follow-back. Results based on a hurdle mixed model for blood alcohol content revealed several holidays that stand out for elevated drinking, including New Year's Eve and July 4th, whereas other holidays appear more similar to weekend drinking, such as Spring Break (approximately last week of March) and graduation (mid-June). Drinking on holidays or special days was substantially lower than drinking on 21st birthdays. Results are discussed in terms of practical applications for targeted intervention efforts on college campuses toward specific events where elevated drinking is known to occur. PMID:21639597

  7. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Bar?? K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131

  8. Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

  9. Expressive Writing as a Brief Intervention for Reducing Drinking Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers. PMID:24064189

  10. Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

    This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

  11. Reducing Sugary Drink Consumption: New York City's Approach.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Susan M; Kennelly, Maura O; Nonas, Cathy A; Curtis, Christine J; Van Wye, Gretchen; Goodman, Andrew; Farley, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    Studies have linked the consumption of sugary drinks to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Since 2006, New York City has taken several actions to reduce consumption. Nutrition standards limited sugary drinks served by city agencies. Mass media campaigns educated New Yorkers on the added sugars in sugary drinks and their health impact. Policy proposals included an excise tax, a restriction on use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, and a cap on sugary drink portion sizes in food service establishments. These initiatives were accompanied by a 35% decrease in the number of New York City adults consuming one or more sugary drinks a day and a 27% decrease in public high school students doing so from 2007 to 2013. PMID:25713971

  12. Reducing Disinfection By-Products in Small Drinking Water Systems

    E-print Network

    Reducing Disinfection By-Products in Small Drinking Water Systems by M. Robin Collins, James P + Disinfectant = DBPs NOM=Natural Organic Matter=Organic Precursor Disinfectants=Chlorine, Chloramination, UV, Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide DBPs=Disinfection By-Products Trihalomethanes (THMs), 80 ug/L Haloacetic Acids

  13. A campus-based motivational enhancement group intervention reduces problematic drinking in freshmen male college students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph W. LaBrie; Eric R. Pedersen; Toby F. Lamb; Thomas Quinlan

    2007-01-01

    The current study employs an adaptation to Motivational Interviewing (AMI) group intervention with freshmen male undergraduates. The program follows suggestions of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism for effective interventions with problematic college student drinking, and combines several empirically validated strategies to prevent drinking problems throughout college. All participants reduced drinking and alcohol-related problems; heavier drinkers and those

  14. Drinking Water Treatment For Reducing Risks in Albanian Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alba Dumi

    2011-01-01

    Sanitation presents even more problems than drinking water. Sanitation coverage in urban areas is almost the same as drinking water coverage. Urban areas have mostly combined sewage and storm water collection networks that discharge into near bay surface water-bodies. About 40% of the urban population has a sewer connection. In rural areas, only a small portion of the areas with

  15. Reducing Lead in School Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Lee

    1991-01-01

    The Seattle School District began a program in 1990 to identify lead levels in the district's drinking water and to implement measures to lower any high lead levels. Recounts each of the seven steps of the program, discusses what the district found, and explains how it lowered lead levels in the drinking water. (MLF)

  16. Reliance on God, Prayer, and Religion Reduces Influence of Perceived Norms on Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Brown, Garrett A.; Dibello, Angelo M.; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Foster, Dawn W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has shown that perceived social norms are among the strongest predictors of drinking among young adults. Research has also consistently found religiousness to be protective against risk and negative health behaviors. The present research evaluates the extent to which reliance on God, prayer, and religion moderates the association between perceived social norms and drinking. Method: Participants (n = 1,124 undergraduate students) completed a cross-sectional survey online, which included measures of perceived norms, religious values, and drinking. Perceived norms were assessed by asking participants their perceptions of typical student drinking. Drinking outcomes included drinks per week, drinking frequency, and typical quantity consumed. Results: Regression analyses indicated that religiousness and perceived norms had significant unique associations in opposite directions for all three drinking outcomes. Significant interactions were evident between religiousness and perceived norms in predicting drinks per week, frequency, and typical quantity. In each case, the interactions indicated weaker associations between norms and drinking among those who assigned greater importance to religiousness. Conclusions: The extent of the relationship between perceived social norms and drinking was buffered by the degree to which students identified with religiousness. A growing body of literature has shown interventions including personalized feedback regarding social norms to be an effective strategy in reducing drinking among college students. The present research suggests that incorporating religious or spiritual values into student interventions may be a promising direction to pursue. PMID:23490564

  17. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER DURING IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an overview of iron removal technology for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The presentation is divided into several topic topics: Arsenic Chemistry, Treatment Selection, Treatment Options, Case Studies and Iron Removal Processes. Each topic i...

  18. Using Environmental Strategies to Reduce Drinking and Driving among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, David; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of several environmental strategies that have proven successful in reducing drinking and driving among adolescents and young adults and suggests that integrating such strategies into present institutional initiatives can create significant and enduring reductions in drinking and driving among this population. (Author)

  19. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER: APPROACHES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. It has been projected that the State of Ohio will have nearly 140 community and non-community non-transient water systems in violation of the Rule. This ...

  20. An upper-bound assessment of the benefits of reducing perchlorate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Randall

    2014-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency plans to issue new federal regulations to limit drinking water concentrations of perchlorate, which occurs naturally and results from the combustion of rocket fuel. This article presents an upper-bound estimate of the potential benefits of alternative maximum contaminant levels for perchlorate in drinking water. The results suggest that the economic benefits of reducing perchlorate concentrations in drinking water are likely to be low, i.e., under $2.9 million per year nationally, for several reasons. First, the prevalence of detectable perchlorate in public drinking water systems is low. Second, the population especially sensitive to effects of perchlorate, pregnant women who are moderately iodide deficient, represents a minority of all pregnant women. Third, and perhaps most importantly, reducing exposure to perchlorate in drinking water is a relatively ineffective way of increasing iodide uptake, a crucial step linking perchlorate to health effects of concern. PMID:25196433

  1. A campus-based motivational enhancement group intervention reduces problematic drinking in freshmen male college students.

    PubMed

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Pedersen, Eric R; Lamb, Toby F; Quinlan, Thomas

    2007-05-01

    The current study employs an adaptation to Motivational Interviewing (AMI) group intervention with freshmen male undergraduates. The program follows suggestions of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism for effective interventions with problematic college student drinking, and combines several empirically validated strategies to prevent drinking problems throughout college. All participants reduced drinking and alcohol-related problems; heavier drinkers and those experiencing the most alcohol-related problems reduced drinking most. Additionally, freshmen who completed the intervention were less likely than their non-intervention freshmen male peers to commit alcohol-related violations of campus policies. In addition to the reductions in problematic drinking, the group AMI has advantages over individual formats because larger numbers of students can benefit with comparable expenditures of time and effort. PMID:16876963

  2. Alcohol Consumption and Women's Vulnerability to Sexual Victimization: Can Reducing Women's Drinking Prevent Rape?

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Before effective prevention interventions can be developed, it is necessary to identify the mechanisms that contribute to the targeted negative outcomes. A review of the literature on women's substance use and sexual victimization points to women's heavy episodic drinking as a proximal risk factor, particularly among college samples. At least half of sexual victimization incidents involve alcohol use and the majority of rapes of college women occur when the victim is too intoxicated to resist (“incapacitated rape”). Despite the importance of women's heavy episodic drinking as being a risk factor, existing rape prevention programs have rarely addressed women's alcohol use and have shown little success in reducing rates of sexual victimization. We argue that given the strength of the association between heavy episodic drinking and sexual victimization among young women, prevention programs targeting drinking may prove more efficacious than programs targeting sexual vulnerability. Applications of existing drinking prevention strategies to reducing women's sexual victimization are discussed. PMID:19938922

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Spring Break Intervention to Reduce High-Risk Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Geisner, Irene M.; Atkins, David C.; Zheng, Cheng; Garberson, Lisa A.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While recent studies have documented high-risk drinking occurring during Spring Break (SB), particularly on SB trips with friends, published intervention studies are few. The present study evaluated the efficacy of Event Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies for reducing SB drinking among college students, compared to general prevention strategies and an assessment-only control group, as well as evaluated inclusion of peers in interventions and mode of intervention delivery (in-person vs. web). Method Participants included 783 undergraduates (56.1% women, average age 20.5) intending to go on a SB trip with friends as well as to drink heavily on at least one day of SB. Participants completed assessments prior to SB and were randomized to one of five intervention conditions: SB in-person BASICS, SB web BASICS, SB in-person BASICS with friend, SB web BASICS with friend, general BASICS, or an attention control condition. Follow-up assessment was completed one week after SB. Results While the SB web BASICS (with and without friends) and general BASICS interventions were not effective at reducing SB drinking, results indicated significant intervention effects for SB in-person BASICS in reducing SB drinking, particularly on trip days. Follow-up analyses indicated change in descriptive norms mediated treatment effect and reductions in drinking, while SB drinking intentions and positive expectancies did not. Conclusions Overall, results suggest an in-person SB-specific intervention is effective at reducing SB drinking, especially during trips. In contrast, interventions that contain non-SB related content, are web-based, or seek to involve friends may be less effective at reducing SB drinking. PMID:24491072

  4. Ibudilast reduces alcohol drinking in multiple animal models of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Lopez, Marcelo F; Cui, Changhai; Egli, Mark; Johnson, Kirk W; Franklin, Kelle M; Becker, Howard C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammatory signaling pathways in the central nervous system are of current interest as potential pharmacotherapy targets for alcohol dependence. In this study, we examined the ability of ibudilast, a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, to reduce alcohol drinking and relapse in alcohol-preferring P rats, high-alcohol drinking HAD1 rats, and in mice made dependent on alcohol through cycles of alcohol vapor exposure. When administered twice daily, ibudilast reduced alcohol drinking in rats by approximately 50% and reduced drinking by alcohol-dependent mice at doses which had no effect in non-dependent mice. These findings support the viability of ibudilast as a possible treatment for alcohol dependence. PMID:24215262

  5. Alcohol binge drinking during adolescence or dependence during adulthood reduces prefrontal myelin in male rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Wanette M; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Whitcomb, Brian W; Richardson, Heather N

    2014-10-29

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism. PMID:25355229

  6. Manganese-oxidizing and -reducing microorganisms isolated from biofilms in chlorinated drinking water systems

    E-print Network

    Falkinham, Joseph

    -oxidizing and -reducing bacteria in conventional water treatment plants exposed to different levels of chlorine. Mn (II Organization, 1998). Mn accumulation and release can be a costly and diffi- cult problem for drinking water water systems Jose´ M. Cerrato a , Joseph O. Falkinham, IIIb , Andrea M. Dietrich a, *, William R

  7. Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…

  8. Varenicline Reduces Alcohol Self-Administration in Heavy-Drinking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Sherry A.; Harrison, Emily L.R.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Shi, Julia; Tetrault, Jeanette M.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Petrakis, Ismene L.; Estevez, Naralys; Balchunas, Erika

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol and tobacco dependence are highly comorbid disorders, with preclinical evidence suggesting a role for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in alcohol consumption. Varenicline, a partial nicotinic agonist with high affinity for the ?4?2 nAChR receptor, reduced ethanol intake in rodents. We aimed to test whether varenicline would reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol craving in humans. Methods This double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation examined the effect of varenicline (2 mg/day vs. placebo) on alcohol self-administration using an established laboratory paradigm in non-alcohol-dependent heavy drinkers (n = 20) who were daily smokers. Following 7 days of medication pretreatment, participants were first administered a priming dose of alcohol (.3 g/kg) and subjective, and physiologic responses were assessed. A 2-hour alcohol self-administration period followed during which participants could choose to consume up to 8 additional drinks (each .15 g/kg). Results Varenicline (.5 ± SE = .40) significantly reduced the number of drinks consumed compared to placebo (2.60 ± SE = .93) and increased the likelihood of abstaining from any drinking during the self-administration period. Following the priming drink, varenicline attenuated alcohol craving and reduced subjective reinforcing alcohol effects (high, like, rush, feel good, intoxicated). Adverse events associated with varenicline were minimal and, when combined with alcohol, produced no significant effects on physiologic reactivity, mood, or nausea. Conclusions This preliminary investigation demonstrated that varenicline significantly reduced alcohol self-administration and was well tolerated, alone and in combination with alcohol in heavy-drinking smokers. Varenicline should be investigated as a potential treatment for alcohol use disorders. PMID:19249750

  9. Commercially available probiotic drinks containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Kottmann, Tanja; Alavi, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Lactobacillus-containing commercially available probiotic formulations in Germany during antibiotic treatment with an analysis of cost-efficiency. METHODS: In an observational study, we analyzed the frequency of bowel movements from 258 patients with infections in a primary care hospital in western Germany; 107 of the patients were offered a probiotic drink containing at least 10 billion cultures of Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 b.i.d. The economic analysis was based on the costs of patient isolation vs preventive intake of probiotics. In a second pilot study, two commercially available probiotic drinks with different Lactobacillus casei strains were directly compared in 60 patients in a randomized controlled fashion. RESULTS: In the first study, the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) was significantly reduced in the intervention group (6.5% vs 28.4%), and the duration of AAD in days was significantly shorter (1.7 ± 1.1 vs 3.1 ± 2.1). Higher age and creatinine and lower albumin were identified as risk factors for AAD. Ampicillin was the antibiotic with the highest rate of AAD (50%) and with the greatest AAD reduction in the probiotic group (4.2%, relative risk reduction 92%). The economic analysis showed a cost advantage of nearly 60000 €/year in a department of this size. The second study confirmed the preventive effect of the drink with Lactobacillus casei DN114001; however, there were no advantages found for the other tested probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota. CONCLUSION: In contrast to a drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota, a commercially available probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 cost-efficiently reduces the prevalence of AAD during antibiotic treatment. PMID:25400470

  10. Efficacy of Expectancy Challenge Interventions to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Terry, Danielle L.; Carey, Kate B.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Interventions challenging alcohol expectancies may lead to reductions in alcohol consumption. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of alcohol expectancy challenge (EC) interventions for college alcohol abuse prevention. Included were 14 studies (19 EC interventions) that measured alcohol expectancies and consumption, provided sufficient information to calculate effect sizes, and were available as of June 2010 (N = 1,415; M age = 20; 40% women; 88% White). Independent raters coded participant characteristics, design and methodological features, and intervention content, and calculated weighted mean effect sizes at first follow-up, using both fixed- and random-effects models. Compared to controls, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s ranged from 0.23 to 0.28). Within-group improvements in alcohol expectancies and consumption emerged for the EC group only; relative to their own baseline, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s range from 0.13 to 0.36). Supplemental analyses found improvements in specific alcohol expectancies (social, sexual, tension, and arousal) both between- and within-group. The short-term effects of EC interventions on college student drinking are not maintained at follow-ups greater than 4 weeks. PMID:22428862

  11. Reducing Heavy Drinking in Intercollegiate Athletes: Evaluation of a Web-Based Personalized Feedback Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana M. Doumas; Tonya Haustveit

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a Web-based personalized feedback program aimed at reducing drinking in freshman intercollegiate athletes. The program was offered through the Athletic Department freshman seminar at a NCAA Division I university. Seminar sections were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: Web-based personalized feedback (WPF) or Web-based education (WE). Assess- ment measures were completed at baseline,

  12. Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

  13. Applications of the Hertzsprung-Russell star chart to ecology: reflections on the 21(st) birthday of Geographical Ecology.

    PubMed

    Keddy, P A

    1994-06-01

    Robert MacArthur's Geographical Ecology turned 21 last year. As it enters adulthood, we may ask whether or not it is still influencing contemporary approaches to ecology. The opening sentence, 'To do science is to search for repeated patterns, not simply to accumulate facts...', is a theme of the entire book. As ecologists, we are faced with the problem of finding patterns when there is a large number of species, an even larger number of possible pairwise interactions, and when these are dispersed across a bewildering array of habitat types. How do we look for general patterns in nature? The Hertzsprung-Russell star diagram provides an inspiring example for meeting MacArthur's challenge. PMID:21236836

  14. Reducing Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water in Estonia—A Countrywide Study

    PubMed Central

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004–2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%). PMID:24637908

  15. Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.

    PubMed

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-03-01

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%). PMID:24637908

  16. Paternal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Alcohol Drinking and Increases Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol Selectively in Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is heritable, but the genetic basis for this disease remains poorly understood. Although numerous gene variants have been associated with AUD, these variants account for only a small fraction of the total risk. The idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, i.e. “epigenetic inheritance,” is re-emerging as a proven adjunct to traditional modes of genetic inheritance. We hypothesized that alcohol drinking and neurobiological sensitivity to alcohol are influenced by ancestral alcohol exposure. To test this hypothesis, we exposed male mice to chronic vapor ethanol or control conditions, mated them to ethanol-naïve females, and tested adult offspring for ethanol drinking, ethanol-induced behaviors, gene expression, and DNA methylation. We found that ethanol-sired male offspring had reduced ethanol preference and consumption, enhanced sensitivity to the anxiolytic and motor-enhancing effects of ethanol, and increased Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) compared to control-sired male offspring. There were no differences among ethanol- and control-sired female offspring on these assays. Ethanol exposure also decreased DNA methylation at the BdnfÆpromoter of sire's germ cells and hypomethylation was maintained in the VTA of both male and female ethanol-sired offspring. Our findings show that paternal alcohol exposure is a previously unrecognized regulator of alcohol drinking and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol in male, but not female, offspring. Paternal alcohol exposure also induces epigenetic alterations (DNA hypomethylation) and gene expression changes that persist in the VTA of offspring. These results provide new insight into the inheritance and development of alcohol drinking behaviors. PMID:24896617

  17. Reducing diarrhoea in Guatemalan children: randomized controlled trial of flocculant-disinfectant for drinking-water.

    PubMed Central

    Chiller, Tom M.; Mendoza, Carlos E.; Lopez, M. Beatriz; Alvarez, Maricruz; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Keswick, Bruce H.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a new point-of-use treatment for drinking-water, a commercially developed flocculant-disinfectant, on the prevalence of diarrhoea in children. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 514 rural Guatemalan households, divided into 42 neighbourhood clusters, for 13 weeks, from 4 November 2002 through 31 January 2003. Clusters assigned to water treatment with the flocculant-disinfectant were compared with those using their usual water-handling practices. The longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea was calculated as the proportion of total days with diarrhoea divided by the total number of days of observation. The prevalence of diarrhoea was compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. FINDINGS: The 1702 people in households receiving the disinfectant had a prevalence of diarrhoea that was 40% lower than that among the 1699 people using standard water-handling practices (0.9% versus 1.5%; P = 0.001). In households using the flocculant-disinfectant, children < 1 year of age had a 39% lower prevalence of diarrhoea than those in households using their standard practices (3.7% versus 6.0%; P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: In settings where families rarely treat drinking-water, we introduced a novel flocculant-disinfectant that reduced the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea, especially among children aged < 1 year, among whom diarrhoea has been strongly associated with mortality. Successful introduction and use of this product could contribute to preventing diarrhoeal disease globally. PMID:16501712

  18. A Case Study of University-Community Collaboration to Reduce the Negative Effects of Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Binge drinking is a prevalent, persistent problem within U.S. university cities. Consequences of students' binge drinking can result in injury, assault, disruption in neighborhoods, and even death. Proponents of one potential solution to the problem, the environmental approach, propose changing the context of drinking by altering factors such…

  19. Aerated drinks increase gastric volume and reduce appetite as assessed by MRI: a randomized, balanced, crossover trial12345

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kathryn; Placidi, Elisa; Schuring, Ewoud AH; Hoad, Caroline L; Koppenol, Wieneke; Arnaudov, Luben N; Blom, Wendy AM; Pritchard, Susan E; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C; Peters, Harry PF

    2015-01-01

    Background: Compared with nonaerated, isocaloric controls, aerated foods can reduce appetite throughout an entire dieting day. Increased gastric volumes and delayed emptying are possible but unexplored mechanisms. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that aerated drinks (foams) of differing gastric stability would increase gastric distension and reduce appetite compared with a control drink. Design: In a randomized, balanced, crossover trial, 18 healthy male participants consumed the following 3 skimmed-milk–based test products (all 110 kcal): 2 drinks aerated to foams by whipping (to 490 mL), one drink that was stable in the stomach [stable foam (SF)], and one drink that was less stable in the stomach [less-stable foam (LSF)], and a nonaerated drink [liquid control (LC); 140 mL]. Over 4 h, stomach contents (foam, air, and liquid) were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and self-reported appetite ratings were collected and quantified by the area under the curve or time to return to baseline (TTRTB). Results: Compared with the LC, both foams caused significantly increased gastric volumes and reduced hunger (all P < 0.001). Compared with the LSF, SF further produced a significantly slower decrease in the total gastric content (P < 0.05) and foam volume (P < 0.0001) and a longer TTRTB (197 compared with 248 min, respectively; P < 0.05), although the hunger AUC was not statistically different. Results for other appetite scales were similar. Conclusions: With this MRI trial, we provide novel insights on the gastrointestinal behavior of aerated drinks by measuring separate volumes of foam, liquid, and air layers in the stomach. Appetite suppression induced by foams could largely be explained by effects on gastric volumes and emptying, which may be further enhanced by foam stability. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01690182. PMID:25646323

  20. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to…

  1. Alcohol with an attitude: Reducing aggression in drinking establishments through interior design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Lynn James

    2009-01-01

    Aggression in drinking establishments has been found to be associated with poorly maintained, unclean, unattractive environments including poor ventilation, smoky air, inconvenient bar access and inadequate seating, high noise level, and crowding (Graham, 1980). Macintyre and Homel (1992) concluded that the key feature of high aggression drinking establishments was intersecting traffic flows created by inappropriate design, especially poor location of

  2. Reducing Teenage Binge Drinking and Drunk Driving on the Reservation: The Pikanii Action Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still Smoking, Dorothy; Bull Shoe, Debbie Whitegrass

    2012-01-01

    The Pikanii Action Team project addressed the issues of teenage drinking and drunk driving on the Blackfeet Reservation. Basing their actions on locally-generated research, the Pikanii Action Team conducted a series of activities and initiatives to promote public awareness and action related to high-risk activities related to drinking. The team's…

  3. Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists reduce ethanol self-administration in high-drinking rodent models.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rachel I; Becker, Howard C; Adams, Benjamin L; Jesudason, Cynthia D; Rorick-Kehn, Linda M

    2014-01-01

    To examine the role of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor activity on ethanol self-administration, compounds that differentially target orexin (OX) receptor subtypes were assessed in various self-administration paradigms using high-drinking rodent models. Effects of the OX1 antagonist SB334867, the OX2 antagonist LSN2424100, and the mixed OX1/2 antagonist almorexant (ACT-078573) on home cage ethanol consumption were tested in ethanol-preferring (P) rats using a 2-bottle choice procedure. In separate experiments, effects of SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant on operant ethanol self-administration were assessed in P rats maintained on a progressive ratio operant schedule of reinforcement. In a third series of experiments, SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant were administered to ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J mice to examine effects of OX receptor blockade on ethanol intake in a binge-like drinking (drinking-in-the-dark) model. In P rats with chronic home cage free-choice ethanol access, SB334867 and almorexant significantly reduced ethanol intake, but almorexant also reduced water intake, suggesting non-specific effects on consummatory behavior. In the progressive ratio operant experiments, LSN2424100 and almorexant reduced breakpoints and ethanol consumption in P rats, whereas the almorexant inactive enantiomer and SB334867 did not significantly affect the motivation to consume ethanol. As expected, vehicle-injected mice exhibited binge-like drinking patterns in the drinking-in-the-dark model. All three OX antagonists reduced both ethanol intake and resulting blood ethanol concentrations relative to vehicle-injected controls, but SB334867 and LSN2424100 also reduced sucrose consumption in a different cohort of mice, suggesting non-specific effects. Collectively, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence indicating that OX1 and OX2 receptor activity influences ethanol self-administration, although the effects may not be selective for ethanol consumption. PMID:24616657

  4. Brief intervention to reduce risky drinking in pregnancy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Risky drinking in pregnancy by UK women is likely to result in many alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Studies from the USA suggest that brief intervention has promise for alcohol risk reduction in antenatal care. However, further research is needed to establish whether this evidence from the USA is applicable to the UK.?This pilot study aims to investigate whether pregnant women can be recruited and retained in a randomized controlled trial of brief intervention aimed at reducing risky drinking in women receiving antenatal care. Methods The trial will rehearse the parallel-group, non-blinded design and procedures of a subsequent definitive trial. Over 8 months, women aged 18 years and over (target number 2,742) attending their booking appointment with a community midwife (n?=?31) in north-east England will be screened for alcohol consumption using the consumption questions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Those screening positive, without a history of substance use or alcohol dependence, with no pregnancy complication, and able to give informed consent, will be invited to participate in the trial (target number 120). Midwives will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to deliver either treatment as usual (control) or structured brief advice and referral for a 20-minute motivational interviewing session with an alcohol health worker (intervention). As well as demographic and health information, baseline measures will include two 7-day time line follow-back questionnaires and the EuroQoL EQ-5D-3 L questionnaire. Measures will be repeated in telephone follow-ups in the third trimester and at 6 months post-partum, when a questionnaire on use of National Health Service and social care resources will also be completed. Information on pregnancy outcomes and stillbirths will be accessed from central health service records before the follow-ups. Primary outcomes will be rates of eligibility, recruitment, intervention delivery, and retention in the study population, to inform power calculations for a definitive trial. The health-economics component will establish how cost-effectiveness will be assessed, and examine which data on health service resource use should be collected in a main trial. Participants’ views on instruments and procedures will be sought to confirm their acceptability. Discussion The study will produce a full trial protocol with robust sample-size calculations to extend evidence on effectiveness of screening and brief intervention. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43218782 PMID:23006975

  5. Nicotinic receptor ligands reduce ethanol intake by high alcohol-drinking HAD-2 rats.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Eiler, Bill J A; Cook, Jason B; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2009-12-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are implicated in the reinforcing effects of many drugs of abuse, including ethanol. The present study examined the efficacy of cytisine, a nAChR partial agonist, and lobeline, a putative nAChR antagonist, on the maintenance of ethanol drinking by HAD-2 rats. Adult male HAD-2 rats were given access to ethanol (15 and 30%, with ad libitum access to water and food) 22 h/day for 12 weeks, beginning at 60 days of age, after which cytisine (0.0, 0.5, and 1.5 mg/kg) was tested for 3 consecutive days. The rats were given an 18-day washout period and were then tested with lobeline (0.0, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Ethanol intake was measured at 1, 4, and 22 h postinjection. Rats were injected intraperitoneally just before lights out (1200 h). There was a significant main effect of cytisine treatment on the second test day, with the 1.5 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake at the 1- and 4-h time-points, relative to saline, and the 0.5 mg/kg dose inducing a significant reduction at the 4-h time-point. Conversely, lobeline treatment resulted in significant main effects of treatment for all three time-points within each test day, with the 5.0 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake, relative to saline, at each time-point within each test day. These findings provide further evidence that activity at the nAChR influences ethanol intake and is a promising target for pharmacotherapy development for the treatment of alcohol dependence and relapse. PMID:20004336

  6. Nicotinic receptor ligands reduce ethanol intake by high alcohol-drinking HAD-2 rats

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Eiler, Bill J. A.; Cook, Jason B.; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are implicated in the reinforcing effects of many drugs of abuse, including ethanol. The present study examined the efficacy of cytisine, a nAChR partial agonist, and lobeline, a putative nAChR antagonist, on the maintenance of ethanol drinking by HAD-2 rats. Adult male HAD-2 rats were given access to ethanol (15% and 30%, with ad lib water and food) 22 hr per day for 12 weeks, beginning at 60 days old, after which cytisine (0.0, 0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg) was tested for 3 consecutive days. The rats were given an 18 day wash-out period, and were then tested with lobeline (0.0, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Ethanol intake was measured at 1, 4 and 22 hours post-injection. Rats were injected i.p. just prior to lights out (1200 h). There was a significant main effect of cytisine treatment on the 2nd test day, with the 1.5 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake at the 1 hr and 4 hr time-points, relative to saline, and the 0.5 mg/kg dose inducing a significant reduction at the 4 hr time-point. Conversely, lobeline treatment resulted in significant main effects of treatment for all 3 time points, within each test day, with the 5.0 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake, relative to saline, at each time-point within each test day. These findings provide further evidence that activity at the nAChR influences ethanol intake and is a promising target for pharmacotherapy development for the treatment of alcohol dependence and relapse. PMID:20004336

  7. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. PMID:22642774

  8. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  9. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a U.S. College

    PubMed Central

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. PARTICIPANTS Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. METHODS Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum age drinking law (MADL). RESULTS In the short-term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. CONCLUSION These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MADLs simply lead to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse. PMID:23930747

  10. Vida PURA: A Cultural Adaptation of Screening and Brief Intervention to Reduce Unhealthy Drinking among Latino Day Laborers.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, India J; Allen, Claire; Vaughan, Catalina; Williams, Emily C; Negi, Nalini

    2014-08-25

    ABSTRACT Background: Brief intervention is known to reduce drinking in primary care, however because health care access is limited for Latino immigrants, traditional brief interventions are unlikely to reach this population. Methods: Using Barrera and Castro's framework, our study aims to culturally adapt a screening and brief intervention program to reduce unhealthy alcohol use among Latino day laborers, a particularly vulnerable group of Latino immigrant men. We conducted 18 interviews with Latino day laborers and 13 interviews with mental health and substance use providers that serve Latino immigrant men. Interviews were conducted until saturation of themes was reached. Themes from interviews were used to identify sources of mismatch between traditional screening and brief intervention and our target population. Results: Unhealthy alcohol use was common,culturally accepted, and helped relieve immigration-related stressors. Men had limited knowledge about how to change their behavior. Men preferred to receive information from trusted providers in Spanish. Men faced significant barriers to accessing health and social services, but were open to receiving brief interventions in community settings. Findings were used to design Vida PURA, a preliminary adaptation design of brief intervention for Latino day laborers. Key adaptations include providing brief intervention at a day labor worker center, by promotores trained to incorporate the social and cultural context of drinking for Latino immigrant men. Conclusions: Culturally adapted brief intervention may help reduce unhealthy drinking in this underserved population. PMID:25153904

  11. Perceptions of adult trauma patients on the acceptability of text messaging as an aid to reduce harmful drinking behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brief interventions (BIs) have been shown to be effective in modifying hazardous drinking behaviours in a range of settings. However, they are underutilised in hospitals due to resource constraints. We explored the perspectives of admitted trauma patients about the appeal, acceptability and content of a Brief Intervention (BI) delivered via text messages. Methods Thirty mobile phone users (?16 years old) admitted to Auckland City Hospital as a result of injury were recruited (December 2010 – January 2011). Participants were interviewed face-to-face during their hospital stay using a semi-structured interview guide that explored topics including perceptions of the proposed intervention to reduce hazardous drinking and related harm, and perceived acceptability of an m-health program. Where issues relating to content of messages were raised by participants these were also captured. In addition, a brief survey captured information on demographic information, mobile phone usage and type of phone, along with the frequency of alcohol use. Results 22 of the 30 participants were male, and almost half were aged 20 to 39 years. The majority of participants identified as New Zealand Europeans, six as M?ori (New Zealand's indigenous population) and of the remainder two each identified as Pacific and of Asian ethnicity. Most (28/30) participants used a mobile phone daily. 18 participants were deemed to be drinking in a non-hazardous manner, seven were hazardous drinkers, and three were non-drinkers. Most participants (21/30) indicated that text messages could be effective in reducing hazardous drinking and related harms, with more than half (17/30) signalling they would sign-up. Factors identified that would increase receptiveness included: awareness that the intervention was evidence-based; participants readiness-to-change; informative messages that include the consequences of drinking and practical advice; non-judgemental messages; and ease-of-use. Areas of potential concern included: confidentiality and frequency of messages. The cultural relevance of the messages for M?ori was highlighted as important. Conclusions This study indicates that trauma patients recognize potential benefits of mobile-health interventions designed to reduce hazardous drinking. The feedback provided will inform the development of an intervention to be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:24387293

  12. Colleges Respond to Student Binge Drinking: Reducing Student Demand or Limiting Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Seibring, Mark; Liu, I-Chao; Ahl, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Administrators at 68% of 4-year colleges nationwide (N = 747) responded to a survey concerning the types of programs and policies they used in response to students" heavy drinking. Most schools conducted targeted alcohol education and invested in institutional prevention efforts; half conducted social norms campaigns; a sizeable minority…

  13. Late-Night Programming Can Reduce High-risk Drinking, Provide Quality Student Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latta, Stan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses late-night programming by college student unions as an alternative to high-risk drinking behavior, describing such programs at Michigan State, Penn State, and West Virginia universities. Addresses these programs' mission statement, goals, presidential support, staffing, food, programming ideas, promotion and publicity, assessment,…

  14. Conservation program (EQIP) reduces atrazine in Columbus, OH drinking water supply reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation dollars applied in the Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed have achieved a significant reduction in the atrazine levels in Hover Reservoir, a major drinking water source for Columbus, Ohio. During the 1990s, atrazine levels in this reservoir periodically exceeded the health advisory limit ...

  15. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Patricia A., Ed.; Faden, Vivian B., Ed.; Wing, Stephen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This "Call to Action" serves as a reminder that underage drinking has serious social costs and tragic consequences, demonstrating the importance of prevention. Underage alcohol use is not inevitable, and schools, parents, and other adults are not powerless to stop it. The latest research demonstrates a compelling need to address alcohol use early,…

  16. Integrating mHealth Mobile Applications to Reduce High Risk Drinking among Underage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemi, Donna M.; Cochran, Allyson R.; Kelly, John F.; Cornelius, Judith B.; Belk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: College students embrace mobile cell phones (MCPs) as a primary communication and entertainment device. The aim of this study was to investigate college students' perceptions toward using mHealth technology to deliver interventions to prevent high-risk drinking and associated consequences. Design/setting: Four focus group…

  17. New Research Findings Since the 2007 Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, Ralph; White, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In 2007, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued The Surgeon General’s Call To Action To Prevent And Reduce Underage Drinking, a publication documenting a problem linked to nearly 5,000 injury deaths annually and poor academic performance, potential cognitive deficits, risky sexual behavior, physical and sexual assaults, and other substance use. This report reviews subsequent underage drinking and related traffic fatality trends and research on determinants, consequences, and prevention interventions. Method: New research reports, meta-analyses, and systematic literature reviews were examined. Results: Since the Call to Action, reductions in underage frequency of drinking, heavy drinking occasions, and alcohol-related traffic deaths that began in the 1980s when the drinking age nationally became 21 have continued. Knowledge regarding determinants and consequences, particularly the effects of early-onset drinking, parental alcohol provision, and cognitive effects, has expanded. Additional studies support associations between the legal drinking age of 21, zero tolerance laws, higher alcohol prices, and reduced drinking and related problems. New research suggests that use/lose laws, social host liability, internal possession laws, graduated licensing, and night driving restrictions reduce traffic deaths involving underage drinking drivers. Additional studies support the positive effects of individually oriented interventions, especially screening and brief motivational interventions, web and face-to-face social norms interventions, college web-based interventions, parental interventions, and multicomponent community interventions. Conclusions: Despite reductions in underage alcohol consumption and related traffic deaths, underage drinking remains an enduring problem. Continued research is warranted in minimally studied areas, such as prospective studies of alcohol and brain development, policy studies of use/lose laws, internal possession laws, social host liability, and parent–family interventions. PMID:24411808

  18. Evaluating rain gardens as a method to reduce the impact of sewer overflows in sources of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Autixier, Laurène; Mailhot, Alain; Bolduc, Samuel; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2014-11-15

    The implications of climate change and changing precipitation patterns need to be investigated to evaluate mitigation measures for source water protection. Potential solutions need first to be evaluated under present climate conditions to determine their utility as climate change adaptation strategies. An urban drainage network receiving both stormwater and wastewater was studied to evaluate potential solutions to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in a drinking water source. A detailed hydraulic model was applied to the drainage basin to model the implementation of best management practices at a drainage basin scale. The model was calibrated and validated with field data of CSO flows for seven events from a survey conducted in 2009 and 2010. Rain gardens were evaluated for their reduction of volumes of water entering the drainage network and of CSOs. Scenarios with different levels of implementation were considered and evaluated. Of the total impervious area within the basin directly connected to the sewer system, a maximum of 21% could be alternately directed towards rain gardens. The runoff reductions for the entire catchment ranged from 12.7% to 19.4% depending on the event considered. The maximum discharged volume reduction ranged from 13% to 62% and the maximum peak flow rate reduction ranged from 7% to 56%. Of concern is that in-sewer sediment resuspension is an important process to consider with regard to the efficacy of best management practices aimed at reducing extreme loads and concentrations. Rain gardens were less effective for large events, which are of greater importance for drinking water sources. These practices could increase peak instantaneous loads as a result of greater in-sewer resuspension during large events. Multiple interventions would be required to achieve the objectives of reducing the number, total volumes and peak contaminant loads of overflows upstream of drinking water intakes. PMID:25192930

  19. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Rich

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  20. Reducing the Harms of College Student Drinking: How Alan Marlatt Changed Approaches, Outcomes, and the Field

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Jason R.; Palmer, Rebekka S.; Cronce, Jessica M.; Logan, Diane E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss Alan Marlatt’s contributions to the prevention and reduction of alcohol-related harms among college students. We consider Alan’s early research that later led to the development and evaluation of college student drinking programs, and examine Alan’s impact, both directly and indirectly through those he mentored and trained, as a scientist-practitioner. We review the recognition of the efficacy of Alan’s programs, including the Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP) and Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), in addition to extensions of these interventions in more recent studies. Finally, we discuss how Alan’s work influences interventions with college student drinkers today, and how future directions will continue to be informed by his vision and values.

  1. Salt Appetite Is Reduced by a Single Experience of Drinking Hypertonic Saline in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Michael P.; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F. R.; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  2. Reducing the chlorine dioxide demand in final disinfection of drinking water treatment plants using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Crotti, Barbara Marianna

    2015-06-01

    Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests was performed at the laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests was performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30?min after ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, mesoporous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and UV absorbance at wavelength 254?nm using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral mesoporous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP. PMID:25465650

  3. Effectiveness of flushing on reducing lead and copper levels in school drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, E A

    1993-01-01

    Samples from drinking water fountains in 50 schools in New Jersey were collected at specific times during a typical school day and analyzed for lead, copper, pH, alkalinity, and hardness. First-draw lead and copper levels (medians 0.010 mg/l and 0.26 mg/l, respectively) decreased significantly after 10 min of flushing in the morning (medians 0.005 mg/l lead and 0.068 mg/l copper), but levels increased significantly by lunchtime (medians 0.007 mg/l lead and 0.12 mg/l copper) after normal use of fountains in the morning by students. Corrosive water, as defined by the aggressive index, contained significantly higher levels of lead and copper (medians 0.012 mg/l and 0.605 mg/l, respectively) than noncorrosive water (medians 0.005 mg/l and 0.03 mg/l, respectively). Images p240-a PMID:8404761

  4. Web-based personalized feedback: is this an appropriate approach for reducing drinking among high school students?

    PubMed

    Doumas, Diana M

    2015-03-01

    Research indicates that brief Web-based personalized feedback interventions are effective in reducing alcohol use and the negative associated consequences among college students. It is not clear, however, that this is an appropriate strategy for high school students. This study examined high school students' perceptions of a brief Web-based personalized feedback program to assess the appropriateness of this approach for this age group. Results indicated that the majority of students found the program to be user-friendly and to have high utility. Additionally, students reporting alcohol use found the program more useful and indicated that they would be more likely to recommend the program to other students relative to non-drinkers. Findings support the appropriateness of this approach for high school students, and suggest that Web-based personalized feedback may be more positively perceived by students who have initiated drinking. PMID:25448614

  5. A Pre-Post Study on the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of a Web- and Text Messaging-Based Intervention to Reduce Problem Drinking in Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Michael P; Venzin, Vigeli; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background Problem drinking, particularly risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD), also called “binge drinking”, is widespread among adolescents and young adults in most Western countries. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of interventions to reduce RSOD in young people with heterogeneous and particularly lower educational background. Objective To test the appropriateness and initial effectiveness of a combined, individually tailored Web- and text messaging (SMS)–based intervention program to reduce problem drinking in vocational school students. Methods The fully automated program provided: (1) online feedback about an individual’s drinking pattern compared to the drinking norms of an age- and gender-specific reference group, and (2) recurrent individualized SMS messages over a time period of 3 months. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses were used to investigate the longitudinal courses of the following outcomes over the study period of 3 months: RSOD, alcohol-related problems, mean number of standard drinks per week, and maximum number of standard drinks on an occasion. Results The program was tested in 36 school classes at 7 vocational schools in Switzerland. Regardless of their drinking behavior, 477 vocational school students who owned a mobile phone were invited to participate in the program. Of these, 364 (76.3%) participated in the program. During the intervention period, 23 out of 364 (6.3%) persons unsubscribed from participating in the program. The GEE analyses revealed decreases in the percentage of persons with RSOD from baseline (75.5%, 210/278) to follow-up assessment (67.6%, 188/278, P<.001), in the percentage of persons with alcohol-related problems (20.4%, 57/280 to 14.3%, 40/280, P=.009), and in the mean number of standard drinks per week: 13.4 (SD 15.3) to 11.3 (SD 14.0), P=.002. They also revealed a trend toward a decrease in the mean of the maximum number of drinks consumed on an occasion: 11.3 (SD 10.3) to 10.5 (SD 10.3), P=.08. Conclusions The results show high acceptance and promising effectiveness of this interventional approach, which could be easily and economically implemented within school classes. PMID:23999406

  6. Stereotypes and prejudice in the blood: Sucrose drinks reduce prejudice and stereotyping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew T. Gailliot; B. Michelle Peruche; E. Ashby Plant; Roy F. Baumeister

    2009-01-01

    Prejudice and stereotyping cause social problems and intergroup tension. The current work examined whether bolstering self-control by giving participants glucose would reduce stereotype use for an impression formation task. Previous work has demonstrated that self-control depends on biologically expensive brain processes that consume energy derived from glucose in the bloodstream. In the current study, glucose was manipulated via lemonade sweetened

  7. Condensed tannin in drinking water reduces greenhouse gas precursor urea in sheep and cattle urine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingestion of small amounts of naturally-occurring condensed tannin (CT) by ruminants can provide several benefits including potential reduction of ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions over the long-term by reducing their urine urea excretion. However, providing grazing ruminants with sufficient amou...

  8. Effects of A 2.5-Year Campus-Wide Intervention to Reduce College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Owens, Dee; Gassman, Ruth; Kingori, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study reports on the results of a 2.5-year college-wide, coordinated intervention that was implemented from June 2007 to December 2009 to reduce the amount and frequency of students' alcohol consumption. Design: Quasi-experimental study using a one-group (freshmen living on campus) pretest/posttest design ("N"…

  9. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-print Network

    Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

    2011-01-01

    services/water/resources.htm. Water/Wastewater Guide 1: Reduce Energyservices/water/resources.htm. Case Studies Table 9 summarizes case studies for energyservice remains the same—the provision of clean, safe drinking water. Water supply utilities use energy

  10. Fenofibrate--a lipid-lowering drug--reduces voluntary alcohol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Karahanian, Eduardo; Quintanilla, Maria Elena; Fernandez, Katia; Israel, Yedy

    2014-11-01

    The administration of disulfiram raises blood acetaldehyde levels when ethanol is ingested, leading to an aversion to alcohol. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of fenofibrate on voluntary ethanol ingestion in rats. Fenofibrate reduces blood triglyceride levels by increasing fatty acid oxidation by liver peroxisomes, along with an increase in the activity of catalase, which can oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde. UChB drinker rats were allowed to consume alcohol 10% v/v freely for 60 days, until consumption stabilized at around 7 g ethanol/kg/24 h. About 1-1.2 g ethanol/kg of this intake is consumed in the first 2 h of darkness of the circadian cycle. Fenofibrate subsequently administered (50 mg/kg/day by mouth [p.o.]) for 14 days led to a 60-70% (p < 0.001) reduction of 24-h ethanol consumption. When ethanol intake was determined within the first 2 h of darkness, the reduction was 85-90% (p < 0.001). We determined whether animals chronically allowed access to ethanol and subsequently treated with fenofibrate, would a) increase liver catalase activity, and b) increase blood acetaldehyde levels after a 24-h ethanol deprivation and the subsequent administration of 1 g ethanol/kg. The oral administration of 1 g ethanol/kg produced a rapid increase in blood (arterial) acetaldehyde in fenofibrate-treated animals versus controls also administered 1 g/kg ethanol (70 ?M vs. 7 ?M; p < 0.001). Liver catalase activity following fenofibrate treatment was increased 3-fold (p < 0.01). Other hepatic enzymes responsible for the metabolism of ethanol (alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase) remained unchanged. No liver damage was induced, as measured by serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activity. The effect of fenofibrate in reducing alcohol intake was fully reversible. Overall, in rats allowed chronic ethanol intake, by mouth (p.o.), fenofibrate administration increased liver catalase activity and reduced voluntary ethanol intake. The administration of 1 g ethanol/kg (p.o.) to these animals increased blood acetaldehyde levels in fenofibrate-treated animals, suggesting the possible basis for the reduction in ethanol intake. PMID:25241056

  11. Challenging the Collegiate Rite of Passage: A Campus-Wide Social Marketing Media Campaign To Reduce Binge Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glider, Peggy; Midyett, Stephen J.; Mills-Novoa, Beverly; Johannessen, Koreen; Collins, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. Two surveys provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors…

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Motivational Interviewing With Feedback to Reduce Drinking Among a Sample of College Students

    PubMed Central

    Cowell, Alexander J.; Brown, Janice M.; Mills, Michael J.; Bender, Randall H.; Wedehase, Brendan J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of combining motivational interviewing with feedback to address heavy drinking among university freshmen. Method: Microcosting methods were used in a prospective cost and cost-effectiveness study of a randomized trial of assessment only (AO), motivational interviewing (MI), feedback only (FB), and motivational interviewing with feedback (MIFB) at a large public university in the southeastern United States. Students were recruited and screened into the study during freshman classes based on recent heavy drinking. A total of 727 students (60% female) were randomized, and 656 had sufficient data at 3-months’ follow-up to be included in the cost-effectiveness analysis. Effectiveness outcomes were changes in average drinks per drinking occasion and number of heavy drinking occasions. Results: Mean intervention costs per student were $16.51 for MI, $17.33 for FB, and $36.03 for MIFB. Cost-effectiveness analysis showed two cost-effective interventions for both outcomes: AO ($0 per student) and MIFB ($36 per student). Conclusions: This is the first prospective cost-effectiveness study to our knowledge to examine MI for heavy drinking among students in a university setting. Despite being the most expensive intervention, MIFB was the most effective intervention and may be a cost-effective intervention, depending on a university’s willingness to pay for changes in the considered outcomes. PMID:22333330

  13. A Multisite Randomized Trial of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Replication Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…

  14. College Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... social lives of students on campuses across the United States. Drinking at college has become a ritual that ... exactly what counts as a drink. In the United States, a standard drink is one that contains about ...

  15. Reducing Heavy Drinking Among First Year Intercollegiate Athletes: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Web-Based Normative Feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana M. Doumas; Tonya Haustveit; Kenneth M. Coll

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a web-based personalized normative feedback program targeting heavy drinking in first-year intercollegiate athletes. The program was offered through the Athletic Department first-year seminar at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university. Athletes were randomly assigned to either a web-based feedback group or a comparison condition. Results indicated high-risk athletes receiving the intervention

  16. 1.5 V battery driven reduced graphene oxide-silver nanostructure coated carbon foam (rGO-Ag-CF) for the purification of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Surender; Ghosh, Somnath; Munichandraiah, N; Vasan, H N

    2013-06-14

    A porous carbon foam (CF) electrode modified with a reduced graphene oxide-Ag (rGO-Ag) nanocomposite has been fabricated to purify water. It can perform as an antibacterial device by killing pathogenic microbes with the aid of a 1.5 V battery, with very little power consumption. The device is recycled ten times with good performance for long term usage. It is shown that the device may be implemented as a fast water purifier to deactivate the pathogens in drinking water. PMID:23670243

  17. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Alcohol Answering Questions About Underage Drinking Alcohol Advertising Who Can Help Reduce Underage Drinking, and How? Related Items What can you say to people who think teen drinking is not a serious problem? Despite the law, the statistics, and the science, some people still think teen ...

  18. CONDENSED TANNIN IN DRINKING WATER OF CATTLE AND SHEEP TO REDUCE THEIR URINE UREA EXCRETION AND SUBSEQUENT AMMONIA POLLUTION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed to reduce urine urea excretion and consequent ammonia emission that is associated with ruminant meat and milk production while not reducing productivity. Ingestion of small amounts of naturally-occurring condensed tannin by ruminants can reduce their urine urea excretion and impr...

  19. Endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces drinking behavior and is differentially engaged by water and food intakes in rats.

    PubMed

    McKay, Naomi J; Galante, Daniela L; Daniels, Derek

    2014-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the ileum and the nucleus of the solitary tract. It is well known that GLP-1 controls food intake, but there is a growing literature indicating that GLP-1 also is involved in fluid intake. It is not known, however, if the observed effects are pharmacological or if endogenous GLP-1 and its receptor contribute to physiological fluid intake control. Accordingly, we blocked endogenous GLP-1 by application of a receptor antagonist and measured subsequent drinking. Furthermore, we measured changes in GLP-1-associated gene expression after water intake, and compared the effects of fluid intake to those caused by food intake. Rats injected with the antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9) drank more fluid in response to either subcutaneous hypertonic saline or water deprivation with partial rehydration than did vehicle-treated rats. Analysis of licking behavior showed that Ex-9 increased fluid intake by increasing the number of licking bursts, without having an effect on the number of licks per burst, suggesting that endogenous GLP-1 suppresses fluid intake by influencing satiety. Subsequent experiments showed that water intake had a selective effect on central GLP-1-related gene expression, unlike food intake, which affected both central and peripheral GLP-1. Although water and food intakes both affected central GLP-1-relevant gene expression, there were notable differences in the timing of the effect. These results show a novel role of the endogenous GLP-1 system in fluid intake, and indicate that elements of the GLP-1 system can be engaged separately by different forms of ingestive behavior. PMID:25471579

  20. Energy Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill. PMID:22347688

  1. Does the minimum drinking age affect traffic fatalities?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Asch; David T. Levy

    1987-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s numerous states have raised their minimum legal drinking age in an effort to reduce alcohol-related traffic accidents. This study examines determinants of a variety of traffic fatality rates at the state level for 1978, with particular attention to drinking age and drinking experience. The legal drinking age has no perceptible influence on fatalities, but inexperience in drinking

  2. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  3. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over a short period of time (just as binge eating means a specific period of uncontrolled overeating). Do you worry that a family member's or friend's drinking might be getting out of hand? Today the generally accepted definition of binge drinking in the United States is the consumption ...

  4. How To Reduce High-Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies, Fill Research Gaps. Final Report of the Panel on Prevention and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Alcohol on college campuses is not a new problem, but recent concerns have centered on heavy episodic drinking, binge drinking. To address these concerns, the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established two panels of nongovernment experts to help develop a national research agenda. This report represents the work of the…

  5. Should You Drink Sports Drinks?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    The questions in this activity help students to understand the effects of consuming sports drinks and when and how the consumption of sports drinks can be beneficial or harmful. This activity provides the opportunity to review some basic concepts related to osmosis, cellular respiration, mammalian temperature regulation, and how our different body systems cooperate to maintain homeostasis.

  6. Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...

  7. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risks. It is dangerous because it Causes many deaths and injuries Can lead to poor decisions about engaging in risky behavior, such as drinking and driving or unprotected sex Increases the risk of physical and sexual assault ...

  8. Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shelton, Thodore B.

    This publication, authored by Thodore B. Shelton of Rutgers University, summarizes the information necessary for interpreting drinking water quality analyses performed by water testing laboratories. It focuses on testing results obtained from drinking water supplies from public water systems and non-public water systems (home wells). It is intended primarily for homeowners, but environmental organizations, health departments, and commercial water testing laboratories and others should find this material of interest and value.

  9. High school drinking mediates the relationship between parental monitoring and college drinking: A longitudinal analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amelia M Arria; Vanessa Kuhn; Kimberly M Caldeira; Kevin E O'Grady; Kathryn B Vincent; Eric D Wish

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: College drinking is a significant public health problem. Although parental monitoring and supervision reduces the risk for alcohol consumption among younger adolescents, few studies have investigated the impact of earlier parental monitoring on later college drinking. This study examined whether parental monitoring indirectly exerts a protective effect on college drinking by reducing high school alcohol consumption. METHODS: A longitudinal

  10. A protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce exposure to lead through consumer products and drinking water

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The toxic heavy metal lead continues to be a leading environmental risk factor, with the number of attributable deaths having doubled between 1990 and 2010. Although major sources of lead exposure, in particular lead in petrol, have been significantly reduced in recent decades, lead is still used in a wide range of processes and objects, with developing countries disproportionally affected. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of regulatory, environmental and educational interventions for reducing blood lead levels and associated health outcomes in children, pregnant women and the general population. Methods/design The databases MEDLINE, Embase and the Global Health Library (GHL) will be searched using a sensitive search strategy. Studies in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian or Afrikaans will be screened according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We will consider randomized and non-randomized studies accepted by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) Group, as well as additional non-randomized studies. Screening of titles and abstracts will be performed by one author. Full texts of potentially relevant studies will be independently assessed for eligibility by two authors. A single author will extract data, with a second reviewer checking the extraction form. Risk of bias will be assessed by two researchers using the Graphical Appraisal Tool for Epidemiological studies, as modified by the Centre for Public Health at the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Any inconsistencies in the assessment of eligibility, data extraction or quality appraisal will be resolved through discussion. Where two or more studies report the primary outcome blood lead levels within the same population group, intervention category and source of lead exposure, data will be pooled using random effects meta-analysis. In parallel, harvest plots as a graphical method of evidence synthesis will be used to present findings for blood lead levels and secondary outcomes. Discussion This systematic review will fill an important evidence gap with respect to the effectiveness of interventions to reduce lead in consumer products and drinking water in the context of new WHO guidelines for the prevention and management of lead poisoning. It will also contribute to setting a future research agenda. PMID:24731516

  11. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not drink if you have a history of alcohol abuse or alcoholism. If alcoholism runs in your family, ... are interested in more information regarding alcohol use, alcohol abuse , or support groups You are unable to reduce ...

  12. Gender-Specific Intervention to Reduce Underage Drinking Among Early Adolescent Girls: A Test of a Computer-Mediated, Mother-Daughter Program*

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Cole, Kristin C. A.; Fang, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated a gender-specific, computer-mediated intervention program to prevent underage drinking among early adolescent girls. Method: Study participants were adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants completed pretests online and were randomly divided between intervention and control arms. Intervention-arm girls and their mothers interacted with a computer program aimed to enhance mother-daughter relationships and to teach girls skills for managing conflict, resisting media influences, refusing alcohol and drugs, and correcting peer norms about underage drinking, smoking, and drug use. After intervention, all participants (control and intervention) completed posttest and follow-up measurements. Results: Two months following program delivery and relative to control-arm participants, intervention-arm girls and mothers had improved their mother-daughter communication skills and their perceptions and applications of parental monitoring and rule-setting relative to girls' alcohol use. Also at follow-up, intervention-arm girls had improved their conflict management and alcohol use-refusal skills; reported healthier normative beliefs about underage drinking; demonstrated greater self-efficacy about their ability to avoid underage drinking; reported less alcohol consumption in the past 7 days, 30 days, and year; and expressed lower intentions to drink as adults. Conclusions: Study findings modestly support the viability of a mother-daughter, computer-mediated program to prevent underage drinking among adolescent girls. The data have implications for the further development of gender-specific approaches to combat increases in alcohol and other substance use among American girls. PMID:19118394

  13. Orange Drink

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem provides an opportunity for students to reason about ratio and proportion in the realistic context of mixing a fruit drink from concentrate. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and links to related problems (Blackcurrantiest is cataloged separately).

  14. Ion Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Selected Inorganic Anions and Organic Acids from Raw and Drinking Waters Using Suppressor Current Switching to Reduce the Background Noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panu Rantakokko; Satu Mustonen; Miljamartta Yritys; Terttu Vartiainen

    2005-01-01

    For the first time a direct ion chromatographic routine method was developed for the simultaneous determination of selected inorganic anions and organic acids from raw and drinking waters. The inorganic anions included the common inorganic anions (fluoride, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, and phosphate) and also the iodide. Organic acids were lactate, acetate, propionate, formate, oxalate, and citrate. A hydrogen

  15. Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drew K. Saylor

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of “binge drinking” on college campuses. However, such a policy change would remove one of the

  16. Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Drew K.

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…

  17. How To Reduce High-Risk College

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    How To Reduce High-Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies,Fill Research Gaps Final Report.collegedrinkingprevention.gov #12;How To Reduce High-Risk College Drinking:How To Reduce High-Risk College Drinking:How To Reduce High-Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies, Fill Research GapsUse Proven Strategies, Fill

  18. Drinking motives as prospective predictors of outcome in an intervention trial among heavily drinking HIV patients

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Aharonovich, Efrat; O’Leary, Ann; Wainberg, Milton; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Heavy alcohol consumption in HIV patients is an increasing health concern. Applying the drinking motivational model to HIV primary care patients, drinking motives (drinking to cope with negative affect, for social facilitation, and in response to social pressure) were associated with alcohol consumption at a baseline interview. However, whether these motives predict continued heavy drinking or alcohol dependence in this population is unknown. METHODS Participants were 254 heavy-drinking urban HIV primary care patients (78.0% male; 94.5% African American or Hispanic) participating in a randomized trial of brief drinking-reduction interventions. Drinking motive scales, as well as measures of alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence, were administered at baseline. Consumption and dependence measures were re-administered at the end of treatment two months later. Regression analyses tested whether baseline drinking motive scale scores predicted continued heavy drinking and alcohol dependence status at the end of treatment, and whether motives interacted with treatment condition. RESULTS Baseline drinking to cope with negative affect predicted continued heavy drinking (p<0.05) and alcohol dependence, the latter in both in the full sample (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.14) and among those with baseline dependence (AOR=2.52). Motives did not interact with treatment condition in predicting alcohol outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Drinking to cope with negative affect may identify HIV patients needing targeted intervention to reduce drinking, and may inform development of more effective interventions addressing ways other than heavy drinking to cope with negative affect. PMID:24286967

  19. Parents' rules about underage drinking: A qualitative study of why parents let teens drink

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2013-01-01

    Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semi-structured interviews (n=44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous and harm reduction. Deliberate reasons included passing on knowledge about drinking responsibly and appreciating alcohol. Parents also spontaneously decided to let their teen drink. Some of these spontaneous situations involved feeling pressure from other adults to let their teen drink. Another reason was a desire to reduce potential harm. Parents feared that forbidding underage drinking would harm their relationship with their teen and potentially lead to drunk driving. Prevention efforts aimed at parents should take into account parents' motivations to let teens drink. PMID:25031481

  20. Arsenic in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safe Drinking Water Act Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic iHome Basic Information Arsenic Rule Compliance Help State Guidance Training Funding Publications Arsenic Rule at a Glance Maximum Contaminant Level in ...

  1. Will increasing alcohol availability by lowering the minimum legal drinking age decrease drinking and related consequences among youths?

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Henry; Nelson, Toben F

    2010-06-01

    Alcohol use health consequences are considerable; prevention efforts are needed, particularly for adolescents and college students. The national minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is a primary alcohol-control policy in the United States. An advocacy group supported by some college presidents seeks public debate on the minimum legal drinking age and proposes reducing it to 18 years. We reviewed recent trends in drinking and related consequences, evidence on effectiveness of the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years, research on drinking among college students related to the minimum legal drinking age, and the case to lower the minimum legal drinking age. Evidence supporting the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is strong and growing. A wide range of empirically supported interventions is available to reduce underage drinking. Public health professionals can play a role in advocating these interventions. PMID:20395573

  2. Correlates of Pro-Drinking Practices in Drinking Parents of Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Au, Wing Man; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Huang, Rong; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Parental alcohol-related practices are important risk factors of adolescent drinking, but little is known about the factors associated with these parental pro-drinking practices (PPDPs). We investigated the correlates of 9 PPDPs in drinking parents of adolescents in Hong Kong. Methods A total of 2200 students (age 14.8±2.0; boys 63.2%) participated in a school-based cross-sectional survey in 2012. Analysis was restricted to 1087 (61.8%) students with at least 1 drinking parent as PPDPs were much more common in these families. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of each PPDP. Results Among 1087 students, the prevalence of PPDPs ranged from 8.2% for training drinking capacity to 65.7% for seeing parents drink. Only 14.8% of students had not experienced any of these practices. More frequent maternal drinking predicted parental training of drinking capacity. Older age predicted helping parents buy alcohol and parental encouragement of drinking. Adolescent girls were more likely to have received parental training of drinking capacity than boys. Higher perceived family affluence was associated with hearing parents saying benefits of drinking, and helping parents open bottle and pour alcohol. Conclusions PPDPs were associated with parental drinking frequency and various socio-demographic factors. These results have implications on alcohol control programmes involving parents to tailor messages for reducing PPDPs based on the characteristics of adolescents and parents. PMID:25786105

  3. Ondansetron and sertraline may interact with 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 polymorphisms to reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent women: exploratory findings.

    PubMed

    Kenna, George A; Zywiak, William H; Swift, Robert M; McGeary, John E; Clifford, James S; Shoaff, Jessica R; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender-specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200 mg/day of sertraline or 0.5 mg/day of ondansetron for 3 weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for 3 weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for 3 weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7 days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e., sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a 3-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4?7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4<7 repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad libitum during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions may be essential to successfully treat alcohol dependence. PMID:25212749

  4. Hazardous Drinking and Military Community Functioning: Identifying Mediating Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hazardous drinking is a serious societal concern in military populations. Efforts to reduce hazardous drinking among military personnel have been limited in effectiveness. There is a need for a deeper understanding of how community-based prevention models apply to hazardous drinking in the military. Community-wide prevention efforts may…

  5. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... alcohol excise taxes, reducing youth exposure to alcohol advertising, and development of comprehensive community-based programs. These ... Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. The DAWN Report: Highlights of the ...

  6. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2007. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse: recommendation statement . Ann Intern ... Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  7. Moderate and Binge Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Levels Defined In this Section Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Genetics of ...

  8. Natural drinking strategies

    E-print Network

    Kim, Wonjung

    We examine the fluid mechanics of drinking in nature. We classify the drinking strategies of a broad range of creatures according to the principal forces involved, and present physical pictures for each style. Simple scaling ...

  9. Distinguishing between Positive and Negative Social Bonding in Problem Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Hussain, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Background: To reduce problem drinking, interventions must be directed toward those factors associated with problem drinking. Purpose: This study examined how perceptions of the role of alcohol related to problem drinking among a convenience sample of 301 college students. Methods: Fifteen items concerned with drinking behavior or perceptions…

  10. Influence from friends to drink more or drink less: a cross-national comparison.

    PubMed

    Astudillo, Mariana; Connor, Jennie; Roiblatt, Rachel E; Ibanga, Akanidomo K J; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    Drinking habits are socially patterned and social networks influence individuals' drinking behaviors. Previous studies have focused primarily upon the influence from family members to drink less. Those studies that have focused upon peer influence have been largely confined to social norms among adolescent and college-age drinkers. By contrast, based in adult populations, this article examines exhortations from friends not only to reduce alcohol consumption but also to increase it. Survey data in 15 countries that participate in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study project (GENACIS) were used to test whether there were country and gender differences concerning the influence to drink less or to drink more by friends and examine if this was affected by the drinking behavior. The findings revealed that those influenced to drink less had more heavy episodic drinking (HED) occasions than those who did not report such influence. By contrast, influence to drink more, originating mainly from same-sex friends, may be more the result of social situations that encourage all drinkers, regardless of their frequency of HED occasions. At the country level, influence to drink less for both sexes decreased with the proportion of drinkers in a country. Similarly, influence to drink less for both sexes also decreased in countries where gender roles were more egalitarian. Thus, in countries where alcohol use is more widespread and fewer differences are observed between male and female gender role expectations, fewer people were influenced to drink less. These findings have implications for social and behavioral strategies designed to reduce alcohol-related harm across a wide range of cultures. PMID:23899431

  11. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink consumption and…

  12. AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

  13. Dying for a Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Studies show that 40 percent of youth who begin drinking before age 13 are classified as alcohol dependent at some point in their lives. Explores three theories about adolescents' alcohol use, describes a national intervention program, lists warning signs of early drinking, and offers a policy preventing early drinking. (MLF)

  14. CUTTING DOWN ON DRINKING

    E-print Network

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    use disorder and related health problems. For healthy men up to age 65 -- · no more than 4 drinks in a day AND · no more than 14 drinks in a week. For healthy women (and healthy men over age 65TIPS FOR CUTTING DOWN ON DRINKING U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National

  15. Drinks and dental health.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, R; Rytömaa, I

    1991-01-01

    The average daily requirement for water in man is 2-3 litres, of which more than half comes from drinks. Although the total consumption of various drinks is quite stable, the choices of beverages are slowly changing. In many Western countries e.g. the use of milk is declining while consumers drink greater amounts of soft drinks, including fruit juices and carbonated beverages. These changes may also affect dental health because of the potential risk of sugar and acid-containing drinks to cause dental caries and erosion. The effects of drinks in the human mouth are, however, strongly related to many individual factors and prediction of dental effects is therefore difficult. Anyway, there are risk patients who should be recognized, and risk products which should be noticed in product formulation. If attention is paid to such factors in the future harmful effects of drinks on teeth may be minimized. PMID:1775489

  16. 4/14/2009 1 HEP:HealthEd:ATOD:SafePartyInitiative:SaferUCDavisReport.doc Charting Progress in the Effort to Reduce High-Risk Drinking and

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    days, including 55% of underage students · 31% reported "binge" drinking in the previous two weeks: · 78% of UC Davis students reported drinking in the past quarter · 62% consumed alcohol in the past 30: · Establishing norms of respect and safety among student and non-student neighbors · Creating safer party

  17. Caffeinated energy drink intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Trabulo, Daniel; Marques, Susana; Pedroso, Ermelinda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years an increasing number of different energy drinks have been introduced to provide an energy boost. They contain high levels of caffeine and other additives that act as stimulants. Several recent studies present that energy drinks could increase the risk of seizures, acid-base disorders and cardiovascular events. The authors report a 28-year-old man who was brought to the emergency room after sudden onset of tonic-clonic seizures and metabolic acidosis after drinking several cans of a caffeinated energy drink. The authors believe that this clinical picture was caused by caffeine intoxication from an energetic drink causing a syndrome of catecholamine excess. The patient was discharged within a week with no complaints and no neurological signs. Finally, recognising the features of caffeine intoxication and its potential health consequences may be especially relevant when treating younger persons who may be more likely to consume energy drinks. PMID:22714613

  18. Antecedents of collegiate drinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Friedman; John A. Humphrey

    1985-01-01

    A model designed to explain variations in the use of alcohol among undergraduates draws together three categories of variables: (1) sociocultural—race, sex, and population of student's hometown; (2) familial characteristics—father's occupation, parents' marital status, and closeness to a problem drinker; and (3) the onset of student drinking—age at first drinking and extent of drinking at its onset. A 10% random

  19. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen V Voogt; Evelien AP Poelen; Marloes Kleinjan; Lex ACJ Lemmers; Rutger CME Engels

    2011-01-01

    Background  The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent\\u000a need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the\\u000a Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in\\u000a this protocol will test the effectiveness of

  20. Drinking games, tailgating, and pregaming: Precollege predictors of risky college drinking

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Kevin; Pearson, Matthew R.; Hustad, John T. P.; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background The transition from high school to college is a critical period for developing college drinking habits. Hazardous alcohol consumption increases during this period, as well as participation in drinking games, pregaming, and tailgating. All of these risky drinking practices are associated with higher levels of intoxication as well as an increased risk of alcohol-related problems. Objective The current study aimed to evaluate pre-college predictors (personality, social norms, and beliefs reflecting the internalization of the college drinking culture [ICDC]) of estimated peak BAC (pBAC) reached during drinking games, pregaming, and tailgating, as well as pBAC and alcohol-related problems during the first 30 days of college. Methods Participants (n =936) were incoming freshmen at a large university who completed a baseline assessment prior to college matriculation and a follow-up assessment after they had been on campus for 30 days. Results Using path analysis, ICDC was significantly associated with pBAC reached during the three risky drinking practices. ICDC had an indirect effect on both pBAC and alcohol-related problems via pBAC from drinking games, pregaming, and tailgating. Hopelessness and sensation seeking were significantly related to alcohol use outcomes. Conclusion Precollege perceptions of the college drinking culture are a stronger predictor of subsequent alcohol use than social norms. Interventions that target these beliefs may reduce peak intoxication and associated harms experienced during the first 30 days of college. PMID:25192204

  1. GEOCHEMISTRY OF SULFUR IN IRON CORROSION SCALES FOUND IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron-sulfur geochemistry is important in many natural and engineered environments, including drinking water systems. In the anaerobic environment beneath scales of corroding iron drinking water distribution system pipes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulfide from natu...

  2. PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL DECAY IN DRINKING WATER: A SECOND ORDER MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide water that is both microbiologically and chemically safe for human consumption. Drinking water chlorination, therefore, poses a dilemma. Chemical disinfection reduces the risk of infectious disease but the interaction be...

  3. Artificially sweetened drinks may make older people more vulnerable to obesity.

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Older people who try to reduce their sugar intake by drinking diet fizzy drinks containing artificial sweeteners may be at increased risk of abdominal obesity, leaving them vulnerable to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25850482

  4. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... or recovery program. These programs: Teach people about alcohol abuse and its effects Offer counseling and support about ...

  5. The Drinking Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  6. Nanoparticles in drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Kaegi

    Synthetic nanoparticles are increasingly being used in everyday products, but little is known about environmental releases of these materials. Our knowledge of how many natural nanoparticles occur in drinking water is also inadequate. An initial assessment is presented here. Drinking water is clear, and yet it contains millions of particles. Substances are described as particulate - as opposed to dissolved

  7. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  8. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  9. Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-03-28

    High levels of nitrates in drinking water can be harmful for very young infants and susceptible adults. This publication explains how people are exposed to nitrates, what health effects are caused by them in drinking water and how to remove them....

  10. Risks of underage drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... within the past month. When a child begins drinking before age 15, he or she is much more likely to become a long-term drinker, or problem drinker. About 1 in 5 teens ... to drinking Get into trouble with the law, their families, ...

  11. Underage Drinking and the Drinking Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Carla T.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of underage drinking on college campuses has been brewing for many years to the continued vexation of higher education administrators. In 2008, John McCardell, president emeritus of Middlebury College, began to circulate for signature a public statement among colleagues titled "The Amethyst Initiative," which calls for elected…

  12. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    MedlinePLUS

    Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? KidsHealth > Parents > Sports Medicine Center > Q&As > Sports and Energy Drinks: Should ... a daily multivitamin formulated for kids. Back Continue Energy Drinks These are becoming increasingly popular with middle- ...

  13. Coffee Stirrers and Drinking Straws as Disposable Spatulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turano, Morgan A.; Lobuono, Cinzia; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Although metal spatulas are damaged through everyday use and become discolored and corroded by chemical exposure, plastic drinking straws are inexpensive, sterile, and disposable, reducing the risk of cross-contamination during laboratory procedures. Drinking straws are also useful because they come in a variety of sizes; narrow sample containers…

  14. DOES THE MINIMUM LEGAL DRINKING AGE SAVE LIVES?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEFFREY A. MIRON; ELINA TETELBAUM

    2009-01-01

    The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) is widely believed to save lives by reducing traffic fatalities among underage drivers. Further, the Federal Uniform Drinking Age Act, which pressured all states to adopt an MLDA of 21, is regarded as having contributed enormously to this life-saving effect. This article challenges both claims. State-level panel data for the past 30 yr show

  15. It's Your Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the nation's drinking water sources (the rivers, lakes, groundwater, etc. from which water systems derive their water) ... web site [ www.ostgauthor.rtpnc.epa.gov/type/groundwater/index.cfm ] provides information on EPA's implementation of ...

  16. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You can be the key to their early recovery. Learn More.... For Youth Overview FAQ's/Facts Underage and College Drugs and Crime Alcohol Energy Drinks Concerned for Someone Prevention Tips Recovery Stories ...

  17. Drinking Enough Fluids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... important for your body to have plenty of fluids each day. Water helps you digest your food, ... it even more important to have plenty of fluids. Drinking enough fluids every day also is essential ...

  18. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or ground water. Surface water collects in streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Ground water is water located ... protect drinking water and its sources, which include rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. Top ...

  19. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04

    Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

  20. Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2005-12-02

    High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....

  1. Drinking Water Standards

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  2. Facts on Underage Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for underage drinkers); suicide; interpersonal violence (e.g., homicides, assaults, rapes); unintentional injuries such as burns, falls, ... signs: Binge drinking among women and high school girls—United State, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, ...

  3. Not Just Fun and Games: A Review of College Drinking Games Research From 2004 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Van Tyne, Kathryne; Olthuis, Janine V.; Correia, Christopher J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Borsari, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Drinking games are a high-risk social drinking activity consisting of rules and guidelines that determine when and how much to drink (Polizzotto et al., 2007). Borsari's (2004) seminal review paper on drinking games in the college environment succinctly captured the published literature as of February 2004. However, research on college drinking games has grown exponentially during the last decade, necessitating an updated review of the literature. This review provides an in-depth summary and synthesis of current drinking games research (e.g., characteristics of drinking games, and behavioral, demographic, social, and psychological influences on participation) and suggests several promising areas for future drinking games research. This review is intended to foster a better understanding of drinking game behaviors among college students and improve efforts to reduce the negative impact of this practice on college campuses. PMID:25222171

  4. Drinking Bird (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drinking Bird: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". The drinking bird's felt-covered head dips into the beaker of water as it bobs up and down. The tube goes from the bottom of the body to its head. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  5. Changing the Culture of Young People's Binge Drinking: From Motivations to Practical Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Aims: This paper explores young people's own opinions about how the "drinking to get drunk" culture can be changed. More precisely, the two objectives of this study were to explore: (1) whether young people viewed binge drinking as a real "problem"; and (2) what they thought could be done to reduce binge drinking. Methods: Forty in-depth…

  6. Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

  7. Heavy drinking on college campuses: no reason to change minimum legal drinking age of 21.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Drew K

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would remove one of the most researched and supported policies in the nation's alcohol control arsenal. There is little evidence that other interventions or policies are capable of working on the same broad level as MLDA 21, and there could also be a deleterious ripple effect in related legislation because MLDA 21 works in conjunction with other drinking laws. In addition, historic and international experiences with a lowered MLDA indicate there are serious social and public health consequences. Instead of removing efficacious interventions, we must remain committed to implementing and enforcing evidence-based practices and legislation. PMID:21308595

  8. The complementarity of teen smoking and drinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas S. Dee

    1999-01-01

    Teen drinkers are over twice as likely as abstainers to smoke cigarettes. This empirical study provides evidence of a robust complementarity between these health behaviors by exploiting the “cross-price” effects. The results indicate that the movement away from minimum legal drinking ages of 18 reduced teen smoking participation by 3 to 5%. The corresponding instrumental variable estimates suggest that teen

  9. Lead in the School's Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The purpose of this manual is to assist school officials by providing information on the effects of lead in school drinking water on children, how to detect the presence of lead, how to reduce the lead, and how to provide training for sampling and remedial programs. A protocol is provided for procedures to determine the location and source of lead…

  10. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

  11. Dying To Drink: Confronting Binge Drinking on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Wuethrich, Bernice

    This book outlines the toll binge drinking is taking on college campuses and suggests steps that can be taken to take action against the binge drinking that has become part of college culture. The chapters of part 1, "The College Drinking Environment," are: (1) "A Culture of Alcohol"; (2) "Where's the Party?"; (3) "College Sports and Alcohol"; and…

  12. Drinking Motives, Alcohol Expectancies, Self-Efficacy, and Drinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Wiers, Reinout; Lemmers, Lex; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2005-01-01

    The current study focused on the associations between drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and drinking behavior in a representative sample of 553 Dutch adolescents and adults. Data were gathered by means of self-report questionnaires and a 14-days drinking diary. A model was postulated in which negative expectancies and…

  13. DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conducted every 4 years, the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey (DWINS) is an EPA-conducted statistically-based survey of the infrastructure investment needs of the Nation's drinking water systems for the next 20 years....

  14. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Welcome to College Drinking: Changing the Culture, created by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). CollegeDrinkingPrevention.gov is your one-stop resource for comprehensive research-based ...

  15. -fountain drinks, coffee, tea pritzkerclub

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    drinks - fountain drinks, coffee, tea - fuze 2 3 pritzkerclub SOUP DU JOUR PRITZKER CLUB SANDWICH, with italian sausage slices BEEF coffee-crusted flat iron steak with sauteed vidalia onions VEGETARIAN stuffed

  16. What Is a Standard Drink?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Underage Drinking College Drinking Women Older Adults ... Services National Institutes of Health NIAAA: Understanding the impact of alcohol on human health and well-being

  17. Arsenic in Your Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... swimming pool. FOR MORE INFORMATION Arsenic in drinking water http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic Arsenic health ... http://www.epa.gov/safewater/privatewells Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1-800-426-4791 JUST THE FACTS ...

  18. A field investigation of the effects of drinking consequences on young adults' readiness to change.

    PubMed

    Usala, Julie M; Celio, Mark A; Lisman, Stephen A; Day, Anne M; Spear, Linda P

    2015-02-01

    In the research on readiness to change (RTC) one's drinking, there has been little assessment of the influence of positive drinking consequences or other potential moderating variables. To address these limitations, we examined how young adults' RTC their alcohol consumption shortly following a drinking episode was associated with self-reported drinking consequences, as well as any potential moderating effects of gender and Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC). In street interviews outside bars, 238 young adults were administered questionnaires about their drinking, including a measure examining participants' current readiness to reduce their alcohol consumption. Within 72h of their drinking episode, 67 participants (36 males; entire sample Mage=20.90years, Range=18-26years) completed an online survey, once again measuring RTC as well as positive and negative drinking consequences. Consistent with our hypothesis, positive drinking consequences were negatively associated with participants' changes in RTC. Additionally, a three-way interaction of gender×BrAC×positive drinking consequences on RTC showed that females with low BrACs reported higher RTC scores when they had endorsed fewer positive drinking consequences. Interestingly, negative drinking consequences alone did not impact individuals' RTC. Because positive drinking consequences were a significantly better predictor of RTC than were negative drinking consequences, researchers are advised to examine both types of consequences in future studies. Finally, effective alcohol education programs for those who have never consumed alcohol as well as social drinkers should include consideration of the experience of positive outcomes. PMID:25452061

  19. Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks Table A43. Alcoholic drinks: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 number of drinks Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 19-30 1113 0.9

  20. Youthful Drinking: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    1982-01-01

    As the adolescent matures, drinking situations occur outside of the home with friends. This period is characterized by drinking habits, patterns, and attitudes which are different from those of the parent population; the peer group and situational factors are significant influences on drinking behavior during this phase. (Author)

  1. DRINKING WATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

  2. Safe Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Physicians for Social Responsibility

    This site provides an overview of types of drinking water contaminants, where they come from, and their effects on human health. Special topics include chemical and microbial contamination, health effects of microbes, pesticides, metals and various other contaminants, and causes of source water contamination. The site also features links to current news and other related resources and organizations.

  3. Drinking water and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth P. Cantor

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between contaminants in drinking water and cancer is reviewed. The reviewed studies cover exposure to: disinfection byproducts; nitrate; arsenic and other metals; volatiles and contaminants from hazardous waste sites; asbestiform fibers; radionuclides; and fluoride. Most investigations are ecologic, with some confirmation of elevated risk from individual-based studies. In the case of waterborne arsenic, and possibly

  4. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  5. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574 PMID:23933526

  6. Assessing Driving while Intoxicated (DWI) Offender Characteristics and Drinking Problems Utilizing the Numerical Drinking Profile (NDP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Misra, Ranjita; Dennis, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol is a major public health concern. By distinguishing the type of individuals violating driving while intoxicated (DWI) sanctions, intervention programs will be better suited to reduce drinking and driving. The purpose of this study was to examine the personal characteristics of DWI offenders and…

  7. Drinking Plans and Drinking Outcomes: Examining Young Adults' Weekend Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trim, Ryan S.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey; Thombs, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among drinking intentions, environments, and outcomes in a random sample of 566 undergraduate college students. Telephone interviews were conducted with respondents before and after a single weekend assessing drinking intentions for the coming weekend related to subsequent drinking behaviors. Latent class analyses…

  8. Drinking in the Context of Life Stressors: A Multidimensional Coping Strategy among South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Karmel W.; Watt, Melissa H.; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored narratives of drinking as a coping strategy among female drinkers in a South African township. In 2010–11, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 54 women recruited from 12 alcohol-serving venues. Most women drank heavily and linked their drinking to stressors. They were motivated to use drinking to manage their emotions, facilitate social engagement, and achieve a sense of empowerment, even while recognizing the limitations of this strategy. This study helps to contextualize heavy drinking behavior among women in this setting. Multifaceted interventions that help female drinkers to more effectively manage stressors may aid in reducing hazardous drinking. PMID:23905586

  9. Bacterial nutrients in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    LeChevallier, M W; Schulz, W; Lee, R G

    1991-01-01

    Regrowth of coliform bacteria in distribution systems has been a problem for a number of water utilities. Efforts to solve the regrowth problem have not been totally successful. The current project, which was conducted at the New Jersey American Water Co.-Swimming River Treatment Plant, showed that the occurrence of coliform bacteria in the distribution system could be associated with rainfall, water temperatures greater than 15 degrees C, total organic carbon levels greater than 2.4 mg/liter, and assimilable organic carbon levels greater than 50 micrograms of acetate carbon equivalents per liter. A multiple linear regression model based on free chlorine residuals present in dead-end sections of the distribution system and temperature predicted 83.8% of the heterotrophic plate count bacterial variation. To limit the growth of coliform bacteria in drinking water, the study concludes that assimilable organic carbon levels should be reduced to less than 50 micrograms/liter. PMID:2039235

  10. Drinking Straw Oboe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    In this quick activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners will construct an oboe-like instrument from a plastic drinking straw by cutting the end to split it into two loose flaps, like reeds on an oboe. Blowing hard makes a sound. Cutting the straws to different lengths provides an opportunity for learners to predict how length will affect sound. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Music and Sound.

  11. Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

  12. Risky drinking and its detection among medical students.

    PubMed

    Ketoja, Jaakko; Svidkovski, Anna-Stiina; Heinälä, Pekka; Seppä, Kaija

    2013-05-01

    The drinking patterns of physicians may affect their own health and how they treat patients with substance use disorders. This is why we wanted to find out risky drinking among medical students. A questionnaire was delivered to all medical students at the University of Tampere and risky alcohol drinking was defined as a minimum score of five for women and six for men in the AUDIT-C alcohol screen (rating 0 to 12). The respondent rate was 94% (n=465). Of the whole sample 33% were risky drinkers, 24% of women and 49% of men. After the first study year the female risky drinkers significantly decreased and men increased their drinking. Significantly more men but not women with moderate alcohol use reduced drinking during the first year of studies compared with risky drinkers of the same gender. The AUDIT-C scored higher in the subgroups of risky drinkers willing to reduce drinking compared with those who did not want to cut down drinking (7.3. and 6.5., p<0.001). In the male sample the third AUDIT-C sub-question on binge drinking (=AUDIT-3, rating 0 to 4) at a cut-off point of ?2 was nearly as effective as the whole AUDIT-C at a cut-off point of ?6. This was not the case in the female sub-sample. Risky drinking is common among medical students and continues throughout the studies especially among men. AUDIT-3 is a short and reliable screening tool for male but not for female students. PMID:23435272

  13. [Sugary drinks and glycemia].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Susana; Alçada, Manuel; Azevedo, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing all over the world. Most affected are people changing from a traditional lifestyle to an environment with both availability of high energy diet and less physical activity. Glycemic index (GI) is a measure of dietary glycemic carbohydrates, representing their ability to raise blood glucose concentrations. It refers to the postprandial blood glucose response expressed as a percentage of the response to a reference food (glucose or white bread) containing the same carbohydrate content. Given the present high consumption of sugary drinks, the putative contribution of these products to obesity deserves investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the GI of some drinks from the Portuguese market. Postprandial glycemia after ingestion of apple Frutis, peach Frutis, Green tea Frutea, green tea, black tea, lupin infusion, rooibos infusion, raftilose solution or bran solution has been determined for two hours in a caucasian population of young adults of any sex, 17 to 24 years of age. Apple Frutis GI was found to be 54.3, i.e., a low GI; Frutea Green tea had a GI of 64.7, considered as a moderate GI; peach Frutis showed a high GI, 86.6. Green and Black teas as well as rooibos and lupin infusions, all with added glucose (25 g), did not change glycemic response in comparison with the reference solution (water with 25 g glucose). No differences were seen after raftilose and bran solutions by comparison with the reference solution. GI information may help the choice of carbohydrates to include in a healthy diet. Formerly considered as a parameter of interest to diabetic patients, it may actually interest anybody concerned with a healthy diet. This study has been performed by medical and nutritional science students, who observed glycemic excursions in themselves, after drink ingestion. This experiment allowed them to see the impressive rise of glycemia after ingestion of a sugary drink, by comparison with basal levels which would not rise if plain water or other nonsugary drink had been ingested. PMID:20687984

  14. Community Norms, Enforcement of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws, Personal Beliefs and Underage Drinking: An Explanatory Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Lipperman-KredaJoel; Joel W. Grube; Mallie J. Paschall

    2010-01-01

    Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources\\u000a and deterring its possession and use. However, little is known about the processes through which enforcement strategies may\\u000a affect underage drinking. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible\\u000a direct and indirect

  15. Young People Driving After Drinking and Riding with Drinking Drivers: Drinking Locations—What Do They Tell Us?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samantha Walker; Elizabeth Waiters; Joel W. Grube; Meng-Jinn Chen

    2005-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigated the extent to which drinking in specific locations and heavy drinking mediated the effects of overall alcohol use on driving after drinking (DD) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) among young people. Additionally, this study examined the relationships among ethnicity, gender, drinking in specific locations, and DD and RWDD.Method. Using random-digit dialing procedures, participants were

  16. Patterns of drinking in Wales.

    PubMed

    Bennett, P; Smith, C; Nugent, Z

    1991-01-01

    As part of a larger survey of health-related behaviours, 8441 Welsh men and women aged 18-64 years provided information relating to their overall consumption of alcohol, frequency of binge drinking (defined as consumption of at least half the recommended weekly limits, less than or equal to 21 units for men, less than or equal to 14 units for women) per occasion, and changes in consumption over time. Key findings indicate 29% of men and 9% of women report drinking in excess of the recommended safe limits, whilst 28% and 8% respectively report binge drinking at least once weekly. Such drinking is not, however, confined to heavy drinkers: 14% of men and 5% of women who drink within the recommended safe limits also report binge drinking at least once weekly. These and other results are discussed in relation to future health promotion initiatives. PMID:1930369

  17. You Are What You Drink!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Contamination in drinking water sources or watersheds can negatively affect the organisms that come in contact with it. The affects can be severe — causing illness or, in some cases, even death. It is important for people to understand how they can contribute to the contaminants in drinking water and what treatment can be done to counter these harmful effects. Students will learn about the various methods developed by environmental engineers for treating drinking water in the United States.

  18. America's Drinking Water in 1997

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided online access to two reports, America's Drinking Water in 1997 and the 1996 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report and Update on Implementation of the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. While both reports find that US drinking water is generally safe, the EPA also reviews initiatives to improve water quality. The brief summaries of these reports can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text articles are available in .pdf format.

  19. College binge drinking: a new approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Kubacki; Dariusz Siemieniako; Sharyn Rundle-Thiele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The proportion of young people binge drinking continues to grow despite extensive research efforts aiming to reverse this growing trend. Binge drinking has typically been viewed as the consumption of five or more standard drinks or units in a single drinking session. Research on binge drinking is US centric and largely quantitative. This paper, using qualitative methods, aims

  20. High-Risk Drinking in College

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    High-Risk Drinking in College: What We Know and What We Need To Learn Final Report of the Panel.collegedrinkingprevention.gov #12;High-Risk Drinking in College:High-Risk Drinking in College:High-Risk Drinking in College: What We and ConsequencesContexts and ConsequencesContexts and Consequences High-Risk Drinking in College: What We Know

  1. Alcohol Use Disorders and Perceived Drinking Norms: Ethnic Differences in Israeli Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shmulewitz, Dvora; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Aharonovich, Efrat; Aivadyan, Christina; Greenstein, Eliana; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Individuals’ perceptions of drinking acceptability in their society (perceived injunctive drinking norms) are widely assumed to explain ethnic group differences in drinking and alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but this has never been formally tested. Immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) are more likely to drink and report AUD symptoms than other Israelis. We tested perceived drinking norms as a mediator of differences between FSU immigrants and other Israelis in drinking and AUDs. Method: Adult household residents (N = 1,349) selected from the Israeli population register were assessed with a structured interview measuring drinking, AUD symptoms, and perceived drinking norms. Regression analyses were used to produce odds ratios (OR) and risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to test differences between FSU immigrants and other Israelis on binary and graded outcomes. Mediation of FSU effects by perceived drinking norms was tested with bootstrapping procedures. Results: FSU immigrants were more likely than other Israelis to be current drinkers (OR = 2.39, CI [1.61, 3.55]), have higher maximum number of drinks per day (RR = 1.88, CI [1.64, 2.16]), have any AUD (OR = 1.75, CI [1.16, 2.64]), score higher on a continuous measure of AUD (RR = 1.44, CI [1.12, 1.84]), and perceive more permissive drinking norms (p < .0001). For all four drinking variables, the FSU group effect was at least partially mediated by perceived drinking norms. Conclusions: This is the first demonstration that drinking norms mediate ethnic differences in AUDs. This work contributes to understanding ethnic group differences in drinking and AUDs, potentially informing etiologic research and public policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. PMID:23036217

  2. Effects of various sport drink modifications on dental caries and erosion in rats with controlled eating and drinking pattern.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, R

    1989-01-01

    A sport drink mixture, pH 3.2, containing 6% sucrose, was given to Osborne-Mendel rats, either as such or supplemented with 15 ppm fluoride, 38.5 ppm magnesium or both. Distilled water was given to the control groups. The rats were fed either a slightly cariogenic, powdered food containing 15% sucrose, or commercial pellets. Food and drink were available ad libitum for 6 weeks. A feeding machine was used to facilitate control of eating and drinking pattern. Daily intake of powdered, sugar-containing food was significantly smaller than that of pellets and, on the other hand, sport drink was consumed significantly more than distilled water. However, an appropriate energy balance was achieved with all of the dietary combinations, and no significant differences in weight gains were found. Sport drink did not significantly promote caries but induced marked erosion on the lingual surfaces of the lower molar teeth. Addition of fluoride to the sport drink significantly reduced caries (caused by powdered food) and had preventive effect on erosion, while addition of magnesium had no clear effect on either caries or erosion. No significant intergroup differences were found in eating or drinking patterns due to fluoride or magnesium additions. PMID:2734284

  3. Drinking Water Problems: Lead

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2004-02-20

    A lmost everyone knows that lead-based paint caused serious health problems (especially in children) before it was banned. But not everyone is aware that people can ingest lead from other sources such as contaminat- ed food and drinking water... sources of lead con- tamination. But if your water comes from a private well, it might contain enough lead to warrant action. How does lead affect health? Lead can be absorbed through the digestive tract, the lungs and the skin. It accumulates in the body...

  4. Drinking Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Laposata

    This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

  5. Drinking Patterns, Drinking Expectancies, and Coping after Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Drinking patterns, alcohol expectancies, and coping strategies were assessed for 121 persons with recent spinal cord injuries during hospitalization, 3 months after surgery, and 12 months after surgery. Although the rate of heavy drinking decreased, preinjury problem drinkers still had the lowest rate of positive reappraisal, problem solving, and…

  6. Differences in College Student Typical Drinking and Celebration Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodyard, Catherine Dane; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…

  7. Supersonic molecular beam-hyperthermal surface ionisation coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry applied to trace level detection of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water for reduced sample preparation and analysis time.

    PubMed

    Davis, S C; Makarov, A A; Hughes, J D

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of sub-ppb levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in drinking water by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fluorescence detection typically requires large water samples and lengthy extraction procedures. The detection itself, although selective, does not give compound identity confirmation. Benchtop gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) systems operating in the more sensitive selected ion monitoring (SIM) acquisition mode discard spectral information and, when operating in scanning mode, are less sensitive and scan too slowly. The selectivity of hyperthermal surface ionisation (HSI), the high column flow rate capacity of the supersonic molecular beam (SMB) GC/MS interface, and the high acquisition rate of time-of-flight (TOF) mass analysis, are combined here to facilitate a rapid, specific and sensitive technique for the analysis of trace levels of PAHs in water. This work reports the advantages gained by using the GC/HSI-TOF system over the HPLC fluorescence method, and discusses in some detail the nature of the instrumentation used. PMID:10097402

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Teen Drinking and Driving A Dangerous Mix October 2012 ... Drinking and driving can be deadly, especially for teens Fewer teens are drinking and driving, but this ...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

  14. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Giardia from my drinking water? Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE- ... Where and how does Giardia get into drinking water? Millions of Giardia parasites can be released in ...

  15. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lead from my drinking water? Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is lead? Lead is ... Where and how does lead get into drinking water? Lead rarely occurs naturally in water; it usually ...

  16. Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Campylobacter from my drinking water? Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is campylobacteriosis? Campylobacteriosis (CAMP- ... Where and how does Campylobacter get into drinking water? Campylobacter is found in every part of the ...

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Drinking and Driving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lives on the road each year. Minimum legal drinking age laws prohibit selling alcohol to people under age ... Keeping and enforcing 21 as the minimum legal drinking age helps keep young, inexperienced drivers from drinking and ...

  18. Characterizing binge drinking among U.S. military Veterans receiving a brief alcohol intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Cucciare; Maura Darrow; Kenneth R. Weingardt

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundBrief web-based alcohol interventions (BAIs) are effective for reducing binge drinking in college students and civilian adults, and are increasingly being applied to U.S. military populations. However, little is known about factors associated with binge drinking in Veteran populations and therefore some concern remains on the generalizability of studies supporting BAIs for addressing binge drinking in this population. This study

  19. Raising the minimum drinking age: Some unintended consequences of good intentions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lonn Lanza-Kaduce; Pamela Richards

    1989-01-01

    In 1986 the state of Florida raised its minimum drinking age from 19 to 21. The new legislation was meant in part to reduce the frequency of youthful drinking and driving. In the year when the law was implemented, half of Florida's 19-year-olds could drink legally; the other half could not. In this paper we analyze self-report data from a

  20. Binge Drinking on College Campuses. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Karen

    This digest discusses binge drinking on U.S. college campuses. Male binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks in a row one or more times during a 2-week period; female binge drinking is defined as four or more drinks in a row one or more times during a two-week period. A drink is defined as twelve ounces of beer or wine cooler, four ounces…

  1. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  2. Subfornical organ stimulation elicits drinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Smith; R. J. Beninger; A. V. Ferguson

    1995-01-01

    The subfornical organ is a specialized central nervous system structure known to be involved in the control of drinking. We report here that electrical activation of subfomical organ neurons (100 ?A, 10 Hz, 1 ms pulse width, for 5 min.) induced drinking in 67% (six of nine) of animals. This effect was site-specific as none of the animals with electrode

  3. Predicting Japanese American drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kitano, H H; Lubben, J E; Chi, I

    1988-04-01

    Empirical data on Japanese American drinking behavior are scarce. The present study was a random sample (N = 295) of households in Los Angeles with Japanese surnames. Japanese Americans born in the United States tended to drink less than those born in Japan. The study also observed significant gender differences in Japanese American drinking behavior which were attributed to ascribed social roles. Other demographic and social determinants of drinking were examined through two logistic regression models. The first model predicted drinking (as opposed to abstaining), while the other distinguished heavy drinkers from those who drank alcohol in more moderate amounts. Potential reference groups (e.g., parents, friends, church groups, etc.) were often significant in predicting whether and how much a Japanese American drank. PMID:3384511

  4. Caffeinated energy drinks in children

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question A 14-year-old boy came to my office to discuss his frequent consumption of energy drinks to enhance his performance at school and while playing soccer. What is the recommended use of energy drinks in children and is there any harm in consuming them? Answer Energy drinks are beverages with a high concentration of caffeine and additional stimulants. They are sold in numerous places and are easily accessed by children, adolescents, and young adults. Many reports warn about potential adverse effects associated with their consumption, especially in combination with alcohol among adolescents, and in combination with stimulant medications among children treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children and adolescents should avoid energy drinks, and health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks. PMID:24029508

  5. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  6. MEDITERRANEAN WAY OF DRINKING AND LONGEVITY.

    PubMed

    Giacosa, Attilio; Barale, Roberto; Bavaresco, Luigi; Faliva, Milena Anna; Gerbi, Vincenzo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Pezzotti, Mario; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2014-09-10

    ABSTRACT The relation between alcohol consumption and mortality is a J-shaped curve in most of the many studies published on this topic. The Copenhagen Prospective Population Studies demonstrated in the year 2000 that wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. Wine contains various poliphenolic substances which may be beneficial for health and in particular flavonols (such as myricetin and quercetin), catechin and epicatechin, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, various phenolic acids and the stilbene resveratrol. In particular, resveratrol seems to play a positive effect on longevity because it increases the expression level of Sirt1, besides its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. Moderate wine drinking is part of the Mediterranean diet, together with abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat and a low intake of (red) meat. This healthy diet pattern involves a "Mediterranean way of drinking", that is a regular, moderate wine consumption mainly with food (up to two glasses a day for men and one glass for women). Moderate wine drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer. PMID:25207479

  7. Sodium in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

  8. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801

  9. Risk drinking and contraception effectiveness among college women

    PubMed Central

    INGERSOLL, KAREN S.; CEPERICH, SHERRY DYCHE; NETTLEMAN, MARY D.; JOHNSON, BETTY ANNE

    2010-01-01

    Risk drinking, especially binge drinking, and unprotected sex may co-occur in college women and increase the risks of STI exposure and pregnancy, but the relationships among these behaviors are incompletely understood. A survey was administered to 2012 women of ages 18–24 enrolled in a public urban university. One-quarter of the college women (23%) drank eight or more drinks per week on average, and 63% binged in the past 90 days, with 64% meeting criteria for risk drinking. Nearly all sexually active women used some form of contraception (94%), but 18% used their method ineffectively and were potentially at risk for pregnancy. Forty-four percent were potentially at risk for STIs due to ineffective or absent condom usage. Ineffective contraception odds were increased by the use of barrier methods of contraception, reliance on a partner’s decision to use contraception, and risk drinking, but were decreased by the use of barrier with hormonal contraception, being White, and later age to initiate contraception. In contrast, ineffective condom use was increased by reliance on a partner’s decision to use condoms, the use of condoms for STI prevention only, and by risk drinking. Thirteen percent of university women were risk drinkers and using ineffective contraception, and 31% were risk drinkers and failing to use condoms consistently. Risk drinking is related to ineffective contraception and condom use. Colleges should promote effective contraception and condom use for STI prevention and consider coordinating their programs to reduce drinking with programs for reproductive health. Emphasizing the use of condoms for both pregnancy prevention and STI prevention may maximize women’s interest in using them. PMID:25160922

  10. [Is TLFB method applicable to Japanese drinking population?: a methodological study on measurement of alcohol consumption].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, S; Ito, N; Fujiwara, M; Takanashi, K; Weerakoon, S; Deshapriya, E B

    1997-06-01

    In order to measure alcohol related problems, it is fundamental task to begin with to know the drinking quantity of the people. This study tries to explore the comparative, methodological possibilities of Timeline Follow Back (TLFB) as well as Self-Monitoring (SM) methods to measure drinking quantity, using the sample of Japanese and Sri Lankans. Especially TLFB method has not being so far utilized in Japan for this purpose. This pilot study has done in two stages. In the first stage, it has focused to get data on the correct drinking quantity up to two months period. After analyzing data of the first pilot survey, it was decided to reduce in the second-staged study the time frame to obtain data on drinking quantity only up to one month period. In the second-staged study, 37 Japanese and 36 Sri Lankans living in Japan has been selected. Results show that it is more appropriate SM method than TLFB method to investigate drinking quantity of the Japanese. Further it was evidenced that in order to employ TLFB method to investigate correct drinking quantity of the general Japanese population, it has to be further improved for overcoming ambiguity of respondents' memory on their alcohol consuming behavior. Moreover, it is understood that some characteristic drinking behaviors, influenced by Japanese drinking culture may be another barrier in getting correct drinking quantity data. However, the hypothesized notion of this cultural barriers was not supported. An alternative hypothesis "reflexive sensitivity to drinking", was implied. PMID:9251524

  11. A behavioral economic analysis of the effect of next-day responsibilities on drinking.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lindsey J; Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 37% of college students report heavy episodic drinking (5 or more drinks in an occasion for men and 4 or more for women) in the past month. This pattern of drinking is often associated with high blood alcohol levels, accidents, injuries, and negative social and academic outcomes. There is a need for novel theoretical approaches to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral economics emphasizes the role of contextual determinants, such as drink price and the presence and amount of alternative reinforcement as determinants of drinking levels and has received strong empirical support in basic laboratory research. This translational research study used a hypothetical behavioral economic measure to investigate the impact of a variety of next-day responsibilities on night-before drinking intentions in a sample of first-year college students (N = 80; 50% female) who reported recent heavy episodic drinking. Drinking estimates were significantly lower in all of the responsibility conditions relative to the no-responsibility condition; internships were associated with the greatest reduction (d(rm) = 1.72), and earlier class times were associated with greater reductions in drinking intentions (d(rm) range = 1.22-1.35) than later class times (d(rm) range = 0.83-1.00). These results suggest that increasing morning responsibilities should be further investigated as a potential strategy to reduce drinking in college students. PMID:25402835

  12. Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

  13. Nitrate in Drinking Water in the West German WineGrowing Areas of Baden and Württemberg

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Darimont; R. Schwabe; M. Sonneborn; G. Schulze

    1983-01-01

    Nitrate is regarded as a substance whose presence in drinking water is not considered as desirable. If reduced to nitrite it may cause methemoglobinemia in infants. Onward reaction with amines capable of coupling will result in the formation of nitrosamines. Excessive use of fertilizers in agriculture is the most frequent cause of elevated nitrate contents of drinking water. To quantify

  14. A Review of Motivational Interviewing-Based Interventions Targeting Problematic Drinking Among College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Branscum; Manoj Sharma

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews motivational interviewing (MI) -based interventions targeting heavy drinking college students published between 2003 and 2008. A total of 11 MI-based interventions were included in this study. Students receiving the interventions were generally heavy drinkers or adjudicated students. Based on this review MI-based interventions appear to be consistently effective at reducing alcohol use and drinking problems. Most of

  15. Which Heavy Drinking College Students Benefit from a Brief Motivational Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy drinking among college students is common and is often harmful. A previously reported randomized trial revealed that a brief motivational intervention (BMI) reduced the alcohol consumption of heavy drinking college students (K. B. Carey, M. P. Carey, S. A. Maisto, & J. M. Henson, 2006). For this study, the researchers conducted supplemental…

  16. Alcohol-Related Information in Multi-Component Interventions and College Students' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadani, Vandana; Huchting, Karen; LaBrie, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students' alcohol…

  17. How to Identify Lead Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act went into effect on January 4, 2014. The Act has reduced the lead content allowed in water system and plumbing products by changing the definition of lead free in Section 1417 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) from not more than 8% ...

  18. Binge Drinking and the American College Student: What's Five Drinks?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Wechsler; Toben F. Nelson

    2001-01-01

    The use of the term binge drinking and the 5\\/4 measure have helped to advance the understanding of college alcohol use over the past 10 years. The present article discusses the importance, relevance, and utility of this measure.

  19. Ground Water And Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the official website for the Office of Groundwater and Safe Drinking Water (OGWDW) at the Environmental Protection Aagency (EPA). The OGWDW works to ensure safe drinking water and to protect the quality of our nation's drinking water supply. This mission is accomplished using five guiding principles: prevention, risk-based priority setting for new and existing regulations, public and private partnerships, flexibility and effectiveness in implementation while maintaining a national public health baseline, accountability of all parties through public participation and accessible information, and clear documentation and presentation of results. This site is a major clearinghouse for safe water guidelines, programs, data, publications, and news relevant to the OGWDW's operations.

  20. The Relationship between Drinking Control Strategies and College Student Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Sugarman, Dawn E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2008-01-01

    Interventions designed to reduce heavy drinking among college students often contain suggestions for drinking control strategies. However, little is known about the relationship of the use of these strategies to alcohol consumption. This study developed a measure of drinking control strategies and investigated its psychometric properties in a sample of 250 college drinkers. Strategies clustered into three factors: selective avoidance of heavy drinking activities/situations, strategies used while drinking, and alternatives to drinking. These three types of strategies were independently associated with alcohol use; however, the first and last types were negatively associated with alcohol consumption, whereas the second type was positively associated with alcohol use. The findings from this study suggest that type of strategy recommended may be important when the goal is alcohol reduction. PMID:17874884

  1. Maori Identification, Drinking Motivation and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…

  2. College Binge Drinking. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    College students are engaging in a form of destructive behavior known as binge drinking. The Harvard University College Alcohol Study defines binge drinking as consuming five or more drinks in a row for males and four or more drinks in a row for females. This Join Together packet provides tips, and resources to help professionals undertake…

  3. Drinking Age 21: Facts, Myths and Fictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents justification for a legal drinking age of 21 in all states. The introduction reviews the history of the raising and lowering of the drinking age and the rise in highway accidents and deaths resulting from lowered drinking ages. The federal response of mandating a 21-year-old drinking age for states with the threat of loss of…

  4. The Disparity between Social Drinking Motives and Social Outcomes: A New Perspective on College Student Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Allison M.; Brown, B. Bradford; Moreno, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    Students report drinking for social reasons, yet the social benefits of alcohol use are less understood. Associations between social drinking motives, drinking behaviors, and college friendships were examined via in-person interviews with 72 college freshmen from a large Midwestern University. Social drinking motives were significantly associated with drinking behaviors; however, drinking behaviors were not associated with the number of new casual or close friends students made at college. Consistent with previous research, social motives predicted drinking behaviors; however drinking behaviors were unrelated to friendship outcomes. Drinking prevention campaigns might incorporate these findings in an effort to alter college freshmen’s social alcohol expectancies. PMID:24634551

  5. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  6. Personality, Alcohol Use, and Drinking Motives: A Comparison of Independent and Combined Internal Drinking Motives Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Flett, Gordon L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-established that coping and enhancement drinking motives predict college student drinking and that personality traits predict drinking motives. Little is known, however, about personality and drinking patterns among individuals who drink for both enhancement and coping reasons. University students in the current study completed…

  7. EPA's Drinking Water Treatment Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research conducted since EPA inception Research conducted by several EPA organizations in Cincinnati ORD NRMRL NERL NCEA NHSRC OGWDW TSC WSD USEPA drinking water research facilities in Cincinnati Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center (AWBERC) Test and E...

  8. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drinking water. If it is not available and river or lake water must be used, avoid sources ... lamblia and Cryptosporidium , which are frequently found in rivers and lakes. These disease-causing organisms are less ...

  9. Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic (Spanish)

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-06-19

    High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....

  10. Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity T his month’s Archives focuses on new research about childhood obesity. Being overweight is now the most common medical condition of childhood. Nearly ...

  11. What Is a Standard Drink?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is actually in your drink. Different types of beer, wine, or malt liquor can have very different amounts of alcohol content. For example, many light beers have almost as much alcohol as regular beer – ...

  12. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER MORTALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of understanding the possible adverse health effects of organic chemical contaminants in drinking water is not new, but national concern has intensified in recent years. Despite this concern and regulatory efforts, no definitive relationship has been established betwe...

  13. Daily Relationship Between Event-Specific Drinking Norms and Alcohol Use: A Four-Year Longitudinal Study*

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Megan A.; Cullum, Jerry; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined how social-influence processes operate during specific drinking contexts as well as the stability and change in these processes throughout the college years. Method: Using a measurement-burst design, a hybrid of longitudinal and daily diary methods, we assessed the relationship between event-specific descriptive drinking norms and personal drinking. College students (N = 523) completed a baseline survey followed by a 30-day daily diary each year for up to the 4 study years. The baseline survey assessed participant gender and social anxiety, and the daily survey assessed personal drinking and perceived peer drinking (i.e., event-specific descriptive norms) during social drinking events. Results: Multilevel modeling revealed that men's social drinking slightly increased over the 4 years, whereas women's drinking remained steady. Further, on social drinking days when event-specific descriptive norms were high, students drank more, but this relationship was stronger for men than women and did not change over time. However, men's drinking norm perceptions increased across years, whereas women's decreased. Social anxiety did not moderate the relationship between norms and drinking. Conclusions: We demonstrate that although gender differences exist in the stability and change of personal drinking, norms, and normative influence on drinking across the years of college, the acute social influence of the norm on personal drinking remains a stable and important predictor of drinking throughout college. Our findings can assist with the identification of how, when, and for whom to target social influence—based interventions aimed at reducing drinking. PMID:21683045

  14. Sports drinks hazard to teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Milosevic

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental hazards associated with sports supplement drinks by investigating the chemicophysical properties of eight brands of sports drinks. METHODS: The pH and titratable acidity against 0.1 M NaOH was measured. Calcium, phosphate, and fluoride concentrations and viscosities of Carbolode, Gatorade, High Five, Isostar, Lucozade Sport Lemon, Lucozade Sport Orange, Maxim, and PSP22 were determined. RESULTS: The

  15. The relative importance of central nervous catecholaminergic and cholinergic mechanisms in drinking in response to antiotensin and other thirst stimuli.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, J T; Setler, P E

    1975-01-01

    1. Intracranial or subcutaneous doses of atropine or atropine methyl nitrate that were fully effective at preventing drinking in response to intracranial carbachol did not block angiotensin-induced drinking. 2. The nicotinic antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine given intracranially affected neither angiotensin- nor carbachol-induced drinking. 3. The dopaminergic antagonists haloperidol and spiroperidol injected intracranially blocked angiotensin-induced drinking but did not affect carbachol-induced drinking. 4. Angiotensin- and carbachol-induced drinking were unaffected by alpha- or beta-adrenergic antagonists except at toxic doses. 5. Destruction of catecholaminergic neurones with 6-hydroxydopamine markedly reduced angiotensin-induced drinking, but had relatively little effect on carbachol-induced drinking. 6. Intracranial haloperidol reduced the amount of water drunk in response to overnight deprivation of water, but did not affect feeding in response to overnight starvation or to intracranial noradrenaline. 7. Drinking following overnight water deprivation was unaffected by intracranial alpha- or beta-adrenergic antagonists. 8. Preventing dopaminergic transmission with intracranial haloperidol decreased the water to food ratio of the rat's intake after overnight starvation, whereas increasing the dopamine levels with the combination of FLA-63 and L-DOPA increased the ratio. 9. Intraventricular dopamine in large amounts caused the water-replete rat to drink. 10. It is concluded that among the many functions of dopaminergic systems in the brain is a role in the control of water intake, and that these systems participate in an important way in drinking in response to angiotensin. PMID:240934

  16. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  17. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls. PMID:25303360

  18. Drinking Water Security and Public Health Disease Outbreak Surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Babin; Howard S. Burkom; Zaruhi R. Mnatsakanyan; Liane C. Ramac-Thomas; Michael W. Thompson; Richard A. Wojcik; Sheri Happel Lewis; Cynthia Yund

    he U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) strives to develop tech- nologies and protocols to assist drinking water utilities in reducing the risks of potential terrorist attacks on our nation's infrastructure. Of par- ticular interest are the development and feasibility testing of contamination warning systems that integrate existing public health surveillance and water quality mea- surements. In collaboration with the EPA,

  19. Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile Catterina Ferreccio,1,2 Claudia- trations have since been reduced to 40 g/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung

  20. "It's better for me to drink, at least the stress is going away": perspectives on alcohol use during pregnancy among South African women attending drinking establishments.

    PubMed

    Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Velloza, Jennifer; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2014-09-01

    The Western Cape of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) globally. Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority for this region, but insight into the experiences of women who drink during pregnancy is lacking. Convenience sampling in alcohol-serving venues was used to identify women who were currently pregnant (n = 12) or recently post-partum (n = 12) and reported drinking during the pregnancy period. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between April and August 2013. Interviews explored drinking narratives, with textual data analyzed for themes related to factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy. All but one woman reported her pregnancy as unplanned. The majority sustained or increased drinking after pregnancy recognition, with patterns typically including multiple days of binge drinking per week. Analysis of the textual data revealed five primary factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy: 1) women used alcohol as a strategy to cope with stressors and negative emotions, including those associated with pregnancy; 2) women drank as a way to retain social connection, often during a difficult period of life transition; 3) social norms in women's peer groups supported drinking during pregnancy; 4) women lacked attachment to the pregnancy or were resistant to motherhood; and 5) women were driven physiologically by alcohol addiction. Our data suggest that alcohol-serving settings are important sites to identify and target women at risk of drinking during pregnancy. Intervention approaches to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy should include counseling and contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies, mental health and coping interventions targeting pregnant women, peer-based interventions to change norms around perinatal drinking, and treatment for alcohol dependence during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that innovative interventions that go beyond the boundaries of the health care system are urgently needed to address FASD in this region. PMID:24997441

  1. Measuring university students' self-efficacy to use drinking self-control strategies.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Erin E; Rosenberg, Harold; Hoffmann, Erica; Kraus, Shane W; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Pavlick, Michelle; Bannon, Erin E

    2011-03-01

    Using a Web-based, self-administered questionnaire, we assessed 498 university-student drinkers' self-efficacy to use 31 different behavioral strategies to reduce excessive drinking in each of three different locations (bar, party, own dorm/apartment). Averaging all 31 items within each drinking situation to create a single scale score revealed high internal consistency reliabilities and moderate inter-item correlations. Testing the association of self-efficacy with drinking location, sex, and frequency of recent binge drinking, we found that respondents reported higher self-efficacy to use these strategies when drinking in their own dorm/apartment than when drinking in bars and at parties; women reported higher mean self-efficacy than men; and drinkers who engaged in 3-or-more binges in the previous 2 weeks reported lower self-efficacy than those who reported either 0 or 1-or-2 binges in the same time period. This questionnaire could be used to identify self-efficacy deficits among clients with drinking problems and as an outcome measure to assess the degree to which interventions influence reported confidence to use specific drinking-reduction strategies in high-risk drinking situations. PMID:21443310

  2. A Longitudinal Investigation of Heavy Drinking and Physical Dating Violence in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of heavy drinking and dating violence have typically focused on either female victimization or male perpetration; yet recent findings indicate that mutual aggression is the most common pattern of dating violence. The current study investigated the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence for both men and women. Participants (N = 2,247) completed surveys that assessed their heavy drinking and dating violence frequency across the first three years of college. Findings indicated that heavy drinking and dating violence were both relatively stable across time for men and women, but the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence differed by gender. For men, heavy drinking and dating violence were concurrently associated during their freshman year (Year 1), whereas for women heavy drinking during sophomore year (Year 2) predicted dating violence in their junior year (Year 3). In addition to providing educational material on healthy relationships and conflict resolution techniques, intervention efforts should target both heavy drinking and dating violence for men during or prior to their freshman year of college, whereas women may primarily benefit from efforts to reduce their heavy drinking. PMID:20079971

  3. Disinfectant Penetration into Nitrifying Drinking Water Distribution System Biofilm Using Microelectrodes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrification within drinking water distribution systems reduces water quality, causes difficulties maintaining adequate disinfectant residual, and poses public health concerns including exposure to nitrite, nitrate, and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms. Monochloramine is...

  4. The Effect of the 18-Year Old Drinking Age on Auto Accidents

    E-print Network

    Cucchiaro, Stephen

    The effect of Massachusetts' reduced drinking age on auto accidents is examined by employing an interrupted time series analysis of monthly accident data covering the period January, 1969, through September 1973. The data ...

  5. Commitment Strength, Alcohol Dependence and HealthCall Participation: Effects on Drinking Reduction in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aharonovich, Efrat; Stohl, Malka; Ellis, James; Amrhein, Paul; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The role of three factors in drinking outcome after brief intervention among heavily drinking HIV patients were investigated: strength of commitment to change drinking, alcohol dependence, and treatment type: brief Motivational Interview (MI) only, or MI plus HealthCall, a technological extension of brief intervention. METHODS HIV primary care patients (N=139) who drank ?4 drinks at least once in the 30 days before study entry participated in MI-only or MI+HealthCall in a randomized trial to reduce drinking. Patients were 95.0% minority; 23.0% female; 46.8% alcohol dependent; mean age 46.3. Outcome at end of treatment (60 days) was drinks per drinking day (Timeline Follow-Back). Commitment strength (CS) was rated from MI session recordings. RESULTS Overall, stronger CS predicted end-of-treatment drinking (p<.001). After finding an interaction of treatment, CS and alcohol dependence (p=.01), we examined treatment × CS interactions in alcohol dependent and non-dependent patients. In alcohol dependent patients, the treatment × commitment strength interaction was significant (p=.006); patients with low commitment strength had better outcomes in MI+HealthCall than in MI-only (lower mean drinks per drinking day; 3.5 and 4.6 drinks, respectively). In non-dependent patients, neither treatment nor CS predicted outcome. CONCLUSIONS Among alcohol dependent HIV patients, HealthCall was most beneficial in drinking reduction when MI ended with low commitment strength. HealthCall may not merely extend MI effects, but add effects of its own that compensate for low commitment strength. Thus, HealthCall may also be effective when paired with briefer interventions requiring less skill, training and supervision than MI. Replication is warranted. PMID:24332577

  6. Are People Overoptimistic about the Effects of Heavy Drinking?

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Frank A.; Eldred, Lindsey M.; Guo, Tong; Xu, Yanzhi

    2013-01-01

    We test whether heavy or binge drinkers are overly optimistic about probabilities of adverse consequences from these activities or are relatively accurate about these probabilities. Using data from a survey in eight cities, we evaluate the relationship between subjective beliefs and drinking. We assess accuracy of beliefs about several outcomes of heavy/binge drinking: reduced longevity, liver disease onset, link between alcohol consumption and Driving While Intoxicated (DWI), probability of an accident after drinking, accuracy of beliefs about encountering intoxicated drivers on the road, and legal consequences of DWI—ranging from being stopped to receiving fines and jail terms. Overall, there is no empirical support for the optimism bias hypothesis. We do find that persons consuming a lot of alcohol tend to be more overconfident about their driving abilities and ability to handle alcohol. However, such overconfidence does not translate into over-optimism about consequences of high levels of alcohol consumption. PMID:24058265

  7. THE USE OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS OF IN-HOME DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TO STUDY ENDEMIC WATERBORNE DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Randomized trials of water treatment have demonstrated the ability of simple water treatments to significantly reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal illnesses in developing countries where drinking water is of poor quality. Whether or not additional treatment at the tap reduc...

  8. School Soft Drink Availability and Consumption Among U.S. Secondary Students

    PubMed Central

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) such as soft drinks has been associated with significantly increased energy intake and body weight. One strategy used to reduce soft drink consumption among adolescents has been reducing availability in schools; however, research is limited on associations between availability of soft drinks in school and student consumption. Purpose This study examines associations between regular and diet soft drink availability in schools and student consumption using data from 329 secondary schools and 9284 students. Methods Data were obtained from two sources: (1) nationally representative cross-sectional samples of students in Grades 8, 10, and 12 from U.S. public and private schools in 2010 and 2011 in the Monitoring the Future study; and (2) administrators of the same schools in the Youth, Education, and Society study. Multilevel modeling conducted in 2012 examined associations between school availability and student consumption controlling for student sociodemographics and school characteristics. Results In the total sample of more than 9000 students, regular and diet soft drink availability in school was not related to student consumption of these beverages in multivariate models. Yet, among African-American high school students, school regular and diet soft drink availability was significantly related to higher daily consumption (both before and after controlling for student and school factors). Conclusions Although removal of soft drinks from schools may not result in significantly lower overall student consumption, such actions may result in significant decreases in soft drink consumption for specific student groups. PMID:23683974

  9. German drinking water regulations, pesticides, and axiom of concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieter, Hermann H.

    1992-01-01

    The limit value of 0.1 µg/liter for “substances used in plant treatment and pest control including their main toxic degradation products” (PBSM) established in the German Drinking Water Regulations (Trinkwasserverordnung) serves comprehensively to protect drinking water from unexpected toxicological risks and thus corresponds to the axiom of concern (Besorgnisgrundsatz) contained in §11,2 of the Federal Communicable Disease Control Act (Bundesseuchengesetz), which is an essential cornerstone of the Drinking Water Regulations. Furthermore, precautionary values that are specific to the particular substance and near the valid limit can be found for about 10% of all registered active substances. The goal of the PBSM Recommendations of the Federal Health Office (BGA) issued in July 1989 is to preserve and restore groundwater and drinking water through measures to be taken by the causal party, while reducing consumer health risks to the greatest extent possible. The EC commission's drawbacks on these recommendations and the imminent EC-wide directive for the uniform registration of pesticides being based solely on Article 43 of the European Treaty would seriously endanger this goal. Therefore, a situation threatens in Europe similar to that in the United States, where at least 18 active ingredients have been detected in groundwater in concentrations of up to 1000 times the toxicologically established limits for drinking water.

  10. A review of arsenic presence in China drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Charlet, Laurent

    2013-06-01

    Chronic endemic arsenicosis areas have been discovered in China since 1960s. Up to 2012, 19 provinces had been found to have As concentration in drinking water exceeding the standard level (0.05 mg/L). Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Shanxi Province are historical well-known “hotspots” of geogenic As-contaminated drinking water. The goal of this review is to examine, summarize and discuss the information of As in drinking water for all provinces and territories in China. Possible natural As sources for elevating As level in drinking water, were documented. Geogenic As-contaminated drinking water examples were taken to introduce typical environmental conditions where the problems occurred: closed basins in arid or semi-arid areas and reducing aquifers under high pH conditions. Geothermal water or mineral water in mountains areas can be high-As water as well. For undiscovered areas, prediction of potential As-affected groundwater has been carried out by some research groups by use of logistic regression. Modeled maps of probability of geogenic As contamination in groundwater are promising to be used as references to discover unknown areas. Furthermore, anthropogenic As contaminations were summarized and mining, smelters and chemical industries were found to be major sources for As pollution in China.

  11. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  12. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  13. Student article How children's and adolescents' soft drink consumption is affecting their health: A look at building peak bone mass and preventing osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Wheler

    Building peak bone mass during adolescence is important to reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Calcium is important for building bone; however, milk consumption is declining while soft drink consumption is increasing among children and adolescents. There is disagreement regarding whether soft drink is leading to replacement of milk, reduced calcium intake, reduced bone mass and an increased

  14. Longitudinal associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks, and binge drinking behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior. PMID:23435271

  15. Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems

    E-print Network

    Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems Not Regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act From: Nonfederally Regulated Drinking Water Systems: State and Local Public Health ...........................................................................................5 Priority Environmental Public Health Challenges for Small Drinking Water Systems

  16. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

  17. Safe Water Drinking Act Basic Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... actions to protect drinking water and its sources: rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. (SDWA ... 250 K PDF FILE, 3 pgs) Drinking Water Monitoring, Compliance, and Enforcement EPA 816-F-04-031 ...

  18. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

  19. Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

  20. DRINKING WATER MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 direct EPA to conduct research to strengthen the scientific foundation for standards that limit public exposure to drinking water contaminants. The Amendments contain specific requirements for research on waterborne pathogens, such a...

  1. Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones Researchers find eight or ... Friday, March 27, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Drinking Water Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Kidney Stones FRIDAY, March ...

  2. Drinking Water and Ground Water: Kids' Stuff

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...

  3. Experimental Test of Social Norms Theory in a Real-World Drinking Environment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory’s limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Method: Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. Results: We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reduce drinking via changing normative perceptions. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduced drinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small. PMID:22846251

  4. The Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Mortality: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from the Minimum Drinking Age†

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the effect of alcohol consumption on mortality using the minimum drinking age in a regression discontinuity design. We find large and immediate increases in drinking at age 21, including a 21 percent increase in recent drinking days. We also find a discrete 9 percent increase in the mortality rate at age 21, primarily due to motor vehicle accidents, alcohol-related deaths, and suicides. We estimate a 10 percent increase in the number of drinking days for young adults results in a 4.3 percent increase in mortality. Our results suggest policies that reduce drinking among young adults can have substantial public health benefits. (JEL I12, I18) PMID:20351794

  5. Underage Drinking: Frequency, Consequences, and Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RALPH W. HINGSON; JEAN-PASCAL Assailly; ALLAN F. WILLIAMS

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the frequency of underage drinking, driving after drinking and alcohol-related crashes, trends in these behaviors, and promising interventions.Methods: We examined drinking and drinking- and-driving behaviors reported in the United States in the 2001 U.S. National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol

  6. Turning 21 and the Associated Changes in Drinking and Driving After Drinking Among College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Fromme; Reagan R. Wetherill; Dan J. Neal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined drinking and driving after drinking before and after turning 21. Participants: Participants were drawn from first time college students who were taking part in a 4-year longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks. Methods: Web-based longitudinal surveys collected data on drinking and driving after drinking from August 2004 through November 2007 (n = 1,817). A

  7. Country of origin, age of drinking onset, and drinking patterns among Mexican American young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Strunin; Erika M. Edwards; Dionne C. Godette; Timothy Heeren

    2007-01-01

    This study examines relationships between country of origin, age of drinking onset, and adverse drinking outcomes among young adult Mexican Americans in the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression models estimate associations between age of drinking onset, age of onset in relation to age at immigration, and adverse drinking outcomes, controlling for sex, age,

  8. Chromatin remodeling — a novel strategy to control excessive alcohol drinking

    PubMed Central

    Warnault, V; Darcq, E; Levine, A; Barak, S; Ron, D

    2013-01-01

    Harmful excessive use of alcohol has a severe impact on society and it remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. However, mechanisms that underlie excessive alcohol consumption are still poorly understood, and thus available medications for alcohol use disorders are limited. Here, we report that changing the level of chromatin condensation by affecting DNA methylation or histone acetylation limits excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in rodents. Specifically, we show that decreasing DNA methylation by inhibiting the activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with systemic administration of the FDA-approved drug, 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) prevents excessive alcohol use in mice. Similarly, we find that increasing histone acetylation via systemic treatment with several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduces mice binge-like alcohol drinking. We further report that systemic administration of the FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor, SAHA, inhibits the motivation of rats to seek alcohol. Importantly, the actions of both DNMT and HDAC inhibitors are specific for alcohol, as no changes in saccharin or sucrose intake were observed. In line with these behavioral findings, we demonstrate that excessive alcohol drinking increases DNMT1 levels and reduces histone H4 acetylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents. Together, our findings illustrate that DNA methylation and histone acetylation control the level of excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in preclinical rodent models. Our study therefore highlights the possibility that DNMT and HDAC inhibitors can be used to treat harmful alcohol abuse. PMID:23423140

  9. Examining differences in drinking patterns among Jewish and Arab university students in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Bord, Shiran; Elias, Wafa; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shiftan, Yoram; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2014-09-26

    Objectives. Worldwide there is a dearth of studies examining drinking patterns in Arabs and how these compare to other populations. The few studies that exist have suggested distinct drinking patterns in Arabs, with not only high rates of abstinence but also high rates of heavy drinking among current drinkers. No studies have yet examined potential socio-cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to this distinct drinking pattern. Israel represents a unique and valuable resource for studying Arab population drinking patterns because Israeli Arabs are nonimmigrants living in areas where exposure to Western lifestyles, including alcohol consumption, is prevalent. The current study was set out to examine differences in alcohol consumption in a convenience sample of 1310 Jewish and Arab students from Israeli universities and colleges and to explore alcohol expectancies as potential mediators of ethno-religious differences. Design. Logistic regressions were used to produce odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to test differences between Jewish and Arab students on binary outcomes (lifetime, last month, and heavy drinking). Mediation of ethno-religious differences by alcohol expectancies was tested with bootstrapping procedures. Results. Results show that while Israeli Arab students tend to be more likely to abstain from alcohol than Israeli Jewish students, among current drinkers, Israeli Arab students are at a particular high risk of heavy drinking. Results also show that this is partly mediated by the expectancy that alcohol only influences the drinker at high levels of intake. Conclusion. The current study confirms distinct Arab drinking patterns found in previous studies. The present study is the first demonstration that drinking expectations mediate ethno-religious differences in heavy drinking among Israeli Arabs and Jews. This work contributes to the understanding of ethno-religious group differences in harmful drinking, potentially informing future etiologic research and public health interventions aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. PMID:25257830

  10. Binge Drinking and Blood Pressure: Cross-Sectional Results of the HAPIEE Study

    PubMed Central

    Pajak, Andrzej; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Nikitin, Yuri; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether binge drinking pattern influences blood pressure independently from drinking volume or whether it modifies the effect of volume of drinking. Methods We used cross-sectional data from population samples of 7559 men and 7471 women aged 45–69 years in 2002-05, not on antihypertensive medication, from Russia, Poland and Czech Republic. Annual alcohol intake, drinking frequency and binge drinking (?100 g in men and ?60 g in women in one session at least once a month) were estimated from graduated frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was analysed as continuous variables (systolic and diastolic pressure) and a binary outcome (?140/90 mm Hg). Results In men, annual alcohol intake and drinking frequency were strongly associated with blood pressure. The odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking in men was 1.62 (95% CI 1.45–1.82) after controlling for age, country, body mass index, education and smoking; additional adjustment for annual alcohol intake reduced it to 1.20 (1.03–1.39). In women, the fully adjusted odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking was 1.31 (1.05–1.63). Binge drinking did not modify the effect of annual alcohol intake. Consuming alcohol as wine, beer or spirits had similar effects. Conclusions The results suggest that the independent long-term effect of binge drinking was modest, that binge drinking did not modify the effect of alcohol intake, and that different alcoholic beverages had similar effects on blood pressure. PMID:23762441

  11. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  12. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  13. Teen Tipplers: America's Underage Drinking Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    In preparing for this report, surveys and focus groups were conducted with adults (N=900), with or without children under the legal drinking age, to determine their attitudes, views, and thoughts regarding the problem of underage drinking. The survey was designed to identify opportunities for civic engagement on the issue of underage drinking and…

  14. Do you have a drinking problem?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as long as you do not have a drinking problem. Healthy men up to age 65 should limit themselves to: No more than ... women of all ages and healthy men over age 65 should limit themselves to: No more than 3 drinks in 1 day No more than 7 drinks in a week

  15. Accommodation & Alcohol and Responsible Drinking Policy

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Mark

    to alcohol abuse and under-aged drinking. · Where there is a doubt as to a person's age, a photographic proofAccommodation & Campus Services. Alcohol and Responsible Drinking Policy The University of Sheffield is committed to promoting sensible and responsible drinking and to the provision of a safe

  16. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 ?g L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 ?g L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 ?g L(-1) and median 1.6 ?g L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 ?g L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 ?g L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations. PMID:24070912

  17. [Virus transmission in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Divizia, M; Gabrieli, R; Macaluso, A; el Ouardi, A

    2003-01-01

    Several epidemiological data confirm the presence of enteric viruses in drinking water. The present paper deals with several problems tied to the virological analysis, such as the concentration of the samples, the isolation and the identification of enteric viruses. PMID:14677255

  18. Alcohol Impairment and Social Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marsha E.

    Cognitive abilities of social drinkers are generally thought to be affected by alcohol only during acute intoxication, but several studies suggest that sober-state performance may be affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking episode. Although the findings regarding sober-state mental deficits in social drinkers are inconclusive,…

  19. REMOVING ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-plant tests of two treatment methods-activated alumina and ion exchange--for removing arsenic from drinking water were evaluated at the Fallon, Nev., Naval Air Station (NAS). The arsenic concentration was 0.080-0.116 mg/L, exceeding the 0.05-mg/L maximum contaminant level. ...

  20. French drinking: tradition or dependence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Geraldine Ormrod

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to primarily identify the reasons behind the cultural shift which has taken place in France over the past few years regarding alcohol consumption, and concentrates on distinctive population categories in order to highlight characteristics of, and changes in, drinking behaviour amongst male, female, youth and senior drinkers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The author reviews the current governmental

  1. INJURED COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after convent...

  2. Arsenic exposure to drinking water in the Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Merola, R B; Hien, T T; Quyen, D T T; Vengosh, A

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater drinking sources was investigated in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in order to assess the occurrence of As in the groundwater, and the magnitude of As exposure of local residents through measurements of As in toenails of residents consuming groundwater as their major drinking water source. Groundwater (n=68) and toenail (n=62) samples were collected in Dong Thap Province, adjacent to the Mekong River, in southern Vietnam. Fifty-three percent (n=36) of the wells tested had As content above the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended limit of 10ppb. Samples were divided into Northern (mean As=4.0ppb) and Southern (329.0ppb) groups; wells from the Southern group were located closer to the Mekong River. Elevated As contents were associated with depth (<200m), salinity (low salinity), and redox state (reducing conditions) of the study groundwater. In 79% of the wells, As was primarily composed of the reduced As(III) species. Arsenic content in nails collected from local residents was significantly correlated to As in drinking water (r=0.49, p<0.001), and the relationship improved for pairs in which As in drinking water was higher than 1ppb (r=0.56, p<0.001). Survey data show that the ratio of As in nail to As in water varied among residents, reflecting differential As bioaccumulation in specific exposed sub-populations. The data show that water filtration and diet, particularly increased consumption of animal protein and dairy, and reduced consumption of seafood, were associated with lower ratios of As in nail to As in water and thus could play important roles in mitigating As exposure in areas where As-rich groundwater is the primary drinking water source. PMID:25585157

  3. Lung cancer and arsenic concentrations in drinking water in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ferreccio, C; González, C; Milosavjlevic, V; Marshall, G; Sancha, A M; Smith, A H

    2000-11-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 microg/liter in drinking water in the period 1958-1970. Concentrations have since been reduced to 40 microg/liter. We investigated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung cancer cases and 419 controls. Participants were interviewed regarding drinking water sources, cigarette smoking, and other variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed a clear trend in lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with increasing concentration of arsenic in drinking water, as follows: 1, 1.6 (95% CI = 0.5-5.3), 3.9 (95% CI = 1.2-12.3), 5.2 (95% CI = 2.3-11.7), and 8.9 (95% CI = 4.0-19.6), for arsenic concentrations ranging from less than 10 microg/liter to a 65-year average concentration of 200-400 microg/liter. There was evidence of synergy between cigarette smoking and ingestion of arsenic in drinking water; the odds ratio for lung cancer was 32.0 (95% CI = 7.2-198.0) among smokers exposed to more than 200 microg/liter of arsenic in drinking water (lifetime average) compared with nonsmokers exposed to less than 50 microg/liter. This study provides strong evidence that ingestion of inorganic arsenic is associated with human lung cancer. PMID:11055628

  4. Mental Health, Sleep Quality, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol-Related Consequences: A Path-Analytic Model

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer,, Justin F.; Pham, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor mental health, sleep problems, drinking motivations, and high-risk drinking are prevalent among college students. However, research designed to explicate the interrelationships among these health risk behaviors is lacking. This study was designed to assess the direct and indirect influences of poor mental health (a latent factor consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress) to alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences through the mediators of global sleep quality and drinking motives in a comprehensive model. Method: Participants were 1,044 heavy-drinking college students (66.3% female) who completed online surveys. Results: A hybrid structural equation model tested hypotheses involving relations leading from poor mental health to drinking motives and poorer global sleep quality to drinking outcomes. Results showed that poor mental health significantly predicted all four subscales of drinking motivations (social, coping, conformity, and enhancement) as well as poor sleep. Most of the drinking motives and poor sleep were found to explain alcohol use and negative alcohol consequences. Poor sleep predicted alcohol consequences, even after controlling for all other variables in the model. The hypothesized mediational pathways were examined with tests of indirect effects. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess concomitantly the relationships among three vital health-related domains (mental health, sleep behavior, and alcohol risk) in college students. Findings offer important implications for college personnel and interventionists interested in reducing alcohol risk by focusing on alleviating mental health problems and poor sleep quality. PMID:24172110

  5. Effects of naltrexone on alcohol drinking patterns and extinction of alcohol seeking in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Barbara J.; Duke, Angela N.; Weerts, Elise M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Understanding naltrexone’s effect on motivation to drink and pattern of drinking is important for better treatment outcomes and for comparison with novel medications. Objectives Naltrexone’s effects on number and pattern of seeking, self-administration, and extinction responses were evaluated in two groups of baboons trained under a 3 component chained schedule of reinforcement (CSR). Methods Alcohol (4% w/v; n=4; Alcohol Group) or a preferred non-alcoholic beverage (n=4; Control Group) was available for self-administration only in Component 3 of the CSR. Responses in Component 2 provided indices of motivation to drink (seeking). Naltrexone (0.32 – 3.2 mg/kg) and saline were administered before drinking and Component 2 extinction sessions. Results Acute doses of naltrexone significantly decreased total self-administration responses (p<0.01), intake volume (p<0.001) and g/kg of alcohol (p<0.01) in the Alcohol Group only. Pattern of drinking did not change, but number of drinks during the initial drinking bout was decreased significantly by naltrexone for both groups (P<0.05). During within-session extinction tests, acute naltrexone significantly decreased time to reach extinction (p<0.01) and number of seeking responses (p<0.05), particularly early in the extinction period in the Alcohol Group only. When administered chronically, naltrexone did not decrease progressive-ratio breaking points to gain access to alcohol, but dose-dependently reduced alcohol self-administration (p<0.05) by decreasing the magnitude of the initial drinking bout. Conclusions The results support clinical observations that naltrexone may be most effective at reducing self-administration in the context of ongoing alcohol availability and may reduce motivation to drink in the presence of alcohol-related cues. PMID:22451093

  6. Birds that occupy arid regions often experience a scarcity of drinking water and limited food supplies and must survive

    E-print Network

    Williams, Jos. B.

    Birds that occupy arid regions often experience a scarcity of drinking water and limited food Limited 2002 JEB3743 Desert birds often experience a scarcity of drinking water and food and must survive in some deserts. Physiological adjustments that reduce water loss and energy expenditure in free

  7. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Naltrexone and Behavioral Therapy for Problem Drinking Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the comparative effectiveness of modified behavioral self-control therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the 2, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N = 200) were recruited and urn randomized to 1 of 2…

  8. The Relationship of 16 Underage Drinking Laws to Reductions in Underage Drinking Drivers in Fatal Crashes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fell, J.C.; Fisher, D.A.; Voas, R.B.; Blackman, K.; Tippetts, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    The minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA 21) legislation in the United States (U.S.) has been documented as one of the most effective public health measures adopted in recent times. This study reports on an effort to evaluate and interrelate a basic set of 16 laws directed at younger than age 21 youth that are designed to (a) control the sales of alcohol to youth, (b) prevent possession and consumption of alcohol by youth, and (c) prevent alcohol impaired driving by those younger than age 21. The first objective of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between the existence and strength of the various underage drinking laws in a State and the percentage of younger than age 21 drivers involved in fatal crashes who were drinking. After controlling for various factors, the only significant finding that emerged was for the existence and strength of the law making it illegal for an underage person to use fake identification (p<0.016). The second objective was to determine if the enactment of two of the sixteen provisions (possession and purchase laws) was associated with a reduction in the rate of underage drinking driver involvements in fatal crashes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a national 11.2% reduction (p<0.05) in the ratio of underage drinking drivers to underage non-drinking drivers in fatal crashes after the possession and purchase laws were adopted in 36 States and the District of Columbia (DC). This suggests that the two mandatory elements of the Federal MLDA 21 law are having the desired effect of reducing underage alcohol-related highway deaths. PMID:18184512

  9. Drinking and driving: choosing the legal limits.

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, J A; Penttila, A; Pikkarainen, J

    1987-01-01

    The legal limit for drinking and driving in Britain is 80 mg/dl (17.4 mmol/l) of alcohol in the blood. This was chosen 20 years ago on the basis of studies that have recently been reanalysed. Changes in public opinion, the results of recent research, and the evaluation of other countermeasures, such as random breath testing, show that there are good grounds for revising the legal limit downwards. It is suggested that the legal limit should be reduced from 80 mg/dl to 50 mg/dl (10.9 mmol/l) and random breath testing introduced as in most Nordic countries. A zero limit is proposed for learner and first year drivers, who are likely to have accidents even with low concentrations of alcohol in their blood. PMID:3121062

  10. Perceptions about energy drinks are associated with energy drink intake among u.s. Youth.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gayathri; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Energy drinks are growing in popularity among youth because of their stimulant properties. However, they can increase blood pressure and are associated with serious consequences such as cardiac arrest. This study examined the associations between energy drink perceptions and energy drink consumption among youth. Design. The design was a cross-sectional study using the YouthStyles Survey 2011. Setting. The online survey was administered at home. Subjects. Subjects were youths aged 12 to 17 years in the summer of 2011 (n = 779). Measures. Energy drink consumption, perceptions about energy drinks, and sociodemographic and behavioral variables were measured. Analysis. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Results. Overall, 9% of youth drank energy drinks, 19.5% agreed that energy drinks are safe drinks for teens, and 12.5% agreed that energy drinks are a type of sports drink. The proportion of youth consuming energy drinks once per week or more was highest among youth aged 16 to 17 years and among those who are physically active three to six times a week. The odds for drinking energy drinks once per week or more was higher among youth who agreed that energy drinks are safe drinks for teens (odds ratios [OR] = 7.7, 95% confidence intervals [CI] =3.6, 16.4) and among those who agreed that energy drinks are a type of sports drink (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.4, 10.7). Conclusions. These findings suggest that many youth may be unaware or misinformed about the potential health effects and nutritional content of energy drinks. Efforts to improve education among youth about the potential adverse effects of consuming energy drinks are needed. PMID:24460002

  11. Heavy Drinking in College Students: Who Is at Risk and What Is Being Done About It?

    PubMed Central

    TURRISI, ROB; MALLETT, KIMBERLY A.; MASTROLEO, NADINE R.; LARIMER, MARY E.

    2008-01-01

    Problem drinking and related consequences are a major social issue plaguing college campuses across the United States. Each year, alcohol is responsible for fatalities, assaults, serious injuries, and arrests that occur among college students. The authors review and discuss the risk factors, drinking patterns, and consequences that are relevant to the general student population. In addition, the authors highlight individuals at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, such as Greek-letter social organization members and student athletes. The authors also discuss the interventions that attempt to reduce risky drinking and related problems in these subgroups as well as the future directions for research. PMID:17128959

  12. Taxing soft drinks and restricting access to vending machines to curb child obesity.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest drivers of the current obesity epidemic is thought to be excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Some have proposed vending machine restrictions and taxing soft drinks to curb children's consumption of soft drinks; to a large extent, these policies have not been evaluated empirically. We examine these policies using two nationally representative data sets and find no evidence that, as currently practiced, either is effective at reducing children's weight. We conclude by outlining changes that may increase their effectiveness, such as implementing comprehensive restrictions on access to soft drinks in schools and imposing higher tax rates than are currently in place in many jurisdictions. PMID:20360172

  13. Repeated Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking Alters Ethanol Drinking Patterns and Depresses Striatal GABAergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Mark V; Carlson, Verginia C Cuzon; Sherazee, Nyssa; Sprow, Gretchen M; Bock, Roland; Thiele, Todd E; Lovinger, David M; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2014-01-01

    Repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and abstinence are key components in the development of dependence. However, the precise behavioral mechanisms underlying binge-like drinking and its consequences on striatal synaptic physiology remain unclear. In the present study, ethanol and water drinking patterns were recorded with high temporal resolution over 6 weeks of binge-like ethanol drinking using the ‘drinking in the dark' (DID) protocol. The bottle exchange occurring at the beginning of each session prompted a transient increase in the drinking rate that might facilitate the acquisition of ethanol binge-like drinking. Ethanol drinking mice also displayed a ‘front-loading' behavior, in which the highest rate of drinking was recorded during the first 15?min. This rate increased over weeks and paralleled the mild escalation of blood ethanol concentrations. GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal striatum were examined following DID. Spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and the density of dendritic spines were unchanged after ethanol drinking. However, the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents was depressed in medium spiny neurons of ethanol drinking mice. A history of ethanol drinking also increased ethanol preference and altered the acute ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission differentially in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum. Together, the study shows that the bottle exchange during DID promotes fast, voluntary ethanol drinking and that this intermittent pattern of ethanol drinking causes a depression of GABAergic transmission in the dorsal striatum. PMID:23995582

  14. Adolescent drinking behavior: an observational study of the influence of situational factors on adolescent drinking rates.

    PubMed

    van de Goor, L A; Knibbe, R A; Drop, M J

    1990-11-01

    Adolescent drinking behavior was observed on weekend nights (9 PM until midnight) in three youth bars, three youth centers and two discos located in the most southern part of the Netherlands. Drinking rates, individual characteristics, drinking group variables and aspects of the overall drinking situation were recorded. Boys and girls appeared to differ in the variables of influence on their drinking rates. Boys were observed to drink at a higher rate on evenings with loud music, when they participated in large, all-male groups and when their (estimated) age was less than 20. Together these variables explain 24% of the variance in boys' drinking rates. Girls drank less fast when they participated in a group not buying rounds and in a drinking group of constant composition. Although analysis showed that girls' drinking rates did not vary significantly with aspects of the overall situation and individual variables, still 14% of the total variance here could be explained by the drinking group variables. These results are to some extent consistent with findings from other observational studies on drinking behavior. Most of these studies showed males in large groups to drink at the highest rates. However, only a few observational studies were aimed exclusively at young people's drinking behavior and those studies did not include aspects of the overall drinking situation. PMID:2270064

  15. Curbing Problem Drinking with Personalized-Feedback Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heleen Riper; Annemieke van Straten; Max Keuken; Filip Smit; Gerard Schippers; Pim Cuijpers

    Background Context: The effectiveness of personalized-feedback interventions to reduce problem drinking has been evaluated in several RCTs and systematic reviews. A meta-analysis was performed to examine the overall effectiveness of brief, single-session personalized-feedback interventions without therapeutic guidance. Evidence acquisition: The selection and analyses of studies were conducted,in 2008. Fourteen RCTs of single-session personalized-feedback interventions without therapeutic guidance were identified, and

  16. Using multi-criteria decision analysis to assess the vulnerability of drinking water utilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florent Joerin; Geneviève Cool; Manuel J. Rodriguez; Marc Gignac; Christian Bouchard

    2010-01-01

    Outbreaks of microbiological waterborne disease have increased governmental concern regarding the importance of drinking water\\u000a safety. Considering the multi-barrier approach to safe drinking water may improve management decisions to reduce contamination\\u000a risks. However, the application of this approach must consider numerous and diverse kinds of information simultaneously. This\\u000a makes it difficult for authorities to apply the approach to decision making.

  17. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

  18. Drinking water for the future.

    PubMed Central

    Okun, D A

    1976-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 represents an important step in improving the quality of public water supply in the United States. However, it fails to address two important problems: (1) The 1970 Public Health Service Community Water Supply Survey revealed that small public water supply systems often deliver poor quality water. The Act does not assure that these supplies will now receive appropriate attention; furthermore, the Act does not address the needs of the 50 million people not now served by public water systems; (2) About one-third of our population draws its drinking waters from polluted sources. The decisions to use these low cost sources were made generations ago when consumers could be protected from water-borne infectious disease. A new problem has now arisen--the presence of numerous synthetic organic chemicals of uncertain health consequence, not removed by conventional water treatment. The Act does not address this problem. Regionalization and the integration of water resource and water pollution control authorities are proposed as a reasonable solution to these problems. The development of dual water supply systems in order to conserve scarce pure water sources for human consumption appears to be a feasible way to avoid using polluted waters for drinking. The development of dual supplies would be enhanced by regionalization and integration of water authorities. PMID:937609

  19. Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration. PMID:22990947

  20. Binge drinking among Brazilians: Higher drinking frequency increases related problems.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Daniel Sócrates; Sanchez, Zila M; Zaleski, Marcos; Palhares Alves, Hamer Nastasy; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2014-05-14

    Abstract Aims: To correlate binge drinking (BD) with alcohol-related problems (ARP) in the Brazilian population. Methods: A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted in 143 Brazilian cities. Associations between the frequencies of BD and ARP were gathered using an ordered logit regression model. Results: Higher BD frequencies significantly increased the chance of injury in accidents, job loss, and involvement in intense arguments and assaults over the year. High frequency in BD increases the odds of all ARP. Conclusion: There is a dose-response association between the frequency BD and ARP and is therefore a possible target for public prevention policies. PMID:24829095

  1. Impact of Hydraulic Well Restoration on Native Bacterial Communities in Drinking Water Wells

    PubMed Central

    Karwautz, Clemens; Lueders, Tillmann

    2014-01-01

    The microbial monitoring of drinking water production systems is essential to assure water quality and minimize possible risks. However, the comparative impact of microbes from the surrounding aquifer and of those established within drinking water wells on water parameters remains poorly understood. High pressure jetting is a routine method to impede well clogging by fine sediments and also biofilms. In the present study, bacterial communities were investigated in a drinking water production system before, during, and after hydraulic purging. Variations were observed in bacterial communities between different wells of the same production system before maintenance, despite them having practically identical water chemistries. This may have reflected the distinct usage practices of the different wells, and also local aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic jetting of one well preferentially purged a subset of the dominating taxa, including lineages related to Diaphorobacter, Nitrospira, Sphingobium, Ralstonia, Alkanindiges, Janthinobacterium, and Pseudomonas spp, suggesting their tendency for growth in well-associated biofilms. Lineages of potential drinking water concern (i.e. Legionellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Acinetobacter spp.) reacted distinctly to hydraulic jetting. Bacterial diversity was markedly reduced in drinking water 2 weeks after the cleaning procedure. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of drinking water wells as a microbial habitat, as well as their role in the microbiology of drinking water systems. PMID:25273229

  2. Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Ben; Cox, Ben; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Smith, Christina H

    2012-09-01

    Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the particular drink. This study measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of drinks thickened with a widely used starch-based thickener. Experiments simulated a possible clinical scenario whereby saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Citric acid (E330) was added to water to produce a controlled range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0, and several commercially available drinks with naturally low pH were investigated. When saliva was added to thickened water, viscosity was reduced to less than 1% of its original value after 10-15 min. However, lowering pH systematically slowed the reduction in viscosity attributable to saliva. At pH 3.5 and below, saliva was found to have no significant effect on viscosity. The pH of drinks in this study ranged from 2.6 for Coca Cola to 6.2 for black coffee. Again, low pH slowed the effect of saliva. For many popular drinks, having pH of 3.6 or less, viscosity was not significantly affected by the addition of saliva. PMID:22210234

  3. Maturing Out of Alcohol Involvement: Transitions in Latent Drinking Statuses from Late Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; Villalta, Ian K.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of alcohol involvement beginning in young adulthood, but the precise nature of changes characterizing maturing out is unclear. We used latent transition analysis to investigate these changes in a high-risk sample from a longitudinal study of familial alcoholism (N=844; 51% children of alcoholics; 53% male, 71% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27% Hispanic). Analyses classified participants into latent drinking statuses during late adolescence (ages 17–22), young adulthood (ages 23–28), and adulthood (ages 29–40), and characterized transitions among these statuses over time. The resulting four statuses were abstainers, low-risk drinkers who typically drank less than weekly and rarely binged or showed drinking problems, moderate-risk drinkers who typically binged less than weekly and showed moderate risk for drinking problems, and high-risk drinkers who typically binged at least weekly and showed high risk for drinking problems. Maturing out between late adolescence and young adulthood was most common among initial high-risk drinkers, but they typically declined to moderate-risk drinking rather than to non-risky drinking statuses. This suggests that the developmental phenomenon of maturing out pertains primarily to relatively high-risk initial drinkers, and that many high-risk drinkers who “mature out” merely reduce rather than eliminate their risky drinking. PMID:24229554

  4. Impact of hydraulic well restoration on native bacterial communities in drinking water wells.

    PubMed

    Karwautz, Clemens; Lueders, Tillmann

    2014-12-19

    The microbial monitoring of drinking water production systems is essential to assure water quality and minimize possible risks. However, the comparative impact of microbes from the surrounding aquifer and of those established within drinking water wells on water parameters remains poorly understood. High pressure jetting is a routine method to impede well clogging by fine sediments and also biofilms. In the present study, bacterial communities were investigated in a drinking water production system before, during, and after hydraulic purging. Variations were observed in bacterial communities between different wells of the same production system before maintenance, despite them having practically identical water chemistries. This may have reflected the distinct usage practices of the different wells, and also local aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic jetting of one well preferentially purged a subset of the dominating taxa, including lineages related to Diaphorobacter, Nitrospira, Sphingobium, Ralstonia, Alkanindiges, Janthinobacterium, and Pseudomonas spp, suggesting their tendency for growth in well-associated biofilms. Lineages of potential drinking water concern (i.e. Legionellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Acinetobacter spp.) reacted distinctly to hydraulic jetting. Bacterial diversity was markedly reduced in drinking water 2 weeks after the cleaning procedure. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of drinking water wells as a microbial habitat, as well as their role in the microbiology of drinking water systems. PMID:25273229

  5. Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, J.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Lippincott, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2??mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10??days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24??h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. EPA?s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

  7. Sexual assault related distress and drinking: the influence of daily reports of social support and coping control.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hassija, Christina M; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Introduction. A history of sexual assault (SA) is often associated with increased distress and heavy drinking. One's ability to cope with the distress and seek social support has been associated with drinking more generally. However, SA-related distress, drinking, and the extent to which a woman engages in adaptive coping or seeks social support is known to vary day-to-day. The goal of the present investigation was to examine the moderating influence of perceived coping control and social support on the event-level association between SA-related distress and drinking. Methods. This study included 133 college women with a history of SA who reported recent heavy drinking. Participants provided daily reports of their SA-related distress, perceived coping control, perceived social support, and alcohol consumption every day for 30days. Results. Results of generalized estimating equation models suggest that coping control moderated the association between distress and drinking such that those with less perceived coping control drank more as their SA-related distress increased from their average. Although social support did not moderate between distress and drinking, decreases in perceived social support were associated with more drinking on that day. Conclusions. The results suggest that daily deviations in SA-related distress may influence alcohol consumption more than average levels of distress, especially among women with low coping control. Interventions for women with SA histories should help them build coping skills as well as adequate social support in order to reduce drinking. PMID:25437266

  8. Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

  9. Triple monoamine uptake inhibitors demonstrate a pharmacologic association between excessive drinking and impulsivity in high-alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice.

    PubMed

    O'Tousa, David S; Warnock, Kaitlin T; Matson, Liana M; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Linn, Michael Van; Tiruveedhula, Veera Venkata; Halcomb, Meredith E; Cook, James; Grahame, Nicholas J; June, Harry L

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 30% of current drinkers in the United States drink excessively, and are referred to as problem/hazardous drinkers. These individuals, who may not meet criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, comprise binge, heavy drinkers, or both. Given their high prevalence, interventions that reduce the risk of binge and heavy drinking have important public health implications. Impulsivity has been repeatedly associated with excessive drinking in the clinical literature. As impulsivity is correlated with, and may play a critical role in, the initiation and maintenance of excessive drinking, this behavior may be an important target for therapeutic intervention. Hence, a better understanding of pharmacological treatments capable of attenuating excessive drinking and impulsivity may markedly improve clinical outcomes. The high-alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice represent a strong rodent model to study the relationship between impulsivity and excessive alcohol drinking, as recent evidence indicates they consume high levels of alcohol throughout their active cycle and are innately impulsive. Using this model, the present study demonstrates that the triple monoamine uptake inhibitors (TUIs) amitifadine and DOV 102, 677 effectively attenuate binge drinking, heavy drinking assessed via a 24-hour free-choice assay, and impulsivity measured by the delay discounting procedure. In contrast, 3-PBC, a GABA-A ?1 preferring ligand with mixed agonist-antagonist properties, attenuates excessive drinking without affecting impulsivity. These findings suggest that in HAP mice, monoamine pathways may predominate as a common mechanism underlying impulsivity and excessive drinking, while the GABAergic system may be more salient in regulating excessive drinking. We further propose that TUIs such as amitifadine and DOV 102, 677 may be used to treat the co-occurrence of impulsivity and excessive drinking. PMID:24118509

  10. Effects of number of cagemates on home cage ethanol drinking during proximal cagemate drinking (PCD) procedures in male and female CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Tomie, Arthur; Samuel, Allison Gayle; Sprung, Dana Michelle; Malul, Yael; Yu, Lei

    2015-03-01

    The present experiment evaluated the effects of the Number of Cagemates (0 vs 1 vs 2) on home cage ethanol drinking during Proximal Cagemate Drinking (PCD) procedures in Male and Female CD-1 mice. Continuous-access home cage 2-bottle (ethanol vs. water) free-choice procedures were employed. PCD procedures eliminate the distracting effects of direct physical contact between Drinkers and their Cagemates on ethanol drinking by imposing a translucent plastic barrier strip between them. If direct physical contact distracts from drinking, then one Cagemate would drink more ethanol and more water than two Cagemates housed together on the same side of the barrier. This would be the case even if two Cagemates stimulated more ethanol drinking in the Drinker housed on the other side of the barrier, due to the social stimulation effects of additional Cagemates. Results revealed that the ethanol intake of Female Drinkers was directly related to the number of Cagemates on the other side of the barrier strip, but this social stimulation effect was not observed in Male Drinkers. For Male Cagemates and Female Cagemates, the single Cagemate provided elevated ethanol intake and elevated water intake relative to the ethanol intake and water intake of each Cagemate in the two Cagemates condition. The data revealed that direct physical contact between Cagemates reduced their ethanol intake, even while stimulating ethanol intake of the Drinker on the other side of the barrier, indicating that the effects of social stimulation on ethanol drinking are not entirely due to effects of modeling or peer pressure. The PCD procedures allow the evaluation of effects of a broad range of social factors on home cage ethanol drinking in mice. PMID:25447404

  11. Through the Drinking Glass: An Analysis of the Cultural Meanings of College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Andy Soon Leong

    2012-01-01

    College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the…

  12. Measuring College Student Drinking: Illustrating the Feasibility of a Composite Drinking Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiun-Hau; Dejong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility of a "Composite Drinking Scale" (CDS) designed to capture fully the phenomenon of problem drinking among college students while allowing easy public understanding. A survey conducted at 32 four-year U.S. colleges included four consumption measures: 30-day frequency; average number of drinks per week; number of…

  13. Turning 21 and the Associated Changes in Drinking and Driving after Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromme, Kim; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Neal, Dan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined drinking and driving after drinking before and after turning 21. Participants: Participants were drawn from first time college students who were taking part in a 4-year longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks. Methods: Web-based longitudinal surveys collected data on drinking and driving after…

  14. Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

  15. How to Identify Lead-Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, Congress passed the ?Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,? which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of ?lead-free? by reducing allowed...

  16. How to Identify Lead-Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Materials - Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, Congress passed the ?Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,? which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of ?lead-free? by reducing allowed...

  17. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

  18. Binge-Drinking-Related Consequences in College Students: Role of Drinking Beliefs and Mother–Teen Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Turrisi; Kimberly A. Wiersma; Kelli K. Hughes

    2000-01-01

    The present research contrasted theoretical models depicting the nature of the relation among drinking beliefs, drinking tendencies, and behavioral consequences in 266 incoming freshman college students. It also examined the theoretical relations between mother–teen communications and drinking beliefs relevant to behavioral consequences. The findings revealed direct relations between binge-drinking consequences and the drinking beliefs: Alcohol can make positive transformations, can

  19. Binge-drinking-related consequences in college students: Role of drinking beliefs and mother-teen communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Turrisi; Kimberly A. Wiersma; Kelli K. Hughes

    2000-01-01

    The present research contrasted theoretical models depicting the nature of the relation among drinking beliefs, drinking tendencies, and behavioral consequences in 266 incoming freshman college students. It also examined the theoretical relations between mother-teen communications and drinking beliefs relevant to behavioral consequences. The findings revealed direct relations between binge- drinking consequences and the drinking beliefs: Alcohol can make positive trans-

  20. Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

  1. Risks and responses to universal drinking water security.

    PubMed

    Hope, Robert; Rouse, Michael

    2013-11-13

    Risks to universal drinking water security are accelerating due to rapid demographic, climate and economic change. Policy responses are slow, uneven and largely inadequate to address the nature and scale of the global challenges. The challenges relate both to maintaining water security in increasingly fragile supply systems and to accelerating reliable access to the hundreds of millions who remain water-insecure. A conceptual framework illustrates the relationship between institutional, operational and financial risks and drinking water security outcomes. We apply the framework to nine case studies from rural and urban contexts in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Case studies are purposively selected based on established and emerging examples of political, technological or institutional reforms that address water security risks. We find broad evidence that improved information flows reduce institutional costs and promote stronger and more transparent operational performance to increase financial sustainability. However, political barriers need to be overcome in all cases through internal or external interventions that require often decadal time frames and catalytic investments. No single model exists, though there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate that risks to drinking water security can be reduced even in the most difficult and challenging contexts. PMID:24080626

  2. The motive to drink due to social anxiety and its relation to hazardous alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Cludius, Barbara; Stevens, Stephan; Bantin, Trisha; Gerlach, Alexander L; Hermann, Christiane

    2013-09-01

    Although studies on social anxiety and alcohol-related problems are numerous, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate how the motive to drink due to social anxiety is associated with hazardous alcohol use over and above habitual alcohol use, social anxiety, and alcohol outcome expectancies. We also examine which factors define the motive to drink due to social anxiety and clarify the impact of the type of social situation. Drinking due to social anxiety, habitual alcohol use, and gender, but not social anxiety, were associated with hazardous alcohol use. Social anxiety increased the motive to drink due to social anxiety, but fear of cognitive performance deficits after drinking reduced it. Alcohol was used to reduce anxiety more frequently in situations where intake of alcohol is deemed socially acceptable. These findings suggest that the motive drinking due to social anxiety, not social anxiety per se, is related to hazardous alcohol use. The motive is weakened by the expectation of alcohol-induced cognitive deficits, as well as by the type of social situation in which alcohol is to be used. PMID:23586457

  3. Impact of Providing Drinkers With “Know Your Limit” Information on Drinking and Driving: A Field Experiment*

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark B.; Clapp, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Given that most effective alcohol harm-reduction laws specify the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) that constitutes illegal behavior (e.g., the .08% breath alcohol concentration legal limit), interventions that allow drinkers to accurately estimate their BACs, and thus better assess their risk, have potential importance to long-term driving-under-the-influence prevention efforts. This study describes a field experiment designed to test the impact on drinking of providing “Know Your Limit” (KYL) BAC estimation cards to individuals in a natural drinking environment. Method: We randomly sampled 1,215 U.S. residents as they entered Mexico for a night of drinking, interviewed them, and randomly assigned them to one of six experimental conditions. Participants were reinterviewed and breath-tested when they returned to the United States. The experimental conditions included providing generic warnings about drinking and driving, giving out gender-specific BAC calculator cards (KYL cards), and providing incentives to moderate their drinking. Results: Cueing participants about the risks of drunk driving resulted in significantly lower BACs (relative to control) for participants who indicated that they would drive home. Providing KYL matrixes did not reduce BACs, and, in fact, some evidence suggests that KYL cards undermined the effect of the warning. Conclusions: KYL information does not appear to be an effective tool for reducing drinking and driving. Implications for prevention and future research are discussed. PMID:21138714

  4. Enhancing physical performance in male volleyball players with a caffeine-containing energy drink.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Pérez-López, Alberto; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Salinero, Juan Jose; Lara, Beatriz; Valadés, David

    2014-11-01

    There are no scientific data about the effects of caffeine intake on volleyball performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink to enhance physical performance in male volleyball players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used. In 2 different sessions separated by 1 wk, 15 college volleyball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed volleyball-specific tests: standing spike test, maximal squat jump (SJ), maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), 15-s rebound jump test (15RJ), and agility T-test. Later, a simulated volleyball match was played and recorded. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased ball velocity in the spike test (73 ± 9 vs 75 ± 10 km/h, P < .05) and the mean jump height in SJ (31.1 ± 4.3 vs 32.7 ± 4.2 cm, P < .05), CMJ (35.9 ± 4.6 vs 37.7 ± 4.4 cm, P < .05), and 15RJ (29.0 ± 4.0 vs 30.5 ± 4.6 cm, P < .05). The time to complete the agility test was significantly reduced with the caffeinated energy drink (10.8 ± 0.7 vs 10.3 ± 0.4 s, P < .05). In addition, players performed successful volleyball actions more frequently (24.6% ± 14.3% vs 34.3% ± 16.5%, P < .05) with the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink than with the placebo drink during the simulated game. A caffeine-containing energy drink, with a dose equivalent to 3 mg of caffeine per kg body mass, might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance and accuracy in male volleyball players. PMID:24664858

  5. Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

    2014-04-01

    Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534

  6. What's in a game? Future directions for the assessment and treatment of drinking games.

    PubMed

    Read, Jennifer P

    2014-09-01

    This conclusion reviews the critical issues raised by the papers in this Special Issue on Drinking Games, with an eye toward directions for future research and the development of palliative interventions. In particular, this conclusion highlights the significance of individual-level characteristics that are associated with drinking game risk, the social context in which these games take place, and methodological considerations for studying both the individual and the context as they unfold as part of drinking game practices. Given both the ubiquity of these games in North American college drinking life, and the substantial hazards with which these games are associated, interventions that may reduce harmful outcomes are needed but have not yet been developed. Issues relevant to the development of such interventions are considered. PMID:25192211

  7. Controlled drinking as a treatment goal in Australian alcohol treatment agencies.

    PubMed

    Dawe, S; Richmond, R

    1997-01-01

    Under the broad umbrella of harm minimisation, the Australian National Drug Strategy has emphasised the development of services aimed at reducing hazardous alcohol consumption in problem drinkers thereby shifting the focus of treatment from abstinence to moderation goals. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which alcohol treatment agencies offered advice and treatment aimed at moderation of alcohol consumption (i.e., controlled drinking). Of the 179 agencies (40% of identified treatment agencies across Australia) approached, 66% (115) reported giving advice about controlled drinking as a treatment goal. The reported therapeutic strategies used to assist in the attainment of a controlled drinking goal are empirically supported. Thus, controlled drinking as a treatment goal is widely offered by Australian treatment agencies, by workers who appear well versed in validated strategies and techniques used to obtain such a goal. This finding is discussed in relation to comparison studies conducted in the UK and the USA. PMID:9218241

  8. Metropolitan-Area Estimates of Binge Drinking in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David E.; Naimi, Timothy S.; Brewer, Robert D.; Bolen, Julie; Wells, Henry E.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated adult binge drinking prevalence in US metropolitan areas. Methods. We analyzed 1997 and 1999 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 120 metropolitan areas in 48 states and the District of Columbia. Results. The prevalence of binge drinking varied substantially across metropolitan areas, from 4.1% in Chattanooga, Tenn, to 23.9% in San Antonio, Tex, (median = 14.5%). Seventeen of the 20 metropolitan areas with the highest estimates were located in the upper Midwest, Texas, and Nevada. In 13 of these areas, at least one third of persons aged 18 to 34 years were binge drinkers. There were significant intrastate differences for binge drinking among metropolitan areas in New York, Tennessee, and Utah. Conclusions. Metropolitan-area estimates can be used to guide local efforts to reduce binge drinking. PMID:15054022

  9. Underage Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Coordination problems Memory and/or concentration problems The Role Parents Play Parents can help their children avoid alcohol problems by: Discussing the dangers of drinking Drinking responsibly, if they choose to drink ...

  10. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

  11. EPA List of Drinking Water Contaminants and MCLs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    US Environmental Protection Agency

    This site contains listings of drinking water contaminants and the EPA regulatory limit for each contaminant. Tables include the national primary drinking water regulations, the national secondary drinking water regulations, and unregulated contaminants.

  12. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

  13. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  14. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  15. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

  16. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable...

  17. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 ...Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water...minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or...

  19. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 ...Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water...minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or...

  1. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

  2. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

  3. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable...

  4. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71.602...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 ...Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water...minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or...

  6. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable...

  7. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71.602...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

  9. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71.602...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be...

  10. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 ...Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water...minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or...

  12. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  13. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  14. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  15. Drinking Water in Schools and Child Care Facilities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities This one-stop EPA site provides information about drinking water quality in schools and child care facilities. Ensuring ...

  16. Voluntary drinking versus imposed drinking in the methodology of investigations about the drinking-induced thermoregulatory sweating

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Khamnei, Saeed; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that dehydrated humans or animals in a warm environment begin to sweat within seconds to minutes after drinking. This phenomenon is one of the drinking-induced thermoregulatory responses; being investigated from different aspects. Our objective is to show the difference of voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the methodology of these experiments. Six healthy subjects 23.7 ± 0.6 yr old and 80.7 ± 5.7 kg wt were dehydrated by performing mild exercise (ergometer cycling) in a hot and humid chamber (38-40°C, 20-28% relative humidity). We incorporated two protocols: after dehydration, subjects were allowed to drink water with 1) imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/kg and 2) voluntary volumes; on four separate days. The sweating rate was measured on the forehead area before and after drinking. Sweating increased markedly just a few minutes after the onset of drinking. The mean sweat rates of the imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/Kg were 0.33 ± 0.15, 0.31 ± 0.17, 0.47 ± 0.21 respectively and for the voluntary volume it was 0.54 ± 0.19. The mean intake in the voluntary trial was 6.58 ± 1.14 ml/Kg, more than the imposed volume of 5 ml/Kg. The trend of the rate of the sweating response in the imposed trials was distinct from the response in the voluntary trial. Conclusion: There exists a difference between voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the sweating response that follows rehydration. So it is suggested to use the methods of voluntary drinking in the investigations of this phenomenon, to reveal the natural events that happen in the actual circumstances. PMID:25419429

  17. Acculturation Stress and Drinking Problems Among Urban Heavy Drinking Latinos in the Northeast

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christina S.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; López, Steven R.; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between level of acculturation and acculturation stress, and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of acculturation level. Acculturation stress accounted for significant variance in drinking problems while adjusting for acculturation, income, and education. Choosing to drink in response to acculturation stress should be an intervention target with Hispanic heavy drinkers. PMID:24215224

  18. Characteristics associated with consumption of sports and energy drinks among US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-01-01

    Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in need of encouragement to reduce sports and energy drink intake and increase healthier beverage intake. PMID:23260728

  19. On 1 January 2006, a new U.S. drinking water standard of 10 g arsenic/L will come into effect [U.S. Environmental Protection

    E-print Network

    van Geen, Alexander

    On 1 January 2006, a new U.S. drinking water standard of 10 µg arsenic/L will come into effect [U limit of As in drinking water from 50 µg/L to 10 µg/L because it promises to reduce the risk of an array states, where drinking water sources are most likely to exceed the 10 µg/L limit, public agencies

  20. The Drinking Water Treatability Database (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, recogni...

  1. Biological Drinking Water Treatment: Benefiting from Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jess C. Brown; Carollo Engineers

    While the use of microbial biomass for the degradation of contaminants, nutrients, and organics has been commonly used in the wastewater field since the early 1900s, the biological treatment of drinking water has been limited, particularly in the United States. However, recent developments in the drinking water treatment field are beginning to broaden the applicability, feasibility, and favorability of biological

  2. Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

  3. MANAGING THE MICROBIOLOGICAL RISKS OF DRINKING WATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Krewski; John Balbus; David Butler-Jones; Charles N. Haas; Judith Isaac-Renton; Kenneth J. Roberts; Martha Sinclair

    2004-01-01

    The microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies can have serious health consequences for consumers, and this has been dramatically illustrated in recent years by two disease outbreaks in Canada. In this paper, some factors that can influence the microbiological quality of drinking water and its management are examined. Frameworks have been proposed that help to clarify the main elements of

  4. POLYPROPYLENE PIPES FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Hametner

    1999-01-01

    Within this study, the influence of the migration of phenolic antioxidants, which are typically used for the stabilization of PP pipes, on the quality of drinking water has been tested. In particular, it had to be shown if the high requirements for materials in contact with drinking water can also be assured in the case of warm water and more

  5. Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs Technical Appendix H Wei-Hsiang Chen Kristine-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center for Watershed Sciences (University Acknowledgments v Acronyms vi Introduction 1 1. WATER QUALITY IN AND NEAR DELTA 2 Delta Drinking Water Intakes 2

  6. Deterrence and the Adolescent Drinking Driver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Grosvenor; Traci L. Toomey; Alexander C. Wagenaar

    1999-01-01

    Laws and enforcement programs have been implemented to increase the certainty, swiftness, and severity of punishments for drinking and driving. Certainty of punishment may be the most important deterrent to drinking and driving among the general population. Researchers, however, have not fully evaluated deterrent effects among young drivers. We examined effects of perceived certainty and severity on alcohol-impaired driving among

  7. Predictors of Undergraduate Student Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strano, Donald A.; Cuomo, Michael J.; Venable, Riley H.

    2004-01-01

    The relative importance of a number of predictors of binge drinking and of high- versus low-frequency binge drinking among undergraduate students was studied. Findings demonstrated that race, class, fraternity or sorority membership, use of other drugs in the past 30 days, positive alcohol expectancies, perception of minimal risk, perception that…

  8. Employee Drinking Practices and Work Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS W. MANGIONE; JONATHAN HOWLAND; BENJAMIN AMICK; JENNIFER COTE; MARIANNE LEE; NICOLE BELL; SOL LEVINE

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the independent effects of a variety of drinking indicators on self-reported work performance. Method: Data from a cross-sectional mailed survey (response rate = 71%) of managers, supervisors and workers (N = 6,540) at 16 worksites were analyzed. Average daily volume was computed from frequency and usual quantity reports. Drinking on the

  9. Risk Assessment of Virus in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles N. Haas; Joan B. Rose; Charles Gerba; Stig Regli

    1993-01-01

    The reevaluation of drinking water treatment practices in a desire to minimize the formation of disinfection byproducts while assuring minimum levels of public health protection against infectious organisms has caused it to become necessary to consider the problem of estimation of risks posed from exposure to low levels of microorganisms, such as virus or protozoans, found in treated drinking water.

  10. Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Communicator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Underage drinking is a serious national problem--alcohol-related injuries are a leading cause of death and injury among young people in the United States today. This guide is designed to help individuals who wish to be involved in a national effort to prevent underage drinking. It includes materials and messages that can be reproduced, as well as…

  11. ARSENIC COMPLIANCE DATABASE FOR DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: Section 1412(b)(12)(A) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. ? 300f-300j), as amended in 1996, required EPA to propose a National Primary Drinking Water Regulation for arsenic by January 1, 2000, and to issue a final regulation by January 1, 20...

  12. The Young Drinking Driver: Cause or Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Patricia F.; Waller, Marcus B.

    Drunk driving is a major public health problem and young people suffer disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality as a result of drinking and driving. Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 in this country, and alcohol is implicated in many of these deaths. Countermeasures to drinking and driving…

  13. Monitoring of Microbes in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Internationally there is a move towards managing the provision of safe drinking water by direct assessment of the performance of key pathogen barriers (critical control points), rather than end point testing (i.e. in drinking water). For fecal pathogens that breakthrough the vari...

  14. Middle School Drinking: Who, Where, and when

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to describe the most common drinking situations for young adolescents (N = 1171; 46.6% girls), as well as determine predictors of their drinking in the seventh and eighth grades. Middle school students most frequently drank at parties with three to four teens, in their home or at a friend's home, and reported…

  15. Predictors of Early Alcohol Drinking Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Early alcohol drinking onset (ADO) has been implicated as a cause of adult alcohol disorder inviting interventions that target the causes of ADO. This study explores the precursors of early ADO using variables measured before drinking onset, reaching back to the mothers of the respondents. The sample consists of children of the women respondents…

  16. Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…

  17. Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water Report for the State Water Resources Control #12;Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water With a Focus on Tulare Lake Basin and Salinas status, age, sexual orientation, citizenship, or service in the uniformed services (as defined

  18. Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water

    E-print Network

    Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water Sven P. Nielsen Risø National Laboratory Working OF INVESTIGATION 11 3 DESCRIPTION OF INVESTIGATION 12 4 RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER 13 5 SAMPLING 15 6 ANALYTICAL METHODS 16 6.1 TOTAL ALPHA AND BETA RADIOACTIVITY 16 6.2 URANIUM 17 6.3 RADIUM 17 6.4 RADON 18 7

  19. Differences in Asian and white drinking: consumption level, drinking contexts, and expectancies.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, T

    1995-01-01

    Despite the heterogeneous nature of interethnic drinking differences within racial groups, research has demonstrated that cautious generalizations can be made when comparing Asian and White drinking patterns. Persons in the United States who identify their race as "Asian" drink much less than their White counterparts, and they report fewer problems. Some have speculated that drinking patterns between racial groups are mediated by culturally influenced social learning. To date there has been very little research examining the expectancy of reinforcement from drinking between different racial, cultural or ethnic groups. The current study of 637 white and 179 Asian university students examined differences in alcohol consumption and problem levels, the social context of drinking, and alcohol expectancies. Results show considerable differences between Asian and White drinking and level of associated problems, as well as similarities and differences in social drinking contexts. It also appears that Asians expected greater tension reduction from drinking despite drinking less overall. Implications for further research are suggested that would link racial, and more specifically, ethnic drinking differences with culturally defined alcohol expectancies. PMID:7484321

  20. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among US secondary school students

    PubMed Central

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among US secondary school students in 2010–2011, and associations between such use and substance use. Methods We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use controlling for individual and school characteristics. Results Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. Conclusions This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is wide-spread, and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users. PMID:24481080

  1. Calorie Restriction on Drinking Days: An Examination of Drinking Consequences Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Steven M.; Champion, Heather; Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the association between restricting calories on intended drinking days and drunkenness frequency and alcohol-related consequences. Participants Participants included a random sample of 4,271 undergraduate college students from 10 universities. Methods Students completed a web-based survey regarding their high-risk drinking behaviors and calorie restriction on intended drinking days. Results Thirty-nine percent of past 30-day drinkers reported restricting calories on days they planned to drink alcohol, of which 67% restricted because of weight concerns. Restricting calories on drinking days was associated with greater odds of getting drunk in a typical week. Women who restricted were more likely to report memory loss, being injured, being taken advantage of sexually and having unprotected sex while drinking. Men were more likely to get into a physical fight. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of considering weight control behaviors in the examination of high-risk college drinking. PMID:19433398

  2. Effect of naltrexone on alcohol consumption during chronic alcohol drinking and after a period of imposed abstinence in free-choice drinking rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kornet, M; Goosen, C; Van Ree, J M

    1991-01-01

    Relapse into problematic alcohol drinking is a serious problem in the treatment of alcoholism. Free-choice drinking rhesus monkeys show relapse-like behaviour after imposed abstinence of alcohol, by immediately reinitiating ethanol intake at an increased level. The relapse-like behaviour of the monkeys seems not induced by physical withdrawal, but rather argues for a resistance to extinction of ethanol-reinforced behaviour. It has been suggested that endogenous opioids play a role in the positive reinforcing effect of ethanol. In this study, the effect of the opiate antagonist naltrexone was investigated in eight adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who had about 1 year experience with alcohol drinking, under two conditions: 1) (expt 1) during continuous and concurrent supply of drinking water and two ethanol/water solutions (16% and 32% (v/v], and 2) (expt 2) after 2 days of alcohol abstinence. In both experiments, each monkey received six doses of naltrexone (0.02, 0.06, 0.17, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg.kg-1); each dose was paired with a placebo injection (im) in a cross-over design. Consumption was measured from 16.00 hours in the afternoon (30 min after injection) to 9.00 hours the next morning. In experiment 1 naltrexone reduced total net ethanol intake in a graded dose-dependent manner. The effect of naltrexone was apparent shortly after injection, and lasted until the following day. Consumption of drinking water was reduced only shortly after injection. In expt 2, reduction of net ethanol intake was largely restricted to the first few hours of reinitiation of alcohol drinking, i.e. the period in which the abstinence-induced increase was manifest. Consumption of drinking water was not affected by naltrexone. Naltrexone hardly influenced consumption of the non-preferred ethanol solution of 32%. It is postulated that the opioid modulation specifically interacted with positively reinforced behaviour. In expt 2 naltrexone reduced ethanol intake at a lower dose (0.17 mg.kg-1) compared to expt 1 (0.50 mg.kg-1), but net ethanol intakes however remained higher. It might be that alcohol abstinence resulted in altered opioid activity, leading to increased ethanol-seeking behaviour. The renewed presentation of ethanol solutions (also) might have stimulated reinitiation of alcohol drinking, representing conditioned incentive stimuli. The reported monkey model of relapse in alcohol drinking could be a useful tool to evaluate new hypotheses and experimental treatments with respect to human alcoholism. PMID:1924644

  3. Binge Drinking: Community Problem, Community Solution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As college students are returning to campuses, their parents are concerned over the risks of binge drinking, which is particularly high among the college-aged set. In a national survey released this week by the American Medical Association (AMA), 95% of parents believe that binge drinking is a serious threat to their children, and 85% say that easy access to alcohol contributes to too much drinking. Visitors to the "Binge Drinking: Community Problem, Community Solution" Website can not only read the results of the AMA poll results and associated graphics but also read about prevention strategies employed by colleges and communities and learn about the people spearheading the prevention movement. Other features of the site are a FAQ list and advisory for parents concerned about binge drinking among college students. The easiest way to download the poll results is to go to the site's downloads page where you can choose from .pdf, .zip or .sit formats.

  4. Drinking patterns and liver cirrhosis mortality.

    PubMed

    Parrish, K M; Dufour, M C

    1991-01-01

    Using the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey, alcohol consumption patterns were compared for decedents with and without mention of cirrhosis of the liver as a cause of death. Approximately 55% of cirrhosis decedents had 3 drinks or more daily (80% of decedents with alcoholic cirrhosis, and 40% of decedents with unspecified or other specified cirrhosis). In contrast, only 10% of decedents without cirrhosis had at least 3 drinks daily. Forty percent of decedents with alcoholic cirrhosis had 7 drinks or more daily, compared with 17% for unspecified cirrhosis, and 21% for other specified cirrhosis. The comparable figure was 3% for decedents without cirrhosis. An average of 3 drinks per day was associated with increased cirrhosis proportional mortality, and cirrhosis proportional mortality increased with higher numbers of daily drinks. PMID:1845557

  5. Underage drivers are separating drinking from driving.

    PubMed Central

    Roeper, P J; Voas, R B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: From 1985 to 1995, drivers younger than 21 years experienced a 50% drop in fatal crashes involving alcohol. This study addresses whether the decrease is explained by young drivers' drinking less or by their separating drinking from driving. METHODS: Nighttime roadside surveys were conducted in 3 communities to test drivers' breath and administer questionnaires on drinking practices. From 1992 to 1996, 34,898 drivers (21% of whom were younger than 21 years) were interviewed. RESULTS: Although drivers younger than 21 years were more likely to have consumed 6 or more drinks on at least 1 occasion during the previous month, a smaller percentage of younger drivers than of older drivers had blood alcohol concentrations of 0.01 or higher. CONCLUSIONS: Younger drivers are more likely than drivers older than 21 years to separate drinking from driving. PMID:10224990

  6. The Effects of Drinking Goal on Treatment Outcome for Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective of this study is to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method Participants were 1226 alcohol dependent individuals enrolled in a large, multi-site trial of Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI), acamprosate, and naltrexone. Drinking goal was coded as follows: (a) controlled drinking, (b) conditional abstinence, and (c) complete abstinence. Results Analysis revealed a main effect of drinking goal on percent days abstinent (p < .0001), days to relapse to heavy drinking (p < 0.0001), and global clinical outcome (p < .001). These results were such that a goal of complete abstinence was associated with the best outcomes, followed by conditional abstinence; controlled drinking was associated with the poorest outcomes. Conversely, a main effect of drinking goal was observed on drinks per drinking day (p < .01), such that controlled drinking was associated with fewer drinks per drinking day whereas complete abstinence was associated with the highest drinks per drinking day. CBI performed better than medical management alone for participants whose drinking goal was not complete abstinence. Conclusion These results suggest that drinking goal represents a highly predictive clinical variable and should be an integral part of the clinical assessment of patients with alcohol dependence. Assessment of patients' drinking goals may also help match patients to interventions best suited to address their goals and clinical needs. PMID:23231573

  7. Do coaches make a difference off the field? The examination of athletic coach influence on early college student drinking.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Nadine R; Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob; Borsari, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Coaches can exert a considerable influence on the lives of their athletes. However, little is known about the influence of athletic coaches on athlete drinking behaviors. This study extends research on drinking influences in student-athletes. The relationship between athletic coaches and athlete drinking behaviors were examined. First-year college students (N=362) who had played high school sports were assessed on their relationships with their coaches as well as their alcohol use and problems. Findings revealed significant associations among the approval of and relationship with their athletic coaches and student drinking behaviors. These findings are discussed in the context of involving coaches in comprehensive strategies to reduce athlete drinking. PMID:24639626

  8. Gender and Social Pressure to Change Drinking Behavior: Results from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1984–2010

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Korcha, Rachael A.; Kerr, William C.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research shows social and institutional pressure influences drinking, yet determinants of who receives pressure are understudied. This paper examines age, time period, and birth cohort (APC) effects on pressure to stop or reduce drinking among U.S. men and women. Methods Data were drawn from six National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) conducted from 1984 to 2010 (N=32,534). Receipt of pressure during the past year to quit or change drinking from formal (police, doctor, work) and informal (spouse, family, friends) sources was assessed. Results Determinants of pressure were similar for men and women but varied in strength. They included younger age, less education, and younger cohort groups. Cohort effects were stronger for women than men. Conclusions Cohort effects among women may be due to increased alcohol marketing to younger women and the changing social contexts of their drinking. Future studies should assess associations between drinking contexts, pressures, and outcomes. PMID:25395917

  9. Pretreatment alcohol drinking goals are associated with treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Strain, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large subset of patients who enter treatment for alcohol dependence report nonabstinent drinking goals (e.g., reduction in drinking) rather than abstinence, and this pretreatment goal choice may be associated with drinking outcomes and alcohol-related problems. Methods An analysis of the 16-week Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions (COMBINE) study was conducted to determine the association between self-reported pretreatment drinking goal and drinking outcomes and alcohol-related problems. Participants who reported a nonabstinent drinking goal (n=340) were matched with participants who reported an abstinent drinking goal (n=340) on three variables believed to contribute to treatment outcomes: COMBINE experimental group, gender, and number of prebaseline heavy drinking days. Results Analyses revealed no interaction between the COMBINE experimental group and drinking goal on outcome measures, so results were collapsed and examined as a function of drinking goal group. Participants who chose an abstinent drinking goal had significantly more weeks with no drinking or no heavy drinking, reported fewer heavy drinking days, reported fewer days with >1 drink, and were more likely to have a ?50% decrease in drinks per day between baseline and week 16 of the intervention. However both groups reported reductions over time in percent drinking days, mean drinks per day, number of heavy drinking days, and number of drinking days per week, and participants in both groups experienced significant reductions in alcohol-related problems and improvements in psychosocial functioning. Conclusions Results replicate and expand upon previous studies examining the association between drinking goal and treatment outcome. These data also provide support for the standard inclusion of drinking treatment goal as a stratification variable in study interventions, or as a covariate in outcome analyses, and highlight several areas that warrant additional research regarding patients who enter alcohol treatment with a nonabstinent drinking goal. PMID:23800222

  10. Drinking Motives for Self and Others Predict Alcohol Use and Consequences Among College Women: The Moderating Effects of PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Although drinking motives have been shown to influence drinking behavior among women with trauma histories and PTSD, no known research has examined the influence of drinking motives on alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences for women with PTSD as compared to women with a trauma history but no PTSD and women with no trauma history. Therefore, the present study sought to examine the associations between drinking motives women held for themselves as well as their perception of the drinking motives of others and their own alcohol use and consequences, and whether this was moderated by a history of trauma and/or PTSD. College women (N = 827) were categorized as either having no trauma exposure (n = 105), trauma exposure but no PTSD (n = 580), or PTSD (n = 142). Results of regression analyses revealed that women with trauma exposure and PTSD consume more alcohol and are at greatest risk of experiencing alcohol-related consequences. A diagnosis of PTSD moderated the association between one’s own depression and anxiety coping and conformity drinking motives and alcohol-related consequences. PTSD also moderated the association between the perception of others’ depression coping motives and one’s own consequences. These findings highlight the importance of providing alternative coping strategies to women with PTSD to help reduce their alcohol use and consequences, and also suggest a possible role for the perceptions regarding the reasons other women drink alcohol and one’s own drinking behavior that may have important clinical implications. PMID:23261496

  11. Function of Serum Complement in Drinking Water Arsenic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Laila N.; Zahid, M. Shamim Hasan; Nabi, A. H. M. Nurun; Hossain, Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Serum complement function was evaluated in 125 affected subjects suffering from drinking water arsenic toxicity. Their mean duration of exposure was 7.4 ± 5.3?yrs, and the levels of arsenic in drinking water and urine samples were 216 ± 211 and 223 ± 302??g/L, respectively. The mean bactericidal activity of complement from the arsenic patients was 92% and that in the unexposed controls was 99% (P < 0.01), but heat-inactivated serum showed slightly elevated activity than in controls. In patients, the mean complement C3 was 1.56?g/L, and C4 was 0.29?g/L compared to 1.68?g/L and 0.25?g/L, respectively, in the controls. The mean IgG in the arsenic patients was 24.3?g/L that was highly significantly elevated (P < 0.001). Arsenic patients showed a significant direct correlation between C3 and bactericidal activity (P = 0.014). Elevated levels of C4 indicated underutilization and possibly impaired activity of the classical complement pathway. We conclude reduced function of serum complement in drinking water arsenic toxicity. PMID:22545044

  12. Relationship between age and drinking patterns and drinking problems among Japanese, Japanese-Americans, and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, S; Parrish, K M; Dufour, M C; Towle, L H; Harford, T C

    1994-04-01

    Comparing alcohol consumption patterns by age and gender among Japanese in Japan and Japanese-Americans and Caucasians in the United States, this study examined the associations between age and both heavy drinking and social problems using logistic regression for each ethnic group of male current drinkers. As reported in previous studies of Caucasians, men drink more alcohol than women, older respondents are more likely than younger ones to be abstainers, and the percentages of heavier drinkers and problem drinkers are higher among the young than among older people. Although Japanese-Americans reported consuming less alcohol than Caucasians, their drinking patterns by age were similar: among both United States populations, younger respondents are at higher risk for drinking problems than older respondents, even when alcohol consumption and sociodemographic variables are controlled by logistic regression. However, this association of age and drinking patterns and drinking problems is not universal. Japanese men consumed more alcohol and had a higher proportion of heavier drinkers in the middle age groups; the association between age and drinking problems also varied in this group. In addition to aging, sociocultural factors such as drinking norms probably account for the differences in drinking behavior among different age groups. This study may stimulate further cross-cultural comparison of drinking patterns and problems. PMID:8048731

  13. Tears in your beer: Gender differences in coping drinking motives, depressive symptoms and drinking

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. PMID:25525419

  14. Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

  15. Male Chinese drinking behavior in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Chi, I; Kitano, H H; Lubben, J E

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the characteristics that distinguish male Chinese drinkers from abstainers and to clarify differences between Chinese men who drink limited amounts of alcohol and those who drink more heavily. A random sample of 218 adult Chinese men was interviewed using a schedule based on a national study of drinking behavior. The stereotype of Chinese as limited drinkers was partially supported by the data. Approximately 22% of the sample were abstainers whereas only 14% were heavy drinkers. Light drinkers were the modal category. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relative importance of the significant characteristics of drinkers and abstainers. Parents' drinking behavior influenced respondent's drinking behavior, and drinkers tended to like to go to parties. Chinese men with higher education were more apt to be drinkers. A second logistic regression model was used to identify the predictive variables related to the level of drinking. Chinese men who go to bars and who have friends who drink were the most likely to be heavy drinkers. PMID:3347072

  16. Ethnic Drinking Cultures and Alcohol Use among Asian American Adults: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Results: Controlling for financial stress, discrimination and demographic variables, a hypothesized, positive relationship between ethnic drinking cultures and alcohol outcomes held for most drinking outcomes. A hypothesis on the moderating effect of integration into ethnic cultures indicated by ethnic language use was supported for US-born Asian Americans. Conclusion: Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence alcohol use by Asian Americans. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures may be conditioned by the degree of integration into the ethnic cultures. To inform alcohol interventions for reducing harmful and hazardous alcohol use among immigrants, future research needs to explore the cultural and social processes occurring in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking. PMID:22378829

  17. The Impact of Underage Drinking Laws on Alcohol-Related Fatal Crashes of Young Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Fisher, Deborah A.; Voas, Robert B.; Blackman, Kenneth; Tippetts, A. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background This study used a pre-post design to evaluate the influence on drinking-and-driving fatal crashes of six laws directed at youth aged 20 and younger and four laws targeting all drivers. Methods Data on the laws were drawn from the Alcohol Policy Information System data set (1998–2005), the Digests of State Alcohol-Highway Safety Related Legislation (1983-2006), and the Westlaw database. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set (1982-2004) was used to assess the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers involved in fatal crashes (fatal crash incidence ratio [CIR]). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Results Significant decreases in the underage fatal CIR were associated with presence of four of the laws targeting youth (possession, purchase, use and lose, and zero tolerance) and three of the laws targeting all drivers (.08 blood alcohol concentration illegal per se law, secondary or upgrade to a primary seat belt law, and an administrative license revocation law). Beer consumption was associated with a significant increase in the underage fatal CIR. The direct effects of laws targeting drivers of all ages on adult drinking drivers aged 26 and older were similar but of a smaller magnitude compared to the findings for those aged 20 and younger. It is estimated that the two core underage drinking laws (purchase and possession) and the zero-tolerance law are currently saving an estimated 732 lives per year controlling for other exposure factors. If all states adopted use and lose laws, an additional 165 lives could be saved annually. Conclusions These results provide substantial support for the effectiveness of under age 21 drinking laws with four of the six laws examined having significant associations with reductions in underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes. These findings point to the importance of key underage drinking and traffic safety laws in efforts to reduce underage drinking-driver crashes. PMID:19389192

  18. Health and environmental policy issues in Canada: the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John-Mark Davies; Asit Mazumder

    2003-01-01

    Sustaining clean and safe drinking water sources is increasingly becoming a priority because of global pollution. The means of attaining and maintaining clean drinking water sources requires effective policies that identify, document, and reduce watershed risks. These risks are defined by their potential impact to human health. Health and risk are, therefore, indelibly linked because they are in part defined

  19. Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

  20. Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) provides online access to the article, Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water. The article reports that domestic wells rather than municipal wells in New Hampshire are more likely to contain ten times the recommended federal levels of arsenic for drinking water. This is a relevant finding since "arsenic in drinking water is linked to certain types of cancer in humans." The abstract can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text article is available in both HTML and .pdf format.

  1. Hepatitis A outbreak associated with kava drinking.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jo-Anne; Kurien, Thomas T; Huppatz, Clare

    2014-03-01

    Hepatitis A is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), with transmission occurring through the faecal-oral route. In May 2013, a case of hepatitis A infection was reported to a Western Australian regional public health unit, with infection acquired in Fiji. Following this, 2 further cases were linked to the index case by kava drinking and 1 further case was a household contact of a secondary case. This outbreak highlights that the preparation of kava drink and/or the use of a common drinking vessel could be a vehicle for the transmission of HAV. PMID:25409352

  2. Reducing Youth Access to Alcohol: Findings from a Community-Based Randomized Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Flewelling, Robert L.; Grube, Joel W.; Paschall, M.J.; Biglan, Anthony; Kraft, Anne; Black, Carol; Hanley, Sean; Ringwalt, Christopher; Wiesen, Chris; Ruscoe, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Underage drinking continues to be an important public health problem and a challenge to the substance abuse prevention field. Community-based interventions designed to more rigorously control underage access to alcohol through retailer education and greater enforcement of underage drinking laws have been advocated as potentially effective strategies to help address this problem, but studies designed to evaluate such interventions are sparse. To address this issue we conducted a randomized trial involving 36 communities to test the combined effectiveness of five interrelated intervention components designed to reduce underage access to alcohol. The intervention was found to be effective in reducing the likelihood that retail clerks would sell alcohol to underage-looking buyers, but did not reduce underage drinking or the perceived availability of alcohol among high school students. Post hoc analyses, however, revealed significant associations between the level of underage drinking law enforcement in the intervention communities and reductions in both 30-day use of alcohol and binge drinking. The findings highlight the difficulty in reducing youth drinking even when efforts to curtail retail access are successful. Study findings also suggest that high intensity implementation of underage drinking law enforcement can reduce underage drinking. Any such effects of enhanced enforcement on underage drinking appear to be more directly attributable to an increase in perceived likelihood of enforcement and the resultant perceived inconveniences and/or sanctions to potential drinkers, than to a reduction in access to alcohol per se. PMID:22688848

  3. Reducing youth access to alcohol: findings from a community-based randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Flewelling, Robert L; Grube, Joel W; Paschall, M J; Biglan, Anthony; Kraft, Anne; Black, Carol; Hanley, Sean M; Ringwalt, Christopher; Wiesen, Chris; Ruscoe, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    Underage drinking continues to be an important public health problem and a challenge to the substance abuse prevention field. Community-based interventions designed to more rigorously control underage access to alcohol through retailer education and greater enforcement of underage drinking laws have been advocated as potentially effective strategies to help address this problem, but studies designed to evaluate such interventions are sparse. To address this issue we conducted a randomized trial involving 36 communities to test the combined effectiveness of five interrelated intervention components designed to reduce underage access to alcohol. The intervention was found to be effective in reducing the likelihood that retail clerks would sell alcohol to underage-looking buyers, but did not reduce underage drinking or the perceived availability of alcohol among high school students. Post hoc analyses, however, revealed significant associations between the level of underage drinking law enforcement in the intervention communities and reductions in both 30-day use of alcohol and binge drinking. The findings highlight the difficulty in reducing youth drinking even when efforts to curtail retail access are successful. Study findings also suggest that high intensity implementation of underage drinking law enforcement can reduce underage drinking. Any such effects of enhanced enforcement on underage drinking appear to be more directly attributable to an increase in perceived likelihood of enforcement and the resultant perceived inconveniences and/or sanctions to potential drinkers, than to a reduction in access to alcohol per se. PMID:22688848

  4. Development and validity of drinking pattern classification: binge, episodic, sporadic, and steady drinkers in treatment for alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; Labouvie, Erich; McCrady, Barbara S; Swingle, Janine; Wern, Julie

    2004-12-01

    This study refines an empirically derived drinking pattern classification system [Addict. Behav. 20 (1995) 23] and assesses its concurrent and predictive validity in a new sample of alcohol-dependent adults in treatment. Drinking data were collected from 195 adults (133 men) at baseline and for 52 weeks postbaseline using the Timeline Follow-back (TLFB) method. Ninety-three percent of the sample were classified into one of four drinking patterns: binge (n=13, 6.5%), episodic (n=41, 21%), sporadic (n=17, 9%), or steady (n=111, 57%). The steady drinking group showed substantial variability in drinking intensity and was divided into steady/high intensity (n=67, 34%) and steady/low intensity (n=44, 23%) subgroups. With age and gender controlled, the five subgroups did not differ on baseline employment or marital status, but differed on a measure of relationship functioning. Binge and steady/high groups reported the most severe alcohol-use histories. Steady/low intensity drinkers had later age of onset of alcohol problems. The five-pattern classification demonstrated predictive validity; steady (heavy and low intensity) drinkers most dramatically reduced the frequency of their drinking at 26 weeks postbaseline, while binge drinkers reduced their drinking intensity. Binge and steady/heavy drinkers were more likely than steady/low and sporadic drinkers to be abstinent at follow up. The final classification into five pattern groups shows promise of clinical utility for treatment-seeking samples. PMID:15530719

  5. Effect of a sport drink mixture with and without addition of fluoride and magnesium on plaque formation, dental caries and general health of rats.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, R; Koskinen-Kainulainen, M; Sorvari, T; Luoma, H

    1986-12-01

    A sport drink mixture (pH 3.2) containing 6% sucrose was given to Osborne-Mendel rats for 42 days. In some experimental groups the drink was supplemented with 15 ppm F, 38.5 ppm Mg or both F and Mg. The rats were fed a slightly cariogenic powdered diet containing 15% sucrose. Sport drink mixture increased significantly the accumulation of plaque but, compared with a group that drank distilled water, did not affect caries. Addition of fluoride to the sport drink mixture, alone or with magnesium, significantly reduced caries and tended to decrease plaque; addition of magnesium had no clear effect on plaque or caries. In spite of the fact that the rats had a sport drink mixture as the only drink for 6 wk, there were no untoward effects on growth, in histological studies of the inner organs, or in Ca, Mg, Na and K contents of kidney, heart and aorta. PMID:3468597

  6. The influence of conformity and group identity on drink walking intentions: comparing intentions to drink walk across risky pedestrian crossing scenarios.

    PubMed

    McGhie, Alexandra; Lewis, Ioni; Hyde, Melissa K

    2012-03-01

    Despite the dangers associated with drink walking, limited research is currently available regarding the factors which influence individuals to engage in this risky behaviour. This study examined the influence of psychosocial factors upon individuals' intentions to drink walk across four experimental scenarios (and a control condition). Specifically, a 2×2 repeated measures design was utilised in which all of the scenarios incorporated a risky pedestrian crossing situation (i.e., a pedestrian crossing against a red man signal) but differed according to the level of group identity (i.e., low/strangers and high/friends) and conformity (low and high). Individuals were assessed for their intentions to drink walk within each of these different scenarios. Undergraduate students (N=151), aged 17-30 years, completed a questionnaire. Overall, most of the study's hypotheses were supported with individuals reporting the highest intentions to drink walk when in the presence of friends (i.e., high group identity) and their friends were said to be also crossing against the red man signal (i.e., high conformity). The findings may have significant implications for the design of countermeasures to reduce drink walking. For instance, the current findings would suggest that potentially effective strategies may be to promote resilience to peer influence as well as highlight the negative consequences associated with following the behaviour of other intoxicated pedestrians who are crossing against a red signal. PMID:22269552

  7. The Association between Cultural Orientation and Drinking Behaviors among University Students in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hongxiu; Cai, Weibin; Wang, Hongjing; Zhang, Qing; Qian, Ling; Shell, Duane F.; Newman, Ian M.; Yin, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students. Cultural orientation is the measure of how the cultural values of individuals living in their own society are influenced by cultural values introduced from the outside. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey collected data from 1279 university students from six universities in central China. Participants used a likert scale to rank a series of statements reflecting cultural values from the previously validated Chinese Cultural Orientation Scale and answered questions about their drinking behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics. Results Statistically significant differences in cultural orientation were observed for gender, hometown and type of university attendance. Traditional-oriented students were more likely to be occasional drinkers or nondrinkers, while marginal-oriented students, bicultural-oriented students and western-oriented students were more likely to be regular drinkers. Bicultural orientation (OR?=?1.80, P<0.05) and marginal orientation (OR?=?1.64, P<0.05) increased the likelihood of the student being regular drinking, compared to students with traditional orientations. Males (OR?=?4.40, P<0.05) had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than females, graduate students (OR?=?2.59, P<0.05) had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than undergraduates, students from urban areas (OR?=?1.79, P<0.05) had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than those from towns/rural areas, and students attending key universities (OR?=?0.48, P<0.05) had a lower likelihood of regular drinking than those attending general universities. Conclusions Cultural orientation influences drinking behaviors. Traditional cultural orientation was associated with less drinking while western cultural orientation, marginal cultural orientation and bicultural orientation were associated with more drinking. The role of gender, hometown and university attendance is partially moderated through the influence of cultural orientation. The relationship between a traditional cultural orientation and alcohol drinking suggests that traditional Chinese cultural values should be examined for their role in possibly reducing alcohol-related risks through education and policy initiatives. PMID:23359611

  8. The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Calderon

    2000-01-01

    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distribution materials and the drinking water treatment process. Chemical contaminants for which epidemiologic studies have reported associations include the following: aluminium, arsenic, disinfection by-products, fluoride, lead,

  9. EATING, DRINKING AND RE-THINKING: MARGUERITE DURAS'S

    E-print Network

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    and drinking to demonstrate how re-thinking representations of food and drink can stimulate critical appetitesEATING, DRINKING AND RE-THINKING: MARGUERITE DURAS'S MODERATO CANTABILE (1958) RUTH CRUICKSHANK ABSTRACT Re-thinking food, drink and appetite offers new ways of exploring subjectivity, self

  10. Ethnic, Social Class, and Gender Differences in Adolescent Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Cindy; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    The independent effects of ethnicity and social class on multiple aspects of adolescent drinking were examined. African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students (1,134 females, 740 males) from three social classes completed measures of drinking frequency and quantity, drinking consequences, reasons for drinking, and…

  11. Regional Drinking Water Security District Level Pilot Project

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    Regional Drinking Water Security District Level Pilot Project Concept Note Milind Sohoni Head. The central objective of the project will be to ensure regional drinking water security for a district for drinking water. · Supply and Logistics: To assist the rural drinking water department in various logistical

  12. The Social Contexts of Binge Drinking among Private University Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichiyama, Michael A.; Kruse, Marc I.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship of prevalence and frequency of binge drinking with alcohol-related problems, social contexts of drinking, and personality characteristics among 334 first-year students. Binge drinking rates among freshmen were higher than national averages and frequency of binge drinking was associated with more alcohol-related problems.…

  13. The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Public Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Carpenter; Carlos Dobkin

    2011-01-01

    The Amethyst Initiative, signed by more than 100 college presidents and other higher education officials calls for a reexamination of the minimum legal drinking age in the United States. A central argument of the initiative is that the U.S. minimum legal drinking age policy results in more dangerous drinking than would occur if the legal drinking age were lower. A

  14. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda M Malinauskas; Victor G Aeby; Reginald F Overton; Tracy Carpenter-Aeby; Kimberly Barber-Heidal

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy

  15. Drinking Games in the College Environment: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsari, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Drinking games among American college students, although popular, contribute significantly to excessive drinking and alcohol-related problems. Drinking games appear to facilitate socialization, and are especially prevalent among younger students. This article reviews the qualitative and quantitative research on drinking games. Findings from…

  16. Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drinking that can cause harm varies among individuals. Age, drinking experience, gender, the amount of food eaten, even ... Underage drinkers may be at particular risk for alcohol overdose. Research shows that people under age 20 typically drink about 5 drinks at one ...

  17. The Impact of a 25 Cent-Per-Drink Alcohol Tax Increase: Who Pays the Tab?

    PubMed Central

    Daley, James I.; Stahre, Mandy A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption causes 79,000 deaths annually in the U.S., shortening the lives of those who die by approximately 30 years. Although alcohol taxation is an effective measure to reduce excessive consumption and related harms, some argue that increasing alcohol taxes places an unfair economic burden on “responsible” drinkers and socially disadvantaged persons. Purpose To examine the impact of a hypothetical tax increase based on alcohol consumption and socio-demographic characteristics of current drinkers, individually and in aggregate. Methods Data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey was analyzed from 2010–2011 to determine the net financial impact of a hypothetical 25 cent-per-drink tax increase on current drinkers in the U.S. Higher-risk drinkers were defined as those whose past-30 day consumption included binge drinking, heavy drinking, drinking in excess of the U.S. Dietary Guidelines, and alcohol-impaired driving. Results Of current drinkers in the U.S., 50.4% (or approximately 25% of the total U.S. population) were classified as higher-risk drinkers. The tax increase would result in a 9.2% reduction in alcohol consumption, including an 11.4% reduction in heavy drinking. Compared with lower-risk drinkers, higher-risk drinkers paid 4.7 times more in net increased annual per capita taxes, and paid 82.7% of net increased annual aggregate taxes. Lower-risk drinkers paid less than $30 in net increased taxes annually. In aggregate, groups who paid the most in net tax increases included those who were white, male, between the ages of 21 and 50, earning ?$50,000 per year, employed, and had a college degree. Conclusions A 25 cent-per-drink alcohol tax increase would reduce excessive drinking, and higher-risk drinkers would pay the substantial majority of the net tax increase. PMID:22424251

  18. Increased Extracellular Glutamate In the Nucleus Accumbens Promotes Excessive Ethanol Drinking in Ethanol Dependent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Griffin III, William C; Haun, Harold L; Hazelbaker, Callan L; Ramachandra, Vorani S; Becker, Howard C

    2014-01-01

    Using a well-established model of ethanol dependence and relapse, this study examined adaptations in glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and their role in regulating voluntary ethanol drinking. Mice were first trained to drink ethanol in a free-choice, limited access (2?h/day) paradigm. One group (EtOH mice) received repeated weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure with intervening weeks of test drinking sessions, whereas the remaining mice (CTL mice) were similarly treated but did not receive CIE treatment. Over repeated cycles of CIE exposure, EtOH mice exhibited significant escalation in drinking (up to ?3.5?g/kg), whereas drinking remained relatively stable at baseline levels (2–2.5?g/kg) in CTL mice. Using in vivo microdialysis procedures, extracellular glutamate (GLUEX) levels in the NAc were increased approximately twofold in EtOH mice compared with CTL mice, and this difference was observed 7 days after final CIE exposure, indicating that this hyperglutamatergic state persisted beyond acute withdrawal. This finding prompted additional studies examining the effects of pharmacologically manipulating GLUEX in the NAc on ethanol drinking in the CIE model. The non-selective glutamate reuptake antagonist, threo-?-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA), was bilaterally microinjected into the NAc and found to dose-dependently increase drinking in nondependent (CTL) mice to levels attained by dependent (EtOH) mice. TBOA also further increased drinking in EtOH mice. In contrast, reducing glutamatergic transmission in the NAc via bilateral injections of the metabotropic glutamate receptor-2/3 agonist LY379268 reduced drinking in dependent (EtOH) mice to nondependent (CTL) levels, whereas having a more modest effect in decreasing ethanol consumption in CTL mice. Taken together, these data support an important role of glutamatergic transmission in the NAc in regulating ethanol drinking. Additionally, these results indicate that ethanol dependence produces adaptations that favor elevated glutamate activity in the NAc which, in turn, promote excessive levels of ethanol consumption associated with dependence. PMID:24067300

  19. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. Methods This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January – December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Result Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43?±?1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p < 0.05)], for studying or completing major projects [users184 (45.0%), nonusers 225 (55.0%) (p < 0.05)] and for refreshment purposes [users179 (44.9%), nonusers 220 (55.1%) (p < 0.05)]. Two main reasons of not using energy drinks by non-users were “awareness from its side effects” 247 (47.8%) and “have no specific reason” 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). Conclusion In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical students, particularly because they are ever ready to boost their energy level and reduce sleep hours due to stress of exams and projects. This warrants the creation of continued public health awareness about the appropriate use of caffeinated beverages, their potential benefits, side effects and correction of wrong perceptions. PMID:24351105

  20. TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

  1. OVERVIEW OF RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invited presentation at the 2007 National Rural Water Association National Conference, Philadelphia, PA, September 23-26, 2007. The presentation reviews the chemistry of radium and uranium in drinking water sources, treatment options, and guidelines for disposal. Presentation giv...

  2. THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

  3. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia.

    PubMed

    Crown, Patricia L; Emerson, Thomas E; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R; Ward, Timothy

    2012-08-28

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States. PMID:22869743

  4. Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

    1993-08-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG&G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a {open_quotes}community water system{close_quotes} (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG&G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG&G Idaho production wells.

  5. Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality in Louisiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talbot Page; Robert H. Harris; Samuel S. Epstein

    1976-01-01

    Multivariant regression analysis indicates a statistically significant relation between cancer mortality rates in Louisiana and drinking water obtained from the Mississippi River. This is true for total cancer, cancer of the urinary organs, and cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Talking to your teen about drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... does not feel safe in other ways If alcohol abuse runs in the family, it is very important ... drinking responsibly. If you have a problem with alcohol abuse, make the decision to get help quitting.

  7. Carbonated soft drinks and carbonyl stress burden.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Keisuke; Nakayama, Masaaki; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yaeko; Sato, Toshinobu; Kohno, Masahiro; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2009-12-01

    Carbonated soft drinks reportedly contain methylglyoxal (MG), which is strongly associated with human carbonyl stress. We sought to evaluate the effects of carbonated drink intake on human carbonyl stress. We measured MG levels in 4 commercial beverage brands, and evaluated the changes in plasma MG in healthy subjects following the intake of carbonated drinks. By 30 min after intake of samples containing high glucose and high MG, the levels of plasma MG, glucose, insulin and uric acid had increased significantly, and then returned to basal levels by 120 min. After intake of the low-calorie carbonated samples containing little MG, there were no increases in plasma MG. Our results suggest that glucose-containing carbonated soft drinks are associated with increases in not only glucose but also carbonyl burden. PMID:19952506

  8. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will enable a systematic approach to characterizing the value of condition assessment of drinking water mains that will provide the basis for better communication among, and decisions by, stakeholders regarding goals and priorities for research, development, and tech...

  9. Drinking Water Plant Lecture-Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestling, Martha M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a simple way to demonstrate the principles involved in a drinking water plant. This demonstration developed for a general public lecture can be used in chemistry and biology courses for an ecological and environmental emphasis. (HM)

  10. Radon in private drinking water wells.

    PubMed

    Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

    2014-07-01

    At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. PMID:24714110

  11. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia

    PubMed Central

    Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States. PMID:22869743

  12. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  13. Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

  14. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

  15. A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

  16. Start the Talk about Underage Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Month National Prevention Week National Recovery Month National Suicide Prevention Lifeline NSDUH Open Enrollment opioid Opioid Treatment Programs ... Recovery Month Secretary Burwell StopBullying.gov strategic initiatives suicide prevention Talk. They Hear You. treatment Underage drinking underage ...

  17. The effect of modelling on drinking rate.

    PubMed

    Garlington, W K; Dericco, D A

    1977-01-01

    Three male college seniors were asked to drink beer at their normal rate in a simulated tavern setting. Each was paired with a confederate, also a male college senior, in an ABACA single subject design. In the baseline conditions, the confederate matched the drinking rate of the subject. Baseline and all subsequent conditions were continued in 1-hr sessions until a stable drinking rate was achieved. In Condition B, the confederate drank either one third more or one third less than the subject's baseline rate. In Condition C, the direction was reversed. All three subjects closely matched the confederate's drinking rate, whether high or low. All subjects reported they were unaware of the true purpose of the study. PMID:885827

  18. Times to drink: cross-cultural variations in drinking in the rhythm of the week

    PubMed Central

    Room, Robin; Mäkelä, Pia; Benegal, Vivek; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Hettige, Siri; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.; Wilsnack, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The time of drinking in terms of daytime versus evening and weekday versus weekend is charted for regular drinkers in 14 countries in Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa and Oceania. Methods national or regional adult population surveys from the GENACIS project. Results: The weekly rhythm of drinking varies greatly between societies. Drinking was generally more likely after 5 pm and on weekends. To this extent, alcohol consumption is now regulated by a universal clock. The relation of time of day and of the week of drinking to problems from drinking varied between societies. Drinking at specific times was more likely to predict problems among men than women, though for men the particular time varied, while weekday evenings were the most problematic time for women. The relation of drinking at a particular time to problems in part reflected that heavy drinkers were more likely to be drinking at that time. Conclusions There are commonalities across cultures in drinking by time of day and day of the week, but the implications of the timing for alcohol-related problems are fairly culture-specific. PMID:21553132

  19. 'Responsible drinking' programs and the alcohol industry in Brazil: killing two birds with one stone?

    PubMed

    Pantani, Daniela; Sparks, Robert; Sanchez, Zila M; Pinsky, Ilana

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian alcohol industry - which for years has ignored alcohol problems - inaugurated responsible drinking programs (RDPs). This paper reports findings from an exploratory study that investigated the RDP-related activities of six leading alcohol companies in Brazil (three national, three transnational) focusing on program goals and components, target populations and evaluation methods. Interviews were conducted from October 2007 to February 2008 with nine key-informants, and 71 corporate documents were collected along with additional web information about the programs. Content analysis of interviews and institutional documents was used to identify the companies' RDP activities. Three types of RDPs were found that focused respectively on institutional action, drinking and driving, and underage drinking. All three transnational firms were involved in RDPs, whereas national firms demonstrated limited involvement. The majority of RDPs were implemented using television. No targeted research appears to have been undertaken by the companies to assess the efficacy of the strategies in terms of changes in drinking behavior. The evidence for both national and transnational firms means that is difficult to confirm that the responsible drinking programs produced so far in Brazil have been undertaken to systematically reduce alcohol problems, or mainly as part of a public relations strategy to reduce criticism and potentially forestall government regulations (Babor, 2006, 2009; Jernigan, 2009). PMID:22800917

  20. Pollution of drinking water with nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Cabel; R. Kozicki; U. Lahl; A. Podbielshi; B. Stachel; S. Struss

    1982-01-01

    The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg\\/l to 50 mg\\/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg\\/l, and for babies 10 mg\\/l nitrate should

  1. HPLC Determination of Taurine in Sports Drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Dale L.

    2001-06-01

    The amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is present as a nutritional supplement in many sports drinks. An experiment, suitable for a junior-senior level instrumental analysis course, is described to measure the amount of taurine in these sports drinks. A pre-column derivatization with Sanger's reagent, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, is followed by an HPLC separation utilizing a gradient elution, and detection at 360 nm.

  2. Should California Reconsider Its Legal Drinking Age?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Males

    The recent call by 120 American college presidents for reassessment of the legal drinking age of 21 occurs as earlier studies prove to be increasingly limited and outdated. This study tests drinking age effects during the 1975-2005 period using Incidence Rate Ratio analysis of fatal traffic accident and violent death trends among persons ages 16-17, 18-20, and 21-24, as states

  3. Cognitive Preoccupation With Alcohol and Binge Drinking in College Students: Alcohol-Induced Priming of the Motivation to Drink

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark T. Fillmore

    2001-01-01

    This research examined alcohol-induced motivation to drink as a factor that contributes to preoccupation with drinking. Forty undergraduates rated their degree of preoccupation with drinking. The author determined the relationship between the undergraduates' preoccupation and the degree to which alcohol primed their motivation to drink by having them rate their desire for alcohol after they consumed a dose of alcohol

  4. Most terrestrial vertebrates are able to replace water lost to the environment by drinking water. In amniotes, drinking is

    E-print Network

    Behe, Michael J.

    Most terrestrial vertebrates are able to replace water lost to the environment by drinking water, not drinking, because water, unlike food, is physically uniform (at least between 1 and 99 °C). Modifications the frequent need to regain lost water, drinking is secondary to feeding. Furthermore, if drinking is achieved

  5. The Effect of Drink Price and Next-Day Responsibilities on College Student Drinking: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica R. Skidmore; James G. Murphy

    2011-01-01

    More than [3\\/4] of U.S. college students report a heavy drinking episode (HDE; 5 (for men) and 4 (for women) drinks during an occasion) in the previous 90 days. This pattern of drinking is associated with various risks and social problems for both the heavy drinkers and the larger college community. According to behavioral economics, college student drinking is a

  6. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n?=?1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy. PMID:22784412

  7. Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

  8. Solitary drinking, social isolation, and escape drinking motives as predictors of high quantity drinking, among Anglo, African American and Mexican American males.

    PubMed

    Neff, J A

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the phenomenon of 'solitary drinking', considering whether Anglo, African American and Mexican American male regular drinkers differ in the propensity to drink in solitary contexts and whether such differences may help to explain observed ethnic variation in patterns of heavy drinking. Further, the paper considers whether apparent relationships between solitary drinking and drinking patterns are explained by individual personality characteristics such as social isolation and/or by endorsement of 'escape drinking' motives. Data were analysed from a random community sample of 481 adult male regular drinkers in San Antonio, Texas, USA. Contingency table and logistic regression analyses indicated that initially observed ethnic differences in high quantity and high maximum drinking were largely eliminated by controls for education, escape motives and solitary drinking. Ethnic variation in the role of solitary drinking was suggested as well, with solitary drinking more strongly related to high quantity consumption, in particular, among African Americans than among Mexican Americans. The nature of the observed interactions suggests that fundamental differences between Anglos and African Americans in the roles of solitary drinking and escape drinking motives may underlie seemingly similar frequent, lower quantity drinking patterns in these groups that appear more frequently than among Mexican American males. PMID:9131890

  9. Naltrexone Decreases Heavy Drinking Rates in Smoking Cessation Treatment: An Exploratory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea King; Dingcai Cao; Catherine Vanier; Tracie Wilcox

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is mixed support for the efficacy of the opioid antagonist naltrexone in the treatment of nicotine dependence. One potential unexplored mechanism underlying naltrexone's effects in smoking cessation may be in its ability to reduce alcohol consumption. Methods: Alcohol consumption and liver enzyme levels (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase) were examined in a sample of 78 nonalcoholic social drinking

  10. Evaluation of nitrates in drinking water, maternal methemoglobin, and complications of pregnancy in a rural population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deana M. Manassaram

    2007-01-01

    Pregnant women are considered vulnerable to the effects of exposure to high levels of nitrates in drinking water due to their altered physiological states. There are also data indicating that pregnancy complications are associated with reduced antioxidant activity during pregnancy, which can be exacerbated by exogenous oxidants such as nitrates.This prospective study investigated changes in methemoglobin levels during pregnancy and

  11. Replacing Sweetened Caloric Beverages with Drinking Water Is Associated with Lower Energy Intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jodi D. Stookey; Florence Constant; Christopher D. Gardner; Barry M. Popkin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs.Research Methods and Procedures: Secondary

  12. A Review of Exercise as Intervention for Sedentary Hazardous Drinking College Students: Rationale and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity--exercise--as an intervention for…

  13. EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL CHLORATE PRODUCT ADMINISTRATION IN THE DRINKING WATER ON SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM CONTAMINATION OF BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The crop is a known source of Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination. Previously, we evaluated lactic acid in the drinking water during a simulated pre-transport feed withdrawal (FW) and reported 0.44% lactic acid significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the number of Salmonella recovered in market-ag...

  14. Perceptions of Drinking and Related Findings from the Nationwide Campuses Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licciardone, John C.

    2003-01-01

    Proponents of social norms approaches maintain that correcting misperceptions of alcohol use among college students may reduce drinking and its consequences. The author used aggregate campus-level data from the Nationwide Campuses Study to test this hypothesis. He defined the misperceptions ratio as the ratio of the frequency of the "average…

  15. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing and Feedback with Heavy Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez, Patricia; Walters, Scott T.; Daugherty, Mikyta; Radi, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a brief intervention that has been shown to reduce heavy drinking among college students. Because all college studies of MI to date have included a personalized feedback report, it remains unclear which of the components is necessary to produce behavior change. This study evaluated the separate and collective…

  16. My Student Body: A High-Risk Drinking Prevention Web Site for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiauzzi, Emil; Green, Traci Craig; Lord, Sarah; Thum, Christina; Goldstein, Marion

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the efficacy of an interactive Web site, MyStudentBody.com: Alcohol (MSB:Alcohol) that offers a brief, tailored intervention to help heavy drinking college students reduce their alcohol use. They conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to compare the intervention with an alcohol education Web site at baseline,…

  17. Drinking water quality and solar disinfection: Effectiveness in peri-urban households in Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rochelle C. Rainey; Anna K. Harding

    2005-01-01

    The study examined pH, turbidity and fecal contamination of drinking water from household water storage containers, wells and taps, and the Godawari River, and tested the effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) in reducing levels of fecal contamination from household containers. The research was conducted in 40 households in a village 6km outside the capital city of Kathmandu, Nepal. Three rounds

  18. September 3, 1999 Characterization of Arsenic Occurrence in US Drinking Water Treatment

    E-print Network

    September 3, 1999 Characterization of Arsenic Occurrence in US Drinking Water Treatment Facility in treatment facility finished water may not be low enough to adequately reduce exposure to the carcinogen occurrence in raw water and the costs and removal efficiencies of various treatment options. J.R. Lockwood

  19. Targeting Misperceptions of Descriptive Drinking Norms: Efficacy of a Computer-Delivered Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.; Lewis, Melissa A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacy of a computer-delivered personalized normative feedback intervention in reducing alcohol consumption among heavy-drinking college students. Participants included 252 students who were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group following a baseline assessment. Immediately after completing measures of…

  20. Adolescent Drinking and Adolescent Stress: A Domain-Specific Relationship in Northern Irish Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael Thomas; Cole, Jon C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested an association between heightened levels of stress among adolescents and reduced levels of mental, physical and emotional well-being. This study sought to examine the relationship between 10 domains of adolescent stress and self-reported drinking behaviour. A total of 610 adolescents, aged 12-16 years old, were…

  1. Nano-Scale Pollutants: Fate in Irish Surface and Drinking Water Regulatory Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niall O’Brien; Enda Cummins

    2010-01-01

    Nano-functionalized products such as UV protective paints additives, antimicrobial food packaging, and fuel additives offering reduced CO2 emissions have the potential to secure a significant Irish market share in the near future. This scoping study gives a first estimation of nanomaterial surface water concentrations and population ingestional exposure through drinking water resulting from these products. As nanomaterial behavior in wastewater

  2. Hypervolemia from Drinking Hyperhydration Solutions at Rest and Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Looft-Wilson, Robin; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Geelen, Ghislaine; Barnes, Paul R.; Jensen, Christopher D.; Whittam, James H.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of muscular fatigue from physical work and exercise (high metabolism) is not clear, but involves disturbances of muscle surface membrane excitation-contraction coupling from changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, cell H+ and Pi responses, and carbohydrate metabolism. Fatigue in people at rest (low metabolism) involves both psychological and physiological factors, probably in different proportions. One common factor appears to be the level and distribution of water and electrolytes within muscle cells and other vascular, interstitial, body fluid compartments. The vascular fluid volume, composed of plasma and red blood cells, is a primary regulatory factor for cardiovascular function; reduction of vascular volume (hypovolemia) and total body water (hypohydration) adversely affect exercise performance. Plasma volume and plasma ionic-osmotic constituent concentrations are also regulatory factors for body thermoregulation, which is often compromised from exercise induced hypovolemia and hypohydration. Rehydration of dehydrated people on earth is relatively easy with appropriate food (osmols), fluid, and a restful environment. But ad libitum drinking under stressful conditions; e.g., heat, exercise, or prior dehydration, results in involuntary dehydration defined as the delay in full fluid replacement (euhydration) during and following loss of body fluid. Astronauts, with their reduced total body water are euhydrated while in weightlessness, but become "dehydrated" during reentry and landing. Thus, people subjected to acute or chronic stress are probably somewhat "dehydrated" as well as fatigued. Many rehydration drinks are more concentrated (hypertonic-hyperosmotic) with respect to the normal plasma osmolality of 285 mOsm/kg H2O and more of the drink osmols are contributed by carbohydrates than by ionized substances. There have been few studies on the efficacy of various drink formulations for increasing body fluid compartment volumes, especially plasma volume, in rested hydrated subjects. Recent findings from our laboratory have indicated that drinks containing greater concentrations of ionized substances (Performance 1 and AstroAde) up to 157 mEq/L Na+ induced greater levels of hypervolemia in resting, moderately dehydrated men, and were also better than water for attenuating the characteristic hypovolemia during supine, submaximal, leg ergometer exercise.

  3. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    PubMed

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in untreated Ottawa River water, with a dissolved organic carbon concentration of 6 mg/L, was significantly higher than the stability of the nano-silver dispersions in distilled, organic-free water. Nano-silver particles suspended in the groundwater agglomerated and were quickly and quantitatively removed from the solution. Our data confirm previous observations that natural dissolved organic matter stabilizes nano-silver particles, while the high-ionic strength of groundwater appears to favor their agglomeration and precipitation. As expected, nano-silver was not stable in Ottawa River water through the chlorination process, but survived for many days when added to the Ottawa River water after treatment with chlorine or chloramines. Stirring appeared to have minimal effect on nano-silver stability in untreated and treated Ottawa River water. The profile of DBPs formed in the presence of nAg differed significantly from the profile of DBPs formed in the absence of nAg only at the 1 mg/L nAg concentration. The differences observed consisted mainly in reduced formation of some brominated DBPs and a small increase in the formation of cyanogen chloride. The reduced formation of brominated congeners may be explained by the decrease in available bromide due to the presence of Ag(+) ions. It should be noted that a concentration of 1 mg/L is significantly higher than nAg concentrations that would be expected to be present in surface waters, but these results could be significant for the disinfection of some wastewaters with comparably high nano-silver concentrations. PMID:24458938

  4. Prediction of Abstinence, Controlled Drinking, and Heavy Drinking Outcomes Following Behavioral Self-Control Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William R.; Joyce, Mark A.

    1979-01-01

    Examined prognostic value of client characteristics for problem drinkers treated with an initial goal of controlled drinking. Clients achieving moderation had less severe symptoms and less family history of problem drinking than abstainers or uncontrolled cases. Females were more successful in attaining moderation. Males were overrepresented among…

  5. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay the Growth of Adolescent Drinking and Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…

  6. Drinking habits among college-aged African-American women: The frequency of problem drinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isis Naima Draper-Walton

    2001-01-01

    College students are at increased risk of alcohol-related problems based on high levels of regular alcohol consumption. Prior research has generated many correlates of such behavior but few have focused on the specific drinking patterns of college-aged black women. Although some recent studies have addressed this, there remains a dearth in the literature on collegiate drinking among minority women. This

  7. Binge Drinking and Drinking and Driving among South Korean International College Students in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, J.; Seo, D.-C.; Nelson, T. F.; Lohrmann, D. K.; Ellis, N. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate two risky behaviours (i.e. binge drinking and drinking and driving) and their individual- and college-level correlates among South Korean international college students in the USA Design: Cross-sectional online survey (student response rate = 41.6%). Setting: South Korean college students (N = 1201) were recruited from 52…

  8. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Are There Associated Negative Consequences beyond Hazardous Drinking in College Students?

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lisa; Fendrich, Michael; Fuhrmann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is prevalent among college students as is hazardous drinking, a drinking pattern that places one at risk for alcohol-related harm. The present study, therefore, examined associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences in college students. Methods Based on a probability sample conducted in 2010, participants were 606 undergraduate students aged 18-25. AmED consumption included lifetime and past year use. Hazardous drinking and alcohol-related consequences were measured during the past year. Point prevalence was used to estimate rates of AmED use, and chi-square, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used to examine associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Results Lifetime and past year AmED use prevalence rates were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively. Hazardous drinkers who engaged in AmED use were significantly more likely than past year hazardous drinkers who did not engage in AmED use to have had unprotected sex (OR = 2.35, CI 1.27-4.32). Conclusions AmED use appears to be highly prevalent among college students, and AmED use may confer additional risk for unprotected sex beyond hazardous drinking. Unprotected sex has implications for public health, and students who drink hazardously and consume AmED may be at greater risk. PMID:23685329

  9. A simple bioluminescence procedure for early warning detection of coliform bacteria in drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Søren Bastholm; Lasse Wahlstrøm; Louise Appel Bjergbæk; Peter Roslev

    2008-01-01

    Traditional cultivation-dependent tests for coliform bacteria in food and drinking water take 18–24 h to complete. Bioluminescence-based\\u000a enzyme assays can potentially reduce analysis time for indicator bacteria such as coliforms. In the present study, we developed\\u000a a simple presence\\/absence (P\\/A) bioluminescence procedure for rapid detection of coliform bacteria in groundwater-based drinking\\u000a water. The bioluminescence procedure targeting ?-d-galactosidase activity in coliform bacteria

  10. National survey of MTBE and other VOCs in community drinking-water sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clawges, Rick M.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.

    2001-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is added to gasoline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone levels in the air. The chemical properties and widespread use of MTBE can result in contamination of private and public drinking-water sources. MTBE contamination is a concern in drinking water because of the compound's low taste and odor threshold and potential human-health effects.

  11. Translating effective web-based self-help for problem drinking into the real world

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heleen Riper; Jeannet Kramer; Barbara Conijn; Filip Smit; Gerard Schippers; Pim Cuijpers

    2009-01-01

    Keywords:Randomized Controlled Trial;Problem Drinking;Web-Based Self-Help;Real-World Setting\\u000aBackground: Drinking Less (DL) is a 24\\/7 free-access anonymous interactive web-based self-help intervention without therapeutic guidance for adult problem drinkers in the community. In a randomized controlled trial (referred to here as DL-RCT), DL has been shown effective in reducing risky alcohol consumption. Objective: To assess whether the findings of DL-RCT are generalizable to

  12. Does staying in school (and not working) prevent teen smoking and drinking?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Robert; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2012-07-01

    Previous work suggests but cannot prove that education improves health behaviors. We exploit a randomized intervention that increased schooling (and reduced working) among male students in the Dominican Republic, by providing information on the returns to schooling. We find that treated youths were much less likely to smoke at age 18 and had delayed onset of daily or regular drinking. The effects appear to be due to changes in peer networks and disposable income. We find no evidence of a direct impact of schooling on rates of time preference, attitudes towards risk or perceptions that drinking or smoking are harmful to health, though our measures of these factors are more limited. PMID:22705390

  13. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti oxidant activity of a poly herbal formulation - Chyavana drink

    PubMed Central

    Poornima, K.; Thangal, Haseeb Koya; Karpagavalli, S.

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of a poly herbal formulation-Chyavana drink. The inflammation was induced in albino rats by carrageenan. The formulation was effective when compared with a known anti-inflammatory drug. The antioxidant activity was studied by invitro methods. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be showing higher percentage of inhibition and reducing power at high concentrations. The phenolic content of Chyavana drink was observed to be high showing a good antioxidant effect. PMID:22557286

  14. Pre-drinking and alcohol-related harm in undergraduates: the influence of explicit motives and implicit alcohol identity.

    PubMed

    Caudwell, Kim M; Hagger, Martin S

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated how pre-drinking could be explained using a model based on dual-systems theory, incorporating measures of explicit and implicit constructs. Undergraduate students (N = 144; 44 male; 100 female; M age = 20.1 years), completed an online survey comprising measures of pre-drinking motives, a measure of pre-drinking cost motives, and an alcohol identity implicit association test. Variance-based structural equation modelling revealed that the predictors explained 34.8% of the variance in typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption and 25% of the variance in alcohol-related harm. Cost, interpersonal enhancement, and barriers to consumption motives predicted higher typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption and greater alcohol-related harm. Higher situational control scores predicted lower typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption, and lower alcohol-related harm. Positive implicit alcohol identity predicted alcohol-related harm, but not typical alcohol consumption. Results indicate that a dual-systems approach to pre-drinking has utility in predicting alcohol-related harm and may inform interventions to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and associated harm. PMID:24863376

  15. RCT of Web-based Personalized Normative Feedback for College Drinking Prevention: Are Typical Student Norms Good Enough?

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Neighbors, Clayton; Zheng, Cheng; R. Kenney, Shannon; Napper, Lucy E.; Walter, Theresa; Kilmer, Jason R.; Hummer, Justin F.; Grossbard, Joel; Ghaidarov, Tehniat M.; Desai, Sruti; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions are generally effective at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing risky alcohol consumption among college students. However, research has yet to establish what level of reference group specificity is most efficacious in delivering PNF. This study compared the efficacy of a web-based PNF intervention employing eight increasingly-specific reference groups against a Web-BASICS intervention and a repeated-assessment control in reducing risky drinking and associated consequences. Method Participants were 1663 heavy drinking Caucasian and Asian undergraduates at two universities. The referent for web-based PNF was either the typical same-campus student, or a same-campus student at one (either gender, race, or Greek-affiliation), or a combination of two (e.g., gender and race), or all three levels of specificity (i.e., gender, race, and Greek-affiliation). Hypotheses were tested using quasi-Poisson generalized linear models fit by generalized estimating equations. Results The PNF intervention participants showed modest reductions in all four outcomes (average total drinks, peak drinking, drinking days, and drinking consequences) compared to control participants. No significant differences in drinking outcomes were found between the PNF group as a whole and the Web-BASICS group. Among the eight PNF conditions, participants receiving typical student PNF demonstrated greater reductions in all four outcomes compared to those receiving PNF for more specific reference groups. Perceived drinking norms and discrepancies between individual behavior and actual norms mediated the efficacy of the intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest a web-based PNF intervention using the typical student referent offers a parsimonious approach to reducing problematic alcohol use outcomes among college students. PMID:23937346

  16. Underage drinking in the UK: changing trends, impact and interventions. A rapid evidence synthesis.

    PubMed

    Healey, Christine; Rahman, Atif; Faizal, Mohammad; Kinderman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The UK is a high prevalence country for underage alcohol use. We conducted an evidence synthesis to examine (1) the changing trends in underage drinking in the UK compared to Europe and the USA, (2) the impact of underage drinking in terms of hospital admissions, (3) the association between underage drinking and violent youth offending, and (4) the evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction interventions aimed at children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. The following databases were searched from November 2002 until November 2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, The Evidence for Policy and Practice Information, DARE, Medline, The Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Psych INFO and Social Care Online. Our findings revealed changes in the way children drink in the UK and how much they drink. Alcohol related harms are increasing in the UK despite overall population levels of consumption reducing in this age group. Girls aged 15-16 years report binge drinking and drunkenness more than boys. Girls are also more likely than boys to be admitted to hospital for alcohol related harm. The evidence suggests a strong association between heavy episodic binge drinking and violent youth offending. Only 7 out of 45 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified for this review included children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. Most were delivered in the emergency department (ED) and involved a brief intervention. All were characterised by a wide age range of participants, heterogeneous samples and high rates of refusal and attrition. The authors conclude that whilst the ED might be the best place to identify children and adolescents at risk of harm related to alcohol use it might not be the best place to deliver an intervention. Issues related to a lack of engagement with alcohol harm reduction interventions have been previously overlooked and warrant further investigation. PMID:24095678

  17. Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaguerra, F.; Albrechtsen, H.; Binning, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Drinking water wells are often placed near streams because streams often overly permeable sediments and the water table is near the surface in valleys, and so pumping costs are reduced. The lowering of the water table by pumping wells can reverse the natural flow from the groundwater to the stream, inducing infiltration of surface water to groundwater and consequently to the drinking water well. Many attenuation processes can take place in the riparian zone, mainly due to mixing, biodegradation and sorption. However, if the water travel time from the surface water to the pumping well is too short, or if the compounds are poorly degradable, contaminants can reach the drinking water well at high concentrations, jeopardizing drinking water quality. Here we developed a reactive transport model to evaluate the risk of contamination of drinking water wells by surface water pollution. The model was validated using data of a tracer experiment in a riparian zone. Three compounds were considered: an older pesticide MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and persistent, glyphosate (Roundup), a new biodegradable and strongly sorbed pesticide, and its degradation product AMPA. Global sensitivity analysis using the method of Morris was employed to identify the dominant model parameters. Results showed that the presence of an aquitard and its characteristics (degree of fracturing and thickness), pollutant properties and well depth are the crucial factors affecting the risk of drinking water well contamination from surface water. Global sensitivity analysis results were compared with rank correlation statistics between pesticide concentrations and geological parameters derived from a comprehensive database of Danish drinking water wells. Aquitard thickness and well depth are the most critical parameters in both the model and observed data.

  18. Poor adjustment to college life mediates the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consequences: A look at college adjustment, drinking motives, and drinking outcomes

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Ehret, Phillip J.; Hummer, Justin F.; Prenovost, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes was mediated by college adjustment. Participants (N=253) completed an online survey that assessed drinking motives, degree of both positive and negative college adjustment, typical weekly drinking, and past month negative alcohol-related consequences. Structural equation modeling examined negative alcohol consequences as a function of college adjustment, drinking motives, and weekly drinking behavior in college students. Negative college adjustment mediated the relationship between coping drinking motives and drinking consequences. Positive college adjustment was not related to alcohol consumption or consequences. Positive reinforcement drinking motives (i.e. social and enhancement) not only directly predicted consequences, but were partially mediated by weekly drinking and degree of negative college adjustment. Gender specific models revealed that males exhibited more variability in drinking and their positive reinforcement drinking motives were more strongly associated with weekly drinking. Uniquely for females, coping motives were directly and indirectly (via negative adjustment) related to consequences. These findings suggest that interventions which seek to decrease alcohol-related risk may wish to incorporate discussions about strategies for decreasing stress and increasing other factors associated with better college adjustment. PMID:22177614

  19. Ethanol drinking microstructure of a High Drinking in the Dark selected mouse line

    PubMed Central

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Crabbe, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) selected mouse line was bred for high blood ethanol concentration (BEC) following the limited access Drinking in the Dark (DID) test and is a genetic animal model of binge-like drinking. The present study examines the microstructure of ethanol drinking in these mice and their control line during three versions of the DID test to determine how drinking structure differences might relate to overall intake and BEC. Methods Male mice from the HDID-1 replicate line and HS/Npt progenitor stock were tested in separate experiments on 2- and 4-day versions of the DID test, and on a 2-day two-bottle choice DID test with 20% ethanol and water. Testing took place in home cages connected to a continuous fluid intake monitoring system (BioDAQ) and drinking during the DID test was analyzed for drinking microstructure. Results HDID-1 mice had more drinking bouts, shorter interbout interval, larger bout size, greater total ethanol intake, and higher BECs than HS/Npt mice on the 2nd day of the 2-day DID test. The 4-day DID test showed greater bout size, total ethanol intake, and BEC in the HDID-1 mice than the HS/Npt mice. Total ethanol intake and BECs for the HDID-1 mice in the DID tests averaged 2.6-3.0 g/kg and 0.4-0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The two-bottle choice test showed no genotype differences in drinking microstructure or total consumption, but did show greater preference for the ethanol solution in HDID-1 mice than HS/Npt. Conclusions These results suggest that inherent differences in ethanol drinking structure between the HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice, especially the larger bout size in the HDID-1 mice, contribute to the difference in intake during the standard DID test. PMID:22524154

  20. Water resources management in soft drink industry-water use and wastewater generation.

    PubMed

    Ait Hsine, E; Benhammou, A; Pons, M N

    2005-12-01

    Water is used in most process industries for a wide range of applications. Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. These changes have increased the need for better water management and wastewater minimisation. In Morocco, water use in the food and drink industry is extensive at approximately 24 million m3 per year including 14% of drinking water in 1994. This study was conducted in a carbonate soft drink industry plant, during two years, 2001 and 2002. We have investigated the state of consumption and use of fresh water and the generation of the effluent in the factory. The aim of the study is to identify potential opportunities for reducing fresh water intake and minimising wastewater production by studying the posibility of reuse, recycling and treatment. PMID:16372565

  1. Effect of home-used water purifier on fluoride concentration of drinking water in southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kheirmand, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fluoride in drinking water plays a key role in dental health. Due to the increasing use of water-purifier, the effect of these devices on fluoride concentration of drinking water was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Drinking water samples were collected before and after passing through a home water-purifier, from four different water sources. The fluoride, calcium and magnesium concentration of the samples were measured using the quantitative spectrophotometery technique. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test. P value < 0.1 was considered as significant. Results: The result showed that the concentration of fluoride was 0.05-0.61 ppm before purification and was removed completely afterward. Furthermore, other ions reduced significantly after treatment by the water purifier. Conclusion: This study revealed that this device decreases the fluoride content of water, an issue which should be considered in low and high-fluoridated water sources. PMID:24130584

  2. Central Renin Injections: Effects on Drinking and Expression of Immediate Early Genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Zhice; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the drinking response and the expression of Fos- and Egr-1-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir, Egr-1-ir) in the brain induced by endogenous angiotensin generated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of renin. Renin induced Fos-ir in the subformical organ (SFO), median preoptic (MnPO), supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei (SON and PVN), area postrema (AP), nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) and lateral parabrachial nuclei (LPBN). Renin-induced Egr-1-ir exhibited a similar pattern of distribution as that observed for Fos-ir. The dose of i.c.v. renin that induced expression of immediate early gene (IEG) product immunoreactivity also produced vigorous drinking. When renin-injected rats were pretreated with captopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, drinking was blocked. With the same captopril pretreatment, both Fos- and Egr-1-ir in the SFO, MnPO, SON, PVN, AP and LPBN were also significantly reduced.

  3. Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects. There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance. Genetic factors may also contribute to an individual’s vulnerability to caffeine related disorders including caffeine intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal. The combined use of caffeine and alcohol is increasing sharply, and studies suggest that such combined use may increase the rate of alcohol-related injury. Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence. Regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:18809264

  4. The fatal toll of driving to drink: the effect of minimum legal drinking age evasion on traffic fatalities.

    PubMed

    Lovenheim, Michael F; Slemrod, Joel

    2010-01-01

    There is a sizeable literature on the effect of minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) restrictions on teenage drunk driving. This paper adds to the literature by examining the effect of MLDA evasion across states with different alcohol restrictions. Using state-of-the-art GIS software and micro-data on fatal vehicle accidents from 1977 to 2002, we find that in counties within 25 miles of a lower-MLDA jurisdiction, a legal restriction on drinking does not reduce youth involvement in fatal accidents and, for 18 and 19-year-old drivers, fatal accident involvement actually increases. Farther from such a border, we find results consistent with the previous literature that MLDA restrictions are effective in reducing accident fatalities. The estimates imply that, of the total reduction in teenager-involved fatalities due to the equalization of state MLDAs at 21 in the 1970s and 1980s, for 18-year olds between a quarter and a third and for 19-year olds over 15 percent was due to equalization. Furthermore, the effect of changes in the MLDA is quite heterogeneous with respect to the fraction of a state's population that need not travel far to cross a border to evade its MLDA. Our results imply the effect of lowering the MLDA in select states, such as has been proposed in Vermont, could lead to sizeable increases in teenage involvement in fatal accidents due to evasion of local alcohol restrictions. PMID:19945186

  5. Habitus of home and traditional drinking: a qualitative analysis of reported middle-class alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Brierley-Jones, Lyn; Ling, Jonathan; McCabe, Karen E; Wilson, Graeme B; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen F S; Haighton, Catherine A

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that alcohol consumption among those in middle-class occupations consistently exceeds safe levels, yet there has been little research into why this occurs. This article explores the meanings associated with alcohol use among professional, managerial and clerical workers. Qualitative data were collected from five focus groups of male and female employees aged 21-55 (N =49: 32 male, 17 female). Each focus group was conducted on the premises of a medium-scale or large-scale employer, four public sector and one private sector, in the north-east of England. Using Bourdieu's concepts of 'habitus', 'capitals' and 'fields' we found that, among these middle-class occupational groups, alcohol use was associated with two habitus: a 'home drinking' habitus and a 'traditional drinking' habitus. Those of the home drinking habitus particularly used wine as a source of cultural capital and a means of distinction, whereas those in the traditional habitus consumed lager, beer and spirits to have fun in social settings. A small minority appeared to belong to a third, omnivorous, habitus where a wide range of alcoholic drinks were consumed in a variety of contexts. Existing public health initiatives to reduce alcohol consumption may require modification to accommodate a range of drinking cultures. PMID:25060523

  6. Evaluating pond sand filter as sustainable drinking water supplier in the Southwest coastal region of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, M. A. Y. A.; Kabir, G. M. M.

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates existing water supply scenario, and evaluates the performance of pond sand filter (PSF) in meeting drinking water demand of Dacope Upazila in southwest coastal Bangladesh. Questionnaire survey to the villagers reveals that PSF is the major drinking water sources (38 %) of the study area followed by tubewells (30.4 %), rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems (12.6 %), ponds (10.3 %) and others (8.7 %). The spot test and laboratory analysis show that odour, colour, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate and phosphate of the PSFs water meet Bangladesh standard. The efficiency of PSF in reducing total dissolved solids (TDS) (15 %) and potassium (8.2 %) is not enough to meet the standard of 20 % PSFs for TDS and one-third PSFs for potassium. The study proves that PSF is unable to remove coliform bacteria by 100 % from highly contaminated water. Hence, disinfection should be adopted before distribution to ensure safe drinking water. Majority of the PSF's users (80 %) are either partially satisfied or dissatisfied with the existing system. The beneficiary's willingness to pay for drinking water technologies seems that the combination of PSF and RWH could ensure sustainable drinking water in coastal region of Bangladesh.

  7. Access to drinking water and health of populations in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ntouda, Julien; Sikodf, Fondo; Ibrahim, Mohamadou; Abba, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Water is at the center of the plant and animal life, the foundation upon which the health of human settlement and development of civilizations rely on. In tropical regions, 80% of diseases are transmitted either by germs in the water, or by vectors staying in it. In Sub-Saharan Africa, statistics show particularly high levels of unmet needs of populations in access to drinking water in a context of socioeconomic development. For this purpose, this study aims to determine the influence of access to drinking water on the health of populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from Cameroon, Senegal and Chad, it is clear from the descriptive analysis that 60% (Cameroon), and 59% (Chad) of the cases of childhood diarrhea in these two countries are due to the consumption of dirty water. In terms of explanatory analysis, we note that when a household in Cameroon, Senegal or Chad does not have access to drinking water, children under 5 years old residing there are respectively 1.29, 1.27 and 1.03 times more likely to have diarrhea than those residing in households with easy access to drinking water. In view of these results, it is recommended to increase access to drinking water in particular by reducing disparities between the rich and poor people. PMID:23916208

  8. Alcohol Policy, Social Context, and Infant Health: The Impact of Minimum Legal Drinking Age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Caine, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) was increased in the U.S. in the late 1980s in an effort to reduce intoxication-associated injuries, especially those related to motor vehicle accidents. This paper explores distal (secondary) effects of changing MLDA on indices of infant health, and whether changes in drinking behaviors or birth composition contributed to these effects. Methods State- and year-fixed-effects models are used to analyze the relationship between MLDA, drinking behaviors, and birth outcomes. We studied the effects of different MLDA (age 18, 19, 20, or 21 years) when potential mothers were 14 years old by merging two population-based datasets, the Natality Detailed Files and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 1985 and 2002. Results A MLDA of 18 years old (when potential mothers were 14 years old) increased the prevalence of low birth weight, low Apgar scores, and premature births. Effects were stronger among children born to black women compared with white women. Moreover, a younger MLDA was associated with an increasing proportion of very young and high school dropouts for black women. Furthermore, older MLDA laws at age 14 years decreased the prevalence of binge drinking among black women. Conclusions Increasing the MLDA had longer term, distal impacts beyond the initially intended outcomes, specifically on birth outcomes (particularly among infants born to black women) as well as school drop-outs and binge drinking patterns among black young females. The older MLDA, intended initially to reduce problematic drinking behaviors, appeared to alter broader social contexts that influenced young women during their early childbearing years. PMID:22016717

  9. The Effectiveness of Drinking and Driving Policies for Different Alcohol-Related Fatalities: A Quantile Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Yung-Hsiang; Wu, Chin-Chih; Chang, Koyin

    2013-01-01

    To understand the impact of drinking and driving laws on drinking and driving fatality rates, this study explored the different effects these laws have on areas with varying severity rates for drinking and driving. Unlike previous studies, this study employed quantile regression analysis. Empirical results showed that policies based on local conditions must be used to effectively reduce drinking and driving fatality rates; that is, different measures should be adopted to target the specific conditions in various regions. For areas with low fatality rates (low quantiles), people’s habits and attitudes toward alcohol should be emphasized instead of transportation safety laws because “preemptive regulations” are more effective. For areas with high fatality rates (or high quantiles), “ex-post regulations” are more effective, and impact these areas approximately 0.01% to 0.05% more than they do areas with low fatality rates. PMID:24084673

  10. Problem: Thirst, Drinking Behavior, and Involuntary Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of involuntary dehydration, the delay in full restoration of a body water deficit by drinking, has been described extensively but relatively little is known about its physiological mechanism. It occurs primarily in humans when they are exposed to various stresses including exercise, environmental heat and cold, altitude, water immersion, dehydration, and perhaps microgravity, singly and in various combinations. The level of involuntary dehydration is approximately proportional to the degree of total stress imposed on the body. Involuntary dehydration appears to be controlled by more than one factor including social customs that influence what is consumed, the capacity and rate of fluid absorption from the gastrointestinal system, the level of cellular hydration involving the osmotic-vasopressin interaction with sensitive cells or structures in the central nervous system, and, to a lesser extent, hypovolemic-angiotensin II stimuli. Since humans drink when there is no apparent physiological stimulus, the psychological component should always be considered when investigating the total mechanisms for drinking.

  11. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment, Arsenic, Adsorption, Coagulation, Drinking Water, Bangladesh

  12. Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Walter Q; Rose, Joan B

    2004-12-01

    Major waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water have been linked to evidence of suboptimal treatment. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are particularly more resistant than Giardia lamblia cysts to removal and inactivation by conventional water treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorine disinfection); therefore, extensive research has been focused on the optimization of treatment processes and application of new technologies to reduce concentrations of viable/infectious oocysts to a level that prevents disease. The majority of the data on the performance of treatment processes to remove cysts and oocysts from drinking water have been obtained from pilot-tests, with a few studies performed in full-scale conventional water treatment plants. These studies have demonstrated that protozoan cyst removal throughout all stages of the conventional treatment is largely influenced by the effectiveness of coagulation pretreatment, which along with clarification constitutes the first treatment barrier against protozoan breakthrough. Physical removal of waterborne Crytosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts is ultimately achieved by properly functioning conventional filters, providing that effective pretreatment of the water is applied. Disinfection by chemical or physical methods is finally required to inactivate/remove the infectious life stages of these organisms. The effectiveness of conventional (chlorination) and alternative (chlorine dioxide, ozonation and ultra violet [UV] irradiation) disinfection procedures for inactivation of Cryptosporidium has been the focus of much research due to the recalcitrant nature of waterborne oocysts to disinfectants. This paper provides technical information on conventional and alternative drinking water treatment technologies for removal and inactivation of the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia. PMID:15567586

  13. Human exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Lan, Vi Mai; Anh, Duong Hong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Berg, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Vietnam is an agricultural country with a population of about 88 million, with some 18 million inhabitants living in the Red River Delta in Northern Vietnam. The present study reports the chemical analyses of 68 water and 213 biological (human hair and urine) samples conducted to investigate arsenic contamination in tube well water and human arsenic exposure in four districts (Tu Liem, Dan Phuong, Ly Nhan, and Hoai Duc) in the Red River Delta. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in these areas were in the range of <1 to 632 ?g/L, with severe contamination found in the communities Ly Nhan, Hoai Duc, and Dan Phuong. Arsenic concentrations were markedly lowered in water treated with sand filters, except for groundwater from Hoai Duc. Human hair samples had arsenic levels in the range of 0.07-7.51 ?g/g, and among residents exposed to arsenic levels ?50 ?g/L, 64% of them had hair arsenic concentrations higher than 1 ?g/g, which is a level that can cause skin lesions. Urinary arsenic concentrations were 4-435 ?g/g creatinine. Concentrations of arsenic in hair and urine increased significantly with increasing arsenic content in drinking water, indicating that drinking water is a significant source of arsenic exposure for these residents. The percentage of inorganic arsenic (IA) in urine decreased with age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine. Significant co-interactions of age and arsenic exposure status were also detected for concentrations of arsenic in hair and the sum of IA, MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine and %MMA. In summary, this study demonstrates that a considerable proportion of the Vietnamese population is exposed to arsenic levels of chronic toxicity, even if sand filters reduce exposure in many households. Health problems caused by arsenic ingestion through drinking water are increasingly reported in Vietnam. PMID:24262873

  14. Implementing a reward and reminder underage drinking prevention program in convenience stores near Southern California American Indian reservations

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roland S.; Roberts, Jennifer; McGaffigan, Richard; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W.; Gilder, David A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Underage drinking is associated with a number of social and public health consequences. Preventing access to alcohol is one approach to reducing underage drinking. Objectives This study assesses the efficacy of a culturally tailored “reward and reminder” program aimed at reducing convenience store alcohol sales to youth living on or near nine American Indian reservations. Methods First, tribal council proclamations were sought to support underage drinking prevention, including reward and reminder efforts. Then, decoys (volunteers over 21 years of age but judged to look younger) attempted to purchase alcohol without identification. Clerks who asked for identification were given “rewards” (gift cards and congratulatory letters), whereas clerks who did not were given “reminders” of the law regarding sales to minors. Following an initial baseline of 12 purchase attempts, three repeated reward and reminder visits were made to 13 convenience stores selling alcohol within ten miles of the reservations (n=51 total attempts). Results Five of nine tribal councils passed resolutions in support of the program. The baseline sales rate without requesting ID was 33%. Similarly, 38% of stores in the first reward and reminder visit round failed to request identification. However, in the following two reward and reminder rounds, 0% of the stores failed to request identification. Conclusions These results indicate that environmental community-level underage drinking prevention strategies to reduce alcohol sales near rural reservations are feasible and can be effective. Scientific Significance Environmental prevention strategies within reservation communities support integrated supply and demand reduction models for reducing underage drinking. PMID:22931080

  15. Who Suggests Drinking Less? Demographic and National Differences in Informal Social Controls on Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dietze, Paul; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine variation in reports of pressuring others to drink less, as a form of informal social control of drinking, across countries and different types of relationship to the respondent. Method: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 19,945 respondents ages 18–69 years in 14 countries included in the data set of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Outcome variables were respondents’ reports of pressuring others to drink less (yes/no) across a variety of relationships (their partners, other family members, workmates, or friends). Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out on each outcome variable. The fixed-effects components included the Level 1 (individual) covariates of respondent age, gender, drinking status, and education level as well as the Level 2 (country level) covariates of percentage female drinkers and purchasing power parity. The random-effects components included country and current drinking status. Results: Respondents most frequently reported pressuring male friends to drink less (18%), followed by male family members (other than partners, 15%), partners (15%), work colleagues (12%), female friends (9%), female family members (other than partners, 6%), and children (5%). There was marked variation across countries, with pressuring frequently reported in Uganda, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua across most relationship types. Multivariable logistic regression revealed consistent effects of gender, with women more likely than men to report pressuring others to drink less across most relationship types. The patterns in relation to education status and age were less consistent and varied across relationship type. Conclusions: Informal social control of drinking varies dramatically according to whom is most likely to pressure whom to drink less as well as the country in which people live. PMID:24172112

  16. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE): Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MTBE, a gasoline oxygenater additive, has been detected in ground water sources throughout different parts of the country. These ground water sources are often the source of drinking water, and the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether in even minute quantities can make the water undrinkable. Research to date has not conclusively identified any quantitative level at which serious health risks may occur. This site provides information on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency on the concerns and occurence of MTBE in drinking water.

  17. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and new approach to assess drinking water contamination by shorter-chained C4-C7 PFCs.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Michael; Bergmann, Sabine; Dieter, Hermann H

    2010-06-01

    After detection of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in drinking water at concentrations up to 0.64 microg/l in Arnsberg, Sauerland, Germany, the German Drinking Water Commission (TWK) assessed perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water and set for the first time worldwide in June 2006 a health-based guide value for safe lifelong exposure at 0.3 microg/l (sum of PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonate, PFOS). PFOA and PFOS can be effectively removed from drinking water by percolation over granular activated carbon. Additionally, recent EU-regulations require phasing out use of PFOS and ask to voluntarily reduce the one of PFOA. New and shorter-chained PFCs (C4-C7) and their mixtures are being introduced as replacements. We assume that some of these "new" compounds could be main contributors to total PFC levels in drinking water in future, especially since short-chained PFCs are difficult to remove from drinking water by common treatment techniques and also by filtration over activated carbon. The aims of the study were to summarize the data from the regularly measured PFC levels in drinking water and in the drinking water resources in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) for the sampling period 2008-2009, to give an overview on the general approach to assess PFC mixtures and to assess short-chained PFCs by using toxicokinetic instead of (sub)chronic data. No general increase of substitutes for PFOS and PFOA in wastewater and surface water was detected. Present findings of short-chained PFC in drinking waters in NRW were due to extended analysis and caused by other impacts. Additionally, several PFC contamination incidents in drinking water resources (groundwater and rivers) have been reported in NRW. The new approach to assess short-chained PFCs is based on a ranking of their estimated half-lives for elimination from the human body. Accordingly, we consider the following provisional health-related indication values (HRIV) as safe in drinking water for lifelong exposure: perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) 7 microg/l, perfluoropentanoate (PFPA) 3 microg/l, perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) 1 microg/l, perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) 0.3 microg/l, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) 3 microg/l, perfluoropentanesulfonate (PFPS) 1 microg/l, perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) 0.3 microg/l and perfluoroheptanesulfonate (PFHpS) 0.3 microg/l. For all PFCs the long-term lowest maximal quality goal (general precautionary value, PVg) in drinking water is set to -0.1 microg/l. PMID:20556880

  18. Comparison of Barium and Arsenic Concentrations in Well Drinking Water and in Human Body Samples and a Novel Remediation System for These Elements in Well Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masashi; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y.; Ohnuma, Shoko; Furuta, Akio; Kato, Yoko; Shekhar, Hossain U.; Kojima, Michiyo; Koike, Yasuko; Dinh Thang, Nguyen; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Ly, Thuy Bich; Jia, Xiaofang; Yetti, Husna; Naito, Hisao; Ichihara, Gaku; Yajima, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Health risk for well drinking water is a worldwide problem. Our recent studies showed increased toxicity by exposure to barium alone (?700 µg/L) and coexposure to barium (137 µg/L) and arsenic (225 µg/L). The present edition of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water revised in 2011 has maintained the values of arsenic (10 µg/L) and barium (700 µg/L), but not elements such as manganese, iron and zinc. Nevertheless, there have been very few studies on barium in drinking water and human samples. This study showed significant correlations between levels of arsenic and barium, but not its homologous elements (magnesium, calcium and strontium), in urine, toenail and hair samples obtained from residents of Jessore, Bangladesh. Significant correlation between levels of arsenic and barium in well drinking water and levels in human urine, toenail and hair samples were also observed. Based on these results, a high-performance and low-cost adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for barium and arsenic was developed. The adsorbent reduced levels of barium and arsenic from well water in Bangladesh and Vietnam to <7 µg/L within 1 min. Thus, we have showed levels of arsenic and barium in humans and propose a novel remediation system. PMID:23805262

  19. Parent-Child Communication to Reduce Heavy Alcohol Use among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremeens, Jennifer L.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Brock-Martin, Amy; Martin, Ryan J.; Watkins, Ken

    2008-01-01

    With extreme rates of binge drinking among young adults, college students continue to be a primary focus for a range of alcohol prevention efforts. Most universities are attempting to change the alcohol environment by implementing a variety of strategies to reduce heavy drinking among college students. With the exception of parental notification…

  20. College Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking College Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents ... license suspension policies, interventions focused on partnerships between colleges and the community, and routine screening by physicians ...