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1

Ten Recommendations for Reducing Carbon Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former U.S. Vice President Al Gore testified about possible solutions to mitigate anthropogenic climate change at two 21 March hearings held before committees of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. His 10 recommendations to reduce U.S. carbon emissions:

2007-04-01

2

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at  

E-print Network

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at Dartmouth College Summary selected the mission: "To reduce Dartmouth College's fossil carbon emissions." We believe this mission's responsibility to educate others about how it is reducing its fossil carbon emissions and encourage them to do

3

Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

2011-01-01

4

How can we reduce carbon emissions from transport?  

E-print Network

.......................................................................................... 5 3. DEVELOPING STRATEGIES TO MEET THE TARGETS FOR LAND BASED PASSENGER TRANSPORTHow can we reduce carbon emissions from transport? Abigail Bristow, Alison Pridmore, Miles Tight Technical Report 15 #12;1 How Can We Reduce Carbon Emissions From Transport? Tyndall Centre Technical Report

Watson, Andrew

5

Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

1991-08-01

6

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Using the Mole Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an application of quantitative chemistry concepts in the context of motor vehicle emissions. Shows how carbon dioxide emissions from cars may be reduced by up to 25% by reducing motorway speeds from 70-75 mph to 60 mph. (Author/MM)

Myers, Alan

2002-01-01

7

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

2005-01-01

8

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

SciTech Connect

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (US)

2005-08-15

9

In Brief: Reducing black carbon emissions could immediately reduce global temperature increases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new assessment by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) shows that measures to reduce emissions of black carbon, or soot, which is produced through burning of wood and other biofuels as well as by some industrial processes, could improve public health and help to significantly reduce projected global temperature increases. The Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone highlights how specific measures targeting black carbon and other emissions from fossil fuel extraction, residential wood-burning cooking, diesel vehicles, waste management, agriculture, and small industries could affect climate. Full implementation of a variety of measures to reduce black carbon and methane emissions could reduce future global warming by about 0.5C, the assessment found. Reducing black carbon could have substantial benefits in the Arctic, the Himalayas, and other snow-covered regions because black carbon that settles on top of snow absorbs heat, speeding melting of snow and ice. Black carbon emission reductions would affect global temperatures more quickly than carbon dioxide emission reductions. Furthermore, reducing black carbon emissions would improve public health in the regions that emit large amounts of the harmful air pollutant.

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-03-01

10

Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

Higgins, P. A.

2004-12-01

11

Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation  

PubMed Central

Tropical deforestation is estimated to cause about one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon emissions, loss of biodiversity, and other environmental services. United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change talks are now considering mechanisms for avoiding deforestation (AD), but the economic potential of AD has yet to be addressed. We use three economic models of global land use and management to analyze the potential contribution of AD activities to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. AD activities are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.30.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 105 g) CO2yr?1 in emission reductions and would require $0.4 billion to $1.7 billionyr?1 for 30 years. A 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.52.7 Gt CO2yr?1 in emission reductions and would require $17.2 billion to $28.0 billionyr?1. Finally, some caveats to the analysis that could increase costs of AD programs are described. PMID:18650377

Kindermann, Georg; Obersteiner, Michael; Sohngen, Brent; Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Kenneth; Rametsteiner, Ewald; Schlamadinger, Bernhard; Wunder, Sven; Beach, Robert

2008-01-01

12

Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit  

SciTech Connect

The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nations finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nations balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

2012-11-15

13

Carbon Footprint of Telemedicine Solutions - Unexplored Opportunity for Reducing Carbon Emissions in the Health Sector  

PubMed Central

Background The healthcare sector is a significant contributor to global carbon emissions, in part due to extensive travelling by patients and health workers. Objectives To evaluate the potential of telemedicine services based on videoconferencing technology to reduce travelling and thus carbon emissions in the healthcare sector. Methods A life cycle inventory was performed to evaluate the carbon reduction potential of telemedicine activities beyond a reduction in travel related emissions. The study included two rehabilitation units at Ume University Hospital in Sweden. Carbon emissions generated during telemedicine appointments were compared with care-as-usual scenarios. Upper and lower bound emissions scenarios were created based on different teleconferencing solutions and thresholds for when telemedicine becomes favorable were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to pinpoint the most important contributors to emissions for different set-ups and use cases. Results Replacing physical visits with telemedicine appointments resulted in a significant 4070 times decrease in carbon emissions. Factors such as meeting duration, bandwidth and use rates influence emissions to various extents. According to the lower bound scenario, telemedicine becomes a greener choice at a distance of a few kilometers when the alternative is transport by car. Conclusions Telemedicine is a potent carbon reduction strategy in the health sector. But to contribute significantly to climate change mitigation, a paradigm shift might be required where telemedicine is regarded as an essential component of ordinary health care activities and not only considered to be a service to the few who lack access to care due to geography, isolation or other constraints. PMID:25188322

Holmner, sa; Ebi, Kristie L.; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Nilsson, Maria

2014-01-01

14

Challenges for Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from the Transport Sector in Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport sector is a large contributor of harmful gaseous and particulate emissions in many urban areas. Black carbon is a component of short-lived particulate matter emitted predominantly by freight, public transport, and heavy- duty trucks. Controlling the emissions of black carbon from the transport sector is important for mitigating its impacts on climate, ecosystems, and human health. However, reducing the emissions of black carbon from mobile sources may be a challenging task in many developing urban areas due to economic, social, and technical constrains. Several emissions control technologies offer a proven approach for reducing emissions of black carbon from diesel-powered mobile sources, but the accurate quantification of associated emissions benefits in developing urban areas is not well documented. We describe recent advances for the estimation of black carbon emissions from the transport sector in real world driving conditions and present examples of the potential benefits of implementing various emission control technologies in Mexico. The results can help in the identification of key factors that hinder the implementation of control emissions for reducing emissions of black carbon elsewhere.

Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.

2013-05-01

15

Arctic Black Carbon Initiative: Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from Power & Industry in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of black carbon (BC) on snow and ice is widely considered to have a climate warming effect by reducing the surface albedo and promoting snowmelt. Such positive climate feedbacks in the Arctic are especially problematic because rising surface temperatures may trigger the release of large Arctic stores of terrestrial carbon, further amplifying current warming trends. Recognizing the Arctic as a vulnerable region, the U.S. government committed funds in Copenhagen in 2009 for international cooperation targeting Arctic BC emissions reductions. As a result, the U.S. Department of State has funded three research and demonstration projects with the goal to better understand and mitigate BC deposition in the Russian Arctic from a range of sources. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Arctic BC initiative presented here is focused on mitigating BC emissions resulting from heat and power generation as well as industrial applications. A detailed understanding of BC sources and its transport and fate is required to prioritize efforts to reduce BC emissions from sources that deposit in the Russian Arctic. Sources of BC include the combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, fuel oil, diesel) and the combustion of biomass (e.g. wildfires, agricultural burning, residential heating and cooking). Information on fuel use and associated emissions from the industrial and heat & power sectors in Russia is scarce and difficult to obtain from the open literature. Hence, our project includes a research component designed to locate Arctic BC emissions sources in Russia and determine associated BC transport patterns. We use results from the research phase to inform a subsequent assessment/demonstration phase. We use a back-trajectory modeling method (potential source contribution function - PSCF), which combines multi-year, high-frequency measurements with knowledge about atmospheric transport patterns. The PSCF modeling allows us to map the probability (by season and year) at course resolution (2.5 x 2.5 spatial resolution) that a particular region emits BC which deposits in the Russian Arctic. We utilize data from three Arctic measurement stations during the most recent decade: Alert, Northwest Territories, Canada; Barrow, Alaska; and Tiksi Bay, Russia. To understand more about individual Arctic BC sources, we conduct further research to improve inventory estimates of Russian industrial and energy sector BC emissions. By comparing inventory data on power plant locations and emissions from two publically-available databases (EDGAR-HTAP and CARMA databases) to each other and to additional observations from satellites and the AERONET observation network in Russia, we assess the accuracy of the Russian BC emission inventory in EDGAR-HTAP, a commonly used database for atmospheric transport modeling. We then use a global (GEOS-CHEM) atmospheric transport model to quantify the finer spatial distribution of BC within the Arctic. Lastly, we use data on Russian fuel use combined with published emissions factors to build a national-scale model of energy use and associated emissions from critical industrial and heat & power sources of BC. We use this model to estimate the technical potential of reducing BC emissions through proven mitigation efforts such as improvements in energy efficiency and in emission control technologies.

Cresko, J.; Hodson, E. L.; Cheng, M.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.; Storey, J.

2012-12-01

16

A SECOND-BEST EVALUATION OF EIGHT POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS. (R825313)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract This paper uses a numerical general equilibrium model to compare the costs of alternative policies for reducing carbon emissions in a second-best setting with a distortionary tax on labor. We examine a carbon tax, two energy taxes, and both narrow-based and br...

17

A second-best evaluation of eight policy instruments to reduce carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a numerical general equilibrium model to compare the costs of alternative policies for reducing carbon emissions in a second-best setting with a distortionary tax on labor. We examine a carbon tax, two energy taxes, and both narrow-based and broad-based emissions permits and performance standards. The presence of pre-existing tax distortions raises the costs of all these policies,

Ian W. H. Parry; Roberton C. Williams III

1999-01-01

18

Global disparity in the ecological benefits of reducing carbon emissions for coral reefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even if carbon emissions are reduced drastically in the next decade the amount of carbon already stored in the atmosphere would lead to the occurrence of extreme thermal events every three to four years between 2040 and 2080. This time lag on the effect of reducing emissions suggests that the benefits of carbon emission reduction on the health of coral reefs will be noticeable only in the long term. Here, we use a spatially explicit ecosystem model to compare the potential ecosystem benefits that Caribbean and Pacific reefs could gain from reductions in carbon emissions, and the timescale of these benefits. We found that whereas the effect of a reduction in emissions on Caribbean reefs will be modest and realized only in the long term (more than 60 years), Pacific reefs would start to show benefits within the first half of this century. Moreover, it seems that Pacific reefs have the potential to maintain their ecological integrity and ecosystem state in the mid- to long term if carbon emissions are reduced, but only if plate-like corals are present.

Ortiz, Juan Carlos; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Wolff, Nicholas H.; Doropoulos, Christopher; Mumby, Peter J.

2014-12-01

19

Tax policy to reduce carbon emissions in south Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noting that South Africa may be one of the few African countries that could contribute to mitigating climate change, the authors explore the impact of a carbon tax relative to alternative energy taxes on economic welfare. Using a disaggregate general-equilibrium model of the South African economy, they capture the structural characteristics of the energy sector, linking a supply mix that

Shantayanan Devarajan; Delfin S. Go; Sherman Robinson; Karen Thierfelder

2009-01-01

20

Prescribed fire as a means of reducing forest carbon emissions in the western United States.  

PubMed

Carbon sequestration by forested ecosystems offers a potential climate change mitigation benefit. However, wildfire has the potential to reverse this benefit In the western United States, climate change and land management practices have led to increases in wildfire intensity and size. One potential means of reducing carbon emissions from wildfire is the use of prescribed burning,which consumes less biomass and therefore releases less carbon to the atmosphere. This study uses a regional fire emissions model to estimate the potential reduction in fire emissions when prescribed burning is applied in dry, temperate forested systems of the western U.S. Daily carbon dioxide (CO(2)) fire emissions for 2001-2008 were calculated for the western U.S. for two cases: a default wildfire case and one in which prescribed burning was applied. Wide-scale prescribed fire application can reduce CO(2) fire emissions for the western U.S. by 18-25%1 in the western U.S., and by as much as 60% in specific forest systems. Although this work does not address important considerations such as the feasibility of implementing wide-scale prescribed fire management or the cumulative emissions from repeated prescribed burning, it does provide constraints on potential carbon emission reductions when prescribed burning is used. PMID:20148581

Wiedinmyer, Christine; Hurteau, Matthew D

2010-03-15

21

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2: Implications for inversion analyses  

E-print Network

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2 carbon emissions. We used TransCom3 annual mean simulations from three transport models to evaluate carbon emission and oxidation processes in deriving inversion estimates of CO2 surface fluxes. Citation

Krakauer, Nir Y.

22

Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation  

E-print Network

Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from and Policy Program #12;2 #12;3 Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing in Technology and Policy Abstract Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission

23

The role of advanced technologies in reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Renewable and advanced energy technologies can play an important role as part of a national commitment to reducing the risk of global climate change. In turn, this commitment could provide an important stimulus to the development of new technologies. However, the actual relationship that would evolve if that commitment is made is complex. The choice of a control strategy and several other important decisions by Congress and federal agencies, and resolution of uncertainties in the potential international agreement, can have a major impact on the future of advanced and renewable energy systems.

Crane, A.T.

1999-07-01

24

Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss.  

PubMed

Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5' grid, about 9 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO(2). Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435

Siikamki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N; Jardine, Sunny L

2012-09-01

25

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions  

DOEpatents

A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

Huffman, Gerald P.

2012-11-13

26

New Hampshire Carbon Challenge: Reducing Residential Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Hampshire Carbon Challenge is an initiative of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire. Our goal is to educate New Hampshire residents about climate change and also encourage them to reduce their household greenhouse gas emissions by 10,000 pounds. The Northeast region is undergoing climate changes consistent with those expected due to increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, while also contributing to climate change as the world's seventh largest source of CO2 emissions. In the USA, approximately 40 percent of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion come from residential energy consumption for space heating, electricity usage, and transportation. Homeowners typically are not aware that modest energy reductions can result in significant carbon savings. Most campaigns that raise awareness of climate change and residential energy usage disseminate information to consumers through newspaper articles, brochures, websites, or other traditional means of communication. These information-only campaigns have not been very effective in changing residential energy consumption. Bombarded with information in their daily lives, the public has become quite adept at tuning most of it out. When much of the information they receive about climate change is confusing and contradictory, residents have even less incentive to change their behavior. The Challenge is unique in that it couples accurate information about climate change with concrete actions homeowners can take to reduce their carbon emissions. Our strategy is to utilize the tools of Community Based Social Marketing, which has been shown to be effective in changing behavior, and also to leverage existing networks including the NH Department of Environmental Services, UNH Cooperative Extension, faith-based communities, municipal energy committees and Climate Project volunteers, to effectively reach residents throughout the state. The response to our program has been very positive. We gave 74 presentations to 4000 NH residents since the program was launched in October 2006. We are currently developing web-based tools tailored to New Hampshire residents that will enable them to track reductions in their energy usage and connect those reductions to reduced emissions, and will provide us feedback as to which actions households are willing to take. This type of information exchange is essential in creating and sustaining an effective and scientifically accurate public outreach campaign.

Schloss, A. L.; Bartlett, D.; Blaha, D.; Skoglund, C.; Dundorf, J.; Froburg, E.; Pasinella, B.

2007-12-01

27

A conceptual framework for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of projects to reduce GHG emissions and sequester carbon  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a conceptual framework for evaluating the cost of projects to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). The evaluation of cost-effectiveness should account for both the timing of carbon emissions and the damage caused by the atmospheric stock of carbon. We develop a conceptual basis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of projects in terms of the cost of reducing atmospheric carbon (CRAC) and other GHGs. CRAC accounts for the economic discount rate, alternative functional forms of the shadow price, the residence period of carbon in the atmosphere, and the multiple monetary benefits of projects. The last item is of particular importance to the developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Norgaard, R.; Makundi, W.

1993-07-01

28

The potential for reducing carbon emissions from increased efficiency : a general equilibrium methodology  

E-print Network

This paper presents a methodology for analyzing the potential for reduction in carbon emissions through increased fuel efficiency and provides an illustration of the method. The methodology employed is a multisectoral, ...

Blitzer, Charles R.

1990-01-01

29

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global warming of Earths near-surface, air and oceans in recent decades is a direct consequence of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions contribute approximately 60% to this climate change. This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper mill waste containing about 55wt% portlandite

R. Prez-Lpez; G. Montes-Hernandez; J. M. Nieto; F. Renard; L. Charlet

2008-01-01

30

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2  

E-print Network

to use the alkaline liquid-32 solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases altered this46 natural equilibrium and have led to the increase of the greenhouse effectCarbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions

Boyer, Edmond

31

REDUCING MERCURY EMISSION FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION WITH CARBON INJECTION INTO FLUE GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of tests (to aid in developing emission rules) in July and August 1991 on a 360-tonne/day mass burn municipal waste combustor (MWC) at the Ogden Martin Systems of Stanislaus, Inc. facility near Crows Landing, CA. est results indicated that carbon (C) addit...

32

Biofuels from crop residue can reduce soil carbon and increase CO2 emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of corn residue for biofuels can decrease soil organic carbon (SOC; refs , ) and increase CO2 emissions because residue C in biofuels is oxidized to CO2 at a faster rate than when added to soil. Net CO2 emissions from residue removal are not adequately characterized in biofuel life cycle assessment (LCA; refs , , ). Here we used a model to estimate CO2 emissions from corn residue removal across the US Corn Belt at 580 million geospatial cells. To test the SOC model, we compared estimated daily CO2 emissions from corn residue and soil with CO2 emissions measured using eddy covariance, with 12% average error over nine years. The model estimated residue removal of 6 Mg per ha-1 yr-1 over five to ten years could decrease regional net SOC by an average of 0.47-0.66 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. These emissions add an average of 50-70 g CO2 per megajoule of biofuel (range 30-90) and are insensitive to the fraction of residue removed. Unless lost C is replaced, life cycle emissions will probably exceed the US legislative mandate of 60% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared with gasoline.

Liska, Adam J.; Yang, Haishun; Milner, Maribeth; Goddard, Steve; Blanco-Canqui, Humberto; Pelton, Matthew P.; Fang, Xiao X.; Zhu, Haitao; Suyker, Andrew E.

2014-05-01

33

Nitrogen and phosphorous limitation reduces the effects of land use change on land carbon uptake or emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used an Earth System Model that includes both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling to simulate the impacts of land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) for two representative concentration pathways (RCPs): a reforestation scenario (RCP4.5) and a deforestation scenario (RCP8.5). For each RCP, we performed simulations with and without LULCC using the carbon (C only) mode or including the full C, N and P cycles (CNP). We show, for the first time, that inclusion of N and P cycling reduces both the carbon uptake from reforestation in RCP4.5 and the carbon emission from deforestation in RCP8.5. Specifically, carbon-nutrient interaction reduces carbon uptake in RCP4.5 from 55 Pg C (C only) to 21 Pg C (CNP), or the emissions in RCP8.5 from 72 Pg C (C only) to 56 Pg C (CNP). Most of those reductions result from much weaker responses of net primary production to CO2 fertilization and climate change when carbon-nutrient interaction is taken into account, as compared to C only simulations. Our results highlight the importance of including nutrient-carbon interaction in estimating the carbon benefit from reforestation and carbon loss from deforestation in a future world with higher CO2 and a warmer climate. Because of the stronger nutrient limitation, carbon gain from reforestation in the temperate and boreal regions is much less than the carbon loss from deforestation in the subtropical and tropical regions from 2006 to 2100 for the two RCPs. Therefore protecting the existing subtropical and tropical forests is about twice as effective as planting new forests in the temperate and boreal regions for climate mitigation.

Wang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Qian; Pitman, Andrew J.; Dai, Yongjiu

2015-01-01

34

Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation  

E-print Network

Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

35

Household actions can provide a behavioral wedge to rapidly reduce US carbon emissions.  

PubMed

Most climate change policy attention has been addressed to long-term options, such as inducing new, low-carbon energy technologies and creating cap-and-trade regimes for emissions. We use a behavioral approach to examine the reasonably achievable potential for near-term reductions by altered adoption and use of available technologies in US homes and nonbusiness travel. We estimate the plasticity of 17 household action types in 5 behaviorally distinct categories by use of data on the most effective documented interventions that do not involve new regulatory measures. These interventions vary by type of action and typically combine several policy tools and strong social marketing. National implementation could save an estimated 123 million metric tons of carbon per year in year 10, which is 20% of household direct emissions or 7.4% of US national emissions, with little or no reduction in household well-being. The potential of household action deserves increased policy attention. Future analyses of this potential should incorporate behavioral as well as economic and engineering elements. PMID:19858494

Dietz, Thomas; Gardner, Gerald T; Gilligan, Jonathan; Stern, Paul C; Vandenbergh, Michael P

2009-11-01

36

Household actions can provide a behavioral wedge to rapidly reduce US carbon emissions  

PubMed Central

Most climate change policy attention has been addressed to long-term options, such as inducing new, low-carbon energy technologies and creating cap-and-trade regimes for emissions. We use a behavioral approach to examine the reasonably achievable potential for near-term reductions by altered adoption and use of available technologies in US homes and nonbusiness travel. We estimate the plasticity of 17 household action types in 5 behaviorally distinct categories by use of data on the most effective documented interventions that do not involve new regulatory measures. These interventions vary by type of action and typically combine several policy tools and strong social marketing. National implementation could save an estimated 123 million metric tons of carbon per year in year 10, which is 20% of household direct emissions or 7.4% of US national emissions, with little or no reduction in household well-being. The potential of household action deserves increased policy attention. Future analyses of this potential should incorporate behavioral as well as economic and engineering elements. PMID:19858494

Dietz, Thomas; Gardner, Gerald T.; Gilligan, Jonathan; Stern, Paul C.; Vandenbergh, Michael P.

2009-01-01

37

To reduce its carbon emissions, a Vermont college draws on the power of cows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Green Mountain Becomes First Campus Powered by Vermont Dairy Cowshttp://www.greenmtn.edu/gmcjournal/pop_102306_cow_power.aspLocal farm leading way for green powerhttp://www.addisonindependent.com/?q=node/295CVPS Cow Power [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.cvps.com/cowpower/Cow%20Power%20home.htmlThe Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energyhttp://www.ashdenawards.org/Vermont is a state that is known for its passion in developing alternative farming methods and independence in its political thought. Now it can lay claim to another important recent development in its long history. As of this week, Green Mountain College in the town of Poultney is believed to be the first college in the United States that will be powered by cows. To be accurate, however, it should be noted that the energy that will be shipped to Green Mountain via the Central Vermont Public Service??s ??Cow Power? program. Power will be created from burning biogas created from cow manure. Initially, the college will derive approximately fifty percent of its energy needs for the main campus from this new energy source. It is estimated that this will allow the college to reduce its carbon emissions by approximately 3500 metric tons per year. There??s a great deal of interest in this program, and the school??s provost, Bill Throop recently commented that ??We want our students learning how to support sustainable communities right here in Vermont and this helps us lead by example.? The first link will take visitors to a CNN news article on this recent development in creating a sustainable energy source on the campus of Green Mountain College. Moving along, the second link leads to a press release from the Green Mountain College Journal which provides some nice details on this new initiative. The third link leads to an article from this Monday??s Addison Independent, which reports on the efforts of the Foster Brothers Farm in Middlebury, Vermont to create a new company that will allow them to sell electricity produced, on farms across the United States. The fourth link will take users to a very fun and informative site provided by the Central Vermont Public Service which explains the niceties of their ??Cow Power? program, and also includes a great segment on ??How Energy Happens?. The last and final link leads to the homepage of The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy. Here, visitors can learn about these rather interesting awards, which honor organizations that have made commitments to developing practical sustainable energy technologies.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

38

Potential for reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture management in the tropics  

PubMed Central

We estimate the potential reductions in methane and carbon dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture management options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practices, and changing breeds of large ruminants on the production of methane and carbon dioxide are calculated for two levels of adoption: complete adoption, to estimate the upper limit to reductions in these greenhouse gases (GHGs), and optimistic but plausible adoption rates taken from the literature, where these exist. Results are expressed both in GHG per ton of livestock product and in Gt CO2-eq. We estimate that the maximum mitigation potential of these options in the land-based livestock systems in the tropics amounts to approximately 7% of the global agricultural mitigation potential to 2030. Using historical adoption rates from the literature, the plausible mitigation potential of these options could contribute approximately 4% of global agricultural GHG mitigation. This could be worth on the order of $1.3 billion per year at a price of $20 per t CO2-eq. The household-level and sociocultural impacts of some of these options warrant further study, however, because livestock have multiple roles in tropical systems that often go far beyond their productive utility. PMID:20823225

Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario

2010-01-01

39

Biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Amazon region - the situation of contemporary period and strategies for reduce these environmental changes  

SciTech Connect

The forest removal is a major contributor to local, regional and global environmental changes. Many of the tropical`s species are gravely threatened Numerous studies suggest that from 1970 to 1990 between 5 and 20 percent of the tropical`s species were committed to extinction. In 1995, the deforested lands in Brazilian Amazon account an amount Superior to 470,000 Km{sup 2}, old deforestation included, for a total surface of tropical`s rain forest of 3.4 and 3.8 million square kilometres. In 1990`s, the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere (as CO{sub 2}) from Brazilian Amazon deforestation was 3.5 % to 4.9 % and 250 % to 360 % of the World and Brazilian annual emission from fossil fuels, respectively. On the other hand, if deforestation is stopped and replaced with a rational forest management, a reuse of degraded lands for agro-forestry and biomass production for energy and industrial purposes, we can reduce the pressure on forests lands and the net carbon flux will be reversed. In this paper, we discuss the relations with biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region in the last thirty years and find suggest the principal`s strategies to reduce this environmental`s destruction.

Freitas, M.A.V. de; Aquino, L.C.; Rosa, L.P.

1997-12-31

40

Black Carbon in the Arctic: Assessment of and efforts to reduce black carbon emissions from wildfires and agricultural burning in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon and other short-lived climate forcers exert a warming effect on the climate but remain in the atmosphere for short time periods when compared to carbon dioxide. Black carbon is a significant contributor to increasing temperatures in the Arctic region, which has warmed at twice the global rate over the past 100 years. Black carbon warms the Arctic by absorbing incoming solar radiation while in the atmosphere and, when deposited onto Arctic ice, leading to increased atmospheric temperatures and snow and ice melt. Black carbon remains in the atmosphere for a short time period ranging from days to weeks; therefore, local atmospheric conditions at the time of burning determine the amount of black carbon transport to the Arctic. Most black carbon transport and deposition in the Arctic results from the occurrence of wildfires, prescribed forest fires, and agricultural burning at latitudes greater than 40 degrees north latitude. Wildfire affects some 10-15 million hectares of forest, forest steppe, and grasslands in Russia each year. In addition to wildfire, there is widespread cropland burning in Russia occurring in the fall following harvest and in the spring prior to tilling. Agricultural burning is common practice for crop residue removal as well as suppression of weeds, insects and residue-borne diseases. The goal of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Black Carbon Initiative is to assess black carbon emissions from agricultural burning and wildfires in Russia and explore practical options and opportunities for reducing emissions from these two sources. The emissions assessment combines satellite-derived burned area measurements of forest and agricultural fires, burn severity information, ancillary geospatial data, vegetation and land cover maps, fuels data, fire emissions data, fire/weather relationship information, and smoke transport models to estimate black carbon transport and deposition in the Arctic. The assessment addresses necessary improvements to fire and burned area detection algorithms to improve agricultural burned area mapping accuracy. Efforts to explore practical options for reducing black carbon emissions from wildfires and agricultural burning in Russia have been focused on designing community-based fire prevention and education programs in Siberia and the Russia Far East, two regions prone to frequent human-caused fires. The initiative also seeks to identify practical alternatives to reduce black carbon emissions from agricultural burning and to help promote these alternatives through outreach to farmers and other agricultural organizations. This submission will explore the initial findings and results of the emissions assessment and discuss the progress and challenges associated with implementation of local-level fire prevention and mitigation efforts in Russia. The results of this initiative will help inform future policy and management tools to address black carbon emissions from wildfires and agricultural burning in Russia and perhaps additional interested countries.

Kinder, B.; Hao, W. M.; Larkin, N. K.; McCarty, G.; O'neal, K. J.; Gonzalez, O.; Luxenberg, J.; Rosenblum, M.; Petkov, A.

2011-12-01

41

Strategies for reducing carbon emissions on the tropical rain forest: The case of the Brazilian Amazon  

SciTech Connect

Forests systems are renewable resources that can be used by present generations and that should be available to future generations if they are exploited on a sustainable basis. The tropical forest is still an immense and unknown field. The issues are: What means a sustainable basis in the tropical rain forests? What are the means of harmonising an economic development with an environmental equilibrium in tropical regions? One way to meet this requirement is to analyse the potentially {open_quotes}no regrets{close_quotes} options on which it is possible to agree upon despite controversies about what will be the true long run costs and benefits of various courses of actions. In the case of the Brazilian Amazon, in the last thirty years, the use of biomass and land has increased rapidly. Therefore, environmental and social problems have emerged with some intensity and have had repercussions on local and global scales. In relation to the recent global environmental changes, the Brazilian Amazon is considered as a key region for biodiversity conservation and preserving a carbon sink. In this paper, the main methodological option is to conceive a set of {open_quotes}no-regret{close_quotes} options, related with the land uses and biomass valorisation, which are analysed through the same framework. The options considered here are: decrease of the great cattle ranching and of the predatory timber extraction; the increase of forest management (harvest of timber and nontimber extractive products) and forest plantations in the degraded lands. The aims to focus on three elements: job creation, technico-economic adequation and environmental impacts, with special regards concerning the limitation of the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon flow).

Freitas, M.A.V. de; Rosa, L.P.

1995-11-01

42

Subsidence and carbon loss in drained tropical peatlands: reducing uncertainty and implications for CO2 emission reduction options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversion of tropical peatlands to agriculture leads to a release of carbon from previously stable, long-term storage, resulting in land subsidence that can be a surrogate measure of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. We present an analysis of recent large-scale subsidence monitoring studies in Acacia and oil palm plantations on peatland in SE Asia, and compare the findings with previous studies. Subsidence in the first 5 years after drainage was found to be 142 cm, of which 75 cm occurred in the first year. After 5 years, the subsidence rate in both plantation types, at average water table depths of 0.7 m, remained constant at around 5 cm yr-1. Bulk density profiles indicate that consolidation contributes only 7 % to total subsidence, in the first year after drainage, and that the role of compaction is also reduced quickly and becomes negligible after 5 years. Over 18 years after drainage, 92 % of cumulative subsidence was caused by peat oxidation. The average rate of carbon loss over the first 5 years was 178 t ha-1 yr-1 CO2eq, which reduced to 73 t ha-1 yr-1 CO2eq over subsequent years, resulting in an average loss of 100 t ha-1 yr-1 CO2eq annualized over 25 years. Part of the observed range in subsidence and carbon loss values is explained by differences in water table depth, but vegetation cover and addition of fertilizers also influence peat oxidation. A relationship with groundwater table depth shows that subsidence and carbon loss are still considerable even at the highest water table levels theoretically possible in plantations. This implies that improved water management will reduce these impacts by only 20 % at most, relative to current conditions, and that high rates of carbon loss and land subsidence should be accepted as inevitable consequences of conversion of forested tropical peatlands to other land uses.

Hooijer, A.; Page, S.; Jauhiainen, J.; Lee, W. A.; Lu, X. X.; Idris, A.; Anshari, G.

2011-09-01

43

Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon  

E-print Network

generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have been raised whether development of shale gas resources results in an overall lower greenhouse gas, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas," appeared in Environmental Research Letters

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

44

Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released today by scientists at Syracuse and  

E-print Network

Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released emissions from power plants would provide an added bonus--reductions in other air pollutants that can make air pollutants across the continental United States. The authors of the new study, Co

Mather, Patrick T.

45

Strategies for carbon sequestration and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from nursery production systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Currently two experiments are being conducted to determine the impact of the ornamental horticulture industry on GHG emissions and on C sequestration. One study focuses on the effect of nursery container size to begin indentifying components of the industry that may impact GHG emissions. In this stu...

46

Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden  

E-print Network

France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 20052010, a vehicles tax is negatively correlated with its ...

Klier, Thomas

47

Strategies for Carbon Sequestration and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Nursery Production Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the past three decades, no issue has received more attention from the scientific community than global warming and the possible impacts it may have on the global environment. Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, along with those of other trace gases [i.e., methane (CH4), an...

48

Energy Prices, Taxes and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxes levied on the carbon content of fuels (carbon taxes) are being considered in many OECD countries as a possible policy instrument to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This paper first reviews the policy response in Member countries to the threat of global warming. It then discusses the link between carbon emission intensities and current energy prices, touching also on the

Peter Hoeller; Markku Wallin

1991-01-01

49

The U.S. Federal Government's Efforts to Estimate an Economic Value for Reduced Carbon Emissions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will summarize the technical process and results from recent U.S. Federal government efforts to estimate the social cost of carbon (SCC); the monetized damages associated with an incremental increase in carbon dioxide emissions in a given year. The purpose of the SCC estimates is to make it possible for Federal agencies to incorporate the social benefits from reducing CO2 emissions into cost-benefit analyses of regulatory actions that have relatively small impacts on cumulative global emissions. An interagency working group initiated a comprehensive analysis using three integrated assessment models. The interagency group chose to rely on three of the most widely recognized peer-reviewed models to fairly represent differences in the way in which economic impacts from climate change are modeled (DICE, PAGE, and FUND). The main objective of this process was to develop a range of SCC values using a defensible set of input assumptions grounded in the existing scientific and economic literatures. In this way, key uncertainties and model differences transparently and consistently inform the range of SCC estimates used in the rulemaking process. This proved challenging since the literature did not always agree on the best path forward. In some cases the group agreed to a range of assumptions to allow for uncertainty analysis (e.g., they include 5 different socioeconomic scenarios in the Monte Carlo analysis to reflect uncertainty about how future economic and population growth and energy systems will develop over the next 100 years). The four values selected for regulatory analysis included three estimates based on the average SCC from three integrated assessment models over a range of discount rates, since there is wide disagreement on which to apply in an inter-generational context. The fourth value represents the 95th percentile SCC estimate across all three models at a 3 percent discount rate and is included to represent higher-than-expected impacts from temperature change further out in the tails of the SCC distribution. The interagency working group recognized that there are a number of serious challenges in attempting to assess the incremental economic impacts of CO2 emissions. A recent report from the National Academies of Science (NRC 2009) points out that any assessment will suffer from uncertainty, speculation, and lack of information about future emissions of greenhouse gases, the effects of emissions on the climate system, the impact of changes in climate on the physical and biological environment, and the translation of these environmental impacts into economic damages. In addition to highlighting key areas in need of future research in the interagency technical document, the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency are planning two workshops that will bring the very best climate modelers from the scientific and economic community together to discuss key gaps in the literature and how to improve current modeling capabilities. I will briefly summarize the main outcomes from the first of two workshops, scheduled to occur in November 2010.

Wolverton, A.

2010-12-01

50

The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km2 that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined

David L. A. Gaveau; Serge Wich; Justin Epting; Daniel Juhn; Markku Kanninen; Nigel Leader-Williams

2009-01-01

51

The Confusing Allure of Combined Heat and Power: The Financial Attraction and Management Challenge of Reducing Energy Spend and Resulting Carbon Emissions Through Onsite Power Generation  

E-print Network

from the perspective of reducing energy spending and energy-related carbon emissionsis combined heat and power ("CHP"), sometimes referred to as cogeneration. However, the results of CHP deployment to date have been mixedlargely because companies do not fully...

Davis, R.

52

Potential for Woody Bioenergy Crops Grown on Marginal Lands in the US Midwest to Reduce Carbon Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While cellulosic biofuels are widely considered to be a low carbon energy source for the future, a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of existing and future biofuel systems is needed to assess their utility in meeting US energy and food needs without exacerbating environmental harm. To assess the carbon emission reduction potential of cellulosic biofuels, we need to identify lands that are initially not storing large quantities of carbon in soil and vegetation but are capable of producing abundant biomass with limited management inputs, and accurately model forest production rates and associated input requirements. Here we present modeled results for carbon emission reduction potential and cellulosic ethanol production of woody bioenergy crops replacing existing native prairie vegetation grown on marginal lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands are selected based on soil properties describing use limitation, and are extracted from the SSURGO (Soil Survey Geographic) database. Yield estimates for existing native prairie vegetation on marginal lands modeled using the process-based field-scale model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) amount to ~ 6.72.0 Mg ha-1. To model woody bioenergy crops, the individual-based terrestrial ecosystem model ED (Ecosystem Demography) is initialized with the soil organic carbon stocks estimated at the end of the EPIC simulation. Four woody bioenergy crops: willow, southern pine, eucalyptus and poplar are parameterized in ED. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters and drivers is conducted to explore the range of carbon emission reduction possible with variation in woody bioenergy crop types, spatial and temporal resolution. We hypothesize that growing cellulosic crops on these marginal lands can provide significant water quality, biodiversity and GHG emissions mitigation benefits, without accruing additional carbon costs from the displacement of food and feed production.

Sahajpal, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J. P.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Zhang, X.

2012-12-01

53

MOBILISING RURAL HOUSEHOLDS TO STORE CARBON, REDUCE HARMFUL EMISSIONS AND IMPROVE SOIL FERTILITY;INTRODUCTION OF THIRD GENERATION STOVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercialization of a high-efficiency household stove, which burns crop and forest waste as part of a clean, carbon capturing & storing household energy programme, to be implemented with local reforestation initiative. This paper introduces the concept of mobilising rural households in developing countries to help alleviate the impacts of climate change through a reduction of emissions from inefficient biomass burning

Robert Flanagan; Stephen Joseph

54

Edge effect enhanced electron field emission in top assembled reduced graphene oxide assisted by amorphous CNT-coated carbon cloth substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work a hybrid structure assembly of amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) -reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has been fabricated on carbon cloth/PET substrates for enhanced edge effect assisted flexible field emission device application. The carbon nanostructures prepared by chemical processes were finally deposited one over the other by a simple electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method on carbon cloth (CC) fabric. The thin films were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Field assisted electron emission measurement was performed on this hybrid structure. It was observed that the hybrid carbon nanostructure showed exceptional field emission properties with outstanding low turn-on and threshold field (Eto 0.26 V?m-1, Eth 0.55 V?m1). These observed results are far better compared to standalone and plasma etched edge enhanced RGO systems due to the bottom layer a-CNTs bed which assisted in significant enhancement of edge effect in RGO sheets.

Roy, Rajarshi; Jha, Arunava; Banerjee, Diptonil; Sankar Das, Nirmalya; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

2013-01-01

55

Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides this new data on carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring in 1995. Data for one degree grid cells can be downloaded from the site in addition to code for analysis of the data.

56

Australian climatecarbon cycle feedback reduced by soil black carbon  

E-print Network

LETTERS Australian climate­carbon cycle feedback reduced by soil black carbon JOHANNES LEHMANN1 Annual emissions of carbon dioxide from soil organic carbon are an order of magnitude greater than all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions taken together1 . Global warming is likely to increase the decomposition

Lehmann, Johannes

57

Controlling carbon emissions in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the use of carbon taxes to reduce emissions of CO2 in China. To do so, we develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Chinese economy. In addition to accounting for the effects of population growth, capital accumulation, technological change, and changing patterns of demand, we also incorporate into our model elements of the dual nature

RICHARD F. GARBACCIO; MUN S. HO; DALE W. JORGENSON

1999-01-01

58

Role of lignin in reducing life-cycle carbon emissions, water use, and cost for United States cellulosic biofuels.  

PubMed

Cellulosic ethanol can achieve estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions greater than 80% relative to gasoline, largely as a result of the combustion of lignin for process heat and electricity in biorefineries. Most studies assume lignin is combusted onsite, but exporting lignin to be cofired at coal power plants has the potential to substantially reduce biorefinery capital costs. We assess the life-cycle GHG emissions, water use, and capital costs associated with four representative biorefinery test cases. Each case is evaluated in the context of a U.S. national scenario in which corn stover, wheat straw, and Miscanthus are converted to 1.4 EJ (60 billion liters) of ethanol annually. Life-cycle GHG emissions range from 4.7 to 61 g CO2e/MJ of ethanol (compared with ? 95 g CO2e/MJ of gasoline), depending on biorefinery configurations and marginal electricity sources. Exporting lignin can achieve GHG emission reductions comparable to onsite combustion in some cases, reduce life-cycle water consumption by up to 40%, and reduce combined heat and power-related capital costs by up to 63%. However, nearly 50% of current U.S. coal-fired power generating capacity is expected to be retired by 2050, which will limit the capacity for lignin cofiring and may double transportation distances between biorefineries and coal power plants. PMID:24988448

Scown, Corinne D; Gokhale, Amit A; Willems, Paul A; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

2014-08-01

59

Forest carbon response to management scenarios intended to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce fire impacts in the US West Coast region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US West coast forests are among the most carbon dense biomes in the world and the potential for biomass accumulation in mesic coastal forests is the highest recorded (Waring and Franklin 1979, Hudiburg et al. 2009). Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies have recently expanded to include forest woody biomass as bioenergy, with the expectation that this will also reduce forest mortality. We examined forest carbon response and life cycle assessment (LCA) of net carbon emissions following varying combinations of bioenergy management scenarios in Pacific Northwest forests for the period from 2010-2100. We use the NCAR CLM4 model combined with a regional atmospheric forcing dataset and account for future environmental change using the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Bioenergy management strategies include a repeated thinning harvest, a repeated clearcut harvest, and a single salvage harvest in areas with projected insect-related mortality. None of the bioenergy management scenarios reduce net emissions to the atmosphere compared to continued business-as-usual harvest (BAU) by the end of the 21st century. Forest regrowth and reduced fire emissions are not large enough to balance the wood removals from harvest. Moreover, the substitution of wood for fossil fuel energy and products is not large enough to offset the wood losses through decomposition and combustion. However, in some ecoregions (Blue Mountains and East Cascades), emissions from the thinning harvests begin to improve over BAU at the end of the century and could lead to net reductions in those ecoregions over a longer time period (> 100 years). For salvage logging, there is no change compared to BAU emissions by the end of the 21st century because the treatment area is minimal compared to the other treatments and only performed once. These results suggest that managing forests for carbon sequestration will need to include a variety of approaches accounting for forest baseline conditions and in some ecoregions, harvest reductions below current levels will sequester more carbon than additional harvest removals for bioenergy. References: Hudiburg, T., B. E. Law, D. P. Turner, J. Campbell, D. Donato, and M. Duane. 2009. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage. Ecological Applications 19:163-180. Waring, R. H., and J. F. Franklin. 1979. Evergreen Coniferous Forests of the Pacific Northwest. Science 204:1380-1386.

Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.; Luyssaert, S.

2012-12-01

60

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide,

John A. Ruether

1998-01-01

61

Low carbon spaces: area-based carbon emission reduction -a scoping study  

E-print Network

Low carbon spaces: area-based carbon emission reduction - a scoping study 02.06.02 #12;1 Low Carbon Spaces Area-Based Carbon Emission Reduction: A Scoping Study Prepared for the Sustainable Development examining the prospects for an area-based approach to reducing carbon emissions in which different spatial

62

The carbon emissions of Chinese cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As increasing urbanization has become a national policy priority for economic growth in China, cities have become important players in efforts to reduce carbon emissions. However, their efforts have been hampered by the lack of specific and comparable carbon emission inventories. Comprehensive carbon emission inventories, which present both a relatively current snapshot and also show how emissions have changed over the past several years, of twelve Chinese cities were developed using bottom-up approach. Carbon emissions in most of Chinese cities rose along with economic growth from 2004 to 2008. Yet per capita carbon emissions varied between the highest and lowest emitting cities by a factor of nearly 7. Average per capita carbon emissions varied across sectors, including industrial energy consumption (64.3%), industrial processes (10.2%), transportation (10.6%), household energy consumption (8.0%), commercial energy consumption (4.3%) and waste processing (2.5%). The levels of per capita carbon emissions in China's cities were higher than we anticipated before comparing them with the average of global cities. This is mainly due to the major contribution of industry sector encompassing industrial energy consumption and industrial processes to the total carbon emissions of Chinese cities.

Wang, H.; Bi, J.; Zhang, R.; Liu, M.

2012-03-01

63

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01

64

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01

65

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

Ruether, J.A.

1998-02-01

66

Applications of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Emissions from Fossil-fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon

M. Balat; H. Balat; C. z

2009-01-01

67

The potential for energy efficient technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the United States: The industrial sector  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an assessment of the possible contribution that an invigorated effort to move energy efficient technology which is commercially available, or near commercialization, into the market could make to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the US industrial sector by 2010. It presents preliminary results from the industrial sector chapter of a larger study being undertaken by the Dept. of Energy. The authors begin with some background information on their approach to the assessment and how that approach is shaped by the complexities of the US industrial sector and the limitations of the available analytical tools for this sector. They then describe the results of their model-based scenario analysis through the year 2010. They summarize examples of the types of technologies that, were they to come into widespread use in the US industrial sector in the near term, would achieve the model scenario results, acknowledging that widespread adoption of these technologies would require the appropriate policies (e.g., accelerated R and D, fiscal incentives and market conditions).

Boyd, G.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Roop, J.M.; Woodruff, M.G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1997-12-31

68

Carbon Emission Flow in Networks  

PubMed Central

As the human population increases and production expands, energy demand and anthropogenic carbon emission rates have been growing rapidly, and the need to decrease carbon emission levels has drawn increasing attention. The link between energy production and consumption has required the large-scale transport of energy within energy transmission networks. Within this energy flow, there is a virtual circulation of carbon emissions. To understand this circulation and account for the relationship between energy consumption and carbon emissions, this paper introduces the concept of carbon emission flow in networks and establishes a method to calculate carbon emission flow in networks. Using an actual analysis of China's energy pattern, the authors discuss the significance of this new concept, not only as a feasible approach but also as an innovative theoretical perspective. PMID:22761988

Kang, Chongqing; Zhou, Tianrui; Chen, Qixin; Xu, Qianyao; Xia, Qing; Ji, Zhen

2012-01-01

69

Low Carbon Emission IP over WDM Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a low carbon emission IP over WDM network where renewable energy is used to reduce the CO2 emissions at a given energy consumption level. We develop a Linear Programming (LP) model to minimize the non-renewable energy consumption of the network and propose a novel heuristic for improving renewable energy utilization. Compared with routing in the

Xiaowen Dong; Taisir El-Gorashi; Jaafar M. H. Elmirghani

2011-01-01

70

Reducing carbon dioxide to products  

DOEpatents

A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

2014-09-30

71

The carbon emissions of Chinese cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As increasing urbanization has become a national policy priority for economic growth in China, cities have become important players in efforts to reduce carbon emissions. However, their efforts have been hampered by the lack of specific and comparable carbon emission inventories. Comprehensive carbon emission inventories for twelve Chinese cities, which present both a relatively current snapshot and also show how emissions have changed over the past several years, were developed using a bottom-up approach. Carbon emissions in most Chinese cities rose along with economic growth from 2004 to 2008. Yet per capita carbon emissions varied between the highest and lowest emitting cities by a factor of nearly 7. Average contributions of sectors to per capita emissions for all Chinese cities were 65.1% for industrial energy consumption, 10.1% for industrial processes, 10.4% for transportation, 7.7% for household energy consumption, 4.2% for commercial energy consumption and 2.5% for waste processing. However, these shares are characterized by considerable variability due to city-specific factors. The levels of per capita carbon emissions in China's cities were higher than we anticipated before comparing them with the average of ten cities in other parts of the world. This is mainly due to the major contribution of the industry sector in Chinese cities.

Wang, H.; Zhang, R.; Liu, M.; Bi, J.

2012-07-01

72

Burner retrofits reduce brewery emissions  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California (SCAQMD) tightened its grip on industrial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The new statute, Rule 1146, mandates a 75% reduction in NOx emissions over a five-year period ending this July. Anheuser-Busch Inc.'s second-largest brewery in Van Nuys fell under the new law's jurisdiction. Under the new law, the maximum allowable NOx emission must be reduced from 120 to 30 ppm for the two largest boilers. There were two alternatives: either prevent its formation inside the boiler, or remove it from the off-gases via selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Prevention was chosen, because the NOx-removal technologies are unproven in the US on natural-gas-fired boilers. In addition, it was not known whether SCR or SNCR could respond to the wide swings in boiler demand. At any given time, loads between 30 and 100% of capacity would be required from the boilers. The brewery retrofitted the 125,000-lb/h boilers with Variflame burners, based upon an earlier retrofit at Anheuser-Busch's Merrimack, N.H., brewery. The paper describes this burner and its performance.

Not Available

1993-04-01

73

The only way to achieve low carbon emission targets is to substantially reduce the energy used in buildings.  

E-print Network

reduce the energy used in buildings. Adding `renewables' electricity generation to a building is very costly compared with designing a building that performs well in the first place, but to do this needs the economy. Market Research for Centres of Excellence in Sustainable Building Design Department

Burton, Geoffrey R.

74

Gasoline containing exhaust emission reducing additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust hydrocarbon emissions from an internal combustion engine being operated on gasoline containing a cyclopentadienyl manganese antiknock are reduced by the addition of an exhaust emission reducing amount of a polyester of a polymerized carboxylic acid to the gasoline.

Niebylski

1981-01-01

75

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18

76

World Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950-2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced-form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period of 1950-1990. Using the same set of income and population growth assumptions as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), we find that the IPCC's widely used emissions

Richard Schmalensee; Thomas M. Stoker; Ruth A. Judson

1998-01-01

77

Carbon emission from farm operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript is a synthesis of the available information on energy use in farm operations, and its conversion into carbon equivalent (CE). A principal advantage of expressing energy use in terms of carbon (C) emission as kg CE lies in its direct relation to the rate of enrichment of atmospheric concentration of CO2. Synthesis of the data shows that estimates

R Lal

2004-01-01

78

Black carbon emissions in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black carbon (BC) is an important aerosol species because of its global and regional influence on radiative forcing and its local effects on the environment and human health. We have estimated the emissions of BC in China, where roughly one-fourth of global anthropogenic emissions is believed to originate. China's high rates of usage of coal and biofuels are primarily responsible

David G. Streets; Shalini Gupta; Stephanie T. Waldhoff; Michael Q. Wang; Tami C. Bond; Bo Yiyun

2001-01-01

79

Trading permanent and temporary carbon emissions credits  

SciTech Connect

In this issue of Climatic Change, Van Kooten (2009) addresses an issue that has bedeviled negotiators since the drafting stage of the Kyoto Protocol. If we accept that increasing withdrawals of carbon dioxide from the atmpshere has the same net impact on the climate system as reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, how do we design a system that allows trading of one for the other? As van Kooten expresses the challenge: 'The problem is that emissions reduction and carbon sequestration, while opposite sides of the same coin in some sense, are not directly comparable, thereby inhibiting their trade in carbon markets.' He explains: 'The difficulty centers on the length of time that mitigation strategies without CO{sub 2} from entering the atmosphere - the duration problem.' While reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} represents an essentially permanent benefit for the atmosphere, capturing CO{sub 2} that has been produced (whether capture is from the atmosphere or directly from, for example, the exhaust from power plants) there is the challenge of storing the carbon adn the risk that it will yet escape to the atmosphere. Permanent benefit to the atmosphere is often not assured for carbon sequestration activities. This is especially true if the carbon is taken up and stored in the biosphere - e.g. in forest trees or agricultural soils.

Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University

2009-08-01

80

Unintended Consequences of Transportation Carbon Policies: Land-Use, Emissions, and Innovation  

E-print Network

Unintended Consequences of Transportation Carbon Policies: Land-Use, Emissions, and Innovation Abstract Renewable fuel standards, low carbon fuel standards, and ethanol subsidies are popular policies to incentivize ethanol production and reduce emissions from transportation. Compared to carbon trading

Rothman, Daniel

81

ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING LIFECYLE CARBON EMISSIONS  

E-print Network

Even though the Carbon Capture & Sequestration Technologies (CC & ST) program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology initiated carbon emission research in late 1990s (CSI, 2013), carbon emissions has only become a ...

Kwok, George

2014-05-31

82

Policy Options to Reduce Ireland's Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A side effect of the economic downturn since 2008 is that Ireland may meet its Kyoto Protocol commitment for 2008-2012 to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, but that its longer term targets for 2020 and beyond are still stringent. This paper addresses both the political challenge and the economic implications of moving to a low-carbon state. The cost of reducing

Thomas Legge; Susan Scott

83

Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today.\\u000aIn order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof,\\u000athe emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane\\u000a(CH4 ) should be reduced.\\u000aMuch greenhouse gases are emitted due

Marko Peter Hekkert

2000-01-01

84

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski  

E-print Network

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

85

Methods for reducing pollutant emissions from jet aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pollutant emissions from jet aircraft and combustion research aimed at reducing these emissions are defined. The problem of smoke formation and results achieved in smoke reduction from commercial combustors are discussed. Expermental results of parametric tests performed on both conventional and experimental combustors over a range of combustor-inlet conditions are presented. Combustor design techniques for reducing pollutant emissions are discussed. Improved fuel atomization resulting from the use of air-assist fuel nozzles has brought about significant reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at idle. Diffuser tests have shown that the combustor-inlet airflow profile can be controlled through the use of diffuser-wall bleed and that it may thus be possible to reduce emissions by controlling combustor airflow distribution. Emissions of nitric oxide from a shortlength annular swirl-can combustor were significantly lower than those from a conventional combustor operating at similar conditions.

Butze, H. F.

1971-01-01

86

Carbon taxes, consumer demand and carbon dioxide emissions: a simulation analysis for the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the effects of a carbon tax, one of the possible instruments for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Such taxes are currently being proposed as a means of reducing CO2 emissions, motivated by concerns about the global greenhouse effect and its potential impact on global climate and sea levels (Cline, 1991) and on global economies (Nordhaus,

Elizabeth Symons; John Proops; Philip Gay

1994-01-01

87

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The era of publicly mandated GHG emissions restrictions inthe United States has begun with recent legislation in California andseven northeastern states. Commercial and industrial buildings canimprove the carbon-efficiency of end-use energy consumption by installingtechnologies such as on-site cogeneration of electricity and useful heatin combined heat and power systems, thermally-activated cooling, solarelectric and thermal equipment, and energy storage -- collectively termeddistributed energy resources (DER). This research examines a collectionof buildings in California, the Northeast, and the southern United Statesto demonstrate the effects of regional characteristics such as the carbonintensity of central electricity grid, the climate-driven demand forspace heating and cooling, and the availability of solar insolation. Theresults illustrate that the magnitude of a realistic carbon tax ($100/tC)is too small to incent significant carbon-reducing effects oneconomically optimal DER adoption. In large part, this is because costreduction and carbon reduction objectives are roughly aligned, even inthe absence of a carbon tax.

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2007-05-01

88

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

National Lab Directors, . .

2001-04-05

89

Black carbon emissions in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) is an important aerosol species because of its global and regional influence on radiative forcing and its local effects on the environment and human health. We have estimated the emissions of BC in China, where roughly one-fourth of global anthropogenic emissions is believed to originate. China's high rates of usage of coal and biofuels are primarily responsible for high BC emissions. This paper pays particular attention to the application of appropriate emission factors for China and the attenuation of these emissions where control devices are used. Nevertheless, because of the high degree of uncertainty associated with BC emission factors, we provide ranges of uncertainty for our emission estimates, which are approximately a factor of eight. In our central case, we calculate that BC emissions in China in 1995 were 1342 Gg, about 83% being generated by the residential combustion of coal and biofuels. We estimate that BC emissions could fall to 1224 Gg by 2020. This 9% decrease in BC emissions can be contrasted with the expected increase of 50% in energy use; the reduction will be obtained because of a transition to more advanced technology, including greater use of coal briquettes in place of raw coal in cities and towns. The increased use of diesel vehicles in the future will result in a greater share of the transport sector in total BC emissions. Spatially, BC emissions are predominantly distributed in an east-west swath across China's heartland, where the rural use of coal and biofuels for cooking and heating is widespread. This is in contrast to the emissions of most other anthropogenically derived air pollutants, which are closely tied to population and industrial centers.

Streets, David G.; Gupta, Shalini; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Wang, Michael Q.; Bond, Tami C.; Yiyun, Bo

90

Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.  

PubMed

Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 ( 6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 ( 1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 C, and could thus compromise the 2 C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis. PMID:24053762

Mller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Lvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Bratteb, Helge

2013-10-15

91

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

92

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

93

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-print Network

Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01

94

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-print Network

Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

95

Research on carbon emissions trading mechanism between urban industry and base agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by resource utilization of the organic waste in commodity grain base is studied. Put forward the idea of carbon emissions trading between urban and rural areas for the first time. Preliminary design of a kind of carbon emissions trading system is provided, which can not only satisfy the requirements of industrial carbon emissions,

Feng Ren; Ying-zong Liu

2011-01-01

96

Flame modifier to reduce NOx emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for modifying the flow pattern of post ignition combustion products of a flame, preferably an oil fueled and air sustained flame, are disclosed which substantially reduces the concentration of NOx emissions.

T. S. Chao; J. E. Sheets; B. C. Vitchus; M. F. Zygowicz

1981-01-01

97

On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions  

PubMed Central

Equity is of fundamental concern in the quest for international cooperation to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations by the reduction of emissions. By modeling the carbon cycle, we estimate the global CO2 emissions that would be required to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO2 at levels ranging from 450 to 1,000 ppm. These are compared, on both an absolute and a per-capita basis, to scenarios for emissions from the developed and developing worlds generated by socio-economic models under the assumption that actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are not taken. Need and equity have provided strong arguments for developing countries to request that the developed world takes the lead in controlling its emissions, while permitting the developing countries in the meantime to use primarily fossil fuels for their development. Even with major and early control of CO2 emissions by the developed world, limiting concentration to 450 ppm implies that the developing world also would need to control its emissions within decades, given that we expect developing world emissions would otherwise double over this time. Scenarios leading to CO2 concentrations of 550 ppm exhibit a reduction of the developed world's per-capita emission by about 50% over the next 50 years. Even for the higher stabilization levels considered, the developing world would not be able to use fossil fuels for their development in the manner that the developed world has used them. PMID:11296250

Bolin, Bert; Kheshgi, Haroon S.

2001-01-01

98

Australian climate-carbon cycle feedback reduced by soil black carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annual emissions of carbon dioxide from soil organic carbon are an order of magnitude greater than all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions taken together. Global warming is likely to increase the decomposition of soil organic carbon, and thus the release of carbon dioxide from soils, creating a positive feedback. Current models of global climate change that recognize this soil carbon feedback are inaccurate if a larger fraction of soil organic carbon than postulated has a very slow decomposition rate. Here we show that by including realistic stocks of black carbon in prediction models, carbon dioxide emissions are reduced by 18.3 and 24.4% in two Australian savannah regions in response to a warming of 3?C over 100 years. This reduction in temperature sensitivity, and thus the magnitude of the positive feedback, results from the long mean residence time of black carbon, which we estimate to be approximately 1,300 and 2,600 years, respectively. The inclusion of black carbon in climate models is likely to require spatially explicit information about its distribution, given that the black carbon content of soils ranged from 0 to 82% of soil organic carbon in a continental-scale analysis of Australia. We conclude that accurate information about the distribution of black carbon in soils is important for projections of future climate change.

Lehmann, Johannes; Skjemstad, Jan; Sohi, Saran; Carter, John; Barson, Michele; Falloon, Pete; Coleman, Kevin; Woodbury, Peter; Krull, Evelyn

2008-12-01

99

Carbon Emission Capstone (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are two ways to reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide: limit how much carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere as we burn fossil fuels, or increase the rate at which it is absorbed. In this lesson, discussion topics include the Kyoto Protocol and the use of carbon credits to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Students can listen to a National Public Radio show that reports on new research that both illuminates and further complicates the picture of how the Earth is warming. The lesson includes an activity in which students examine their personal annual carbon emissions (calculated in the previous exercise) and determine how many trees it would take to sequester these emissions. They will then extrapolate this number to the populations of their school campus and their county.

John Pratte

100

Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions  

DOEpatents

Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

2002-01-01

101

Field emission study of carbon nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, carbon nanosheets (CNS), a novel nanostructure, were developed in our laboratory as a field emission source for high emission current. To characterize, understand and improve the field emission properties of CNS, a ultra-high vacuum surface analysis system was customized to conduct relevant experimental research in four distinct areas. The system includes Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), field emission energy spectroscopy (FEES), field emission I-V testing, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Firstly, commercial Mo single tips were studied to calibrate the customized system. AES and FEES experiments indicate that a pyramidal nanotip of Ca and O elements formed on the Mo tip surface by field induced surface diffusion. Secondly, field emission I-V testing on CNS indicates that the field emission properties of pristine nanosheets are impacted by adsorbates. For instance, in pristine samples, field emission sources can be built up instantaneously and be characterized by prominent noise levels and significant current variations. However, when CNS are processed via conditioning (run at high current), their emission properties are greatly improved and stabilized. Furthermore, only H2 desorbed from the conditioned CNS, which indicates that only H adsorbates affect emission. Thirdly, the TDS study on nanosheets revealed that the predominant locations of H residing in CNS are sp2 hybridized C on surface and bulk. Fourthly, a fabricating process was developed to coat low work function ZrC on nanosheets for field emission enhancement. The carbide triple-peak in the AES spectra indicated that Zr carbide formed, but oxygen was not completely removed. The Zr(CxOy) coating was dispersed as nanobeads on the CNS surface. Although the work function was reduced, the coated CNS emission properties were not improved due to an increased beta factor. Further analysis suggest that for low emission current (<1 uA), the H adsorbates affect emission by altering the work function. In high emission current (>10 uA), thermal, ionic or electronic transition effects may occur, which differently affect the field emission process.

Zhao, Xin

102

CARBON EMISSIONS ECONOMIC INTENSITY INDEX (CEEII)  

EPA Science Inventory

The core concept of the CEEII is to understand, at the state level, the carbon emissions from energy consumption in relation to the value of the activity that generates the emissions. The CEEII treats carbon emissions as an input to producing the activity?s value and assesses th...

103

Carbon Currency: The Credits and Debits of Carbon Emissions Trading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOVA Australia, an initiative of the Australian Academy of Science, posts new feature articles regularly. 2000 publications include "Carbon currency: the credits and debits of carbon emissions trading" (discussing carbon emissions trading and whether trading can limit the enhanced greenhouse effect).

2000-01-01

104

Lower carbon cars by reducing dissipation in hydrogen hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuel is the major source of energy for all forms of motor vehicle, with gasoline and diesel fuels dominating our personal transport. Although biofuels have been used to inject some renewable energy into the transport system, imports of oil and gas to Europe, the USA and Japan continue to rise. A move to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions

Iain Staffell; Kevin Kendall

2011-01-01

105

Healthy habits: reducing our carbon January 30, 2014  

E-print Network

carbon footprint and less pollution The Lab is working to reduce emissions by nearly 30 percent from electric cars that can travel 375 miles on one tank of gas. We're focused on locating structures property provide easy access for our staff to commute to work via bicycle or foot (and many do

106

Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.

2014-06-01

107

Carbon emissions from tropical forest degradation caused by logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of land-use related efforts in developing countries to reduce carbon emissions has been on slowing deforestation, yet international agreements are to reduce emissions from both deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The second D is poorly understood and accounted for a number of technical and policy reasons. Here we introduce a complete accounting method for estimating emission factors from selective timber harvesting, a substantial form of forest degradation in many tropical developing countries. The method accounts separately for emissions from the extracted log, from incidental damage to the surrounding forest, and from logging infrastructure, and emissions are expressed as units of carbon per cubic meter of timber extracted to allow for simple application to timber harvesting statistics. We applied the method in six tropical countries (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Guyana, Indonesia, and Republic of Congo), resulting in total emission factors of 0.99-2.33 Mg C m-3. In all cases, emissions were dominated by damage to surrounding vegetation and the infrastructure rather than the logs themselves, and total emissions represented about 3-15% of the biomass carbon stocks of the associated unlogged forests. We then combined the emission factors with country level logging statistics for nine key timber producing countries represented by our study areas to gain an understanding of the order of magnitude of emissions from degradation compared to those recently reported for deforestation in the same countries. For the nine countries included, emissions from logging were on average equivalent to about 12% of those from deforestation. For those nine countries with relatively low emissions from deforestation, emissions from logging were equivalent to half or more of those from deforestation, whereas for those countries with the highest emissions from deforestation, emissions from logging were equivalent to <10% of those from deforestation. Understanding how to account emissions and the magnitude of each emissions source resulting from tropical timber harvesting practices helps identify where there are opportunities to reduce emissions from the second D in REDD.

Pearson, Timothy R. H.; Brown, Sandra; Casarim, Felipe M.

2014-03-01

108

Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures on Mars associated with clay and salt minerals. The Mars Science Laboratory s investigators should be aware of reduced organic carbon components within clay-bearing phases.

Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.

2012-01-01

109

Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from

J. P. Greenberg; P. R. Zimmerman; L. Heidt; W. Pollock

1984-01-01

110

Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector  

SciTech Connect

Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

2011-01-01

111

Aluminum: Reducing chloride emissions from aluminum production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reynolds Metals Company (RMC), with assistance from a NICE³ grant, is developing for commercialization a closed-loop control process that greatly reduces chlorine emissions and increases plant efficiency while maintaining metal quality. The process still utilizes chlorine to remove impurities during aluminum processing, but is more effective than current methods. With the new technology chlorine in the stack is monitored and

Simon

1999-01-01

112

Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films  

SciTech Connect

The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

1999-11-29

113

Methods for reducing pollutant emissions from jet aircraft.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to define the problem of pollutant emissions from jet aircraft and to review NASA-Lewis combustion research aimed at reducing these emissions. The problem of smoke formation and results achieved in smoke reduction from commercial combustors are discussed. Experimental results of parametric tests performed on both conventional and experimental combustors over a range of combustor-inlet conditions are presented. Combustor design techniques for reducing pollutant emissions are discussed. Improved fuel atomization resulting from the use of air-assist fuel nozzles has brought about significant reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at idle. Diffuser tests have shown that the combustor-inlet airflow profile can be controlled through the use of diffuser-wall bleed and that it may thus be possible to reduce emissions by controlling combustor airflow distribution. Emissions of nitric oxide from a shortlength annular swirl-can combustor were significantly lower than those from a conventional combustor operating at similar conditions.

Butze, H. F.

1971-01-01

114

Reduced Martian Carbon: Evidence from Martian Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Identification of indigenous reduced carbon species on Mars has been a challenge since the first hypotheses about life on Mars were proposed. Ranging from the early astronomical measurements to analyses of samples from the Martian surface in the form of Martian meteorites. The first direct attempt to analyze the carbon species on the surface was in 1976 with the Viking GC-MS in-situ experiment which gave inconclusive results at two sites on Mars [1]. With the recognition in 1983 that samples of the Martian surface were already present on Earth in the form of Martian meteorites by Bogard and Johnson [2] new opportunities became available for direct study of Mars's samples in te rlraesbtrioalratories. Carbon isotopic compositional information suggested a reduced carbon component was present in the Martian meteorites [3-5]. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with carbonate globules in ALH84001 were later identified [6,7]. Jull et al [8] noted that an insoluble component was present within Nakhla and more than 75% of its C lacked any 14C, which is modern-day carbon contaminant. This carbon fraction was believed to be either indigenous (i..e. Martian) or ancient meteoritic carbon phase. Within the fractures of Nakhla and ALH84001, Fisk et al [9,10] identified reduced carbon-enriched areas. Gibson et al. [11] using a combination of NanoSIMS, Focused Electron microscopy, Laser Raman Spectroscopy and Stepped-Combustion Static Mass Spectrometry analyses the presence of possible indigenous reduced carbon components within the 1.3 Ga old Nakhla.

Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, SImon J.; Pillinger, COlin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Verchovsky, A. P.

2010-01-01

115

Management practices affects soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural practices contribute about 25% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Soil can act both as sink or source of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide fixed in plant biomass through photosynthesis can be stored in soil as organi...

116

Carbon dioxide emissions and global GDP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) implicated in global warming, and GDP is shown in this paper, examining per capita income and CO2 emissions of 137 countries across 21 years. It also appears that as per capita incomes accelerate across countries emissions increases, for the most part, tend to decelerate. It could be

Michael Tucker

1995-01-01

117

Degassing of reduced carbon from planetary basalts.  

PubMed

Degassing of planetary interiors through surface volcanism plays an important role in the evolution of planetary bodies and atmospheres. On Earth, carbon dioxide and water are the primary volatile species in magmas. However, little is known about the speciation and degassing of carbon in magmas formed on other planets (i.e., Moon, Mars, Mercury), where the mantle oxidation state [oxygen fugacity (fO2)] is different from that of the Earth. Using experiments on a lunar basalt composition, we confirm that carbon dissolves as carbonate at an fO2 higher than -0.55 relative to the iron wustite oxygen buffer (IW-0.55), whereas at a lower fO2, we discover that carbon is present mainly as iron pentacarbonyl and in smaller amounts as methane in the melt. The transition of carbon speciation in mantle-derived melts at fO2 less than IW-0.55 is associated with a decrease in carbon solubility by a factor of 2. Thus, the fO2 controls carbon speciation and solubility in mantle-derived melts even more than previous data indicate, and the degassing of reduced carbon from Fe-rich basalts on planetary bodies would produce methane-bearing, CO-rich early atmospheres with a strong greenhouse potential. PMID:23569260

Wetzel, Diane T; Rutherford, Malcolm J; Jacobsen, Steven D; Hauri, Erik H; Saal, Alberto E

2013-05-14

118

Degassing of reduced carbon from planetary basalts  

PubMed Central

Degassing of planetary interiors through surface volcanism plays an important role in the evolution of planetary bodies and atmospheres. On Earth, carbon dioxide and water are the primary volatile species in magmas. However, little is known about the speciation and degassing of carbon in magmas formed on other planets (i.e., Moon, Mars, Mercury), where the mantle oxidation state [oxygen fugacity (fO2)] is different from that of the Earth. Using experiments on a lunar basalt composition, we confirm that carbon dissolves as carbonate at an fO2 higher than -0.55 relative to the iron wustite oxygen buffer (IW-0.55), whereas at a lower fO2, we discover that carbon is present mainly as iron pentacarbonyl and in smaller amounts as methane in the melt. The transition of carbon speciation in mantle-derived melts at fO2 less than IW-0.55 is associated with a decrease in carbon solubility by a factor of 2. Thus, the fO2 controls carbon speciation and solubility in mantle-derived melts even more than previous data indicate, and the degassing of reduced carbon from Fe-rich basalts on planetary bodies would produce methane-bearing, CO-rich early atmospheres with a strong greenhouse potential. PMID:23569260

Wetzel, Diane T.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Hauri, Erik H.; Saal, Alberto E.

2013-01-01

119

Reducing Methyl Halide Emissions from Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatilization and soil transformation are major pathways by which pesticides dissipate from treated agricultural soil. Methyl bromide (MeBr) emissions from agricultural fumigation can lead to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. This has led to a gradual phase-out of MeBr and replacement by other halogenated chemicals. However, MeBr continues to be widely used under Critical Use Exemptions and development of emission-reduction strategies remains important. Several methods to reduce emissions of MeBr, and other halogenated soil fumigants, have been developed and are currently being tested under field conditions. In this paper, several approaches for reducing fumigant emissions to the atmosphere are described and include the use of virtually impermeable films, the creation of reactive soil barriers and a recently developed reactive film which was designed to limit loss of MeBr from soil without adding any material to the soil surface. Ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) was used to create a reactive layer. For a reactive soil layer, ATS was sprayed on the soil surface or incorporated to a depth of 1-2 cm. For the reactive film, ATS was placed between two layers of plastic film. The lower plastic layer was a high-density polyethylene film (HDPE), which is readily permeable to MeBr. The upper layer was a virtually impermeable film (VIF) and limits MeBr diffusion. MeBr diffusion and transformation through VIFs and reactive layers were tested in laboratory and field experiments. Although ineffective when dry, when sufficient water was present, reactive barriers substantially depleted halogenated fumigants, including MeBr. When ATS was activated in laboratory experiments, MeBr half-life was about 9.0 h (20C) in a reactive film barrier, and half life decreased with increasing temperature. When the soil was covered with VIF, less than 10% of the added MeBr diffused through the film and the remainder was transformed within the soil. This compares with 60 to 90% emission losses, respectively, for a soil covered with HDPE or for a bare soil surface. These findings demonstrate that several methods are available to reduce atmospheric emissions of MeBr and other halogenated fumigants.

Yates, S. R.; Xuan, R.; Ashworth, D.; Luo, L.

2011-12-01

120

The Uncertain Carbon Emissions in China (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions are considered as being well understood with a low uncertainty (9.1 0.5Gt C yr-1). By using full transparency emission inventory which the energy consumption, fuel heating values, carbon content and oxidation rate reported separately in sectoal level, here we found new 2.1 Gt C yr-1 (23% of global total) uncertainties of carbon emission inventory, which mainly contributed by the mass energy use and consumption coal quality in China and by misunderstanding of fuel quality in international fossil fuel trade. Increment of coal's carbon emission in China and India are equivalent to 130 % of global total coal's emission growth during 2008-2010, by using macro energy statistics and bottom up coal mine datasets, the difference carbon emission estimates from China and India can up to 1.32 C yr-1. Emissions from international trade of coal could produce another 0.08 Gt C yr-1 uncertainty. These new emerging 1.4 Gt C yr-1 uncertainties implies a significant mis-estimation of human induced carbon emissions and a new dominating factor in contributing the global carbon budget residual.

Liu, Z.; Guan, D.

2013-12-01

121

Nanofiber Based Carbon Capture Technology to Reduce the CO2 Emissions at GSU Campus PI: Mujibur Rahman Khan, Co-PI: Spencer Harp, Mechanical Engineering Department  

E-print Network

Canister placed after catalytic converter Motivation: This is a pilot project to explore the potential. · Installation and performance testing of filters at the CO2 emission sites (automobile catalytic converters

Hutcheon, James M.

122

Diamond-Coated Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient Field Emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field-emission cathodes containing arrays of carbon nanotubes coated with diamond or diamondlike carbon (DLC) are undergoing development. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been shown to perform well as electron field emitters. The idea underlying the present development is that by coating carbon nanotubes with wideband- gap materials like diamond or DLC, one could reduce effective work functions, thereby reducing threshold electric-field levels for field emission of electrons and, hence, improving cathode performance. To demonstrate feasibility, experimental cathodes were fabricated by (1) covering metal bases with carbon nanotubes bound to the bases by an electrically conductive binder and (2) coating the nanotubes, variously, with diamond or DLC by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. In tests, the threshold electric-field levels for emission of electrons were reduced by as much as 40 percent, relative to those of uncoated- nanotube cathodes. Coating with diamond or DLC could also make field emission-cathodes operate more stably by helping to prevent evaporation of carbon from nanotubes in the event of overheating of the cathodes. Cathodes of this type are expected to be useful principally as electron sources for cathode-ray tubes and flat-panel displays.

Dimitrijevic, Stevan; Withers, James C.

2005-01-01

123

Carbon Emissions Analysis of Rail Resurfacing Work: A Case Study, Practical Guideline, and Systems Thinking Approach  

E-print Network

Carbon pollution has become a sensitive topic across the globe in recent times. In Australia, incentive has been provided to industry in order to reduce carbon emissions in heavy polluting industries. The railway transportation ...

Krezo, S.

124

Reduced Coronal Emission Above Large Isolated Sunspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed specific regions of reduced soft X-ray and microwave emission in five large isolated sunspots. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph 17 GHz observations reveal a local depression of microwave brightness in the peripheral area of the sunspots. The depression regions appear light (weak absorption) in the He 10830 line in areas with extended (open) field lines, as indicated by potential field source surface model (PFSS) extrapolations up to 1.5 R?. The observed depressions of 3 - 8 % in ordinary mode at 17 GHz are interpreted as resulting from free-free emission when the plasma density is lower by 5 - 10 %. Our model estimates show that the decrease in density in both the coronal and the lower layers above the depression region accounts for the depression. These depression regions lend themselves well to marking the location of outward plasma motions.

Ryabov, B. I.; Gary, D. E.; Peterova, N. G.; Shibasaki, K.; Topchilo, N. A.

2015-01-01

125

Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne  

E-print Network

LETTERS Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne Myles R. Allen1 emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon

Fischlin, Andreas

126

Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common valuations. It is clear that, whilst aviation must remain one piece of the transport-jigsaw, environmentally a global regulator with teeth' is urgently required.

Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

2014-10-01

127

Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands  

PubMed Central

The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.410.2Mg of CO2 per hectare per year during the first 25y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486183Mg of CO2 per hectare over 25y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N2O emissions compared to CO2 losses remains unclear. PMID:21081702

Murdiyarso, D.; Hergoualch, K.; Verchot, L. V.

2010-01-01

128

Spatial indeterminacy and power sector carbon emissions accounting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon emission indicators are essential for understanding climate change processes, and for motivating and measuring the effectiveness of carbon reduction policy at multiple scales. Carbon indicators also play an increasingly important role in shaping cultural discourses and politics about nature-society relations and the roles of the state, markets and civil society in creating sustainable natural resource practices and just societies. The analytical and political significance of indicators is tied closely to their objective basis: how accurately they account for the places, people, and processes responsible for emissions. In the electric power sector, however, power-trading across geographic boundaries prevents a simple, purely objective spatial attribution of emissions. Using U.S. states as the unit of analysis, three alternative methods of accounting for carbon emissions from electricity use are assessed, each of which is conceptually sound and methodologically rigorous, yet produces radically different estimates of individual state emissions. Each method also implicitly embodies distinctly different incentive structures for states to enact carbon reduction policies. Because none of the three methods can be said to more accurately reflect "true" emissions levels, I argue the best method is that which most encourages states to reduce emissions. Energy and carbon policy processes are highly contested, however, and thus I examine competing interests and perspectives shaping state energy policy. I explore what it means, philosophically and politically, to predicate emissions estimates on both objectively verifiable past experience and subjectively debatable policy prescriptions for the future. Although developed here at the state scale, the issues engaged and the carbon accounting methodology proposed are directly relevant to carbon analysis and policy formation at scales ranging from the local to the international.

Jiusto, J. Scott

129

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia  

SciTech Connect

In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine.

Kostalova, M. [Office of International Economic Corp., Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Suk, J. [Inst. for Forecasting, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Kolar, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-12-01

130

International Trade in Carbon Emission Rights and Basic Materials: General Equilibrium Calculations for 2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions affect international trade and the pattern of comparative advantage. This paper, based on calculations with a static general equilibrium model, suggests that international trade in carbon rights is a substitute for trade in energy-intensive goods, and thus international trading in carbon rights reduces sectoral effects of emission reductions. In our model, we surprisingly find that

Carlo Perroni; Thomas F Rutherford

1993-01-01

131

The carbon dioxide emissions game: Playing the net  

SciTech Connect

Concern about rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the earth`s atmosphere has led to calls for the United States and other countries to reduce carbon emissions. These concerns resulted in the signing of the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The Framework calls for nations to develop action plans for limiting emissions of carbon and other greenhouse gases. In December 1992, in accordance with the Framework, the US Government released for public comment its National Action Plan for Global Climate Change (US Department of State, 1992). The Action Plan detailed steps for reducing carbon emissions by 93 to 130 million metric tons (MMT) by 2000. Some of the steps included in the Action Plan were reforming regulations, setting energy standards, promoting research and development of new energy technologies, expanding the use of alternative-fueled vehicles, and planting trees to sequester carbon. This paper explores the economic implications of implementing a much larger tree-planting program than the one presented in the Action Plan. Whereas the Action Plan estimated that 5 to 9 MMT of carbon (MMTC) could be sequestered in 2000 (with perhaps threefold increases in sequestration in later years when trees are growing the fastest), the program being considered in this analysis annually sequesters as much as 231 MMTC during its peak years. Our analysis focuses on how much the costs of stabilizing US carbon emissions at 1990 levels are reduced when economic criteria alone determine the number of trees that will be used. Our results show that when the focus is shifted from stabilization of gross emissions to net emissions the cost reductions are dramatic, about 20 to 80 percent depending on the assumed cost of trees. Political and institutional obstacles to the formation of such a cost effective response are explored in the conclusions.

Richards, K.R.; Edmonds, J.A.; Rosenthal, D.H.; Wise, M.

1993-06-01

132

The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles  

E-print Network

The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

Perez, Alberto, Jr

2009-01-01

133

The Impact of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Crop Agriculture: A Spatial and Production-Level Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the Waxman-Markey Bill passing the House and the administration’s push to reduce carbon emissions, the likelihood of the implementation of some form of a carbon emissions policy is increasing. This study estimates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the six largest row crops produced in Arkansas using 57 different production practices predominantly used and documented by the University of

Lawton Lanier Nalley; Michael P. Popp; Corey Fortin

2011-01-01

134

Will Monetized Carbon Emission Reductions Buy Enhanced Building Operations?  

E-print Network

Will Monetized Carbon Emission Reductions Buy Enhanced Building Operations? John Millhone ICEBO 2007 San Francisco, CA November 2, 2007 Outline #0;z Buildings Role in Climate Change #0;z How CC Programs Treat Buildings - Cap-and-Trade Agreements... Role in Climate Change #0;z Estimates Vary Depending on Definitions #0;z IPCC WG-3 Latest Estimate (2007) ? Buildings Lead in Emission Reduction Potential ? Buildings Lead in the Certainty of Benefits #0;z Collateral Benefits ? Reduced Industrial...

Millhone, J.

2007-01-01

135

Field emission properties of the graphenated carbon nanotube electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced graphene oxide-coated carbon nanotubes (RGO-CNT) electrodes have been prepared by hot filament chemical vapour deposition system in one-step growth process. We studied RGO-CNT electrodes behaviour as cold cathode in field emission test. Our results show that RGO-CNT retain the low threshold voltage typical of CNTs, but with greatly improved emission current stability. The field emission enhancement value is significantly higher than that expected being caused by geometric effect (height divided by the radius of nanotube). This suggested that the field emission of this hybrid structure is not only from a single tip, but eventually it is from several tips with contribution of graphene nanosheets at CNT's walls. This phenomenon explains why the graphenated carbon nanotubes do not burn out as quickly as CNT does until emission ceases completely. These preliminaries results make nanocarbon materials good candidates for applications as electron sources for several devices.

Zanin, H.; Ceragioli, H. J.; Peterlevitz, A. C.; Baranauskas, Vitor; Marciano, F. R.; Lobo, A. O.

2015-01-01

136

Possibilities to reduce carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region with non timber biomass valorization: The case of biofuels produced by vegetable tropical oils  

SciTech Connect

Brazil`s annual rate of deforestation reached 2.1 million ha or about 13.6% of the total annual rate of deforestation for the whole tropical area in the world during 1981--1990. Today, the extent of gross deforestation is 10.9% of the tropical closed forest area. Relative to Brazilian participation in the greenhouse effect, the changes in forest area and associated biomass burning in Amazon region are responsible for about 25.5% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the tropics. Harvest of the non-timber biomass products may be important as a potentially sustainable use of forest in some areas. An excellent option to promote these biomass products is to provide energy and industrial goods for the Amazon communities and other external markets. In this work, the biofuels produced by vegetable tropical oils and their by-products are analyzed in relation to job creation, economics and environmental impacts, with special regards concerning the limitation of the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases.

Freitas, M.A.V. de; Rosa, L.P. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lascio, M.A. Di [UFRS, Santa Catarina (Brazil); [Ecole Polytechnique, Grenoble (France)

1996-12-31

137

Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

2001-12-31

138

Historical and future carbon emissions from croplands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine past and future carbon emissions from global croplands, considering land-use change, changes in crop productivity, tillage practices, and residue removal. We find that emissions over the historical period are sensitive to the assumed productivity of arable land that is not planted in a given year and the assumed fraction of soil carbon that is released during land conversion. The role of this "other" arable land, both at present and over the historical period, is not well understood and should be examined further. The carbon balance of croplands over 21st century depends on changes in management practices, particularly the adoption of conservation tillage and the potential removal of residue for use as energy feedstocks. We find that croplands will not become large carbon sinks in the future, however, unless most crop residue is left on fields. Given the relatively low carbon "penalty" incurred by removal, residue use for energy feedstocks may be the preferred option.

Smith, S. J.

2014-01-01

139

Allowable carbon emissions lowered by multiple climate targets.  

PubMed

Climate targets are designed to inform policies that would limit the magnitude and impacts of climate change caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other substances. The target that is currently recognized by most world governments places a limit of two degrees Celsius on the global mean warming since preindustrial times. This would require large sustained reductions in carbon dioxide emissions during the twenty-first century and beyond. Such a global temperature target, however, is not sufficient to control many other quantities, such as transient sea level rise, ocean acidification and net primary production on land. Here, using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC) in an observation-informed Bayesian approach, we show that allowable carbon emissions are substantially reduced when multiple climate targets are set. We take into account uncertainties in physical and carbon cycle model parameters, radiative efficiencies, climate sensitivity and carbon cycle feedbacks along with a large set of observational constraints. Within this framework, we explore a broad range of economically feasible greenhouse gas scenarios from the integrated assessment community to determine the likelihood of meeting a combination of specific global and regional targets under various assumptions. For any given likelihood of meeting a set of such targets, the allowable cumulative emissions are greatly reduced from those inferred from the temperature target alone. Therefore, temperature targets alone are unable to comprehensively limit the risks from anthropogenic emissions. PMID:23823728

Steinacher, Marco; Joos, Fortunat; Stocker, Thomas F

2013-07-11

140

Yale University committed to reducing its primary greenhouse gas emissions 43% below 2005 levels.  

E-print Network

conditions, and advances in the understanding of climate change.There is no single solution to carbon significantly reduced emissions from its two power plants and main campus buildings. West Campus Emissions (MTCO construction and renovation standards, promoting behavioral shifts and culture change, and investing

141

On-site denitrification beds could reduce indirect greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural drainage waters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate (NO3-) laden agricultural drainage waters are non-point sources of indirect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which represent a significant fraction of total N2O emissions in the USA. On-site denitrification beds filled with woodchips were used to reduce NO3- under carbon rich anaerobic conditi...

142

Cumulative carbon emissions, emissions floors and short-term rates of warming: implications for policy.  

PubMed

A number of recent studies have found a strong link between peak human-induced global warming and cumulative carbon emissions from the start of the industrial revolution, while the link to emissions over shorter periods or in the years 2020 or 2050 is generally weaker. However, cumulative targets appear to conflict with the concept of a 'floor' in emissions caused by sectors such as food production. Here, we show that the introduction of emissions floors does not reduce the importance of cumulative emissions, but may make some warming targets unachievable. For pathways that give a most likely warming up to about 4C, cumulative emissions from pre-industrial times to year 2200 correlate strongly with most likely resultant peak warming regardless of the shape of emissions floors used, providing a more natural long-term policy horizon than 2050 or 2100. The maximum rate of CO(2)-induced warming, which will affect the feasibility and cost of adapting to climate change, is not determined by cumulative emissions but is tightly aligned with peak rates of emissions. Hence, cumulative carbon emissions to 2200 and peak emission rates could provide a clear and simple framework for CO(2) mitigation policy. PMID:21115512

Bowerman, Niel H A; Frame, David J; Huntingford, Chris; Lowe, Jason A; Allen, Myles R

2011-01-13

143

Reduced Future Precipitation Makes Permanence of Amazonian Carbon Sinks Questionable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropical forests of the Amazon, considered as a tipping element in Earth's climate system, provide several ecosystem services including the maintenance of favourable regional climatic conditions in the region and storage of large amounts of carbon in their above- and below-ground pools. While it is nearly impossible, at present, to put a dollar value on these ecosystem services, the developed countries have started paying large sums of money to developing countries in the tropics to reduce deforestation. Norway recently committed up to $1 billion to the Amazon fund. The United Nations' Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) program also financially supports national activities of 13 countries worldwide. The primary assumption inherent in paying for avoiding deforestation is that avoided land use change emissions contribute towards climate change mitigation. In addition, the standing forests that are spared deforestation contribute towards additional carbon sinks associated with the CO2 fertilization effect. Implicit in this reasoning is the understanding that the carbon sinks provided by avoided deforestation have some "permanence" associated with them, at least in the order of 50-100 years. Clearly, if "avoided deforestation" is essentially "delayed deforestation" then the benefits will not be long lasting. More importantly, changes in climate have the potential to adversely affect the permanence of carbon sinks, whether they are being paid for or not. This presentation will address the question of "permanence" by analyzing simulations of the second generation Canadian Earth system model (CanESM2) that are contributing results to the upcoming fifth Coupled Modeled Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). CanESM2 results for the future RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios show, that due to reduced future precipitation, the Amazonian region remains a net source of carbon over the 21st century in all scenarios. The carbon losses during the recent 2005 and 2010 droughts in the Amazonian region nearly wiped away the gains made during a decade indicating that the era of intact Amazonian forests acting as carbon sinks may be over. CanESM2 simulations imply that the future of the Amazonian region may look more like these drought years, suggesting that the future reduced precipitation over the region can indeed "tip over" the Amazonian forests.

Arora, V.

2011-12-01

144

Optimal Production Policy under the Carbon Emission Market  

E-print Network

Optimal Production Policy under the Carbon Emission Market Redouane Belaouar Arash Fahim Nizar Scheme (EU ETS) which provides a way to control the emission of CO2 within carbon polluters through carbon emission. Within ETS, certain industrial installations with intensive carbon pollution are given

Touzi, Nizar

145

A study on the impact of nuclear power plant construction relative to decommissioning Fossil Fuel Power Plant in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions using a modified Nordhaus Vensim DICE model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current levels of CO2 emissions and high levels accumulating in the atmosphere have climate scientists concerned. The Dynamic Integrated Climate Economy Model or "DICE" for short is a highly developed model that has been used to simulate climate change and evaluate factors addressing global warming. The model was developed by Yale's Nordhaus along with collaborators and the compilation of numerous scientific publications. The purpose of this study is to recreate DICE using Vensim and modify it to evaluate the use of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as a means to counter global temperature increases in the atmosphere and oceans and the associated cost of damages. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions from a NPP are about 6% per Megawatt as that from a Fossil Fuel Power Plant (FFPP). Based on this, a model was developed to simulate construction of NPPs with subsequent decommissioning of FFPPs with an equivalent power output. The results produced through multiple simulation runs utilizing variable NPP construction rates show that some minor benefit is achievable if all of the more than 10,000 FFPPs currently in operation in the U.S. are replaced with NPPs. The results show that a reduction in CO 2 emissions of 2.48% will occur if all of the FFPPs are decommissioned. At a minimum rate of 50 NPPs constructed per year, the largest reduction in CO2 in the atmosphere, 1.94% or 44.5 billion tons of carbon, is possible. This results in a reduction in global warming of 0.068C or 1.31%. The results also show that this reduction in global warming will be equivalent to a reduction of 8.2% or $148 B in anticipated annual spending as a result of climate change damages. Further results indicate that using NPPs to address climate change will provide a small benefit; ultimately, it will not be enough to reduce CO2 emissions or atmospheric CO 2 to control global warming. The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is predicted to be 1055 parts per million (ppm) even in the best case scenario, which is well above the current limit of 350 ppm proposed by Hansen et. al.

Colpetzer, Jason Lee

146

Grid Expansion Planning for Carbon Emissions Reduction  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to upgrade and expand electric power transmission and generation to meet specified renewable energy targets and simultaneously minimize construction cost and carbon emissions. Some challenges are: (1) Renewable energy sources have variable production capacity; (2) Deficiency of transmission capacity at desirable renewable generation locations; (3) Need to incorporate models of operations into planning studies; and (4) Prevent undesirable operational outcomes such as negative dispatch prices or curtailment of carbon neutral generation.

Bent, Russell W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toole, Gasper L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-18

147

Estimating Biomass Burnt and CarbonEstimating Biomass Burnt and Carbon Emissions from Large Wildfires  

E-print Network

Estimating Biomass Burnt and CarbonEstimating Biomass Burnt and Carbon Emissions from Large: Global Biomass Burning & Carbon Emissions Standard Emissions Inventories: Burned Area & GFED recently daily. Fire occurrenceoccurrence Roy et al.Roy et al. Carbon emissions (C) = burned area . fuel

148

Pyrogenic carbon emission from a large wildfire in Oregon, United States  

E-print Network

Pyrogenic carbon emission from a large wildfire in Oregon, United States John Campbell,1 Dan Donato carbon emissions from the Biscuit Fire, an exceptionally large wildfire, which in 2002 burned over 200 ecosystem production of this landscape prior to the wildfire and may have reduced mean net biome production

Turner, Monica G.

149

An approach to a black carbon emission inventory for Mexico by two methods.  

PubMed

A black carbon (BC) emission inventory for Mexico is presented. Estimate was performed by using two approaches, based on fuel consumption and emission factors in a top-down scheme, and the second from PM25 emission data and its correlation with black carbon by source category, assuming that black carbon=elemental carbon. Results show that black carbon emissions are in interval 53-473Gg using the fuel consumption approach and between 62 and 89 using the sector method. Black carbon key sources come from biomass burning in the rural sector, with 47 percent share to the National total. Mobile sources emissions account to 16% to the total. An opportunity to reduce, in the short-term, carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions by reducing black carbon emissions would be obtained in reducing emissions mainly from biomass burning in rural housing sector and diesel emissions in the transport sector with important co-benefits in direct radiative forcing, public health and air quality. PMID:24561296

Cruz-Nez, Xochitl

2014-05-01

150

Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits. PMID:22784534

O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

2012-07-14

151

End-Use Efficiency to Lower Carbon Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Compelling evidence demonstrating the warming trend in global temperatures and the mechanism behind it, namely the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHG), has spurred an international effort to reduce emissions of these gases. Despite improving efficiency of the U.S. economy in terms of energy cost per dollar of GDP since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, energy consumption and carbon emissions are continuing to rise as the economy expands. This growing gap further emphasizes the importance of improving energy use efficiency as a component in the U.S. climate change mitigation program. The end-use efficiency research activities at Berkeley Lab incorporate residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors. This paper focuses on two successful U.S. programs that address end-use efficiency in residential and commercial demand: energy efficient performance standards established by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR(registered trademark) program.

Marnay, Chris; Osborn, Julie; Webber, Carrie

2001-03-01

152

Policy Planning to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preceded by the State Workbook: Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this document by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves to guide states in "identifying and evaluating options to mitigate emissions" affecting global climate change. Each of the report's three parts details climate change and policy options. Part one discusses the Initiation of Climate Change Programs. Part two describes sources of emissions and potential policy options. Part three completes the report by offering "guidance in preparing the State Action Plan." Appendices supply a glossary, references, state plans, and a specific example reduction plan.

United States. Environmental Protection Agency.

1998-01-01

153

The Land Use Planning Imperative: Applying Carbon Emissions Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reversing global warming is the defining crisis of the 21st century and must be dealt with, in part, by reinventing the built environment. Current land use and planning frameworks are not aligned with scientific models which can aid in the reversal of carbon emissions at the local and regional scale. The disjunction between land use planning and the scientific methodologies for calculating the impacts of climate change beg for a stronger union between climate change science and land use planning. Buildings account for approximately 35 percent of the U.S. carbon emissions while the transportation sector accounts for approximately 27 percent (U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2007). To adopt energy efficiency measures and hence reduce carbon dioxide emissions at a site, city, or regional scale, land use planners and climate scientists must integrate their expertise to influence policy with precision and accuracy. Land use planners have influence over the design of the built environment in municipalities and institutions such as colleges and universities. In many ways, college and university campuses are microcosms of the land use patterns established historically; they demonstrate a lack of coordinated land use planning across the entire continent that is extremely dependent on the automobile and fossil fuels. Climate models predict that the average temperature at the Earth's surface could increase from 2.5 to 10.4F above 1990 levels by the end of this century (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2007). Further, it is estimated that the country will have to construct an additional 213 billion square feet of built space by the year 2030 to accommodate the increasing population. Planning and design will dictate the degree to which land use change will exacerbate trends of global warming. It commands an integration of the methodology to calculate carbon emissions with the science which demonstrates the impact of those emissions. This session presents a new approach and methodology for integrating calculating carbon emissions and land use planning to increase the accessibility of carbon dioxide emissions data, transforming our conception of how the built environment can function in a more sustainable way. The emergence of the public and institutional interest in reducing carbon emissions advances the question of how climate science may be applied and translated for a public audience to develop effective, measurable carbon reduction strategies. Building on the growing momentum in the higher education sector in the United States, land use planners are grappling with the integration of carbon reduction and the transformation of the built environment, particularly at college campuses. A critical first step in reducing carbon emissions is to complete a greenhouse gas inventory. In recent years, universities have adopted challenges to become climate neutral through operations, buildings, and transportation. This session will present two case studies at universities of how land use planning integrates scientific data and suggested methodology from the IPCC, the Chicago Climate Exchange, the Kyoto Protocol, and various other climate action registries in order to demonstrate a university's contribution to global warming. By developing a methodology for calculating CO2 emissions, land use planning and climate science can collectively formulate strategies for a more sustainable future.

Bray, E. N.; Havens, G.

2007-12-01

154

Evaluating Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emission from Alternative Inter-regional High Speed Passenger Transport Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from transport activities from long-distance and high- demand sections is recognized especially in developed countries. This study aims to compare CO2 emission from Shinkansen high speed railway with emissions from air transport by employing LCA method. Here it is assumed that only existing airports are used for air transport but Shinkansen is

Naoki SHIBAHARA; Hirokazu KATO; Yoshitsugu HAYASHI

155

Tracing fuel component carbon in the emissions from diesel engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of oxygenates to diesel fuel can reduce particulate emissions, but the underlying chemical pathways for the reductions are not well understood. While measurements of particulate matter (PM), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) are routine, determining the contribution of carbon atoms in the original fuel molecules to the formation of these undesired exhaust emissions has proven difficult. Renewable bio-derived fuels (ethanol or bio-diesel) containing a universal distribution of contemporary carbon are easily traced by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). These measurements provide general information about the emissions of bio-derived fuels. Another approach exploits synthetic organic chemistry to place 14C atoms in a specific bond position in a specific fuel molecule. The highly labeled fuel molecule is then diluted in 14C-free petroleum-derived stock to make a contemporary petroleum fuel suitable for tracing. The specific 14C atoms are then traced through the combustion event to determine whether they reside in PM, HC, CO, CO2, or other emission products. This knowledge of how specific molecular structures produce certain emissions can be used to refine chemical-kinetic combustion models and to optimize fuel composition to reduce undesired emissions. Due to the high sensitivity of the technique and the lack of appreciable 14C in fossil fuels, fuels for AMS experiments can be labeled with modern levels of 14C and still produce a strong signal. Since the fuel is not radioactive, emission tests can be conducted in any conventional engine lab, dynamometer facility, or on the open road.

Buchholz, Bruce A.; Mueller, Charles J.; Martin, Glen C.; Cheng, A. S.; Dibble, Robert W.; Frantz, Brian R.

2004-08-01

156

High-resolution forest carbon stocks and emissions in the Amazon  

PubMed Central

Efforts to mitigate climate change through the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depend on mapping and monitoring of tropical forest carbon stocks and emissions over large geographic areas. With a new integrated use of satellite imaging, airborne light detection and ranging, and field plots, we mapped aboveground carbon stocks and emissions at 0.1-ha resolution over 4.3 million ha of the Peruvian Amazon, an area twice that of all forests in Costa Rica, to reveal the determinants of forest carbon density and to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping carbon emissions for REDD. We discovered previously unknown variation in carbon storage at multiple scales based on geologic substrate and forest type. From 1999 to 2009, emissions from land use totaled 1.1% of the standing carbon throughout the region. Forest degradation, such as from selective logging, increased regional carbon emissions by 47% over deforestation alone, and secondary regrowth provided an 18% offset against total gross emissions. Very high-resolution monitoring reduces uncertainty in carbon emissions for REDD programs while uncovering fundamental environmental controls on forest carbon storage and their interactions with land-use change. PMID:20823233

Asner, Gregory P.; Powell, George V. N.; Mascaro, Joseph; Knapp, David E.; Clark, John K.; Jacobson, James; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Balaji, Aravindh; Paez-Acosta, Guayana; Victoria, Eloy; Secada, Laura; Valqui, Michael; Hughes, R. Flint

2010-01-01

157

Implementation of Emission Trading in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Optimization Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an effective mid- and long- term solution for large-scale mitigation of industrial CO2 emissions, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) has been paid more and more attention in the past decades. A general CCS management system has complex characteristics of multiple emission sources, multiple mitigation technologies, multiple sequestration sites, and multiple project periods. Trade-off exists among numerous environmental, economic, political, and technical factors, leading to varied system features. Sound decision alternatives are thus desired for provide decision supports for decision makers or managers for managing such a CCS system from capture to the final geologic storage phases. Carbon emission trading has been developed as a cost-effective tool for reducing the global greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, a carbon capture and sequestration optimization management model is proposed to address the above issues. The carbon emission trading is integrated into the model, and its impacts on the resulting management decisions are analyzed. A multi-source multi-period case study is provided to justify the applicability of the modeling approach, where uncertainties in modeling parameters are also dealt with.

Zhang, X.; Duncan, I.

2013-12-01

158

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

E-print Network

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions Susan Solomona,1 , Gian in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely

Fischlin, Andreas

159

Implications of carbon dust emission for terrestrial carbon cycling and carbon accounting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind erosion preferentially removes the finest carbon- and nutrient-rich soil fractions, and consequently its role may be significant within terrestrial carbon (C) cycles. However, the impacts of wind erosion on soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution are not considered in most carbon cycle models, or within national carbon accounting schemes. Current estimates of the loss of SOC to wind erosion do not consider the preferential removal and enrichment of SOC in dust emissions, and consequently underestimate the significance of carbon dust emissions for the carbon cycle and carbon accounting. We present a process-based approximation of SOC enrichment within the Computational Environmental Management System (CEMSYS v5) Australian national wind erosion model. It enabled the prediction of carbon dust emission at a 50 km spatial resolution across Australia each month from 2000-2011. Our results show that the total dust emission for Australia is 118 Mt yr-1, with carbon dust emissions (<22 ?m) in the order of 1.59 Mt yr-1. Rangelands are found to produce ~84% of Australia's carbon dust emissions (1.34 Mt yr-1), while agricultural lands produce 0.11 Mt yr-1. However, agricultural lands produce larger carbon dust emissions per km2 than rangelands. The long-distance transport of SOC by wind is expected to result in large mineralisation rates due to (e.g.) photochemical oxidation, and the release of up to 5.9 Mt CO2-e yr-1. These results on the loss of SOC in dust, and the release of CO2 during long-distance transport, demonstrate the need for aeolian processes to be given greater significance in terrestrial carbon cycling, and for them to be incorporated into carbon accounting systems.

Webb, N.; Chappell, A.; Butler, H.; Strong, C.; McTainsh, G.; Leys, J.

2012-12-01

160

Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.

Poola, R.B.; Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baudino, J.H. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Colucci, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

161

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines  

E-print Network

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continued, but it can also result in reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot when used in diesel engines. ct & LOGISTICS SYMPOSIUM page 3 CIVIL ENGINEERING DIRECTIONS page 4 WORK-ZONE SAFETY page 5 PUBLIC AFFAIRS PH

Minnesota, University of

162

Impact of Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions on 21st Century Carbon Dioxide Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The impact of light-duty passenger vehicle emissions on global carbon dioxide concentrations was estimated using the MAGICC reduced-form climate model combined with the PNNL contribution to the CCSP scenarios product. Our central estimate is that tailpipe light duty vehicle emissions of carbon-dioxide over the 21st century will increase global carbon dioxide concentrations by slightly over 12 ppmv by 2100.

Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page

2007-08-04

163

Global civil aviation black carbon emissions.  

PubMed

Aircraft black carbon (BC) emissions contribute to climate forcing, but few estimates of BC emitted by aircraft at cruise exist. For the majority of aircraft engines the only BC-related measurement available is smoke number (SN)-a filter based optical method designed to measure near-ground plume visibility, not mass. While the first order approximation (FOA3) technique has been developed to estimate BC mass emissions normalized by fuel burn [EI(BC)] from SN, it is shown that it underestimates EI(BC) by >90% in 35% of directly measured cases (R(2) = -0.10). As there are no plans to measure BC emissions from all existing certified engines-which will be in service for several decades-it is necessary to estimate EI(BC) for existing aircraft on the ground and at cruise. An alternative method, called FOX, that is independent of the SN is developed to estimate BC emissions. Estimates of EI(BC) at ground level are significantly improved (R(2) = 0.68), whereas estimates at cruise are within 30% of measurements. Implementing this approach for global civil aviation estimated aircraft BC emissions are revised upward by a factor of ~3. Direct radiative forcing (RF) due to aviation BC emissions is estimated to be ~9.5 mW/m(2), equivalent to ~1/3 of the current RF due to aviation CO2 emissions. PMID:23844612

Stettler, Marc E J; Boies, Adam M; Petzold, Andreas; Barrett, Steven R H

2013-09-17

164

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is rapidly becoming known as a tangible issue that must be addressed to avoid major environmental consequences in the future. Recent change in public opinion has been caused by the physical signs of climate change-melting glaciers, rising sea levels, more severe storm and drought events, and hotter average global temperatures annually. Transportation is a major contributor of carbon

Susan Shaheen; Timothy Lipman

2007-01-01

165

Carbon 40 (2002) 429436 Quantum-mechanical simulations of field emission from carbon  

E-print Network

Carbon 40 (2002) 429436 Quantum-mechanical simulations of field emission from carbon nanotubes *A simulations of field emission from 2-nm long open (5,5), closed (5,5) and open (10,0) carbon nanotubes recently where the carbon nanotubes [1,2], a vast literature has appeared on field-emission current from

Mayer, Alexandre

2002-01-01

166

Biodegradable plastic reduces ammonia emission during composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia is the greatest nuisance odor compound among the exhaust gases that evolve during the composting process, in which raw materials with high concentrations of nitrogen, such as wastewater sludge, are decomposed. In the present study, a reduction of NH3 emission during composting of wastewater sludge was tried by mixing biodegradable plastic into composting raw material. Biodegradable plastic acts as

K Nakasaki; A Ohtaki; H Takano

2000-01-01

167

REFORMULATING BIODIESEL TO REDUCE NOX EMISSIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of biodiesel, a diesel engine fuel produced from agriculturally derived fats and oils, offers many advantages over petrodiesel, but has been shown in certain instances to increase emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a federally regulated pollutant. The work described here involved modifi...

168

Field Methods To Reduce Soil Fumigation Emission  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Telone or 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin are primary alternative soil fumigants to methyl bromide and their emission reductions are required to improve air-quality standards in California. Research has identified various methods including plastic tarp, irrigation, and soil amendment with orga...

169

Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

170

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes  

E-print Network

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes), Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB3030, doi:10.1029/2008GB003184. 1. Introduction [2] Atmospheric carbon dioxide

Follows, Mick

171

Elements for the expected mechanisms on 'reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, REDD' under UNFCCC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation account for about 20% of global anthropogenic emissions. Strategies and incentives for reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) have emerged as one of the most active areas in the international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). While the current negotiations focus on a REDD mechanism in developing countries, it should be recognized that risks of carbon losses from forests occur in all climate zones and also in industrialized countries. A future climate change agreement would be more effective if it included all carbon losses and gains from land use in all countries and climate zones. The REDD mechanism will be an important step towards reducing emissions from land use change in developing countries, but needs to be followed by steps in other land use systems and regions. A national approach to REDD and significant coverage globally are needed to deal with the risk that deforestation and degradation activities are displaced rather than avoided. Favourable institutional and governance conditions need to be established that guarantee in the long-term a stable incentive and control system for maintaining forest carbon stocks. Ambitious emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation need sustained financial incentives, which go beyond positive incentives for reduced emissions but also give incentives for sustainable forest management. Current data limitations needand can beovercome in the coming years to allow accurate accounting of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. A proper application of the conservativeness approach in the REDD context could allow a simplified reporting of emissions from deforestation in a first phase, consistent with the already agreed UNFCCC reporting principles.

Mollicone, D.; Freibauer, A.; Schulze, E. D.; Braatz, S.; Grassi, G.; Federici, S.

2007-10-01

172

Pilot study to reduce emissions, improve health, and offset BC emissions through the distribution of improved cook stoves in Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most developing countries, wood and other biomass fuels are still the primary source of energy for the majority of the people, particularly the poor. It is estimated that cook stoves account for approximately 20% of global black carbon emissions. In Nepal 87% of energy is supplied from traditional biomass and 75% of households still depend on biomass as a cooking fuel. The substitution of traditional cook stoves with improved cook stoves provides an important way to reduce black carbon emissions. In 2013 the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has commenced a pilot study that both examines ways to effectively disseminate improved cookstoves across remote rural mountain regions, and also quantifies the resulting changes in emissions, air quality and health. The selected study area is in Bajrabarahi Village in Makawanpur district, to the southwest of Kathmandu. The study area consists of around 1600 households, which are divided into control groups and groups where the cook stove intervention is taking place. The study complements the ';Clean Cooking energy solution for all by 2017' announced by the Government of Nepal recently, and will provide insights to the government on ways to effectively reduce black carbon emissions from cook stoves. To make the study robust and sustainable, local women's group and a local medical institution are involved in the project right from the conceptualization stage. The study region has been chosen in part because the medical school Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has already started a long term health assessment in the region, and has built up considerable local contacts. The local women's group is working on the modality of cook stove distribution through micro credit programmes in the village. We will distribute the best available manufactured, fan-assisted cook stoves that are expected to reduce BC emissions the most. Health assessments, emissions estimates, as well as measurements of indoor and outdoor air quality will be done before and after the stoves are disseminated. Having obtained funds for the purchase of improved cook stoves from Nepal's diesel automobile sector, we compare the emissions of black carbon from the sponsoring diesel vehicles with the reduction in black carbon emissions from the sponsored improved cook stoves, thereby pioneering methods to offset black carbon emissions.

Banmali Pradhan, B.; Panday, A. K.; Surapipith, V.

2013-12-01

173

The 11 Micron Emissions of Carbon Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new classification scheme of the IRAS LRS carbon stars is presented. It comprises the separation of 718 probable carbon stars into 12 distinct self-similar spectral groupings. Continuum temperatures are assigned and range from 470 to 5000 K. Three distinct dust species are identifiable: SiC, alpha:C-H, and MgS. In addition to the narrow 11 + micron emission feature that is commonly attributed to SiC, a broad 11 + micron emission feature, that is correlated with the 8.5 and 7.7 micron features, is found and attributed to alpha:C-H. SiC and alpha:C-H band strengths are found to correlate with the temperature progression among the Classes. We find a spectral sequence of Classes that reflects the carbon star evolutionary sequence of spectral types, or alternatively developmental sequences of grain condensation in carbon-rich circumstellar shells. If decreasing temperature corresponds to increasing evolution, then decreasing temperature corresponds to increasing C/O resulting in increasing amounts of carbon rich dust, namely alpha:C-H. If decreasing the temperature corresponds to a grain condensation sequence, then heterogeneous, or induced nucleation scenarios are supported. SiC grains precede alpha:C-H and form the nuclei for the condensation of the latter material. At still lower temperatures, MgS appears to be quite prevalent. No 11.3 micron PAH features are identified in any of the 718 carbon stars. However, one of the coldest objects, IRAS 15048-5702, and a few others, displays an 11.9 micron emission feature characteristic of laboratory samples of coronene. That feature corresponds to the C-H out of plane deformation mode of aromatic hydrocarbon. This band indicates the presence of unsaturated, sp(sup 3), hydrocarbon bonds that may subsequently evolve into saturated bonds, sp(sup 2), if, and when, the star enters the planetary nebulae phase of stellar evolution. The effusion of hydrogen from the hydrocarbon grain results in the evolution in wavelength of this 11.9 micron emission feature to the 11.3 micron feature.

Goebel, J. H.; Cheeseman, P.; Gerbault, F.

1995-01-01

174

An assessment of monitoring requirements and costs of 'Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Negotiations on a future climate policy framework addressing Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) are ongoing. Regardless of how such a framework will be designed, many technical solutions of estimating forest cover and forest carbon stock change exist to support policy in monitoring and accounting. These technologies typically combine remotely sensed data with ground-based inventories. In this article

Hannes Bttcher; Katja Eisbrenner; Steffen Fritz; Georg Kindermann; Florian Kraxner; Ian McCallum; Michael Obersteiner

2009-01-01

175

Estakhri and Saylak 1 Potential for Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Texas Through the Use of  

E-print Network

Estakhri and Saylak 1 Potential for Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Texas Through the Use improve workability, heat of hydration, strength, permeability, and resistance to chemical attack of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). Besides other raw materials, each ton of portland cement requires

176

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2  

EIA Publications

This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

2001-01-01

177

U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

EIA Publications

U.S. Energy Information Administration releases its online analysis of 2012 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions today. It indicates U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels were 5,290 million metric tons carbon dioxide in 2012, a decrease of almost 4% from the 2011 level. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions have declined in five of the last seven years and are the lowest they have been since 1994.

2014-01-01

178

PARKING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report defines the concept of parking management and explores how parking management can be used to improve air quality, support mass transit, reduce energy consumption and improve the amenities of life in urban areas. Specific aspects of this analysis were developments of a...

179

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,  

E-print Network

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

180

Consumer Incentives to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Personal Automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is short-term policy options to address greenhouse gas emissions from personal automobiles. Primary policies considered include gasoline taxes, carbon taxes, a carbon cap-and- trade program, cost-shifting initiatives, and a pay-at-the- pump auto insurance scheme are examined closely. Pay-at-the-pump auto insurance is recommended on the basis of cost effectiveness, equity, public appeal, and political feasibility. Also

Greg Ayres

181

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

182

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-11-10

183

Incentives for reducing emissions in Krakow  

SciTech Connect

This effort is identifying, specific incentives that may be used by Krakow city officials to encourage, residents to change the way they heat their homes and businesses in order to reduce pollution. This paper describes the incentives study for converting small coal or coke-fired boilers to gas in the Old Town area. A similar study looked at incentives for expanding the district heating system and future analyses will be performed for home stove options.

Uberman, R. [Polinvest Ltd., Krakow (Poland); Pierce, B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Lazecki, A. [Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa, Krakow (Poland)

1994-06-01

184

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-print Network

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 18502030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

185

Deterministic Cold Cathode Electron Emission from Carbon Nanofibre Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to accurately design carbon nanofibre (CN) field emitters with predictable electron emission characteristics will enable their use as electron sources in various applications such as microwave amplifiers, electron microscopy, parallel beam electron lithography and advanced Xray sources. Here, highly uniform CN arrays of controlled diameter, pitch and length were fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition and their individual emission characteristics and field enhancement factors were probed using scanning anode field emission mapping. For a pitch of 10 m and a CN length of 5 m, the directly measured enhancement factors of individual CNs was 242, which was in excellent agreement with conventional geometry estimates (240). We show here direct empirical evidence that in regular arrays of vertically aligned CNs the overall enhancement factor is reduced when the pitch between emitters is less than half the emitter height, in accordance to our electrostatic simulations. Individual emitters showed narrow Gaussian-like field enhancement distributions, in excellent agreement with electric field simulations.

Cole, Matthew T.; Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Groening, Oliver; Gangloff, Laurent; Legagneux, Pierre; Milne, William I.

2014-05-01

186

Study on carbon emissions of primary energy consumption and low-carbon economic development strategies in Xinjiang  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, with the application of energy consumption data in Xinjiang since 1952, carbon emissions over the years in Xinjiang are calculated according to IPCC carbon emissions calculation guidelines, the changes of total carbon emission and carbon emission structure and carbon emission intensity in Xinjiang are systematically analyzed. It is thought that the irrational energy consumption structure, extensive energy

Li Zhang; Jun Lei; Xuemei Li

2011-01-01

187

Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

Rudey, R. A.

1975-01-01

188

Wood-based building materials and atmospheric carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the global impact of wood as a building material by considering emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Wood is compared with other materials in terms of stored carbon and emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel energy used in manufacturing. An analysis of typical forms of building construction shows that wood buildings require much lower process

Andrew H Buchanan; S. Bry Levine

1999-01-01

189

Reduced Turbine Emissions Using Hydrogen-Enriched Fuels  

E-print Network

(LPC) is method of choice for NOx control in Gas Turbines Ultimately, lean operation is limited and reduces CO emissions #12;Approach Lean Premixed Swirl Burner Experiments · Establish scientific data base Economic Analysis Establish base case cost & emissions Evaluate economics of H2 addition for NOx control

190

REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM THE WOOD FURNITURE INDUSTRY WITH WATERBORNE COATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

This program was initiated to develop meaningful, defensible, and reliable data on emission reduction benefits from the use of reduced hydrocarbon finishes. The program also included assessing add-on emission control options and considering installation aspects such as costs. Thi...

191

Provincial variation of carbon emissions from bituminous coal: Influence of inertinite and other factors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We observe a 1.3 kg C/net GJ variation of carbon emissions due to inertinite abundance in some commercially available bituminous coal. An additional 0.9 kg C/net GJ variation of carbon emissions is expected due to the extent of coalification through the bituminous rank stages. Each percentage of sulfur in bituminous coal reduces carbon emissions by about 0.08 kg C/net GJ. Other factors, such as mineral content, liptinite abundance and individual macerals, also influence carbon emissions, but their quantitative effect is less certain. The large range of carbon emissions within the bituminous rank class suggests that rank- specific carbon emission factors are provincial rather than global. Although carbon emission factors that better account for this provincial variation might be calculated, we show that the data used for this calculation may vary according to the methods used to sample and analyze coal. Provincial variation of carbon emissions and the use of different coal sampling and analytical methods complicate the verification of national greenhouse gas inventories. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Quick, J.C.; Brill, T.

2002-01-01

192

Upscaling carbon dioxide emissions from lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying CO2 fluxes from lakes to the atmosphere is important for balancing regional and global-scale carbon budgets. CO2 emissions are estimated through statistical upscaling procedures that aggregate data from a large number of lakes. However, aggregation can bias flux estimates if the physical and chemical factors determining CO2 exchange between water and the atmosphere are not independent. We evaluated the magnitude of aggregation biases with moment expansions and pCO2 data from 5140 Swedish lakes. The direction of the aggregation bias depends on lake size; mean flux was overestimated by 4% for small lakes (0.01-0.1 km2) but underestimated by 13% for large lakes (100-1000 km2). Simple covariance-based correction factors were generated to adjust for upscaling biases. These correction factors represent an easily interpretable and implemented approach to improving the accuracy of regional and global estimates of lake CO2 emissions.

Seekell, David A.; Carr, Joel A.; Gudasz, Cristian; Karlsson, Jan

2014-11-01

193

Field emission from tetrahedral amorphous carbon  

SciTech Connect

Field emission has been measured from a series of tetrahedrally bonded amorphous carbon (ta-C) films produced by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc. The threshold field and current densities achievable have been studied as a function of their sp{sup 3} content and of nitrogen incorporation. Typical undoped ta-C films are found to have a threshold field of 10{endash}20 V/{mu}m, decreasing with increasing sp{sup 3} content, and optimally nitrogen doped films exhibit threshold fields as low as 3{endash}5 V/{mu}m. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Satyanarayana, B.S.; Hart, A.; Milne, W.I.; Robertson, J. [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)] [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

1997-09-01

194

Light absorbing carbon emissions from commercial shipping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive measurements of the emission of light absorbing carbon aerosol (LAC) from commercial shipping are presented. Vessel emissions were sampled using a photoacoustic spectrometer in the Gulf of Mexico region. The highest emitters (per unit fuel burnt) are tug boats, thus making significant contributions to local air quality in ports. Emission of LAC from cargo and non cargo vessels in this study appears to be independent of engine load. Shipping fuel consumption data (2001) was used to calculate a global LAC contribution of 133(+/-27) Ggyr-1, or ~1.7% of global LAC. This small fraction could have disproportionate effects on both air quality near port areas and climate in the Arctic if direct emissions of LAC occur in that region due to opening Arctic sea routes. The global contribution of this LAC burden was investigated using the MOZART model. Increases of 20-50 ng m-3 LAC (relative increases up to 40%) due to shipping occur in the tropical Atlantic, Indonesia, central America and the southern regions of South America and Africa.

Lack, Daniel; Lerner, Brian; Granier, Claire; Baynard, Tahllee; Lovejoy, Edward; Massoli, Paola; Ravishankara, A. R.; Williams, Eric

2008-07-01

195

Using Geothermal Electric Power to Reduce Carbon Footprint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels, increase carbon dioxide levels, which contributes to global warming. The research problem of the current study examined if geothermal electric power could adequately replace fossil fuel by 2050, thus reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide while avoiding potential problems with expanding nuclear generation. The purpose of this experimental research was to explore under what funding and business conditions geothermal power could be exploited to replace fossil fuels, chiefly coal. Complex systems theory, along with network theory, provided the theoretical foundation for the study. Research hypotheses focused on parameters, such as funding level, exploration type, and interfaces with the existing power grid that will bring the United States closest to the goal of phasing out fossil based power by 2050. The research was conducted by means of computer simulations, using agent-based modeling, wherein data were generated and analyzed. The simulations incorporated key information about the location of geothermal resources, exploitation methods, transmission grid limits and enhancements, and demand centers and growth. The simulation suggested that rapid and aggressive deployment of geothermal power plants in high potential areas, combined with a phase out of coal and nuclear plants, would produce minimal disruptions in the supply of electrical power in the United States. The implications for social change include reduced risk of global warming for all humans on the planet, reduced pollution due to reduction or elimination of coal and nuclear power, increased stability in energy supply and prices in the United States, and increased employment of United States citizens in jobs related to domestic energy production.

Crombie, George W.

196

Path independence of climate and carbon cycle response over a broad range of cumulative carbon emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have identified an approximately proportional relationship between global warming and cumulative carbon emissions, yet the robustness of this relationship has not been tested over a broad range of cumulative emissions and emission rates. This study explores the path dependence of the climate and carbon cycle response using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity forced with 24 idealized emissions scenarios across five cumulative emission groups (1275-5275 Gt C) with varying rates of emission. We find the century-scale climate and carbon cycle response after cessation of emissions to be approximately independent of emission pathway for all cumulative emission levels considered. The ratio of global mean temperature change to cumulative emissions - referred to as the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE) - is found to be constant for cumulative emissions lower than ∼1500 Gt C but to decline with higher cumulative emissions. The TCRE is also found to decrease with increasing emission rate. The response of Arctic sea ice is found to be approximately proportional to cumulative emissions, while the response of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation does not scale linearly with cumulative emissions, as its peak response is strongly dependent on emission rate. Ocean carbon uptake weakens with increasing cumulative emissions, while land carbon uptake displays non-monotonic behavior, increasing up to a cumulative emission threshold of ∼2000 Gt C and then declining.

Herrington, T.; Zickfeld, K.

2014-11-01

197

Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V ?m-1 and threshold field of 0.657 V ?m-1 corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

Xu, Jinzhuo; Xu, Peng; Ou-Yang, Wei; Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Li, Jun; Piao, Xianqing; Wang, Miao; Sun, Zhuo

2015-02-01

198

Carbon storage and nitrous oxide emissions of cropping systems in eastern Washington: A simulation study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conservation tillage is an agricultural strategy to mitigate atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In eastern Washington we evaluated the long-term effects of conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and no-tillage (NT) on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and nitrous oxide emissions at...

199

Decoupling Chinas Carbon Emissions Increase from Economic Growth: An Economic Analysis and Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the worlds second largest carbon emitter, China has long been criticized as a free-rider benefiting from other countries efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but not taking responsibility for its own emissions. China has been singled out as one of the major targets at the subsequent negotiations after the Kyoto meeting. By analyzing the historical contributions of interfuel switching,

Zhongxiang Zhang

2000-01-01

200

Reducing CO 2 emissions by substituting biomass for fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing fossil fuels with sustainably-produced biomass will reduce the net flow of CO2 to the atmosphere. We express the efficiency of this substitution in reduced emissions per unit of used land or biomass and in costs of the substitution per tonne of C. The substitution costs are calculated as the cost difference between continued use of fossil fuels at current

Leif Gustavsson; Pl Brjesson; Bengt Johansson; Per Svenningsson

1995-01-01

201

Sevelamer carbonate markedly reduces levothyroxine absorption.  

PubMed

We report the case of a young woman affected by hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis, previously well compensated with a full replacement therapy (150 mcg/day of levothyroxine), presenting a clinical picture of myxedema, with a TSH=650 mU/L. Two years earlier she had started a dialysis treatment because of a chronic renal failure and had been under treatment for the last 18 months with sevelamer carbonate, a phosphate binder. No improvement of clinical conditions nor reduction in TSH serum levels was observed even on increasing the dose of levothyroxine up to 300 mcg/day, whereas euthyroidism finally restored by administering the first morning dose of sevelamer carbonate at least 4 hours after levothyroxine administration. This case shows that sevelamer carbonate, in analogy with what has been already reported for sevelamer hydrochloride, can interfere with levothyroxine absorption leading to a condition of hypothyroidism in patients previously well compensated with a given replacement dose. PMID:25183496

Iovino, Michele; Iovine, Nicola; Petrosino, Alfanso; Giagulli, Vito A; Licchelli, Brunella; Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Triggiani, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

202

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Breon, F.-M. [CEA/DSM/LSCE, Gif sur Yvette, France; Ciais, P. [LSCE/CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Davis, S. [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Erickson, D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gregg, J. S. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Marland, Gregg [Appalachian State University; Miller, J. [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Oda, T [NOAA ESRL/Boulder, CO/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State Univ.; Oliver, J. G. J. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Raupach, Michael [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Rayner, P [University of Melbourne, Australia; Treanton, K. [Energy Statistics Division, International Energy Agency, Paris, France

2012-01-01

203

Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.  

PubMed

The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions. PMID:22663136

Clack, Herek L

2012-07-01

204

Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.  

PubMed

Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

2005-09-01

205

The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment. PMID:24584642

Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

2014-06-01

206

The Logistics Equipment Carbon Emission Monitoring System for a Green Logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, due to the global enforcement of obligations to reduce green house gases and various environmental regulations, low carbon green growth strategies are required. Currently, in our country, environment friendly logistics activities are staying in the early stage compared to advanced countries because of our country's large energy consumption type industrial structures. As a measure to respond to the trend of the reinforcement of international environmental regulations in the sector of logistics, active green logistics systems should be established and to solve this problem, this study is intended to develop a monitoring system that can manage the carbon emission of logistics equipment(container truck, discharging equipment etc) in real time using a new technology named IP-RFID. The monitoring system developed in this study can actively manage the carbon emission of individual logistics equipment by attaching IP-Tags that can measure the carbon emission of individual logistics equipment in real time and transmit the information obtained from the measurement directly to users through IP communication. Since carbon emission can be managed by logistics equipment and drivers can check the carbon emission of equipment through this system, the carbon emission generated in the logistics sector may be reduced by using this system.

Choi, Hyungrim; Park, Byoungkwon; Lee, Byungha; Park, Yongsung; Lee, Changsup; Ha, Jeongsoo

207

[Monitoring gas concentration from carbon emissions by remote sensing].  

PubMed

Global climate warming has become the focus question of international global climate change research, and is an important factor influencing world economy, political situation, and ecological environment. Produced carbon emission gases such as CO2, CH4, N2O, etc. caused by human activity are the main reason for global warming. In order to forecast future climate change and construct accurate carbon cycle model, monitoring accuracy of gas concentration from carbon emission must be improved. In the present paper, the newest progress in the international research results about monitoring gas concentration from carbon emissions by remote sensing was considered, monitoring method for carbon emissions was introduced, and remotely sensed monitoring technology about gas concentration from carbon emissions (including thermal infrared, sun spectrum, active remote sensing monitoring technology) was stated. In detail, several present and future satellite sensors were introduced (including TOVS, AIRS, IASI, SCIAMACHY, GOSAT, OCO, A-SCOPE and ASCENDS), and monitoring results achieved by these sensors were analyzed. PMID:22870656

Wang, Li-Wen; Wei, Ya-Xing

2012-06-01

208

Cooperative water network system to reduce carbon footprint.  

PubMed

Much effort has been made in reducing the carbon footprint to mitigate climate change. However, water network synthesis has been focused on reducing the consumption and cost of freshwater within each industrial plant. The objective of this study is to illustrate the necessity of the cooperation of industrial plants to reduce the total carbon footprint of their water supply systems. A mathematical optimization model to minimize global warming potentials is developed to synthesize (1) a cooperative water network system (WNS) integrated over two plants and (2) an individual WNS consisting of two WNSs separated for each plant. The cooperative WNS is compared to the individual WNS. The cooperation reduces their carbon footprint and is economically feasible and profitable. A strategy for implementing the cooperation is suggested for the fair distribution of costs and benefits. As a consequence, industrial plants should cooperate with their neighbor plants to further reduce the carbon footprint. PMID:18767692

Lim, Seong-Rin; Park, Jong Moon

2008-08-15

209

An audit of the global carbon budget: identifying and reducing sources of uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties in our carbon accounting practices may limit our ability to objectively verify emission reductions on regional scales. Furthermore uncertainties in the global C budget must be reduced to benchmark Earth System Models that incorporate carbon-climate interactions. Here we present an audit of the global C budget where we try to identify sources of uncertainty for major terms in the global C budget. The atmospheric growth rate of CO2 has increased significantly over the last 50 years, while the uncertainty in calculating the global atmospheric growth rate has been reduced from 0.4 ppm/yr to 0.2 ppm/yr (95% confidence). Although we have greatly reduced global CO2 growth rate uncertainties, there remain regions, such as the Southern Hemisphere, Tropics and Arctic, where changes in regional sources/sinks will remain difficult to detect without additional observations. Increases in fossil fuel (FF) emissions are the primary factor driving the increase in global CO2 growth rate; however, our confidence in FF emission estimates has actually gone down. Based on a comparison of multiple estimates, FF emissions have increased from 2.45 0.12 PgC/yr in 1959 to 9.40 0.66 PgC/yr in 2010. Major sources of increasing FF emission uncertainty are increased emissions from emerging economies, such as China and India, as well as subtle differences in accounting practices. Lastly, we evaluate emission estimates from Land Use Change (LUC). Although relative errors in emission estimates from LUC are quite high (2 sigma ~ 50%), LUC emissions have remained fairly constant in recent decades. We evaluate the three commonly used approaches to estimating LUC emissions- Bookkeeping, Satellite Imagery, and Model Simulations- to identify their main sources of error and their ability to detect net emissions from LUC.; Uncertainties in Fossil Fuel Emissions over the last 50 years.

Ballantyne, A. P.; Tans, P. P.; Marland, G.; Stocker, B. D.

2012-12-01

210

Variability of building environmental assessment tools on evaluating carbon emissions  

SciTech Connect

With an increasing importance of sustainability in construction, more and more clients and designers employ building environmental assessment (BEA) tools to evaluate the environmental friendliness of their building facilities, and one important aspect of evaluation in the BEA models is the assessment of carbon emissions. However, in the absence of any agreed framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking, the results generated by the BEA tools might vary significantly which could lead to confusion or misinterpretation on the carbon performance of a building. This study thus aims to unveil the properties of and the standard imposed by the current BEA models on evaluating the life cycle carbon emissions. The analyses cover the (i) weighting of energy efficiency and emission levels among various environmental performance indicators; (ii) building life cycle stages in which carbon is taken into consideration; (iii) objectiveness of assessment; (iv) baseline set for carbon assessment; (v) mechanism for benchmarking the emission level; and (v) limitations of the carbon assessment approaches. Results indicate that the current BEA schemes focus primarily on operational carbon instead of the emissions generated throughout the entire building life cycle. Besides, the baseline and benchmark for carbon evaluation vary significantly among the BEA tools based on the analytical results of a hypothetical building. The findings point to the needs for a more transparent framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking in BEA modeling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon emission evaluation in building environmental assessment schemes are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulative carbon emission is modeled for building environmental assessment schemes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon assessments focus primarily on operational stage instead of entire lifecycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baseline and benchmark of carbon assessment vary greatly among BEA schemes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more transparent and comprehensive framework for carbon assessment is required.

Ng, S. Thomas, E-mail: tstng@hkucc.hku.hk; Chen Yuan, E-mail: chenyuan4@gmail.com; Wong, James M.W., E-mail: jmwwong@hku.hk

2013-01-15

211

Effectiveness of US state policies in reducing CO2 emissions from power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

President Obama's landmark initiative to reduce the CO2 emissions of existing power plants, the nation's largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutants, depends heavily on states and their ability to devise policies that meet the goals set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan, states will be responsible for cutting power plants' carbon pollution 30% from 2005 levels by 2030. States have already adopted several policies to reduce the electricity sector's climate impact. Some of these policies focus on reducing power plants' CO2 emissions, and others address this outcome in a more roundabout fashion by encouraging energy efficiency and renewable energy. However, it remains unclear which, if any, of these direct and indirect strategies actually mitigate plants' emissions because scholars have yet to test their effects using plant-level emission data. Here we use a newly released data source to determine whether states' policies significantly shape individual power plants' CO2 emissions. Findings reveal that certain types of direct strategy (emission caps and GHG targets) and indirect ones (public benefit funds and electric decoupling) lower plants' emissions and thus are viable building blocks of a federal climate regime.

Grant, Don; Bergstrand, Kelly; Running, Katrina

2014-11-01

212

Black carbon reductions in the Arctic tied to declining emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon, or soot, is now considered to be the second most potent driver of anthropogenic climate change, its effect on global temperatures trailing only that of carbon dioxide. Whereas carbon dioxide emissions spread broadly across the planet, black carbon's effects are far more localized. On broad regional scales, black carbon can have a prominent effect, particularly in polar regions where soot strongly dampens the surface albedo.

Schultz, Colin

2014-10-01

213

Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A  

SciTech Connect

Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

214

Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of energy consumption and output on carbon emissions in the United States. Earlier research focused on testing the existence and\\/or shape of an environmental Kuznets curve without taking energy consumption into account. We investigate the Granger causality relationship between income, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, including labor and gross fixed capital formation in the model.

Ugur Soytas; Ramazan Sari; Bradley T. Ewing

2007-01-01

215

Baseline Carbon Sequestration, Transport, and Emission From Inland Aquatic  

E-print Network

Baseline Carbon Sequestration, Transport, and Emission From Inland Aquatic Ecosystems.G., and Striegl, R.G., 2012, Baseline carbon sequestration, transport, and emission from inland aquatic ecosystems://www.usgs.gov or call 1888ASKUSGS. For an overview of USGS information products, including maps, imagery

Fleskes, Joe

216

Global patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use semi-mechanistic, empirically based statistical models to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of global carbon dioxide emissions from terrestrial soils. Emissions include the respiration of both soil organisms and plant roots. At the global scale, rates of soil CO efflux correlate significantly with temperature and precipitation; they do not correlated well with soil carbon pools, soil nitrogen pools,

James W. Raich; Christopher S. Potter

1995-01-01

217

Using Carbon Emissions Data to "Heat Up" Descriptive Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates using carbon emissions data in an introductory statistics assignment. The carbon emissions data has desirable characteristics including: choice of measure; skewness; and outliers. These complexities allow research and public policy debate to be introduced. (Contains 4 figures and 2 tables.)

Brooks, Robert

2012-01-01

218

A Shapley decomposition of carbon emissions without residuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional decomposition techniques for historical evolutions of carbon emissions present path dependent factor weights of selected variables next to significant residuals. Especially for analyses over long periods with many variables, high residuals make it almost impossible to derive reliable conclusions. As an alternative, we present the Shapley decomposition technique for carbon emissions over the period 19601996. This technique makes it

Johan Albrecht; Delphine Franois; Koen Schoors

2002-01-01

219

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative

Susan Solomon; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Reto Knutti; Pierre Friedlingstein

2009-01-01

220

A strategic decision-making model considering the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions for sustainable supply chain management.  

PubMed

Incorporating sustainability into supply chain management has become a critical issue driven by pressures from governments, customers, and various stakeholder groups over the past decade. This study proposes a strategic decision-making model considering both the operational costs and social costs caused by the carbon dioxide emissions from operating such a supply chain network for sustainable supply chain management. This model was used to evaluate carbon dioxide emissions and operational costs under different scenarios in an apparel manufacturing supply chain network. The results showed that the higher the social cost rate of carbon dioxide emissions, the lower the amount of the emission of carbon dioxide. The results also suggested that a legislation that forces the enterprises to bear the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from their economic activities is an effective approach to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. PMID:24412595

Tseng, Shih-Chang; Hung, Shiu-Wan

2014-01-15

221

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in Borneo will also be discussed.

Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

2011-12-01

222

Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuaries are known to be strong source for atmospheric CO2, however, little information is available from Indian estuaries. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge (wet) period. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between 300 and 18492 ?atm which are within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G. D.; Prasad, V. R.; Kumar, B. S. K.; Naidu, S. A.; Kumar, N. A.; Rao, D. B.; Sridevi, T.; Krishna, M. S.; Reddy, N. P. C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T. V. R.

2012-02-01

223

Effects of Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and population growth will make it more challenging for California to attain health-based ambient air quality standards for ozone. This so-called climate change penalty will require even more stringent emission control measures on stationary and mobile sources of air pollution to offset the harmful effects of climate change on ozone air quality. California has set a target to decrease greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2020, and to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. We analyze the potential effects on air quality due to the first (2020) target for greenhouse gas emissions in central California. The anticipated control measures will also affect ozone precursor emissions. We develop a set of air pollution emission scenarios for central California as of 2020, and predict resulting ozone concentrations for each case. We take into account the Draft AB 32 Scoping Document and regional/state level air quality control plans, as well as the effects of population growth and technology change. This allows us to elucidate and quantify the interactions between California's air pollution and greenhouse gas control programs. An important opportunity for synergy between control programs is to place more emphasis on greenhouse gas reductions in the diesel sector, as these engines are now the dominant source of NOx and black carbon emissions in California, as well as contributing significantly to CO2.

Shearer, S. M.; Harley, R.

2008-12-01

224

Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries  

SciTech Connect

This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon emissions, population, and grow domestic product have all been growing faster than OECD`s. This presentation has seven major sections: (1) overview of key trends in non-OECD energy use and carbon emissions since 1970; (2) Comparison and contrasting energy use and carbon emissions for five major non OEDC regions (former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, Pacific Rim including China, Latin America, other Asia; Africa; 3-7) presentation of aggregate and sectoral energy use and carbon emissions data for countries within each of the 5 regions.

Not Available

1994-12-01

225

Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans act as a net sink for atmospheric CO2, however, the role of coastal bodies on global CO2 fluxes remains unclear due to lack of data. The estimated absorption of CO2 from the continental shelves, with limited data, is 0.22 to 1.0 PgC/y, and of CO2 emission by estuaries to the atmosphere is 0.27 PgC/y. The estimates from the estuaries suffer from large uncertainties due to large variability and lack of systematic data collection. It is especially true for Southeast Asian estuaries as the biogeochemical cycling of material are different due to high atmospheric temperature, seasonality driven by monsoons, seasonal discharge etc. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge wet and dry periods. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between ~300 and 18492 microatm which were within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

Sarma Vedula, VSS

2012-07-01

226

Unsuccessful Suicide by Carbon Monoxide: A Secondary Benefit of Emissions Control  

PubMed Central

Emission systems and devices are required on automobile engines to reduce air pollution problems. Catalytic converters have been used on most 1975 and newer automobiles to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to a value that meets the Environmental Protection Agency requirements established for 1975 and 1976. The 1980-1981 Boise, Idaho, study shows that with a functioning catalytic converter either unmeasurable or sublethal quantities of CO appear in automobile exhaust. Thus, emissions control has produced a secondary benefit in reducing the number of suicides by CO poisoning from automobile exhaust fumes. PMID:6176074

Landers, Dennis

1981-01-01

227

Unsuccessful suicide by carbon monoxide: a secondary benefit of emissions control  

SciTech Connect

Emission systems and devices are required on automobile engines to reduce air pollution problems. Catalytic converters have been used on most 1975 and newer automobiles to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to a value that meets the Environmental Protection Agency requirements established for 1975 and 1976. The 1980-1981 Boise, Idaho, study shows that with a functioning catalytic converter either unmeasurable or sublethal quantities of CO appear in automobile exhaust. Thus, emissions control has produced a secondary benefit in reducing the number of suicides by CO poisoning from automobile exhaust fumes.

Landers, D.

1981-11-01

228

Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under extreme congestion, the benefits of TSP decrease.

Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

2014-06-01

229

Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

PubMed Central

To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what wellbeing is and how it can be operationalized for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

2014-01-01

230

Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what 'wellbeing' is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

2014-12-01

231

REDUCING FUMIGANT EMISSIONS USING SURFACE TARPS: FIELD AND LABORATORY ASSESSMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasingly stringent regulations require that emissions of fumigants to the atmosphere be reduced to protect human and environmental health. Plastic tarps used to cover the soil surface during soil fumigation vary in their effectiveness as diffusion barriers. Virtually impermeable films (VIFs) hav...

232

Attempts to Reduce NOx Exhaust Emissions by Using Reformulated Biodiesel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two routes were investigated for reformulating soy-based biodiesel in an effort to reduce its nitrogen oxide emissions. In the first approach, methyl soyate was modified by converting a proportion of the cis-bonds in the fatty acid chains of its methyl esters to their trans isomers. In the second ...

233

TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

234

Pathways of human development and carbon emissions embodied in trade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been assumed that human development depends on economic growth, that national economic expansion in turn requires greater energy use and, therefore, increased greenhouse-gas emissions. These interdependences are the topic of current research. Scarcely explored, however, is the impact of international trade: although some nations develop socio-economically and import high-embodied-carbon products, it is likely that carbon-exporting countries gain significantly fewer benefits. Here, we use new consumption-based measures of national carbon emissions to explore how the relationship between human development and carbon changes when we adjust national emission rates for trade. Without such adjustment of emissions, some nations seem to be getting far better development `bang' for the carbon `buck' than others, who are showing scant gains for disproportionate shares of global emissions. Adjusting for the transfer of emissions through trade explains many of these outliers, but shows that further socio-economic benefits are accruing to carbon-importing rather than carbon-exporting countries. We also find that high life expectancies are compatible with low carbon emissions but high incomes are not. Finally, we see that, despite strong international trends, there is no deterministic industrial development trajectory: there is great diversity in pathways, and national histories do not necessarily follow the global trends.

Steinberger, Julia K.; Timmons Roberts, J.; Peters, Glen P.; Baiocchi, Giovanni

2012-02-01

235

Research developments in methods to reduce the carbon footprint of the food system: a review.  

PubMed

Global warming is a worldwide issue with its evident impact across a wide range of systems and sectors. It is caused by a number of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, in which food system has made up of a large part. Recently, reduction of GHG emissions has become an urgent issue to be resolved in the food system. Many governments and organizations are making great endeavors to alleviate the adverse effect of this phenomenon. In this review, methods to reduce the carbon footprint within the life cycle of a food system are presented from the technical, consumption behavior and environmental policies perspectives. The whole food system including raw material acquisition, processing, packaging, preservation, transportation, consumption, and disposal are covered. Improving management techniques, and adopting advanced technology and equipment are critical for every stage of a food system. Rational site selection is important to alleviate the influence of land use change. In addition, environmental choices of packaging stage, reduction in refrigeration dependence, and correct waste treatment are essential to reduce the total carbon footprint of the production. However, only technical methods cannot radically reverse the trend of climate change, as consumption behaviors present a great deal of influence over climate change. Appropriate purchase patterns and substitution within food product categories by low carbon products can reduce GHG emissions. Development of methods to calculate the carbon footprint of every kind of food and its processing technology enable people to make environmental choice. Policy can shape and cultivate the new code of consumption and influence the direction of emerging technology and science. From political perspectives, government intervention and carbon offset are common tools, especially for carbon tax and a real or implicit price of carbon. Finally, by mitigating the methodologies described above, the rate and magnitude of climate changes can be also reduced to some extent. PMID:24689789

Xu, Zhongyue; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan; Pu, Hongbin

2015-07-29

236

Reduce emissions and operating costs with appropriate glycol selection  

SciTech Connect

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) emissions from glycol dehydration units have become a major concern and some form of control is necessary in many cases. One method of reducing BTEX emissions that is often overlooked is in the selection of the proper dehydrating agent. BTEX compounds are less soluble in diethylene glycol (DEG) than triethylene glycol (TEG) and considerably less soluble in ethylene glycol (EG). If the use of DEG or EG achieves the required gas dew point in cases where BTEX emissions are a concern, a significant savings in both operating costs and the cost of treating still vent gases may be achieved. This paper compares plant operations using TEG, DEG and EG from the viewpoint of BTEX emissions, circulating rates, utilities and dehydration capabilities.

Covington, K.; Lyddon, L. [Bryan Research and Engineering, Inc., TX (United States); Ebeling, H. [Latoka Engineering L.L.C., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1998-12-31

237

76 FR 80368 - Notification of Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel AGENCY: Environmental...teleconferences of the SAB Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel to review EPA's draft...given that the SAB Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel will hold two public...

2011-12-23

238

The role of carbon dioxide in ammonia emission from manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia emission from manure is a significant loss of fixed N from agricultural systems, and contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation. Despite the development of numerous mathematical models for predicting ammonia emission, the interactions between carbon dioxide emission, manure pH, a...

239

Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.  

E-print Network

as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more of those currently on the market · Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel

240

A reduced organic carbon component in martian basalts.  

PubMed

The source and nature of carbon on Mars have been a subject of intense speculation. We report the results of confocal Raman imaging spectroscopy on 11 martian meteorites, spanning about 4.2 billion years of martian history. Ten of the meteorites contain abiotic macromolecular carbon (MMC) phases detected in association with small oxide grains included within high-temperature minerals. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected along with MMC phases in Dar al Gani 476. The association of organic carbon within magmatic minerals indicates that martian magmas favored precipitation of reduced carbon species during crystallization. The ubiquitous distribution of abiotic organic carbon in martian igneous rocks is important for understanding the martian carbon cycle and has implications for future missions to detect possible past martian life. PMID:22628557

Steele, A; McCubbin, F M; Fries, M; Kater, L; Boctor, N Z; Fogel, M L; Conrad, P G; Glamoclija, M; Spencer, M; Morrow, A L; Hammond, M R; Zare, R N; Vicenzi, E P; Siljestrm, S; Bowden, R; Herd, C D K; Mysen, B O; Shirey, S B; Amundsen, H E F; Treiman, A H; Bullock, E S; Jull, A J T

2012-07-13

241

Interactions between reducing CO2 emissions, CO2 removal and solar radiation management.  

PubMed

We use a simple carbon cycle-climate model to investigate the interactions between a selection of idealized scenarios of mitigated carbon dioxide emissions, carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and solar radiation management (SRM). Two CO(2) emissions trajectories differ by a 15-year delay in the start of mitigation activity. SRM is modelled as a reduction in incoming solar radiation that fully compensates the radiative forcing due to changes in atmospheric CO(2) concentration. Two CDR scenarios remove 300 PgC by afforestation (added to vegetation and soil) or 1000 PgC by bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (removed from system). Our results show that delaying the start of mitigation activity could be very costly in terms of the CDR activity needed later to limit atmospheric CO(2) concentration (and corresponding global warming) to a given level. Avoiding a 15-year delay in the start of mitigation activity is more effective at reducing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations than all but the maximum type of CDR interventions. The effects of applying SRM and CDR together are additive, and this shows most clearly for atmospheric CO(2) concentration. SRM causes a significant reduction in atmospheric CO(2) concentration due to increased carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere, especially soils. However, SRM has to be maintained for many centuries to avoid rapid increases in temperature and corresponding increases in atmospheric CO(2) concentration due to loss of carbon from the land. PMID:22869802

Vaughan, Naomi E; Lenton, Timothy M

2012-09-13

242

New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China  

PubMed Central

Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the worlds population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st century. Chinas participation is essential to global efforts in reducing N-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because China is the largest producer and consumer of fertilizer N. To evaluate the impact of Chinas use of N fertilizer, we quantify the carbon footprint of Chinas N fertilizer production and consumption chain using life cycle analysis. For every ton of N fertilizer manufactured and used, 13.5 tons of CO2-equivalent (eq) (t CO2-eq) is emitted, compared with 9.7 t CO2-eq in Europe. Emissions in China tripled from 1980 [131 terrogram (Tg) of CO2-eq (Tg CO2-eq)] to 2010 (452 Tg CO2-eq). N fertilizer-related emissions constitute about 7% of GHG emissions from the entire Chinese economy and exceed soil carbon gain resulting from N fertilizer use by several-fold. We identified potential emission reductions by comparing prevailing technologies and management practices in China with more advanced options worldwide. Mitigation opportunities include improving methane recovery during coal mining, enhancing energy efficiency in fertilizer manufacture, and minimizing N overuse in field-level crop production. We find that use of advanced technologies could cut N fertilizer-related emissions by 2063%, amounting to 102357 Tg CO2-eq annually. Such reduction would decrease Chinas total GHG emissions by 26%, which is significant on a global scale. PMID:23671096

Dou, Zheng-xia; He, Pan; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Powlson, David; Chadwick, Dave; Norse, David; Lu, Yue-Lai; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Liang; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cassman, Kenneth G.; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2013-01-01

243

New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China.  

PubMed

Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world's population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st century. China's participation is essential to global efforts in reducing N-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because China is the largest producer and consumer of fertilizer N. To evaluate the impact of China's use of N fertilizer, we quantify the carbon footprint of China's N fertilizer production and consumption chain using life cycle analysis. For every ton of N fertilizer manufactured and used, 13.5 tons of CO2-equivalent (eq) (t CO2-eq) is emitted, compared with 9.7 t CO2-eq in Europe. Emissions in China tripled from 1980 [131 terrogram (Tg) of CO2-eq (Tg CO2-eq)] to 2010 (452 Tg CO2-eq). N fertilizer-related emissions constitute about 7% of GHG emissions from the entire Chinese economy and exceed soil carbon gain resulting from N fertilizer use by several-fold. We identified potential emission reductions by comparing prevailing technologies and management practices in China with more advanced options worldwide. Mitigation opportunities include improving methane recovery during coal mining, enhancing energy efficiency in fertilizer manufacture, and minimizing N overuse in field-level crop production. We find that use of advanced technologies could cut N fertilizer-related emissions by 20-63%, amounting to 102-357 Tg CO2-eq annually. Such reduction would decrease China's total GHG emissions by 2-6%, which is significant on a global scale. PMID:23671096

Zhang, Wei-Feng; Dou, Zheng-Xia; He, Pan; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Powlson, David; Chadwick, Dave; Norse, David; Lu, Yue-Lai; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Liang; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cassman, Kenneth G; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2013-05-21

244

Embodied energy consumption and carbon emissions evaluation for urban industrial structure optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities are the main material processors associated with industrialization. The development of urban production based on fossil fuels is the major contributor to the rise of greenhouse gas density, and to global warming. The concept of urban industrial structure optimization is considered to be a solution to urban sustainable development and global climate issues. Enforcing energy conservation and reducing carbon emissions are playing key roles in addressing these issues. As such, quantitative accounting and the evaluation of energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions, which are by-products of urban production, are critical, in order to discover potential opportunities to save energy and to reduce emissions. Conventional evaluation indicators, such as "energy consumption per unit output value" and "emissions per unit output value", are concerned with immediate consumptions and emissions; while the indirect consumptions and emissions that occur throughout the supply chain are ignored. This does not support the optimization of the overall urban industrial system. To present a systematic evaluation framework for cities, this study constructs new evaluation indicators, based on the concepts of "embodied energy" and "embodied carbon emissions", which take both the immediate and indirect effects of energy consumption and emissions into account. Taking Beijing as a case, conventional evaluation indicators are compared with the newly constructed ones. Results show that the energy consumption and emissions of urban industries are represented better by the new indicators than by conventional indicators, and provide useful information for urban industrial structure optimization.

Ji, Xi; Chen, Zhanming; Li, Jinkai

2014-03-01

245

Transitions in pathways of human development and carbon emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Countries are known to follow diverse pathways of life expectancy and carbon emissions, but little is known about factors driving these dynamics. In this letter we estimate the cross-sectional economic, demographic and geographic drivers of consumption-based carbon emissions. Using clustering techniques, countries are grouped according to their drivers, and analysed with respect to a criteria of one tonne of carbon emissions per capita and a life expectancy over 70 years (Goldembergs Corner). Five clusters of countries are identified with distinct drivers and highly differentiated outcomes of life expectancy and carbon emissions. Representatives from four clusters intersect within Goldembergs Corner, suggesting diverse combinations of drivers may still lead to sustainable outcomes, presenting many countries with an opportunity to follow a pathway towards low-carbon human development. By contrast, within Goldembergs Corner, there are no countries from the core, wealthy consuming nations. These results reaffirm the need to address economic inequalities within international agreements for climate mitigation, but acknowledge plausible and accessible examples of low-carbon human development for countries that share similar underlying drivers of carbon emissions. In addition, we note differences in drivers between models of territorial and consumption-based carbon emissions, and discuss interesting exceptions to the drivers-based cluster analysis.

Lamb, W. F.; Steinberger, J. K.; Bows-Larkin, A.; Peters, G. P.; Roberts, J. T.; Wood, F. R.

2014-01-01

246

Quantification of annual carbon emissions from deforestation in South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical deforestation is the second largest source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere and also one of the most uncertain components of the global carbon cycle. Current estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation have errors as much as 50%. This substantial uncertainty range stems in part from the uncertain estimate of changes in forest area as well as the lack of spatially explicit information on biomass density. Here we use multiple sources satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in South America on a year-to-year basis from 2000 to 2010. We first use time-series multi-spectral images to map the spatial extent of forest loss. We then spatially match the area of deforestation with initial biomass density to quantify the committed carbon emissions from forest loss. Our results reveal that the five countries with the highest deforestation related emissions in South America are Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Argentina, and Chile. Their average annual emission rates are 218 TgC/yr, 23 TgC/yr, 16 TgC/yr, 14 TgC/yr and 11 TgC/yr, respectively. However, there are substantial inter-annual variations. Emissions in both Brazil and Argentina increased initially until 2005, and then declined. But Bolivia had a steady increasing trend in its emission over the 10 years. The coefficient of variation of annual emissions in these five countries ranges from 36% to 45%, indicating considerable inter-annual variations in carbon emissions from deforestation in these countries. These spatially explicit, multi-year emission estimates may be used as a baseline for REDD+ or other related emission mitigation efforts. The trends and large inter-annual variations in deforestation related emissions as revealed in this study should be considered in evaluating the performance of such efforts.

Song, X.; Huang, C.; Townshend, J. R.

2013-12-01

247

Increases in terrestrially derived carbon stimulate organic carbon processing and CO? emissions in boreal aquatic ecosystems.  

PubMed

The concentrations of terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon have been increasing throughout northern aquatic ecosystems in recent decades, but whether these shifts have an impact on aquatic carbon emissions at the continental scale depends on the potential for this terrestrial carbon to be converted into carbon dioxide. Here, via the analysis of hundreds of boreal lakes, rivers and wetlands in Canada, we show that, contrary to conventional assumptions, the proportion of biologically degradable dissolved organic carbon remains constant and the photochemical degradability increases with terrestrial influence. Thus, degradation potential increases with increasing amounts of terrestrial carbon. Our results provide empirical evidence of a strong causal link between dissolved organic carbon concentrations and aquatic fluxes of carbon dioxide, mediated by the degradation of land-derived organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Future shifts in the patterns of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in inland waters thus have the potential to significantly increase aquatic carbon emissions across northern landscapes. PMID:24336188

Lapierre, Jean-Franois; Guillemette, Franois; Berggren, Martin; del Giorgio, Paul A

2013-01-01

248

Market-driven emissions from recovery of carbon dioxide gas.  

PubMed

This article uses a market-based allocation method in a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) framework to estimate the environmental emissions created by recovering carbon dioxide (CO2). We find that 1 ton of CO2 recovered as a coproduct of chemicals manufacturing leads to additional greenhouse gas emissions of 147-210 kg CO2 eq , while consuming 160-248 kWh of electricity, 254-480 MJ of heat, and 1836-4027 kg of water. The ranges depend on the initial and final purity of the CO2, particularly because higher purity grades require additional processing steps such as distillation, as well as higher temperature and flow rate of regeneration as needed for activated carbon treatment and desiccant beds. Higher purity also reduces process efficiency due to increased yield losses from regeneration gas and distillation reflux. Mass- and revenue-based allocation methods used in attributional LCA estimate that recovering CO2 leads to 19 and 11 times the global warming impact estimated from a market-based allocation used in consequential LCA. PMID:25412142

Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

2014-12-16

249

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

SciTech Connect

As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic expansion and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both a short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as a long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study presents a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. Over the past few years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced its China End-Use Energy Model which is based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. In addition, this analysis also evaluated China's long-term domestic energy supply in order to gauge the potential challenge China may face in meeting long-term demand for energy. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not necessarily be the case because saturation in ownership of appliances, construction of residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that China's 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency improvements will play in carbon mitigation along with a decarbonized power supply through greater renewable and non-fossil fuel generation.

Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

2011-02-15

250

Consideration of black carbon and primary organic carbon emissions in life-cycle analysis of Greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle systems and fuels.  

PubMed

The climate impact assessment of vehicle/fuel systems may be incomplete without considering short-lived climate forcers of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC). We quantified life-cycle BC and POC emissions of a large variety of vehicle/fuel systems with an expanded Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Life-cycle BC and POC emissions have small impacts on life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of gasoline, diesel, and other fuel vehicles, but would add 34, 16, and 16 g CO2 equivalent (CO2e)/mile, or 125, 56, and 56 g CO2e/mile with the 100 or 20 year Global Warming Potentials of BC and POC emissions, respectively, for vehicles fueled with corn stover-, willow tree-, and Brazilian sugarcane-derived ethanol, mostly due to BC- and POC-intensive biomass-fired boilers in cellulosic and sugarcane ethanol plants for steam and electricity production, biomass open burning in sugarcane fields, and diesel-powered agricultural equipment for biomass feedstock production/harvest. As a result, life-cycle GHG emission reduction potentials of these ethanol types, though still significant, are reduced from those without considering BC and POC emissions. These findings, together with a newly expanded GREET version, help quantify the previously unknown impacts of BC and POC emissions on life-cycle GHG emissions of U.S. vehicle/fuel systems. PMID:25259852

Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

2014-10-21

251

Reducing GHG emissions by co-utilization of coal with natural gas or biomass  

SciTech Connect

Energy reserves price and security of supply issues are discussed in the context of the prospects for coal and policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coal is projected to remain a major source of energy, with most of the demand growth in developing countries. Currently available power-generating technologies, deploying coal with natural gas or biomass, are examined. Examples of successful, partial substitution of coal by other fuels in power stations are highlighted, including the GHG emissions reductions achieved as well as the costs where available. Among various options, hybrid gasification and parallel cofiring of coal with biomass and natural gas appear to have the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions. Much may also be achieved by cofiring, reburning, and repowering with gas turbines. The best method differs between different power systems. Co-utilization of biomass with coal is a least-cost option to reduce GHG emissions where the fuel prices are comparable, usually due to subsidies or taxes. The role of biomass is likely to increase due to greater use of subsidies, carbon taxes, and emissions trading within the context of the Kyoto Protocol. This should provide opportunities for clean coal technology transfer and diffusion, including biomass co-utilization. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Smith, I.M. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2004-07-01

252

Short and Long Term Impacts of Forest Bioenergy Production on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate forest annual net uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere is equivalent to ~16% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in the United States. Mitigation strategies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of energy including forest biomass. The prospect of forest derived bioenergy has led to implementation of new forest management strategies based on the assumption that they will reduce total CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by simultaneously reducing the risk of wildfire and substituting for fossil fuels. The benefit of managing forests for bioenergy substitution of fossil fuels versus potential carbon sequestration by reducing harvest needs to be evaluated. This study uses a combination of Federal Forest Inventory data (FIA), remote sensing, and a coupled carbon-nitrogen ecosystem process model (CLM4-CN) to predict net atmospheric CO2 emissions from forest thinning for bioenergy production in Oregon under varying future management and climate scenarios. We use life-cycle assessment (LCA) incorporating both the forest and forest product sinks and sources of carbon dioxide. Future modeled results are compared with a reduced harvest scenario to determine the potential for increased carbon sequestration in forest biomass. We find that Oregon forests are a current strong sink of 7.5 1.7 Tg C yr-1 or 61 g C m-2 yr-1. (NBP; NEP minus removals from fire and harvest). In the short term, we find that carbon dynamics following harvests for fire prevention and large-scale bioenergy production lead to 2-15% higher emissions over the next 20 years compared to current management, assuming 100% effectiveness of fire prevention. Given the current sink strength, analysis of the forest sector in Oregon demonstrates that increasing harvest levels by all practices above current business-as-usual levels increases CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as long as the region's sink persists. In the long-term, we find that projected changes in climate and fire regimes reduce the baseline sink in drier portions of the state making thinning for bioenergy production an effective means to reduce atmospheric emissions. However, in the more productive wetter areas, management for carbon sequestration removes more CO2 from the atmosphere than substitution of fossil fuels with forest bioenergy. Management strategies should consider the emission reduction potential of reducing harvest in some areas before implementing bioenergy production.

Hudiburg, T.; Law, B. E.; Luyssaert, S.; Thornton, P. E.

2011-12-01

253

[Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity reduction and carbon emission growth].  

PubMed

The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" emission trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases emissions. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and emission, not only for setting industry-specified intensity reduction target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon emission during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon emission was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon emission and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon emission. The contributions of service industries to national carbon emission growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry. PMID:25639120

Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming

2014-11-01

254

Deterministic Cold Cathode Electron Emission from Carbon Nanofibre Arrays  

PubMed Central

The ability to accurately design carbon nanofibre (CN) field emitters with predictable electron emission characteristics will enable their use as electron sources in various applications such as microwave amplifiers, electron microscopy, parallel beam electron lithography and advanced Xray sources. Here, highly uniform CN arrays of controlled diameter, pitch and length were fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition and their individual emission characteristics and field enhancement factors were probed using scanning anode field emission mapping. For a pitch of 10?m and a CN length of 5?m, the directly measured enhancement factors of individual CNs was 242, which was in excellent agreement with conventional geometry estimates (240). We show here direct empirical evidence that in regular arrays of vertically aligned CNs the overall enhancement factor is reduced when the pitch between emitters is less than half the emitter height, in accordance to our electrostatic simulations. Individual emitters showed narrow Gaussian-like field enhancement distributions, in excellent agreement with electric field simulations. PMID:24787895

Cole, Matthew T.; Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Groening, Oliver; Gangloff, Laurent; Legagneux, Pierre; Milne, William I.

2014-01-01

255

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01

256

Rotary Cement Kiln Control for Reducing NOx Emissions to Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A logic procedure, including 12 alternatives within 32 activities and 13 decision nodes has been designed\\/developed\\/implemented for the rotary cement kiln control aiming at reducing NOx emissions to atmosphere. The hierarchy of alternatives was evaluated through simple and top-down Kendall's coefficients of concordance, proved to be of statistical significance. An implementation is presented in the case of fuel substitution including

Fragiskos A. Batzias

2006-01-01

257

Appraisal of policy instruments for reducing buildings' CO2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The building sector currently contributes approximately one-third of energy-related CO2 emissions worldwide. It is economically possible to achieve a 30% reduction. However, numerous barriers such as financial and behavioural issues, market failures, and misplaced incentives prevent the realization of the high economic potentials. Which policy instruments are the most appropriate and cost-effective for reducing these barriers? To address this question,

Diana rge-Vorsatz; Sonja Koeppel; Sebastian Mirasgedis

2007-01-01

258

The effect of two ammonia-emission-reducing pig housing systems on odour emission.  

PubMed

Odour nuisance from agricultural activities is increasing in densely populated countries like the Netherlands. To develop adequate regulations, a large-scale, government-financed monitoring programme was started in the mid-1990s to establish odour emission levels for both conventional and low ammonia emission housing systems for cattle, pigs and poultry. The results indicate that high- and low-odour emission housing are difficult to distinguish because of the large variation within housing systems. Measurements on different farm locations within the same housing system show both a large variation between locations and within one location (in time). The latter, however, is significantly smaller, which suggests that farm management is an important determinant in odour emission that interferes with the effects of housing systems. The current research was aimed at determining the effect of two common ammonia-reducing pig-housing systems on odour emissions compared to conventional housing systems under similar management conditions. The respective reduction principles of these systems are reducing the emitting surface of the manure pit and cooling of manure in the manure pit (both pits beneath slatted floor). Five farms that combined conventional housing with one low-ammonia system (three reduced emitting surface and two manure cooling) were selected for a direct, pair-wise comparison of (olfactometric) odour emission measurements. The results show a highly significant effect (p < 0.01) for two of the three reduced emitting surface systems and for one of the two manure cooling system. The average odour reduction percentages of these systems are 35% (from 24.9 to 16.0 OUE/s per animal) and 23% (from 30.1 to 24.0 OUE/s per animal) respectively. Although odour emission reduction through the type of housing system is possible, management factors interact with the system and thereby determine whether the system reduces odour emission or not. PMID:15484778

Mol, G; Ogink, N W M

2004-01-01

259

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 1, Summary: Draft  

SciTech Connect

Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions` levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.; Cerutti, O.M.

1992-08-01

260

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions' levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.); Cerutti, O.M.

1992-08-01

261

Derivation of burn scar depths and estimation of carbon emissions with LIDAR in Indonesian peatlands  

PubMed Central

During the 1997/98 El Nio-induced drought peatland fires in Indonesia may have released 1340% of the mean annual global carbon emissions from fossil fuels. One major unknown in current peatland emission estimations is how much peat is combusted by fire. Using a light detection and ranging data set acquired in Central Kalimantan, Borneo, in 2007, one year after the severe peatland fires of 2006, we determined an average burn scar depth of 0.33 0.18 m. Based on this result and the burned area determined from satellite imagery, we estimate that within the 2.79 million hectare study area 49.15 26.81 megatons of carbon were released during the 2006 El Nio episode. This represents 1033% of all carbon emissions from transport for the European Community in the year 2006. These emissions, originating from a comparatively small area (approximately 13% of the Indonesian peatland area), underline the importance of peat fires in the context of green house gas emissions and global warming. In the past decade severe peat fires occurred during El Nio-induced droughts in 1997, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009. Currently, this important source of carbon emissions is not included in IPCC carbon accounting or in regional and global carbon emission models. Precise spatial measurements of peat combusted and potential avoided emissions in tropical peat swamp forests will also be required for future emission trading schemes in the framework of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in developing countries. PMID:19940252

Ballhorn, Uwe; Siegert, Florian; Mason, Mike; Limin, Suwido

2009-01-01

262

Derivation of burn scar depths and estimation of carbon emissions with LIDAR in Indonesian peatlands.  

PubMed

During the 1997/98 El Nio-induced drought peatland fires in Indonesia may have released 13-40% of the mean annual global carbon emissions from fossil fuels. One major unknown in current peatland emission estimations is how much peat is combusted by fire. Using a light detection and ranging data set acquired in Central Kalimantan, Borneo, in 2007, one year after the severe peatland fires of 2006, we determined an average burn scar depth of 0.33 +/- 0.18 m. Based on this result and the burned area determined from satellite imagery, we estimate that within the 2.79 million hectare study area 49.15 +/- 26.81 megatons of carbon were released during the 2006 El Nio episode. This represents 10-33% of all carbon emissions from transport for the European Community in the year 2006. These emissions, originating from a comparatively small area (approximately 13% of the Indonesian peatland area), underline the importance of peat fires in the context of green house gas emissions and global warming. In the past decade severe peat fires occurred during El Nio-induced droughts in 1997, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009. Currently, this important source of carbon emissions is not included in IPCC carbon accounting or in regional and global carbon emission models. Precise spatial measurements of peat combusted and potential avoided emissions in tropical peat swamp forests will also be required for future emission trading schemes in the framework of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in developing countries. PMID:19940252

Ballhorn, Uwe; Siegert, Florian; Mason, Mike; Limin, Suwido

2009-12-15

263

A model of plant isoprene emission based on available reducing power captures responses to atmospheric CO?.  

PubMed

We present a unifying model for isoprene emission by photosynthesizing leaves based on the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis depends on a balance between the supply of photosynthetic reducing power and the demands of carbon fixation. We compared the predictions from our model, as well as from two other widely used models, with measurements of isoprene emission from leaves of Populus nigra and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula P. tremuloides) in response to changes in leaf internal CO2 concentration (C(i)) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) under diverse ambient CO2 concentrations (C(a)). Our model reproduces the observed changes in isoprene emissions with C(i) and PPFD, and also reproduces the tendency for the fraction of fixed carbon allocated to isoprene to increase with increasing PPFD. It also provides a simple mechanism for the previously unexplained decrease in the quantum efficiency of isoprene emission with increasing C(a). Experimental and modelled results support our hypothesis. Our model can reproduce the key features of the observations and has the potential to improve process-based modelling of isoprene emissions by land vegetation at the ecosystem and global scales. PMID:24661143

Morfopoulos, Catherine; Sperlich, Dominik; Peuelas, Josep; Filella, Iolanda; Llusi, Joan; Medlyn, Belinda E; Niinemets, lo; Possell, Malcolm; Sun, Zhihong; Prentice, Iain Colin

2014-07-01

264

The effects of international trade on Chinese carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

International trade is an important impact factor to the carbon emissions of a country. As the rapid development of Chinese\\u000a foreign trade since its entry into the WTO in 2002, the effects of international trade on carbon emissions of China are more\\u000a and more significant. Using the recent available input-output tables of China and energy consumption data, this study estimated

Benyong Wei; Xiuqi Fang; Yuan Wang

2011-01-01

265

Global passenger travel: implications for carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans spend, on average, a constant fraction of their time and expenditure on travel. These and a few other constraints allow a new model for projecting regional and world travel, which we use to develop a scenario for carbon emissions from passenger transport. Globally, carbon emissions rise from 0.8 GtC in 1990 to 2.7 GtC in 2050. In every industrialized

Andreas Schafer; David G. Victor

1999-01-01

266

University Statement on Carbon Offsetting for Travel July 2011 Travel contributes significantly to the emissions of the University. We all have a role to play in  

E-print Network

to the emissions of the University. We all have a role to play in reducing our own and the organisations carbonUniversity Statement on Carbon Offsetting for Travel July 2011 Travel contributes significantly footprint: reducing our travel emissions by travelling less or by choosing more sustainable modes should

Haase, Markus

267

Australian carbon dust emission: a carbon accounting omission?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Erosion preferentially removes the finest carbon- and nutrient-rich soil fractions, and consequently its role may be significant within terrestrial carbon (C) cycles. However, the impacts of wind erosion on soil organic carbon redistribution are not considered in most SOC models, or within the Austr...

268

Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

2005-01-31

269

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

2001-04-01

270

Prospects for international trade in environmental services: An analysis of international carbon emission off-sets  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation presents a case study analysis in which the costs to a US electric utility of reducing its carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are compared with the costs of carbon-saving forestry projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The results show that a large electric utility in the south-central US would find it relatively inexpensive, even profitable given a conducive regulatory treatment, to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions by a few percent over the next ten years, through direct investment in energy end-use efficiency improvements. In comparison, the costs of the forestry projects studied in Central America range from $1/TC to a worst-case value of about $55/TC, with most project costs between $5 and $13/TC, depending on the type of project, the climate, and the opportunity cost of land. The total amount of CO{sub 2} storage potential is significant, about 100 million tons per country, but not enough to suggest that forestry can offset more than a few percent of global CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use. These case studies suggest that international trade in the environmental service of reducing global CO{sub 2} accumulation could have significant economic and ecological benefits. A transaction in which a utility pays for forestry projects in exchange for credit against an emission reduction policy is an example of an international carbon emission offset (ICEO). ICEO's could provide a currency for funding carbon-saving services as a way to comply with national policies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, as long as compliance is allowed through investments in other countries. This type of North-South transfer is necessary to reconcile economic efficiency and international equity, because of the disparity between the national allocations of responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and opportunities for emission reductions.

Swisher, J.N.

1991-01-01

271

Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

2011-12-22

272

Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production.  

PubMed

Wheat is one of the world's most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production. PMID:25405548

Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L; Campbell, Con A; Zentner, Robert P

2014-01-01

273

Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat is one of the worlds most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging ?256?kg CO2 eq?ha?1 per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.0270.377?kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production.

Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L.; Campbell, Con A.; Zentner, Robert P.

2014-11-01

274

Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission  

DOEpatents

A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications is disclosed. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. 8 figs.

Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

1998-10-13

275

Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission  

DOEpatents

A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced.

Sullivan, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Friedmann, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

276

Federal Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: What are the Options?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Supreme Court in Massachusetts v. EPA held that carbon dioxide is a pollutant under the Clean Air Act (CAA) and remanded the case to EPA. The Agency must decide whether CO2 emissions contribute to climate change. If the Agency responds affirmatively, it must meet other requirements of the CAA in order to regulate carbon dioxide or other greenhouse

Reitze Jr. Arnold W

2009-01-01

277

Explaining Human Influences on Carbon Dioxide Emissions across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is a vital issue facing the planet today, posing significant risks to both humans and the natural environment. This dangerous phenomenon is largely caused by the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, resulting from such activities as energy production and vehicle travel This paper examines the factors leading to differences in carbon dioxide emissions among countries,

Peterson Karin

2009-01-01

278

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-print Network

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31

279

Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with

Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

2009-01-01

280

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-print Network

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Pelc, Magdalena

2009-01-01

281

World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050  

E-print Network

. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may, and the National Science Foundation for financial support. They are grateful to Taejong Kimfor diligent research of anthropogenic CO2 emissions currently produced by combustion of fossil fuels.4 Because of their importance

282

Carbon emissions in Mediterranean shrubland wildfires: An experimental approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire emissions modify the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the earth's climate system. The Ayoraburning experiment was designed to assess and quantify fire emissions from Mediterranean shrublands. A number of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter metrics (CO2, CO, CH4, PM2.5) were measured during 3 burning replicates by using real-time monitors. Quantification of carbon emissions released during the experiments showed that 71% was CO2, 26% CO, 3% CH4, and only 0.3% was particulate carbon. Emission factors obtained for CO2, CO and CH4 were 1257 40, 453 28 and 46 12 g kg-1 dry matter, respectively, and combustion efficiencies ranged from 0.46 to 0.99. The experiments allowed the estimation of carbon emission in the different fire phases. Thus, 25% of carbon was sampled in the flaming phase and 75% of C in the smoldering phase. Current natural greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories in Mediterranean countries underestimate the actual emissions from forest fires since they do not consider forest shrub understory and shrublands and since they assume that the CO2 emitted is offset by forest re-growth. Our results may be used to improve current forest-fire emission inventories in southern Europe with special emphasis on shrublands.

Garcia-Hurtado, Elisa; Pey, Jorge; Baeza, M. Jaime; Carrara, Arnaud; Llovet, Joan; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrs; Vallejo, V. Ramon

2013-04-01

283

Nuclear Energy for a Low-Carbon-Dioxide-Emission Transportation System with Liquid Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two major energy challenges for the United States are to replace crude oil in our transportation system and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A multilayer strategy to replace oil using nuclear energy and various carbon sources (fossil fuels, biomass, or air) is described that (a) allows the continued use of liquid fuels (ethanol, gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) in the

Charles W

2007-01-01

284

Ranitidine reduces phosphate binding in dialysis patients receiving calcium carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. In a previous controlled study we showed that ranitidine significantly reduced the phosphate binding of aluminium hydroxide in patients with renal failure, probably by increasing intragastric pH. Methods. In this study we have investigated the effect of ranitidine on the phosphate binding of calcium carbonate in fifteen dialysis patients. Ranitidine 300 mg or a placebo tablet was taken before

C. C. Tan; P. N. Harden; R. S. C. Rodger; P. A. Rowe; R. J. Spooner; B. J. R. Junor; J. D. Briggs

285

Effects of Land Use Patterns on Carbon Emission in Panyu District of Guangzhou City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use is one of the most mainly factors that causing the carbon emission. In order to analyze the effects of land use pattern on carbon emission, using data from Panyu District of Guangzhou City, the authors calculated the carbon emission which is influenced by different land use patterns. The results indicated that carbon emission is significantly diverse according to

Xiao-xuan Wang; Li-hua Xia; Zhuo-kun Pan; Si-ying Zhang

2010-01-01

286

18 Use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data for Modeling Carbon Emissions from Fires: A Perspective in  

E-print Network

18 Use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data for Modeling Carbon Emissions from Fires: A Perspective of the accurate estimation of carbon emissions from fires. So far, the continental-scale estimates of carbon conventional and satellite data to maximize their utility for fire emission estimation. 18.2 Carbon Emission

Li, Zhanqing

287

Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low-???????­???¢???????Energy, Carbon-???????­Dioxide-???????­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC-based concrete with HFC in infrastructure we can reduce energy use in concrete production by 70%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 98%; thus the potential to reduce the impact of building materials on global warming and climate change is highly significant. Low Temperature Solidification (LTS) is a breakthrough technology that enables the densification of inorganic materials via a hydrothermal process. The resulting product exhibits excellent control of chemistry and microstructure, to provide durability and mechanical performance that exceeds that of concrete or natural stone. The technology can be used in a wide range of applications including facade panels, interior tiles, roof tiles, countertops, and pre-cast concrete. Replacing traditional building materials and concrete in these applications will result in significant reduction in both energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions.

Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

2012-05-14

288

A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a global tabulation of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) particles emitted from combustion. We include emissions from fossil fuels, biofuels, open biomass burning, and burning of urban waste. Previous "bottom-up" inventories of black and organic carbon have assigned emission factors on the basis of fuel type and economic sector alone. Because emission rates are highly dependent on combustion practice, we consider combinations of fuel, combustion type, and emission controls and their prevalence on a regional basis. Central estimates of global annual emissions are 8.0 Tg for black carbon and 33.9 Tg for organic carbon. These estimates are lower than previously published estimates by 25-35%. The present inventory is based on 1996 fuel-use data, updating previous estimates that have relied on consumption data from 1984. An offset between decreased emission factors and increased energy use since the base year of the previous inventory prevents the difference between this work and previous inventories from being greater. The contributions of fossil fuel, biofuel, and open burning are estimated as 38%, 20%, and 42%, respectively, for BC, and 7%, 19%, and 74%, respectively, for OC. We present a bottom-up estimate of uncertainties in source strength by combining uncertainties in particulate matter emission factors, emission characterization, and fuel use. The total uncertainties are about a factor of 2, with uncertainty ranges of 4.3-22 Tg/yr for BC and 17-77 Tg/yr for OC. Low-technology combustion contributes greatly to both the emissions and the uncertainties. Advances in emission characterization for small residential, industrial, and mobile sources and top-down analysis combining field measurements and transport modeling with iterative inventory development will be required to reduce the uncertainties further.

Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.; Yarber, Kristen F.; Nelson, Sibyl M.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Klimont, Zbigniew

2004-07-01

289

Impacts of reducing shipboard NOx? and SOx? emissions on vessel performance  

E-print Network

The international maritime community has been experiencing tremendous pressures from environmental organizations to reduce the emissions footprint of their vessels. In the last decade, air emissions, including nitrogen ...

Caputo, Ronald J., Jr. (Ronald Joseph)

2010-01-01

290

Impact of European Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS) on carbon emissions and investment decisions in the power sector  

E-print Network

This masters thesis assesses the impact of a emissions trading on short-term carbon abatement and investment decisions in the power sector. Environmental benefits from carbon abatement due to emissions trading are quantified ...

Feilhauer, Stephan M. (Stephan Marvin)

2009-01-01

291

Historical warming reduced due to enhanced land carbon uptake  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of enhanced vegetation growth under future elevated atmospheric CO2 for 21st century climate warming. Surprisingly no study has completed an analogous assessment for the historical period, during which emissions of greenhouse gases increased rapidly and land-use changes (LUC) dramatically altered terrestrial carbon sources and sinks. Using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory comprehensive Earth System Model ESM2G and a reconstruction of the LUC, we estimate that enhanced vegetation growth has lowered the historical atmospheric CO2 concentration by 85 ppm, avoiding an additional 0.31 0.06 C warming. We demonstrate that without enhanced vegetation growth the total residual terrestrial carbon flux (i.e., the net land flux minus LUC flux) would be a source of 6582 Gt of carbon (GtC) to atmosphere instead of the historical residual carbon sink of 186192 GtC, a carbon saving of 251274 GtC. PMID:24062452

Shevliakova, Elena; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Malyshev, Sergey; Krasting, John P.; Hurtt, George C.; Pacala, Stephen W.

2013-01-01

292

Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries. PMID:20832276

Couth, R; Trois, C

2011-01-01

293

Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

Couth, R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

2011-01-15

294

Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

2011-12-01

295

[Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and its potential role to mitigate carbon emission in China].  

PubMed

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been widely recognized as one of the options to mitigate carbon emission to eventually stabilize carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Three parts of CCS, which are carbon capture, transport, and storage are assessed in this paper, covering comparisons of techno-economic parameters for different carbon capture technologies, comparisons of storage mechanism, capacity and cost for various storage formations, and etc. In addition, the role of CCS to mitigate global carbon emission is introduced. Finally, China MARKAL model is updated to include various CCS technologies, especially indirect coal liquefaction and poly-generation technologies with CCS, in order to consider carbon emission reduction as well as energy security issue. The model is used to generate different scenarios to study potential role of CCS to mitigate carbon emissions by 2050 in China. It is concluded that application of CCS can decrease marginal abatement cost and the decrease rate can reach 45% for the emission reduction rate of 50%, and it can lessen the dependence on nuclear power development for stringent carbon constrains. Moreover, coal resources can be cleanly used for longer time with CCS, e.g., for the scenario C70, coal share in the primary energy consumption by 2050 will increase from 10% when without CCS to 30% when with CCS. Therefore, China should pay attention to CCS R&D activities and to developing demonstration projects. PMID:17674718

Chen, Wen-Ying; Wu, Zong-Xin; Wang, Wei-Zhong

2007-06-01

296

Propagation of uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios through the global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

The authors used the GLOCO model, which is a carbon cycling model that considers seven terrestrial biomes, two oceans and one atmosphere, to evaluate the rise in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration, (pCO[sub 2]) and the partitioning of carbon to the global compartments (ocean, atmosphere and terrestrial) as a function of time for a number of possible anthropogenic carbon emission scenarios, based on different energy policies as developed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF-12). The authors then evaluated the possible uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty throughout the model to obtain an envelope for the rise in pCO[sub 2]. Large fluctuations in the input signal are smoothed by the carbon cycle, resulting in more than a four-fold reduction in uncertainty in the output signal (pCO[sub 2]). In addition, they looked at the effect that other model variables have on the pCO[sub 2] envelope, specifically the ratio of carbon to nitrogen in the emissions. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) will vary throughout the next century depending on the mix on energy sources chosen. More nitrogen in the emissions can produce a cofertilization effect in the terrestrial biomes, which would lead to sequestration of additional carbon. The uncertainty in C:N will enlarge the pCO[sub 2] uncertainty envelope by up to 20 ppm.

Keller, A.A.; Goldstein, R.A. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1994-09-01

297

Holocene Fires and Atmospheric Carbon Emissions Modeling in Eastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modeled the atmospheric carbon released by paleofires from Quebec and Ontario, eastern Canada. The terms of the model include the biome areas, the net rate of carbon released per biome from biomass burning and the fire anomaly per ka versus present-day (0ka) deduced from charcoal series of 37 lakes. Over the Postglacial, the Taiga zone does not matches the pattern of fire history and carbon released of Boreal, Boreal Atlantic Maritime and Mixed Wood Plains zones because of different air masses influences. Our focus on 6ka and 3ka shows that the role of the Mixed Wood Plains and the Boreal Atlantic Maritime zones on the total carbon emissions by fires is negligible both at 6 and 3ka. At 6ka, the Taiga zone plays a key role, while at 3ka the Taiga and the Boreal zones display equivalent contributions to the total carbon released to the atmosphere. The role of fires at 6ka and at 0ka is similar on the total atmospheric carbon mass emission despite changes in biomass burning activity. The role of Taiga at 6ka is compensated by Boreal zone at 0ka. However, the carbon emission at 3ka is significantly higher (ca 30%) than at 6 and 0ka because of sustained high fire activity both in Taiga and Boreal zones. Long-term climatic changes affect the biomass burning activity that acts together with vegetation cover on the global carbon cycle.

Carcaillet, C.; Boulant, N.; Richard, P. J.

2004-12-01

298

RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

SciTech Connect

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of the 2006 initiative, ITP has expanded the effort in 2007 with the goal of conducting 250 more asse

Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Gemmer, Bob [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Scheihing, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy

2007-09-01

299

Phosphorus-Assisted Biomass Thermal Conversion: Reducing Carbon Loss and Improving Biochar Stability  

PubMed Central

There is often over 50% carbon loss during the thermal conversion of biomass into biochar, leading to it controversy for the biochar formation as a carbon sequestration strategy. Sometimes the biochar also seems not to be stable enough due to physical, chemical, and biological reactions in soils. In this study, three phosphorus-bearing materials, H3PO4, phosphate rock tailing (PRT), and triple superphosphate (TSP), were used as additives to wheat straw with a ratio of 1: 0.40.8 for biochar production at 500C, aiming to alleviate carbon loss during pyrolysis and to increase biochar-C stabilization. All these additives remarkably increased the biochar yield from 31.7% (unmodified biochar) to 46.9%56.9% (modified biochars). Carbon loss during pyrolysis was reduced from 51.7% to 35.5%47.7%. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the additives had no effect on thermal stability of biochar but did enhance its oxidative stability. Microbial mineralization was obviously reduced in the modified biochar, especially in the TSP-BC, in which the total CO2 emission during 60-d incubation was reduced by 67.8%, compared to the unmodified biochar. Enhancement of carbon retention and biochar stability was probably due to the formation of meta-phosphate or C-O-PO3, which could either form a physical layer to hinder the contact of C with O2 and bacteria, or occupy the active sites of the C band. Our results indicate that pre-treating biomass with phosphors-bearing materials is effective for reducing carbon loss during pyrolysis and for increasing biochar stabilization, which provides a novel method by which biochar can be designed to improve the carbon sequestration capacity. PMID:25531111

Zhao, Ling; Cao, Xinde; Zheng, Wei; Kan, Yue

2014-01-01

300

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01

301

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01

302

Maximum warming occurs about one decade after a carbon dioxide emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that carbon dioxide emissions cause the Earth to warm, but no previous study has focused on examining how long it takes to reach maximum warming following a particular CO2 emission. Using conjoined results of carbon-cycle and physical-climate model intercomparison projects (Taylor et al 2012, Joos et al 2013), we find the median time between an emission and maximum warming is 10.1 years, with a 90% probability range of 6.630.7 years. We evaluate uncertainties in timing and amount of warming, partitioning them into three contributing factors: carbon cycle, climate sensitivity and ocean thermal inertia. If uncertainty in any one factor is reduced to zero without reducing uncertainty in the other factors, the majority of overall uncertainty remains. Thus, narrowing uncertainty in century-scale warming depends on narrowing uncertainty in all contributing factors. Our results indicate that benefit from avoided climate damage from avoided CO2 emissions will be manifested within the lifetimes of people who acted to avoid that emission. While such avoidance could be expected to benefit future generations, there is potential for emissions avoidance to provide substantial benefit to current generations.

Ricke, Katharine L.; Caldeira, Ken

2014-12-01

303

Carbon emission trading system of China: a linked market vs. separated markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chinese government intends to upgrade its current provincial carbon emission trading pilots to a nationwide scheme by 2015. This study investigates two of scenarios: separated provincial markets and a linked inter-provincial market. The carbon abatement effects of separated and linked markets are compared using two pilot provinces of Hubei and Guangdong based on a computable general equilibrium model termed Sino-TERMCo2. Simulation results show that the linked market can improve social welfare and reduce carbon emission intensity for the nation as well as for the Hubei-Guangdong bloc compared to the separated market. However, the combined system also distributes welfare more unevenly and thus increases social inequity. On the policy ground, the current results suggest that a well-constructed, nationwide carbon market complemented with adequate welfare transfer policies can be employed to replace the current top-down abatement target disaggregation practice.

Liu, Yu; Feng, Shenghao; Cai, Songfeng; Zhang, Yaxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Yanbin; Chen, Zhanming

2013-12-01

304

Systems accounting for energy consumption and carbon emission by building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of systems accounting for overall energy consumption and carbon emission induced by a building is illustrated in terms of a combination of process and input-output analyses with a concrete procedure to cover various material, equipment, energy and manpower inputs. A detailed case study based on raw project data in the Bill of Quantities (BOQ) is performed for the structure engineering of the landmark buildings in E-town, Beijing (Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area). Based on the embodied energy and carbon emission intensity database for the Chinese economy in 2007, the energy consumption and the carbon emission of the structure engineering of the case buildings are quantified as 4.15E+14 J and 4.83E+04 t CO2 Eq., corresponding to intensities of 6.91E+09 J/m2 and 0.81 t CO2 Eq./m2 floor area. Steel and concrete contribute respectively about 50% and 30% of the energy consumption and the carbon emission, as a result of the reinforced-concrete structure of the case buildings. Materials contribute up to about 90% of the total energy consumption and carbon emission, in contrast to manpower, energy and equipment around 8%, 1% and 0.1%, respectively.

Shao, Ling; Chen, G. Q.; Chen, Z. M.; Guo, Shan; Han, M. Y.; Zhang, Bo; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.; Ahmad, B.

2014-06-01

305

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01

306

Infrared emission from hydrogenated amorphous carbon and amorphous carbon grains in the interstellar medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The correlations deduced by Boulanger et al. (1990) from IRAS maps of the Chamaeleon, Taurus and Ursa Major molecular cloud complexes are interpreted in terms of the evolutionary hydrogenated amorphous carbon model of interstellar dust. In particular, regions of relatively strong 12-micron emission may be regions where recently accreted carbon is being converted by ambient UV to small PAHs in situ. Regions of weak 12-micron emission are probably quiescent regions where carbon has been annealed to amorphous carbon. Observational consequences of these inferences are briefly described.

Duley, W. W.; Jones, A. P.; Taylor, S. D.; Williams, D. A.

1993-01-01

307

Carbon dioxide emissions in conventional and no-till corn production systems under different fertilizer management practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil management practices such as tillage and fertilizer application methods affect soil emissions of greenhouse gases which impacts agricultural contributions of greenhouse gases. It is important to develop and evaluate strategies for reducing soil emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon diox...

308

Hestia Software Measures Urban Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video describes the Hestia project - a software tool and data model that provide visualizations of localized CO2 emissions from residential, commercial, and vehicle levels, as well as day versus night comparisons, in the city of Indianapolis.

Kevin Gurney

309

Inter-trading permanent emissions credits and rented temporary carbon emissions offsets: some issues and alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permit trading among polluting parties is now firmly established as a policy tool in a range of environmental policy areas. The Kyoto Protocol accepts the principle that sequestration of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere can be used to offset emissions of carbon from fossil fuel combustion and outlines mechanisms. Although the lack of guaranteed permanence of biological offsets is often

Roger A. Sedjo; Gregg Marland

2003-01-01

310

Dielectric barrier discharge carbon atomic emission spectrometer: universal GC detector for volatile carbon-containing compounds.  

PubMed

It was found that carbon atomic emission can be excited in low temperature dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), and an atmospheric pressure, low power consumption, and compact microplasma carbon atomic emission spectrometer (AES) was constructed and used as a universal and sensitive gas chromatographic (GC) detector for detection of volatile carbon-containing compounds. A concentric DBD device was housed in a heating box to increase the plasma operation temperature to 300 C to intensify carbon atomic emission at 193.0 nm. Carbon-containing compounds directly injected or eluted from GC can be decomposed, atomized, and excited in this heated DBD for carbon atomic emission. The performance of this new optical detector was first evaluated by determination of a series of volatile carbon-containing compounds including formaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol, and absolute limits of detection (LODs) were found at a range of 0.12-0.28 ng under the optimized conditions. Preliminary experimental results showed that it provided slightly higher LODs than those obtained by GC with a flame ionization detector (FID). Furthermore, it is a new universal GC detector for volatile carbon-containing compounds that even includes those compounds which are difficult to detect by FID, such as HCHO, CO, and CO2. Meanwhile, hydrogen gas used in conventional techniques was eliminated; and molecular optical emission detection can also be performed with this GC detector for multichannel analysis to improve resolution of overlapped chromatographic peaks of complex mixtures. PMID:24328147

Han, Bingjun; Jiang, Xiaoming; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin

2014-01-01

311

Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions.  

PubMed

Climate mitigation activities in forests need to be quantified in terms of the long-term effects on forest carbon stocks, accumulation, and emissions. The impacts of future environmental change and bioenergy harvests on regional forest carbon storage have not been quantified. We conducted a comprehensive modeling study and life-cycle assessment of the impacts of projected changes in climate, CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and region-wide forest management policies on regional forest carbon fluxes. By 2100, if current management strategies continue, then the warming and CO2 fertilization effect in the given projections result in a 32-68% increase in net carbon uptake, overshadowing increased carbon emissions from projected increases in fire activity and other forest disturbance factors. To test the response to new harvesting strategies, repeated thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality, and two clear-cut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for wood products and bioenergy. The management strategies examined here lead to long-term increased carbon emissions over current harvesting practices, although semiarid regions contribute little to the increase. The harvest rates were unsustainable. This comprehensive approach could serve as a foundation for regional place-based assessments of management effects on future carbon sequestration by forests in other locations. PMID:24138534

Hudiburg, Tara W; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Thornton, Peter E; Law, Beverly E

2013-11-19

312

A Strategy for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Personal Travel in Britain  

E-print Network

and other research outputs A strategy for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from personal travel in Britain Thesis How to cite: Hughes, Peter Samuel (1992). A strategy for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from personal

Peter Samuel; Hughes Bsc

313

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Bioenergy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have recently argued that there is a 'critical climate accounting error' and that we should say 'goodbye to carbon neutral' for bioenergy. Many other analysts have published opionions on the same topic, and the US Environmental Protection Agency posted a specific call for information. The currently burning questions for carbon accounting is how to deal with bioenergy. The questions arises because, unlike for fossil fuels, burning of biomass fuels represents part of a cycle in which combustion releases back to the atmosphere carbon that was earlier removed from the atmosphere by growing plants. In a sustainable system, plants will again remove the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the atmosphere. Conceptually, it is clear that there are no net emissions of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} if biomass is harvested and combusted at the same rate that biomass grows and removes CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. The problem lies in the fact that growth and combustion do not occur at the same time or in the same place, and our accounting system boundaries - spatial and temporal - frequently do not provide full and balanced accounting. When the first comprehensive guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were put together by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, they noted that it has been argued that CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from bioenergy consumption should not be included in a country's official emission inventory because there are no net emissions if the biomass is produced sustainably, and if the biomass is not produced sustainably, the loss of carbon will be captured as part of the accounting for emissions from land-use change. In the same philosophical vein, the Kyoto Protocol provides that emissions or sinks of CO{sub 2} from land-use change and forestry activities be measured as the 'verifiable changes in carbon stocks'. From these has grown the convention that emissions from biomass fuels are generally not counted as part of emissions inventories, and biomass energy is sometimes referred to as being 'carbon neutral.' But what happens when a forest is harvested for fuel but takes 60 years to regrow or when biomass is harvested in a country that is not party to an international accord but is burned in a country that is party to an international accord? Biomass energy is only truly 'carbon neutral' if we get the system boundaries right. They need to make sure that the accounting methodology is compatible with our needs and realities in management and policy.

Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2010-12-01

314

Changes in the use and management of forests for abating carbon emissions: issues and challenges under the Kyoto Protocol.  

PubMed

The global carbon cycle is significantly influenced by changes in the use and management of forests and agriculture. Humans have the potential through changes in land use and management to alter the magnitude of forest-carbon stocks and the direction of forest-carbon fluxes. However, controversy over the use of biological means to absorb or reduce emissions of CO(2) (often referred to as carbon 'sinks') has arisen in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The controversy is based primarily on two arguments: sinks may allow developed nations to delay or avoid actions to reduce fossil fuel emissions, and the technical and operational difficulties are too threatening to the successful implementation of land use and forestry projects for providing carbon offsets. Here we discuss the importance of including carbon sinks in efforts to address global warming and the consequent additional social, environmental and economic benefits to host countries. Activities in tropical forest lands provide the lowest cost methods both of reducing emissions and reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. We conclude that the various objections raised as to the inclusion of carbon sinks to ameliorate climate change can be addressed by existing techniques and technology. Carbon sinks provide a practical available method of achieving meaningful reductions in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide while at the same time contribute to national sustainable development goals. PMID:12460486

Brown, Sandra; Swingland, Ian R; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Prance, Ghillean T; Myers, Norman

2002-08-15

315

Carbon stars with alpha-C:H emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many carbon stars in the IRS low resolution spectra (LRS) catalog were found which display emission spectra that compare favorable with the absorption spectrum of alpha-C:H. These stars have largely been classified as 4X in the LRS which has led to their interpretation by others in terms of displaying a mixture of the UIRF's 8.6 micron band and SiC at 11.5 microns. It was also found that many of these stars have a spectral upturn at 20+ microns which resembles the MgS band seen in carbon stars and planetary nebulae. It was concluded that this group of carbon stars will evolve into planetary nebulae like NGC 7027 and IC 418. In the presence of hard ultraviolet radiation the UIRF's will light up and be displayed as narrow emission bands on top of the broad alpha-C:H emission bands.

Gerbault, Florence; Goebel, John H.

1989-01-01

316

Monthly carbon emissions from natural-gas flaring and cement manufacture in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual data on carbon emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement manufacture have been used in studies of the carbon cycle for the last few decades. However, annual data do not specify carbon emissions on the seasonal timescales relevant to biospheric uptake and other processes affecting the carbon cycle. Estimates of monthly emissions from fossil-fuel consumption in the United States (US)

T. J. Blasing; Kimberly Hand

2007-01-01

317

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric reservoirs  

E-print Network

LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric that these human-made systems emit 321 Tg of carbon per year (ref. 4). Here we assess the emissions of carbon reservoirs emit about 48 Tg C as CO2 and 3 Tg C as CH4, corresponding to 4% of global carbon emissions from

318

Estimating Global Blue Carbon Emissions from Conversion and Degradation of Vegetated Coastal Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Recent attention has focused on the high rates of annual carbon sequestration in vegetated coastal ecosystemsmarshes, mangroves, and seagrassesthat may be lost with habitat destruction (conversion). Relatively unappreciated, however, is that conversion of these coastal ecosystems also impacts very large pools of previously-sequestered carbon. Residing mostly in sediments, this blue carbon can be released to the atmosphere when these ecosystems are converted or degraded. Here we provide the first global estimates of this impact and evaluate its economic implications. Combining the best available data on global area, land-use conversion rates, and near-surface carbon stocks in each of the three ecosystems, using an uncertainty-propagation approach, we estimate that 0.151.02 Pg (billion tons) of carbon dioxide are being released annually, several times higher than previous estimates that account only for lost sequestration. These emissions are equivalent to 319% of those from deforestation globally, and result in economic damages of $US 642 billion annually. The largest sources of uncertainty in these estimates stems from limited certitude in global area and rates of land-use conversion, but research is also needed on the fates of ecosystem carbon upon conversion. Currently, carbon emissions from the conversion of vegetated coastal ecosystems are not included in emissions accounting or carbon market protocols, but this analysis suggests they may be disproportionally important to both. Although the relevant science supporting these initial estimates will need to be refined in coming years, it is clear that policies encouraging the sustainable management of coastal ecosystems could significantly reduce carbon emissions from the land-use sector, in addition to sustaining the well-recognized ecosystem services of coastal habitats. PMID:22962585

Murray, Brian C.; Crooks, Stephen; Jenkins, W. Aaron; Sifleet, Samantha; Craft, Christopher; Fourqurean, James W.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Marb, Nria; Megonigal, Patrick; Pidgeon, Emily; Herr, Dorothee; Gordon, David; Baldera, Alexis

2012-01-01

319

Carbon emissions from spring 1998 fires in tropical Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The authors used NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery, biomass density maps, fuel consumption estimates, and a carbon emission factor to estimate the total carbon (C) emissions from the Spring 1998 fires in tropical Mexico. All eight states in southeast Mexico were affected by the wildfires, although the activity was concentrated near the common border of Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Veracruz. The fires burned approximately 482,000 ha and the land use/land cover classes most extensively impacted were the tall/medium selvas (tropical evergreen forests), open/fragmented forests, and perturbed areas. The total prompt emissions were 4.6 TgC during the two-month period of the authors` study, contributing an additional 24% to the region`s average annual net C emissions from forestry and land-use change. Mexico in 1998 experienced its driest Spring since 1941, setting the stage for the widespread burning.

Cairns, M.A.; Hao, W.M.; Alvarado, E.; Haggerty, P.K.

1999-04-01

320

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United States  

E-print Network

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United Wildland fires can be an important source of greenhouse gases as well as black carbon emissions that have of climate response to fire emissions compared to other emission sources of GHG, aerosols, and black carbon

321

Uncertainty in Future Carbon Emissions: A Preliminary Exploration Mort D. Webster  

E-print Network

1 Uncertainty in Future Carbon Emissions: A Preliminary Exploration Mort D. Webster Abstract of economic-energy models are used to project future carbon emissions under various policy scenarios. Due distributions of carbon emissions from the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model. From the specific

322

SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT AND FIELD-EMISSION PROPERTIES OF MULTI-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES  

E-print Network

SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT AND FIELD-EMISSION PROPERTIES OF MULTI-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES Alexandre- emission properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The structure considered for the transport properties-saturation of the dangling bonds still improves the emission. I. INTRODUCTION Carbon nanotubes show interesting field-emission

Mayer, Alexandre

323

Does carbonation of steel slag particles reduce their toxicity? An in vitro approach.  

PubMed

Mineral carbonation can stabilize industrial residues and, in the steel industry, may contribute to simultaneously valorize CO2 emissions and slag. We hypothesized that, by restricting the leaching of metals of toxicological concern such as Cr and V, carbonation can suppress the toxicity of these materials. The cytotoxic activity (WST1 assay) of slag dusts collected from a stainless and a Linz-Donawitz (LD) steel plant, before and after carbonation, was examined in J774 macrophages. The release of Cr, V, Fe, Mn and Ni was measured after incubation in artificial lung fluids mimicking the extracellular and phagolysosomal milieu to which particles are confronted after inhalation. LD slag had the higher Fe, Mn and V content, and was more cytotoxic than stainless steel slag. The cytotoxic activity of LD but not of stainless dusts was reduced after carbonation. The cytotoxic activity of the dusts toward J774 macrophages necessitated a direct contact with the cells and was reduced in the presence of inhibitors of phagocytosis (cytochalasin D) or phagolysosome acidification (bafilomycin), pointing to a key role of metallic constituents released in phagolysosomes. This in vitro study supports a limited reduction of the cytotoxic activity of LD, but not of stainless, steel dusts upon carbonation. PMID:25735930

Ibouraadaten, Saloua; van den Brule, Sybille; Lison, Dominique

2015-06-01

324

Using infrastructure optimization to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands extraction and processing.  

PubMed

The Alberta oil sands are a significant source of oil production and greenhouse gas emissions, and their importance will grow as the region is poised for decades of growth. We present an integrated framework that simultaneously considers economic and engineering decisions for the capture, transport, and storage of oil sands CO(2) emissions. The model optimizes CO(2) management infrastructure at a variety of carbon prices for the oil sands industry. Our study reveals several key findings. We find that the oil sands industry lends itself well to development of CO(2) trunk lines due to geographic coincidence of sources and sinks. This reduces the relative importance of transport costs compared to nonintegrated transport systems. Also, the amount of managed oil sands CO(2) emissions, and therefore the CCS infrastructure, is very sensitive to the carbon price; significant capture and storage occurs only above 110$/tonne CO(2) in our simulations. Deployment of infrastructure is also sensitive to CO(2) capture decisions and technology, particularly the fraction of capturable CO(2) from oil sands upgrading and steam generation facilities. The framework will help stakeholders and policy makers understand how CCS infrastructure, including an extensive pipeline system, can be safely and cost-effectively deployed. PMID:23276202

Middleton, Richard S; Brandt, Adam R

2013-02-01

325

Carbon-containing cathodes for enhanced electron emission  

DOEpatents

A cathode has electropositive atoms directly bonded to a carbon-containing substrate. Preferably, the substrate comprises diamond or diamond-like (sp.sup.3) carbon, and the electropositive atoms are Cs. The cathode displays superior efficiency and durability. In one embodiment, the cathode has a negative electron affinity (NEA). The cathode can be used for field emission, thermionic emission, or photoemission. Upon exposure to air or oxygen, the cathode performance can be restored by annealing or other methods. Applications include detectors, electron multipliers, sensors, imaging systems, and displays, particularly flat panel displays.

Cao, Renyu (Cupertino, CA); Pan, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Vergara, German (Madrid, ES); Fox, Ciaran (Los Altos, CA)

2000-01-01

326

A Carbon Nanotube Field-Emission Electron Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-intensity electron gun based on field emission from a film of aligned carbon nanotubes has been made. The gun consists of a nanotube film with a 1-millimeter-diameter grid about 20 micrometers above it. Field-emission current densities of about 0.1 milliampere per square centimeter were observed for applied voltages as low as 200 volts, and current densities greater than 100

Walt A. de Heer; A. Chatelain; D. Ugarte

1995-01-01

327

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO\\/SO from volcanic gas analyses and SO flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 10¹² g CO\\/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 10¹² g CO\\/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects

S. N. Williams; S. J. Schaefer; M. L. Calvache V; D. Lopez

1992-01-01

328

Carbon monoxide emission from small galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A search was conducted for J = 1 yields 0 CO emission from 22 galaxies, detecting half, as part of a survey to study star formation in small to medium size galaxies. Although substantial variation was found in the star formation efficiencies of the sample galaxies, there is no apparent systematic trend with galaxy size.

Thronson, Harley A., Jr.; Bally, John

1987-01-01

329

The benefits and costs of reducing emissions from the electricity sector.  

PubMed

Recent federal policy proposals to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and mercury from the US electricity sector promise important improvements in air quality and reductions in acid deposition. The cost of achieving these reductions depends on the form and stringency of the regulation. In this research, we analyze the economic benefits and costs of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as characterized in the supplemental rule proposed in June 2004, and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed in February 2004. The assessment integrates a model of the electricity sector, two models of atmospheric transport of air pollutants, and a model of environmental and public health endpoints affected by pollution. We model explicitly the emissions of SO(2), NO(x), mercury and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and the effects of changes in emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) on environmental and public health. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications not only for the cost of the regulation, but also for emission levels for SO(2) and NO(x) and where those emissions are located. We find the economic benefits of CAIR and CAMR are far greater than the costs. Recent estimates of benefits of reductions in mercury and acidification indicate that our model captures the lion's share of quantifiable benefits. We also find that the EPA would have been justified on economic grounds in pursuing additional SO(2) emissions reductions beyond the requirements of CAIR. PMID:16716494

Palmer, Karen; Burtraw, Dallas; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

2007-04-01

330

Carbon Input and Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission Affected by Land Use and Management Practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Land use and management practices may influence C inputs and soil CO2 emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Carbon inputs and soil CO2 emission were monitored from crop- and grassland with various irrigation and cropping systems from 2006 to 2008 in western North Dakota, USA. Tr...

331

Effects of road decommissioning on carbon stocks, losses, and emissions in north coastal California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the last 3 decades, many road removal projects have been implemented on public and private lands in the United States to reduce erosion and other impacts from abandoned or unmaintained forest roads. Although effective in decreasing sediment production from roads, such activities have a carbon (C) cost as well as representing a carbon savings for an ecosystem. We assessed the carbon budget implications of 30?years of road decommissioning in Redwood National Park in north coastal California. Road restoration techniques, which evolved during the program, were associated with various carbon costs and savings. Treatment of 425?km of logging roads from 1979 to 2009 saved 72,000?megagrams (Mg) C through on-site soil erosion prevention, revegetation, and soil development on formerly compacted roads. Carbon sequestration will increase in time as forests and soils develop more fully on the restored sites. The carbon cost for this road decommissioning work, based on heavy equipment and vehicle fuel emissions, short-term soil loss, and clearing of vegetation, was 23,000?Mg C, resulting in a net carbon savings of 49,000?Mg C to date. Nevertheless, the degree to which soil loss is a carbon sink or source in steep mountainous watersheds needs to be further examined. The ratio of carbon costs to savings will differ by ecosystem and road removal methodology, but the procedure outlined here to assess carbon budgets on restoration sites should be transferable to other systems.

Madej, Mary A.; Seney, Joseph; van Mantgem, Philip

2013-01-01

332

Improvement of carbon nanotube field emission properties by ultrasonic nanowelding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic nanowelding was used to improve the field emission properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) cathodes. The CNTs were deposited on the Ti-coated glass substrate by electrophoretic deposition. By pressing CNTs against metal (Ti) substrate under a vibrating force at ultrasonic frequency, a reliable and low resistance contact was obtained between CNTs and Ti. The scanning electron microscopy results show that CNTs are embedded into the metal substrate and act as stable field emitters. The welded cathode demonstrates an excellent field emission with high emission current density and good current stability.

Zhao, Bo; Yadian, Boluo; Chen, Da; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yafei

2008-12-01

333

PM, carbon, and PAH emissions from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends.  

PubMed

Biodiesels have received increasing attention as alternative fuels for diesel engines and generators. This study investigates the emissions of particulate matter (PM), total carbon (TC), e.g., organic/elemental carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends. Among the tested diesel blends (B0, B10 (10 vol% soy-biodiesel), B20, and B50), B20 exhibited the lowest PM emission concentration despite the loads (except the 5 kW case), whereas B10 displayed lower PM emission factors when operating at 0 and 10 kW than the other fuel blends. The emission concentrations or factors of EC, OC, and TC were the lowest when B10 or B20 was used regardless of the loading. Under all tested loads, the average concentrations of total-PAHs emitted from the generator using the B10 and B20 were lower (by 38% and 28%, respectively) than those using pure petroleum diesel fuel (B0), while the emission factors of total-PAHs decreased with an increasing ratio of biodiesel to premium diesel. With an increasing loading, although the brake specific fuel consumption decreased, the energy efficiency increased despite the bio/petroleum diesel ratio. Therefore, soy-biodiesel is promising for use as an alternative fuel for diesel generators to increase energy efficiency and reduce the PM, carbon, and PAH emissions. PMID:20307928

Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Yinn

2010-07-15

334

Stable carbon isotope fractionation by sulfate-reducing bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biogeochemical transformations occurring in the anoxic zones of stratified sedimentary microbial communities can profoundly influence the isotopic and organic signatures preserved in the fossil record. Accordingly, we have determined carbon isotope discrimination that is associated with both heterotrophic and lithotrophic growth of pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). For heterotrophic-growth experiments, substrate consumption was monitored to completion. Sealed vessels containing SRB cultures were harvested at different time intervals, and delta(13)C values were determined for gaseous CO(2), organic substrates, and products such as biomass. For three of the four SRB, carbon isotope effects between the substrates, acetate or lactate and CO(2), and the cell biomass were small, ranging from 0 to 2 per thousand. However, for Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans, the carbon incorporated into biomass was isotopically heavier than the available substrates by 8 to 9 per thousand. SRB grown lithoautotrophically consumed less than 3% of the available CO(2) and exhibited substantial discrimination (calculated as isotope fractionation factors [alpha]), as follows: for Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, alpha values ranged from 1.0100 to 1.0123; for Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, the alpha value was 0.0138, and for Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans, the alpha value was 1.0310. Mixotrophic growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans on acetate and CO(2) resulted in biomass with a delta(13)C composition intermediate to that of the substrates. The extent of fractionation depended on which enzymatic pathways were used, the direction in which the pathways operated, and the growth rate, but fractionation was not dependent on the growth phase. To the extent that environmental conditions affect the availability of organic substrates (e.g., acetate) and reducing power (e.g., H(2)), ecological forces can also influence carbon isotope discrimination by SRB.

Londry, Kathleen L.; Des Marais, David J.

2003-01-01

335

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undisturbed grasslands can sequester significant quantities of organic carbon (OC) in soils. Irrigation and fertilization enhance CO2 sequestration in managed turfgrass ecosystems but can also increase emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). To better understand the GHG balance of urban turf, we measured OC sequestration rates and emission of N2O (a GHG 300 times more effective than CO2) in Southern California, USA. We also estimated CO2 emissions generated by fuel combustion, fertilizer production, and irrigation. We show that turf emits significant quantities of N2O (0.1-0.3 g N m-2 yr-1) associated with frequent fertilization. In ornamental lawns this is offset by OC sequestration (140 g C m-2 yr-1), while in athletic fields, there is no OC sequestration because of frequent surface restoration. Large indirect emissions of CO2 associated with turfgrass management make it clear that OC sequestration by turfgrass cannot mitigate GHG emissions in cities.

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I.

2010-01-01

336

Timing of carbon emissions from global forest clearance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change, primarily from conventional agricultural expansion and deforestation, contributes to approximately 17% of global greenhouse-gas emissions. The fate of cleared wood and subsequent carbon storage as wood products, however, has not been consistently estimated, and is largely ignored or oversimplified by most models estimating greenhouse-gas emissions from global land-use conversion. Here, we estimate the fate of cleared wood and timing of atmospheric carbon emissions for 169 countries. We show that 30 years after forest clearance the percentage of carbon stored in wood products and landfills ranges from about 0% to 62% globally. For 90 countries, less than 5% of carbon remains after 30 years, whereas 34 countries have more than 25% in storage. Higher storage rates result primarily from a greater percentage of long-lived products such as wood panels and lumber, and tend to occur in countries with predominantly temperate forests. Alternatively, lower storage rates are associated with a greater fraction of non-merchantable wood and more wood used for energy and paper production, which tend to occur in countries with predominantly tropical forests. Hence, the country and fate of cleared wood can considerably affect the timing of greenhouse-gas emissions from forest clearance.

Mason Earles, J.; Yeh, Sonia; Skog, Kenneth E.

2012-09-01

337

Field emission of carbon nanotubes on Mo tip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field emission characteristics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated. CNTs were produced by the catalytic decomposition of ethylene on nickel films, which were electroplated onto Mo tips. The SEM images showed that CNTs were quite uniform and disordered; the average diameter is about 100 nm. The measurements were carried out in a diode configuration. As a result, the CNTs showed

J. Zhu; D. J. Mao; An. Y. Cao; J. Liang; B. Q. Wei; C. L. Xu; D. H. Wu; Z. An. Peng; B. H. Zhu; Q. L. Chen

1998-01-01

338

Observing novel soil conditioners for carbon emissions mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The New Zealand (NZ) Government's commitment to a sustainable, low-emissions energy future may be met, in part, by expanding bioenergy systems fuelled by short-rotation forestry through utilising lower quality land affecting soil organic matter content and soil CO2 flux. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the carbon sequestration potential of a range of soil conditioners in

A. J. C. Coles; K. A. Lewis; R. E. H. Sims

2010-01-01

339

Observing novel soil conditioners for carbon emissions mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The New Zealand (NZ) Government's commitment to a sustainable, low emissions energy future may be met, in part, by expanding bioenergy systems fuelled by short rotation forestry through utilising lower quality land affecting soil organic matter content and soil CO2 flux. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the carbon sequestration potential of a range of soil

A. J. C. Coles; K. A. Lewis; R. E. Sims

2009-01-01

340

INFRARED EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF HOT CARBON FARNOOD KHALILZADEH REZAIE  

E-print Network

temperature emission spectra of CO obtained from a microwave discharge plasma, where the source of CO was carbon dioxide that dissociates under microwave heating. The spectrum was measured in the range 1800 within the rotational fine structure, we obtain a temperature estimate of ~700 K, which is comparable

Peale, Robert E.

341

Who should abate carbon emissions? : An international viewpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the optimal pattern of carbon emission abate- ments across countries in a simple multi-country world. We model explicitly (with the model in Chichilnisky (4)) the fact that the atmosphere is a public good. Within this framework we establish conditions for it to be necessary for optimality that the marginal cost of abatement be the same in all countries.

Graciela Chichilnisky; Geoffrey Heal

1994-01-01

342

Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959-1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct emissions of carbon from Canadian forest fires were estimated for all Canada and for each ecozone for the period 1959-1999. The estimates were based on a data base of large fires for the country and calculations of fuel consumption for each fire using the Canadian Forest Fire Behaviour Prediction System. This technique used the fire locations and start dates

B. D. Amiro; J. B. Todd; B. M. Wotton; K. A. Logan; M. D. Flannigan; B. J. Stocks; J. A. Mason; D. L. Martell; K. G. Hirsch

2001-01-01

343

The equitable international allocation of tradable carbon emission permits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim that equity considerations can play a significant role in negotiations over the international allocation of tradable permits for carbon emissions is challenged on the grounds that theories of distributive Justice have very little to contribute as regards distributive Justice between sovereign states. In so far as distributive justice principles are to be invoked at all they would imply

Wilfred Beckerman; Joanna Pasek

1995-01-01

344

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

E-print Network

LBNL-4472E China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050 Nan Zhou, David Fridley, Michael McNeil, Nina Zheng, Jing Ke, and Mark Levine China Energy Group Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory April 2011 This work was supported by the China

345

High-resolution mapping of motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fuel-based inventory for vehicle emissions is presented for carbon dioxide (CO2) and mapped at various spatial resolutions (10 km, 4 km, 1 km, and 500 m) using fuel sales and traffic count data. The mapping is done separately for gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Emission estimates from this study are compared with the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) and VULCAN. All three inventories agree at the national level within 5%. EDGAR uses road density as a surrogate to apportion vehicle emissions, which leads to 20-80% overestimates of on-road CO2 emissions in the largest U.S. cities. High-resolution emission maps are presented for Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco-San Jose, Houston, and Dallas-Fort Worth. Sharp emission gradients that exist near major highways are not apparent when emissions are mapped at 10 km resolution. High CO2 emission fluxes over highways become apparent at grid resolutions of 1 km and finer. Temporal variations in vehicle emissions are characterized using extensive day- and time-specific traffic count data and are described over diurnal, day of week, and seasonal time scales. Clear differences are observed when comparing light- and heavy-duty vehicle traffic patterns and comparing urban and rural areas. Decadal emission trends were analyzed from 2000 to 2007 when traffic volumes were increasing and a more recent period (2007-2010) when traffic volumes declined due to recession. We found large nonuniform changes in on-road CO2 emissions over a period of ~5 years, highlighting the importance of timely updates to motor vehicle emission inventories.

McDonald, Brian C.; McBride, Zoe C.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

2014-05-01

346

Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

2013-12-01

347

Managing carbon emissions in China through building energy efficiency.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to analyse the role of building energy efficiency (BEE) in China in addressing climate change mitigation. It provides an analysis of the current situation and future prospects for the adoption of BEE technologies in Chinese cities. It outlines the economic and institutional barriers to large-scale deployment of the sustainable, low-carbon, and even carbon-free construction techniques. Based on a comprehensive overview of energy demand characteristics and development trends driven by economic and demographic growth, different policy tools for cost-effective CO(2) emission reduction in the Chinese construction sector are described. We propose a comprehensive approach combining building design and construction, and the urban planning and building material industries, in order to drastically improve BEE during this period of rapid urban development. A coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure the implementation of efficiency policies. Regulatory and incentive options should be integrated into the policy portfolios of BEE to minimise the efficiency gap and to realise sizeable carbon emissions cuts in the next decades. We analyse in detail several policies and instruments, and formulate relevant policy proposals fostering low-carbon construction technology in China. Specifically, Our analysis shows that improving building energy efficiency can generate considerable carbon emissions reduction credits with competitive price under the CDM framework. PMID:19344996

Li, Jun; Colombier, Michel

2009-06-01

348

Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

2013-03-01

349

Climate warming feedback from mountain birch forest expansion: reduced albedo dominates carbon uptake.  

PubMed

Expanding high-elevation and high-latitude forest has contrasting climate feedbacks through carbon sequestration (cooling) and reduced surface reflectance (warming), which are yet poorly quantified. Here, we present an empirically based projection of mountain birch forest expansion in south-central Norway under climate change and absence of land use. Climate effects of carbon sequestration and albedo change are compared using four emission metrics. Forest expansion was modeled for a projected 2.6 C increase in summer temperature in 2100, with associated reduced snow cover. We find that the current (year 2000) forest line of the region is circa 100 m lower than its climatic potential due to land-use history. In the future scenarios, forest cover increased from 12% to 27% between 2000 and 2100, resulting in a 59% increase in biomass carbon storage and an albedo change from 0.46 to 0.30. Forest expansion in 2100 was behind its climatic potential, forest migration rates being the primary limiting factor. In 2100, the warming caused by lower albedo from expanding forest was 10 to 17 times stronger than the cooling effect from carbon sequestration for all emission metrics considered. Reduced snow cover further exacerbated the net warming feedback. The warming effect is considerably stronger than previously reported for boreal forest cover, because of the typically low biomass density in mountain forests and the large changes in albedo of snow-covered tundra areas. The positive climate feedback of high-latitude and high-elevation expanding forests with seasonal snow cover exceeds those of afforestation at lower elevation, and calls for further attention of both modelers and empiricists. The inclusion and upscaling of these climate feedbacks from mountain forests into global models is warranted to assess the potential global impacts. PMID:24343906

de Wit, Heleen A; Bryn, Anders; Hofgaard, Annika; Karstensen, Jonas; Kvalevg, Maria M; Peters, Glen P

2014-07-01

350

Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 F (-18 C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 F (22 C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 F (-7 C). PMID:24758145

Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

2014-05-20

351

Effect of hydrothermally carbonized char application on trace gas emissions from two sandy soil horizons.  

PubMed

The application of biochar to soil is a potential tool for the long-term sequestration of C and a possible mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Among the various processes available to produce biochar, hydrothermal carbonization is one technique that is suitable for moist feedstock like digestates from biogas production. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of C and emissions of NO after the addition of (i) digested wheat ( L.) straw (digestate) and (ii) hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) char of wheat straw as well as (iii) HTC char of digested wheat straw to two soil horizons that differed in C content. The HTC chars were obtained from wheat straw and digested wheat straw that were hydrothermally carbonized at 230C for 6 h. The digestate and HTC chars were mixed with soil and incubated in 125-mL vessels. The GHG emissions of CO and NO were measured at regular intervals. Additionally, after 108 d, N was applied in the form of NHNO equivalent to 100 kg N ha. After 500 d of incubation, the digestate had lost 34% of C, while the soil mixture with the corresponding HTC char lost 12% of C in the form of CO from the topsoil. The estimated bi-exponential half-life of the recalcitrant C was more than 50% longer for the carbonized material than for the untreated digestate. The NO emissions from both HTC chars were significantly reduced compared with untreated digestate. The reductions were up to 64% for the topsoil and 60% for the subsoil samples. These laboratory results show that HTC holds the potential to increase the C stability of fermented and carbonized biomasses and to reduce NO emissions. PMID:25603263

Dicke, Christiane; Lanza, Giacomo; Mumme, Jan; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Kern, Jrgen

2014-09-01

352

Reducing U.S. residential energy use and CO2 emissions: how much, how soon, and at what cost?  

PubMed

There is growing interest in reducing energy use and emissions of carbon dioxide from the residential sector by deploying cost-effectiveness energy efficiency measures. However, there is still large uncertainty about the magnitude of the reductions that could be achieved by pursuing different energy efficiency measures across the nation. Using detailed estimates of the current inventory and performance of major appliances in U.S. homes, we model the cost, energy, and CO2 emissions reduction if they were replaced with alternatives that consume less energy or emit less CO2. We explore trade-offs between reducing CO2, reducing primary or final energy, or electricity consumption. We explore switching between electricity and direct fuel use, and among fuels. The trade-offs between different energy efficiency policy goals, as well as the environmental metrics used, are important but have been largely unexplored by previous energy modelers and policy-makers. We find that overnight replacement of the full stock of major residential appliances sets an upper bound of just over 710 10(6) tonnes/year of CO2 or a 56% reduction from baseline residential emissions. However, a policy designed instead to minimize primary energy consumption instead of CO2 emissions will achieve a 48% reduction in annual carbon dioxide emissions from the nine largest energy consuming residential end-uses. Thus, we explore the uncertainty regarding the main assumptions and different policy goals in a detailed sensitivity analysis. PMID:23398047

Lima Azevedo, Ins; Morgan, M Granger; Palmer, Karen; Lave, Lester B

2013-03-19

353

Isoprene emission-free poplars--a chance to reduce the impact from poplar plantations on the atmosphere.  

PubMed

Depending on the atmospheric composition, isoprene emissions from plants can have a severe impact on air quality and regional climate. For the plant itself, isoprene can enhance stress tolerance and also interfere with the attraction of herbivores and parasitoids. Here, we tested the growth performance and fitness of Populus canescens in which isoprene emission had been knocked down by RNA interference technology (PcISPS-RNAi plants) for two growing seasons under outdoor conditions. Neither the growth nor biomass yield of the PcISPS-RNAi poplars was impaired, and they were even temporarily enhanced compared with control poplars. Modelling of the annual carbon balances revealed a reduced carbon loss of 2.2% of the total gross primary production by the absence of isoprene emission, and a 6.9% enhanced net growth of PcISPS-RNAi poplars. However, the knock down in isoprene emission resulted in reduced susceptibility to fungal infection, whereas the attractiveness for herbivores was enhanced. The present study promises potential for the use of non- or low-isoprene-emitting poplars for more sustainable and environmentally friendly biomass production, as reducing isoprene emission will presumably have positive effects on regional climate and air quality. PMID:22142198

Behnke, Katja; Grote, Rdiger; Brggemann, Nicolas; Zimmer, Ina; Zhou, Guanwu; Elobeid, Mudawi; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea; Schnitzler, Jrg-Peter

2012-04-01

354

Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants  

SciTech Connect

Urban shade trees offer significant benefits in reducing building air-conditioning demand and improving urban air quality by reducing smog. The savings associated with these benefits vary by climate region and can be up to $200 per tree. The cost of planting trees and maintaining them can vary from $10 to $500 per tree. Tree-planting programs can be designed to have lower costs so that they offer potential savings to communities that plant trees. Our calculations suggest that urban trees play a major role in sequestering C02 and thereby delay global warming. We estimate that a tree planted in Los Angeles avoids the combustion of 18 kg of carbon annually, even though it sequesters only 4.5-11 kg (as it would if growing in a forest). In this sense, one shade tree in Los Angeles is equivalent to three to five forest trees. In a recent analysis for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City, we estimated that planting an average of four shade trees per house (each with a top view cross section of 50 m2) would lead to an annual reduction in carbon emissions from power plants of 16,000, 41,000, and 9000 t, respectively (the per-tree reduction in carbon emissions is about 10-11 kg per year). These reductions only account for the direct reduction in the net cooling- and heating-energy use of buildings. Once the impact of the community cooling is included, these savings are increased by at least 25 percent.

Akbari, H.

2001-11-01

355

Costs and Carbon Benefits of Global Forestation and Reduced Deforestation in Response to a Carbon Market 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the global potential for carbon sequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbon emissions from deforestation, in response to four carbon price scenarios from 2000 to 2100. The world forest sector was disaggregated into ten regions, four largely temperate, developed regions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; and six developing, mostly tropical,

Jayant Sathaye; Peter Chan

356

A review on black carbon emissions, worldwide and in China.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC) produced from open burning (OB) and controlled combustion (CC) is a range of carbonaceous products of incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel, and is deemed as one of the major contributors to impact global environment and human health. BC has a strong relationship with POPs, in waste combustion, BC promotes the formation of POPs, and then the transport of POPs in the environment is highly influenced by BC. However less is known about BC formation, measurement and emissions estimation especially in developing countries such as China. Different forms of BC are produced both in CC and OB. BC emission characteristics and combustion parameters which determine BC emissions from CC and OB are discussed. Recent studies showed a lack of common methodology and the resulting data for describing the mechanisms related to BC formation during combustion processes. Because BC is a continuum carbonaceous combustion product, different sampling and measuring methods are used for measuring their emissions with great quantitative uncertainty. We discuss the commonly used BC sampling and measuring methods along with the causes for uncertainty and measures to minimizing the uncertainty. Then, we discuss the estimations of BC emission factors and emission inventory for CC and OB sources. The total emissions of BC from CC and OB in China are also estimated and compared with previous BC emission inventories in this review and we find the inventories tend to be overestimated. As China becomes the largest contributor to global BC emissions, studies for characterizing BC emissions from OB and CC sources are absent in China. Finally, we comment on the current state of BC emission research and identify major deficiencies that need to overcome. Moreover, the advancement in research tools, measuring technique in particular, as discussed in this review is critical for researchers in developing countries to improve their capability to study BC emissions for addressing the growing climate change and public health concerns. PMID:24875874

Ni, Mingjiang; Huang, Jianxin; Lu, Shengyong; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

2014-07-01

357

76 FR 61100 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Science Advisory Board Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel AGENCY: Environmental...meeting of the SAB Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel to review EPA's draft...given that the SAB Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel will hold a public...

2011-10-03

358

Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and efficient approach to meeting carbon mitigation targets. PMID:24882922

Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

2013-01-01

359

Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and efficient approach to meeting carbon mitigation targets. PMID:24882922

Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

2013-04-01

360

Integrating livestock production with crops and saline fish ponds to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive grazing systems in the tropics have large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here an integrated cropping, livestock farming and saline pond aquaculture system is described which also reduces GHG emissions in tropical farming. The system was developed in the 1980s in the central Philippines and is re-evaluated in terms of its potential to reduce emissions from livestock production, particularly in

Damian M. Ogburn; Ian White

2011-01-01

361

Thermionic Emission of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Measured  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology, have investigated the thermionic properties of high-purity, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for use as electron-emitting electrodes. Carbon nanotubes are a recently discovered material made from carbon atoms bonded into nanometer-scale hollow tubes. Such nanotubes have remarkable properties. An extremely high aspect ratio, as well as unique mechanical and electronic properties, make single-wall nanotubes ideal for use in a vast array of applications. Carbon nanotubes typically have diameters on the order of 1 to 2 nm. As a result, the ends have a small radius of curvature. It is these characteristics, therefore, that indicate they might be excellent potential candidates for both thermionic and field emission.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Krainsky, Isay L.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Elich, Jeffrey M.; Landi, Brian J.; Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

2004-01-01

362

A guide to potential soil carbon sequestration; land-use management for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Terrestrial carbon sequestration has a potential role in reducing the recent increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) that is, in part, contributing to global warming. Because the most stable long-term surface reservoir for carbon is the soil, changes in agriculture and forestry can potentially reduce atmospheric CO2 through increased soil-carbon storage. If local governments and regional planning agencies are to effect changes in land-use management that could mitigate the impacts of increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it is essential to know how carbon is cycled and distributed on the landscape. Only then can a cost/benefit analysis be applied to carbon sequestration as a potential land-use management tool for mitigation of GHG emissions. For the past several years, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been researching the role of terrestrial carbon in the global carbon cycle. Data from these investigations now allow the USGS to begin to (1) 'map' carbon at national, regional, and local scales; (2) calculate present carbon storage at land surface; and (3) identify those areas having the greatest potential to sequester carbon.

Markewich, H.W.; Buell, G.R.

2001-01-01

363

Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily  

SciTech Connect

Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

2009-03-31

364

UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity-enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop to either a chamber on a field of grass or a plant-leaf scale chamber. Leaves of all plant species that were examined exhibited emission of CO in response to artificial UV radiation as well as the UV component of natural solar radiation. The UV-induced rate of CO emission exhibited a low dependence on temperature, indicating an abiotic process. The emission of CO in response to the UV component of natural solar radiation was also evident at the natural grassland scale.

Bruhn, D.; Albert, K. R.; Mikkelsen, T. N.; Ambus, P.

2013-12-01

365

UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop to either an ecosystem chamber or a plant-leaf scale chamber. Leaves of all examined plant species exhibited emission of CO in response to artificial UV-radiation as well as the UV-component of natural solar radiation. The UV-induced rate of CO emission exhibited a rather low dependence on temperature, indicating an abiotic process. The emission of CO in response to the UV-component of natural solar radiation was also evident at the ecosystem scale.

Bruhn, D.; Albert, K. R.; Mikkelsen, T. N.; Ambus, P.

2013-06-01

366

Field-emission characteristics of carbon nanotube paste layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional simulator was used to analyze the field-emission mechanism of a carbon nanotube (CNT) emitter layer as a surface electron emitter in a triode structure for field-emission display. An electrostatic image potential was added to the Fowler-Nordheim equation to improve the accuracy of the calculation, and then several important parameters affecting the field-emission characteristics were studied. We calculated the field enhancement factor (?) and emission factor (?) of the CNT emitter layer using the experimentally obtained current-voltage (I-V) values and the extended Fowler-Nordheim equation by the least-squares-fitting method. By simulating 211 structures, we confirmed the existence of a shielding effect between the emitters and a penetration phenomenon of the anode voltage.

Oh, Tae Sik; Yoo, Ji Beom; Park, Chong Yun; Lee, Seong Eui; Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Jong Min

2005-10-01

367

A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a global tabulation of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) particles emitted from combustion. We include emissions from fossil fuels, biofuels, open biomass burning, and burning of urban waste. Previous bottom-up inventories of black and organic carbon have assigned emission factors on the basis of fuel type and economic sector alone. Because emission rates are highly

Tami C. Bond; David G. Streets; Kristen F. Yarber; Sibyl M. Nelson; Jung-Hun Woo; Zbigniew Klimont

2004-01-01

368

Field emission from strained carbon nanotubes on cathode substrate D. Roy Mahapatra a,  

E-print Network

Field emission from strained carbon nanotubes on cathode substrate D. Roy Mahapatra a, *, N. Sinha, Waterloo, Ont. N2L3C5, Canada 1. Introduction Field emission from carbon nanotube (CNT) was first reported Available online 27 June 2008 Keywords: Field emission Current density Carbon nanotube Strain phonon A B

Melnik, Roderick

369

In situ imaging of field emission from individual carbon nanotubes and their structural damage  

E-print Network

In situ imaging of field emission from individual carbon nanotubes and their structural damage; accepted for publication 27 November 2001 Field emission of individual carbon nanotubes was observed found to exhibit very low turn-on field and superior field emission performance. Carbon nanotubes grow

Wang, Zhong L.

370

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs  

E-print Network

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs William T: Available online 6 January 2014 Keywords: Wildland fire Climate Forests Carbon cycle Emissions a b s t r a c climate change and the principal emissions component of wildland fires, while black carbon and other

371

Three-dimensional calculation of field emission from carbon nanotubes using a transfer-matrix methodology  

E-print Network

Three-dimensional calculation of field emission from carbon nanotubes using a transfer- matrix simulations of field emission from carbon nanotubes, using a transfer-matrix methodology. By repeating field, as shown by recent ab-initio calculations [10]. To study field emission from carbon nanotubes, we

Mayer, Alexandre

372

Field Emission Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with a Variety of Emitter-Morphologies  

E-print Network

1 Field Emission Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with a Variety of Emitter@chemsys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Field emission properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), which have been prepared through: single-walled carbon nanotube, field emission, alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition, ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

373

Field emission of individual carbon nanotube with in situ tip image and real work function  

E-print Network

Field emission of individual carbon nanotube with in situ tip image and real work function Zhi Xu of the most promising applications of carbon nanotubes CNTs for flat panel displays1 and highly coherent field-emission studies on carbon nanotube field emission took the work function as a constant e.g., 5 eV . Actually

Wang, Zhong L.

374

Growth and field emission properties of small diameter carbon nanotube films  

E-print Network

Growth and field emission properties of small diameter carbon nanotube films Y.Y. Wanga,*, S of the emission site intensity. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Small diameter carbon nanotubes; MWCVD; Growth; Field emission 1. Introduction Single- or double-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT

Qin, Lu-Chang

375

U.S. EPA State Carbon Emissions Goals Georgia Fact Sheet  

E-print Network

U.S. EPA State Carbon Emissions Goals Georgia Fact Sheet Sam V carbon dioxide emission 2030 state goals for electric power plants. These goals vary widely from state and utilized. EPA calculated the 2012 Georgia state wide average carbon emissions rating to have been 1598

Das, Suman

376

Just Say No to Carbon Emissions (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema

Learn about three efforts our grandchildren may thank us for: cheap solar energy, bringing energy efficiency to China, and learning how to store carbon deep underground. Can solar energy be dirt cheap? We're all potentially billionaires when it comes to solar energy. The trick is learning how to convert sunlight to electricity using cheap and plentiful materials. Ramamoorthy Ramesh, an innovative materials scientist at Berkeley Lab, will discuss how he and other researchers are working to make photovoltaic cells using the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust -- materials that are literally as common as dirt. Energy efficiency in China: Nan Zhou is a researcher with Berkeley Labs China Energy Group. She will speak about Chinas energy use and the policies that have been implemented to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emission growth. Her work focuses on building China's capacity to evaluate, adopt and implement low-carbon development strategies. Zhou has an architecture degree from China, and a Master and Ph.D. in Engineering from Japan. Understanding geologic carbon sequestration: Even with continued growth of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, fossil fuels will likely remain cheap and plentiful for decades to come. Geologist Curt Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Lab's Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will discuss a strategy to reduce carbon emissions from coal and natural gas. It involves pumping compressed CO2 captured from large stationary sources into underground rock formations that can store it for geological time scales.

Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhou, Nan; Oldenburg, Curt

2011-04-28

377

Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

2012-11-15

378

Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control  

SciTech Connect

Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2013-08-01

379

2002 Monthly Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Mexico at a 10x10k Spatial Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of fossil fuel CO2 emissions to the total measured amount of CO2 in the Earths atmosphere remains an important component of carbon cycle science, particularly as efforts to understand the net exchange of carbon at the surface move to smaller scales. In order to reduce the uncertainty of this flux, researchers led by Purdue University have built a high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 flux inventory for the United States, called Vulcan. The Vulcan inventory quantifies emissions for the United States at 10km resolution every hour for the year 2002 and can be seen as a key component of a national assessment and verification system for greenhouse gas emissions and emissions mitigation. As part of the North American Carbon Project, the 2002 carbon dioxide emissions from Mexico are presented at the monthly temporal and municipality spatial scale. Mexico is of particular importance because of the scientific integration under the North American Carbon Program. Furthermore, Mexico has seen a notable growth in its population as well as migration toward urban centers and increasing energy requirements due in part to industrial intensification. The native resolution of the emissions is geolocated (lat/lon) for point sources, such as power plants, airports, and large industry. The emissions are estimated at the municipality level for residential and commercial sources, and allocated to roads for the mobile transport sector. Data sources include the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), and Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA). CO2 emissions are calculated from the 1999 NEI data by converting CO emissions using sector and process-dependent emission factors, and is scaled up to 2002 using statistics obtained from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center CDIAC. CEC and CARMA data, which encompass power plant emissions, are already in units of CO2. Emissions are regridded to 10x10k and 0.1x0.1 deg grids to enable atmospheric CO2 transport modeling. All economic sectors are analyzed, including power plants, commercial, residential, industrial, on-road, and non-road. Municipality and regional scale analysis is presented to explore the differences in economic and industrial development and need. Specific centers of high emissions are highlighted and analyzed in order to put into context the development and growth of certain economic sectors. The annualized emissions are compared to estimates by the International Energy Agency and found to be very similar although some discrepancies are expected due to the different methods of obtaining results. Vulcan reports process-based emissions while IEA reports fuel sales. The Vulcan output is also disaggregated by fuel type and comparisons with IEA are presented across economic sectors. A monthly product based on monthly sales is also presented. Sales by major fuel types (oil, natural gas, coal) are obtained from EIA data and those results shape the monthly cycle. These results are compared to a similar national studies, and similarities and differences are analyzed and discussed.

Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Geethakumar, S.; Zhou, Y.; Sahni, N.

2009-12-01

380

Trend in global black carbon emissions from 1960 to 2007.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC) plays an important role in both climate change and health impact. Still, BC emissions as well as the historical trends are associated with high uncertainties in existing inventories. In the present study, global BC emissions from 1960 to 2007 were estimated for 64 sources, by using recompiled fuel consumption and emission factor data sets. Annual BC emissions had increased from 5.3 (3.4-8.5 as an interquartile range) to 9.1 (5.6-14.4) teragrams during this period. Our estimations are 11-16% higher than those in previous inventories. Over the period, we found that the BC emission intensity, defined as the amount of BC emitted per unit of energy production, had decreased for all the regions, especially China and India. Improvements in combustion technology and changes in fuel composition had led to an increase in energy use efficiency, and subsequently a decline of BC emission intensities in power plants, the residential sector, and transportation. On the other hand, the BC emission intensities had increased in the industrial and agricultural sectors, mainly due to an expansion of low-efficiency industry (coke and brick production) in developing countries and to an increasing usage of diesel in agriculture in developed countries. PMID:24825392

Wang, Rong; Tao, Shu; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Balkanski, Yves; Boucher, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Liu, Wenxin

2014-06-17

381

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} from volcanic gas analyses and SO{sub 2} flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO{sub 2} presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects at times in Earth history. Models of climate response to CO{sub 2} increases may be tested against geological data.

Williams, S.N.; Schaefer, S.J. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Calvache V., M.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States) Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia, Pasto (Colombia)); Lopez, D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1992-04-01

382

Carbon dioxide emission related to chemical properties of a tropical bare soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the relationship between CO2 emissions and the soil properties of a tropical Brazilian bare soil was investigated. Carbon dioxide emissions were measured on three different days at different soil temperature and the soil moisture conditions, and the soil properties were investigated at the same points that emissions were measured. The soil CO2 emissions were correlated to carbon

N. La Scala; J. Marques; G. T. Pereira; J. E. Cor

2000-01-01

383

Carbon emissions performance of commercial logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Adoption of reduced-impact logging (RIL) methods could reduce CO2 emissions by 30-50% across at least 20% of remaining tropical forests. We developed two cost effective and robust indices for comparing the climate benefits (reduced CO2 emissions) due to RIL. The indices correct for variability in the volume of commercial timber among concessions. We determined that a correction for variability in terrain slope was not needed. We found that concessions certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, N=3), when compared with noncertified concessions (N=6), did not have lower overall CO2 emissions from logging activity (felling, skidding, and hauling). On the other hand, FSC certified concessions did have lower emissions from one type of logging impact (skidding), and we found evidence of a range of improved practices using other field metrics. One explanation of these results may be that FSC criteria and indicators, and associated RIL practices, were not designed to achieve overall emissions reductions. Also, commonly used field metrics are not reliable proxies for overall logging emissions performance. Furthermore, the simple distinction between certified and noncertified concessions does not fully represent the complex history of investments in improved logging practices. To clarify the relationship between RIL and emissions reductions, we propose the more explicit term 'RIL-C' to refer to the subset of RIL practices that can be defined by quantified thresholds and that result in measurable emissions reductions. If tropical forest certification is to be linked with CO2 emissions reductions, certification standards need to explicitly require RIL-C practices. PMID:24022913

Griscom, Bronson; Ellis, Peter; Putz, Francis E

2014-03-01

384

Probabilistic quantification of allowable carbon emissions for meeting multiple climate targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate targets are designed to inform policies that would limit the magnitude and impacts of climate change caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other substances. The target that is currently recognized by most world governments places a limit of two degrees Celsius on the global mean warming since preindustrial times. This would require large sustained reductions in carbon dioxide emissions during the twenty-first century and beyond. Such a global temperature target, however, is not sufficient to control many other quantities, such as transient sea level rise, ocean acidification, and net primary production on land. Here, using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC) in an observation-informed Bayesian approach, we show that allowable carbon emissions are substantially reduced when multiple climate targets are set. We take into account uncertainties in physical and carbon cycle model parameters, radiative efficiencies, climate sensitivity, and carbon cycle feedbacks by varying nineteen key model parameters. A broad set of site-specific and gridded observational data from atmosphere, ocean, and land is used to constrain the model ensemble to realizations that are compatible with observations. Within this framework, we explore a broad range of economically feasible greenhouse gas scenarios from the integrated assessment community to determine the likelihood of meeting a combination of specific global and regional targets under various assumptions. For any given likelihood of meeting a set of such targets, the allowable cumulative emissions are greatly reduced from those inferred from the temperature target alone. Therefore, temperature targets alone are unable to comprehensively limit the risks from anthropogenic emissions.

Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.; Stocker, T. F.

2013-12-01

385

Control of variable geometry turbocharged diesel engines for reduced emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission control problem for an automotive direct injected compression ignition (diesel) engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) is considered. The objective is to operate the engine to meet driver's torque demand and minimize NOx emissions while at the same time avoiding visible smoke generation. It is demonstrated that the steady-state optimization of

Anna G. Stefanopoulou; Ilya Kolmanovsky; James S. Freudenberg

2000-01-01

386

MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR REDUCING AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM POULTRY LITTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia emissions from poultry litter not only result in air pollution; high levels of ammonia in poultry houses cause poor bird performance, increase the susceptibility of birds to viral diseases, and negatively impact human health. Although ammonia emissions are a concern, few cost-effective best ...

387

Reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emission in motor cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the problem associated with the dependence of fuel consumption and CO2 emission by automobiles on their characteristics such as mass, class, engine displacement, transmission and type of fuel used. Automobiles of various classes offered in Lithuanian market were investigated from the above perspective. The main factors determining different average fuel consumption and CO2 emission by these motor

Valentinas Mick?naitis; Alvydas Pik?nas; Igor Mackoit

2007-01-01

388

Feed management for beef feedlots to reduce air emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This power point presentation gives an overview of air emissions from beef cattle feedyards as well as nutritional and management techniques that might decrease these emissions. Topics include greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide), ammonia, particulate matter and odors. This was presented as on...

389

Chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emissions in the PRD region and implications for vehicle emission control policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle emissions are a major source of urban air pollution. In recent decade, the Chinese government has introduced a range of policies to reduce vehicle emissions. In order to understand the chemical characteristics of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and to evaluate the effectiveness of control policies on vehicle emissions, the emission factors of PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), metal elements, organic compounds and stable carbon isotopic composition were measured in the Zhujiang tunnel of Guangzhou, in the PRD region of China in 2013. Emission factors of PM2.5 mass, OC, EC and WSOC were 92.4, 16.7, 16.4 and 1.31 mg vehicle-1 km-1 respectively. Emission factors of WSII were 0.016 (F-) ~ 4.17 (Cl-) mg vehicle-1 km-1, contributing about 9.8% to the PM2.5 emissions. The sum of 27 measured metal elements accounted for 15.2% of PM2.5 emissions. Fe was the most abundant metal element, with an emission factor of 3.91 mg vehicle-1 km-1. Emission factors of organic compounds including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes were 91.9, 5.02, 32.0 and 7.59 ?g vehicle-1 km-1, respectively. Stable carbon isotopic composition ?13C value was -25.0 on average. An isotopic fractionation of 3.2 was found during fuel combustion. Compared to a previous study in Zhujiang tunnel in 2004, emission factors of PM2.5mass, EC, OC, WSII except Cl- and organic compounds decreased by 16.0 ~ 93.4%, which could be attributed to emission control policy from 2004 to 2013. However, emission factors of most of the metal elements increased significantly, which could be partially attributed to the changes in motor oil additives and vehicle conditions. There are no mandatory national standards to limit metal content from vehicle emissions, which should be a concern of the government. A snapshot of the 2013 characteristic emissions of PM2.5 and its constituents from the on-road vehicular fleet in the PRD region retrieved from our study would be helpful for the assessment of past and future implementations of vehicle emission control policy.

Dai, S.; Bi, X.; Chan, L. Y.; He, J.; Wang, B.; Wang, X.; Peng, P.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

2015-03-01

390

Chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emissions in the PRD region and implication for vehicle emission control policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle emission is a major source of urban air pollution. In recent decade, the Chinese government has introduced a range of policies to reduce the vehicle emission. In order to understand the chemical characteristics of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emission in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and to evaluate the effectiveness of control policies on vehicles emission, the emission factors of PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), metal elements, organic compounds and stable carbon isotopic composition were measured in the Zhujiang Tunnel of Guangzhou, the PRD region of China in 2013. Emission factors of PM2.5 mass, OC, EC, and WSOC were 92.4, 16.7, 16.4, and 1.31 mg vehicle-1 km-1 respectively. Emission factors of WSII were 0.016 (F-) ~4.17 (Cl-) mg vehicle-1 km-1, totally contributing about 9.8% to the PM2.5 emissions. The sum of 27 measured metal elements accounted for 15.2% of the PM2.5 emissions. Fe was the most abundant metal element, with an emission factor of 3.91 mg vehicle-1 km-1. Emission factors of organic compounds including n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes, and steranes were 91.9, 5.02, 32.0 and 7.59 ?g vehicle-1 km-1, respectively. Stable carbon isotopic composition ?13C value was measured and it was -25.0 on average. An isotopic fractionation of 3.2 was found during fuel combustion. Compared with a previous study in Zhujiang Tunnel in year 2004, emission factors of PM2.5 mass, EC, OC, WSII except Cl-, and organic compounds decreased by 16.0-93.4%, which could be attributed to emission control policy from 2004 to 2013. However, emission factors of most of the metal elements increased significantly, which could be partially attributed to the changes in motor oil additives and vehicle condition. There are no mandatory national standards to limit metal content from vehicle emission, which should be a concern of the government. A snapshot of the 2013 characteristic emission of PM2.5 and its constituents from on-road vehicular fleet in the PRD region retrieved from our study was found to be useful for the assessment of past and future implementation of vehicle emission control policy.

Dai, S.; Bi, X.; Chan, L. Y.; He, J.; Wang, B.; Wang, X.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

2014-11-01

391

Reducing health care's carbon footprint--the power of nursing.  

PubMed

Global warming and environmentalism continue to be national and international issues as their complexities and implications become better understood. One ironic contributor to the degradation of the environment is the health care system. Serving as clinical laboratories, hotels, restaurants, and offices that never close, U.S. hospitals produce more than 2 million tons of waste annually. Although the consequences and significance of health care's carbon footprint are undeniable, strategies to reduce this impact are challenging. This article discusses how the role, traits, and knowledge of nurses combined with their positions in the health care system make them key players in creating an environmentally sustainable health care industry. With an analysis of environmental action versus inaction, this article explores how nurses at the forefront of health care are equipped to change practice that will reach far beyond the bedside. PMID:23413481

Muoz, Aliria

2012-11-01

392

Nitrous oxide emissions from intensively managed agroecosystems: the role of carbon inputs (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In agroecosystems, many reports demonstrate a positive relationship between N2O emissions and N fertilizer inputs. This relationship has been incorporated into the IPCC model estimate of N2O emissions and implies that inorganic N availability limits N2O emissions. However, evidence indicates that denitrification accounts for most N2O emissions from agroecosystems and N2O production from denitrification requires reduced C in addition to oxidized N. Using two experiments and meta-analysis we highlight the potential importance of reduced carbon availability for N2O emissions from agroecosystems. Experiments were conducted in maize-based cropping systems, restored prairies and perennial vegetation buffers in Iowa, USA. These systems have high soil organic C (SOC) concentrations. In the first experiment, a cover crop preceding maize increased N2O emissions despite immobilizing large amounts of NO3. Laboratory incubations of these soils demonstrated that glucose, but not NO3, increased N2O emissions. Because the cover crop had no detectable effect on total or potentially mineralizable SOC, these results indicate that the relatively small cover crop C input increased N2O emissions from this system. In a second experiment that compared land uses (maize, restored prairies, and perennial vegetation buffers) with significant differences in total SOC (2.3, 2.8 and 3.0% C, respectively), 15N tracer application demonstrated the increase in SOC across land uses was associated with more complete denitrification to N2 rather than an increase in N immobilization or N2O emissions. Results from these experiments suggest a complex interaction between NO3 and potentially mineralizable C affects denitrification emissions of N2O and particularly the N2O/(N2+N2O) ratio: although a small plant-based C input increased N2O emissions in a NO3-rich soil, a larger long-term increase in total SOC reduced N2O emissions by decreasing the N2O/(N2+N2O) ratio. Consistent with our cover crop experiment, a meta-analysis revealed that 60% of published reports find that cover crops increase N2O emissions while 40% of published reports find that cover crops decrease N2O emissions. As a wide variety of options are considered for mitigation of N2O emissions from agroecosystems, both C and N availability must be considered.

Castellano, M. J.; Iqbal, J.; Mitchell, D. C.; Basche, A.; Parkin, T.; Miguez, F.; Kaspar, T.

2013-12-01

393

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use, 1751 1950  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly compiled energy statistics allow for an estimation of the complete time series of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel use for the years 1751 to the present. The time series begins with 3106 metric tonnes carbon (C). This initial flux represents the early stages of the fossil-fuel era. The CO2 flux increased exponentially until World War I. The time series derived here seamlessly joins the modern 1950 to present time series. Total cumulative CO2 emissions through 1949 were 61.0109 tonnes C from fossil-fuel use, virtually all since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution around 1860. The rate of growth continues to grow during present times, generating debate on the probability of enhanced greenhouse warming. In addition to global totals, national totals and 1 global distributions of the data have been calculated.

Andres, R. J.; Fielding, D. J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T. A.; Kumar, N.; Kearney, A. T.

1999-09-01

394

40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on mixtures of gasoline and methanol...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per...on mixtures of gasoline and ethanol...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per...greenhouse gas emissions per gallon of gasoline. 8887 is...

2013-07-01

395

40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...on mixtures of gasoline and methanol...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per...on mixtures of gasoline and ethanol...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per...greenhouse gas emissions per gallon of gasoline. 8887 is...

2014-07-01

396

The IR emission features - Emission from PAH molecules and amorphous carbon particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for the assessment of the importance of the various forms of PAHs, and recent infrared observations concerning the PAH problem, are considered. Spectroscopic data suggest that the observed interstellar spectrum is due to both free molecule-sized PAHs producing the narrow features, and amorphous carbon particles contributing to the broad underlying components. Explanations for the multicomponent emission spectrum are discussed. A model of the emission mechanism for the example of chrysene is presented, and an exact treatment of the IR fluorescence from highly vibrationally excited large molecules shows that species containing 20-30 carbon atoms are responsible for the narrow features, although the spectra more closely resemble those of amorphous carbon particles. It is suggested that future emphasis should be placed on the spatial characteristics of the component spectra.

Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.

1987-01-01

397

Diamond-like carbon based low-emissive coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel low-emissive (low-E) coating based on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited hydrogenated diamond-like amorphous carbon (DLC) films has been developed. The coating is a three-layer structure comprised of a nano-thin Ag layer sandwiched between DLC layers. The tunable optical properties that the DLC layers afford make it extremely appealing for large-scale, low-cost manufacturing of low-E coatings. We have shown

Pratish Mahtani; Keith R. Leong; Ian Xiao; Alongkarn Chutinan; Nazir P. Kherani; Stefan Zukotynski

2011-01-01

398

Field emission from single-wall carbon nanotube films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the field emission properties of single-wall carbon nanotube films, with emphasis on current-versus-voltage (I-V) characteristics and current stability. The films are excellent field emitters, yielding current densities higher than 10 mA cm-2 with operating voltages that are far lower than for other film emitters, but show a significant degradation of their performances with time. The observed deviations

Jean-Marc Bonard; Jean-Paul Salvetat; Thomas Stckli; Walt A. de Heer; Lszl Forr; Andr Chtelain

1998-01-01

399

Economic development, poverty reduction and carbon emissions in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy consumption using an input-output (I-O) model, for different sectors of the Indian economy in 1990. Alternative scenarios are developed for 2005. The I-O model considers structural changes in aggregate consumption behaviour and sectoral composition of output between 1990 and 2005. Alternative energy efficiency programmes are compared for their potential CO2 reduction

N. S. Murthy; Manoj Panda; Jyoti Parikh

1997-01-01

400

Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production  

PubMed Central

Wheat is one of the worlds most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging ?256?kg CO2 eq?ha?1 per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.0270.377?kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production. PMID:25405548

Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L.; Campbell, Con A.; Zentner, Robert P.

2014-01-01

401

Warming reduces carbon losses from grassland exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

The flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere may ameliorate or exacerbate climate change, depending on the relative responses of ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration to warming temperatures, rising atmospheric CO2, and altered precipitation. The combined effect of these global change factors is especially uncertain because of their potential for interactions and indirectly mediated conditions such as soil moisture. Here, we present observations of CO2 fluxes from a multi-factor experiment in semi-arid grassland that suggests a potentially strong climate - carbon cycle feedback under combined elevated [CO2] and warming. Elevated [CO2] alone, and in combination with warming, enhanced ecosystem respiration to a greater extent than photosynthesis, resulting in net C loss over four years. The effect of warming was to reduce respiration especially during years of below-average precipitation, by partially offsetting the effect of elevated [CO2] on soil moisture and C cycling. Carbon losses were explained partly by stimulated decomposition of soil organic matter with elevated [CO2]. The climate - carbon cycle feedback observed in this semiarid grassland was mediated by soil water content, which was reduced by warming and increased by elevated [CO2]. Ecosystem models should incorporate direct and indirect effects of climate change on soil water content in order to accurately predict terrestrial feedbacks and long-term storage of C in soil. PMID:23977180

Pendall, Elise; Heisler-White, Jana L; Williams, David G; Dijkstra, Feike A; Carrillo, Yolima; Morgan, Jack A; Lecain, Daniel R

2013-01-01

402

Warming Reduces Carbon Losses from Grassland Exposed to Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

The flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere may ameliorate or exacerbate climate change, depending on the relative responses of ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration to warming temperatures, rising atmospheric CO2, and altered precipitation. The combined effect of these global change factors is especially uncertain because of their potential for interactions and indirectly mediated conditions such as soil moisture. Here, we present observations of CO2 fluxes from a multi-factor experiment in semi-arid grassland that suggests a potentially strong climate carbon cycle feedback under combined elevated [CO2] and warming. Elevated [CO2] alone, and in combination with warming, enhanced ecosystem respiration to a greater extent than photosynthesis, resulting in net C loss over four years. The effect of warming was to reduce respiration especially during years of below-average precipitation, by partially offsetting the effect of elevated [CO2] on soil moisture and C cycling. Carbon losses were explained partly by stimulated decomposition of soil organic matter with elevated [CO2]. The climate carbon cycle feedback observed in this semiarid grassland was mediated by soil water content, which was reduced by warming and increased by elevated [CO2]. Ecosystem models should incorporate direct and indirect effects of climate change on soil water content in order to accurately predict terrestrial feedbacks and long-term storage of C in soil. PMID:23977180

Pendall, Elise; Heisler-White, Jana L.; Williams, David G.; Dijkstra, Feike A.; Carrillo, Yolima; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

403

High Arctic wetting reduces permafrost carbon feedbacks to climate warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon (C) balance of permafrost regions is predicted to be extremely sensitive to climatic changes. Major uncertainties exist in the rate of permafrost thaw and associated C emissions (33-508PgC or 0.04-1.69C by 2100; refs , ) and plant C uptake. In the High Arctic, semi-deserts retain unique soil-plant-permafrost interactions and heterogeneous soil C pools (>12PgC ref. ). Owing to its coastal proximity, marked changes are expected for High Arctic tundra. With declining summer sea-ice cover, these systems are simultaneously exposed to rising temperatures, increases in precipitation and permafrost degradation. Here we show, using measurements of tundra-atmosphere C fluxes and soil C sources (14C) at a long-term climate change experiment in northwest Greenland, that warming decreased the summer CO2 sink strength of semi-deserts by up to 55%. In contrast, warming combined with wetting increased the CO2 sink strength by an order of magnitude. Further, wetting while relocating recently assimilated plant C into the deep soil decreased old C loss compared with the warming-only treatment. Consequently, the High Arctic has the potential to remain a strong C sink even as the rest of the permafrost region transitions to a net C source as a result of future global warming.

Lupascu, M.; Welker, J. M.; Seibt, U.; Maseyk, K.; Xu, X.; Czimczik, C. I.

2014-01-01

404

Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-  

E-print Network

-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap- ping gases, which blanket the planet and cause temperatures imperative that emissions of the main heat-trapping gas, car- bon dioxide (CO2), are significantly reduced future limits on carbon emissions. · Electricity consumers should opt for "green power" where

Combes, Stacey A.

405

Measurements of Enhanced Black Carbon and Brown Carbon Absorption in Biomass Burning Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from biomass burnings are thought to be responsible for over half of the black carbon aerosol present in the atmosphere. Black carbon, or soot, absorbs significant amounts of solar radiation. Organic coatings can significantly increase the absorption of black carbon cores by focusing more light onto the core. Shorter wavelengths of light can also be absorbed by the organic material itself, in which case it is referred to as brown carbon. There remains significant uncertainty concerning the amount of absorption enhancement caused by organic coatings and the importance of brown carbon in biomass burning emissions. We present results from multi-wavelength absorption measurements made during the 2012 FLAME-IV experiment at the Missoula Fire Laboratory that address these uncertainties for a variety of globally important biomass fuels. Absorption was measured with a 3-wavelength (405, 532, 660 nm) Photo-Acoustic Absorption Spectrometer (PAS). Two additional channels at 405 and 660 nm measured particles that had been heated to 250C and run through a carbon denuder. In this talk we present observations of absorption enhancement, which we define to be the ratio of the magnitude absorption caused by non-altered particles to the magnitude of absorption caused by denuded particles. Results indicate that absorption enhancement from clear coatings is often less significant than expected with absorption enhancements in the 660 nm channel often being near unity. Brown carbon is a significant source of absorption at 405 nm where absorption enhancement values as high as 3.0 are commonly observed.

Beamesderfer, E.; Pokhrel, R. P.; Murphy, S. M.; Lack, D.; Langridge, J. M.; Wagner, N. L.

2013-12-01

406

Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actorssuch as businesses, non-government organizations, celebritieshave increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

2010-01-01

407

Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.  

PubMed

The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

2014-01-01

408

Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario  

PubMed Central

The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

2014-01-01

409

GreenColo: Incentivizing Tenants for Reducing Carbon Footprint in Colocation Data Centers  

E-print Network

1 GreenColo: Incentivizing Tenants for Reducing Carbon Footprint in Colocation Data Centers energy consumption of data centers worldwide has resulted in a large carbon footprint, raising serious their servers for carbon efficiency. In this paper, we aim at minimizing the carbon footprint of geo

Ren, Shaolei

410

Degassing of reduced carbon from planetary basalts Diane T. Wetzela,1  

E-print Network

Degassing of reduced carbon from planetary basalts Diane T. Wetzela,1 , Malcolm J. Rutherforda on a lunar basalt composition, we confirm that carbon dissolves as carbonate at an fO2 higher than -0-derived melts even more than previous data indicate, and the degassing of re- duced carbon from Fe-rich basalts

Jacobsen, Steven D.

411

Radiative Forcing associated with Particulate Carbon Emissions resulting from the Use of Mercury Control Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury is a persistent, toxic metal that bio-accumulates within the food web and causes neurological damage and fetal defects in humans. The U.S. was the first country to regulate the leading anthropogenic source of mercury into the atmosphere: coal combustion for electric power generation. The U.S. EPA's 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was replaced and further tightened in 2012 by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS), which required existing coal-fired utilities to reduce their mercury emissions by approximately 90% by 2015. Outside the U.S., the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has passed the legally binding Minamata global mercury treaty that compels its signatory countries to prevent and reduce the emission and release of mercury. The most mature technology for controlling mercury emissions from coal combustion is the injection into the flue gas of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents having chemically treated surfaces designed to rapidly oxidize and adsorb mercury. However, such PAC is known to have electrical properties that make it difficult to remove from flue gas via electrostatic precipitation, by far the most common particulate control technology used in countries such as the U.S., India, and China which rely heavily on coal for power generation. As a result, PAC used to control mercury emissions can be emitted into the atmosphere, the sub-micron fraction of which may result in unintended radiative forcing similar to black carbon (BC). Here, we estimate the potential increases in secondary BC emissions, those not produced from combustion but arising instead from the use of injected PAC for mercury emission reduction. We also calculate the radiative forcing associated with these secondary BC emissions by using a global atmospheric chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model.

Clack, H.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.

2013-12-01

412

Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.  

PubMed

Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers. PMID:21280649

Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

2011-03-01

413

Carbon stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic.  

PubMed

Mangroves are recognized to possess a variety of ecosystem services including high rates of carbon sequestration and storage. Deforestation and conversion of these ecosystems continue to be high and have been predicted to result in significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Yet few studies have quantified the carbon stocks or losses associated with conversion of these ecosystems. In this study we quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of three common mangrove types of the Caribbean as well as those of abandoned shrimp ponds in areas formerly occupied by mangrove-a common land-use conversion of mangroves throughout the world. In the mangroves of the Montecristi Province in Northwest Dominican Republic we found C stocks ranged from 706 to 1131 Mg/ha. The medium-statured mangroves (3-10 m in height) had the highest C stocks while the tall (> 10 m) mangroves had the lowest ecosystem carbon storage. Carbon stocks of the low mangrove (shrub) type (< 3 m) were relatively high due to the presence of carbon-rich soils as deep as 2 m. Carbon stocks of abandoned shrimp ponds were 95 Mg/ha or approximately 11% that of the mangroves. Using a stock-change approach, the potential emissions from the conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds ranged from 2244 to 3799 Mg CO2e/ha (CO2 equivalents). This is among the largest measured C emissions from land use in the tropics. The 6260 ha of mangroves and converted mangroves in the Montecristi Province are estimated to contain 3,841,490 Mg of C. Mangroves represented 76% of this area but currently store 97% of the carbon in this coastal wetland (3,696,722 Mg C). Converted lands store only 4% of the total ecosystem C (144,778 Mg C) while they comprised 24% of the area. By these metrics the replacement of mangroves with shrimp and salt ponds has resulted in estimated emissions from this region totaling 3.8 million Mg CO2e or approximately 21% of the total C prior to conversion. Given the high C stocks of mangroves, the high emissions from their conversion, and the other important functions and services they provide, their inclusion in climate-change mitigation strategies is warranted. PMID:24834737

Kauffman, J Boone; Heider, Chris; Norfolk, Jennifer; Payton, Frederick

2014-04-01

414

Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting ?-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination.

Peuelas, Josep; Farr-Armengol, Gerard; Llusia, Joan; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Rico, Laura; Sardans, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume; Filella, Iolanda

2014-10-01

415

Impact of inland shipping emissions on elemental carbon concentrations near waterways in The Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to quantify the impact of black carbon from inland shipping on air quality, expressed as elemental carbon (EC) near inland waterways in The Netherlands. Downwind measurements of particle numbers and EC were used to establish emission factors for EC from inland shipping using inverse modelling. These emission factors were combined with data on energy consumption to derive annual average emissions rates for all Dutch waterways. A line source model was applied to compute the contribution of inland shipping to annual average EC concentrations for around 140,000 people living within 200 m of busy waterways in The Netherlands. The results showed that they are exposed to additional EC concentrations of up to 0.5 ?g EC per m3 depending on the shipping volume and distance from the waterway. In view of the envisaged growth in water transport, this underlines the need to reduce combustion emissions from inland shipping. Targeting gross polluters may be the most effective approach since 30% of ships cause more than 80% of the total emissions.

Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Jonkers, J.; Hulskotte, J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Hoek, G.; Sokhi, R. S.

2014-10-01

416

Historical carbon emissions and uptake from the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

Tropical ecosystems play a large and complex role in the global carbon cycle. Clearing of natural ecosystems for agriculture leads to large pulses of CO2 to the atmosphere from terrestrial biomass. Concurrently, the remaining intact ecosystems, especially tropical forests, may be sequestering a large amount of carbon from the atmosphere in response to global environmental changes including climate changes and an increase in atmospheric CO2. Here we use an approach that integrates census-based historical land use reconstructions, remote-sensing-based contemporary land use change analyses, and simulation modeling of terrestrial biogeochemistry to estimate the net carbon balance over the period 1901-2006 for the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, which is one of the most rapidly changing agricultural frontiers in the world. By the end of this period, we estimate that of the state's 925 225 km2, 221 092 km2 have been converted to pastures and 89 533 km2 have been converted to croplands, with forest-to-pasture conversions being the dominant land use trajectory but with recent transitions to croplands increasing rapidly in the last decade. These conversions have led to a cumulative release of 4.8 Pg C to the atmosphere, with 80% from forest clearing and 20% from the clearing of cerrado. Over the same period, we estimate that the residual undisturbed ecosystems accumulated 0.3 Pg C in response to CO2 fertilization. Therefore, the net emissions of carbon from Mato Grosso over this period were 4.5 Pg C. Net carbon emissions from Mato Grosso since 2000 averaged 146 Tg C/yr, on the order of Brazil's fossil fuel emissions during this period. These emissions were associated with the expansion of croplands to grow soybeans. While alternative management regimes in croplands, including tillage, fertilization, and cropping patterns promote carbon storage in ecosystems, they remain a small portion of the net carbon balance for the region. This detailed accounting of a region's carbon balance is the type of foundation analysis needed by the new United Nations Collaborative Programmme for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). PMID:21639042

Galford, Gillian L; Melillo, Jerry M; Kicklighter, David W; Mustard, John F; Cronin, Timothy W; Cerri, Carlos E P; Cerri, Carlos C

2011-04-01

417

Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting.  

PubMed

Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw addition alone. Comparisons of flow rates showed that low flow could be an alternative strategy for reducing NH3 losses without any significant change in N2O emissions, pointing to the need for well-controlled composting conditions if gaseous emissions are to be minimised. PMID:24210550

Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

2014-02-01

418

Fiscal Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions from New Passenger Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model based calculations constitute the core output of this study. The calculations assess the extent to which vehicle related taxes (mainly acquisition taxes and ownership taxes) can be effective means to reduce CO2 emissions from new cars. More specifically, the model calculations have assessed the ability of vehicle taxes to support the target to reduce average CO2 emissions from new

2002-01-01

419

Quantifying the emissions and air quality co-benefits of lower-carbon electricity production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of air emissions from electricity generation depends on the spatial distribution of power plants and electricity dispatch decisions. Thus, any realistic evaluation of the air quality impacts of lower-carbon electricity must account for the spatially heterogeneous changes in associated emissions. Here, we present an analysis of the changes in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with current, expected, and proposed energy efficiency and renewable energy policies in Wisconsin. We simulate the state's electricity system and its potential response to policies using the MyPower electricity-sector mod