Sample records for reduce 21st-birthday drinking

  1. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  2. Internet-Based Personalized Feedback to Reduce 21st-Birthday Drinking: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Event-Specific Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Fossos, Nicole; Walter, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an initial randomized controlled trial of an event-specific prevention intervention. Participants included 295 college students (41.69% male, 58.31% female) who intended to consume 2 or more drinks on their 21st birthday. Participants completed a screening/baseline assessment approximately 1 week before they turned 21 and…

  3. Evaluation Results of a 21st Birthday Card Program Targeting High-Risk Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembroff, Larry; Atkin, Charles; Martell, Dennis; McCue, Cindy; Greenamyer, Jasmine T.

    2007-01-01

    The B.R.A.D. Birthday Card initiative was started on the campus of Michigan State University (MSU) in April 1999. MSU administrators send the safe-drinking 21st birthday card (B.R.A.D.) and laminated wallet card to students shortly before their 21st birthday. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the 21st birthday card, MSU and B.R.A.D.,…

  4. 21st birthday drinking and associated physical consequences and behavioral risks.

    PubMed

    Brister, Heather A; Sher, Kenneth J; Fromme, Kim

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-first birthday celebrations often involve dangerously high levels of alcohol consumption, yet little is known about risk factors for excessive drinking on this occasion. Participants (N = 150) from a larger prospective study who consumed at least one drink during their celebration completed questionnaires and semistructured interviews about their 21st birthday within four days after the event. Assessments were designed to characterize 21st birthday alcohol use, adjusted for alcohol content, as well as situational/contextual factors (e.g., celebration location, peer influence) that contribute to event-level drinking. Participants reported an average of 10.85 drinks (9.76 adjusted drinks), with experienced drinkers consuming significantly more than relatively naïve drinkers who had no previous binge or drunken episodes. Men consumed more drinks, whereas age of first drunken episode and heavier drinking during the 3-months preceding the 21st birthday predicted higher estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs) on the 21st birthday. Celebrating in bars and engaging in birthday-specific drinking traditions (free drinks at bars) explained additional variance in 21st birthday eBACs. Both physical consequences (e.g., blacking out or having a hangover) and behavioral risks (e.g., sexually provocative behaviors) were prevalent and were predicted by higher eBACs. Together these findings indicate that 21st birthday celebrations are associated with heavy drinking and a variety of physical consequences and behavioral risks. PMID:21895347

  5. The Effect of a Birthday Card Intervention on 21st Birthday Celebratory Drinking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Ellen J.; Bruce, Susan E.; Lee, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    birthday card was mailed to 2,380 college students who later completed an online instrument to assess the campaign's impact. Students reported drinking more during their 21st birthday celebrations than on a typical weekend night. Men consumed more drinks, reached higher…

  6. Event Specific Drinking Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    College represents a period of risk for heavy drinking and experiencing unwanted consequences associated with drinking. Previous research has identified specific events including holidays (e.g., New Years), school breaks (e.g., Spring Break) and personally relevant events (e.g., 21st birthdays) that are associated with elevated risk of heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The systematic evaluation of relative risk offers insights into event specific drinking and an empirical basis upon which to consider allocation of limited prevention resources. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to provide a comparative index of drinking across a wide range of holidays and compare holiday drinking to 21st birthday drinking. Participants were 1,124 students (55% female) who had turned 21 within the previous three weeks in 2008 and provided 90-day retrospective reports of their drinking using the Timeline Follow-back. Results based on a hurdle mixed model for blood alcohol content (BAC) revealed several holidays that stand out for elevated drinking, including New Year’s Eve and July 4th, whereas other holidays appear more similar to weekend drinking, such as Spring Break (approximately last week of March) and graduation (mid-June). Drinking on holidays or special days was substantially lower than drinking on 21st birthdays. Results are discussed in terms of practical applications for targeted intervention efforts on college campuses toward specific events where elevated drinking is known to occur. PMID:21639597

  7. Expressive Writing as a Brief Intervention for Reducing Drinking Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers. PMID:24064189

  8. Reducing sugary drink consumption: New York City's approach.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Susan M; Kennelly, Maura O; Nonas, Cathy A; Curtis, Christine J; Van Wye, Gretchen; Goodman, Andrew; Farley, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    Studies have linked the consumption of sugary drinks to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Since 2006, New York City has taken several actions to reduce consumption. Nutrition standards limited sugary drinks served by city agencies. Mass media campaigns educated New Yorkers on the added sugars in sugary drinks and their health impact. Policy proposals included an excise tax, a restriction on use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, and a cap on sugary drink portion sizes in food service establishments. These initiatives were accompanied by a 35% decrease in the number of New York City adults consuming one or more sugary drinks a day and a 27% decrease in public high school students doing so from 2007 to 2013. PMID:25713971

  9. Reducing underage and young adult drinking: how to address critical drinking problems during this developmental period.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

  10. Reducing lead in drinking water: a benefit analysis. Draft report (Final)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    An analysis estimates some of the benefits that could result from reducing exposure to lead in community drinking-water supplies. There are two primary categories of benefits evaluated: public-health benefits of reduced lead exposure and reduced materials damages relating to the phenomenon of lead's presence in drinking water. In addition, because the calculation of health benefits depends on the extent of

  11. Reduced-risk drinking as a treatment goal: what clinicians need to know

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet A. Ambrogne

    2002-01-01

    Reduced-risk drinking as a treatment goal for clients with alcohol problems has received limited acceptance in the United States. The majority of literature addressing reduced-risk drinking has focused on debates between proponents of traditional abstinence treatment and those supporting nonabstinence treatment. Proportionately little attention has been given to objective consideration of the potential advantages of integrating both abstinence and nonabstinence

  12. Event-Specific Prevention: Addressing College Student Drinking During Known Windows of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T.; Lee, Christine M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William

    2007-01-01

    The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut’s efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort. PMID:17616260

  13. GABA(B) receptor agonist only reduces ethanol drinking in light-drinking mice.

    PubMed

    Villas Boas, Gustavo Roberto; Zamboni, Camila Gadens; Peretti, Murilo Calvo; Correia, Diego; Rueda, André Veloso Lima; Camarini, Rosana; Brunialti-Godard, Ana Lucia; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli

    2012-08-01

    Baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist, reduces ethanol intake in animals and humans, but the contrary or no effect was also reported. Our previous study demonstrated that mice characterized as "loss of control over ethanol intake" had different Gabbr1 and Gabbr2 transcription levels, which express, respectively, the GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits in brain areas related to addictive behavior. In the present study, we tested baclofen on ethanol intake in mice exposed to the free-choice paradigm. Adult male Swiss mice, individually housed, had free access to three bottles: ethanol (5% and 10%) and water. The protocol had four phases: acquisition (AC, 10 weeks), withdrawal (W, 4 cycles during 2 weeks of 2 day-free-choice and 2 day-only-water), reexposure (RE, 2 weeks), and adulteration of ethanol solutions with quinine (AD, 2 weeks). Mice characterized as "loss of control" (A, n=11, preference for ethanol in AC and maintenance of ethanol intake levels in AD), heavy (H, n=11, preference for ethanol in AC and reduction of ethanol intake levels in AD), and light (L, n=16, preference for water in all phases) drinkers were randomly distributed into two subgroups receiving either intraperitoneal injections of all doses of baclofen (1.25, 2.5, and 5.0mg/kg, given each dose twice in consecutive days) or saline, being exposed to free-choice. Fluid consumption was measured 24h later. Baclofen reduced ethanol intake in group L. In group H a reduction compared to AC was observed. Group A maintained their high ethanol intake even after baclofen treatment. Activation of the GABA(B) receptor depends on the precise balance between the GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits, so the disproportionate transcription levels, we reported in group A, could explain this lack of response to baclofen. These data highlight the importance to test baclofen in individuals with different ethanol drinking profiles, including humans. PMID:22579911

  14. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  15. An upper-bound assessment of the benefits of reducing perchlorate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Randall

    2014-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency plans to issue new federal regulations to limit drinking water concentrations of perchlorate, which occurs naturally and results from the combustion of rocket fuel. This article presents an upper-bound estimate of the potential benefits of alternative maximum contaminant levels for perchlorate in drinking water. The results suggest that the economic benefits of reducing perchlorate concentrations in drinking water are likely to be low, i.e., under $2.9 million per year nationally, for several reasons. First, the prevalence of detectable perchlorate in public drinking water systems is low. Second, the population especially sensitive to effects of perchlorate, pregnant women who are moderately iodide deficient, represents a minority of all pregnant women. Third, and perhaps most importantly, reducing exposure to perchlorate in drinking water is a relatively ineffective way of increasing iodide uptake, a crucial step linking perchlorate to health effects of concern. PMID:25196433

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Spring Break Intervention to Reduce High-Risk Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Geisner, Irene M.; Atkins, David C.; Zheng, Cheng; Garberson, Lisa A.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While recent studies have documented high-risk drinking occurring during Spring Break (SB), particularly on SB trips with friends, published intervention studies are few. The present study evaluated the efficacy of Event Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies for reducing SB drinking among college students, compared to general prevention strategies and an assessment-only control group, as well as evaluated inclusion of peers in interventions and mode of intervention delivery (in-person vs. web). Method Participants included 783 undergraduates (56.1% women, average age 20.5) intending to go on a SB trip with friends as well as to drink heavily on at least one day of SB. Participants completed assessments prior to SB and were randomized to one of five intervention conditions: SB in-person BASICS, SB web BASICS, SB in-person BASICS with friend, SB web BASICS with friend, general BASICS, or an attention control condition. Follow-up assessment was completed one week after SB. Results While the SB web BASICS (with and without friends) and general BASICS interventions were not effective at reducing SB drinking, results indicated significant intervention effects for SB in-person BASICS in reducing SB drinking, particularly on trip days. Follow-up analyses indicated change in descriptive norms mediated treatment effect and reductions in drinking, while SB drinking intentions and positive expectancies did not. Conclusions Overall, results suggest an in-person SB-specific intervention is effective at reducing SB drinking, especially during trips. In contrast, interventions that contain non-SB related content, are web-based, or seek to involve friends may be less effective at reducing SB drinking. PMID:24491072

  17. Reducing high-risk drinking in mandated college students: evaluation of two personalized normative feedback interventions.

    PubMed

    Doumas, Diana M; Workman, Camille; Smith, Diana; Navarro, Anabel

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of two brief personalized normative feedback interventions aimed at reducing heavy drinking among mandated college students (N = 135). Students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: Web-based assessment with self-guided personalized normative feedback (SWF) or Web-based assessment with counselor-guided personalized normative feedback (CWF). Results indicated that students in the CWF condition reported significantly greater reductions in weekly drinking quantity and binge drinking frequency than those in the SWF group at follow-up (M = 8 months). Students in the CWF group also reported significantly greater reductions in estimates of peer drinking from baseline to the follow-up assessment than students in the SWF group. In addition, changes in estimates of peer drinking partially mediated the effect of the intervention on changes in drinking. Results suggest that counselor-guided feedback may be more effective in reducing drinking among mandated students relative to self-guided feedback in the long term. PMID:21295938

  18. Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Craig L.; Adams, Jeffrey Q.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

  19. Alcohol Binge Drinking during Adolescence or Dependence during Adulthood Reduces Prefrontal Myelin in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Wanette M.; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Whitcomb, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism. PMID:25355229

  20. Characterization of bromate-reducing bacterial isolates and their potential for drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew N. Davidson; Joanne Chee-Sanford; Chi-hua Ho; J. Brandon Klenzendorf; Mary Jo Kirisits

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize several bromate-reducing bacteria and to examine their potential for bioaugmentation to a drinking water treatment process. Fifteen bromate-reducing bacteria were isolated from three sources. According to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the bromate-reducing bacteria are phylogenetically diverse, representing the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria. The broad diversity

  1. Novel anticonvulsants for reducing alcohol consumption: A review of evidence from preclinical rodent drinking models

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, WC; Lopez, MF; Becker, HC; Mulholland, PJ

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are a major public health issue and have an enormous social and economic burden in developed, developing, and third-world countries. Current pharmacotherapies for treating AUDs suffer from deleterious side effects and are only effective in preventing relapse in a subset of individuals. This signifies an essential need for improved medications to reduce heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Growing literature has provided support for the use of anticonvulsants in suppressing symptoms induced by alcohol withdrawal. Emerging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that a number of well-tolerated anticonvulsants may also decrease alcohol drinking. This review will focus on recent evidence supporting the efficacy of novel anticonvulsants in reducing voluntary alcohol consumption in rodent models. The data demonstrate that anticonvulsants reduce drinking in standard home cage two-bottle choice paradigms, self-administration of alcohol in operant chambers, and cue- and stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking behaviors in rats and mice. This review also highlights evidence that some anticonvulsants were only moderately effective in reducing drinking in select strains of rodents or models. This suggests that genetics, possible neuroadaptations, or the pharmacological target affect the ability of anticonvulsants to attenuate alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, anticonvulsants are relatively safe, have little abuse potential, and can work in combination with other drugs. The results from these preclinical and clinical studies provide compelling evidence that anticonvulsants are a promising class of medication for the treatment of AUDs. PMID:24432188

  2. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water. PMID:25320856

  3. Point-of-Purchase Price and Education Intervention to Reduce Consumption of Sugary Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Amitabh; McManus, Katherine D.; Willett, Walter C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether a price increase on regular (sugary) soft drinks and an educational intervention would reduce their sales. Methods. We implemented a 5-phase intervention at the Brigham and Women's Hospital cafeteria in Boston, Massachusetts. After posting existing prices of regular and diet soft drinks and water during baseline, we imposed several interventions in series: a price increase of 35% on regular soft drinks, a reversion to baseline prices (washout), an educational campaign, and a combination price and educational period. We collected data from a comparison site, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, also in Boston, for the final 3 phases. Results. Sales of regular soft drinks declined by 26% during the price increase phase. This reduction in sales persisted throughout the study period, with an additional decline of 18% during the combination phase compared with the washout period. Education had no independent effect on sales. Analysis of the comparison site showed no change in regular soft drink sales during the study period. Conclusions. A price increase may be an effective policy mechanism to decrease sales of regular soda. Further multisite studies in varied populations are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:20558801

  4. Commercially available probiotic drinks containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Kottmann, Tanja; Alavi, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Lactobacillus-containing commercially available probiotic formulations in Germany during antibiotic treatment with an analysis of cost-efficiency. METHODS: In an observational study, we analyzed the frequency of bowel movements from 258 patients with infections in a primary care hospital in western Germany; 107 of the patients were offered a probiotic drink containing at least 10 billion cultures of Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 b.i.d. The economic analysis was based on the costs of patient isolation vs preventive intake of probiotics. In a second pilot study, two commercially available probiotic drinks with different Lactobacillus casei strains were directly compared in 60 patients in a randomized controlled fashion. RESULTS: In the first study, the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) was significantly reduced in the intervention group (6.5% vs 28.4%), and the duration of AAD in days was significantly shorter (1.7 ± 1.1 vs 3.1 ± 2.1). Higher age and creatinine and lower albumin were identified as risk factors for AAD. Ampicillin was the antibiotic with the highest rate of AAD (50%) and with the greatest AAD reduction in the probiotic group (4.2%, relative risk reduction 92%). The economic analysis showed a cost advantage of nearly 60000 €/year in a department of this size. The second study confirmed the preventive effect of the drink with Lactobacillus casei DN114001; however, there were no advantages found for the other tested probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota. CONCLUSION: In contrast to a drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota, a commercially available probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 cost-efficiently reduces the prevalence of AAD during antibiotic treatment. PMID:25400470

  5. Is being mindful associated with reduced risk for internally-motivated drinking and alcohol use among undergraduates?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Ashley; Keough, Matthew T; O'Connor, Roisin M

    2015-03-01

    Mindfulness encompasses four core skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without judgment; which aim to increase one's awareness, tolerance, and acceptance of internal experiences (Baer et al., 2004). Despite promising clinical results that mindfulness reduces alcohol craving and relapse, complementary etiological research is underdeveloped. Theory suggests that those who are motivated to drink to change internal states (reduce negative/increase positive affect) are at risk for elevated alcohol use. The ability to accept one's affective state should preclude internally-motivated drinking, and thus, elevated alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to parse out which mindfulness skills are central to alcohol use. We hypothesized that accepting without judgment would be a unique negative predictor of internally-motivated drinking (drinking for coping and enhancement motives) and alcohol use. Students (N=76) completed self-report measures of past month alcohol use and four motives for drinking: to cope, for enhancement, to conform, and for social reasons. Partially supporting our hypotheses, accepting without judgment was negatively associated with drinking for coping motives, but was unassociated with drinking for enhancement motives. Interestingly, acceptance without judgment was negatively associated with drinking for conformity motives (to reduce social rejection). Unexpectedly, acting with awareness, but not accepting without judgment, was a negative predictor of alcohol use. Our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing coping- and conformity-motivated drinking and alcohol use by young adults may benefit from incorporating mindfulness skills training (i.e., accepting without judgment; acting with awareness). PMID:25489665

  6. Characterization of bromate-reducing bacterial isolates and their potential for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew N; Chee-Sanford, Joanne; Lai, Hoi Yi Mandy; Ho, Chi-hua; Klenzendorf, J Brandon; Kirisits, Mary Jo

    2011-11-15

    The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize several bromate-reducing bacteria and to examine their potential for bioaugmentation to a drinking water treatment process. Fifteen bromate-reducing bacteria were isolated from three sources. According to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the bromate-reducing bacteria are phylogenetically diverse, representing the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria. The broad diversity of bromate-reducing bacteria suggests the widespread capability for microbial bromate reduction. While the cometabolism of bromate via nitrate reductase and (per)chlorate reductase has been postulated, five of our bromate-reducing isolates were unable to reduce nitrate or perchlorate. This suggests that a bromate-specific reduction pathway might exist in some microorganisms. Bioaugmentation of activated carbon filters with eight of the bromate-reducing isolates did not significantly decrease start-up time or increase bromate removal as compared to control filters. To optimize bromate reduction in a biological drinking water treatment process, the predominant mechanism of bromate reduction (i.e., cometabolic or respiratory) needs to be assessed so that appropriate measures can be taken to improve bromate removal. PMID:21943884

  7. Characterization of the microbial community structure and nitrosamine-reducing isolates in drinking water biofilters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanfeng; Guo, Yanling; Yang, Qingxiang; Huang, Yao; Zhu, Chunyou; Fan, Jing; Pan, Feng

    2015-07-15

    Two biofilters were constructed using biological activated carbon (BAC) and nitrosamine-containing water from two drinking water treatment plants. The microbiome of each biofilter was characterized by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing, and one nitrosamine-reducing bacterium was isolated. The results showed that nitrosamines changed the relative abundance at both the phylum and class levels, and the new genera were observed in the microbial communities of the two BAC filters after cultivation. As such, the genus Rhodococcus, which includes many nitrosamine-reducing strains reported in previous studies, was only detected in the BAC2 filter after cultivation. These findings indicate that nitrosamines can significantly affect the genus level in the microbial communities. Furthermore, the isolated bacterial culture Rhodococcus cercidiphylli A41 AS-1 exhibited the ability to reduce five nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine) with removal ratios that ranged from 38.1% to 85.4%. The isolate exhibited a better biodegradation ability with nitrosamine as the carbon source when compared with nitrosamine as the nitrogen source. This study increases our understanding of the microbial community in drinking water biofilters with trace quantities of nitrosamines, and provides information on the metabolism of nitrosamine-reducing bacteria. PMID:25841075

  8. Combined varenicline and naltrexone treatment reduces smoking topography intensity in heavy-drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel J O; Bujarski, Spencer; Hartwell, Emily; Green, ReJoyce; Ray, Lara A

    2015-07-01

    Heavy drinking smokers constitute a distinct sub-population of smokers for whom traditional smoking cessation therapies may not be effective. Recent evidence suggested that combined varenicline (VAR) and naltrexone (NTX) therapy may be more efficacious than either monotherapy alone in reducing smoking and drinking-related behavior in this population. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e., smoking topography) may be predictive of smoking cessation outcomes, yet the effects of smoking pharmacotherapies on puffing behavior have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the current double-blind medication study examined the effects of VAR alone (1mg BID), low dose NTX alone (25mg QD), the combination of VAR+NTX, and placebo on smoking topography measures in heavy drinking, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=120). After a 9-day titration period, participants completed a laboratory session in which they smoked their first cigarette of the day using a smoking topography device following 12h of nicotine abstinence and consumption of an alcoholic beverage (BrAC=0.06g/dl). The primary measures were puff count, volume, duration, and velocity and inter-puff interval (IPI). Independent of medication group, puff velocity and IPI increased, while puff volume and duration decreased, over the course of the cigarette. The active medication groups, vs. the placebo group, had significantly blunted puff duration and velocity slopes over the course of the cigarette, and this effect was particularly evident in the VAR+NTX group. Additionally, the VAR+NTX group demonstrated lower average IPI than the monotherapy groups and lower average puff volume than all other groups. These results suggest that smoking pharmacotherapies, particularly the combination of VAR+NTX, alter smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers, producing a pattern of less intense puffing behavior. As smoking topography has been predictive of the ability to quit smoking, future studies should examine how smoking pharmacotherapies' effects on puffing behavior relate to smoking cessation outcomes. PMID:25933795

  9. A Multifaceted Social Norms Approach To Reduce High-Risk Drinking: Lessons from Hobart and Williams Smith Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, H. Wesley; Craig, David W.

    The Hobart and William Smith Colleges Alcohol Education Project (HWS) began in 1996 to test the social norms approach to reducing alcohol use by students. A social norms approach works on the premise that misperceived norms, perceptions that usually exaggerate what is typical for other students, lead to increased drinking as students attempt to…

  10. Reducing drinking water sodium concentrations did not influence adolescent blood pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Tuthill; Edward J. Calabrese

    1989-01-01

    Previous investigations established that elementary and high school students residing in Reading, Massachusetts, displayed significantly higher blood pressure than their counterparts in the adjacent community of Stoneham, Massachusetts. Extensive evaluations of family history, dietary patterns, socio?demographic variables and chemical measurements of drinking water revealed that the level of sodium in the drinking water was the variable most strongly associated with

  11. Reducing heavy drinking in HIV primary care: a randomized trial of brief intervention, with and without technological enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Aharonovich, Efrat; O’Leary, Ann; Greenstein, Eliana; Pavlicova, Martina; Arunajadai, Srikesh; Waxman, Rachel; Wainberg, Milton; Helzer, John; Johnston, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Aims In HIV-infected individuals, heavy drinking compromises survival. In HIV primary care, the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) to reduce drinking is unknown, alcohol-dependent patients may need greater intervention and resources are limited. Using interactive voice response (IVR) technology, HealthCall was designed to enhance MI via daily patient self-monitoring calls to an automated telephone system with personalized feedback. We tested the efficacy of MI-only and MI+HealthCall for drinking reduction among HIV primary care patients. Design Parallel random assignment to control (n = 88), MI-only (n = 82) or MI+HealthCall (n = 88). Counselors provided advice/education (control) or MI (MI-only or MI+HealthCall) at baseline. At 30 and 60 days (end-of-treatment), counselors briefly discussed drinking with patients, using HealthCall graphs with MI+HealthCall patients. Setting Large urban HIV primary care clinic. Participants Patients consuming ?4 drinks at least once in prior 30 days. Measurements Using time-line follow-back, primary outcome was number of drinks per drinking day, last 30 days. Findings End-of-treatment number of drinks per drinking day (NumDD) means were 4.75, 3.94 and 3.58 in control, MI-only and MI+HealthCall, respectively (overall model ?2, d.f. = 9.11,2, P = 0.01). For contrasts of NumDD, P = 0.01 for MI+HealthCall versus control; P = 0.07 for MI-only versus control; and P = 0.24 for MI+HealthCall versus MI-only. Secondary analysis indicated no intervention effects on NumDD among non-alcohol-dependent patients. However, for contrasts of NumDD among alcohol-dependent patients, P < 0.01 for MI+HealthCall versus control; P = 0.09 for MI-only versus control; and P = 0.03 for MI+HealthCall versus MI-only. By 12-month follow-up, although NumDD remained lower among alcohol-dependent patients in MI+HealthCall than others, effects were no longer significant. Conclusions For alcohol-dependent HIV patients, enhancing MI with HealthCall may offer additional benefit, without extensive additional staff involvement. PMID:23432593

  12. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  13. Computer-delivered, Home-based, Attentional Retraining Reduces Drinking Behavior in Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    McGeary, John E.; Meadows, Sydney P.; Amir, Nader; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to examine the impact of a computer-delivered, home-based, alcohol-specific attention modification program (AMP), 41 heavy drinking college students were randomly assigned to AMP or an attention control condition (ACC). Participants selected ten alcohol-related words most relevant to their own drinking experience as well as ten neutral words not related to alcohol. These personalized stimuli were used in an attention retaining program based upon the probe detection paradigm twice weekly for four weeks. Participants in the AMP condition reported decreased drinking whereas those in the ACC condition reported no change in their drinking. These preliminary data suggest that a computer-delivered, home-delivered, attention-retraining for alcohol treatment may be an inexpensive and efficacious adjunct to standard alcohol treatments. PMID:24955674

  14. Lobeline and cytisine reduce voluntary ethanol drinking behavior in male C57BL\\/6J mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi K. Sajja; Shafiqur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in the rewarding effects of ethanol and other drugs of abuse. The present study examined the effects of two important nicotinic ligands that target nAChRs, on ethanol consumption in drinking-in-the-dark or continuous access two-bottle choice drinking procedures in C57BL\\/6J mice. Nicotinic alkaloids such as lobeline or cytisine were administered via subcutaneous (s.c.)

  15. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a U.S. College

    PubMed Central

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. PARTICIPANTS Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. METHODS Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum age drinking law (MADL). RESULTS In the short-term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. CONCLUSION These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MADLs simply lead to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse. PMID:23930747

  16. Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and Mycobacteria Dominate the Biofilm Communities in a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Smith, C Kimloi; LaPara, Timothy M; Hozalski, Raymond M

    2015-07-21

    The quantity and composition of bacterial biofilms growing on 10 water mains from a full-scale chloraminated water distribution system were analyzed using real-time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and next-generation, high-throughput Illumina sequencing. Water mains with corrosion tubercles supported the greatest amount of bacterial biomass (n = 25; geometric mean = 2.5 × 10(7) copies cm(-2)), which was significantly higher (P = 0.04) than cement-lined cast-iron mains (n = 6; geometric mean = 2.0 × 10(6) copies cm(-2)). Despite spatial variation of community composition and bacterial abundance in water main biofilms, the communities on the interior main surfaces were surprisingly similar, containing a core group of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to only 17 different genera. Bacteria from the genus Mycobacterium dominated all communities at the main wall-bulk water interface (25-78% of the community), regardless of main age, estimated water age, main material, and the presence of corrosion products. Further sequencing of the mycobacterial heat shock protein gene (hsp65) provided species-level taxonomic resolution of mycobacteria. The two dominant Mycobacteria present, M. frederiksbergense (arithmetic mean = 85.7% of hsp65 sequences) and M. aurum (arithmetic mean = 6.5% of hsp65 sequences), are generally considered to be nonpathogenic. Two opportunistic pathogens, however, were detected at low numbers: M. hemophilum (arithmetic mean = 1.5% of hsp65 sequences) and M. abscessus (arithmetic mean = 0.006% of hsp65 sequences). Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfovibrio, which have been implicated in microbially influenced corrosion, dominated all communities located underneath corrosion tubercules (arithmetic mean = 67.5% of the community). This research provides novel insights into the quantity and composition of biofilms in full-scale drinking water distribution systems, which is critical for assessing the risks to public health and to the water supply infrastructure. PMID:26098899

  17. Solar Drinking Water Disinfection (SODIS) to Reduce Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Bolivia: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Mäusezahl; Andri Christen; Gonzalo Duran Pacheco; Fidel Alvarez Tellez; Mercedes Iriarte; Maria E. Zapata; Myriam Cevallos; Jan Hattendorf; Monica Daigl Cattaneo; Benjamin Arnold; Thomas A. Smith; John M. Colford Jr

    2009-01-01

    Background: Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost, point-of-use water purification method that has been disseminated globally. Laboratory studies suggest that SODIS is highly efficacious in inactivating waterborne pathogens. Previous field studies provided limited evidence for its effectiveness in reducing diarrhoea. Methods and Findings: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 rural communities in Bolivia to evaluate the

  18. Vida PURA: A Cultural Adaptation of Screening and Brief Intervention to Reduce Unhealthy Drinking among Latino Day Laborers.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, India J; Allen, Claire; Vaughan, Catalina; Williams, Emily C; Negi, Nalini

    2014-08-25

    ABSTRACT Background: Brief intervention is known to reduce drinking in primary care, however because health care access is limited for Latino immigrants, traditional brief interventions are unlikely to reach this population. Methods: Using Barrera and Castro's framework, our study aims to culturally adapt a screening and brief intervention program to reduce unhealthy alcohol use among Latino day laborers, a particularly vulnerable group of Latino immigrant men. We conducted 18 interviews with Latino day laborers and 13 interviews with mental health and substance use providers that serve Latino immigrant men. Interviews were conducted until saturation of themes was reached. Themes from interviews were used to identify sources of mismatch between traditional screening and brief intervention and our target population. Results: Unhealthy alcohol use was common,culturally accepted, and helped relieve immigration-related stressors. Men had limited knowledge about how to change their behavior. Men preferred to receive information from trusted providers in Spanish. Men faced significant barriers to accessing health and social services, but were open to receiving brief interventions in community settings. Findings were used to design Vida PURA, a preliminary adaptation design of brief intervention for Latino day laborers. Key adaptations include providing brief intervention at a day labor worker center, by promotores trained to incorporate the social and cultural context of drinking for Latino immigrant men. Conclusions: Culturally adapted brief intervention may help reduce unhealthy drinking in this underserved population. PMID:25153904

  19. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  20. Conservation program (EQIP) reduces atrazine in Columbus, OH drinking water supply reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation dollars applied in the Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed have achieved a significant reduction in the atrazine levels in Hover Reservoir, a major drinking water source for Columbus, Ohio. During the 1990s, atrazine levels in this reservoir periodically exceeded the health advisory limit ...

  1. Integrating mHealth Mobile Applications to Reduce High Risk Drinking among Underage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemi, Donna M.; Cochran, Allyson R.; Kelly, John F.; Cornelius, Judith B.; Belk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: College students embrace mobile cell phones (MCPs) as a primary communication and entertainment device. The aim of this study was to investigate college students' perceptions toward using mHealth technology to deliver interventions to prevent high-risk drinking and associated consequences. Design/setting: Four focus group…

  2. A permeability-controlled microfiltration membrane for reduced fouling in drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Meier-Haack; N. A Booker; T Carroll

    2003-01-01

    A novel surface-modified polypropylene microfiltration membrane is investigated for its potential use in drinking water treatment. The flux decline rate of the modified membrane is substantially lower than the original polypropylene membrane for filtration of a soft, high-natural organic matter (NOM) surface water because a progressive adjustment in membrane permeability counteracts the flux decline due to fouling. In general, the

  3. The development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-12-01

    In the Netherlands, young adults' drinking practices have become an issue of public concern since their drinking levels are high. Heavy drinking can place young adults at an increased risk for developing short- and long-term health-related problems. Current national alcohol prevention programmes focus mainly on adolescents and their parents and paying less systematic attention to young adults. The present study describes the theory and evidence-based development of a web-based brief alcohol intervention entitled What Do You Drink (WDYD). We applied the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to combine theory and evidence in the development and implementation of WDYD. The WDYD intervention aims to detect and reduce heavy drinking of young adults who are willing to decrease their alcohol consumption, preferably below the Dutch guidelines of low-risk drinking. According to the IM protocol, the development of WDYD resulted in a structured intervention. Reducing heavy drinking to low-risk drinking was proposed as the behavioural outcome. Motivational interviewing principles and parts of the I-Change Model were used as methods in the development of WDYD, whereas computer tailoring was selected as main strategy. An effect and a process evaluation of the intervention will be conducted. IM was found to be a practical instrument for developing the WDYD intervention tailored to a specific target population in the area of alcohol prevention. PMID:23525645

  4. Reducing lead exposure from drinking water: recent history and current status.

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Richard P.; Patch, Steven C.; Morgan, Diane M.; Pandolfo, Tamara J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of lead contamination of drinking water, noting the various regulatory-driven measures that have been adopted in the U.S. since 1986 to address this public health issue. The article summarizes the literature on the dynamics of tap water lead contamination and discusses this widespread source of lead exposure in the context of the latest research evidence. PMID:16134575

  5. New Research Findings Since the 2007 Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, Ralph; White, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In 2007, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued The Surgeon General’s Call To Action To Prevent And Reduce Underage Drinking, a publication documenting a problem linked to nearly 5,000 injury deaths annually and poor academic performance, potential cognitive deficits, risky sexual behavior, physical and sexual assaults, and other substance use. This report reviews subsequent underage drinking and related traffic fatality trends and research on determinants, consequences, and prevention interventions. Method: New research reports, meta-analyses, and systematic literature reviews were examined. Results: Since the Call to Action, reductions in underage frequency of drinking, heavy drinking occasions, and alcohol-related traffic deaths that began in the 1980s when the drinking age nationally became 21 have continued. Knowledge regarding determinants and consequences, particularly the effects of early-onset drinking, parental alcohol provision, and cognitive effects, has expanded. Additional studies support associations between the legal drinking age of 21, zero tolerance laws, higher alcohol prices, and reduced drinking and related problems. New research suggests that use/lose laws, social host liability, internal possession laws, graduated licensing, and night driving restrictions reduce traffic deaths involving underage drinking drivers. Additional studies support the positive effects of individually oriented interventions, especially screening and brief motivational interventions, web and face-to-face social norms interventions, college web-based interventions, parental interventions, and multicomponent community interventions. Conclusions: Despite reductions in underage alcohol consumption and related traffic deaths, underage drinking remains an enduring problem. Continued research is warranted in minimally studied areas, such as prospective studies of alcohol and brain development, policy studies of use/lose laws, internal possession laws, social host liability, and parent–family interventions. PMID:24411808

  6. Evaluating rain gardens as a method to reduce the impact of sewer overflows in sources of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Autixier, Laurène; Mailhot, Alain; Bolduc, Samuel; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2014-11-15

    The implications of climate change and changing precipitation patterns need to be investigated to evaluate mitigation measures for source water protection. Potential solutions need first to be evaluated under present climate conditions to determine their utility as climate change adaptation strategies. An urban drainage network receiving both stormwater and wastewater was studied to evaluate potential solutions to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in a drinking water source. A detailed hydraulic model was applied to the drainage basin to model the implementation of best management practices at a drainage basin scale. The model was calibrated and validated with field data of CSO flows for seven events from a survey conducted in 2009 and 2010. Rain gardens were evaluated for their reduction of volumes of water entering the drainage network and of CSOs. Scenarios with different levels of implementation were considered and evaluated. Of the total impervious area within the basin directly connected to the sewer system, a maximum of 21% could be alternately directed towards rain gardens. The runoff reductions for the entire catchment ranged from 12.7% to 19.4% depending on the event considered. The maximum discharged volume reduction ranged from 13% to 62% and the maximum peak flow rate reduction ranged from 7% to 56%. Of concern is that in-sewer sediment resuspension is an important process to consider with regard to the efficacy of best management practices aimed at reducing extreme loads and concentrations. Rain gardens were less effective for large events, which are of greater importance for drinking water sources. These practices could increase peak instantaneous loads as a result of greater in-sewer resuspension during large events. Multiple interventions would be required to achieve the objectives of reducing the number, total volumes and peak contaminant loads of overflows upstream of drinking water intakes. PMID:25192930

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Problem Binge drinking is a dangerous and costly public health problem Binge drinking is a bigger problem than ... faith-based organizations, law enforcement, health care, and public health agencies to reduce binge drinking. Doctors, nurses, and ...

  8. Salt Appetite Is Reduced by a Single Experience of Drinking Hypertonic Saline in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Michael P.; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F. R.; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  9. Optimizing Timing and Dosage: Does Parent Type Moderate the Effects of Variations of a Parent-Based Intervention to Reduce College Student Drinking?

    PubMed Central

    Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Scaglione, Nichole; Cleveland, Michael J.; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob; Abar, Caitlin C.

    2013-01-01

    Research on parent-based interventions (PBIs) to reduce college student drinking has explored the optimal timing of delivery and dosage. The present study extended this work by examining the effectiveness of three different PBI conditions on student drinking outcomes as a function of parenting types and students' pre-college drinking patterns. Four hypotheses were evaluated (early intervention, increased dosage, invariant, and treatment matching risk). A random sample of 1900 college students and their parents was randomized to four conditions: 1) pre-college matriculation, 2) pre-college matriculation plus booster, 3) post-college matriculation, or 4) control, and was assessed at baseline (summer prior to college) and 5-month follow-up. Baseline parent type was assessed using latent profile analysis (positive, pro-alcohol, positive, anti-alcohol, negative mother and negative father). Student drinking patterns were classified at baseline and follow up and included: non-drinker, weekend light drinker, weekend heavy episodic drinker, and heavy drinker. Consistent with the treatment matching risk hypothesis, results indicated parent type moderated the effects of intervention condition such that receiving the intervention prior to college was associated with lower likelihood of being in a higher-risk drinking pattern at follow up for students with positive, anti-alcohol or negative father parent types. The findings are discussed with respect to optimal delivery and dosage of parent-based interventions for college student drinking. PMID:23404668

  10. Effects of A 2.5-Year Campus-Wide Intervention to Reduce College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Owens, Dee; Gassman, Ruth; Kingori, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study reports on the results of a 2.5-year college-wide, coordinated intervention that was implemented from June 2007 to December 2009 to reduce the amount and frequency of students' alcohol consumption. Design: Quasi-experimental study using a one-group (freshmen living on campus) pretest/posttest design ("N"…

  11. Challenging the Collegiate Rite of Passage: A Campus-Wide Social Marketing Media Campaign To Reduce Binge Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glider, Peggy; Midyett, Stephen J.; Mills-Novoa, Beverly; Johannessen, Koreen; Collins, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. Two surveys provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors…

  12. Solar Drinking Water Disinfection (SODIS) to Reduce Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Bolivia: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mäusezahl, Daniel; Christen, Andri; Pacheco, Gonzalo Duran; Tellez, Fidel Alvarez; Iriarte, Mercedes; Zapata, Maria E.; Cevallos, Myriam; Hattendorf, Jan; Cattaneo, Monica Daigl; Arnold, Benjamin; Smith, Thomas A.; Colford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost, point-of-use water purification method that has been disseminated globally. Laboratory studies suggest that SODIS is highly efficacious in inactivating waterborne pathogens. Previous field studies provided limited evidence for its effectiveness in reducing diarrhoea. Methods and Findings We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 rural communities in Bolivia to evaluate the effect of SODIS in reducing diarrhoea among children under the age of 5 y. A local nongovernmental organisation conducted a standardised interactive SODIS-promotion campaign in 11 communities targeting households, communities, and primary schools. Mothers completed a daily child health diary for 1 y. Within the intervention arm 225 households (376 children) were trained to expose water-filled polyethyleneteraphtalate bottles to sunlight. Eleven communities (200 households, 349 children) served as a control. We recorded 166,971 person-days of observation during the trial representing 79.9% and 78.9% of the total possible person-days of child observation in intervention and control arms, respectively. Mean compliance with SODIS was 32.1%. The reported incidence rate of gastrointestinal illness in children in the intervention arm was 3.6 compared to 4.3 episodes/year at risk in the control arm. The relative rate of diarrhoea adjusted for intracluster correlation was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.59–1.12). The median length of diarrhoea was 3 d in both groups. Conclusions Despite an extensive SODIS promotion campaign we found only moderate compliance with the intervention and no strong evidence for a substantive reduction in diarrhoea among children. These results suggest that there is a need for better evidence of how the well-established laboratory efficacy of this home-based water treatment method translates into field effectiveness under various cultural settings and intervention intensities. Further global promotion of SODIS for general use should be undertaken with care until such evidence is available. Trial Registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00731497 Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary PMID:19688036

  13. Failure to reduce drinking and driving in France: a 6 year prospective study in the GAZEL Cohort

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    offences [1, 2], two major public health successes were recently observed. First, rates of alcohol and Control Messiah, Antoine; INSERM U897-IFR99, Injury Prevention and Control SUBSTANCE: alcohol METHOD: surveys FIELD OF STUDY: epidemiology Keywords: Alcohol , Drinking and driving, Risky road behaviours

  14. The Sonoma Water Evaluation Trial (SWET): A randomized drinking water intervention trial to reduce gastrointestinal illness in older adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives. We estimate the risk of highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) among adults 55 and older in a community drinking tap water meeting current U.S. standards. Methods. We conducted a randomized, triple-blinded, crossover trial in 714 households (988 indiv...

  15. Local Drinking Water Filters Reduce Diarrheal Disease in Cambodia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Ceramic Water Purifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Brown; Mark D. Sobsey; Dana Loomis

    A randomized, controlled intervention trial of two household-scale drinking water filters was conducted in a rural village in Cambodia. After collecting four weeks of baseline data on household water quality, diarrheal disease, and other data related to water use and handling practices, households were randomly assigned to one of three groups of 60 households: those receiving a ceramic water purifier

  16. Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  17. Energy Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill. PMID:22347688

  18. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  19. How To Reduce High-Risk College Drinking: Use Proven Strategies, Fill Research Gaps. Final Report of the Panel on Prevention and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Alcohol on college campuses is not a new problem, but recent concerns have centered on heavy episodic drinking, binge drinking. To address these concerns, the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established two panels of nongovernment experts to help develop a national research agenda. This report represents the work of the…

  20. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... become angry or moody while drinking, for example. Alcoholism Some studies have shown that people who binge- ... 2 weeks — have some of the symptoms of alcoholism. Back Continue Getting Help If you think you ...

  1. Community organizing goes to college: A practice-based model of community organizing to implement environmental strategies to reduce high-risk drinking on college campuses

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lentz, Ashley W.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Community organizing is a successful method to leverage resources and build community capacity to identify and intervene upon health issues. However, published accounts documenting the systematic facilitation of the process are limited. This qualitative analysis explored community organizing using data collected as part of the Study to Prevent Alcohol Related Consequences (SPARC), a randomized community trial of 10 North Carolina colleges focused on reducing consequences of high-risk drinking among college students. We sought to develop and confirm use of a community-organizing model, based in practice, illustrating an authentic process of organizing campus and community stakeholders for public health change. Using the grounded theory approach, we analyzed and interpreted data from three waves of individual interviews with full-time community organizers on five SPARC intervention campuses. A five-phase community-organizing model was developed and its use was confirmed. This model may serve as a practical guide for public health interventions utilizing community-organizing approaches. PMID:20530638

  2. Combining the ?1-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Prazosin, with the ?-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Propranolol, Reduces Alcohol Drinking More Effectively Than Either Drug Alone

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Beckwith, Lauren E; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that activation of the noradrenergic system may contribute to alcohol drinking in animals and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that blocking ?1-adrenergic receptors with the antagonist, prazosin, decreased alcohol drinking in rats under various conditions. Since noradrenergic activation is also regulated by ?-adrenergic receptors, we now examine the effects of the ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, alone or in combination with prazosin, on alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol preference (P line). Methods Two studies were conducted with male P rats. In study one, rats were allowed to become alcohol-dependent during 14 weeks of ad libitum access to food, water and 20% alcohol and the effect of propranolol (5–15 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (1–2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake during withdrawal were assessed. In study two, the effect of propranolol (5 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake following prolonged imposed abstinence was assessed. Results Alcohol drinking following propranolol treatment was variable, but the combination of propranolol + prazosin consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during both alcohol withdrawal and following prolonged imposed abstinence, and the combination of these two drugs was more effective than was treatment with either drug alone. Conclusions Treatment with prazosin + propranolol, or a combination of other centrally active ?1- and ?-adrenergic receptor antagonists, may assist in preventing alcohol relapse in some individuals. PMID:24891220

  3. Orange Drink

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem provides an opportunity for students to reason about ratio and proportion in the realistic context of mixing a fruit drink from concentrate. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and links to related problems (Blackcurrantiest is cataloged separately).

  4. Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Drew K.

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…

  5. The Mucilage of Opuntia Ficus Indica: A Natural, Sustainable, and Viable Water Treatment Technology for Use in Rural Mexico for Reducing Turbidity and Arsenic Contamination in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Andrew Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of natural environmentally benign agents in the treatment of drinking water is rapidly gaining interest due to their inherently renewable character and low toxicity. We show that the common Mexican cactus produces a gum-like substance, cactus mucilage, which shows excellent flocculating abilities and is an economically viable alternative for low-income communities. Cactus mucilage is a neutral mixture of

  6. Drinking motives as prospective predictors of outcome in an intervention trial among heavily drinking HIV patients

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Aharonovich, Efrat; O’Leary, Ann; Wainberg, Milton; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Heavy alcohol consumption in HIV patients is an increasing health concern. Applying the drinking motivational model to HIV primary care patients, drinking motives (drinking to cope with negative affect, for social facilitation, and in response to social pressure) were associated with alcohol consumption at a baseline interview. However, whether these motives predict continued heavy drinking or alcohol dependence in this population is unknown. METHODS Participants were 254 heavy-drinking urban HIV primary care patients (78.0% male; 94.5% African American or Hispanic) participating in a randomized trial of brief drinking-reduction interventions. Drinking motive scales, as well as measures of alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence, were administered at baseline. Consumption and dependence measures were re-administered at the end of treatment two months later. Regression analyses tested whether baseline drinking motive scale scores predicted continued heavy drinking and alcohol dependence status at the end of treatment, and whether motives interacted with treatment condition. RESULTS Baseline drinking to cope with negative affect predicted continued heavy drinking (p<0.05) and alcohol dependence, the latter in both in the full sample (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.14) and among those with baseline dependence (AOR=2.52). Motives did not interact with treatment condition in predicting alcohol outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Drinking to cope with negative affect may identify HIV patients needing targeted intervention to reduce drinking, and may inform development of more effective interventions addressing ways other than heavy drinking to cope with negative affect. PMID:24286967

  7. National Drinking Water Clearinghouse

    MedlinePLUS

    Drinking Water Read On Tap Latest Issue The National Drinking Water Clearinghouse (NDWC) is a public service organization dedicated ... developing, and providing timely information relevant to drinking water issues. We provide free and low-cost publications, ...

  8. What Can I Drink?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... low-calorie drinks. This includes: Water Unsweetened teas Coffee Diet soda Other low-calorie drinks and drink ... For Professionals En Español Online Community Walk Bike Shop Sign in American Diabetes Association 1701 North Beauregard ...

  9. Parenthood, drinking locations and heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Catherine

    2011-04-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the relationship between parenthood and heavy drinking is mediated by drinking locations. The analysis is based on a random sample of 4180 female and 3630 male Canadian drinkers aged between 18 and 55 years old. A multiple mediator model is tested. Results show that the parental role may be associated with variation in where people drink, and where people drink may be associated with variation in heavy drinking. For women, parenthood is related to a reduction in heavy drinking associated with a reduction of drinking occasions that occur at bars, offset to some extent by the fact that drinking in restaurants is also less common among mothers than non-mothers. For men, parenthood is related to a reduction in heavy drinking partly because fathers more often drink at friends' homes and the proportion of drinking occasions that occur at bars is smaller among fathers than non-fathers. The results of this study correspond with a refined version of the opportunity perspective. Given the nature of the processes by which parenthood is related to heavy drinking, alcohol consumption needs to be understood through a perspective that includes both individual and contextual factors. PMID:21454004

  10. Can Parents Prevent Heavy Episodic Drinking by Allowing Teens to Drink at Home?

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Windle, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined whether permitting young women to drink alcohol at home during senior year of high school reduces the risk of heavy drinking in college. Participants were 449 college-bound female high school seniors, recruited at the end of their senior year. Participants were classified into one of three permissibility categories according to their baseline reports of whether their parents allowed them to drink at home: (a) not permitted to drink at all; (b) allowed to drink with family meals; (c) allowed to drink at home with friends. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the drinking behaviors of the three groups at the time of high school graduation and again after the first semester of college. Students who reported being allowed to drink at home during high school, whether at meals or with friends, reported more frequent heavy episodic drinking (HED) in the first semester of college than those who reported not being allowed to drink at all. Those who were permitted to drink at home with friends reported the heaviest drinking at both time points. Path analysis revealed that the relationship between alcohol permissiveness and college HED was mediated via perceptions of parental alcohol approval. PMID:20805017

  11. Hazardous Drinking and Military Community Functioning: Identifying Mediating Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hazardous drinking is a serious societal concern in military populations. Efforts to reduce hazardous drinking among military personnel have been limited in effectiveness. There is a need for a deeper understanding of how community-based prevention models apply to hazardous drinking in the military. Community-wide prevention efforts may…

  12. Natural drinking strategies

    E-print Network

    Kim, Wonjung

    We examine the fluid mechanics of drinking in nature. We classify the drinking strategies of a broad range of creatures according to the principal forces involved, and present physical pictures for each style. Simple scaling ...

  13. Local Drinking Water Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a short report (consumer confidence report, or drinking water quality report) from your water supplier that tells where ... what's in it: see if your annual drinking water quality report is posted on-line , read some frequent ...

  14. Social Influences on the Clustering of Underage Risky Drinking and Its Consequences in Communities

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine whether the clustering of underage risky drinking and its consequences within communities might arise from shared perceptions regarding underage drinking as well as the social context of drinking. Method: The Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided data from repeated cross-sectional samples of 5,017 current drinkers (2,619 male) ages 14–20 years from 68 communities surveyed in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Alternating logistic regressions were used to estimate the influence of social factors on the clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, nonviolent consequences, and driving after drinking or riding with a drinking driver. Results: The clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for drinking with friends and drinking with parents. Parents providing alcohol explained the clustering of heavy episodic drinking and nonviolent consequences, whereas drinking with other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol explained the clustering of nonviolent consequences. Drinking with friends or other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol increased the risk of these behaviors, whereas drinking with parents and parents providing alcohol were protective. Perceptions regarding peer drinking, community norms, consequences for drinking, and drinking at a party did not influence clustering. Conclusions: These findings suggest that interventions to reduce underage risky drinking in communities should focus on the differential effects of the social context in which drinking occurs. PMID:23036206

  15. AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

  16. Distinguishing between Positive and Negative Social Bonding in Problem Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Hussain, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Background: To reduce problem drinking, interventions must be directed toward those factors associated with problem drinking. Purpose: This study examined how perceptions of the role of alcohol related to problem drinking among a convenience sample of 301 college students. Methods: Fifteen items concerned with drinking behavior or perceptions…

  17. A Lactobacillus casei Shirota probiotic drink reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in patients with spinal cord injuries: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samford; Jamous, Ali; O'Driscoll, Jean; Sekhar, Ravi; Weldon, Mike; Yau, Chi Y; Hirani, Shashivadan P; Grimble, George; Forbes, Alastair

    2014-02-01

    Certain probiotics may prevent the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), but their effectiveness depends on both strain and dose. There are few data on nutritional interventions to control AAD/CDAD in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. The present study aimed to assess (1) the efficacy of consuming a commercially produced probiotic containing at least 6·5 × 10? live Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) in reducing the incidence of AAD/CDAD, and (2) whether undernutrition and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are risk factors for AAD/CDAD. A total of 164 SCI patients (50·1 (sd 17·8) years) with a requirement for antibiotics (median 21 d, range 5-366) were randomly allocated to receive LcS (n 76) or no probiotic (n 82). LcS was given once daily for the duration of the antibiotic course and continued for 7 days thereafter. Nutritional risk was assessed by the Spinal Nutrition Screening Tool. The LcS group had a significantly lower incidence of AAD (17·1 v. 54·9%, P< 0·001). At baseline, 65% of patients were at undernutrition risk. Undernutrition (64·1 v. 33·3%, P< 0·01) and the use of PPI (38·4 v. 12·1 %, P= 0·022) were found to be associated with AAD. However, no significant difference was observed in nutrient intake between the groups. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified poor appetite ( < 1/2 meals eaten) (OR 5·04, 95% CI 1·28, 19·84) and no probiotic (OR 8·46, 95% CI 3·22, 22·20) as the independent risk factors for AAD. The present study indicated that LcS could reduce the incidence of AAD in hospitalised SCI patients. A randomised, placebo-controlled study is needed to confirm this apparent therapeutic success in order to translate into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:24044687

  18. PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL DECAY IN DRINKING WATER: A SECOND ORDER MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide water that is both microbiologically and chemically safe for human consumption. Drinking water chlorination, therefore, poses a dilemma. Chemical disinfection reduces the risk of infectious disease but the interaction be...

  19. GEOCHEMISTRY OF SULFUR IN IRON CORROSION SCALES FOUND IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron-sulfur geochemistry is important in many natural and engineered environments, including drinking water systems. In the anaerobic environment beneath scales of corroding iron drinking water distribution system pipes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulfide from natu...

  20. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    Use only water that has been properly disinfected for drinking, cooking, making any prepared drink, or for brushing teeth. Downloads & Translations ... for brushing teeth. 7 Steps to Emergency Drinking Water Disinfection Only use water that has been properly ...

  1. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  2. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  3. Drinking Enough Fluids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Drinking Enough Fluids It’s important for your body to have plenty of fluids each day. Water helps you digest your food, ... it even more important to have plenty of fluids. Drinking enough fluids every day also is essential ...

  4. DRINKING WATER FOR ALL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anumakonda Jagadeesh

    2006-01-01

    Impure water is the root cause for many diseases es pecially in developing countries. Millions of people become sick each year from drink ing contaminated water. In many regions of the world, sunshine is abundantly availa ble which can be effectively utilized to provide safe drinking water to the millions of p eople. A portable, low-cost, and low- maintenance solar

  5. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brook Carlsen

    2010-12-01

    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a pa

  6. The photocatalytic removal of bacterial pollutants from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. M. Dunlop; J. A. Byrne; N. Manga; B. R. Eggins

    2002-01-01

    Pathogens in drinking water supplies can be removed by sand filtration followed by chlorine or ozone disinfection. These processes reduce the possibility of any pathogens entering the drinking water distribution network. However, there is doubt about the ability of these methods to remove chlorine resistant microorganisms including protozoan oocysts. Concern has also been raised about the production of disinfection by-products

  7. Preventing Dangerous College Drinking Is Possible. E-Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol is all too often seen as an accepted part of college life, but there are programs that can significantly reduce students' risky drinking, according to a series of studies in a special college drinking supplement of the "Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs." Fourteen studies detail results of projects funded by the National Institute on…

  8. Drinking Reductions following Alcohol-related Sanctions are associated with Social Norms among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.; Reid, Allecia E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Students mandated for intervention following an alcohol-related sanction event often reduce their drinking prior to intervention. Knowing the determinants of self-initiated change may help identify intervention targets for individuals who do not reduce their drinking. Guided by self-regulation theory, we tested whether fewer past alcohol consequences and higher descriptive and injunctive norms would be associated with higher levels of post-sanction drinking. College students referred for a campus alcohol violation (N=658, 64% male) reported on their drinking during the month before and after their sanction event. Results show that post-sanction drinking was significantly lower than pre-sanction drinking across four outcomes: (a) drinks per drinking day, (b) drinks per week, (c) peak drinks, and (d) peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Hypothesized social influence variables (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) were consistently associated with all four drinking outcomes; that is, students who perceived that their friends drank more and held more accepting views of drinking were less reactive to alcohol-related sanctions. Past consequences of drinking did not consistently predict subsequent drinking. Therefore, we conclude that alcohol interventions for mandated students should target both descriptive and injunctive norms to optimize their efficacy. PMID:24274435

  9. It's Your Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they can meet the specific needs of their citizens while maintaining a national level of public health. ... of public drinking water. States have also established citizen advisory committees to help develop their programs, and ...

  10. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  11. Drinking Water Standards 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  12. Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2005-12-02

    High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....

  13. Perceived consequences of drinking caffeinated beverages.

    PubMed

    Page, R M

    1987-12-01

    A survey of 238 college students indicated that those who prefer to drink caffeine containing drinks maintain different perceptions about the negative and positive consequences of drinking caffeinated drinks from those who do not prefer to drink caffeinated drinks. 154 of the students reported that the last soft drink they consumed was caffeinated. PMID:3438120

  14. GRIK1 genotype moderates topiramate's effects on daily drinking level, expectations of alcohol's positive effects and desire to drink.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    We (Kranzler et al., 2014) reported that topiramate 200 mg/day reduced heavy drinking days and increased abstinent days in 138 heavy drinkers whose treatment goal was to reduce drinking to safe levels. In that 12-week, placebo-controlled study, we measured drinking using the Timeline Follow-back method at each treatment visit. In addition to the intent-to-treat effects of topiramate, we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, encoding the GluK1 subunit of the kainate receptor, moderated the treatment effect in European Americans (EAs; n = 122). Topiramate reduced heavy drinking only in rs2832407*C allele homozygotes. Here, we augment those analyses by using patients' daily reports obtained using interactive voice response technology; (a) to validate the interactive effects of GRIK1 and topiramate as predictors of drinking level; and, (b) to examine changes in expected positive effects of drinking (i.e. positive outcome expectancies) and desire to drink. We found that rs2832407*C allele homozygotes treated with topiramate drank less overall during treatment than those receiving placebo, validating our earlier findings for heavy drinking days (Kranzler et al., 2014). There was also a study day × medication group × genotype group interaction that predicted both positive alcohol expectancies and desire to drink, with rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showing the largest decreases in these outcomes during the study period. Changes in positive alcohol expectancies or desire to drink did not mediate the effects on drinking. These findings validate and extend our previous pharmacogenetic findings with topiramate. PMID:24786948

  15. Alcohol dependence and free-choice drinking in mice.

    PubMed

    Griffin, William C

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol dependence continues to be an important health concern and animal models are critical to furthering our understanding of this complex disease. A hallmark feature of alcoholism is a significant increase in alcohol drinking over time. While several different animal models of excessive alcohol (ethanol) drinking exist for mice and rats, a growing number of laboratories are using a model that combines chronic ethanol exposure procedures with voluntary ethanol drinking with mice as experimental subjects. Primarily, these studies use a chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure pattern to render mice dependent and a 2-h limited access procedure to evaluate drinking behavior. Compared to non-dependent mice that also drink ethanol, the ethanol-dependent mice demonstrate significant increases in voluntary ethanol drinking. The increased drinking significantly elevates blood and brain ethanol concentrations compared to the non-dependent control mice. Studies report that the increased drinking by dependent mice is driven by neuroadaptations in glutamatergic and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling in different brain regions known to be involved in alcohol-related behaviors. The dysregulation of these systems parallels findings in human alcoholics and treatments that demonstrate efficacy in alcoholics can also reduce drinking in this model. Moreover, preclinical findings have informed the development of human clinical trials, further highlighting the translational potential of the model. As a result of these features, the CIE exposure and free-choice drinking model is becoming more widely used and promises to provide more insight into mechanisms of excessive drinking that may be important for developing treatments for human alcoholics. The salient features and possible future considerations for CIE exposure and free-choice drinking in mice are discussed. PMID:24530006

  16. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

  17. Energy drinks and adolescents: what's the harm?

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R

    2015-04-01

    Concerns about potential dangers from energy drink consumption by youth have been raised by health experts, whereas energy drink manufacturers claim these products are safe and suitable for marketing to teens. This review summarizes the evidence used to support both sides of the debate. Unlike most beverage categories, sales of energy drinks and other highly caffeinated products continue to grow, and marketing is often targeted to youth under the age of 18 years. These products pose a risk of caffeine toxicity when consumed by some young people, and there is evidence of other troubling physiological and behavioral effects associated with their consumption by youth. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated it will reexamine the safety of caffeine in the food supply; however, more research is needed to better understand youth consumption of energy drinks and caffeine in general, as well as the long-term effects on health. Meanwhile, policymakers and physician groups have called on energy drink manufacturers to take voluntary action to reduce the potential harm of their products, including placing restrictions on marketing to youth under the age of 18 years. Additional regulatory and legislative options are also being discussed. PMID:26024547

  18. [Drinking water in infants].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Miñana, I

    2004-02-01

    We review types of public drinking water and bottled water and provide recommendations on the composition of water for infants. Water used with any of the commercial infant formulas in Spain should contain less than 25 mg/l of sodium. Drinking water must be boiled for a maximum of one minute (at sea level) to avoid excessive salt concentration. Bottled water need not be boiled. Fluoride content in drinking water should be less than 0.3 mg/l in first year of life to prevent dental fluorosis. Nitrate content in water should be less than 25 mg/l to prevent methemoglobinemia. Water with a calcium concentration of between 50 and 100 mg/l is a dietary source of calcium since it provides 24-56 % of the required daily intake in infancy. PMID:14757021

  19. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04

    R adionuclides are types of atoms that are radioactive. The most common radionu- clides in drinking water are radium, radon and uranium. Most of the radionuclides in drinking water occur nat- urally at very low levels and are not considered a pub... sources. Naturally occurring radionuclides are created in the upper atmosphere and are found in the Earth?s crust. They are found in certain types of rocks that contain trace amounts of the radioactive iso- topes (forms) of uranium, thorium and/or actinium...

  20. Arsenic in Your Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... swimming pool. FOR MORE INFORMATION Arsenic in drinking water http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic Arsenic health ... http://www.epa.gov/safewater/privatewells Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1-800-426-4791 JUST THE FACTS ...

  1. -fountain drinks, coffee, tea pritzkerclub

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    drinks - fountain drinks, coffee, tea - fuze 2 3 pritzkerclub SOUP DU JOUR PRITZKER CLUB SANDWICH, with italian sausage slices BEEF coffee-crusted flat iron steak with sauteed vidalia onions VEGETARIAN stuffed

  2. Tips for Cutting Down on Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drink spacers” — non-alcoholic drinks such as water, soda, or juice — with drinks containing alcohol. INCLUDING Don’ ... don’t go it alone. Sudden withdrawal from heavy drinking can cause dangerous side effects such as ...

  3. Tips for Cutting Down on Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drink spacers” — non-alcoholic drinks such as water, soda, or juice — with drinks containing alcohol. Including Food ... don’t go it alone. Sudden withdrawal from heavy drinking can cause dangerous side effects such as ...

  4. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  5. DRINKING WATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

  6. Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Alcoholic drinks Table A43. Alcoholic drinks: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 number of drinks Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 19-30 1113 0.9

  7. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574 PMID:23933526

  8. Hydrogen peroxide generation from hydrated protein drink mixes.

    PubMed

    Boatright, William L

    2013-11-01

    Generation of oxygen radicals upon hydration of powdered protein products was examined using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Among individual proteins powders examined oxidative bursts occurred almost immediately, and then rapidly declined in the 1st 5 min. Commercially available powdered protein drink mixes behaved differently, with an initial lag phase followed by a sustained increase in luminol-enhanced luminescence, lasting for an hour or beyond. The drink mix that produced the highest level of luminol-enhanced luminescence also contained 379 nM ascorbate radical when hydrated (28 nmole/g of powdered drink mix). The entire ascorbic acid content of this drink mix was oxidized to nondetectable levels (using HPLC-diode array detection) within 60 min of being hydrated. Treatment of the hydrated drink mixes with the enzyme catalase almost completely inhibited the luminol-enhanced luminescence from the hydrated drink mix demonstrating that hydrogen peroxide generated via a chemical reaction among the drink mixes' ingredients was a primary reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is the strongest oxidative capacity demonstrated in a food product as consumed (without any manipulation to increase ROS) and the 1st time that the ascrobate radical in a food product as been quantified. Generation of hydrogen peroxide in the hydrated drink mixes from metal catalyzed reactions involving oxygen and reducing equivalents from ascorbic acid is proposed. PMID:24245883

  9. Drinking Plans and Drinking Outcomes: Examining Young Adults' Weekend Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trim, Ryan S.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey; Thombs, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among drinking intentions, environments, and outcomes in a random sample of 566 undergraduate college students. Telephone interviews were conducted with respondents before and after a single weekend assessing drinking intentions for the coming weekend related to subsequent drinking behaviors. Latent class analyses…

  10. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided. PMID:25031128

  11. Drinking in the Context of Life Stressors: A Multidimensional Coping Strategy among South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Karmel W.; Watt, Melissa H.; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored narratives of drinking as a coping strategy among female drinkers in a South African township. In 2010–11, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 54 women recruited from 12 alcohol-serving venues. Most women drank heavily and linked their drinking to stressors. They were motivated to use drinking to manage their emotions, facilitate social engagement, and achieve a sense of empowerment, even while recognizing the limitations of this strategy. This study helps to contextualize heavy drinking behavior among women in this setting. Multifaceted interventions that help female drinkers to more effectively manage stressors may aid in reducing hazardous drinking. PMID:23905586

  12. Drinking Water Problems: MTBE 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-28

    and nervous system. Evi- dence of human cancer or nervous system effects from consuming or bathing in MTBE-contaminated water remains inconclusive. The EPA has not yet established a national drink- ing water standard for MTBE. In 2005, the additive... Director-Agriculture and Natural Resources; Professor, Associate Department Head and Exten- sion Program Leader for Biological and Agricultural Engineering; The Texas A&M System MTBE in water about five times more often, and at higher concentrations...

  13. Drinking Water Problems: MTBE

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-28

    a valid estimate of the cost of installation Activated carbon Activated carbon Activated carbon H o t C o l d Non-household uses Water meter Activated carbon Figure 3. Four types of activated carbon filtration units are, from left: A) pour.... Rapid City, SD. Kocher, J., B. Dvorak, and S. Skipton. NebGuide publi- cation G1489, Drinking Water Treatment: Activated Carbon Filtration. 2003. Lincoln, NE. Parrott, K. B. Ross, and J. Woodard. Viriginia Coopera- tive Extension publication 356...

  14. Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

  15. You Are What You Drink!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Contamination in drinking water sources or watersheds can negatively affect the organisms that come in contact with it. The affects can be severe — causing illness or, in some cases, even death. It is important for people to understand how they can contribute to the contaminants in drinking water and what treatment can be done to counter these harmful effects. Students will learn about the various methods developed by environmental engineers for treating drinking water in the United States.

  16. Drinking Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Laposata

    This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

  17. Alcohol Use Disorders and Perceived Drinking Norms: Ethnic Differences in Israeli Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shmulewitz, Dvora; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Aharonovich, Efrat; Aivadyan, Christina; Greenstein, Eliana; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Individuals’ perceptions of drinking acceptability in their society (perceived injunctive drinking norms) are widely assumed to explain ethnic group differences in drinking and alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but this has never been formally tested. Immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) are more likely to drink and report AUD symptoms than other Israelis. We tested perceived drinking norms as a mediator of differences between FSU immigrants and other Israelis in drinking and AUDs. Method: Adult household residents (N = 1,349) selected from the Israeli population register were assessed with a structured interview measuring drinking, AUD symptoms, and perceived drinking norms. Regression analyses were used to produce odds ratios (OR) and risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to test differences between FSU immigrants and other Israelis on binary and graded outcomes. Mediation of FSU effects by perceived drinking norms was tested with bootstrapping procedures. Results: FSU immigrants were more likely than other Israelis to be current drinkers (OR = 2.39, CI [1.61, 3.55]), have higher maximum number of drinks per day (RR = 1.88, CI [1.64, 2.16]), have any AUD (OR = 1.75, CI [1.16, 2.64]), score higher on a continuous measure of AUD (RR = 1.44, CI [1.12, 1.84]), and perceive more permissive drinking norms (p < .0001). For all four drinking variables, the FSU group effect was at least partially mediated by perceived drinking norms. Conclusions: This is the first demonstration that drinking norms mediate ethnic differences in AUDs. This work contributes to understanding ethnic group differences in drinking and AUDs, potentially informing etiologic research and public policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. PMID:23036217

  18. The persistence of adolescent binge drinking into adulthood: findings from a 15-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Louisa; O'Loughlin, Christina; Swift, Wendy; Romaniuk, Helena; Carlin, John; Coffey, Carolyn; Hall, Wayne; Patton, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of binge drinking in adolescence and its persistence into adulthood in an Australian cohort. Design 15-year prospective cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants 1943 adolescents were recruited from secondary schools at age 14–15?years. Primary outcome measures Levels of past-week ‘binge’ drinking (5+ standard drinks on a day, each 10?g alcohol) and ‘heavy binge’ drinking (20+ standard drinks on a day for males, 11+ for females) were assessed during six adolescent waves, and across three adult waves up to age 29?years. Results Half of the males (52%) and a third of the females (34%) reported past-week adolescent binge drinking. 90% of male and 70% of female adolescent-onset binge drinkers continued to binge in young adulthood; 70% of males and 48% of females who were not adolescent-onset binge drinkers reported young adult binge drinking. Past-week heavy bingeing was less common in adolescence than adulthood. Overall, 35% of the sample (95% CI 33% to 38%) reported past-week binge drinking in adolescence and young adulthood and one-third (33%; 30% to 35%) first reported binge drinking in young adulthood; only 7% of the sample (6–8%) had binge drinking in adolescence but not young adulthood. ‘Heavy binge’ drinking occurred in adolescence and young adulthood for 9% (8% to 10%); 8% (7% to 10%) reported it in adolescence but no longer in young adulthood; and 24% (22% to 26%) began ‘heavy binge’ drinking in young adulthood. Among adolescent binge drinkers (n=821), young adult binge and heavy binge drinking were predicted by being male, adolescent antisocial behaviour and adverse consequences of drinking in adolescence. Conclusions Binge alcohol use is common and persistent among young Australians. Efforts to prevent the onset of binge drinking during adolescence may substantially reduce harmful patterns of alcohol use in young adulthood. PMID:23959750

  19. The Need for Attitude Changes concerning Drinking and Drinking Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, R. G.; Liban, C. B.

    1981-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward alcohol use and abuse, drinking norms, and treatment of alcoholism among a representative sample of adults (N=933). Results indicated public concern about alcohol abuse and a desire to help, definite norms maintained against heavy drinking and drunkeness, and a belief in the value of treatment demonstrated. (Author)

  20. Why do young people drink? A review of drinking motives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Kuntsche; Ronald Knibbe; Gerhard Gmel; Rutger Engels

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews evidence of adolescent and young adult drinking motives and their relation to possible consequences over the last 15 years. To this end, a computer-assisted search of relevant articles was conducted. Results revealed that most young people reported drinking for social motives, some indicated enhancement motives, and only a few reported coping motives. Social motives appear to be

  1. Associations among Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress, and Hazardous Drinking in College Students: Considerations for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Radomski, Sharon; Borsari, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Students with trauma and posttraumatic stress are disproportionately at risk for heavy drinking and for alcohol-related consequences. Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) have been shown to reduce hazardous drinking in college students, and could serve as a first-line approach to reduce heavy drinking in students with trauma and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Yet the standard BMI format may not adequately address the factors that lead to hazardous drinking in these students. Here, we review the literature on PTS and hazardous drinking in college students, and highlight cognitive (self-efficacy, alcohol expectancies) and behavioral (coping strategies, emotion regulation skills, protective behaviors) factors that may link trauma and PTS to drinking risk. Incorporating these factors into standard BMIs in a collaborative way that enhances their personal relevance may enhance intervention efficacy and acceptability for these at-risk students.

  2. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lead from my drinking water? Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is lead? Lead is ... Where and how does lead get into drinking water? Lead rarely occurs naturally in water; it usually ...

  3. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Giardia from my drinking water? Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE- ... Where and how does Giardia get into drinking water? Millions of Giardia parasites can be released in ...

  4. Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Campylobacter from my drinking water? Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is campylobacteriosis? Campylobacteriosis (CAMP- ... Where and how does Campylobacter get into drinking water? Campylobacter is found in every part of the ...

  5. Monitoring lead in drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urbinato

    2009-01-01

    According to the latest round of monitoring completed at the end of 1992, more than 10 percent of all large and medium-sized public water systems in the United States provide drinking water that contains lead levels exceeding the action level'' of 15 parts per billion established by EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Those systems that exceed the action

  6. Subfornical organ stimulation elicits drinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Smith; R. J. Beninger; A. V. Ferguson

    1995-01-01

    The subfornical organ is a specialized central nervous system structure known to be involved in the control of drinking. We report here that electrical activation of subfomical organ neurons (100 ?A, 10 Hz, 1 ms pulse width, for 5 min.) induced drinking in 67% (six of nine) of animals. This effect was site-specific as none of the animals with electrode

  7. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  8. Drinking Adolescents on the Roads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBlasio, Frederick A.

    1986-01-01

    A social-learning model was tested for its ability to explain why adolescents drive under the influence of alcohol and ride with drinking drivers. The study demonstrates that if adolescent drinking and driving is to be prevented, careful attention must be prevented, careful attention must be paid to ways that it is learned and maintained.…

  9. Examination of a three-dimensional Drinking Motives Questionnaire in a young adult university student sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherry H. Stewart; Sharon B. Zeitlin; Sarah Barton Samoluk

    1996-01-01

    The literature on drinking motives suggests that individuals drink for three distinct reasons: coping motives (CM: to reduce and\\/or avoid negative emotional states); social motives (SM: to affiliate with others); and enhancement motives (EM: to facilitate positive emotions). Cooper, Russell, Skinner and Windle (1992) [Psychological Assessment, 4, 123–132] developed a 3-dimensional self-report instrument, the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ), with subscales

  10. Binge Drinking on College Campuses. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Karen

    This digest discusses binge drinking on U.S. college campuses. Male binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks in a row one or more times during a 2-week period; female binge drinking is defined as four or more drinks in a row one or more times during a two-week period. A drink is defined as twelve ounces of beer or wine cooler, four ounces…

  11. Caffeinated energy drinks in children

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question A 14-year-old boy came to my office to discuss his frequent consumption of energy drinks to enhance his performance at school and while playing soccer. What is the recommended use of energy drinks in children and is there any harm in consuming them? Answer Energy drinks are beverages with a high concentration of caffeine and additional stimulants. They are sold in numerous places and are easily accessed by children, adolescents, and young adults. Many reports warn about potential adverse effects associated with their consumption, especially in combination with alcohol among adolescents, and in combination with stimulant medications among children treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children and adolescents should avoid energy drinks, and health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks. PMID:24029508

  12. 40 CFR 141.623 - Reduced monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.623 Reduced monitoring. (a) You may reduce monitoring to the level...

  13. 40 CFR 141.623 - Reduced monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.623 Reduced monitoring. (a) You may reduce monitoring to the level...

  14. 40 CFR 141.623 - Reduced monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.623 Reduced monitoring. (a) You may reduce monitoring to the level...

  15. 40 CFR 141.623 - Reduced monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.623 Reduced monitoring. (a) You may reduce monitoring to the level...

  16. Proximal Relationships Between PTSD Symptoms and Drinking among Female College Students: Results from a Daily Monitoring Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaysen, Debra; Atkins, David C.; Simpson, Tracy L.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The self-medication hypothesis has been proposed to explain comorbidity between PTSD and drinking, whereupon problem drinking develops as an attempt to modulate negative affect and ameliorate PTSD symptoms. Studies have begun utilizing daily monitoring methodologies to refine our understanding of proximal relations between PTSD, affect, and alcohol use. 136 female college drinkers with a past history of sexual victimization and 38 female college drinkers with no past trauma history, completed electronic monitoring of PTSD symptoms, affect, alcohol use, and alcohol cravings, daily for 4 weeks. A two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine likelihood of drinking and amount of alcohol consumed on drinking days. We did find significant relationships between daily PTSD symptoms, affect, and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms of PTSD they experienced stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink on that day. On days where women experienced more negative affect than their average, they experienced stronger urges to drink whereas on days where women experienced more of the dysphoric symptoms associated with PTSD than their average, they drank less. On days with higher positive affect women reported stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink. Results suggest the need to examine both aspects of affect and specific PTSD symptoms as they may differentially predict drinking behavior. Differences in the ways in which PTSD symptoms and affect influence drinking suggest that interventions more specifically address the function of drinking behaviors in reducing alcohol use among college women. PMID:23915369

  17. Controlling Underage Drinking: Fear of Law Enforcement or Internalized Normative Values?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research on alcohol control policies has generally taken a deterrence perspective. Whether internalized normative values, consistent with the changes intended by alcohol policies, were a potential base for securing public compliance with them has received little research attention. To fill this gap, this study examined whether underage young adults’ support for underage drinking laws was associated with their alcohol use. Methods National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) data collected in 1995–2005 were used. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Covariates included: sex, race, education level, household income, positive alcohol expectancies, the perceived likelihood of law enforcement, and the availability and affordability of alcohol. Results Controlling for other covariates, support for underage drinking laws was significantly associated with some drinking outcomes. Underage young adults who were not supportive of the minimum legal drinking age law were more likely to engage in frequent binge drinking (OR=3.08) and drinking driving (OR=4.17), and to have initiated drinking at age 16 or younger (OR=2.37). Those who indicated a lower degree of support for the zero-tolerance drunk driving law had higher odds of drinking driving (OR=4.36), as well as higher odds of having ever had alcohol (OR=5.46), current drinking (OR=5.36), and having initiated drinking at the age of 16 or younger (OR=3.09). The perceived likelihood of law enforcement was protective only from frequent binge drinking (OR=0.09). Conclusion A clear articulation of potential harms associated with underage drinking to help legitimize underage drinking laws, along with their rigorous enforcement, may help reduce underage drinking. PMID:25243198

  18. Magnitude and Prevention of College Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, Ralph W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) issued a report entitled A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges. Data on the magnitude of college drinking problems in 1998 to 1999 were reported. From 1999 to 2005, the proportion of college students aged 18–24 who drank five or more drinks on a single occasion in the past month increased from 41.7 percent to 45.2 percent. The proportion who drove under the influence of alcohol increased from 26.1 percent to 29.2 percent. Higher percentages of 21- to 24-year-olds engaged in those behaviors than 18- to 20-year-olds, and between 1999 and 2005 the percentage increased among 21- to 24-year-olds but not among those aged 18–20. From 1998 to 2005, unintentional alcohol-related injury deaths increased 3 percent (from 1,442 to 1,825) per 100,000 college students aged 18–24. Alcohol misuse by college students often harms other people through traffic crashes and sexual/other assaults. Research regarding ways to reduce college drinking problems has shown that individual-oriented interventions, particularly screening and brief motivational counseling interventions, social norms interventions, environmental policy changes such as the minimum legal drinking age of 21 and drinking-and-driving laws, and comprehensive college–community programs, can reduce college drinking and related morbidity and mortality. There is a growing need for colleges and surrounding communities to implement interventions shown through research to reduce alcohol misuse among college-aged people. PMID:23579935

  19. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  20. The impact of school alcohol policy on student drinking

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Catalano, Richard F.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is common for secondary schools to implement alcohol policies to reduce alcohol misuse, there has been little evaluation of the efficacy of these policies. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the degree and type of alcohol policy enforcement in state representative samples of secondary students in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia (n = 1848). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the prospective association between student reports of school alcohol policy in Grade 8 and self-reported alcohol use in Grade 9, controlling for age, gender, state, family socio-economic status and Grade 8 alcohol use. The likelihood of students drinking on school grounds was increased when students perceived lax policy enforcement. Student perceptions of harm minimization alcohol messages, abstinence alcohol messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators predicted reduced likelihood of binge drinking. Students perceiving harm minimization messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators had a reduced likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related harms. Perceptions of harsh penalties were unrelated to drinking behaviour. These results suggest that perceived policy enforcement may lessen drinking at school 1 year later and that harm minimization messages and counselling approaches may also lessen harmful drinking behaviours as harm minimization advocates suggest. PMID:23766454

  1. Drinking Motives Among HIV Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Aharonovich, Efrat; O’Leary, Ann; Wainberg, Milton; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Heavy drinking among individuals with HIV is associated with poor medication adherence and other health problems. Understanding reasons for drinking (drinking motives) in this population is therefore important and could inform intervention. Using concepts of drinking motives from previous alcohol research, we assessed these motives and drinking in 254 HIV-positive primary care patients (78.0% male; 94.5% African American or Hispanic) prior to their participation in an alcohol intervention trial. Three motives had good factor structure and internal consistency: “drinking to cope with negative affect”, “drinking for social facilitation” (both associated with heavier drinking), and “drinking due to social pressure” (associated with less drinking). Drinking motives may provide important content for alcohol intervention; clinical trials could indicate whether inclusion of such content improves intervention efficacy. Discussing motives in session could help providers assist clients in better managing psychological and social aspects of their lives without reliance on alcohol. PMID:24165984

  2. Sodium in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

  3. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801

  4. Predictors of drinking outcomes among alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Staines, Graham; Magura, Stephen; Rosenblum, Andrew; Fong, Chunki; Kosanke, Nicole; Foote, Jeffrey; Deluca, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Predicting outcomes for individual patients entering substance abuse treatment has long been a clinical goal in the addictions field. Intake data from the Addiction Severity Index and other standardized scales were collected on 248 alcohol dependent/abusing patients entering an urban hospital treatment program. The outcome measure was frequency of drinking days in the past 30 days. Baseline data were used to identify predictors of posttreatment drinking frequency at two follow-up interviews (3 and 12 months postbaseline). Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that a set of baseline predictors accounted for similar and substantial proportions of outcome variance at the two follow-ups. When psychosocial predictors were combined with an index of alcohol use severity (which included drinking frequency), the proportions of variance explained were 31% and 28% at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Two psychosocial predictors were significant at both time periods, and thus most likely to be replicated in future research: a treatment motivation index (a combination of measures of commitment to treatment success and internal motivation to seek treatment) and an index of 12-step (self-help) participation (a combination of measures of frequency of 12-step meeting attendance and perceived helpfulness of 12-step participation). While the predictability of short-term (3 month) outcomes could help clinicians tailor treatment strategies to maximize patient motivation and reduce drinking behavior, the predictability of longer term (12 month) outcomes could help counselors plan aftercare programs, encourage self-help participation, and promote recovery-oriented activities to sustain initial treatment-induced gains. PMID:12731689

  5. [Comparative study of the drinking patterns of heavy-drinking and other college students].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, T

    1994-06-01

    In order to contribute to measures to solve the problems caused by college students who are heavy drinkers, a comparative study of their drinking patterns, as compared to the drinking patterns of other college students, was conducted. Significant differences were observed between heavy-drinking and other students in the following 14 instances, which include drinking frequency, attitude when offered a drink, coerced drinking, like or dislike of drinking, insatiable drinking, flushing or turning pale during drinking, attitude towards a doctor's advice to quit drinking, desire to quit drinking, cost of drinking, attitude towards someone who cannot drink, experience of morning drinking during the past year, experience of loss of consciousness due to drinking, lack of success in efforts to stop drinking, and opinion of those who gulp down drinks. Almost no significant differences were revealed between heavy drinkers and other college students in regard to the desire to drink after taking an examination, drinking on borrowed money, and acting surly or abusive after drinking. Relationships between the ratio of heavy-drinking students and club activities, place of residence and place of birth were also investigated. Results which implied relationships in these cases were found, but the sample was too small to detect significant differences. Further investigation is needed by increasing the sample numbers. PMID:8080403

  6. ETV COLLABORATIVE EVALUATIONS OF MARKET-READY TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    How well do some commercially marketed package treatment systems perform to reduce arsenic from drinking water supplies? The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Drinking Water Systems (DWS) Center is a partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA...

  7. EFFECTS OF HEAVY DRINKING IN COLLEGE ON STUDY EFFORT, GRADE POINT AVERAGE, AND MAJOR CHOICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy M. Wolaver

    2002-01-01

    This article measures the effects of college drinking on study hours, grade point average (GPA), and major choice using simultaneous equation models and data from the 1993 College Alcohol Study. Binging and intoxication decrease GPA directly and indirectly by reducing study hours. Greater frequency of drinking increases the effect on study hours but not the total effect on GPA. College

  8. Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

  9. Treatment techniques for the recycling of bottle washing water in the soft drinks industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ramirez Camperos; P. Mijaylova Nacheva; E. Diaz Tapia

    The soft drink production is an important sector in the manufacturing industry of Mexico. Water is the main source in the production of soft drinks. Wastewater from bottle washing is almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry. In order to reduce the consumption of water, the water of the last bottle rinse can be reused in to

  10. How to Identify Lead Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act went into effect on January 4, 2014. The Act has reduced the lead content allowed in water system and plumbing products by changing the definition of lead free in Section 1417 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) from not more than 8% ...

  11. A behavioral economic analysis of the effect of next-day responsibilities on drinking.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lindsey J; Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 37% of college students report heavy episodic drinking (5 or more drinks in an occasion for men and 4 or more for women) in the past month. This pattern of drinking is often associated with high blood alcohol levels, accidents, injuries, and negative social and academic outcomes. There is a need for novel theoretical approaches to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral economics emphasizes the role of contextual determinants, such as drink price and the presence and amount of alternative reinforcement as determinants of drinking levels and has received strong empirical support in basic laboratory research. This translational research study used a hypothetical behavioral economic measure to investigate the impact of a variety of next-day responsibilities on night-before drinking intentions in a sample of first-year college students (N = 80; 50% female) who reported recent heavy episodic drinking. Drinking estimates were significantly lower in all of the responsibility conditions relative to the no-responsibility condition; internships were associated with the greatest reduction (d(rm) = 1.72), and earlier class times were associated with greater reductions in drinking intentions (d(rm) range = 1.22-1.35) than later class times (d(rm) range = 0.83-1.00). These results suggest that increasing morning responsibilities should be further investigated as a potential strategy to reduce drinking in college students. PMID:25402835

  12. Biochemical effects of feeding soft drink and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Raj, Arun; Praveen, K V; Varghese, Sheeba; Mukkadan, J K; Joseph, P K

    2009-05-01

    This work was undertaken to study whether consumption of alcoholic beverage mixed with soft drinks could reduce the metabolic effect caused by ethanol. When 24 hr fasted rats were intragastrically fed rum (with 40% ethanol) diluted (1:1) with water, 3.0 ml (0.5 g ethanol) per 100 g body weight and sacrificed 12 hr later in fasting condition, exhibited higher levels of triacyl glycerol, glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum, higher levels of total cholesterol, triacyl glycerol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in both liver and kidneys, and lower levels of serum albumin. When fasted rats were fed 3.0 ml soft drink (0.31 mg caffeine), they showed increased levels of triacyl glycerol, glucose, ALT and ALP in the serum, TBARS in liver and kidneys, triacyl glycerol and total cholesterol in kidneys and lower levels of serum albumin. Soft drink feeding did not reduce serum total cholesterol but reduced HDL levels. Also soft drink did not alter liver lipids. When a mixture of 1.5 ml diluted rum (0.25 g ethanol) and 1.5 ml soft drink (0.154 mg caffeine) were fed to the fasted rats, the serum parameters increased similar to rats fed rum only except that total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were unaltered. TBARS in kidneys and liver were also increased but triacyl glycerol levels were not altered. Thus feeding ethanol with soft drink does not reduce the metabolic effects of ethanol but it will prevent ethanol induced serum HDL cholesterol rise. PMID:19579797

  13. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problem? Despite the law, the statistics, and the science, some people still think teen drinking is not a serious problem. Here are some of the more common questions and assertions you may hear from neighbors and ...

  14. What Is a Standard Drink?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... actually in your drink. Different types of beer, wine, or malt liquor can have very different amounts ... is usually about 5% alcohol 5 ounces of wine, which is typically about 12% alcohol 1.5 ...

  15. Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity T his month’s Archives focuses on new research about childhood obesity. Being overweight is now the most common medical condition of childhood. Nearly ...

  16. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  17. Risk Factors for Drinking among HIV-Positive African American Adults: The Depression–Gender Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Holder, Catherine A.; Golub, Sarit A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse disproportionately affects people living with HIV. People who struggle with alcohol are also likely to be concurrently struggling with depression. Although there is evidence linking depression to HIV, depression to alcohol, and alcohol to HIV, there is limited research that simultaneously examines the interlocking associations between all three factors. Objective To investigate the interaction between depression symptomatology and gender on alcohol misuse, while controlling for motivation to reduce drinking, among HIV-positive African Americans. This population was examined because of their increased for developing alcohol dependence. Methods Data analysis was conducted on baseline survey data of HIV-positive African American adults (N = 88) who drink and were enrolled in the Project PLUS (Positive Living through Understanding and Support) intervention to examine the correlates (i.e., gender, motivation, depression) of drinking in the past 30 days. Results Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed a significant interaction between gender and depression to predict total drinks reported (R2 = .56, p < .001). While depression was the sole predictor of drinking for men and suppressed the role of motivation, the reverse was true for women; depression was not a significant predictor after controlling for motivation to reduce drinking. Conclusion African American men and women living with HIV have different risk factors for recent drinking. Scientific significance Understanding the link between depression, gender, and motivation to reduce drinking for HIV-positive adults with alcohol problems is crucial for the development of gender and culturally relevant treatments. PMID:22324798

  18. Why do high school seniors drink? Implications for a targeted approach to intervention.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Donna L; Patrick, Megan E; Palen, Lori Ann; Rhoades, Brittany L; Ventura, Alison K

    2007-12-01

    The transition from high school to college provides a potentially critical window to intervene and reduce risky behavior among adolescents. Understanding the motivations (e.g., social, coping, enhancement) behind high school seniors' alcohol use could provide one important avenue to reducing risky drinking behaviors. In the present study, latent class analysis was used to examine the relationship between different patterns of drinking motivations and behaviors in a sample of 12th graders (N = 1,877) from the 2004 Monitoring the Future survey. Unlike previous variable-centered analyses, this person-centered approach identifies types of motivations that cluster together within individuals and relates membership in these profiles to drinking behaviors. Results suggest four profiles of drinking motivations for both boys and girls, including Experimenters, Thrill-seekers, Multi-reasoners, and Relaxers. Early initiation of alcohol use, past year drunkenness, and drinking before 4 P.M. were associated with greater odds of membership in the Multi-reasoners class as compared to the Experimenters class. Although the strength of these relationships varied for boys and girls, findings were similar across gender suggesting that the riskiest drinking behavior was related to membership in the Multi-reasoners class. These findings can be used to inform prevention programming. Specifically, targeted interventions that tailor program content to the distinct drinking motivation profiles described above may prove to be effective in reducing risky drinking behavior among high school seniors. PMID:17963040

  19. Campus-Community Solutions to Collegiate High-Risk Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Linda; Workman, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "NU Directions" program of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1 of 10 programs administered by the American Medical Association to use campus-community coalitions and a comprehensive approach to crate change and reduce collegiate high-risk drinking. Discusses the challenges, benefits, and lessons learned in creating this…

  20. Alternative methods for membrane filtration of arsenic from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Brandhuber; Gary Amy

    1998-01-01

    The Maximum Contaminate Level (MCL) for arsenic in drinking water is to be lowered in the United States. Membrane treatment is a viable method to meet the reduced MCL. The suitability of reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration as an arsenic treatment method is investigated. Treatment recommendations are made based upon the results of several pilot studies.

  1. COMBINING METHODS FOR THE REDUCTION OF OXYCHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous investigations have shown ferrous iron application to be an effective and economically feasible method of removing residual chlorine dioxide and chlorite iron from drinking water. This treatment, however, was not effective in reducing concentrqations of chlorate iron. ...

  2. Disinfectant Penetration into Nitrifying Drinking Water Distribution System Biofilm Using Microelectrodes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrification within drinking water distribution systems reduces water quality, causes difficulties maintaining adequate disinfectant residual, and poses public health concerns including exposure to nitrite, nitrate, and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms. Monochloramine is...

  3. A Longitudinal Investigation of Heavy Drinking and Physical Dating Violence in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of heavy drinking and dating violence have typically focused on either female victimization or male perpetration; yet recent findings indicate that mutual aggression is the most common pattern of dating violence. The current study investigated the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence for both men and women. Participants (N = 2,247) completed surveys that assessed their heavy drinking and dating violence frequency across the first three years of college. Findings indicated that heavy drinking and dating violence were both relatively stable across time for men and women, but the relation between heavy drinking and dating violence differed by gender. For men, heavy drinking and dating violence were concurrently associated during their freshman year (Year 1), whereas for women heavy drinking during sophomore year (Year 2) predicted dating violence in their junior year (Year 3). In addition to providing educational material on healthy relationships and conflict resolution techniques, intervention efforts should target both heavy drinking and dating violence for men during or prior to their freshman year of college, whereas women may primarily benefit from efforts to reduce their heavy drinking. PMID:20079971

  4. Are People Overoptimistic about the Effects of Heavy Drinking?

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Frank A.; Eldred, Lindsey M.; Guo, Tong; Xu, Yanzhi

    2013-01-01

    We test whether heavy or binge drinkers are overly optimistic about probabilities of adverse consequences from these activities or are relatively accurate about these probabilities. Using data from a survey in eight cities, we evaluate the relationship between subjective beliefs and drinking. We assess accuracy of beliefs about several outcomes of heavy/binge drinking: reduced longevity, liver disease onset, link between alcohol consumption and Driving While Intoxicated (DWI), probability of an accident after drinking, accuracy of beliefs about encountering intoxicated drivers on the road, and legal consequences of DWI—ranging from being stopped to receiving fines and jail terms. Overall, there is no empirical support for the optimism bias hypothesis. We do find that persons consuming a lot of alcohol tend to be more overconfident about their driving abilities and ability to handle alcohol. However, such overconfidence does not translate into over-optimism about consequences of high levels of alcohol consumption. PMID:24058265

  5. THE USE OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS OF IN-HOME DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TO STUDY ENDEMIC WATERBORNE DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Randomized trials of water treatment have demonstrated the ability of simple water treatments to significantly reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal illnesses in developing countries where drinking water is of poor quality. Whether or not additional treatment at the tap reduc...

  6. Effect of Artificial Sweetners on the Quality of Mango Drink

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. BUTT; F. M. ANJUM; N. SHAHZADI; M. SAJJAD KHAN

    Mango drink was prepared by replacing sucrose with artificial sweeteners aspartame and cyclamate. The treatments were analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory evaluation fortnightly for two months. Acidity and reducing sugar increased, while TSS, pH and ascorbic acid decreased with storage intervals. Maximum increase in acidity (0.25%) and reducing sugars (3.41%) was observed in samples with 100% sucrose, followed by samples

  7. German drinking water regulations, pesticides, and axiom of concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieter, Hermann H.

    1992-01-01

    The limit value of 0.1 µg/liter for “substances used in plant treatment and pest control including their main toxic degradation products” (PBSM) established in the German Drinking Water Regulations (Trinkwasserverordnung) serves comprehensively to protect drinking water from unexpected toxicological risks and thus corresponds to the axiom of concern (Besorgnisgrundsatz) contained in §11,2 of the Federal Communicable Disease Control Act (Bundesseuchengesetz), which is an essential cornerstone of the Drinking Water Regulations. Furthermore, precautionary values that are specific to the particular substance and near the valid limit can be found for about 10% of all registered active substances. The goal of the PBSM Recommendations of the Federal Health Office (BGA) issued in July 1989 is to preserve and restore groundwater and drinking water through measures to be taken by the causal party, while reducing consumer health risks to the greatest extent possible. The EC commission's drawbacks on these recommendations and the imminent EC-wide directive for the uniform registration of pesticides being based solely on Article 43 of the European Treaty would seriously endanger this goal. Therefore, a situation threatens in Europe similar to that in the United States, where at least 18 active ingredients have been detected in groundwater in concentrations of up to 1000 times the toxicologically established limits for drinking water.

  8. A review of arsenic presence in China drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Charlet, Laurent

    2013-06-01

    Chronic endemic arsenicosis areas have been discovered in China since 1960s. Up to 2012, 19 provinces had been found to have As concentration in drinking water exceeding the standard level (0.05 mg/L). Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Shanxi Province are historical well-known “hotspots” of geogenic As-contaminated drinking water. The goal of this review is to examine, summarize and discuss the information of As in drinking water for all provinces and territories in China. Possible natural As sources for elevating As level in drinking water, were documented. Geogenic As-contaminated drinking water examples were taken to introduce typical environmental conditions where the problems occurred: closed basins in arid or semi-arid areas and reducing aquifers under high pH conditions. Geothermal water or mineral water in mountains areas can be high-As water as well. For undiscovered areas, prediction of potential As-affected groundwater has been carried out by some research groups by use of logistic regression. Modeled maps of probability of geogenic As contamination in groundwater are promising to be used as references to discover unknown areas. Furthermore, anthropogenic As contaminations were summarized and mining, smelters and chemical industries were found to be major sources for As pollution in China.

  9. Naturalistic follow-up of drinking behavior following participation in an alcohol administration study.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R; Krishnan-Sarin, S; Farren, C; O'Malley, S

    1999-01-01

    Administration of alcohol to alcohol-dependent individuals for research purposes, while contributing significantly to the fund of knowledge on etiology and treatment of alcohol dependence, has often raised clinical and ethical concerns that such exposure may adversely affect the individual's motivation to reduce drinking or abstain from drinking. In an attempt to evaluate these concerns, we conducted a naturalistic follow-up of subsequent drinking among individuals who participated in an alcohol self-administration study and also received a brief motivational intervention. Twenty-one non-treatment-seeking alcoholics participated in a study examining the effects of naltrexone on alcohol self-administration. Assessment of drinking during the 3 months following the laboratory study indicated that participants had significantly reduced the total number of drinking days and the number of drinks consumed per occasion, as compared to baseline levels. The findings suggest that participation in alcohol administration research does not adversely influence the subsequent drinking of alcohol-dependent individuals. Further, when the alcohol administration research is conducted carefully, with specific attention to the clinical needs of the participants, the risks of adverse effects on participants' drinking behavior is minimal, and, in fact, there is scientific benefit to society and clinical benefit to the participants with regard to their alcoholism. PMID:10435264

  10. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  11. Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151715.html Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones Researchers find eight or ... March 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Drinking plenty of water will lower your risk of kidney stones, researchers ...

  12. Drinking Water and Ground Water: Kids' Stuff

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...

  13. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

  14. DRINKING WATER MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 direct EPA to conduct research to strengthen the scientific foundation for standards that limit public exposure to drinking water contaminants. The Amendments contain specific requirements for research on waterborne pathogens, such a...

  15. Tadwadi Morewadi Piped Drinking Water Scheme

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    Tadwadi ­ Morewadi Piped Drinking Water Scheme A Failure Analysis CENTRE FOR TECHNOLOGY of this work includes a failure analysis of the Tadwadi-Morewadi single village drinking water scheme from......................................................................................13 3 Failure Analysis

  16. Safe Water Drinking Act Basic Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to protect drinking water and its sources: rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. (SDWA does ... these standards are met. Millions of Americans receive high quality drinking water every day from their public ...

  17. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

  18. Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

  19. Perceived Danger while Intoxicated Uniquely Contributes to Driving after Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Morris, David H.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Niculete, Maria E.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous findings suggest that alcohol alters perceptions of risky behaviors such as drinking and driving. However, studies testing these perceptions as a predictor of drinking and driving typically measure these perceptions while participants are sober. The present study tested whether the perceived danger of driving after drinking assessed while intoxicated was associated with increased willingness to drive and self-reported drinking-and-driving behavior over and above perceptions assessed while sober. Additionally, we tested the effect of acute tolerance on the perceived danger of driving after drinking assessed on the ascending and descending limbs of the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) curve. Methods Eighty-two young adults attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions. In one session, participants consumed a moderate dose of alcohol (men: .72 g/kg, women: .65 g/kg) and reported the perceived danger of driving and their willingness to drive at multiple points across the BrAC curve. On a separate occasion, participants remained sober and appraised the dangerousness of driving at a hypothetical, illegal BrAC. Results Perceptions of the dangerousness of driving following alcohol administration were associated with increased willingness to drive and higher rates of self-reported drinking-and-driving behavior over and above perceptions reported when sober. Furthermore, perceived danger was reduced on the descending limb of the BrAC curve, compared to the ascending limb, suggesting the occurrence of acute tolerance. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that intoxicated perceptions are uniquely associated with drinking-and-driving decisions and that the perceived danger of drinking and driving is lower on the descending limb of the BrAC curve. Efforts to prevent alcohol-impaired driving have focused on increasing awareness of the danger of driving after drinking. Prevention efforts may be enhanced by educating drivers about how intoxication can alter perceived danger, and interventions may benefit from targeting perceptions of dangerousness while individuals are intoxicated in addition to when they are sober. PMID:24033630

  20. Experimental Test of Social Norms Theory in a Real-World Drinking Environment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory’s limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Method: Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. Results: We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reduce drinking via changing normative perceptions. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduced drinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small. PMID:22846251

  1. The Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Mortality: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from the Minimum Drinking Age†

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the effect of alcohol consumption on mortality using the minimum drinking age in a regression discontinuity design. We find large and immediate increases in drinking at age 21, including a 21 percent increase in recent drinking days. We also find a discrete 9 percent increase in the mortality rate at age 21, primarily due to motor vehicle accidents, alcohol-related deaths, and suicides. We estimate a 10 percent increase in the number of drinking days for young adults results in a 4.3 percent increase in mortality. Our results suggest policies that reduce drinking among young adults can have substantial public health benefits. (JEL I12, I18) PMID:20351794

  2. Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Boorman, G A

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions. Images Figure 3 PMID:10229719

  3. Chromatin remodeling — a novel strategy to control excessive alcohol drinking

    PubMed Central

    Warnault, V; Darcq, E; Levine, A; Barak, S; Ron, D

    2013-01-01

    Harmful excessive use of alcohol has a severe impact on society and it remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. However, mechanisms that underlie excessive alcohol consumption are still poorly understood, and thus available medications for alcohol use disorders are limited. Here, we report that changing the level of chromatin condensation by affecting DNA methylation or histone acetylation limits excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in rodents. Specifically, we show that decreasing DNA methylation by inhibiting the activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with systemic administration of the FDA-approved drug, 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) prevents excessive alcohol use in mice. Similarly, we find that increasing histone acetylation via systemic treatment with several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduces mice binge-like alcohol drinking. We further report that systemic administration of the FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor, SAHA, inhibits the motivation of rats to seek alcohol. Importantly, the actions of both DNMT and HDAC inhibitors are specific for alcohol, as no changes in saccharin or sucrose intake were observed. In line with these behavioral findings, we demonstrate that excessive alcohol drinking increases DNMT1 levels and reduces histone H4 acetylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents. Together, our findings illustrate that DNA methylation and histone acetylation control the level of excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in preclinical rodent models. Our study therefore highlights the possibility that DNMT and HDAC inhibitors can be used to treat harmful alcohol abuse. PMID:23423140

  4. Alcohol Impairment and Social Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marsha E.

    Cognitive abilities of social drinkers are generally thought to be affected by alcohol only during acute intoxication, but several studies suggest that sober-state performance may be affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking episode. Although the findings regarding sober-state mental deficits in social drinkers are inconclusive,…

  5. French drinking: tradition or dependence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Geraldine Ormrod

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to primarily identify the reasons behind the cultural shift which has taken place in France over the past few years regarding alcohol consumption, and concentrates on distinctive population categories in order to highlight characteristics of, and changes in, drinking behaviour amongst male, female, youth and senior drinkers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The author reviews the current governmental

  6. INJURED COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after convent...

  7. A Discriminant Analysis of Adolescent Problem Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forney, Mary Ann; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Performed a discriminant analysis on a sample of 1,715 sixth- and eighth-grade students to determine which children drink alcohol and which sociocultural factors influence their decision. Parental drinking patterns, race, sex, and grade level have predictive ability. Suggests targeting individuals prone to drink heavily for special counseling.…

  8. USEPA Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ann Feige; Caroline Madding; Edward M. Glick

    1993-01-01

    The Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program has been in existence since 1943 and was adopted by the Drinking Water Program in 1978 under the authority given the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Both USEPA and the states are looking for ways to make the program efficient in the face of dwindling resources. Recent

  9. Teen Drinking Prevention Program: Teen Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This guide was designed to help teenagers become involved in fun, alcohol-free activities. It provides youth with ideas on how to influence and change the factors that encourage teenage drinking. The guide has four purposes: (1) raise public awareness of the underage drinking crisis; (2) change community norms that encourage underage drinking; (3)…

  10. Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water

    E-print Network

    Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water Sven P. Nielsen Risø National Laboratory Working OF INVESTIGATION 11 3 DESCRIPTION OF INVESTIGATION 12 4 RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER 13 5 SAMPLING 15 6 27 #12;4 #12;5 Preface This project for investigation of radioactivity in drinking water shall

  11. Arsenic exposure to drinking water in the Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Merola, R B; Hien, T T; Quyen, D T T; Vengosh, A

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater drinking sources was investigated in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in order to assess the occurrence of As in the groundwater, and the magnitude of As exposure of local residents through measurements of As in toenails of residents consuming groundwater as their major drinking water source. Groundwater (n=68) and toenail (n=62) samples were collected in Dong Thap Province, adjacent to the Mekong River, in southern Vietnam. Fifty-three percent (n=36) of the wells tested had As content above the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended limit of 10 ppb. Samples were divided into Northern (mean As=4.0 ppb) and Southern (329.0 ppb) groups; wells from the Southern group were located closer to the Mekong River. Elevated As contents were associated with depth (<200 m), salinity (low salinity), and redox state (reducing conditions) of the study groundwater. In 79% of the wells, As was primarily composed of the reduced As(III) species. Arsenic content in nails collected from local residents was significantly correlated to As in drinking water (r=0.49, p<0.001), and the relationship improved for pairs in which As in drinking water was higher than 1 ppb (r=0.56, p<0.001). Survey data show that the ratio of As in nail to As in water varied among residents, reflecting differential As bioaccumulation in specific exposed sub-populations. The data show that water filtration and diet, particularly increased consumption of animal protein and dairy, and reduced consumption of seafood, were associated with lower ratios of As in nail to As in water and thus could play important roles in mitigating As exposure in areas where As-rich groundwater is the primary drinking water source. PMID:25585157

  12. Thirst perception and drinking in euhydrate and dehydrate human subjects.

    PubMed

    Obika, L F O; Idu, F K; George, G O; Ajayi, O I; Mowoe, R S

    2009-06-01

    Studies on how the body senses the need to correct extracellular and intracellular volumes and ionic concentration changes is relatively scanty. The present studies were designed to determine the effect of oral distilled water (DW) and saline loads, gargling with DW and DW preload on thirst perception (TP) and drinking in euhydrate and dehydrated subjects. The subjects were healthy male volunteers between the ages of 17 and 35 years. Group A subjects were given DW or various concentrations of sodium chloride [NaCl] orally. Subjects in groups B, C and D were dehydrated for 18 hours before the experiment. Group B gargled 500 ml of DW in divided volume of 50 ml at five minutes interval over a period of 50 minutes. Group C gargled with DW and different concentrations of NaCl. Group D were preloaded with four volumes of DW before ad libitum DW intake. TP was rated using the Visual Analogue Scale. Results showed that in Group A, drinking DW reduced TP, suggesting that baseline TP in normal euhydrate subjects is slightly elevated. Drinking DW reduced TP more than drinking NaCl solutions. Gargling resulted in a gradual fall in TP. The decrease in TP was statistically significant after 30 minutes of gargling. Gargling with different concentrations of NaCl solutions resulted in significant reductions in TP in all the groups. There was a significant decrease in TP in the group preloaded with 1000 ml of distilled water at 5 minutes of rehydration. At 20 minutes TP was abolished suggesting that approximately 1000 ml of water was needed for the rehydration. These results show that baseline TP in euhydrates is elevated and that TP increases in dehydrated subjects. Gargling reduces TP, but did not abolish thirst. It is suggested that a fall in plasma osmolality due to drinking may be responsible for abolishing thirst. PMID:19826461

  13. Drinking behavior and drinking refusal self-efficacy in Korean college students.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwajung; Kim, YoungHo

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of drinking behavior and sex differences were examined. A possible relationship between drinking behavior and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) also was investigated among a convenience sample of 582 Korean college students (309 men, 273 women). A drinking habit scale (from AUDIT-K) and drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire (DRSEQ-R) were administered. Results indicated 74.4% of the students drank alcohol and 80.1% of the students were regular drinkers (> 2 to 4 times per month). There were significant differences in drinking behavior by sex and in the DRSE constructs for current drinking statuses. Drinking behavior was significantly associated with sex and DRSE. The present study offers more information about practical interventions aimed at reasonably controlling the drinking behavior of Korean college students in a university setting. The findings may provide better understanding of Korean students' drinking behavior. PMID:25457098

  14. Naltrexone and Combined Behavioral Intervention Effects on Trajectories of Drinking in the COMBINE study

    PubMed Central

    Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Donovan, Dennis; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Couper, David; Krystal, John H.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective COMBINE is the largest study of pharmacotherapy for alcoholism in the United States to date, designed to answer questions about the benefits of combining behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Trajectory-based analyses of daily drinking data allowed identification of distinct drinking trajectories in smaller studies and demonstrated significant naltrexone effects even when primary analyses on summary drinking measures were unsuccessful. The objective of this study was to replicate and refine trajectory estimation and to assess effects of naltrexone, acamprosate and therapy on the probabilities of following particular trajectories in COMBINE. It was hypothesized that different treatments may affect different trajectories of drinking. Methods We conducted exploratory analyses of daily indicators of any drinking and heavy drinking using a trajectory-based approach and assessed trajectory membership probabilities and odds ratios for treatment effects. Results We replicated the trajectories (“abstainer”, “sporadic drinker”, “consistent drinker”) established previously in smaller studies. However, greater numbers of trajectories better described the heterogeneity of drinking over time. Naltrexone reduced the chance to follow a “nearly daily” trajectory and Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI) reduced the chance to be in an “increasing to nearly daily” trajectory of any drinking. The combination of naltrexone and CBI increased the probability of membership in a trajectory in which the frequency of any drinking declined over time. Trajectory membership was associated with different patterns of treatment compliance. Conclusion The trajectory-analyses identified specific patterns of drinking that were differentially influenced by each treatment and provided support for hypotheses about the mechanisms by which these treatments work. PMID:19969427

  15. Heart rate responses indicate locked-in attention in alcoholics immediately prior to drinking.

    PubMed

    Stormark, K M; Laberg, J C; Nordby, H; Hugdahl, K

    1998-01-01

    Twenty alcohol-dependent subjects and 10 social drinkers were tested in two experimental conditions: (a) when they were informed that their drinks contained alcohol and (b) when they were informed that their drinks were soft drinks. When told "alcohol," alcoholics evidenced a heart rate (HR) acceleration, whereas control subjects were unaffected by the instruction. Moreover, severely dependent (SD) alcoholics' HR remained elevated within the evaluation period whereas moderately dependent (MD) alcoholics' HR returned to baseline levels. The sustained HR acceleration in SD alcoholics suggests that their attention became "locked in" on the alcohol information immediately prior to drinking in the "told-alcohol" condition. Such an inward focus of attention will seriously reduce the alcoholic's ability to shift attention away from alcohol information, which may explain the difficulties alcoholics experience in coping with high-risk situations for drinking. In the SD alcoholics, HR acceleration correlated with the time it took to start drinking subsequent beverages containing alcohol in the told-alcohol instruction. In the MD alcoholics, HR responses were related to the reported urge to drink, whereas it was only in the nondependent subjects that self-reported urge to drink was related to the actual alcohol-use behavior. PMID:9573428

  16. Drinking-induced bradyarrhythmias and cerebral injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats with sinoaortic denervation.

    PubMed

    Abe, Chikara; Morita, Hironobu

    2013-11-01

    We have demonstrated that a drinking-induced pressor response was larger if the baroreflex did not operate, and the mean arterial pressure reached 163 mmHg in conscious rats with sinoaortic denervation (SAD). Thus we hypothesized that a drinking behavior became a cardiovascular risk factor if a basal arterial pressure was high. To clarify this, we analyzed the occurrence of arrhythmias and the accumulation of microglia in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (Dahl S) with SAD. We maintained Dahl S and Dahl salt-resistant rats (Dahl R) with a high-sodium diet for 5 weeks. After SAD surgery, we measured arterial pressure and electrocardiogram during water-drinking behavior in all rats. Furthermore, we measured tumor necrosis factor-? concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and microglial accumulations around the third and fourth ventricles in rats with programmed drinking at a rapid or slow rate for 7 days. Incidences of drinking-induced bradyarrhythmias and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were significantly larger in Dahl S than Dahl R rats. Both bradyarrhythmias and PVCs were completely abolished by atropine administration. Accumulations of microglia around the third ventricle and increases in TNF-? in the CSF were observed in rats that drank water at a rapid rate; these were not seen in rats that drank water slowly. In conclusion, both cardiovascular events and cerebral injury may be increased by drinking in Dahl S rats with SAD. These risks are reduced by modifying drinking behavior such as slowing the drinking rate. PMID:24072408

  17. Bacteriological quality of drinks from vending machines.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, P. R.; Burge, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey on the bacteriological quality of both drinking water and flavoured drinks from coin-operated vending machines is reported. Forty-four per cent of 25 drinking water samples examined contained coliforms and 84% had viable counts of greater than 1000 organisms ml at 30 degrees C. Thirty-one flavoured drinks were examined; 6% contained coliforms and 39% had total counts greater than 1000 organisms ml. It is suggested that the D.H.S.S. code of practice on coin-operated vending machines is not being followed. It is also suggested that drinking water alone should not be dispensed from such machines. PMID:3794325

  18. The Relationship of 16 Underage Drinking Laws to Reductions in Underage Drinking Drivers in Fatal Crashes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fell, J.C.; Fisher, D.A.; Voas, R.B.; Blackman, K.; Tippetts, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    The minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA 21) legislation in the United States (U.S.) has been documented as one of the most effective public health measures adopted in recent times. This study reports on an effort to evaluate and interrelate a basic set of 16 laws directed at younger than age 21 youth that are designed to (a) control the sales of alcohol to youth, (b) prevent possession and consumption of alcohol by youth, and (c) prevent alcohol impaired driving by those younger than age 21. The first objective of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between the existence and strength of the various underage drinking laws in a State and the percentage of younger than age 21 drivers involved in fatal crashes who were drinking. After controlling for various factors, the only significant finding that emerged was for the existence and strength of the law making it illegal for an underage person to use fake identification (p<0.016). The second objective was to determine if the enactment of two of the sixteen provisions (possession and purchase laws) was associated with a reduction in the rate of underage drinking driver involvements in fatal crashes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a national 11.2% reduction (p<0.05) in the ratio of underage drinking drivers to underage non-drinking drivers in fatal crashes after the possession and purchase laws were adopted in 36 States and the District of Columbia (DC). This suggests that the two mandatory elements of the Federal MLDA 21 law are having the desired effect of reducing underage alcohol-related highway deaths. PMID:18184512

  19. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Naltrexone and Behavioral Therapy for Problem Drinking Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the comparative effectiveness of modified behavioral self-control therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the 2, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N = 200) were recruited and urn randomized to 1 of 2…

  20. Corrosion of aluminium in soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Seruga, M; Hasenay, D

    1996-04-01

    The corrosion of aluminium (Al) in several brands of soft drinks (cola- and citrate-based drinks) has been studied, using an electrochemical method, namely potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion of Al in soft drinks is a very slow, time-dependent and complex process, strongly influenced by the passivation, complexation and adsorption processes. The corrosion of Al in these drinks occurs principally due to the presence of acids: citric acid in citrate-based drinks and orthophosphoric acid in cola-based drinks. The corrosion rate of Al rose with an increase in the acidity of soft drinks, i.e. with increase of the content of total acids. The corrosion rates are much higher in the cola-based drinks than those in citrate-based drinks, due to the facts that: (1) orthophosphoric acid is more corrosive to Al than is citric acid, (2) a quite different passive oxide layer (with different properties) is formed on Al, depending on whether the drink is cola or citrate based. The method of potentiodynamic polarization was shown as being very suitable for the study of corrosion of Al in soft drinks, especially if it is combined with some non-electrochemical method, e.g. graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). PMID:8638433

  1. Reducing Disinfection By-Products in Small Drinking Water Systems

    E-print Network

    or Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) · Membrane Filtration #12;Enhanced Coagulation #12;Surface Characteristics/Clarification · Activated Carbon/Media Adsorption · Anionic Exchange Resins · Biodegradation w/o & w/ Enhanced Biofiltration ­SUVARaw · K1 ­ K2) DOCinitial B = (x3pH3 + x2pH2 + x1pH)b #12;#12;Activated Carbon/Media Adsorption #12

  2. Drinking Green Tea Modestly Reduces Breast Cancer Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha J. Shrubsole; W. Lu; Z. Chen; X. O. Shu; Y. Zheng; Q. Dai; Q. Cai; K. Gu; Z. X. Ruan; Y.-T. Gao; W. Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Green tea is a commonly consumed beverage in China. Epidemiological and animal data suggest tea and tea polyphenols may be preventive against various cancers, including breast cancer. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes catechol estrogens and tea polyphenols. The COMT rs4680 AA genotype leads to lower COMT activity, which may affect the relationship between green tea consumption and breast cancer risk. We evaluated

  3. Caffeinated soft drinks reduce bacterial prevalence in voice prosthetic biofilms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolien H Free; G Jolanda Elving; Henny C van der Mei; Ranny van Weissenbruch; Frans W J Albers; Henk J Busscher

    2000-01-01

    Laryngectomized patients use indwelling silicone rubber voice prostheses, placed in a surgically created fistula in between the trachea and the esophagus, for voice and speech rehabilitation. At the esophageal side, these voice prostheses rapidly become colonized by a thick biofilm consisting of a variety of oral and skin bacteria and yeasts, and on average, after 3–4 months a prosthesis has

  4. Heavy Drinking in College Students: Who Is at Risk and What Is Being Done About It?

    PubMed Central

    TURRISI, ROB; MALLETT, KIMBERLY A.; MASTROLEO, NADINE R.; LARIMER, MARY E.

    2008-01-01

    Problem drinking and related consequences are a major social issue plaguing college campuses across the United States. Each year, alcohol is responsible for fatalities, assaults, serious injuries, and arrests that occur among college students. The authors review and discuss the risk factors, drinking patterns, and consequences that are relevant to the general student population. In addition, the authors highlight individuals at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, such as Greek-letter social organization members and student athletes. The authors also discuss the interventions that attempt to reduce risky drinking and related problems in these subgroups as well as the future directions for research. PMID:17128959

  5. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  6. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  7. A Review of Exercise as Intervention for Sedentary Hazardous Drinking College Students: Rationale and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Weinstock, Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity – exercise – as an intervention for hazardous drinking. Exercise has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and data suggest that students who engage in exercise regularly are less likely to drink heavily. However, the adherence to exercise necessary to achieve these benefits and possibly reduce drinking is poor, and improved exercise adherence interventions are needed. A novel combination of motivational enhancement therapy and contingency management is discussed as a means to address the critical issue of exercise adherence. PMID:20452930

  8. Heavy coffee drinking and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Leonardo; Li, Li M

    2004-06-01

    Dietary habits have been rarely associated with seizure frequency in patients with epilepsy. We report a case of a man with a partial symptomatic epilepsy whose daily habit of heavy coffee drinking was associated with an increased seizure frequency. This patient witnessed a dramatic decrease in the frequency of his seizures after stopping coffee ingestion. Caffeine is a global stimulant and the reduction of its intake may help in the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:15121141

  9. Proximal relationships between PTSD symptoms and drinking among female college students: results from a daily monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, Debra; Atkins, David C; Simpson, Tracy L; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Blayney, Jessica A; Lee, Christine M; Larimer, Mary E

    2014-03-01

    Self-medication has been theorized to explain comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drinking, whereupon problem drinking develops in order to modulate negative affect and ameliorate PTSD symptoms. Daily monitoring methodologies may help refine our understanding of proximal relations between PTSD, affect, and alcohol use. One hundred thirty-six female college drinkers with a past history of sexual victimization and 38 female college drinkers with no past trauma history completed electronic monitoring of PTSD symptoms, affect, alcohol use, and alcohol cravings, daily for 4 weeks. A two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine likelihood of drinking and amount of alcohol consumed on drinking days. We found significant relationships between daily PTSD symptoms, affect, and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms of PTSD, they experienced stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink on that day. On days in which women experienced more negative affect than their average, they experienced stronger urges to drink, whereas on days in which women experienced more of the dysphoric symptoms associated with PTSD than their average, they drank less. On days with higher positive affect, women reported stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink. Results suggest the need to examine both aspects of affect and specific PTSD symptoms as they may differentially predict drinking behavior. Differences in the ways in which PTSD symptoms and affect influence drinking suggest that interventions more specifically address the function of drinking behaviors in reducing alcohol use among college women. PMID:23915369

  10. Interrelationship of photooxidation and microfiltration in drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Malek; J. L. Harris; F. A. Roddick

    2006-01-01

    Photooxidation by vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV, 254+185nm) was investigated as a pretreatment to break down the natural organic matter (NOM) in surface water and thus reduce fouling in microfiltration systems for drinking water treatment. The behaviour of variously treated waters, namely raw water, VUV-treated water and water with aluminium chlorohydrate as coagulant, were compared in a stirred cell using 0.22?m

  11. Nutrient composition and antimicrobial activity of sorrel drinks (soborodo).

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Elusiyan, C A

    2004-01-01

    Aqueous extracts (1,200 mL) of roselle calyx (40 g), fortified with either orange juice or pineapple juice as sweetener and lemon grass as flavorant (sorrel drink), were analyzed with regard to their mineral composition (Na, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Ca), vitamin C content, and sensory evaluation. While the medicinal potentials were determined with respect to their inhibitory effect on the growth of Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus sp., and Corynebacterium sp. The results revealed that the roselle extract fortified with orange juice had higher vitamin C content than did those fortified with pineapple juice, while those fortified with pineapple juice had the best general acceptability. Zn, Na, and Ca were generally high in all the drinks; however, fortification with either pineapple or orange juice reduced the mineral content of the roselle extract. However, Pb, Cu, and Mn (toxic metals) were not detected. The antimicrobial effect of the unfortified roselle extract was low against the entire organism; however, fortification with pineapple juice and lemon grass greatly enhanced the inhibition of the growth of those organisms. They all had their highest inhibitory effect on the growth of P. aeruginosa. In view of the high Zn, Ca, Fe, Na, and vitamin C content as well as the antimicrobial activity, this cheaply produced drink from purely local materials could serve as a good replacement for expensive carbonated drinks. PMID:15383229

  12. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay. PMID:25086698

  13. Influence of Grade-Level Drinking Norms on Individual Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yarnell, Lisa M.; Brown, H. Shelton; Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate which points of the middle-school drinking distribution are the most influential in the social contagion of drinking across the middle-school years, in order to identify potential social multipliers. Methods We measured drinking intentions and behaviors by gender, school, and grade among urban middle-school students who participated in Project Northland Chicago in a longitudinal cohort design. Results Individual drinking behaviors were consistently influenced by extreme (80th percentile) drinking intentions and behaviors. This effect was mediated through normal or average levels of drinking, over time. Conclusions Interventions can target extreme drinkers as the influential persons in middle-school grades. PMID:22943103

  14. Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: an evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE. PMID:24169372

  15. Underage drinking: an evolutionary concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra N; Waite, Roberta L

    2013-09-01

    Underage drinking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for American youths and young adults. The negative consequences of underage drinking range from academic problems to intentional and unintentional injuries, acts directed toward self or others, and death. Nurses, regardless of practice settings, are on the frontline of defense. The take-home message is to delay/deter the first drink of alcohol. PMID:23998767

  16. EPA?s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

  17. Maturing Out of Alcohol Involvement: Transitions in Latent Drinking Statuses from Late Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; Villalta, Ian K.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of alcohol involvement beginning in young adulthood, but the precise nature of changes characterizing maturing out is unclear. We used latent transition analysis to investigate these changes in a high-risk sample from a longitudinal study of familial alcoholism (N=844; 51% children of alcoholics; 53% male, 71% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27% Hispanic). Analyses classified participants into latent drinking statuses during late adolescence (ages 17–22), young adulthood (ages 23–28), and adulthood (ages 29–40), and characterized transitions among these statuses over time. The resulting four statuses were abstainers, low-risk drinkers who typically drank less than weekly and rarely binged or showed drinking problems, moderate-risk drinkers who typically binged less than weekly and showed moderate risk for drinking problems, and high-risk drinkers who typically binged at least weekly and showed high risk for drinking problems. Maturing out between late adolescence and young adulthood was most common among initial high-risk drinkers, but they typically declined to moderate-risk drinking rather than to non-risky drinking statuses. This suggests that the developmental phenomenon of maturing out pertains primarily to relatively high-risk initial drinkers, and that many high-risk drinkers who “mature out” merely reduce rather than eliminate their risky drinking. PMID:24229554

  18. Rethinking Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Do you enjoy a drink now and then? Many of us do, often when socializing with friends and family. Drinking can be beneficial or harmful, depending on your age and health status, and, of course, how much you drink. For anyone who drinks, Rethinking Drinking ...

  19. Defining Binge Drinking Quantities through Resulting BACs

    PubMed Central

    Lange, James E.; Voas, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    Binge drinking as a researchable construct has generally been defined as 5 or more drinks on one occasion. However, no study has been conducted to determine if the binge concept that implies “excessive drunkenness” is being optimally captured within that level. Random interviews with breath tests of drinkers returning from visiting bars in Tijuana provide both blood alcohol concentration (BAC) measurements and the self-reported number of drinks consumed. Results indicate that currently used definitions of binge drinking predict relatively low BACs and may not be capturing the “excessive drunkenness” quality of the term. Consumption duration may explain the lower BACs. PMID:11558097

  20. Sexual assault related distress and drinking: the influence of daily reports of social support and coping control.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hassija, Christina M; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Introduction. A history of sexual assault (SA) is often associated with increased distress and heavy drinking. One's ability to cope with the distress and seek social support has been associated with drinking more generally. However, SA-related distress, drinking, and the extent to which a woman engages in adaptive coping or seeks social support is known to vary day-to-day. The goal of the present investigation was to examine the moderating influence of perceived coping control and social support on the event-level association between SA-related distress and drinking. Methods. This study included 133 college women with a history of SA who reported recent heavy drinking. Participants provided daily reports of their SA-related distress, perceived coping control, perceived social support, and alcohol consumption every day for 30days. Results. Results of generalized estimating equation models suggest that coping control moderated the association between distress and drinking such that those with less perceived coping control drank more as their SA-related distress increased from their average. Although social support did not moderate between distress and drinking, decreases in perceived social support were associated with more drinking on that day. Conclusions. The results suggest that daily deviations in SA-related distress may influence alcohol consumption more than average levels of distress, especially among women with low coping control. Interventions for women with SA histories should help them build coping skills as well as adequate social support in order to reduce drinking. PMID:25437266

  1. Triple monoamine uptake inhibitors demonstrate a pharmacologic association between excessive drinking and impulsivity in high-alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice.

    PubMed

    O'Tousa, David S; Warnock, Kaitlin T; Matson, Liana M; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Linn, Michael Van; Tiruveedhula, Veera Venkata; Halcomb, Meredith E; Cook, James; Grahame, Nicholas J; June, Harry L

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 30% of current drinkers in the United States drink excessively, and are referred to as problem/hazardous drinkers. These individuals, who may not meet criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, comprise binge, heavy drinkers, or both. Given their high prevalence, interventions that reduce the risk of binge and heavy drinking have important public health implications. Impulsivity has been repeatedly associated with excessive drinking in the clinical literature. As impulsivity is correlated with, and may play a critical role in, the initiation and maintenance of excessive drinking, this behavior may be an important target for therapeutic intervention. Hence, a better understanding of pharmacological treatments capable of attenuating excessive drinking and impulsivity may markedly improve clinical outcomes. The high-alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice represent a strong rodent model to study the relationship between impulsivity and excessive alcohol drinking, as recent evidence indicates they consume high levels of alcohol throughout their active cycle and are innately impulsive. Using this model, the present study demonstrates that the triple monoamine uptake inhibitors (TUIs) amitifadine and DOV 102, 677 effectively attenuate binge drinking, heavy drinking assessed via a 24-hour free-choice assay, and impulsivity measured by the delay discounting procedure. In contrast, 3-PBC, a GABA-A ?1 preferring ligand with mixed agonist-antagonist properties, attenuates excessive drinking without affecting impulsivity. These findings suggest that in HAP mice, monoamine pathways may predominate as a common mechanism underlying impulsivity and excessive drinking, while the GABAergic system may be more salient in regulating excessive drinking. We further propose that TUIs such as amitifadine and DOV 102, 677 may be used to treat the co-occurrence of impulsivity and excessive drinking. PMID:24118509

  2. Through the Drinking Glass: An Analysis of the Cultural Meanings of College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Andy Soon Leong

    2012-01-01

    College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the…

  3. A Drop to Drink. . .A Report on the Quality of Our Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Jack

    Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water…

  4. THE ROLE OF ALCOHOL EXPECTANCY AND DRINKING REFUSAL SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS IN UNIVERSITY STUDENT DRINKING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mc D. YOUNG; J. P. CONNOR; L. A. RICCIARDELLI; J. B. SAUNDERS

    2006-01-01

    Aims: University student alcohol misuse is a considerable problem. Alcohol expectancy research has contributed signific- antly to our understanding of problem drinking in young adults. Most of this research has investigated positive expectancy alone. The current study utilized two measures of alcohol expectancy, the alcohol expectancy questionnaire (AEQ) and the drinking expectancy profile (consisting of the drinking expectancy questionnaire (DEQ)

  5. Combining Methods for the Reduction of Oxychlorine Residuals in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Griese; Jerry J. Kaczur; Gilbert Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown ferrous iron application to be an effective and economically feasible method of removing residual chlorine dioxide and chlorite ion from drinking water. This treatment, however, was not effective in reducing concentrations of chlorate ion. To address this issue, combined methodologies (alternative chlorine dioxide generation and application together with iron reduction) have been developed that significantly reduce

  6. How to Identify Lead-Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, Congress passed the ?Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,? which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of ?lead-free? by reducing allowed...

  7. How to Identify Lead-Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Materials - Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, Congress passed the ?Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act,? which effectively reduces the lead content allowed in material used for potable water plumbing. The Act, which will go into effect on January 4, 2014, changes the definition of ?lead-free? by reducing allowed...

  8. Binge-Drinking-Related Consequences in College Students: Role of Drinking Beliefs and Mother–Teen Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Turrisi; Kimberly A. Wiersma; Kelli K. Hughes

    2000-01-01

    The present research contrasted theoretical models depicting the nature of the relation among drinking beliefs, drinking tendencies, and behavioral consequences in 266 incoming freshman college students. It also examined the theoretical relations between mother–teen communications and drinking beliefs relevant to behavioral consequences. The findings revealed direct relations between binge-drinking consequences and the drinking beliefs: Alcohol can make positive transformations, can

  9. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

  10. Alexithymia, craving and attachment in a heavy drinking population.

    PubMed

    Thorberg, Fred Arne; Young, Ross McD; Sullivan, Karen A; Lyvers, Michael; Connor, Jason P; Feeney, Gerald F X

    2011-04-01

    Up to fifty per cent of individuals with Alcohol use disorders (AUD) also have alexithymia a personality construct hypothesized to be related to attachment difficulties. The relationship between alexithymia, craving, anxious attachment and alcohol-dependence severity was examined in 254 patients participating in a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) program for alcohol-dependence. Participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), the Revised Adult Attachment Anxiety Subscale (RAAS-Anxiety) and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). MANOVA indicated that individuals with alexithymia reported significantly higher levels of total OCDS, obsessive thoughts about alcohol, and compulsive drinking urges and behavior, compared to the non-alexithymic group. Regression analyses found that anxious attachment partially mediated the relationship between alexithymia and craving. Anxious attachment may be a potential treatment target to reduce alcohol consumption in those with alcohol-dependence and alexithymia. PMID:21215527

  11. A three year outcome evaluation of a theory based drink driving education program.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, M; Schonfeld, C; Ballard, R; Schofield, F; Najman, J; Siskind, V

    1996-01-01

    This study reports on the impact of a "drink driving education program" taught to grade ten high school students. The program which involves twelve lessons uses strategies based on the Ajzen and Madden theory of planned behavior. Students were trained to use alternatives to drink driving and passenger behaviors. One thousand seven hundred and seventy-four students who had been taught the program in randomly assigned control and intervention schools were followed up three years later. There had been a major reduction in drink driving behaviors in both intervention and control students. In addition to this cohort change there was a trend toward reduced drink driving in the intervention group and a significant reduction in passenger behavior in this group. Readiness to use alternatives suggested that the major impact of the program was on students who were experimenting with the behavior at the time the program was taught. The program seems to have optimized concurrent social attitude and behavior change. PMID:8952213

  12. Alcohol Outlet Density, Drinking Contexts and Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina; Todd, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use is a robust predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV). A critical barrier to progress in preventing alcohol-related IPV is that little is known about how an individual’s specific drinking contexts (where, how often, and with whom one drinks) are related to IPV, or how these contexts are affected by environmental characteristics, such as alcohol outlet density and neighborhood disadvantage. The putative mechanism is the social environment in which drinking occurs that may promote or strengthen aggressive norms. Once these contexts are known, specific prevention measures can be put in place, including policy-oriented (e.g., regulating outlet density) and individually-oriented (e.g., brief interventions to reduce risk for spousal aggression) measures targeting at-risk populations. This paper reviews applicable theories and empirical research evidence that links IPV to drinking contexts and alcohol outlet density, highlights research gaps, and make recommendations for future research. PMID:25725018

  13. What's in a game? Future directions for the assessment and treatment of drinking games.

    PubMed

    Read, Jennifer P

    2014-09-01

    This conclusion reviews the critical issues raised by the papers in this Special Issue on Drinking Games, with an eye toward directions for future research and the development of palliative interventions. In particular, this conclusion highlights the significance of individual-level characteristics that are associated with drinking game risk, the social context in which these games take place, and methodological considerations for studying both the individual and the context as they unfold as part of drinking game practices. Given both the ubiquity of these games in North American college drinking life, and the substantial hazards with which these games are associated, interventions that may reduce harmful outcomes are needed but have not yet been developed. Issues relevant to the development of such interventions are considered. PMID:25192211

  14. Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

    2014-04-01

    Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534

  15. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

  16. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  17. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  18. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  19. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  20. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  1. Drinking Water in Schools and Child Care Facilities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities This one-stop EPA site provides information about drinking water quality in schools and child care facilities. Ensuring ...

  2. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

  3. Older Adults and Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of ... quickly than when they were younger. Drinking puts older adults at greater risk for falls, car crashes, and ...

  4. EPA List of Drinking Water Contaminants and MCLs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    US Environmental Protection Agency

    This site contains listings of drinking water contaminants and the EPA regulatory limit for each contaminant. Tables include the national primary drinking water regulations, the national secondary drinking water regulations, and unregulated contaminants.

  5. Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much

    MedlinePLUS

    ... temperature), bluish skin color, paleness Although many people enjoy moderate drinking, defined as 1 drink per day for women or 2 for men, drinking too much can lead to an overdose. An overdose of ...

  6. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

  7. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

  8. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

  9. 75 FR 48329 - Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ...AGENCY [FRL-9186-8] Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program AGENCY...details of EPA's voluntary Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program, effective...The program enables qualified drinking water operators at public water systems in...

  10. Middle School Drinking: Who, Where, and when

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to describe the most common drinking situations for young adolescents (N = 1171; 46.6% girls), as well as determine predictors of their drinking in the seventh and eighth grades. Middle school students most frequently drank at parties with three to four teens, in their home or at a friend's home, and reported…

  11. Analysis of Drinking Water for Trace Organics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Koester; R. E. Clement

    1993-01-01

    The protection of drinking water quality is one of the most important mandates of government environment departments. During the past 2 decades, more and more attention has been spent on the trace organic chemical pollutants that may be present in potable water. Consequently, the detection, identification, and quantitation of trace organics in drinking water has been the subject of considerable

  12. Drinking Attitudes and Behavior of Incoming Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Deborah H.; Sedlacek, William E.

    An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…

  13. Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs Technical Appendix H Wei-Hsiang Chen Kristine-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center for Watershed Sciences (University Acknowledgments v Acronyms vi Introduction 1 1. WATER QUALITY IN AND NEAR DELTA 2 Delta Drinking Water Intakes 2

  14. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations into the mutagenicity and mutational mechanisms of single chemicals within drinking water as well as of organic extracts of drinking water are being pursued using the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay as well as in human samples. For example, the semi-volatile ...

  15. TECHNICAL NOTES ON DRINKING WATER METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document, Technical Notes on Drinking Water Methods, describes method modifications that were developed after an approved method had been published. ost of the modifications were formerly footnoted in the drinking water regulations, or were described in a proposed rule (58 F...

  16. Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

  17. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How many "drinks" are in a bottle of wine? A typical 25-ounce (750 ml) bottle of table wine holds about 5 "standard" drinks, each containing about 5 ounces. This serving size of wine contains about the same amount of alcohol as ...

  18. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT ADVISOR - USER DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...

  19. Learning Not to Drink: Adolescents and Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumphauzer, Jerome S.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 100 nondrinking adolescents utilizing a behavior analysis questionnaire designed to assess influences on learning not to drink. Results suggest that parents who did not drink had a strong influence. Effective modes of self-control were also discovered; teenagers revealed assertiveness skills in saying "no" to peer pressures. (Author/JAC)

  20. Public engagement initiative on food and drink

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    .g. Biotechnology and alternative foods E.g. Preservatives E.g. Chemical migration from food packaging E.g. GlobalPublic engagement initiative on food and drink #12;The Wellcome Trust is a global charitable initiative on food and drink 2 #12;We support the brightest minds in biomedical research and the medical

  1. Human factors fostering sustainable safe drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Sughrue Etter

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation, Human Factors Fostering Sustainable Safe Drinking Water, examines from a humanities perspective, scientific and cultural data to assess the relationship and impact of drinking water challenges on the human condition in eight different communities: Mystic, CT, New London, CT, Bar Harbor, ME, South Portland, ME, Orleans, MA, Falmouth, MA, Jamestown, RI, and Newport, RI. Specifically measured is the

  2. Characteristics Associated with Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks among US Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in need of encouragement to reduce sports and energy drink intake and increase healthier beverage intake. PMID:23260728

  3. Development of low erosive carbonated fruit drinks 2. Evaluation of an experimental carbonated blackcurrant drink compared to a conventional carbonated drink

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. X West; J. A Hughes; D. M Parker; M Moohan; M Addy

    2003-01-01

    Objective. Previous studies demonstrated that a non-carbonated blackcurrant juice drink with added calcium produced little erosion of enamel in vitro and in situ by comparison with other low pH fruit drinks. The aim of this study is to evaluate the erosive effects in situ of an experimental formulation carbonated drink with added calcium, compared to a conventional carbonated drink over

  4. Country of Origin, Age of Drinking Onset, and Drinking Patterns Among Mexican American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Strunin, Lee; Edwards, Erika M.; Godette, Dionne C.; Heeren, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines relationships between country of origin, age of drinking onset, and adverse drinking outcomes among young adult Mexican Americans in the 2001?2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression models estimate associations between age of drinking onset, age of onset in relation to age at immigration, and adverse drinking outcomes, controlling for sex, age, employment, education, marital status, and income. Adjusted analyses indicate the odds of adverse drinking outcomes decreased as age of drinking onset increased. Mexican Americans who initiated drinking in Mexico had significantly lower odds of current or lifetime harmful drinking than U.S. born but the odds were not significantly different between foreign-born Mexican Americans who initiated drinking in the U.S. and U.S. born. Irrespective of whether drinking onset was in Mexico or the U.S., foreign-born Mexican Americans had lower odds of alcohol abuse than U.S. born. However, odds of dependence were not significantly different between foreign-born and U.S.-born Mexican Americans. While findings suggest that being foreign born may be protective, further research on social and cultural factors impacting drinking onset and related outcomes among young Mexican Americans may help inform prevention efforts. PMID:17624686

  5. Binge Drinking: Community Problem, Community Solution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As college students are returning to campuses, their parents are concerned over the risks of binge drinking, which is particularly high among the college-aged set. In a national survey released this week by the American Medical Association (AMA), 95% of parents believe that binge drinking is a serious threat to their children, and 85% say that easy access to alcohol contributes to too much drinking. Visitors to the "Binge Drinking: Community Problem, Community Solution" Website can not only read the results of the AMA poll results and associated graphics but also read about prevention strategies employed by colleges and communities and learn about the people spearheading the prevention movement. Other features of the site are a FAQ list and advisory for parents concerned about binge drinking among college students. The easiest way to download the poll results is to go to the site's downloads page where you can choose from .pdf, .zip or .sit formats.

  6. Sports Drinks Fact Sheet The electrolytes (sodium and potassium) in sports drinks help with the replacement of

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Sports Drinks Fact Sheet · The electrolytes (sodium and potassium) in sports drinks help thirst, muscle weakness, dizziness, decreased concentration, headaches, cramps, and fatigue. · Consuming functioning and repair. · The best sports drinks contain a balanced ratio of carbohydrates and electrolytes

  7. Function of Serum Complement in Drinking Water Arsenic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Laila N.; Zahid, M. Shamim Hasan; Nabi, A. H. M. Nurun; Hossain, Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Serum complement function was evaluated in 125 affected subjects suffering from drinking water arsenic toxicity. Their mean duration of exposure was 7.4 ± 5.3?yrs, and the levels of arsenic in drinking water and urine samples were 216 ± 211 and 223 ± 302??g/L, respectively. The mean bactericidal activity of complement from the arsenic patients was 92% and that in the unexposed controls was 99% (P < 0.01), but heat-inactivated serum showed slightly elevated activity than in controls. In patients, the mean complement C3 was 1.56?g/L, and C4 was 0.29?g/L compared to 1.68?g/L and 0.25?g/L, respectively, in the controls. The mean IgG in the arsenic patients was 24.3?g/L that was highly significantly elevated (P < 0.001). Arsenic patients showed a significant direct correlation between C3 and bactericidal activity (P = 0.014). Elevated levels of C4 indicated underutilization and possibly impaired activity of the classical complement pathway. We conclude reduced function of serum complement in drinking water arsenic toxicity. PMID:22545044

  8. Knowledge of Sugar Content of Sports Drinks Is Not Associated With Sports Drink Consumption.

    PubMed

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J; Kingsley, Beverly S; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Purpose . To examine U.S. adult knowledge of the sugar content of sports drinks and whether this knowledge and other characteristics are associated with their sports drink consumption. Design . Nonexperimental. Setting . Nationally representative 2011 Summer ConsumerStyles survey data. Subjects . 3929 U.S. adults. Measures . The outcome variable was sports drink consumption in the past 7 days. The main exposure variable was knowledge about sports drinks containing sugar. The covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, and weight status. Analysis . Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for adults consuming sports drinks ?1 times/wk after controlling for other characteristics. Results . Approximately 22% of adults reported consuming sports drinks ?1 times/wk. Most adults (71%) agreed that sports drinks contain sugar; however, this agreement was not significantly associated with adults' sports drink consumption. The odds of drinking sports drinks ?1 times/wk were significantly higher among younger adults aged 18 to 64 years (OR range: 5.46-2.71), males (OR = 2.09), high-school graduates (OR = 1.52), and highly active adults (OR = 2.09). Conclusion . There were disparities in sports drink consumption by sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level; however, knowledge of sports drinks' sugar content was not associated with consumption. Understanding why some population groups are higher consumers may assist in the development of education, providing those groups with a better understanding of sports drinks' nutritional value and health consequences of excessive sugar consumption in any form. PMID:25372240

  9. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)?10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers. PMID:25898249

  10. Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) provides online access to the article, Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water. The article reports that domestic wells rather than municipal wells in New Hampshire are more likely to contain ten times the recommended federal levels of arsenic for drinking water. This is a relevant finding since "arsenic in drinking water is linked to certain types of cancer in humans." The abstract can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text article is available in both HTML and .pdf format.

  11. The Impact of Underage Drinking Laws on Alcohol-Related Fatal Crashes of Young Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Fisher, Deborah A.; Voas, Robert B.; Blackman, Kenneth; Tippetts, A. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background This study used a pre-post design to evaluate the influence on drinking-and-driving fatal crashes of six laws directed at youth aged 20 and younger and four laws targeting all drivers. Methods Data on the laws were drawn from the Alcohol Policy Information System data set (1998–2005), the Digests of State Alcohol-Highway Safety Related Legislation (1983-2006), and the Westlaw database. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set (1982-2004) was used to assess the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers involved in fatal crashes (fatal crash incidence ratio [CIR]). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Results Significant decreases in the underage fatal CIR were associated with presence of four of the laws targeting youth (possession, purchase, use and lose, and zero tolerance) and three of the laws targeting all drivers (.08 blood alcohol concentration illegal per se law, secondary or upgrade to a primary seat belt law, and an administrative license revocation law). Beer consumption was associated with a significant increase in the underage fatal CIR. The direct effects of laws targeting drivers of all ages on adult drinking drivers aged 26 and older were similar but of a smaller magnitude compared to the findings for those aged 20 and younger. It is estimated that the two core underage drinking laws (purchase and possession) and the zero-tolerance law are currently saving an estimated 732 lives per year controlling for other exposure factors. If all states adopted use and lose laws, an additional 165 lives could be saved annually. Conclusions These results provide substantial support for the effectiveness of under age 21 drinking laws with four of the six laws examined having significant associations with reductions in underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes. These findings point to the importance of key underage drinking and traffic safety laws in efforts to reduce underage drinking-driver crashes. PMID:19389192

  12. Potentiation of the virucidal effectiveness of free chlorine by substances in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, G; Sanjaghsaz, H; Wangwongwatana, S

    1989-01-01

    At 5 degrees C, poliovirus 1 was inactivated by free chlorine (FC) at pH 9.0 more than 10 times as rapidly in drinking water as in purified water. Because ions that comprise many salts potentiate the virucidal effectiveness of FC, we believe that ions and possible other substances in the drinking water potentiated the virucidal effectiveness of FC. Since viruses may be much more sensitive to chlorination in drinking waters than laboratory tests in purified waters have heretofore led us to believe, it may be possible to reduce the amounts of FC applied to many water supplies for disinfection and thereby perhaps reduce the quantities of halomethanes and other toxic compounds produced in these supplies by the chlorination process. PMID:2541661

  13. S. 1445: This Act may be cited as the Lead in Drinking Water Reduction Act of 1991, introduced in the United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 10, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the Senate of the United States on July 10, 1991 to amend the Safe Drinking Water Act to reduce human exposure to lead in drinking water. Key features of the bill revolve around reducing lead in drinking by corrosion control in water systems and monitoring requirements. Other elements include: analytical methods to ascertain lead levels; reporting, record keeping and implementation requirements; EPA review of implementation of NPDWR for lead; and variances and exemptions.

  14. Quality of Drinking-water at Source and Point-of-consumption—Drinking Cup As a High Potential Recontamination Risk: A Field Study in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Mäusezahl, Daniel; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In-house contamination of drinking-water is a persistent problem in developing countries. This study aimed at identifying critical points of contamination and determining the extent of recontamination after water treatment. In total, 81 households were visited, and 347 water samples from their current sources of water, transport vessels, treated water, and drinking vessels were analyzed. The quality of water was assessed using Escherichia coli as an indicator for faecal contamination. The concentration of E. coli increased significantly from the water source [median=0 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL, interquartile range (IQR: 0–13)] to the drinking cup (median=8 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0–550; n=81, z=?3.7, p<0.001). About two-thirds (34/52) of drinking vessels were contaminated with E. coli. Although boiling and solar disinfection of water (SODIS) improved the quality of drinking-water (median=0 CFU/100 mL; IQR: 0–0.05), recontamination at the point-of-consumption significantly reduced the quality of water in the cups (median=8, IQR: 0–500; n=45, z=?2.4, p=0.015). Home-based interventions in disinfection of water may not guarantee health benefits without complementary hygiene education due to the risk of post-treatment contamination. PMID:20214084

  15. Childhood lead poisoning; Case study traces source to drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, E.; Brown, M.J.; Madigan, P.; McNulty, P.; Okonski, L.; Schmidt, J.

    1989-07-01

    Lead poisoning as a result of drinking water carried through lead service lines has been well-documented in the literature. A case of childhood lead poisoning is presented in which the only identified source of lead was lead solder from newly installed water pipes. Partly as a result of this case, the Massachusetts Bourd of Plumbers and Gas Fitters banned the use of 50/50 lead-tin solder or potable water lines. It is anticipated that this ban will increase the cost of new housing by only $16 per unit but will significantly reduce one environmental source of lead.

  16. Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems

    E-print Network

    Mountains. The lodge had a private drinking water system that was too small to be regulated under the SDWAPublic Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems Not Regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act From: Nonfederally Regulated Drinking Water Systems: State and Local Public Health

  17. The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Calderon

    2000-01-01

    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distribution materials and the drinking water treatment process. Chemical contaminants for which epidemiologic studies have reported associations include the following: aluminium, arsenic, disinfection by-products, fluoride, lead,

  18. Predictors of Re-offence among Australian Drink Drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Siskind; C Schonfeld; M Sheehan

    Abstract As part of the evaluation of a drink driver rehabilitation program in a non-metropolitan area of Queensland we collected retrospective and prospective information on close to 900 drink drivers who undertook the program and over 800 contemporaneous drink driving offenders from the same area who did not. The data collected included details of the index drink driving offence, traffic

  19. Drinking Games in the College Environment: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsari, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Drinking games among American college students, although popular, contribute significantly to excessive drinking and alcohol-related problems. Drinking games appear to facilitate socialization, and are especially prevalent among younger students. This article reviews the qualitative and quantitative research on drinking games. Findings from…

  20. Daily mood-drinking slopes as predictors: A new take on drinking motives and related outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Cynthia D.; Brannan, Debi; Wendt, Staci; Jacobs, Laurie; Wright, Robert; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    Motivational models of alcohol consumption have articulated the manner in which positive and negative experiences motivate drinking in unique social contexts (e.g., Cooper, Frone, Russell & Mudar, 1995). Daily process methodology, in which daily events, moods and drinking behaviors are reported daily or multiple times per day, has been used to examine behavioral patterns that are consistent with discrete motivations. We advance the notion that repeated patterns of drinking in various social contexts as a function of positive or negative mood increases can provide evidence of individual-level if-then drinking signatures, which in turn can predict drinking-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of slopes to predict longer term drinking motivations and alcohol problems, employing a daily process study of non-clinical moderate alcohol drinkers (N=47; 49% women). Participants responded to thrice daily interviews administered via handheld computer for 30 days, followed by a longitudinal telephone survey for 12 months. Participants’ daily mood-drinking relationships were extracted from HLM and employed as predictors of 12-month outcomes in multiple regression analyses. Daily mood-drinking patterns demonstrated significant variability across persons, such that moderate drinkers could be reliably differentiated based on those patterns in terms of distinct drinking-related outcomes. Among the results, negative mood-solitary drinking slopes were associated with lower subsequent coping motives; yet, positive mood-solitary drinking slopes were predictive of higher coping and lower social motives. Conversely, positive mood-social drinking associations were predictive of higher enhancement motives and b-MAST scores. Results are interpreted in light of motivational models of consumption. PMID:23647154

  1. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. Methods This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January – December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Result Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43?±?1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p < 0.05)], for studying or completing major projects [users184 (45.0%), nonusers 225 (55.0%) (p < 0.05)] and for refreshment purposes [users179 (44.9%), nonusers 220 (55.1%) (p < 0.05)]. Two main reasons of not using energy drinks by non-users were “awareness from its side effects” 247 (47.8%) and “have no specific reason” 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). Conclusion In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical students, particularly because they are ever ready to boost their energy level and reduce sleep hours due to stress of exams and projects. This warrants the creation of continued public health awareness about the appropriate use of caffeinated beverages, their potential benefits, side effects and correction of wrong perceptions. PMID:24351105

  2. Do genetic and individual risk factors moderate the efficacy of motivational enhancement therapy? Drinking outcomes with an emerging adult sample

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; LaChance, Heather A.; Bryan, Angela; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that motivational enhancement therapy (MET) helps catalyze reductions in problem drinking among emerging adults. However, moderators of this intervention remain relatively unknown. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (1) to test whether a single session of MET increased motivation to reduce drinking and drinking outcomes; and (2) to examine whether genetic dopamine D4 receptor L (DRD4 L) and individual personality risk factors (impulsivity and novelty seeking) moderated the effects of the MET. These hypotheses were evaluated by randomly assigning a sample of emerging adult problem drinkers (n = 67) to receive a single session of MET or alcohol education. Follow-up data indicated that only individuals who were low in impulsivity, novelty seeking and/or who had the short DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats genotype evidenced differentially increased behavior change (taking steps toward reducing drinking) following the MET. PMID:19298319

  3. Levels of exposure from drinking water.

    PubMed

    van Dijk-Looijaard, A M; van Genderen, J

    2000-01-01

    The relative exposure from drinking water is generally small, although there is a lack of information on total daily intake of individual organic micropollutants. There are, however, a few exceptions. Materials used in domestic distribution systems (lead, copper and plastics) may cause a deterioration of the water quality, especially in stagnant water. The relative exposure to the related compounds may increase considerably. Monitoring data from the tap (with defined sampling techniques) are needed. Also, disinfection/oxidation by-products (bromate, trihalomethanes) can be present in drinking water in considerable amounts and the relative exposure from drinking water may even approach 100%. Especially for volatile organic micropollutants, exposure routes from drinking water other than ingestion must be taken into account (inhalation, percutaneous uptake). When there is a need for detection of substances at very low levels it is important that the measurements are reliable. International interlaboratory comparisons for organic micropollutants are lacking at the moment. PMID:10717369

  4. Why Your Child Might Start Drinking Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Child Might Start Drinking Some children may experiment with alcohol as they approach their teen years ... 1-800-846-8517 Experienced a natural or human-caused disaster? Learn more about the Disaster Distress ...

  5. A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

  6. THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

  7. Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

    1993-08-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG&G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a {open_quotes}community water system{close_quotes} (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG&G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG&G Idaho production wells.

  8. TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

  9. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will enable a systematic approach to characterizing the value of condition assessment of drinking water mains that will provide the basis for better communication among, and decisions by, stakeholders regarding goals and priorities for research, development, and tech...

  10. Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

  11. OVERVIEW OF RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invited presentation at the 2007 National Rural Water Association National Conference, Philadelphia, PA, September 23-26, 2007. The presentation reviews the chemistry of radium and uranium in drinking water sources, treatment options, and guidelines for disposal. Presentation giv...

  12. Remote vs. In-lab Computer-delivered Personalized Normative Feedback Interventions for College Student Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Rinker, Dipali V.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lazorwitz, Brenda; Gonzales, Rubi G.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Computer-based interventions aimed at reducing college student drinking have shown positive effects. This paper compares differences in effects of computer-based personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions based on delivery modality (in-person vs. remotely) across six previously evaluated studies with similar content. Method Three studies included evaluations of a computer-based PNF intervention where baseline and intervention procedures took place inside a laboratory setting; three separate studies included evaluations of the same intervention where participants completed the procedures remotely over the web. Thus, we tested for differences in intervention efficacy by delivery modality. Outcomes included drinks per week, drinking-related consequences, and the putative intervention mechanism, perceived drinking norms. Results Evidence from hierarchical linear models indicated that computer-based interventions are less effective at reducing drinking and related consequences when delivered remotely than when delivered in-person. Conclusion The advantages of interventions delivered remotely are not without cost. Suggestions for why remote computer-based interventions may be less effective are discussed. PMID:25798730

  13. 'Responsible drinking' programs and the alcohol industry in Brazil: killing two birds with one stone?

    PubMed

    Pantani, Daniela; Sparks, Robert; Sanchez, Zila M; Pinsky, Ilana

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian alcohol industry - which for years has ignored alcohol problems - inaugurated responsible drinking programs (RDPs). This paper reports findings from an exploratory study that investigated the RDP-related activities of six leading alcohol companies in Brazil (three national, three transnational) focusing on program goals and components, target populations and evaluation methods. Interviews were conducted from October 2007 to February 2008 with nine key-informants, and 71 corporate documents were collected along with additional web information about the programs. Content analysis of interviews and institutional documents was used to identify the companies' RDP activities. Three types of RDPs were found that focused respectively on institutional action, drinking and driving, and underage drinking. All three transnational firms were involved in RDPs, whereas national firms demonstrated limited involvement. The majority of RDPs were implemented using television. No targeted research appears to have been undertaken by the companies to assess the efficacy of the strategies in terms of changes in drinking behavior. The evidence for both national and transnational firms means that is difficult to confirm that the responsible drinking programs produced so far in Brazil have been undertaken to systematically reduce alcohol problems, or mainly as part of a public relations strategy to reduce criticism and potentially forestall government regulations (Babor, 2006, 2009; Jernigan, 2009). PMID:22800917

  14. Physicochemical speciation of lead in drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy M. Harrison; Duncan P. H. Laxen

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of drinking water as a route of human exposure to lead1,2. Whilst there are ample data on lead concentrations in drinking water3, little is known of its physical and chemical forms (physicochemical speciation)4. Such information is important as the speciation of ingested lead influences the efficiency of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract5. Knowledge of

  15. HPLC Determination of Taurine in Sports Drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Dale L.

    2001-06-01

    The amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is present as a nutritional supplement in many sports drinks. An experiment, suitable for a junior-senior level instrumental analysis course, is described to measure the amount of taurine in these sports drinks. A pre-column derivatization with Sanger's reagent, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, is followed by an HPLC separation utilizing a gradient elution, and detection at 360 nm.

  16. Marital Quality and Congruent Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    HOMISH, GREGORY G.; LEONARD, KENNETH E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective This research considered whether changes in marital quality over the early years of marriage were related to patterns of alcohol use among three groups of couples: congruent nondrinkers, congruent drinkers who usually drank with their spouses and congruent drinkers who usually drank apart from their spouses. Method Newlywed couples (N = 418) were assessed for marital satisfaction and drinking behaviors and then were reassessed at their first and second anniversaries, Cross-sectional analyses compared couples at each assessment mid multilevel modeling assessed changes in marital satisfaction over time. Results At each assessment, husbands and wives who usually drank with their partners reported greater levels of marital satisfaction. Over time, marital satisfaction declined for both husbands and wives. When we assessed changes in mental quality based on the three groups, husbands in each group experienced similar declines in marital quality. Among wives, however, the rate of decline was not the same. Although wives in the nondrinking group and wives who usually drank with their husbands had similar initial marital satisfaction, the nondrinkers experienced a greater decline in marital satisfaction than the wives who drank with their husbands. The rate of change for the wives in the nondrinking group was quite similar to wives who more often drank apart from their spouses. Conclusion These findings suggest that alcohol use may be a part of the couple’s socializing and may increase interaction, thereby increasing marital satisfaction. PMID:16240556

  17. Most terrestrial vertebrates are able to replace water lost to the environment by drinking water. In amniotes, drinking is

    E-print Network

    Behe, Michael J.

    Most terrestrial vertebrates are able to replace water lost to the environment by drinking water, not drinking, because water, unlike food, is physically uniform (at least between 1 and 99 °C). Modifications the frequent need to regain lost water, drinking is secondary to feeding. Furthermore, if drinking is achieved

  18. Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

  19. Hopelessness and Excessive Drinking among Aboriginal Adolescents: The Mediating Roles of Depressive Symptoms and Drinking to Cope

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sherry H.; Sherry, Simon B.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Collins, Pamela; Van Wilgenburg, Hendricus

    2011-01-01

    Canadian Aboriginal youth show high rates of excessive drinking, hopelessness, and depressive symptoms. We propose that Aboriginal adolescents with higher levels of hopelessness are more susceptible to depressive symptoms, which in turn predispose them to drinking to cope—which ultimately puts them at risk for excessive drinking. Adolescent drinkers (n = 551; 52% boys; mean age = 15.9 years) from 10 Canadian schools completed a survey consisting of the substance use risk profile scale (hopelessness), the brief symptom inventory (depressive symptoms), the drinking motives questionnaire—revised (drinking to cope), and quantity, frequency, and binge measures of excessive drinking. Structural equation modeling demonstrated the excellent fit of a model linking hopelessness to excessive drinking indirectly via depressive symptoms and drinking to cope. Bootstrapping indicated that this indirect effect was significant. Both depressive symptoms and drinking to cope should be intervention targets to prevent/decrease excessive drinking among Aboriginal youth high in hopelessness. PMID:21197100

  20. EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL CHLORATE PRODUCT ADMINISTRATION IN THE DRINKING WATER ON SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM CONTAMINATION OF BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The crop is a known source of Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination. Previously, we evaluated lactic acid in the drinking water during a simulated pre-transport feed withdrawal (FW) and reported 0.44% lactic acid significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the number of Salmonella recovered in market-ag...

  1. Migration of trace metals in Italian drinking waters from distribution networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Veschetti; Laura Achene; Emanuele Ferretti; Luca Lucentini; Giovanni Citti; Massimo Ottaviani

    2010-01-01

    Council Directive 98\\/83\\/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption establishes a high level of protection for the consumer and requires Member States to ensure that substances and materials used in preparation and distribution of drinking water do not reduce that level of protection. The Directive's point of compliance is at consumers’ taps. This implies a need for

  2. USING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RISKS TO HEALTH FROM MICROBES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States goal to reduce health risks from environmental exposures of all kinds of hazards has resulted in the need to assess the risks from exposure to microbes in drinking water. The model for a risk-based conceptual framework and strategy is provided by the US Environm...

  3. WHITE PAPER ON IMPROVEMENT OF STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY MONITORING FOR DRINKING WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This white paper explores the improvement of water main structural integrity monitoring (SIM) capability as an approach for reducing (1) high risk drinking water main breaks and (2) inefficient maintenance scheduling. Inadequate SIM capability for water mains can cause repair, r...

  4. Adolescent Drinking and Adolescent Stress: A Domain-Specific Relationship in Northern Irish Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael Thomas; Cole, Jon C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested an association between heightened levels of stress among adolescents and reduced levels of mental, physical and emotional well-being. This study sought to examine the relationship between 10 domains of adolescent stress and self-reported drinking behaviour. A total of 610 adolescents, aged 12-16 years old, were…

  5. Sexual-Minority Women and Alcohol: Intersections Between Drinking, Relational Contexts, Stress, and Coping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Condit; Kai Kitaji; Laurie A Drabble; Karen Trocki

    2011-01-01

    Few studies explore sexual-minority women's experiences and perceptions of alcohol. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six sexual-minority women who reported having sought help for alcohol problems in the past and six who did not. Themes emerged in two broad areas: (1) stressors that contributed to heavy or problem drinking and (2) factors that enhanced coping and reduced both stress and

  6. Aluminum-based drinking-water treatment residuals: A novel sorbent for perchlorate removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos C. Makris; Dibyendu Sarkar; Rupali Datta

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate contamination of aquifers and drinking-water supplies has led to stringent regulations in several states to reduce perchlorate concentrations in water at acceptable levels for human consumption. Several perchlorate treatment technologies exist, but there is significant cost associated with their use, and the majority of them are unable to degrade perchlorate to innocuous chloride. We propose the use of a

  7. Nitrate removal from drinking water through the use of encapsulated microorganisms in alginate beads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. X. Liu; S. W. Hermanowicz; M. Peng

    2003-01-01

    Biological treatment for removal of nitrate from drinking water is of great significance, as traditional physical and chemical methods could not effectively remove soluble nitrate. In this report immobilized microorganisms with co?immobilized caldum tartrate were used for reducing nitrate concentration (110 mg 1 NO3?N) in a model solution. The carbon source also functions as a stabilizing agent for the immobilization

  8. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing and Feedback with Heavy Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez, Patricia; Walters, Scott T.; Daugherty, Mikyta; Radi, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a brief intervention that has been shown to reduce heavy drinking among college students. Because all college studies of MI to date have included a personalized feedback report, it remains unclear which of the components is necessary to produce behavior change. This study evaluated the separate and collective…

  9. Hypervolemia from Drinking Hyperhydration Solutions at Rest and Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Looft-Wilson, Robin; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Geelen, Ghislaine; Barnes, Paul R.; Jensen, Christopher D.; Whittam, James H.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of muscular fatigue from physical work and exercise (high metabolism) is not clear, but involves disturbances of muscle surface membrane excitation-contraction coupling from changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, cell H+ and Pi responses, and carbohydrate metabolism. Fatigue in people at rest (low metabolism) involves both psychological and physiological factors, probably in different proportions. One common factor appears to be the level and distribution of water and electrolytes within muscle cells and other vascular, interstitial, body fluid compartments. The vascular fluid volume, composed of plasma and red blood cells, is a primary regulatory factor for cardiovascular function; reduction of vascular volume (hypovolemia) and total body water (hypohydration) adversely affect exercise performance. Plasma volume and plasma ionic-osmotic constituent concentrations are also regulatory factors for body thermoregulation, which is often compromised from exercise induced hypovolemia and hypohydration. Rehydration of dehydrated people on earth is relatively easy with appropriate food (osmols), fluid, and a restful environment. But ad libitum drinking under stressful conditions; e.g., heat, exercise, or prior dehydration, results in involuntary dehydration defined as the delay in full fluid replacement (euhydration) during and following loss of body fluid. Astronauts, with their reduced total body water are euhydrated while in weightlessness, but become "dehydrated" during reentry and landing. Thus, people subjected to acute or chronic stress are probably somewhat "dehydrated" as well as fatigued. Many rehydration drinks are more concentrated (hypertonic-hyperosmotic) with respect to the normal plasma osmolality of 285 mOsm/kg H2O and more of the drink osmols are contributed by carbohydrates than by ionized substances. There have been few studies on the efficacy of various drink formulations for increasing body fluid compartment volumes, especially plasma volume, in rested hydrated subjects. Recent findings from our laboratory have indicated that drinks containing greater concentrations of ionized substances (Performance 1 and AstroAde) up to 157 mEq/L Na+ induced greater levels of hypervolemia in resting, moderately dehydrated men, and were also better than water for attenuating the characteristic hypovolemia during supine, submaximal, leg ergometer exercise.

  10. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    PubMed

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in untreated Ottawa River water, with a dissolved organic carbon concentration of 6 mg/L, was significantly higher than the stability of the nano-silver dispersions in distilled, organic-free water. Nano-silver particles suspended in the groundwater agglomerated and were quickly and quantitatively removed from the solution. Our data confirm previous observations that natural dissolved organic matter stabilizes nano-silver particles, while the high-ionic strength of groundwater appears to favor their agglomeration and precipitation. As expected, nano-silver was not stable in Ottawa River water through the chlorination process, but survived for many days when added to the Ottawa River water after treatment with chlorine or chloramines. Stirring appeared to have minimal effect on nano-silver stability in untreated and treated Ottawa River water. The profile of DBPs formed in the presence of nAg differed significantly from the profile of DBPs formed in the absence of nAg only at the 1 mg/L nAg concentration. The differences observed consisted mainly in reduced formation of some brominated DBPs and a small increase in the formation of cyanogen chloride. The reduced formation of brominated congeners may be explained by the decrease in available bromide due to the presence of Ag(+) ions. It should be noted that a concentration of 1 mg/L is significantly higher than nAg concentrations that would be expected to be present in surface waters, but these results could be significant for the disinfection of some wastewaters with comparably high nano-silver concentrations. PMID:24458938

  11. They Drink How Much and Where? Normative Perceptions by Drinking Contexts and Their Association to College Students'Alcohol Consumption*

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Litt, Dana M.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Granato, Hollie; Kilmer, Jason R.; Lee, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has shown that normative perceptions of others’ drinking behavior strongly relates to one's own drinking behavior. Most research examining the perceived drinking of others has generally focused on specificity of the normative referent (i.e., gender, ethnicity). The present study expands the research literature on social norms by examining normative perceptions by various drinking contexts. Specifically, this research aimed to determine if college students overestimate peer drinking by several drinking contexts (i.e., bar, fraternity/sorority party, non-fraternity/sorority party, sporting event) and to examine whether normative perceptions for drinking by contexts relate to one's own drinking behavior specific to these contexts. Method: Students (N= 1,468; 56.4% female) participated in a web-based survey by completing measures assessing drinking behavior and perceived descriptive drinking norms for various contexts. Results: Findings demonstrated that students consistently overestimated the drinking behavior for the typical same-sex student in various drinking contexts, with the most prominent being fraternity/sorority parties. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for drinking by contexts were associated with personal drinking behavior within these contexts. Conclusions: Results stress the importance of specificity of social norms beyond those related to the normative referent. Clinical implications are discussed in terms of preventions and intervention efforts as well as risks associated with drinking in a novel context. PMID:21906511

  12. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Are There Associated Negative Consequences beyond Hazardous Drinking in College Students?

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lisa; Fendrich, Michael; Fuhrmann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is prevalent among college students as is hazardous drinking, a drinking pattern that places one at risk for alcohol-related harm. The present study, therefore, examined associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences in college students. Methods Based on a probability sample conducted in 2010, participants were 606 undergraduate students aged 18-25. AmED consumption included lifetime and past year use. Hazardous drinking and alcohol-related consequences were measured during the past year. Point prevalence was used to estimate rates of AmED use, and chi-square, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used to examine associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Results Lifetime and past year AmED use prevalence rates were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively. Hazardous drinkers who engaged in AmED use were significantly more likely than past year hazardous drinkers who did not engage in AmED use to have had unprotected sex (OR = 2.35, CI 1.27-4.32). Conclusions AmED use appears to be highly prevalent among college students, and AmED use may confer additional risk for unprotected sex beyond hazardous drinking. Unprotected sex has implications for public health, and students who drink hazardously and consume AmED may be at greater risk. PMID:23685329

  13. Bringing alcohol on campus to raise money: impact on student drinking and drinking problems

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Johnson, Mark; Turrisi, Robert J.; Taylor, Dexter; Honts, Charles Robert; Nelsen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Aims Universities are striving to raise funds, often attracting spectators by selling alcohol at campus events. This study evaluates the effect of a policy change on student drinking at a large western university that had historically banned alcohol on campus but transitioned to permitting the sale of alcohol in some of its facilities. Methods Surveys of student drinking and perceptions of other students' drinking were conducted before, during and after the policy change at the transition university (TU) and compared to similar data from a control university (CU). Surveys of student drinking at on-campus and off-campus venues and observations of alcohol service practices were also conducted. Results The policy change at the TU was introduced cautiously, and sales to underage drinkers were relatively well controlled. Despite this, student drinking rose initially, then declined after 1 year. Perceptions of the amount of drinking by other students increased slightly, but there was no overall measurable increase in student drinking during the first 3 years of the new policy. Conclusions The conservative TU policy—to sell alcohol only at select events and to control sales to minors—may have limited the impact of on-campus alcohol sales on student consumption. Although the study results did not find a stable increase in student drinking, they do not necessarily support the liberalization of campus alcohol policy, because the transition is still ‘in progress’ and the final outcome has not been evaluated. PMID:18482416

  14. Predictors of Heavy Drinking and Drinking Problems over the First Four Years of Marriage

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Kenneth E.; Homish, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the factors predictive of heavy drinking and drinking problems over the early years of marriage, focusing on the premarital drinking and relatively stable individual risk and protective factors that were present prior to marriage, and on social-interpersonal factors that may change or emerge over marriage. Newlywed couples were assessed at the time of marriage, and at the 1st, 2nd, and 4th anniversaries with respect to frequency of heavy drinking and the extent of drinking problems, and a variety of factors that have been found to be predictive of adult alcohol problems. The results indicated that antisocial characteristics, family history of alcoholism, negative affect, and alcohol expectancies were related to heavy drinking and alcohol problems at the time of marriage. Changes after marriage were predicted by the drinking of one's partner and of one's peers and by alcohol expectancies for social/physical pleasure for both men and women. In addition, the quality of the marriage was longitudinally protective from the experience of alcohol problems for both men and women, although it was not related to changes in heavy drinking. PMID:18298228

  15. National survey of MTBE and other VOCs in community drinking-water sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clawges, Rick M.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.

    2001-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is added to gasoline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone levels in the air. The chemical properties and widespread use of MTBE can result in contamination of private and public drinking-water sources. MTBE contamination is a concern in drinking water because of the compound's low taste and odor threshold and potential human-health effects.

  16. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti oxidant activity of a poly herbal formulation - Chyavana drink

    PubMed Central

    Poornima, K.; Thangal, Haseeb Koya; Karpagavalli, S.

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of a poly herbal formulation-Chyavana drink. The inflammation was induced in albino rats by carrageenan. The formulation was effective when compared with a known anti-inflammatory drug. The antioxidant activity was studied by invitro methods. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be showing higher percentage of inhibition and reducing power at high concentrations. The phenolic content of Chyavana drink was observed to be high showing a good antioxidant effect. PMID:22557286

  17. Transitions in first-year college student drinking behaviors: does pre-college drinking moderate the effects of parent- and peer-based intervention components?

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Michael J; Lanza, Stephanie T; Ray, Anne E; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    This study used Latent Transition Analysis (LTA) to examine a stage-sequential model of alcohol use among a sample of high-risk matriculating college students (N=1,275). Measures of alcohol use were collected via web-administered surveys during the summer before entering college and followed-up during the fall semester of college. Seven indicators of alcohol use were used in the LTA models, including temporal measures of typical drinking throughout the week. The results indicated that four latent statuses characterized patterns of drinking at both times, though the proportion of students in each status changed during the transition to college: (a) nondrinkers; (b) weekend nonbingers; (c) weekend bingers; and (d) heavy drinkers. Heavy drinkers were distinguished by heavy episodic drinking (HED), and increased likelihood of drinking throughout the week, especially on Thursdays. Covariates were added to the LTA model to examine the main and interaction effects of parent- and peer-based intervention components. Results indicated that participants in the parent and peer conditions were least likely to transition to the heavy drinkers status. Results also indicated that the parent condition was most effective at preventing baseline nondrinkers from transitioning to heavy drinkers whereas the peer condition was most effective at preventing escalation of use among weekend nonbingers. The results underscore the value of considering multiple dimensions of alcohol use within a person-centered approach. Differential treatment effects were found across baseline drinking class, suggesting the benefit for tailored intervention programs to reduce high-risk drinking among college students. PMID:22061340

  18. RCT of Web-based Personalized Normative Feedback for College Drinking Prevention: Are Typical Student Norms Good Enough?

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Neighbors, Clayton; Zheng, Cheng; R. Kenney, Shannon; Napper, Lucy E.; Walter, Theresa; Kilmer, Jason R.; Hummer, Justin F.; Grossbard, Joel; Ghaidarov, Tehniat M.; Desai, Sruti; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions are generally effective at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing risky alcohol consumption among college students. However, research has yet to establish what level of reference group specificity is most efficacious in delivering PNF. This study compared the efficacy of a web-based PNF intervention employing eight increasingly-specific reference groups against a Web-BASICS intervention and a repeated-assessment control in reducing risky drinking and associated consequences. Method Participants were 1663 heavy drinking Caucasian and Asian undergraduates at two universities. The referent for web-based PNF was either the typical same-campus student, or a same-campus student at one (either gender, race, or Greek-affiliation), or a combination of two (e.g., gender and race), or all three levels of specificity (i.e., gender, race, and Greek-affiliation). Hypotheses were tested using quasi-Poisson generalized linear models fit by generalized estimating equations. Results The PNF intervention participants showed modest reductions in all four outcomes (average total drinks, peak drinking, drinking days, and drinking consequences) compared to control participants. No significant differences in drinking outcomes were found between the PNF group as a whole and the Web-BASICS group. Among the eight PNF conditions, participants receiving typical student PNF demonstrated greater reductions in all four outcomes compared to those receiving PNF for more specific reference groups. Perceived drinking norms and discrepancies between individual behavior and actual norms mediated the efficacy of the intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest a web-based PNF intervention using the typical student referent offers a parsimonious approach to reducing problematic alcohol use outcomes among college students. PMID:23937346

  19. Forecasting the Effect of the Amethyst Initiative on College Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ben G.; Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S.; Rasul, Jawaid; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Simonsen, Neal; Rommel, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of college presidents have endorsed the Amethyst Initiative, a call to consider lowering the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA). Our objective is to forecast the effect of the Amethyst Initiative on college drinking. Methods A system model of college drinking siumlates MLDA changes through (1) a decrease in heavy episodic drinking (HED) due to the lower likelihood of students drinking in unsupervised settings where they model irresponsible drinking (misperception), and (2) an increase in overall drinking among currently underage students due to increased social availability of alcohol (wetness). Results For the proportion of HEDs on campus, effects of large decreases in misperception of responsible drinking behavior were more than offset by modest increases in wetness. Conclusions For the effect of lowering the MLDA, it appears that increases in social availability of alcohol have a stronger impact on drinking behavior than decreases in misperceptions. PMID:22432502

  20. Modelling fate and transport of pesticides in river catchments with drinking water abstractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Nele; Seuntjens, Piet; Touchant, Kaatje

    2010-05-01

    When drinking water is abstracted from surface water, the presence of pesticides may have a large impact on the purification costs. In order to respect imposed thresholds at points of drinking water abstraction in a river catchment, sustainable pesticide management strategies might be required in certain areas. To improve management strategies, a sound understanding of the emission routes, the transport, the environmental fate and the sources of pesticides is needed. However, pesticide monitoring data on which measures are founded, are generally scarce. Data scarcity hampers the interpretation and the decision making. In such a case, a modelling approach can be very useful as a tool to obtain complementary information. Modelling allows to take into account temporal and spatial variability in both discharges and concentrations. In the Netherlands, the Meuse river is used for drinking water abstraction and the government imposes the European drinking water standard for individual pesticides (0.1 ?g.L-1) for surface waters at points of drinking water abstraction. The reported glyphosate concentrations in the Meuse river frequently exceed the standard and this enhances the request for targeted measures. In this study, a model for the Meuse river was developed to estimate the contribution of influxes at the Dutch-Belgian border on the concentration levels detected at the drinking water intake 250 km downstream and to assess the contribution of the tributaries to the glyphosate loads. The effects of glyphosate decay on environmental fate were considered as well. Our results show that the application of a river model allows to asses fate and transport of pesticides in a catchment in spite of monitoring data scarcity. Furthermore, the model provides insight in the contribution of different sub basins to the pollution level. The modelling results indicate that the effect of local measures to reduce pesticides concentrations in the river at points of drinking water abstraction, might be limited due to dominant transboundary loads. This emphasizes the need for transboundary management strategies on a river catchment scale.

  1. The Impact of Adolescent Binge Drinking and Sustained Abstinence on Affective State

    PubMed Central

    Bekman, Nicole M.; Winward, Jennifer L.; Lau, Lily L.; Wagner, Chase C.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Background While it is clear that affect is negatively impacted by heavy drinking in adulthood and that it improves with abstinence, little is known about effects of heavy drinking on mood during adolescence. Methods The present study examined negative mood states among 16–18 year-old high school students with a history of recent heavy episodic drinking (HED; n = 39) and comparison youth with limited lifetime drinking experience (CON; n = 26). Affect was assessed at three time points during a 4–6 week period of monitored abstinence using the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and Depression; self-reports were obtained with the state portion of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and experience sampling of current affect was assessed via daily text messages sent at randomly determined times in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Results Youth with a recent history of HED reported more negative affect compared to non-drinking youth during early stages of abstinence (days since last HED at assessment 1: m = 6.46; SD = 5.06); however differences in affect were not observed after 4–6 weeks of abstinence. Sex differences were evident, with HED girls reporting greater depression and anxiety than HED male peers. Although not significant, response patterns indicated that males may experience faster resolution of negative emotional states than females with sustained abstinence. Conclusions Findings suggest that high dose drinking is associated with elevated negative affect for adolescents and that negative mood states may take longer to resolve for girls than for boys following heavy drinking episodes. Future research clarifying naturally occurring changes in affective response during early and sustained abstinence is necessary for improving programs designed to promote adolescent decision-making and to reduce risk for relapse. PMID:23550712

  2. Ethanol drinking microstructure of a High Drinking in the Dark selected mouse line

    PubMed Central

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Crabbe, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) selected mouse line was bred for high blood ethanol concentration (BEC) following the limited access Drinking in the Dark (DID) test and is a genetic animal model of binge-like drinking. The present study examines the microstructure of ethanol drinking in these mice and their control line during three versions of the DID test to determine how drinking structure differences might relate to overall intake and BEC. Methods Male mice from the HDID-1 replicate line and HS/Npt progenitor stock were tested in separate experiments on 2- and 4-day versions of the DID test, and on a 2-day two-bottle choice DID test with 20% ethanol and water. Testing took place in home cages connected to a continuous fluid intake monitoring system (BioDAQ) and drinking during the DID test was analyzed for drinking microstructure. Results HDID-1 mice had more drinking bouts, shorter interbout interval, larger bout size, greater total ethanol intake, and higher BECs than HS/Npt mice on the 2nd day of the 2-day DID test. The 4-day DID test showed greater bout size, total ethanol intake, and BEC in the HDID-1 mice than the HS/Npt mice. Total ethanol intake and BECs for the HDID-1 mice in the DID tests averaged 2.6-3.0 g/kg and 0.4-0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The two-bottle choice test showed no genotype differences in drinking microstructure or total consumption, but did show greater preference for the ethanol solution in HDID-1 mice than HS/Npt. Conclusions These results suggest that inherent differences in ethanol drinking structure between the HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice, especially the larger bout size in the HDID-1 mice, contribute to the difference in intake during the standard DID test. PMID:22524154

  3. Drinking Motives as Mediators of the Impulsivity-Substance Use Relation: Pathways for Negative Urgency, Lack of Premeditation, and Sensation Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; Kaiser, Alison J.; Lynam, Donald R.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Milich, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Trait impulsivity is a reliable, robust predictor of risky, problematic alcohol use. Mounting evidence supports a multidimensional model of impulsivity, whereby several distinct traits serve as personality pathways to rash action. Different impulsivity-related traits may predispose individuals to drink for different reasons (e.g., to enhance pleasure, to cope with distress) and these different motives may, in turn, influence drinking behavior. Previous findings support such a mediational model for two well-studied traits: sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. This study addresses other impulsivity-related traits, including negative urgency. College students (N = 432) completed questionnaires assessing personality, drinking motives, and multiple indicators of problematic drinking. Negative urgency, sensation seeking, and lack of premeditation were all significantly related to problematic drinking. When drinking motives were included in the model, direct effects for sensation seeking and lack of premeditation remained significant, and indirect effects of sensation seeking and lack of premeditation on problematic drinking were observed through enhancement motives. A distinct pathway was observed for negative urgency. Negative urgency bore a significant total effect on problematic drinking through both coping and enhancement motives. This study highlights unique motivational pathways through which different impulsive traits may operate, suggesting that interventions aimed at preventing or reducing problematic drinking should be tailored to individuals' personalities. For instance, individuals high in negative urgency may benefit from learning healthier strategies for coping with distress. PMID:22472524

  4. Chemical quality of drinking water in Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O; Khunji, Z A

    1990-06-01

    Chemical quality of five types of water used for drinking purposes in Bahrain were studied. There are three main sources of drinking water: tap, private treated, and bottled waters. The findings revealed that tap water had highest level of all chemicals studies (except silica) compared to other waters. Sodium level in tap water ranged from 100 to 545.9 mg/l, with an average of 309.4 mg/l. This average exceeds the drinking water standard as recommended by WHO (200 mg/l), making this water unsuitable for hypertensive people. Average level of fluoride ranged from 0.28 in carbonated mineral water to 0.85 mg/l in tap water. The high usage of bottled mineral water for drinking purposes may deprive the public, especially the children, from one of the protective elements (fluoride) for dental caries. This disease is highly prevalent in Bahrain. A programme to control chemical quality of drinking water in the country is highly recommended. PMID:2114483

  5. Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects. There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance. Genetic factors may also contribute to an individual’s vulnerability to caffeine related disorders including caffeine intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal. The combined use of caffeine and alcohol is increasing sharply, and studies suggest that such combined use may increase the rate of alcohol-related injury. Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence. Regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:18809264

  6. Mediators and moderators of young adults' drinking.

    PubMed

    Fromme, K; Ruela, A

    1994-01-01

    Direct effects of modeling and indirect effects of social perception processes have been implicated in the acquisition and maintenance of alcohol use. Parental and peer drinking behavior (assessed from self-reports), and student perceptions about parent and peer drinking (assessed from student estimates of their parents' and friends' alcohol use) were examined through surveys of college students, their parents, and a same-sex best friend. Results showed that students' perceptions about their parents' drinking and parents' self-reported quantity of alcohol consumed were significant correlates of students' own drinking. Perceptions about their friends' alcohol use were found to mediate the strong correlation between student and friend drinking. Perceived similarity to parents, but not perceived similarity to their friend, moderated the relation between students' alcohol use and their perceptions about the alcohol use of significant others. When parents were asked to estimate the alcohol use of their sons, daughters, and the average college student, they consistently estimated lower consumption for their offspring than for the average student. PMID:8148746

  7. Effect of home-used water purifier on fluoride concentration of drinking water in southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kheirmand, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fluoride in drinking water plays a key role in dental health. Due to the increasing use of water-purifier, the effect of these devices on fluoride concentration of drinking water was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Drinking water samples were collected before and after passing through a home water-purifier, from four different water sources. The fluoride, calcium and magnesium concentration of the samples were measured using the quantitative spectrophotometery technique. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test. P value < 0.1 was considered as significant. Results: The result showed that the concentration of fluoride was 0.05-0.61 ppm before purification and was removed completely afterward. Furthermore, other ions reduced significantly after treatment by the water purifier. Conclusion: This study revealed that this device decreases the fluoride content of water, an issue which should be considered in low and high-fluoridated water sources. PMID:24130584

  8. Changing network support for drinking: initial findings from the network support project.

    PubMed

    Litt, Mark D; Kadden, Ronald M; Kabela-Cormier, Elise; Petry, Nancy

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a socially focused treatment can effect change in the patient's social network from one that reinforces drinking to one that reinforces sobriety. Alcohol dependent men and women (N = 210) recruited from the community were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient treatment conditions: network support (NS), network support + contingency management (NS + CM), or case management (CaseM; a control condition). Analysis of drinking rates for 186 participants at 15 months indicated a significant interaction effect of Treatment x Time, with both NS conditions yielding better outcomes than the CaseM condition. Analyses of social network variables at posttreatment indicated that the NS conditions did not reduce social support for drinking relative to the CaseM condition but did increase behavioral and attitudinal support for abstinence as well as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement. Both the NS variables and AA involvement variables were significantly correlated with drinking outcomes. These findings indicate that drinkers' social networks can be changed by a treatment that is specifically designed to do so, and that these changes contribute to improved drinking outcomes. PMID:17663609

  9. Spatial scale of land-use impacts on riverine drinking source water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Tim; Mazumder, Asit

    2013-03-01

    Drinking water purveyors are increasingly relying on land conservation and management to ensure the safety of the water that they provide to consumers. To cost-effectively implement any such landscape initiatives, resources must be targeted to the appropriate spatial scale to address quality impairments of concern in a cost-effective manner. Using data gathered from 40 Canadian rivers across four ecozones, we examined the spatial scales at which land use was most closely associated with drinking source water quality metrics. Exploratory linear mixed-effects models accounting for climatic, hydrological, and physiographic variation among sites suggested that different spatial areas of land-use influence drinking source water quality depending on the parameter and season investigated. Escherichia coli spatial variability was only associated with land use at a local (5-10 km) spatial scale. Turbidity measures exhibited a complex association with land use, suggesting that the land-use areas of greatest influence can range from a 1 km subcatchment to the entire watershed depending on the season. Total organic carbon concentrations were only associated with land use characterized at the entire watershed scale. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index was used to calculate a composite measure of seasonal drinking source water quality but did not provide additional information beyond the analyses of individual parameters. These results suggest that entire watershed management is required to safeguard drinking water sources with more focused efforts at targeted spatial scales to reduce specific risk parameters.

  10. Microbiological effectiveness of locally produced ceramic filters for drinking water treatment in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D

    2010-03-01

    Low-cost options for the treatment of drinking water at the household level are being explored by the Cambodian government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Cambodia, where many lack access to improved drinking water sources and diarrhoeal diseases are the most prevalent cause of death in children under 5 years of age. The ceramic water purifier (CWP), a locally produced, low-cost ceramic filter, is now being implemented by several NGOs, and an estimated 100,000+households in the country now use them for drinking water treatment. Two candidate filters were tested for the reduction of bacterial and viral surrogates for waterborne pathogens using representative Cambodian drinking water sources (rainwater and surface water) spiked with Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Results indicate that filters were capable of reducing key microbes in the laboratory with mean reductions of E. coli of approximately 99% and mean reduction of bacteriophages of 90-99% over >600 litres throughput. Increased effectiveness was not observed in filters with an AgNO3 amendment. At under US$10 per filter, locally produced ceramic filters may be a promising option for drinking water treatment and safe storage at the household level. PMID:20009242

  11. Identifying Social Mechanisms for the Prevention of Adolescent Drinking and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W.; Nygaard, Peter; Miller, Brenda A.

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies social mechanisms that might help prevent youth from being involved in driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD). Data collected through telephone surveys with 1,534 adolescents and young adults aged 15–20 years (mean = 17.6, SD = 1.6) in California, USA were analyzed. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that DUI and RWDD were strongly related to drinking in unstructured situations, modeling of DUI by peers and parents, and perceived peer approval or disapproval of DUI. DUI outcome expectancies were indirectly related to DUI and RWDD through situational drinking. Parental monitoring and DUI law enforcement were also indirectly related to DUI and RWDD through DUI expectancies and other mechanisms. The findings, overall, suggest that parental influence remains important even through late adolescence. Parental monitoring, in particular, might help to reduce unstructured socializing with peers, drinking, and affiliation with peers who engage in DUI. Parental monitoring may also foster beliefs about the risks of DUI. Conversely, parents’ own DUI behavior may normalize drinking and DUI behaviors, thus countering monitoring efforts. PMID:18329409

  12. Colorimetric sensor array for soft drink analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2007-01-24

    Fourteen commercial soft drinks have been analyzed using colorimetric sensor arrays made from a set of 25 chemically responsive dyes printed on a hydrophobic membrane. Digital imaging of the dye array before and after immersion provides a color change profile as a unique fingerprint for each specific analyte. The digital data library generated was analyzed with statistical and chemometric methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Facile identification of all of the soft drinks was readily achieved using comparison of the color change profiles or a PCA score plot. Using a HCA dendrogram, the misclassification rate was <2%, and even very similar sodas were easily differentiated. In addition, the monitoring of soft drinks as they degas or upon dilution also proved to be possible. This work demonstrates the potential of our colorimetric sensor array technology for quality assurance/control applications of sodas and perhaps other beverages as well. PMID:17227048

  13. Covariates of Craving in Actively Drinking Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Subhajit; Kuna, Samuel T.; Zaharakis, Nikola; O’Brien, Charles P.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Oslin, David

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship of alcohol craving with biopsychosocial and addiction factors that are clinically pertinent to alcoholism treatment. Alcohol craving was assessed in 315 treatment-seeking, alcohol dependent subjects using the PACS questionnaire. Standard validated questionnaires were used to evaluate a variety of biological, addiction, psychological, psychiatric, and social factors. Individual covariates of craving included age, race, problematic consequences of drinking, heavy drinking, motivation for change, mood disturbance, sleep problems, and social supports. In a multivariate analysis (R2 = .34), alcohol craving was positively associated with mood disturbance, heavy drinking, readiness for change, and negatively associated with age. The results from this study suggest that alcohol craving is a complex phenomenon influenced by multiple factors. PMID:20716308

  14. Late ventricular potentials and heavy drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Pochmalicki, G.; Genest, M.; Jibril, H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic drinking on detection of low amplitude signals, and to determine the relation between late ventricular potentials (LVP) and liver biopsy findings. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: General hospital. PATIENTS: 41 consecutive chronic alcoholics without known pre-existing heart disease. METHODS: About four days after each patient's last alcoholic drink, ECG, echocardiography, signal averaged electrocardiogram, liver biopsy, and blood tests were performed. RESULTS: Twenty eight per cent of patients had evidence of LVP. There was a correlation between the percentage of steatosis of the hepatic biopsy and the amplitude of the last 40 ms of average QRS (P = 0.04), the duration of the terminal low amplitude QRS signal (P = 0.05), and the number of positive criteria of late potentials (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic drinking sufficient to cause steatosis is associated with positive findings on the signal averaged ECG. PMID:9326991

  15. College Student Drinking Research From the 1940s to the Future: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Jason R.; Cronce, Jessica M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: College student drinking is not a new phenomenon, yet the field of research studying college student drinking is relatively young. In recognition of the 75th anniversary of what is now the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, this article reviews the path from the first article to focus exclusively on college student drinking as the topic (published in 1945) to the current state of the science and attempts to look forward to the next steps in the field’s research agenda. Method: Articles were selected by consensus of the authors from incarnations of the journal and other academic journals based on their relevance to the genesis of current best practices regarding college student drinking prevention. Results: Major eras and themes include (a) early efforts to describe and understand college student drinking; (b) building foundations for prevention and intervention efforts in response to growing concerns about high-risk drinking; (c) the emergence of harm-reduction efforts, normative interventions, and efforts to document campus strategies; (d) efficacious prevention efforts and high-risk drinking; (e) the “Call to Action” Task Force Report from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; and (f) updates to the science (including emerging technology). Conclusions: Understanding the rich history of science related to college drinking prevention should prepare and guide our field for the next 75 years of scientific advances, leading to even greater understanding of the etiology and topology of college student drinking as well as more effective methods to reduce alcohol-related harms. PMID:24565309

  16. Patterns of drinking in Thai men.

    PubMed

    Assanangkornchai, S; Saunders, J B; Conigrave, K M

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol problems have increased considerably in Thailand in recent years, in common with many other countries in South East Asia. Little is known about the patterns or contexts of alcohol consumption in these countries, and so efforts to develop preventative strategies have been hampered. To identify current patterns related to alcohol consumption, we recruited 91 alcohol-dependent subjects, 77 hazardous or harmful drinkers, and 144 abstainers or light drinkers. A structured interview incorporating the World Health Organization 'tri-level' method to determine the amount and frequency of drinking, and the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities to diagnose alcohol dependence and harmful drinking was used. Median alcohol intake was 75 and 49 g/drinking day in the alcohol-dependent and harmful or hazardous groups respectively. The former group drank on average 25 days/month, whereas the harmful or hazardous drinkers drank 10 days/month. Drinking alone was more common in the alcohol-dependent group (67%), whereas harmful or hazardous drinkers typically drank with friends (58%), and infrequent drinkers drank only at social functions (61%). Only 28% of alcohol-dependent subjects perceived themselves as dependent on alcohol. The alcohol-dependent subjects and hazardous or harmful drinkers were more likely to currently smoke cigarettes and have a history of marijuana use than were non-drinkers, infrequent or light drinkers. Antisocial personality disorder was more commonly associated with alcohol dependence. In conclusion, alcohol dependence was characterized by continual drinking, whereas hazardous or harmful consumption was associated with an intermittent pattern. Other forms of substance use and personality disorder were associated with alcohol dependence. Clearer understanding of these factors would be of great benefit in planning an intervention programme for excessive drinking in Thailand. PMID:10869246

  17. Implicit Drinking Identity: Drinker + Me Associations Predict College Student Drinking Consistently

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Foster, Dawn W.; Westgate, Erin C.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    Predicting hazardous drinking in college students continues to be a serious priority. Emerging evidence suggests that implicit measures may offer additional insight in predicting unique variance in alcohol outcomes. Implicit drinking identity, in particular, may be a powerful predictor of alcohol use. The current study examined the predictive validity of three alcohol-related associations (e.g., drinking identity, alcohol approach, and alcohol cope) using adaptations of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in a sample of 243 undergraduates. Confirming previous findings, drinking identity associations were the most consistent predictor of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. They were the only associations that were unique predictors of alcohol use after controlling for other implicit associations. In comparison, alcohol cope and alcohol approach associations were weak but consistent predictors of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Although positively correlated with all drinking outcomes, neither set of associations predicted unique variance in the drinking outcomes when all implicit associations were included in the same model. Collectively, these results extend previous findings that implicit drinking identity may be a uniquely powerful tool for predicting alcohol outcomes and a potential target for clinical intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:23454880

  18. Defining “Binge” Drinking as Five Drinks per Occasion or Drinking to a 0.08% BAC: Which is More Sensitive to Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Jude, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Heavy episodic or “binge” drinking is commonly defined as drinking 4–5 drinks per occasion (5/4 definition) or drinking that results in a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08%. The present study compared the validity of each binge definition as an indicator of at-risk, problem drinking. 251 college students were classified as non-binge drinkers or as binge drinkers based on the 5/4 definition or the 0.08% BAC definition. The two definitions of binge drinking were examined in terms of their sensitivity and specificity as indicators of alcohol-related problems as determined by scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Over half the sample (56%) were at-risk drinkers according to the AUDIT. The 0.08% definition detected only one-half of these individuals. Gender differences were also evident. Female binge drinkers actually achieved significantly higher estimated BACs per episode than their male binge drinking counterparts. The findings suggest that drinking to a sub-threshold BAC (i.e., < 0.08%) is not sufficient to avoid alcohol-related problems, and that total quantity (i.e., total standard drinks) per occasion might contribute to risk independent of the BAC achieved during drinking episodes. The findings also highlight the importance of considering frequency of consumption in determining risky drinking versus relying solely on quantity measures. PMID:21838847

  19. Implementing a reward and reminder underage drinking prevention program in convenience stores near Southern California American Indian reservations

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roland S.; Roberts, Jennifer; McGaffigan, Richard; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W.; Gilder, David A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Underage drinking is associated with a number of social and public health consequences. Preventing access to alcohol is one approach to reducing underage drinking. Objectives This study assesses the efficacy of a culturally tailored “reward and reminder” program aimed at reducing convenience store alcohol sales to youth living on or near nine American Indian reservations. Methods First, tribal council proclamations were sought to support underage drinking prevention, including reward and reminder efforts. Then, decoys (volunteers over 21 years of age but judged to look younger) attempted to purchase alcohol without identification. Clerks who asked for identification were given “rewards” (gift cards and congratulatory letters), whereas clerks who did not were given “reminders” of the law regarding sales to minors. Following an initial baseline of 12 purchase attempts, three repeated reward and reminder visits were made to 13 convenience stores selling alcohol within ten miles of the reservations (n=51 total attempts). Results Five of nine tribal councils passed resolutions in support of the program. The baseline sales rate without requesting ID was 33%. Similarly, 38% of stores in the first reward and reminder visit round failed to request identification. However, in the following two reward and reminder rounds, 0% of the stores failed to request identification. Conclusions These results indicate that environmental community-level underage drinking prevention strategies to reduce alcohol sales near rural reservations are feasible and can be effective. Scientific Significance Environmental prevention strategies within reservation communities support integrated supply and demand reduction models for reducing underage drinking. PMID:22931080

  20. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE): Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MTBE, a gasoline oxygenater additive, has been detected in ground water sources throughout different parts of the country. These ground water sources are often the source of drinking water, and the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether in even minute quantities can make the water undrinkable. Research to date has not conclusively identified any quantitative level at which serious health risks may occur. This site provides information on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency on the concerns and occurence of MTBE in drinking water.

  1. Who Suggests Drinking Less? Demographic and National Differences in Informal Social Controls on Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dietze, Paul; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine variation in reports of pressuring others to drink less, as a form of informal social control of drinking, across countries and different types of relationship to the respondent. Method: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 19,945 respondents ages 18–69 years in 14 countries included in the data set of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Outcome variables were respondents’ reports of pressuring others to drink less (yes/no) across a variety of relationships (their partners, other family members, workmates, or friends). Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out on each outcome variable. The fixed-effects components included the Level 1 (individual) covariates of respondent age, gender, drinking status, and education level as well as the Level 2 (country level) covariates of percentage female drinkers and purchasing power parity. The random-effects components included country and current drinking status. Results: Respondents most frequently reported pressuring male friends to drink less (18%), followed by male family members (other than partners, 15%), partners (15%), work colleagues (12%), female friends (9%), female family members (other than partners, 6%), and children (5%). There was marked variation across countries, with pressuring frequently reported in Uganda, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua across most relationship types. Multivariable logistic regression revealed consistent effects of gender, with women more likely than men to report pressuring others to drink less across most relationship types. The patterns in relation to education status and age were less consistent and varied across relationship type. Conclusions: Informal social control of drinking varies dramatically according to whom is most likely to pressure whom to drink less as well as the country in which people live. PMID:24172112

  2. Comparison of Barium and Arsenic Concentrations in Well Drinking Water and in Human Body Samples and a Novel Remediation System for These Elements in Well Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masashi; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Furuta, Akio; Kato, Yoko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Kojima, Michiyo; Koike, Yasuko; Dinh Thang, Nguyen; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Ly, Thuy Bich; Jia, Xiaofang; Yetti, Husna; Naito, Hisao; Ichihara, Gaku; Yajima, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Health risk for well drinking water is a worldwide problem. Our recent studies showed increased toxicity by exposure to barium alone (?700 µg/L) and coexposure to barium (137 µg/L) and arsenic (225 µg/L). The present edition of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water revised in 2011 has maintained the values of arsenic (10 µg/L) and barium (700 µg/L), but not elements such as manganese, iron and zinc. Nevertheless, there have been very few studies on barium in drinking water and human samples. This study showed significant correlations between levels of arsenic and barium, but not its homologous elements (magnesium, calcium and strontium), in urine, toenail and hair samples obtained from residents of Jessore, Bangladesh. Significant correlation between levels of arsenic and barium in well drinking water and levels in human urine, toenail and hair samples were also observed. Based on these results, a high-performance and low-cost adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for barium and arsenic was developed. The adsorbent reduced levels of barium and arsenic from well water in Bangladesh and Vietnam to <7 µg/L within 1 min. Thus, we have showed levels of arsenic and barium in humans and propose a novel remediation system. PMID:23805262

  3. Regulatory Considerations to Ensure Clean and Safe Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal drinking water regulations are based on risk assessment of human health effects and research conducted on source water, treatment technologies, residuals, and distribution systems. The book chapter summarizes the role that EPA research plays in ensuring pure drinking wat...

  4. Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

  5. RESPONDING TO THREATS AND INCIDENTS OF INTENTIONAL DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    All drinking water systems have some degree of vulnerability to contamination, and analysis shows that it is possible to contaminate drinking water at levels causing varying degrees of harm. Furthermore, experience indicates that the threat of contamination, overt or circumstant...

  6. Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

  7. DRINKING WATER HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH AT EPA: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The Environmental Protection Agency is required under the Safe Drinking Water Act to promulgate National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for contaminants in public water systems when certain regulatory criteria are met. Once a contaminant is regu...

  8. How Can I Cut Back on My Drinking?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... tonic that is fairly dilute. And there’s a product available on the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse ... Alcoholism website called Rethinking Drinking, which is a product for people who want to drink but they ...

  9. Basic Information about Mercury (inorganic) in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2 ppb Health Effects Some people who drink water containing mercury well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience kidney damage. Drinking Water Health Advisories provide more information on health effects ...

  10. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. WickhamTimothy; Timothy G. Wade; Kurt H. Riitters

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking\\u000a water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds\\u000a using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States lies within\\u000a a drinking water watershed. The typical drinking water watershed had

  11. Who is drinking nitrate in their well water?

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.J.; Harding, A.K. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Public Health

    1996-10-01

    This study evaluated the health risks for a rural northeastern Oregon population which is exposed to high nitrate levels in well water. The study also identified possible sources of nitrate contamination, and investigated measures the resident had taken to reduce their nitrate exposure from well water. Three data sets were used in the study, including a telephone survey of the residents, existing information collected by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality about well water nitrate concentrations, and demographic information from census records. Results revealed that 23% of the surveyed population was drinking well water that contained nitrate in excess of the 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen maximum contaminant level adopted by the US Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Seventy-two percent of the households with nitrate levels exceeding the 10 ppm level did not use devices that effectively remove nitrates. The population included few women of childbearing age, and was generally older than other nearby urban or rural populations. Resident infants were not exposed to well water nitrate in excess of the 10 ppm level, and were therefore not at apparent risk for methemoglobinemia (blue-baby syndrome). Although the risk of infant methemoglobinemia was low in this area, it is recommended that alternative water sources be explored, and that follow-up monitoring be performed by state and/or local agencies.

  12. Relationships of both Heavy and Binge Alcohol Drinking with Unhealthy Habits in Korean Adults Based on the KNHANES IV Data

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Ha-Na; SONG, Sang-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background We conducted this cross-sectional study to examine the relationships between problematic alcohol drinking, unhealthy habits and socio-demographic factors based on the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). Methods We analyzed a total of 13,488 participants based on the data collected from the KNHANES IV performed between 2007 and 2009. Results The frequency of binge and heavy drinking was significantly higher in men and the married participants with intermediate income. The frequency of binge drinking was higher in younger adults and individuals with at least high school graduates. After the adjustment of socio-demographic factors, the odds of current smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 4.11, 95% CI 3.35-5.03), abdominal obesity (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.48), stress (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.261.68), and depressed mood (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.58) were greater in heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. The odds of current smoking (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.09 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 4.95, 95% CI 4.25-5.77 for frequent binge drinking), obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.41 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.46-1.85 for frequent binge drinking), and abdominal obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.36-1.77 for frequent binge drinking) were increased with the increased frequency of the binge drinking. Conclusions Our results would be of help for screening a specific subgroup of individuals who are vulnerable to alcohol drinking by establishing effective population-based strategies to reduce the problematic drinking.

  13. Factors Associated with Problem Drinking among Women Employed in Food and Recreational Facilities in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mongi, Aika S.; Baisley, Kathy; Ao, Trong Thanh-Hoang; Chilongani, Joseph; Aguirre-Andreasen, Aura; Francis, Suzanna C.; Shao, John; Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania. Methods We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18–44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs. Results Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ?1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR?=?1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10–2.23; AUDIT: aOR?=?2.00, 95% CI: 1.34–3.00) and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR?=?1.79, 95% CI: 1.26–2.56; AUDIT: aOR?=?1.51, 95% CI: 1.04–2.18), in the past 3 months. Conclusion These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high-risk sexual behaviors and contribute in lowering the risk of HIV infection. PMID:24391956

  14. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

  15. CHLORINE DIOXIDE FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to comply with the trihalomethane regulation, many drinking water utilities have had to alter their treatment methods. ne option available to these utilities is to use a disinfectant other than chlorine such as chlorine dioxide. ith chlorine dioxide disinfection, trihalo...

  16. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

  17. REMOVAL OF ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic contamination of drinking water is basically caused by two general classes of organics; man-made synthetic organics and disinfection of naturally occurring organics (disinfection by-products). Many volatile and non-volatile synthetic organics at trace concentrations are b...

  18. DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CHLORAMINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Critical to establishing a regulatory strategy for drinking water is identifying those contaminants which pose the greatest risk to human health and consequently, what treatments could be developed to address those risks and at what cost. The National Center for Environmental Ass...

  19. Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-¿g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  20. Levels of exposure from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M van Dijk-Looijaard; J van Genderen

    2000-01-01

    The relative exposure from drinking water is generally small, although there is a lack of information on total daily intake of individual organic micropollutants. There are, however, a few exceptions. Materials used in domestic distribution systems (lead, copper and plastics) may cause a deterioration of the water quality, especially in stagnant water. The relative exposure to the related compounds may

  1. Safer sips: removing arsenic from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Breslin, K

    1998-11-01

    U.S. researchers are developing technologies that may someday protect millions of people worldwide whose drinking water is tainted with arsenic. Arsenic is released into water from soil and rock erosion, and is also a by-product of industrial processes including semiconductor manufacturing, petroleum refining, and mining and smelting operations. PMID:9799197

  2. COST AND BENEFITS OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article develops a framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of environmental control and preventive public health practices and asks the policy question: How do the authors achieve the best mix of protection against infectious disease and toxic chemicals in drinking wa...

  3. REMOVAL OF ALACHLOR FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alachlor (Lasso) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in the production of corn and soybeans. U.S. EPA has studied control of alachlor in drinking water treatment processes to define treatability before setting maximum contaminant levels and to assist water utilities in selecting con...

  4. Uses of ozone in drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rip G. Rice; C. Michael Robson; G. Wade Miller; Archibald G. Hill

    1981-01-01

    Ozone has been used continuously for the treatment of drinking water since 1906, when it was first installed in the city of Nice, France, for disinfection purposes. Although many water treatment plants throughout the world still utilize ozone primarily for disinfection, most modern plants rely on ozone to perform one or more oxidation functions. Applications for ozonation now include oxidation

  5. Biofilm accumulation in drinking water distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Block; K. Haudidier; J. L. Paquin; J. Miazga; Y. Levi

    1993-01-01

    In order to classify the relative importance of the parameters governing the accumulation of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems, a study has been carried out, using an industrial pilot plant fed with finished waters, with three main objectives, viz. (i) determination of biofilm density on pipe surfaces (PVC or cement lined cast iron) as a function of the distance

  6. FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    1 FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food Home made hot food may not be served at events conditions must be adhered to: · The caterer must have HSE Food Hygiene Certification, which is to be approved by the College Catering Manager two weeks in advance of any event. · The provider of the food

  7. Treatment Strategies for Lead in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead pipes are capable of lasting hundreds of years. Conservatively, there are over 12 million, still serving drinking water in the US. Probably, this is a substantial underestimate. Leaded solder joining copper pipe abounds. Leaded brasses have dominated the materials used for...

  8. UPTAKE OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gastrointestinal absorption (G.I.) of uranium in man from drinking water was determined by measuring urinary and fecal excretion of 234U and 238U in eight subjects. In order to establish their normal backgrounds of uranium intake and excretion, the subjects collected 24 hour ...

  9. Alcohol Drinking Onset: A Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prause, JoAnn; Dooley, David; Ham-Rowbottom, Kathleen A.; Emptage, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Early alcohol drinking onset (ADO) is associated with adult alcohol misuse, but the accuracy of ADO is unclear. Reliability of self-reported ADO was studied in two panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. For the Adult sample (n = 6,215), the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.36. Older respondents had higher reliabilities…

  10. Drinking Well in a BEN Village

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A well, typical of those found in both Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) villages and non-BEN villages in the affected countries. Wells and springs are the primary drinking water supplies for these rural villages. In the BEN areas, these shallow wells are fed by groundwater that leaches nearby immatu...

  11. Removal of radium from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauch

    1992-01-01

    The report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water. Calcium cation exchange removes radium and can be used when hardness removal is not

  12. Drinking water quality and chronic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest Angino; Bobby G. Wixson; Ivan Smith

    1977-01-01

    A series of drinking water samples from several major U.S. cities was analyzed last year and found to contain possible disease-causing agents. With the discovery of these potentially dangerous substances came the question of the relationship between many chronic diseases and the chemical composition of treated water. This question was discussed at a workshop held under the auspices of the

  13. Renal Effects of Uranium in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Päivi Kurttio; Anssi Auvinen; Laina Salonen; Heikki Saha; Juha Pekkanen; Ilona Mäkeläinen; Sari B. Väisänen; Ilkka M. Penttilä; Hannu Komulainen

    2002-01-01

    statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albu- min, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects.

  14. MEMBRANES FOR REMOVING ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Membranes have historically been used to remove salts and other inorganic compounds from water but recently both bench-scale and field studies have shown their effectiveness for removing organic compounds from drinking water. wo different membrane types have been evaluated by the...

  15. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article?s organization matches that of M53, as follows: ? wate...

  16. DETERIORATION OF DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A frequently overlooked fact, but one that is becoming of increasing concern, is the effect that the drinking water delivery system can have on the quality of water received at the tap. Deterioration of aging water supply systems can result in pipeline failures, pressure losses, ...

  17. 'The English Drink a Lot of Tea!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, Stretton

    1981-01-01

    Presents statistics on the most commonly held stereotypes in Germany of Britain and the British including drinking a lot of tea, eating bacon and eggs for breakfast, consumption of whiskey and beer, and the occurrence of fog in England. Suggests these stereotypes were developed in the early 1950s and are not as prevalent today. (BK)

  18. Food, Drink and Tobacco Industry Training Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Training International, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Developments in three major directions are a result of the British Food, Drink, and Tobacco Industry Training Board's activities. In efforts to help all their companies, they have encouraged a systematic approach to training. An advisory service was designed to help use this approach and provide specialist guidance with dominant problems. (DS)

  19. Common Ground on Curbing Campus Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carothers, Robert L.; Wood, Mark D.; Cohen, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the University of Rhode Island (URI) had a reputation as the number one party school in America, and data showed that the number of URI students engaging in binge drinking was significantly higher than the national average. In order to salvage its reputation and the health of its students, administrators undertook a campus…

  20. Research of Drinking Water Disinfection Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongwei Hu; Penghui Shi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanism of chlorine disinfection, chlorine dioxide disinfection, ozone disinfection, ultraviolet disinfection and membrane process disinfection technology are analyzed in detail. And the production of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of these disinfection technologies are compared. At last, what do the researchers should do on drinking water disinfection technology is put forward.

  1. REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

  2. Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

  3. Accommodation & Alcohol and Responsible Drinking Policy

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Mark

    Accommodation & Campus Services. Alcohol and Responsible Drinking Policy The University and secure environment where Customers can meet, socialise and enjoy alcohol in a responsible manner and has is to include the monitoring of excessive consumption of alcohol and how to deal with it. · All staff

  4. DEFLUORIDATION OF DRINKING WATER IN SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the results of a study of defluoridation of drinking water in small communities using either central or point-of-use treatment. The ten sites used for project data collection had natural fluoride in their groundwater supplies in excess of the Maximum Contamin...

  5. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEM PEER REVIEW PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United South and Eastern Tribes, Inc., which is made up of twenty-four (24) tribes, ranging in location, geographically, from Maine to Texas, AND three (3) states, Mississippi, Kentucky, and Georgia, participated in a program, "The Small Drinking Water System Peer Review Prog...

  6. The drinking partnership and marital satisfaction: The longitudinal influence of discrepant drinking

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether discrepancies between husbands’ and wives’ past year heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time. Participants were recruited at the time they applied for their marriage licenses (N= 634). Couples completed questionnaires about their alcohol use and marital satisfaction at the time of marriage, and again at their first and second anniversaries. Generalized estimating equation models were used to evaluate the association between discrepancies in husbands’ and wives’ heavy drinking in the year prior to marriage and marital satisfaction at the first wedding anniversary and the association between discrepancies in heavy alcohol use in the first year of marriage and marital satisfaction at the second wedding anniversary. In these prospective time-lagged analyses, discrepancies in husbands’ and wives’ heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time while controlling for heavy drinking. Over time, these couples may be at greater risk for decreased marital functioning that may lead to relationship dissolution. PMID:17295562

  7. Two pathways out of drinking problems without professional treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Humphreys; Rudolf H. Moos; John W. Finney

    1995-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study examined two recovery pathways among 135 problem drinking individuals who never received professional treatment. Almost half (48.3%) of those individuals for whom outcome could be clearly determined became moderate drinkers or stably abstinent. At baseline, individuals who subsequently became abstinent (n = 28) were of low socioeconomic status, had severe drinking problems, and believed their drinking

  8. Drinking Age Laws and Highway Mortality Rates: Cause and Effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Saffer; Michael Grossman

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the effects of the drinking age and beer taxes on youth motor vehicle mortality. A simultaneous equation model is used and the resu lts show that the drinking age is a function of mortality rates. The results also show that for eighteen to twenty year-old drivers, an in crease in the drinking age to twenty-one,

  9. Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Community Risk Assessment Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Although the facts about underage drinking are widely known, the issues that surround this problem vary from one community to the next. Such issues include where and how underage drinking shows itself, how it is viewed by the community, and what residents think is a reasonable way to address underage drinking in their community. This guide is…

  10. Motives for not drinking alcohol among Australian adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner G. K. Stritzke; Julia C. M. Butt

    2001-01-01

    Why people drink has been the subject of much research, however, why people do not drink has been largely neglected. The aim of the present study was to develop a Motives for Abstaining from Alcohol Questionnaire (MAAQ) based on Cox and Klinger's [Journal of Abnormal Psychology 97 (1988) 168; Why people drink (1990) 291] motivational model of alcohol use to

  11. Behavior of organic polymers in drinking water purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiunn-Fwu Lee; Pao-Mei Liao; Dyi-Hwa seng; Pi-Tsui Wen

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic organic polymers used to purify drinking water are severely limited in that their impurities and by-products harm human health. In this study, the undesired effects resulted from chlorination and the enhanced attenuation of toxic organic compounds in drinking water from using synthetic organic polymer cogulants were investigated.In the simulated drinking water purification processes, synthetic organic polymers were used as

  12. Binge Drinking Today: Learning Lessons from the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Rachel; Berridge, Virginia; Thom, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    Binge drinking is a matter of current social, media and political concern. Within the current debates binge drinking is sometimes portrayed as a recent phenomenon, but in fact it has a history and concern about binge drinking is not new. This paper sets the phenomenon in its historical context by examining how the nature and definition of binge…

  13. Drinking and Driving: Alcohol Association with Traffic Accidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Barrie G.

    1985-01-01

    Presents an analysis of drink-driving research methods and findings with reference to traffic accidents. Challenges some conclusions about drinking and driving in Australia and New Zealand. Evaluates the growing acceptance of Scandinavian-type laws. Rejects the demand to "criminalize" drink-driving offenses. Presents the reduction of death as the…

  14. Parental Problem-Drinking and Adult Children's Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.

    2008-01-01

    Current estimates of the societal costs of alcoholism do not consider the impact of parental drinking on children. This paper analyzes the consequences of parental problem-drinking on children's labor market outcomes in adulthood. Using the NLSY79, I show that having a problem-drinking parent is associated with longer periods out of the labor…

  15. Effect of Depression on Risky Drinking and Response to a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Intervention.

    PubMed

    Montag, Annika C; Brodine, Stephanie K; Alcaraz, John E; Clapp, John D; Allison, Matthew A; Calac, Dan J; Hull, Andrew D; Gorman, Jessica R; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Chambers, Christina D

    2015-08-01

    We assessed alcohol consumption and depression in 234 American Indian/Alaska Native women (aged 18-45 years) in Southern California. Women were randomized to intervention or assessment alone and followed for 6 months (2011-2013). Depression was associated with risk factors for alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP). Both treatment groups reduced drinking (P?reduced drinking in response to SBIRT above the reduction in response to assessment alone. Screening for depression may assist in allocating women to specific AEP prevention interventions. PMID:26066915

  16. Implementation of new water quality model into EPANET in hopes of reducing

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    Implementation of new water quality model into EPANET in hopes of reducing Arizona Public Drinking to pollute the public drinking water supply. Using current water quality prediction models programs are based on a modeling software called EPANET whose water quality model hasn't been updated

  17. Determinants of binge drinking in a permissive environment: focus group interviews with Dutch adolescents and parents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compared to other European countries, the Netherlands score among the highest of binge drinking rates of 16 to 18 year old adolescents. Dutch adolescents aged 16 are legally allowed to buy and consume low strength alcoholic beverages. This study focused on determinants of binge drinking in such a permissive environment from the perspectives of adolescents and parents. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 16 to 18 (N?=?83), and parents of adolescents from this age group (N?=?24). Data was analysed using thematic analyses methods. Results Most reasons adolescents mentioned for drinking were to relax, increase a good mood and to be social. Also peers around them influenced and increased adolescents’ drinking. Comparing adolescents and parental statements about their perspectives how alcohol use is handled and accepted by the parents we found that generally, those perspectives match. Parents as well as adolescents stated that alcohol use is accepted by parents. However, when looking at essential details, like the acceptable amounts that children may consume, the perspectives differ enormously. Adolescents think their parents accept any amount of drinking as long as they do not get drunk, whereas parents reported acceptable limits of 1 or 2 glasses every two weeks. Parents further indicated that they felt unsupported by the Dutch policies and regulations of alcohol use. Most of them were in favour of an increase of the legal purchasing age to 18 years. Conclusions Parents and adolescents should both be targeted in interventions to reduce alcohol use among adolescents. In particular, communication between parents and children should be improved, in order to avoid misconceptions about acceptable alcohol use. Further, adolescents should be supported to handle difficult social situations with peers where they feel obliged to drink. Additionally, revisions of policies towards a less permissive standpoint are advised to support parents and to impede availability of alcoholic beverages for adolescents/children younger than 18 years. PMID:24063544

  18. Effects of a parental program for preventing underage drinking - The NGO program strong and clear

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study is an evaluation of a 3-year parental program aiming to prevent underage drinking. The intervention was implemented by a non-governmental organization and targeted parents with children aged 13-16 years old and included recurrent activities during the entire period of secondary school. The program consisted of four different types of group and self-administered activities: parent meetings, family dialogues, friend meetings, and family meetings. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used following parents and children with questionnaires during the three years of secondary school. The analytic sample consisted of 509 dyads of parents and children. Measures of parental attitudes and behaviour concerning underage drinking and adolescents' lifetime alcohol consumption and drunkenness were used. Three socio-demographic factors were included: parental education, school, and gender of the child. A Latent Growth Modelling (LGM) approach was used to examine changes in parental behaviour regarding youth drinking and in young people's drinking behaviour. To test for the pre-post test differences in parental attitudes repeated measures ANOVA were used. Results The results showed that parents in the program maintained their restrictive attitude toward underage drinking to a higher degree than non-participating parents. Adolescents of participants were on average one year older than adolescents with non-participating parents when they made their alcohol debut. They were also less likely to have ever been drunk in school year 9. Conclusion The results of the study suggested that Strong and Clear contributed to maintaining parents' restrictive attitude toward underage drinking during secondary school, postponing alcohol debut among the adolescents, and significantly reducing their drunkenness. PMID:21510858

  19. The Effect of Internal Possession Laws on Underage Drinking Among High School Students: A 12-State Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Disney, Lynn D.; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effect of internal possession (IP) laws, which allow law enforcement to charge underage drinkers with alcohol possession if they have ingested alcohol, on underage drinking behaviors. Methods. We examined Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data from 12 states with IP laws and with YRBS data before and after each law’s implementation. We used logistic regression models with fixed effects for state to assess the effects of IP laws on drinking and binge drinking among high school students. Results. Implementation of IP laws is associated with reductions in the odds of past-month drinking. This reduction was bigger among male than among female adolescents (27% vs 15%) and only significant among younger students aged 14 and 15 years (15% and 11%, respectively). Male adolescents also reported a significant reduction (24%) in the odds of past-month binge drinking under IP laws. Conclusions. These findings suggest that IP laws are effective in reducing underage drinking, particularly among younger adolescents. PMID:23597385

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Naltrexone and Behavioral Therapy for Problem Drinking Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A.; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study tested the comparative effectiveness of Modified Behavioral Self-Control Therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the two, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce, but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N=200) were recruited and urn randomized to one of two medication conditions, NTX or placebo (PBO) and either MSBCT or no behavioral intervention, yielding four conditions: PBO, NTX, MSBCT, and NTX+MSBCT. In addition, all participants received a brief medication compliance intervention. Participants were treated for 12 weeks and assessed one week after treatment completion. Two primary outcomes - sum of standard drinks and number of heavy drinking days - and one secondary outcome - percentage of those drinking in a non-hazardous manner (NoH) - were selected a-priori. Results: There was a significant main effect for MBSCT (all ps < .01), but not NTX on all three outcomes. In addition, the combination of NTX and MBSCT was not more effective than either MSCBT or PBO. There was a significant interaction effect on NoH, such that NTX significantly increased the likelihood (OR = 3.3) of achieving a non-hazardous drinking outcome relative to PBO. In addition, NTX was significantly more effective than PBO on a descriptive outcome: negative consequences of drinking. Conclusions There was no advantage to adding NTX to MBSCT. In addition, MBSCT showed stronger evidence of efficacy than NTX. At the same time, NTX delivered in the context of a minimal medication compliance intervention was significantly more effective than PBO on an important clinical indicator. Results provide new information to guide the treatment of problem drinking, including in primary care settings. PMID:22612306

  1. Efficacy of a multi micronutrient-fortified drink in improving iron and micronutrient status among schoolchildren with low iron stores in India: A randomised, double-masked placebo-controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiple micronutrient-fortified drink could be an effective strategy to combating micronutrient deficiencies in school-going children. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of a multiple micronutrient-fortified drink in reducing iron deficiency (ID), ID anemia (IDA), anemia and improving micro...

  2. Alcoholics Anonymous and Reduced Impulsivity: A Novel Mechanism of Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Blonigen; Christine Timko; Rudolf H. Moos

    2013-01-01

    Reduced impulsivity is a novel, yet plausible, mechanism of change associated with the salutary effects of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Here, we review our work on links between AA attendance and reduced impulsivity using a 16-year prospective study of men and women with alcohol use disorders (AUD) who were initially untreated for their drinking problems. Across the study period, there were

  3. Alcohol Preference Drinking in a Mouse Line Selectively Bred for High Drinking in the Dark

    PubMed Central

    Crabbe, John C.; Spence, Stephanie E.; Brown, Lauren L.; Metten, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    We have selectively bred mice that reach very high blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) after drinking from a single bottle of 20% ethanol. High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1) mice drink nearly 6 g/kg ethanol in 4 hr and reach average BECs of more than 1.0 mg/ml. Previous studies suggest that DID and two-bottle preference for 10% ethanol with continuous access are influenced by many of the same genes. We therefore asked whether HDID-1 mice would differ from the HS/Npt control stock on two-bottle preference drinking. We serially offered mice access to 3 – 40% ethanol in tap water vs tap water. For ethanol concentrations between 3 and 20%, HDID-1 and HS/Npt controls did not differ in two-bottle preference drinking. At the highest concentrations, the HS/Npt mice drank more than the HDID-1 mice. We also tested the same mice for preference for two concentrations each of quinine, sucrose, and saccharin. Curiously, the mice showed preference ratios (volume of tastant / total fluid drunk) of about 50% for all tastants and concentrations. Thus, neither genotype showed either preference or avoidance for any tastant after high ethanol concentrations. Therefore, we compared naive groups of HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice for tastant preference. Results from this test showed that ethanol-naive mice preferred sweet fluids and avoided quinine but the genotypes did not differ. Finally, we tested HDID-1 and HS mice for an extended period for preference for 15% ethanol vs water during a 2 hr access period in the dark. After several weeks, HDID-1 mice consumed significantly more than HS. We conclude that Drinking in the Dark shows some genetic overlap with other tests of preference drinking, but that the degree of genetic commonality depends upon the model used. PMID:21194877

  4. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods. PMID:25010189

  5. Examination of a three-dimensional drinking motives questionnaire in a young adult university student sample.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S H; Zeitlin, S B; Samoluk, S B

    1996-01-01

    The literature on drinking motives suggests that individuals drink for three distinct reasons: coping motives (CM: to reduce and/or avoid negative emotional states); social motives (SM: to affiliate with others); and enhancement motives (EM: to facilitate positive emotions). Cooper, Russell, Skinner and Windle (1992) [Psychological Assessment, 4, 123-132] developed a 3-dimensional self-report instrument, the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ), with subscales designed to assess relative frequency of drinking for each of these three motives. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of the DMQ in a large sample of young adult university students. Three hundred and fourteen students voluntarily served as subjects; 266 students (85% of the total sample; 196F and 70M) reported drinking on the DMQ. These students were divided into two age groups [20 yr and under (n = 117); 21 yr and older (n = 149)]. Analyses of variance indicated: (a) main effects of gender, with men scoring significantly higher on the DMQ-EM subscale and tending to score higher on the DMQ-SM subscale when compared to women; (b) a main effect of age group on the DMQ-EM subscale, with younger students scoring significantly higher than older students; and (c) a significant main effect of drinking motive, with the most relatively frequent drinking reported for SM and the least for CM overall. Although mild-to-moderate shared variance between subscales was noted, the three subscales of the DMQ were found to possess adequate-to-high levels of internal consistency. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that the hypothesized 3-factor model provided a better fit than either a unidimensional or 2-factor model in explaining the underlying structure of the DMQ. Some suggestions for improvements in DMQ item content are made. The present results replicate and extend previous findings by Cooper and colleagues to a sample of university students, and support the utility of using the DMQ in future investigations of the drinking motives of young adults. PMID:8561766

  6. Self-control as a moderator of the relationship between drinking identity and alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Barnighausen, Till W.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated self-control in the relationship between drinking identity and drinking. We expected those higher in drinking identity would drink more than those lower in drinking identity, particularly if low in self-control. Data were collected in 2012 via an online survey (N = 690 undergraduates, M age = 22.87, SD = 5.37, 82.50% female) at an urban university. An interaction emerged between self-control and drinking identity; self-control was negatively associated with drinking among individuals low in drinking identity, but positively associated with drinking among those high in drinking identity. Implications and future directions are discussed. This research was unfunded. PMID:24730565

  7. Sigma-1 receptor mediates acquisition of alcohol drinking and seeking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R; Rice, Kenner C; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-07-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists on the other hand block excessive drinking in genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1R in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had instead no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction. PMID:25848705

  8. Clinical Protocols to Reduce High Risk Drinking in College Students: The College Drinking Prevention Curriculum for Health Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this curriculum is to help all health care professionals -- physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, social workers, health educators, counselors, psychologists, and others who work with college students -- identify and treat students who are at-risk or are having alcohol-related problems. The clinical methods…

  9. Go out or stay in? The effects of zero tolerance laws on alcohol use and drinking and driving patterns among college students.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lan; Huang, Jidong

    2008-11-01

    Zero tolerance laws make it illegal per se for anyone under age 21 to drive with any measurable amount of blood alcohol. Although a link has been established between zero tolerance laws and lower motor vehicle fatalities, research has not produced strong evidence on how zero tolerance laws influence individual alcohol use and drinking and driving behaviors. Using a unique data set and a difference-in-difference-in-difference-type research design, we are able to analyze a number of pathways through which zero tolerance laws can work among an important underage population, college students. We find that zero tolerance laws reduce drinking and driving among college students. Further analysis of our detailed alcohol use measures suggests that zero tolerance laws are particularly effective at reducing the probability of driving after drinking for those who reported drinking away from home. PMID:18219708

  10. Problematic use of energy drinks by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kaminer, Yifrah

    2010-07-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are caffeine-based beverages that commonly contain large doses of sugar, carbohydrates, and a variety of legal stimulants and supplements, such as guarana, taurine, ginseng, and vitamin B complex. These drinks are marketed for young people as natural alternatives that increase fun and improve physical and cognitive performance such as concentration, attention, and alertness. There are commonly held false perceptions that the consumption of EDs can reverse alcohol-related impairment, including motor coordination and visual reaction time, which are crucial for driving safety. This article reviews the literature on EDs and examines problematic use and potential negative consequences in young people. Special emphasis is devoted to safety concerns following combination of EDs with alcohol, which gives the user a false sense of control. PMID:20682226

  11. Drinking water health advisory for boron

    SciTech Connect

    Cantilli, R.

    1991-04-01

    The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

  12. Decision support system for drinking water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, M.

    2012-04-01

    The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the acquisition of information to support the water management's decisions is simplified and faster, thus contributing to more efficient water management and a safer supply of drinking water.

  13. Mycobacterium xenopi and Drinking Water Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Dailloux, M.; Albert, M.; Laurain, C.; Andolfatto, S.; Lozniewski, A.; Hartemann, P.; Mathieu, L.

    2003-01-01

    The ability of Mycobacterium xenopi to colonize an experimental drinking water distribution system (a Propella reactor) was investigated. M. xenopi was present in the biofilm within an hour following its introduction. After 9 weeks, it was always present in the outlet water (1 to 10 CFU 100 ml?1) and inside the biofilm (102 to 103 CFU cm?2). Biofilms may be considered reservoirs for the survival of M. xenopi. PMID:14602661

  14. Application of membrane technology for drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wentie Ma; Zhicai Sun; Zhongxiang Wang; Yu Bi Feng; Tong Chun Wang; Chan Hong Miu; Shucai Zhu

    1998-01-01

    In order to provide high-quality drinking water to the residents, Daqing City started the High-Quality Water Supply Project in 1994. In the first phase, seven polishing water treatment systems consisting of preozonation, microfiltration (MF), activated carbon (AC) adsorption, ultrafiltration (UF) or reverse osmosis (RO) and postozonation were installed in various residential districts. The existing low-quality tap water is used as

  15. Face burns caused by flambé drinks.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Chul; Kim, Young Joon; Lee, Jong Wook; Oh, Suk Joon; Han, Kyung Woo; Lee, Jung Wook; Han, Tae Hyung

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the epidemiology of face burns in Korean adults caused by flambé drinks in the hope of developing preventive programs. We reviewed the medical records of 25 patients with burns caused by flame drinks that were admitted to the Hallym Burn Centre, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea, during the 30-month period of July 2002 to December 2004. The injuries occurred while drinking and spilling the whisky on the flame (68%) during the hours of social gathering and festivity. There were more men than women (male:female ratio=21:4); the mean age was 27.5+/-5.7 years (mean 27, range 21-43 years). Alcohol flames inflicted superficial (56%) to mid-second-degree burns in a relatively small area of body (TBSA 3.2+/-3.0%). The head was most commonly involved, followed by the upper extremity and trunk. All patients except two were treated with observation and daily dressing changes only. The mean length of hospital stay was 12.1+/-6.5 (10, 5-25) days. Long-term cosmetic outcomes were excellent. Some victims suffered mild corneal (n=4) and ear (n=6) burns, without permanent sequelae. Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression also were reported. Burn injuries induced by flambé drinks may be prevented by increasing public awareness about its danger and the potential risk for corneal and facial burns and by implementing a safety policy. All the involved parties--public, distillers, and bar and restaurant management--need to coordinate their efforts achieve a reduction in injuries. PMID:16566542

  16. Drinking water consumption patterns in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Westrell, Therese; Andersson, Yvonne; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2006-12-01

    Estimates on drinking water consumption are necessary in risk assessments on microbial hazards in drinking water. Large differences in consumption habits between countries have been reported. In order to establish estimates for the Swedish population, water consumption data from a waterborne outbreak investigation (157 people), a small water consumption study (75 people) and a large study on health and environmental factors (10,957 people) were analysed. A lognormal distribution for the daily direct/cold water intake in litres with mu = - 0.299 and sigma = 0.570 was fitted to the quantitative data, representing the general population. The average daily consumption of tap water as plain drinking water and as heated tap water, e.g. in coffee and tea, was 0.86 +/- 0.48 l and 0.94 +/- 0.69 l, respectively. Women consumed more cold tap water than did men, while men appeared to have a higher consumption of heated tap water. Cold tap water intake was highest in the oldest age group, (> or =70 years). The consumption of bottled water was very low (mean 0.06 l/d) when compared to other countries. PMID:17176821

  17. Soft drinks and in vitro dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Brent L; Hagen Ii, Ted W; Mayhew, Susan L; Crumpton, Brooks; Sanders, Tyler; Horne, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent the in vitro exposure of healthy teeth to various commonly consumed carbonated soft drinks may precipitate dental erosion. Forty-two healthy, extracted, previously unerupted human molars were weighed prior to, during, and after suspension in various sugared and diet or zero-calorie carbonated beverages for 20 days; the specimens were stored at room temperature while being stirred at 275 rpm. The percentage decrease in tooth weight from before to after exposure represented the weight loss due to enamel erosion; values in the experimental groups varied from 3.22% to 44.52% after 20 days' exposure. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe testing at a level of ? = 0.05. Nonsugared drinks (diet and zero-calorie) as a whole were more erosive than sugared beverages. A significant positive correlation was found between the amount of titratable acid and percentage of tooth erosion, while a significant negative correlation was revealed between the beverage pH and percentage of tooth erosion. No significant correlations were found between calcium or phosphate ion concentrations and the amount of erosion. It appears that enamel erosion is dependent on not only the beverage flow rate, pH, and amount of titratable acid, but also whether the soft drink is of the diet or zero-calorie variety, which reflects the type of artificial sweetener present. PMID:26147165

  18. Flower drinking and masculinity in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Olwen; Hwang, Shu-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the role of the hostess club culture in the creation and maintenance of masculinity in Taiwan. The article focuses on flower drinking (the consumption of alcohol in bars, often integrated with prostitution), which is a common practice in Taiwan. Data were obtained from 58 in-depth interviews with men from a variety of occupations and social backgrounds (mean age = 38.50, SD = 11.00) and 73 questionnaires administered to soldiers (mean age = 21.00, SD = 1.10). Findings indicated that demonstration of skill at flower drinking and facility with the related social etiquette are important channels for male bonding that were central to the mid- to upper-class participants' professional development. Flower drinking also provided a method of discriminating men from other men through their choices of why and where to go and how to behave while there. Specific ways that Taiwanese masculinity differs from Western and from Japanese masculinity, and support for the continuing relevance of the traditional Confucian ideal of masculinity, wen-wu, are discussed. PMID:19763998

  19. The neurometabolic fingerprint of excessive alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Sévin, Daniel C; Klee, Manuela L; Dieter, Sandra; Sauer, Uwe; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2015-04-01

    'Omics' techniques are widely used to identify novel mechanisms underlying brain function and pathology. Here we applied a novel metabolomics approach to further ascertain the role of frontostriatal brain regions for the expression of addiction-like behaviors in rat models of alcoholism. Rats were made alcohol dependent via chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Following a 3-week abstinence period, rats had continuous access to alcohol in a two-bottle, free-choice paradigm for 7 weeks. Nontargeted flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to assess global metabolic profiles of two cortical (prelimbic and infralimbic) and two striatal (accumbens core and shell) brain regions. Alcohol consumption produces pronounced global effects on neurometabolomic profiles leading to a clear separation of metabolic phenotypes between treatment groups, particularly. Further comparisons of regional tissue levels of various metabolites, most notably dopamine and Met-enkephalin, allow the extrapolation of alcohol consumption history. Finally, a high-drinking metabolic fingerprint was identified indicating a distinct alteration of central energy metabolism in the accumbens shell of excessively drinking rats that could indicate a so far unrecognized pathophysiological mechanism in alcohol addiction. In conclusion, global metabolic profiling from distinct brain regions by mass spectrometry identifies profiles reflective of an animal's drinking history and provides a versatile tool to further investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in alcohol dependence. PMID:25418809

  20. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  1. Molecular weight distribution for NOM in different drinking water treatment processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong An; Jia-xiu Song; Wei Gao; Guo-guang Chen; Nai-yun Gao

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to analyze molecular weight (MW) distribution in different drinking water treatment processes, and to find out the relationship between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and disinfection by-products formation potential (DBPFP) in treated water. The results showed that in conventional water treatment, compared with similar methods, namely chlorination (Cl2) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4), pre-ozonation can reduce

  2. Pt-Cu \\/ ZSM-5 for removal of nitrates from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Pfaff; Luis Melo; Paulino Betancourt

    2002-01-01

    Removal of nitrates from drinking water by catalytic hydrogenation over ZSM-5 supported Pt-Cu catalysts was studied. Bimetallics Pt-Cu were prepared by ion exchange of copper on a parent monometallic platinum catalyst. Monometallic platinum catalysts are inactive for nitrate reduction, while Pt-Cu bimetallic catalysts are active for nitrate removal. In the bimetallic catalyst, the role of copper is probably to reduce

  3. Combined electrocoagulation and electroflotation for removal of fluoride from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qianhai Zuo; Xueming Chen; Wei Li; Guohua Chen

    2008-01-01

    A combined electrocoagulation (EC) and electroflotation (EF) process was proposed to remove fluoride from drinking water. Its efficacy was investigated under different conditions. Experimental results showed that the combined process could remove fluoride effectively. The total hydraulic retention time required was only 30min. After treatment, the fluoride concentration was reduced from initial 4.0–6.0mg\\/L to lower than 1.0mg\\/L. The influent pH

  4. Sweetened Drink and Snacking Cues in Adolescents: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Grenard, Jerry L.; Stacy, Alan W.; Shiffman, Saul; Baraldi, Amanda N.; MacKinnon, David P.; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L.; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7 days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits. PMID:23583312

  5. Factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers among men in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use in commercial sex is highly prevalent globally and alcohol use in conjunction with sexual activity might increase the probability of risky behaviors, and. In the current study, we explored individual and contextual factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers (FSWs) among 560 male clients in Sichuan province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sichuan province, China. Over one-fifth (21.1%) of the participants reported always using alcohol before having sex with FSWs. As compared to those who reported not always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs, male clients who reported always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs had higher income, were more likely to have main sex partners, to drink alcohol daily, to report minor depressive symptoms and were more likely to visit FSWs with friends rather than by themselves. Results from this study highlight the importance of addressing alcohol use among men who pay for sex in China. Future interventions should promote alcohol-related norms in reducing the harms associated with consuming alcohol. PMID:22806054

  6. Modelling the Health Impact of an English Sugary Drinks Duty at National and Local Levels

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Brendan; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin; Timpson, Hannah; Razzaq, Abdul; Cheater, Sylvia; Ireland, Robin; Bromley, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence associates excess refined sugar intakes with obesity, Type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Worryingly, the estimated volume of sugary drinks purchased in the UK has more than doubled between 1975 and 2007, from 510ml to 1140ml per person per week. We aimed to estimate the potential impact of a duty on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) at a local level in England, hypothesising that a duty could reduce obesity and related diseases. Methods and Findings We modelled the potential impact of a 20% sugary drinks duty on local authorities in England between 2010 and 2030. We synthesised data obtained from the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS), drinks manufacturers, Office for National Statistics, and from previous studies. This produced a modelled population of 41 million adults in 326 lower tier local authorities in England. This analysis suggests that a 20% SSB duty could result in approximately 2,400 fewer diabetes cases, 1,700 fewer stroke and coronary heart disease cases, 400 fewer cancer cases, and gain some 41,000 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) per year across England. The duty might have the biggest impact in urban areas with young populations. Conclusions This study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting health benefits for a duty on sugary drinks. It might also usefully provide results at an area level to inform local price interventions in England. PMID:26121677

  7. Energy drinks: a review of use and safety for athletes.

    PubMed

    Duchan, Erin; Patel, Neil D; Feucht, Cynthia

    2010-06-01

    Energy drinks have increased in popularity in adolescents and young adults; however, concerns have been raised regarding the ingredients in energy drinks and their potential negative effects on health. Caffeine, the most physiologically active ingredient in energy drinks, is generally considered safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), although adverse effects can occur at varying amounts. Guarana, which contains caffeine in addition to small amounts of theobromine, theophylline, and tannins, is also recognized as safe by the FDA, although it may lead to caffeine toxicity when combined with caffeine. The amount of ginseng in energy drinks is typically far below the amount used as a dietary supplement, and is generally considered safe. Taurine, an intracellular amino acid, has been reported to have positive inotropic effects; however, this claim is not supported by research. Most energy drinks also contain sugar in an amount that exceeds the maximum recommended daily amount. Young athletes are increasingly using energy drinks because of the ergogenic effects of caffeine and the other ingredients found in these beverages. Energy drinks combined with alcohol are also gaining popularity in young adults, which poses significant concerns about health risks. Other health concerns related to consumption of energy drinks include case reports of seizures and cardiac arrest following energy drink consumption and dental enamel erosion resulting from the acidity of energy drinks. PMID:20631477

  8. Drinking games as a venue for sexual competition.

    PubMed

    Hone, Liana S E; Carter, Evan C; McCullough, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Based on sexual selection theory, we hypothesized that sex differences in mating effort and social competitiveness-and subsequent sex differences in sexual and competitive motivations for participating in drinking games-are responsible for the well-documented sex differences in college students' drinking game behaviors. Participants in a cross-sectional study were 351 women and 336 men aged 17 to 26. In a mediation model, we tested sex differences in mating effort, social competitiveness, sexual and competitive motivations for participating in drinking games, drinking game behaviors, and alcohol-related problems. Men participated in drinking games more frequently, consumed more alcohol while participating in drinking games, and experienced more problems associated with drinking. These sex differences appeared to be partially mediated by mating effort, social competitiveness, and sexual and competitive motivations for participating in drinking games. Drinking games are a major venue in which college students engage in heavy episodic drinking, which is a risk factor for college students' behavioral and health problems. Thus, the functional perspective we used to analyze them here may help to inform public health and university interventions and enable better identification of at-risk students. PMID:24044902

  9. Chemical and bioanalytical assessments on drinking water treatments by quaternized magnetic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Ma, Rong; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Wu, Bing; Miao, Yu; Chen, Xun; Zhang, Xuxiang

    2015-03-21

    This study aimed to compare the toxicity reduction performance of conventional drinking water treatment (CT) and a treatment (NT) with quaternized magnetic microspheres (NDMP) based on chemical analyses. Fluorescence excitation-emission-matrix combined with parallel factor analysis identified four components in source water of different rivers or lake, and the abundance of each component differed greatly among the different samples. Compared with the CT, the NT evidently reduced the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, adsorbable organic halogens (AOX), bromide and disinfection by-products. Toxicological evaluation indicated that the NT completely eliminated the cytotoxicity, and greatly reduced the genotoxicity and oxidative stress of all raw water. In contrast, the CT increased the cytotoxicity of Taihu Lake and the Zhongshan River water, genotoxicity of Taihu Lake and the Mangshe River water, as well as the levels of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde of the Mangshe River water. Correlation analysis indicated that the AOX of the treated samples was significantly correlated with the genotoxicity and glutathione concentration, but exhibited no correlation with either of them for all the samples. As it can effectively reduce pollutant levels and the toxicities of drinking water, NDMP might be widely used for drinking water treatment in future. PMID:25481701

  10. THE EFFECT OF PH, PHOSPHATE AND OXIDANT ON THE REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER DURING IRON REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring drinking water contaminant that has known adverse human health effects. The recent compilation of new health effects data prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to recently reduce the previous arsenic maximum contaminant level ...

  11. Removal Of Residual Organics From Drinking Water By Ozonation And Activated Carbon Filtration: A Pilot Plant Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Kainulainen; T. A. Tuhkanen; T. K. Vartiainen; P. J. Kalliokoski

    1995-01-01

    The effects of ozonation, granular (GAC) and biological activated carbon (BAC) in the removal of natural organic matter and precursors of disinfection byproducts from drinking water were studied on pilot scale. Ozonation was determined to be the best method to reduce concentrations of the precursors of AOX, chloroform and mutagenicity, whereas BAC removed organic matter the most effectively. Reductions in

  12. Dopamine D2R DNA transfer in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice: Effects on ethanol drinking

    E-print Network

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Dopamine D2R DNA transfer in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice: Effects on ethanol drinking), and receptor-deficient mice (Drd2À/À). Ethanol intake and preference were then determined using the two attenuated (58 %) their ethanol intake as well as reduced preference. Drd2+/À and mutant mice showed

  13. Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p < 0.05) for W (894 ± 178 mL) than SD (605 ± 297 mL) and NEW (599 ± 254 mL). FCW (686 ± 250 mL) was not different from any other drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, additional potassium in FCW and NEW did not result in additional rehydration benefits over those already found in a conventional sports drink with sodium. PMID:25017113

  14. Cultural and Social Network Predictors of Drinking among Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Chambers, Christina D.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Reyes, Washington; Kang, Sunny W.; Irvin, Veronica; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated the association of cultural and social mechanisms with Korean American women’s drinking behaviors. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with 591 Korean women selected from a random sample of households in California with Korean surnames during 2007. About 62% of eligible respondents completed the interview. Respondents reported any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking volume (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days), level of acculturation, and described their social network by assessing who encouraged or discouraged drinking (drinking support) or drank (drinking models). Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. About 70% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 67 to 74) of Korean American women reported any lifetime drinking and current drinkers drank 1.18 (95%CI, 1.07 to 1.28) drinks on drinking days. Acculturation was not significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking volume, while models and support for drinking were statistically significantly associated with a higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking more on drinking days. Each additional encourager, or one fewer discourager, for drinking in women’s social networks was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 1 to 3) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.25 (95%CI, ?0.53 to 1.18) more drinks on drinking days. Each additional drinker in women’s networks was associated with a 4% (95%CI, 1 to 8) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.26 (95%CI, ?0.05 to 0.60) more drinks on drinking days. Korean American women’s drinking appears to be strongly related to their social networks, though how women take on traits of their new environment was not. PMID:20843638

  15. COMT Associations with Disordered Gambling and Drinking Measures.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Casey R; Fanning, Jennifer R; Liang, Tiebing; Berman, Mitchell E

    2015-06-01

    Disordered gambling and alcohol dependence are influenced by unique and shared genetic factors. Although the evidence is mixed, some research has linked catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 (or COMT Val158Met) to the development of gambling or drinking problems; however, no molecular genetic study has jointly examined gambling and drinking problems. Furthermore, the majority of past studies examined gambling or drinking problems using a case-control design. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of COMT rs4680 with dimensionally and categorically measured gambling and drinking problems in a nonclinical sample (139 Caucasian adults). The current study found that COMT rs4680 was related to both dimensionally and categorically measured gambling and drinking problems. It appears that the COMT Met/Met genotype may be a genetic risk factor that contributes to the development of both gambling and drinking problems. PMID:24390676

  16. A dual process account of adolescent and adult binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Rooke, Sally E; Hine, Donald W

    2011-04-01

    This study adopted a dual process perspective to investigate the relative contributions of implicit and explicit cognitions to predicting binge drinking in adolescents and adults. Two hundred and seventy-two participants (136 teen-parent pairs) completed measures of alcohol memory associations (reflecting implicit cognition), expectancies about potential costs and benefits of alcohol use (reflecting explicit cognition), and self-reported binge drinking. Adolescents had stronger alcohol memory associations and perceived drinking benefits to be more probable than did adults. In turn, higher scores on the memory association and expected benefit measures were both associated with significantly higher levels of binge drinking. Moderation analyses revealed that alcohol memory associations and expected benefits of drinking were stronger predictors of binge drinking for adolescents than for adults. The findings suggest that both implicit and explicit cognitions may play important roles in alcohol use decisions, and these roles may differ for adolescents and adults. PMID:21195555

  17. COMT Associations with Disordered Gambling and Drinking Measures

    PubMed Central

    Guillot, Casey R.; Fanning, Jennifer R.; Liang, Tiebing; Berman, Mitchell E.

    2014-01-01

    Disordered gambling and alcohol dependence are influenced by unique and shared genetic factors. Although the evidence is mixed, some research has linked COMT rs4680 (or COMT Val158Met) to the development of gambling or drinking problems; however, no molecular genetic study has jointly examined gambling and drinking problems. Furthermore, the majority of past studies examined gambling or drinking problems using a case-control design. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of COMT rs4680 with dimensionally and categorically measured gambling and drinking problems in a nonclinical sample (139 Caucasian adults). The current study found that COMT rs4680 was related to both dimensionally and categorically measured gambling and drinking problems. It appears that the COMT Met/Met genotype may be a genetic risk factor that contributes to the development of both gambling and drinking problems. PMID:24390676

  18. Binge Drinking in Young Adults: Data, Definitions, and Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Kelly E.; Polich, John

    2009-01-01

    Binge drinking is an increasingly important topic in alcohol research, but the field lacks empirical cohesion and definitional precision. The present review summarizes findings and viewpoints from the scientific binge-drinking literature. Epidemiological studies quantify the seriousness of alcohol-related problems arising from binge drinking, with a growing incidence reported in college-age men over the last 2 years. Experimental studies have found neurocognitive deficits for frontal lobe processing and working memory operations in binge-drinking compared with nonbinge alcohol drinkers. The findings are organized with the goals of providing a useful binge-drinking definition in the context of the empirical results. Theoretical implications are discussed on how binge drinking may alter neurophysiological and neurocognitive function. PMID:19210057

  19. Risk drinking and contraception effectiveness among college women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen S. Ingersoll; Sherry Dyche Ceperich; Mary D. Nettleman; Betty Anne Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Risk drinking, especially binge drinking, and unprotected sex may co-occur in college women and increase the risks of STI exposure and pregnancy, but the relationships among these behaviors are incompletely understood. A survey was administered to 2012 women of ages 18–24 enrolled in a public urban university. One-quarter of the college women (23%) drank eight or more drinks per week

  20. Effects of tea drinking on auditory functions in aged subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Hwang; Y. C. Chan; C. J. Hsu; T. C. Liu; J. C. Chen

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Oolong tea drinking on the auditory functions in aged subjects.\\u000a Retrospective cohort study was conducted on 265 subjects who were older than 55 years old. Tea drinking was determined from\\u000a responses to a medical and food consumption questionnaires. The effects of Oolong tea drinking on pure tone thresholds (PTAs)

  1. Basis of the Massachusetts Reference Dose and Drinking Water Standard for Perchlorate

    PubMed Central

    Zewdie, Tsedash; Smith, C. Mark; Hutcheson, Michael; West, Carol Rowan

    2010-01-01

    Objective Perchlorate inhibits the uptake of iodide in the thyroid. Iodide is required to synthesize hormones critical to fetal and neonatal development. Many water supplies and foods are contaminated with perchlorate. Exposure standards are needed but controversial. Here we summarize the basis of the Massachusetts (MA) perchlorate reference dose (RfD) and drinking water standard (DWS), which are considerably lower and more health protective than related values derived by several other agencies. We also review information regarding perchlorate risk assessment and policy. Data sources MA Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) scientists, with input from a science advisory committee, assessed a wide range of perchlorate risk and exposure information. Health outcomes associated with iodine insufficiency were considered, as were data on perchlorate in drinking water disinfectants. Data synthesis We used a weight-of-the-evidence approach to evaluate perchlorate risks, paying particular attention to sensitive life stages. A health protective RfD (0.07 ?g/kg/day) was derived using an uncertainty factor approach with perchlorate-induced iodide uptake inhibition as the point of departure. The MA DWS (2 ?g/L) was based on risk management decisions weighing information on perchlorate health risks and its presence in certain disinfectant solutions used to treat drinking water for pathogens. Conclusions Current data indicate that perchlorate exposures attributable to drinking water in individuals at sensitive life stages should be minimized and support the MA DEP perchlorate RfD and DWS. Widespread exposure to perchlorate and other thyroid toxicants in drinking water and foods suggests that more comprehensive policies to reduce overall exposures and enhance iodine nutrition are needed. PMID:20056583

  2. Qualitative and/or quantitative drinking water recommendations for pediatric obesity treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stookey, Jodi D.; Del Toro, Rigoberto; Hamer, Janice; Medina, Alma; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; TinajeroDeck, Lydia; Juarez, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Objective The qualitative recommendation to ‘drink water instead of caloric beverages’ may facilitate pediatric obesity treatment by lowering total energy intake. The quantitative recommendation to ‘drink enough water to dilute urine’ might further facilitate weight loss by increasing fat oxidation via cell hydration-mediated changes in insulin. Methods This 8 week randomized intervention tested whether both qualitative-plus-quantitative (QQ) drinking water recommendations result in more weight loss than the qualitative recommendation alone (Q) in 25 children (9–12y) with body mass index at or above the 85th Percentile, given a reduced glycemic diet and usual physical activity. Random urine osmolality, saliva insulin, and body weight were assessed weekly. Mixed models explored if insulin mediated an effect of urine osmolality on weight loss. Results In intention-to-treat analyses, QQ and Q participants did not differ significantly with respect to level of urine osmolality, saliva insulin, or weight loss. Only 4 out of 16 QQ participants complied with instruction to drink enough water to dilute urine, however. In completers analyses, the compliant QQ participants, who diluted urine osmolality from 910 ± 161 mmol/kg at baseline to below 500 mmol/kg over time (8 week mean±SE: 450 ± 67 mmol/kg), had significantly lower saliva insulin over time (8 week mean±SE: 13 ± 8 pmol/l vs. 22 ± 4 pmol/l) and greater weight loss (mean ± SE: ?3.3 ± 0.7kg vs. ?2.0 ± 0.5 kg) than compliant Q participants (7 out of 9 participants) who maintained elevated urine osmolality over time (8- week mean±SE: 888 ± 41 mmol/kg). Urine osmolality below 500 mmol/kg was significantly associated with weight loss. Change in saliva insulin partially explained the association. Conclusions QQ recommendations may increase weight loss for those able to dilute urine. Work is warranted to pursue cell hydration effects of drinking water for pediatric obesity treatment. PMID:25632375

  3. Changes in emotional reactivity and distress tolerance among heavy drinking adolescents during sustained abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Winward, Jennifer L.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Hanson, Karen L.; Lejuez, C.W.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Negative affect and low distress tolerance have been associated with increased likelihood of alcohol consumption and relapse. This study utilized the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test (PASAT-C) Computer Version to examine affective reactivity, cognitive performance, and distress tolerance during early abstinence among heavy drinking adolescents. Methods Participants, ages 16–18 (50% female), were 23 heavy episodic drinking youth (HED) and 23 demographically-matched, non-drinking teens (CON). Both groups were drawn from the same schools and assessed at three time points: HED were first studied within 10 days (M = 4.26, SD = 4.4) of heavy episodic drinking and then at two 2-week intervals over four subsequent weeks of monitored abstinence. CON were studied at the same 2-week intervals. Results Findings indicate that HED responded with greater emotional response to the PASAT-C (i.e., greater increases in frustration and irritability and greater decreases in happiness) at the initial assessment, but their affective responses diminished with sustained abstinence. CON and HED task performance did not differ at the initial assessment or across time. HED showed faster task discontinuation times to the PASAT-C at the first assessment, and both groups reduced task persistence across testings. Among HED, greater lifetime and recent alcohol consumption, alcohol-induced blackouts, and withdrawal symptoms were associated with increases in negative affect with PASAT-C exposure. Earlier age of onset of alcohol use was linked to poorer performance. Conclusions Heavy episodic drinking adolescents demonstrated heightened emotional reactivity and poorer distress tolerance to a cognitively challenging task during early abstinence. The combination of elevated negative affect and low distress tolerance may place adolescents at a heightened risk for escalations in or return to alcohol involvement. PMID:24818520

  4. Tea-drinking habit among new university students: associated factors.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hsiu Chen; Wang, Chi-Jane; Cheng, Shu Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Chen, Po See; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2014-02-01

    The habit of drinking tea is highly prevalent in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tea drinking and to explore the correlated factors on tea drinking among young new students in the university, using a validated self-reported questionnaire. This study was carried out with 5936 new students in a university in Taiwan. It comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including items related to personal and medical history, and lifestyle habits, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12). Anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were also performed. In total, 2065 (36.1%) students were in the tea-drinking group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the following factors were significant predictors of tea drinking: postgraduate students (p < 0.001), coffee drinking (p < 0.001), alcohol drinking (p < 0.001), minor mental morbidity (p = 0.009), poorer sleepers (p = 0.037), higher body mass index (p = 0.004), and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (p < 0.001). Our data showed that the tea-drinking habit was correlated with higher body mass index, which was contrary to the findings of a previous study. In clinical practice, perhaps we could consider more tea-drinking-related factors when we suggest tea consumption. PMID:24444540

  5. Users of 'diet' drinks who think that sweetness is calories.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Richard P J; Booth, David A

    2010-08-01

    We present the first experiment that was based on a novel analysis of the mental processes of choice. Sensed material characteristics such as the sweetness of a drink and symbolic attributes such as the source of sweetness stated on the label are put into the same units of influence on the response. Most users of low-calorie drinks thought about the energy in a drink quite differently from the way they decided how sweet and how low in calories they liked the drink to be. Also the female diet drink users thought about energy content differently from most of the male users of sugar drinks. In both groups' ratings of likelihood of choice and in sugar drink users' estimates of energy content, sweetness and labelled calories were usually treated as separate stimuli or ideas. In contrast, some female diet drink users treated sweetness and perceived calories as the same, whereas no male sugar drink user did. Such findings illustrate how this approach spans the gap between sensory perception and conceptualised knowledge. PMID:20412825

  6. Introduction to the special issue on college drinking games.

    PubMed

    Zamboanga, Byron L; Tomaso, Cara C

    2014-09-01

    Drinking games are high-risk, social drinking activities comprised of rules that promote participants' intoxication and determine when and how much alcohol should be consumed. Despite the negative consequences associated with drinking games, this high-risk activity is common among college students, with participation rates reported at nearly 50% in some studies. Empirical research examining drinking games participation in college student populations has increased (i.e. over 40 peer-reviewed articles were published in the past decade) in response to the health risks associated with gaming and its prevalence among college students. This Special Issue of The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse seeks to advance the college drinking games literature even further by addressing understudied, innovative factors associated with the study of drinking games, including the negative consequences associated with drinking games participation; contextual, cultural, and psychological factors that may influence gaming; methodological concerns in drinking games research; and recommendations for intervention strategies. This Prologue introduces readers to each article topic-by-topic and underscores the importance of the continued study of drinking games participation among college students. PMID:25192201

  7. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance. PMID:25293550

  8. Do Women Change Their Drinking Behaviors While Trying to Conceive? An Opportunity for Preconception Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Tough, Suzanne; Tofflemire, Karen; Clarke, Margaret; Newburn-Cook, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading cause of preventable mental retardation and developmental disabilities, including fetal alcohol syndrome. Current medical guidelines recommend that no alcohol should be consumed over the period of conception and throughout pregnancy. Although the majority of women reduce alcohol consumption when they realize they are pregnant, this recognition may not occur until well into the first trimester, potentially impacting embryonic development. Objectives: To describe and assess changes in patterns of women’s alcohol use between the preconception, pre-pregnancy recognition and post-pregnancy recognition time periods. Secondly, to describe characteristics of women consuming any alcohol and those binge drinking during pre- and post-pregnancy recognition periods. Methods: Computer assisted telephone interviews were conducted with 1042 women who had recently delivered a baby in urban Alberta, Canada. Differences in consumption patterns between time periods were analyzed using analysis of variance and Chi-square tests. Characteristics of those drinking both before and after pregnancy recognition were analyzed using logistic regression. Results: Eighty percent of women reported alcohol consumption pre-conceptually, 50% pre-pregnancy recognition and 18% post-pregnancy recognition. Binge drinking was reported by 32%, 11% and 0% for preconception, pre-pregnancy recognition and post-pregnancy recognition periods, respectively. Alcohol consumption patterns (i.e., the mean number of drinks per drinking day and week) did not differ significantly between preconception and pre-pregnancy recognition periods but did significantly drop after pregnancy recognition (p<0.001). Alcohol use during the period of pre-pregnancy recognition was higher among those not planning a pregnancy, not using assisted reproductive technology, of higher income, without a history of miscarriage, who were Caucasian, and who used tobacco. Binge drinking was higher among women not planning a pregnancy, those who used tobacco, and those with low self-esteem. Women continuing to drink small amounts of alcohol after pregnancy recognition were more likely to be between the ages of 30–39 years, be Caucasian and use tobacco. Conclusion: Preconception and “well-women” counseling strategies would be improved by increasing the emphasis on the risks of alcohol use during periods when pregnancy can occur. PMID:16809401

  9. Caffeine in your drink: natural or synthetic?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijun; Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Federherr, Eugen; Schmidt, Torsten C; Jochmann, Maik A

    2012-03-20

    Owing to possible adulteration and health concerns, it is important to discriminate between natural and synthetic food ingredients. A new method for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) by coupling high-temperature reversed-phase liquid chromatography to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HT-RPLC/IRMS) was developed for discrimination of natural and synthetic caffeine contained in all types of drinks. The analytical parameters such as stationary phase, column inner diameter, and column temperature were optimized for the separation of caffeine directly from drinks (without extraction). On the basis of the carbon isotope analysis of 42 natural caffeine samples including coffee beans, tea leaves, guaraná powder, and maté leaves, and 20 synthetic caffeine samples from different sources by high-temperature reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry, it is concluded that there are two distinguishable groups of caffeine ?(13)C-values: one between -25 and -32‰ for natural caffeine, and the other between -33 and -38‰ for synthetic caffeine. Isotope analysis by HT-RPLC/IRMS has been applied to identify the caffeine source in 38 drinks. Four mislabeled products were detected due to added but nonlabeled synthetic caffeine with ?(13)C-values lower than -33‰. This work is the first application of HT-RPLC/IRMS to real-world food samples, which showed several advantages: simple sample preparation (only dilution), high throughput, long-term column stability, and high precision of ?(13)C-value. Thus, HT-RPLC/IRMS can be a very promising tool in stable isotope analysis of nonvolatile compounds. PMID:22339647

  10. Rhabdomyolysis induced by excessive coffee drinking.

    PubMed

    Chiang, W-F; Liao, M-T; Cheng, C-J; Lin, S-H

    2014-08-01

    Excessive ingestion of caffeine-containing beverages is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis. Here, we describe the case of a 44-year-old woman presented with nausea, vomiting, palpitations, and tea-colored urine 6 h after drinking a liter of black coffee containing approximately 565 mg of caffeine for mental alertness. Laboratory studies were notable for myoglobinuria and markedly elevated plasma creatine kinase (CK) level of 7315 U/L. With volume expansion and alkalization, her plasma CK level returned to normal within 5 days. Rhabdomyolysis should be considered a potential health hazard from excessive consumption of caffeine-containing products. PMID:24220878

  11. 59 FR- Drinking Water; National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Disinfectants and Disinfection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-07-29

    ...general sanitation and control of bacterial odors in the food industry. Chlorine is a highly...chlorine dosage is limited by taste and odor constraints and for systems needing to...in drinking water to control taste and odor problems, limit the formation of...

  12. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 2. RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a logical epidemiologic exploration into possible associations between exposures to radium-226 in drinking water and incidence rates for cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, lung, prostate, and rectum. The most striking finding is the increasing gradient of ...

  13. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

    2010-01-01

    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

  14. Nitrate in sources of drinking water? Dutch drinking water companies aim at prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. A. Joosten; S. T. Buijze; D. M. Jansen

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands 65% of the drinking water is extracted from groundwater. A quarter of the groundwater wells, in particular those on the sandy soils in the east and the south of the country, face rising levels of nitrate, mainly of agricultural origin. In 1998 the Dutch Government launched a policy (MINAS) which aims at a drastic reduction in nitrate

  15. Calorie Restriction on Drinking Days: An Examination of Drinking Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven M.; Champion, Heather; Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wagoner, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between restricting calories on intended drinking days and drunkenness frequency and alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants: Participants included a random sample of 4,271 undergraduate college students from 10 universities. Methods: Students completed a Web-based survey…

  16. Do Parents Know Best? Examining the Relationship Between Parenting Profiles, Prevention Efforts, and Peak Drinking in College Students1

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E.; Stapleton, Jerod; Abar, Caitlin; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tollison, Sean; Grossbard, Joel; Larimer, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined parent profiles among high school athletes transitioning to college and their association with high-risk drinking in a multi-site, randomized trial. Students (n = 587) were randomized to a control or combined parent-based and brief motivational intervention condition and completed measures at baseline and at 5- and 10-month follow-ups. Four parent profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, indifferent) were observed among participants. Findings indicated control participants with authoritarian parenting were at the greatest risk for heavy drinking. Alternately, students exposed to permissive or authoritarian parenting reported lower peak drinking when administered the combined intervention, compared to controls. Findings suggest the combined intervention was efficacious in reducing peak alcohol consumption among high-risk students based on athlete status and parenting profiles. PMID:24109150

  17. Public health implications of new guidelines for lead in drinking water: a case study in an area with historically high water lead levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. M Watt; A Britton; H. G Gilmour; M. R Moore; G. D Murray; S. J Robertson

    2000-01-01

    Concern about the neurotoxicity of lead, particularly in infants and young children, has led to a revision of blood lead levels which are considered to involve an acceptable level of human exposure. Drinking water guidelines have also been reviewed in order to reduce this source of population exposure to lead. In the last 20 years, guidelines have been reduced from

  18. Operational performance, biomass and microbial community structure: impacts of backwashing on drinking water biofilter.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaobin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Jingxu; Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Biofiltration has been widely used to reduce organic matter and control the formation of disinfection by-products in drinking water. Backwashing might affect the biofilters' performance and the attached microbiota on filter medium. In this study, the impacts of backwashing on the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and N-nitrosamine precursors by a pilot-scale biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration system were investigated. The impacts of backwashing on biomass and microbial community structure of BAC biofilm were also investigated. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that backwashing reduced nearly half of the attached biomass on granular activated carbon (GAC) particles, followed by a recovery to the pre-backwashing biomass concentration in 2 days after backwashing. Backwashing was found to transitionally improve the removal of DOC, DON and N-nitrosamine precursors. MiSeq sequencing analysis revealed that backwashing had a strong impact on the bacterial diversity and community structure of BAC biofilm, but they could gradually recover with the operating time after backwashing. Phylum Proteobacteria was the largest bacterial group in BAC biofilm. Microorganisms from genera Bradyrhizobium, Hyphomicrobium, Microcystis and Sphingobium might contribute to the effective removal of nitrogenous organic compounds by drinking water biofilter. This work could add some new insights towards the operation of drinking water biofilters and the biological removal of organic matter. PMID:25087501

  19. Readiness to change and post-intervention drinking among Hispanic college students living on the US/Mexico border

    PubMed Central

    Skewes, Monica C.; Dermen, Kurt H.; Blume, Arthur W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine readiness to change as a predictor of post-intervention alcohol consumption among Hispanic college student drinkers taking part in a brief harm reduction intervention. Method Participants of the intervention study were 109 Hispanic college students residing on the US/Mexico border who self-identified as regular drinkers. This manuscript reports findings from a subset of participants who had complete data at 3-month follow-up (N=84). Participants completed the Readiness to Change Questionnaire, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, and the Form-90 Steady Pattern drinking assessment prior to receiving an intervention. Results Hierarchical least-squares regression was used to predict baseline readiness to change scores from alcohol consumption and related consequences, and then to predict 3-month post-intervention drinking from baseline drinking and readiness to change. Alcohol consumption and consequences significantly predicted readiness to change at baseline, and follow-up drinking was significantly predicted from baseline drinking, readiness to change, and an interaction between the two variables. Findings indicated that readiness to change may function differently in people with varying levels of alcohol involvement. Conclusions Greater readiness to change predicted reduced alcohol consumption only among the heaviest drinkers; among lighter drinkers, greater readiness to change predicted increased alcohol consumption. Possible explanations for this finding are discussed. PMID:21109355

  20. Effects of BCAA, arginine and carbohydrate combined drink on post-exercise biochemical response and psychological condition.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Mei-Chich; Chien, Kuei-Yu; Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Chung, Chia-Jung; Chan, Kuei-Hui; Su, Borcherng

    2011-04-30

    This study investigated the effects of BCAA, arginine and carbohydrate combined beverage (BCAA Drink) on biochemical responses and psychological conditions during recovery after a single bout of exhaustive exercise. Fourteen healthy males were assigned to drink either BCAA Drink (BA trial) or placebo (PL trial) on two sessions separated by 2 weeks. Blood samples of each subject were collected before exercise, 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 120 min and 24 h after exercise. No significant differences in the levels of lactate, ammonia, creatine kinase and glycerol between the two groups were observed at any of the time points. However, the levels of glucose and insulin were significantly higher in the BA trial as compared to those in the PL trial at the 40 and 60 min recovery points. Furthermore, the testosterone-to-cortisol ratio at the 120 min recovery point was significantly higher in the BA trial as compared to that in the PL trial. The results indicate the occurrence of anabolic response during the recovery period. The benefit of BCAA Drink was also performed by Profile of Mood States to assess the psychological condition. Fatigue score increased immediately at exhaustion in both groups, but the decrease in the fatigue score at 120 min recovery point was significant only in BA trial. These data indicate that a single bout of exhaustive exercise enhanced the feeling of fatigue. The detrimental consequence was reduced by an ingestion of BCAA Drink. PMID:21789887

  1. Drinking Patterns and the Association between Socio-Demographic Factors and Adolescents’ Alcohol Use in Three Metropolises in China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shijun; Du, Songming; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zou, Shurong; Liu, Weijia; Ba, Lei; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the drinking patterns and association between socio-demographic factors and adolescents’ alcohol use among high school students from China’s three metropolises, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 13,811 high school students from 136 schools between May and June 2013. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used for subject selection. The prevalence of lifetime drinking was 52.5%; in addition, 38.5% of the students were past-year drinkers, while 20.1% of them had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. During the past year, 29.7% of the students reported that they drank once per month or less, and 22.0% of the students drank less than one standard drink (SD) per occasion. For the students who were not living with their mothers, as well as the students in higher socioeconomic status (SES), the adjusted odds of past and current drinking were significantly higher, compared with those who lived with both parents and low SES. Due to the high prevalence of alcohol consumption among junior and senior high school students in metropolises, attention should be paid by parents, school administrators, educational and public health agencies for making efforts collectively to reduce alcohol availability and drinking among adolescents. PMID:25685952

  2. A longitudinal study of the effects of coping motives, negative affect and drinking level on drinking problems among college students.

    PubMed

    Armeli, Stephen; Dranoff, Erik; Tennen, Howard; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Carolyn R; Raskin, Sarah; Wood, Rebecca; Pearlson, Godfrey

    2014-01-01

    We examined among college students the interactive effects of drinking to cope (DTC) motivation, anxiety and depression symptoms, and drinking level in predicting drinking-related problems (DRPs). Using an Internet-based survey, participants (N = 844, 53% women) first reported on their drinking motives and monthly for up to three months, they reported on their drinking level, anxiety, depression, and DRPs. We found a three-way interaction between DTC motivation and average levels of drinking and anxiety (but not depression) in predicting DRPs. Specifically, among individuals with stronger DTC motives, higher mean levels of anxiety were associated with a stronger positive association between mean drinking levels and DRPs. We did not find three-way interactions in the models examining monthly changes in anxiety, depression, and drinking in predicting monthly DRPs. However, individuals high in DTC motivation showed a stronger positive association between changes in drinking level and DRPs. The results are discussed in terms of mechanisms related to attention-allocation and self-control resource depletion. PMID:24552203

  3. The Role of Drinking Beliefs to Explain Ethnic Variation in Drinking Practices Among U.S. College Students

    PubMed Central

    Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Paschall, Mallie J.; Marzell, Miesha; Battle, Robynn

    2015-01-01

    This study, funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, examines psychosocial mediators to explain discrepancies in past-30-day drinking between African American and White college student drinkers in the United States. Between 2008 and 2010, 5,845 college drinkers completed an online survey about their alcohol use. Using latent variable structural equations modeling, we investigated the relationships between ethnicity, drinking beliefs, and students’ past 30-day alcohol use. Drinking beliefs—i.e., positive expectancies, perceived norms, and disapproval of alcohol use—fully mediated the relationship between ethnicity and drinking behaviors. Study limitations and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23927621

  4. Surface water pesticide modelling for decision support in drinking water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Nele; Dams, Jef; Bronders, Jan; Peleman, Gisèle; Verdickt, Liesbeth

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of pesticides and other contaminants in river systems may compromise the use of surface water for drinking water production. To reduce the cost of removal of pesticides from the raw water, drinking water companies can: search for other raw water sources, invest in water storage capacity to overcome periods with high pesticide concentrations (often related to the application period), or impose measures to reduce the emission of pesticides to surface water (i.e. sustainable application strategies or use restrictions). To select the most appropriate water management options, the costs and effects of the aforementioned actions need to be evaluated. This evaluation requires knowledge on the concentrations and loads of pesticides at the point of drinking water abstraction, as well as insight in the contribution and the temporal variability of different sources or subbasins. In such a case, a modelling approach can assist in generating measurement-based datasets and to compare different scenarios for water management. We illustrate how a modelling approach can provide decision support for water management related to drinking water abstraction from surface water in a catchment that suffers from elevated pesticide concentrations. The study area is a water production center (WPC) located in northwestern Belgium. The WPC abstracts raw water from the river IJzer or from a natural pond and its connected streams. The available quantities as well as the quality of the water vary throughout the year. The WPC uses a reservoir of 3 million m³ to capture and store raw water to overcome periods with limited water availability and/or poor water quality. However, the pressure on water increases and in the future this buffering capacity might be no longer sufficient to fulfill the drinking water production demand. A surface water quality model for the area is set up using InfoWorks RS. The model is applied to obtain insight in the concentrations and loads at the different points of drinking water abstraction (river IJzer and Blankaart pond), the contribution of the subbasins, and the seasonal dynamics. The model is also applied for scenario analysis related to water management and varying climatological conditions. Especially in summer, the availability of raw water of good quality for the WPC is limited. The discharge of the river IJzer is low and a minimum level is required for navigation, and the pond is part of a nature reserve where a minimum water level is imposed for conservation of aquatic habitats, and application of pesticides on the surrounding agricultural lands results in high pesticide concentrations (e.g. bentazon > 1µg/L).

  5. Drinking Buddies: Who Are They and When Do They Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden, Ashley N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to further examine the role of peers on alcohol use and problems among young adults. In particular, we focused on a specific subset of peers in one’s social network mostly for activities related to alcohol use called “drinking buddies.” The presence of drinking buddies in one’s social network has been shown to predict heavy drinking uniquely over but few studies have focused on potential factors moderating the relationship. Consequently, an aim of present study was to examine the influence of drinking buddies on alcohol outcomes and the extent to which the relationship may be dependent on one’s normative perceptions. Another aim was to provide a descriptive examination of drinking buddies. Participants were college students (N = 250; 72.8% women) who completed self-report measures of alcohol use and problems, injunctive norms, descriptive norms, and social network characteristics. Results showed that descriptive norms moderated the relationship between drinking buddies and all alcohol outcomes assessed. Specifically, the influence of drinking buddies was stronger for those who perceived a lower prevalence of peer drinking. Examination of drinking buddies characteristics revealed that these peers tended to be young adults who were moderate social drinkers with whom they felt close and perceived to be available for concrete and emotional support. Several differences emerged between the drinking buddies of heavy versus non-heavy drinkers. The present study contributed to the larger body of work on peer influence and alcohol use by examining a specific subgroup of peers that may promote risky drinking. PMID:25429255

  6. Heavy drinking relates to positive valence ratings of alcohol cues.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Carmen; Mok, Alex; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F

    2009-01-01

    A positive family history of alcohol use disorders (FH) is a robust predictor of personal alcohol abuse and dependence. Exposure to problem-drinking models is one mechanism through which family history influences alcohol-related cognitions and drinking patterns. Similarly, exposure to alcohol advertisements is associated with alcohol involvement and the relationship between affective response to alcohol cues and drinking behavior has not been well established. In addition, the collective contribution that FH, exposure to different types of problem-drinking models (e.g. parents, peers) and personal alcohol use have on appraisal of alcohol-related stimuli has not been evaluated with a large sample. We investigated the independent effects of FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and personal alcohol use on valence ratings of alcohol pictures in a college sample. College students (n = 227) completed measures of personal drinking and substance use, exposure to problem-drinking models, FH and ratings on affective valence of 60 alcohol pictures. Greater exposure to non-familial problem-drinkers predicted greater drinking among college students (beta = 0.17, P < 0.01). However, personal drinking was the only predictor of valence ratings of alcohol pictures (beta = -0.53, P < 0.001). Personal drinking level predicted valence ratings of alcohol cues over and above FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and demographic characteristics. This suggests that positive affective responses to alcohol pictures are more a function of personal experience (i.e. repeated heavy alcohol use) than vicarious learning. PMID:18855802

  7. Smallholder farmers' attitudes toward the provision of drinking water for dairy cows in Kagera, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Barbara; Kepe, Thembela

    2015-02-01

    Agriculture's large share of Tanzanian GDP and the large percentage of rural poor engaged in the sector make it a focus for many development projects that see it as an area of attention for reducing rural poverty. This paper uses a case of the Kamachumu community, where a dairy cow loan project was implemented using the heifer-in-trust (HIT) model. This study finds that productivity is limited by how the cows are being managed, particularly with many animals not having ad lib access to drinking water. The paper explores reasons why farmers do or do not provide their cows with unlimited access to drinking water. The study concludes that there are many barriers farmers face, including water accessibility, education and training, infrastructure, simple negligence, and security. These results suggest an increase in extension services and national and local livestock policies that consider the specific realities of small-scale dairy farmers. PMID:25433649

  8. Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-Calero, Diego; Martìn-Palomeque, Pilar; Madueño-Lorguillo, Silvia

    1996-12-01

    Laboratory experiments can improve student interest in science. However, the contrary effect could occur if they are not well designed and seem tedious, too laborious, and disconnected from daily life. Cola beverages are one of the most widely consumed drinks and are most popular among students. Much attention is being paid to possible consequences of excessive consumption for human health. Intensive efforts are being made to assess the erosive potential for teeth because of the beverages' acidity (1, 2); adverse effects secondary to high caffeine intake (e.g., hypertension, allergic reactions, gastrointestinal disturbances) (3 - 5); and adverse effects on calcium metabolism due to their high phosphoric acid content, which combined with low dietary calcium intake could increase the risk of suffering from bone diseases (6 - 9). We propose here the quantification of the phosphorus content in this kind of drinks by a different procedure from that previously described by Murphy in this Journal (10). We think this laboratory experiment will seem very interesting to students.

  9. Removal of organics from drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Lykins, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Organic contamination of drinking water is basically caused by two general classes of organics; man-made synthetic organics and disinfection of naturally occurring organics (disinfection by-products). Many volatile and non-volatile synthetic organics at trace concentrations are being detected in surface and ground waters. Contaminated ground water usually contains two or more predominant organic compounds and several other identifiable ones at lesser concentrations. Surface waters, such as rivers, generally contain many organic compounds in low concentrations. The document summarizes the treatment technologies that EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (DWRD) is evaluating for removal of VOCs, SOCs, and disinfection by-products from water supplies. Carbon adsorption is effective for removing both VOCs and SOCs. Packed-tower and diffused aeration are best suited for removing VOCs. Of the technologies that show promise and are being tested at the bench and pilot scales, conventional treatment with powdered activated carbon (PAC) is effective for removing a few of the SOCs, ozone oxidation is effective for removing certain classes of VOCs and SOCs, and certain reverse osmosis membranes and ultraviolet treatment are also potentially effective against VOCs and SOCs.

  10. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Quetiapine Fumarate in Very Heavy Drinking Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Litten, Raye Z.; Fertig, Joanne B.; Falk, Daniel E.; Ryan, Megan L.; Mattson, Margaret E.; Collins, Joseph F.; Murtaugh, Cristin; Ciraulo, Domenic; Green, Alan I.; Johnson, Bankole; Pettinati, Helen; Swift, Robert; Afshar, Maryam; Brunette, Mary F.; Tiouririne, Nassima Ait-Daoud; Kampman, Kyle; Stout, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite advances in developing medications to treat alcohol dependence, few such medications have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Identified molecular targets are encouraging and can lead to the development and testing of new compounds. Atypical antipsychotic medications have been explored with varying results. Preliminary results suggest that the antipsychotic quetiapine may be beneficial in an alcohol-dependent population of very heavy drinkers. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 224 alcohol-dependent patients who reported very heavy drinking were recruited across 5 clinical sites. Patients received either quetiapine or placebo and Medical Management behavioral intervention. Patients were stratified on gender, clinical site, and reduction in drinking prior to randomization. Results No differences between the quetiapine and placebo groups were detected in the primary outcome, percent heavy drinking days, or other drinking outcomes. Quetiapine significantly reduced depressive symptoms and improved sleep but had no effect on other nondrinking outcomes. Results from a subgroup analysis suggest that patients who reduced their drinking prior to randomization had significantly better drinking outcomes during the maintenance phase (p<0.0001). No significant interactions, however, were observed between reducer status and treatment group. Finally, quetiapine was generally well tolerated. Statistically significant adverse events that were more common with quetiapine versus placebo include dizziness (14% vs. 4%), dry mouth (32% vs. 9%), dyspepsia (13% vs. 2%), increased appetite (11% vs. 1%), sedation (15% vs. 3%), and somnolence (34% vs. 9%). Conclusions This multisite clinical trial showed no efficacy for quetiapine compared with placebo at reducing alcohol consumption in heavy drinking alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:21950727

  11. 76 FR 2383 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries AGENCY...U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards related to recommendations for fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The U.S. Public Health Service...

  12. 75 FR 15499 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA's Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ...National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA's Review of Existing Drinking Water Standards and Request for Public Comment...RIN 2040-AE90 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the...

  13. 77 FR 40382 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby...violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA...the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs...with the NPDWRs in the future, to pay a civil...

  14. 77 FR 14425 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby...penalties under the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA...the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs...with the NPDWRs in the future, to pay a civil...

  15. The Importance of Drinking Patterns | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking The Importance of Drinking Patterns Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Symptoms: Alcohol's Impact on the Human Body Too much drinking (see box left)— ...

  16. 78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...FRL-9807-7] Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

  17. 77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...FRL-9750-8] Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

  18. Assessing metaldehyde concentrations in surface water catchments and implications for drinking water abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Alemayehu; Shucksmith, James; Smith, Andrea; Cherry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Metaldehyde is an active ingredient in agricultural pesticides such as slug pellets, which are heavily applied to UK farmland during the autumn application season. There is current concern that existing drinking water treatment processes may be inadequate in reducing potentially high levels of metaldehyde in surface waters to below the UK drinking water quality regulation limit of 0.1 µg/l. In addition, current water quality monitoring methods can miss short term fluctuations in metaldehyde concentration caused by rainfall driven runoff, hampering prediction of the potential risk of exposure. Datasets describing levels, fate and transport of metaldehyde in river catchments are currently very scarce. This work presents results from an ongoing study to quantify the presence of metaldehyde in surface waters within a UK catchment used for drinking water abstraction. High resolution water quality data from auto-samplers installed in rivers are coupled with radar rainfall, catchment characteristics and land use data to i) understand which hydro-meteorological characteristics of the catchment trigger the peak migration of metaldehyde to surface waters; ii) assess the relationship between measured metaldehyde levels and catchment characteristics such as land use, topographic index, proximity to water bodies and runoff generation area; iii) describe the current risks to drinking water supply and discuss mitigation options based on modelling and real-time control of water abstraction. Identifying the correlation between catchment attributes and metaldehyde generation will help in the development of effective catchment management strategies, which can help to significantly reduce the amount of metaldehyde finding its way into river water. Furthermore, the effectiveness of current water quality monitoring strategy in accurately quantifying the generation of metaldehyde from the catchment and its ability to benefit the development of effective catchment management practices has also been investigated.

  19. Yes, The Government Should Tax Soft Drinks: Findings from a Citizens’ Jury in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P.; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of obesity. PMID:24583829

  20. 76 FR 7762 - Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...FRL-9262-8] RIN 2040-AF08 Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate...perchlorate in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Specifically, EPA has determined...likelihood that perchlorate will occur in public water systems with a frequency and at...

  1. DRINKING WATER ON EMPTY RINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACHD

    E-print Network

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    DRINKING WATER ON EMPTY STOMACH RINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACHD It is popular in Japan today to drink water immediately after waking up every morning. Furthermore, scientific tests have proven its value.. We publish below a description of use of water for our readers. For old and serious diseases as well

  2. Visions of the Future in Drinking Water Microbiology.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water microbiology will have a tremendous impact on defining a safe drinking water in the future. There will be breakthroughs in realtime testing of process waters for pathogen surrogates with results made available within 1 hour for application to treatment adjustments ...

  3. Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the twentieth century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended he...

  4. The Next Generation of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended healt...

  5. Modeling contaminant propagation in drinking-water distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Clark; Walter M. Grayman; Richard M. Males; Alan F. Hess

    1993-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) will pose a massive challenge for the drinking-water industry in the United States. As the SDWAA regulations reach implementation, increasing effort will be devoted to understanding the factors causing deterioration of water quality between treatment and consumption. A cooperative study involving the U.S. EPA, the University of Michigan, and the South

  6. "Spirituous Consolation": Alcott's Jokes on Drinking and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    The second book edition of Louisa May Alcott's Hospital Sketches eliminated jokes about drinking and religion. Although these were small changes, the edgy theme of drinking and religion as topics that could and sometimes should be taken lightly (even by a writer who also considered both topics as serious) interested Alcott throughout her career.…

  7. Factors Affecting Lead Concentrations in Drinking Water: Solder and Sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa M. Stimpfel; Catherine E. Volin; Daniel W. Rosenberg; Edward L. Gershey

    1991-01-01

    The lead content of the drinking water on a 15-acre urban campus was evaluated by a method employing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water samples were collected from supply mains, distribution lines, and drinking water fixtures in 14 buildings that range in age up to 80 years. Despite the age of many installations, the majority of the fixtures delivered water

  8. Heavy metals in drinking water and human health, Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eman A. E. Badr; Asmaa A. E. Agrama; Safaa A. E. Badr

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This study seeks to find out if chronic exposure via drinking water to high doses of a mixture of metals found as contaminants in tap and bottled water sources can alter the systemic physiology of residents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case control study was designed, 18 subjects drinking mainly tap water as main group (group I) and 15 subjects

  9. ADVANCES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States drinking water public health protection goal is to provide water that meets all health-based standards to ninety-five percent of the population served by public drinking water supplies by 2005. In 2002, the level of compliance with some eighty-five health-based ...

  10. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN DRINKING WATER TECHNOLOGY: A PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) have given EPA an aggressive standard setting agenda. The agenda, if carried out fully, will impact on water utilities in the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (DWRD) is responsible for evaluating technologies for m...

  11. GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The information summarized in this review provides substantial evidence for the widespread presence of genotoxins in drinking water. In many, if not most cases, the genotoxic activity can be directly attributed to the chlorination stage of drinking water treatment. The genotoxic ...

  12. Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water

    E-print Network

    BNL 52608 Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells December 27, 2000, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein

  13. Suitability Evaluation of Groundwater for Irrigation, Drinking and Industrial Purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Hakim; A. S. Juraimi; M. Begum; M. Hasanuzzaman; M. K. Uddin; M. M. Islam

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Groundwater is an important source of freshwater fo r agricultural, drinking and domestic uses in many regions of the world including Bangladesh. Demand of groundwater has been increasing day by day for irri gation by bringing more area under cultivation. As a drinking water the bottled water market currently has an average annual growth rate of 7.4% between

  14. Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Soft Drinks: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard C.; Robertson, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental procedure for determining trihalomethanes (THMs) in liquids by gas chromatography. Provides recommendations for reactants and supplies to obtain acceptable results. Discusses the analysis of water from various sources: pools, lakes, and drinking water; compares these to three cola drinks. (ML)

  15. More than Food and Drink: Careers in Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    In restaurants, the food's the thing. But the drinks, presentation, service, and ambiance are important, too. And it's up to restaurant workers to provide diners with a square meal that's well rounded. The hard work of the kitchen, bar, and dining-room staff gets food and drink from menu to mouth. Some of the more visible workers may include…

  16. Parenthood, Alcohol Intake, and Drinking Contexts: Occasio Furem Facit*

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Catherine; Demers, Andrée; Nadeau, Louise; Picard, Elyse

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether the effect of parenthood on alcohol intake varies according to the context in which the drinking act occurs. Method The data were drawn from the Canadian Addiction Survey, a national telephone survey conducted in 2004. The analytical sample included 1,079 drinking occasions nested in 498 female drinkers and 926 drinking occasions nested in 403 male drinkers between 18 and 55 years of age. A multilevel linear statistical model was used to estimate the variance related to the drinking occasion (Level 1) and to the parental role (Level 2). Results Parenthood was not associated with alcohol intake per occasion. Drinking context variables brought great explanatory power to the study of alcohol intake, but, overall, the effect of parenthood on alcohol intake did not vary according to the context in which drinking occurs. Only one interaction between the parental role and contextual characteristics was found. Conclusions Men's and women's alcohol intake within drinking contexts is more likely to be influenced by the immediate context in which drinking occurs than by their parental role. The explanation for alcohol behaviors within the general Canadian population may lie as much in the situation as in the person. PMID:21388599

  17. Excessive barium and radium 226 in Illinois drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calabrese

    1977-01-01

    The Illinois EPA has found 16 cities with drinking water containing barium concentrations exceeding the current state and federal drinking water standard of 1 mg\\/l. In addition, the presence of varying amounts of alpha activity reveal traces of radium-226 in many Illinois water wells. Increased levels of radium and barium are concurrent with a rise in cancer rates in the

  18. EJ SMALL GRANT: SAFE DRINKING WATER FOR LOW INCOME COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legal Aid Services of Oregon (LASO) has determined that both EPA Region 10 and the Oregon Health Division have identified regulatory defects in the Safe Drinking Water Act with respect to migrant farmworker drinking water sources. Lack of mandatory testing, lack of enforcement a...

  19. State alcohol policies, teen drinking and traffic fatalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas S. Dee

    1999-01-01

    This empirical study evaluates the policy responsiveness of teen drinking in models that can condition on the unobserved state-specific attributes that may have biased conventional evaluations. The results demonstrate that cross-state heterogeneity can be important and that beer taxes have relatively small and statistically insignificant effects on teen drinking. Models of youth traffic fatalities also indicate that the conventional beer

  20. HEALTH EFFECTS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO BARIUM IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this study was to examine by epidemiologic and supportive laboratory studies, the human health effects associated with ingestion of barium in drinking water exceeding the U.S. drinking water standard of 1.0 mg/l. The incidence of cardiovascular mortality ...