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1

Ten Recommendations for Reducing Carbon Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former U.S. Vice President Al Gore testified about possible solutions to mitigate anthropogenic climate change at two 21 March hearings held before committees of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. His 10 recommendations to reduce U.S. carbon emissions:

2007-04-01

2

Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

1991-08-01

3

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Using the Mole Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an application of quantitative chemistry concepts in the context of motor vehicle emissions. Shows how carbon dioxide emissions from cars may be reduced by up to 25% by reducing motorway speeds from 70-75 mph to 60 mph. (Author/MM)|

Myers, Alan

2002-01-01

4

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

SciTech Connect

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (US)

2005-08-15

5

In Brief: Reducing black carbon emissions could immediately reduce global temperature increases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new assessment by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) shows that measures to reduce emissions of black carbon, or soot, which is produced through burning of wood and other biofuels as well as by some industrial processes, could improve public health and help to significantly reduce projected global temperature increases. The Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone highlights how specific measures targeting black carbon and other emissions from fossil fuel extraction, residential wood-burning cooking, diesel vehicles, waste management, agriculture, and small industries could affect climate. Full implementation of a variety of measures to reduce black carbon and methane emissions could reduce future global warming by about 0.5°C, the assessment found. Reducing black carbon could have substantial benefits in the Arctic, the Himalayas, and other snow-covered regions because black carbon that settles on top of snow absorbs heat, speeding melting of snow and ice. Black carbon emission reductions would affect global temperatures more quickly than carbon dioxide emission reductions. Furthermore, reducing black carbon emissions would improve public health in the regions that emit large amounts of the harmful air pollutant.

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-03-01

6

Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit  

SciTech Connect

The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

2012-11-15

7

Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more “clean” natural gas may drive out “dirty” coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both

Finn Roar Aune; Rolf Golombek; Sverre A. C. Kittelsen

2004-01-01

8

Technologies to reduce or capture and store carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report focuses on a broad suite of technologies to reduce, capture and store COâ emissions, primarily as they relate to direct coal combustion and also coal gasification and liquefaction. The report surveys and summarizes existing research, discusses relevant federal programs, makes recommendations regarding additional research opportunities and public policy objectives, and recommends a technology-based framework for mitigating COâ emissions

G. Nelson; M. Mueller; M. McCall; R. Knipp

2007-01-01

9

Designing A Carbon Tax to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a revenue and distributionally neutral approach to reducing U.S. greenhouse gas emissions that uses a carbon tax. The revenue from the carbon tax is used to finance an environmental earned income tax credit designed to be distributionally neutral. The credit is linked to earned income and helps offset the regressivity of the carbon tax. The carbon tax

Gilbert E. Metcalf

2008-01-01

10

Technologies to reduce or capture and store carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

The report focuses on a broad suite of technologies to reduce, capture and store CO{sub 2} emissions, primarily as they relate to direct coal combustion and also coal gasification and liquefaction. The report surveys and summarizes existing research, discusses relevant federal programs, makes recommendations regarding additional research opportunities and public policy objectives, and recommends a technology-based framework for mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-based electricity generation plants. The US Department of Energy is already at work to foster the development of these technologies. The report recognizes the scope of that work and in essence, concludes that much work still remains. A summary of the report is published in hard copy and on the CD-ROM. The full 160 page report is on the CD-ROM.

Nelson, G.; Mueller, M.; McCall, M.; Knipp, R. [PTI Resources Inc. (United States)

2007-06-15

11

Economic Effects of Using Carbon Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Major OECD Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tax on fossil fuels designed to obtain a 20 percent reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by the year 2020 would lower output among major OECD nations by 1 to 3 1/2 percent. The tax required to achieve a 20% reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide b...

1992-01-01

12

Climate effects of reducing black carbon emissions: Dependence on location of emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role played by emissions of black carbon aerosols (BC) on the Earth's climate is diverse and the overall effect is still quite uncertain: Black carbon not only absorbs sunlight (direct effect), but it also has a semi- direct effect on clouds, and when deposited on snow and ice it changes the reflectivity (albedo) of the ground surface. These mechanisms

J. Fuglestvedt; T. Berntsen; G. Myhre; N. A. Rive; K. Rypdal; S. Gerland; C. Pedersen; J. Strøm

2006-01-01

13

A SECOND-BEST EVALUATION OF EIGHT POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS. (R825313)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract This paper uses a numerical general equilibrium model to compare the costs of alternative policies for reducing carbon emissions in a second-best setting with a distortionary tax on labor. We examine a carbon tax, two energy taxes, and both narrow-based and br...

14

Climate effects of reducing black carbon emissions: Dependence on location of emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role played by emissions of black carbon aerosols (BC) on the Earth's climate is diverse and the overall effect is still quite uncertain: Black carbon not only absorbs sunlight (direct effect), but it also has a semi- direct effect on clouds, and when deposited on snow and ice it changes the reflectivity (albedo) of the ground surface. These mechanisms generally have a warming effect on the climate. This poster presents a Norwegian project that focus on the net effect of current BC emissions and future possible reductions in emissions of BC aerosols, taking into account scientific, economic, and political perspectives on the inclusion of BC in climate policies. Thus, the scope of the project is interdisciplinary and includes observations in the Arctic, model simulations of dispersion of BC aerosols, its radiative forcing and climate effects. Some initial results from measurements of BC content in snow from the Norwegian Arctic and corresponding measurements for surface reflectance will be presented. The radiative forcing of BC emissions from different geographical regions differs due to differences in the removal processes (i.e. the lifetime) and the amount of solar radiation available for absorption (depends on latitude, clouds, and surface albedo). The atmospheric burdens and RF (of the direct effect) of regional BC emissions from fossil fuel sources have been calculated by the global chemical transport model Oslo-CTM2 and a radiative transfer model, and first results of time-integrated RF per unit of emission (equivalent to absolute GWPs) are presented. Future plans including i) analysis of cost effective emission reduction strategies, taking into account regional differences the forcing efficiencies, but also cost estimates for BC reductions in the different regions, and ii) an evaluation of the climate effects of the emission reductions through model simulations, including climatic, economic and political perspectives exploring obstacles and opportunities will also be presented.

Fuglestvedt, J.; Berntsen, T.; Myhre, G.; Rive, N. A.; Rypdal, K.; Gerland, S.; Pedersen, C.; Strøm, J.

2006-12-01

15

Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss.  

PubMed

Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5' grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO(2). Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435

Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N; Jardine, Sunny L

2012-07-30

16

New Hampshire Carbon Challenge: Reducing Residential Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Hampshire Carbon Challenge is an initiative of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire. Our goal is to educate New Hampshire residents about climate change and also encourage them to reduce their household greenhouse gas emissions by 10,000 pounds. The Northeast region is undergoing climate changes consistent with those

A. L. Schloss; D. Bartlett; D. Blaha; C. Skoglund; J. Dundorf; E. Froburg; B. Pasinella

2007-01-01

17

CHAPTER 11 FOREST CARBON SINKS: A TEMPORARY AND COSTLY ALTERNATIVE TO REDUCING EMISSIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol (KP) requires signatories to reduce CO2-equivalent emissions by an average of 5.2% from 1990 levels by the commitment period 2008-2012. This constitutes only a small proportion of global greenhouse gas emissions. Importantly, countries can attain a significant portion of their targets by sequestering carbon in terrestrial ecosystems in lieu of emission reductions. Since carbon sink activities lead

G. CORNELIS VAN KOOTEN; ALISON J. EAGLE

18

Guidance for Determining Best Available Control Technology for Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Bioenergy Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidance provides an illustration of reasoning that a Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permitting authority may use to support the conclusion that the best available control technology (BACT) for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at a bioen...

2011-01-01

19

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global warming of Earth’s near-surface, air and oceans in recent decades is a direct consequence of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions contribute approximately 60% to this climate change. This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper mill waste containing about 55wt% portlandite

R. Pérez-López; G. Montes-Hernandez; J. M. Nieto; F. Renard; L. Charlet

2008-01-01

20

The potential for energy-efficient technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the United States: transport sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the US transportation sector by the year 2010. US transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (US DOE\\/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million

D. L. Greene; S. Plotkin; K. G. Duleep

1997-01-01

21

REDUCING MERCURY EMISSION FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION WITH CARBON INJECTION INTO FLUE GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of tests (to aid in developing emission rules) in July and August 1991 on a 360-tonne/day mass burn municipal waste combustor (MWC) at the Ogden Martin Systems of Stanislaus, Inc. facility near Crows Landing, CA. est results indicated that carbon (C) addit...

22

Approaches for Reducing Carbon14 Stack Emissions from Korean CANDU® Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively high carbon-14 emissions, which occurred at Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant during 1998 and 1999, made the site staff to implement several operational improvements: (1) restriction of the maximum in-service time of moderator ion exchange (IX) resin columns to 80 days, (2) discontinuation of the practice of re-using ‘used’ IX resin columns for removing the gadolinium nitrate at star-up, and

Wook SOHN; Duk-Won KANG; Junhwa CHI

2004-01-01

23

Adapting sustainable low-carbon techologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific community is deeply concerned about the effect of greenhouse-gases (GHGs) on global climate change. A major climate shift can result in tragic destruction to our world. Carbon dioxide (COsb2) emissions from coal-fired power plants are major anthropogenic sources that contribute to potential global warming. The People's Republic of China, with its rapidly growing economy and heavy dependence on

Peter Shyr-Jye Kuo

1997-01-01

24

The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector  

SciTech Connect

The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

Greene, D.L.

1997-07-01

25

Potential for reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture management in the tropics  

PubMed Central

We estimate the potential reductions in methane and carbon dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture management options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practices, and changing breeds of large ruminants on the production of methane and carbon dioxide are calculated for two levels of adoption: complete adoption, to estimate the upper limit to reductions in these greenhouse gases (GHGs), and optimistic but plausible adoption rates taken from the literature, where these exist. Results are expressed both in GHG per ton of livestock product and in Gt CO2-eq. We estimate that the maximum mitigation potential of these options in the land-based livestock systems in the tropics amounts to approximately 7% of the global agricultural mitigation potential to 2030. Using historical adoption rates from the literature, the plausible mitigation potential of these options could contribute approximately 4% of global agricultural GHG mitigation. This could be worth on the order of $1.3 billion per year at a price of $20 per t CO2-eq. The household-level and sociocultural impacts of some of these options warrant further study, however, because livestock have multiple roles in tropical systems that often go far beyond their productive utility.

Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario

2010-01-01

26

Black Carbon in the Arctic: Assessment of and efforts to reduce black carbon emissions from wildfires and agricultural burning in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon and other short-lived climate forcers exert a warming effect on the climate but remain in the atmosphere for short time periods when compared to carbon dioxide. Black carbon is a significant contributor to increasing temperatures in the Arctic region, which has warmed at twice the global rate over the past 100 years. Black carbon warms the Arctic by absorbing incoming solar radiation while in the atmosphere and, when deposited onto Arctic ice, leading to increased atmospheric temperatures and snow and ice melt. Black carbon remains in the atmosphere for a short time period ranging from days to weeks; therefore, local atmospheric conditions at the time of burning determine the amount of black carbon transport to the Arctic. Most black carbon transport and deposition in the Arctic results from the occurrence of wildfires, prescribed forest fires, and agricultural burning at latitudes greater than 40 degrees north latitude. Wildfire affects some 10-15 million hectares of forest, forest steppe, and grasslands in Russia each year. In addition to wildfire, there is widespread cropland burning in Russia occurring in the fall following harvest and in the spring prior to tilling. Agricultural burning is common practice for crop residue removal as well as suppression of weeds, insects and residue-borne diseases. The goal of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Black Carbon Initiative is to assess black carbon emissions from agricultural burning and wildfires in Russia and explore practical options and opportunities for reducing emissions from these two sources. The emissions assessment combines satellite-derived burned area measurements of forest and agricultural fires, burn severity information, ancillary geospatial data, vegetation and land cover maps, fuels data, fire emissions data, fire/weather relationship information, and smoke transport models to estimate black carbon transport and deposition in the Arctic. The assessment addresses necessary improvements to fire and burned area detection algorithms to improve agricultural burned area mapping accuracy. Efforts to explore practical options for reducing black carbon emissions from wildfires and agricultural burning in Russia have been focused on designing community-based fire prevention and education programs in Siberia and the Russia Far East, two regions prone to frequent human-caused fires. The initiative also seeks to identify practical alternatives to reduce black carbon emissions from agricultural burning and to help promote these alternatives through outreach to farmers and other agricultural organizations. This submission will explore the initial findings and results of the emissions assessment and discuss the progress and challenges associated with implementation of local-level fire prevention and mitigation efforts in Russia. The results of this initiative will help inform future policy and management tools to address black carbon emissions from wildfires and agricultural burning in Russia and perhaps additional interested countries.

Kinder, B.; Hao, W. M.; Larkin, N. K.; McCarty, G.; O'neal, K. J.; Gonzalez, O.; Luxenberg, J.; Rosenblum, M.; Petkov, A.

2011-12-01

27

[Progress in microalgae culture system for biodiesel combined with reducing carbon dioxide emission].  

PubMed

Wastewater resources, CO2 emission reduction and microalgae biodiesel are considered as current frontier fields of energy and environmental researches. In this paper, we reviewed the progress in system of microalgae culture for biodiesel production by wastewater and stack gas. Multiple factors including microalgal species, nutrition, culture methods and photobioreactor, which were crucial to the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production, were discussed in detail. A valuable culture system of microalgae for biodiesel production or other high value products combined with the treatment of wastewater by microalgae was put forward through the optimizations of algal species and culture technology. The culture system coupled with the treatment of wastewater, the reduction of CO2 emission with the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production will reduce the production cost of microalgal biofuel production and the treatment cost of wastewater simultaneously. Therefore, it would be a promising technology with important environmental value, social value and economic value to combine the treatment of wastewater with the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production. PMID:22117510

Su, Hongyang; Zhou, Xuefei; Xia, Xuefen; Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Yalei

2011-09-01

28

Carbon emissions control strategies  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to address a fundamental issue: the cost of slowing climate change. Experts in eight nations were asked to evaluate, using the best economic models available, the prospects for reducing fossil fuel-based carbon emissions in their respective nations. The nations selected as case studies include: the Soviet Union, Poland, the United States, Japan, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As important contributors to the greenhouse effect, these industrialized nations must find ways to substantially reduce their emissions. This is especially critical given that developing nations' emissions are expected to rise in the coming decades in the search for economic development. Ten papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Chandler, W.U. (ed.)

1990-01-01

29

Subsidence and carbon loss in drained tropical peatlands: reducing uncertainty and implications for CO2 emission reduction options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversion of tropical peatlands to agriculture leads to a release of carbon from previously stable, long-term storage, resulting in land subsidence that can be a surrogate measure of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. We present an analysis of recent large-scale subsidence monitoring studies in Acacia and oil palm plantations on peatland in SE Asia, and compare the findings with previous studies. Subsidence in the first 5 years after drainage was found to be 142 cm, of which 75 cm occurred in the first year. After 5 years, the subsidence rate in both plantation types, at average water table depths of 0.7 m, remained constant at around 5 cm yr-1. Bulk density profiles indicate that consolidation contributes only 7 % to total subsidence, in the first year after drainage, and that the role of compaction is also reduced quickly and becomes negligible after 5 years. Over 18 years after drainage, 92 % of cumulative subsidence was caused by peat oxidation. The average rate of carbon loss over the first 5 years was 178 t ha-1 yr-1 CO2eq, which reduced to 73 t ha-1 yr-1 CO2eq over subsequent years, resulting in an average loss of 100 t ha-1 yr-1 CO2eq annualized over 25 years. Part of the observed range in subsidence and carbon loss values is explained by differences in water table depth, but vegetation cover and addition of fertilizers also influence peat oxidation. A relationship with groundwater table depth shows that subsidence and carbon loss are still considerable even at the highest water table levels theoretically possible in plantations. This implies that improved water management will reduce these impacts by only 20 % at most, relative to current conditions, and that high rates of carbon loss and land subsidence should be accepted as inevitable consequences of conversion of forested tropical peatlands to other land uses.

Hooijer, A.; Page, S.; Jauhiainen, J.; Lee, W. A.; Lu, X. X.; Idris, A.; Anshari, G.

2011-09-01

30

Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, \\

K. Caldeira; S. J. Davis; L. Cao

2008-01-01

31

Reduce claus sulfur emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating efficiency of the world's more than 400 sulfur recovery plants must be increased to reduce sulfur emission. Unusually strict controls are being proclaimed by many governmental bodies which require careful design of new plants and improved operation of all plants to minimize side reactions and develop maximum recoveries. The Claus Process must be augmented with more reactors or other

1972-01-01

32

Process for reducing carbon monoxide emissions from regenerators of catalytic cracking units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic cracking processes are improved by employing cracking catalyst particles containing rare earth components spray impregnated thereon. In comparison to other rare earth-promoted cracking catalysts, the cracking catalysts of the invention exhibit greater activity for oxidizing carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide during the regeneration step of the cracking process wherein coke-containing catalyst particles are reactivated for cracking hydrocarbons by combustion

Baron

1981-01-01

33

Reducing the emissions from the automobiles by using carbon nano tubes (Nano Technology)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology is a science of controlling individual atoms and molecules. This technology has got great future and is considered to be the manufacturing technology of 21st technology. Carbon nanotubes are tiny strips of graphite sheet rolled into tubes a few nano meters in diameter and up to hundreds of micrometers (microns) long. Carbon nano tubes is not implemented in mechanical

A. Durairajan; S. Ananthakumar; M. Mohamed Yusuf

2011-01-01

34

Strategies for Carbon Sequestration and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Nursery Production Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the past three decades, no issue has received more attention from the scientific community than global warming and the possible impacts it may have on the global environment. Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, along with those of other trace gases [i.e., methane (CH4), an...

35

Energy Prices, Taxes and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxes levied on the carbon content of fuels (carbon taxes) are being considered in many OECD countries as a possible policy instrument to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This paper first reviews the policy response in Member countries to the threat of global warming. It then discusses the link between carbon emission intensities and current energy prices, touching also on the

Peter Hoeller; Markku Wallin

1991-01-01

36

The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km2 that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined

David L. A. Gaveau; Serge Wich; Justin Epting; Daniel Juhn; Markku Kanninen; Nigel Leader-Williams

2009-01-01

37

Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-07-01

38

Subsidence and carbon loss in drained tropical peatlands: reducing uncertainty and implications for CO2 emission reduction options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of tropical peatlands to agriculture leads to a release of carbon from previously stable, long-term storage, resulting in land subsidence that can be a surrogate measure of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. We present an analysis of recent large-scale subsidence monitoring studies in Acacia and oil palm plantations on peatland in SE Asia, and compare the findings with previous

A. Hooijer; S. Page; J. Jauhiainen; W. A. Lee; X. X. Lu; A. Idris; G. Anshari

2011-01-01

39

World fossil fuel subsidies and global carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larsen and Shah present evidence on the level of fossil fuel subsidies and their implications for carbon dioxide emissions. They conclude that substantial fossil fuel subsidies prevail in a handful of large, carbon-emitting countries. Removing such subsidies could substantially reduce national carbon emissions in some countries. Global carbon emissions could be reduced by 9 percent, assuming no change in world

Bjorn Larsen; Anwar Shah

1992-01-01

40

Advanced technologies for reduced CO2 emissions  

SciTech Connect

It appears that there has been an increase in concentration of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere over the past 125 years. This has been generally attributed to the exponential growth in the use of fossil fuel resulting in the release of fossil carbon as CO2 and the deforestation or the leveling of forests around the earth which reduced the photosynthetic utilization of atmospheric CO2. This paper presents studies conducted for the Carbon Dioxide Research Division (CDRD) of the U.S. Department of Energy relating to possible mitigation technologies which would tend to reduce CO2 emissions in the future.

Steinberg, M.; Cheng, H.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1988-01-01

41

The role of market and technical downsizing in reducing carbon emissions from the Swedish new car fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doubts have been raised on whether the car industry will manage to reach the goal set by the Voluntary Agreement with the\\u000a European Commission, unless tougher measures are taken to reduce CO2 emissions. Taking a stance from the concept of downsizing, we study the historical development of two strategies: first,\\u000a shifting the market toward smaller cars, market downsizing; second, a

Frances Sprei; Sten Karlsson

2008-01-01

42

Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Carbonation Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases with higher heat capacities than those of O2 and N2 cause greenhouse effects. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas associated with global climate change. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30–40% of world CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. There was a higher correlation between the amount of carbon dioxide emission and percentage of carbon

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

43

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01

44

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01

45

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

Ruether, J.A.

1998-02-01

46

Renewable energy technologies for Mexico: Assessing carbon emissions reductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substitution of renewable energy technologies (RETs) for fossil fuel energy technologies can reduce carbon emissions because RETs result in zero or nearly zero carbon emissions. Developing countries, because of their high projected energy growth rates, are expected to be major contributors to future worldwide carbon emissions. A methodology has been developed to identify promising RETs with the potential to

D. Corbus; J. Mark; M. Martinez

1993-01-01

47

The carbon emissions of Chinese cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As increasing urbanization has become a national policy priority for economic growth in China, cities have become important players in efforts to reduce carbon emissions. However, their efforts have been hampered by the lack of specific and comparable carbon emission inventories. Comprehensive carbon emission inventories for twelve Chinese cities, which present both a relatively current snapshot and also show how emissions have changed over the past several years, were developed using a bottom-up approach. Carbon emissions in most Chinese cities rose along with economic growth from 2004 to 2008. Yet per capita carbon emissions varied between the highest and lowest emitting cities by a factor of nearly 7. Average contributions of sectors to per capita emissions for all Chinese cities were 65.1% for industrial energy consumption, 10.1% for industrial processes, 10.4% for transportation, 7.7% for household energy consumption, 4.2% for commercial energy consumption and 2.5% for waste processing. However, these shares are characterized by considerable variability due to city-specific factors. The levels of per capita carbon emissions in China's cities were higher than we anticipated before comparing them with the average of ten cities in other parts of the world. This is mainly due to the major contribution of the industry sector in Chinese cities.

Wang, H.; Zhang, R.; Liu, M.; Bi, J.

2012-07-01

48

Ecodriving and Carbon Footprinting: Understanding How Public Education Can Result in Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ecodriving is a collection of changes to driving behavior and vehicle maintenance designed to impact fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in existing vehicles. Because of its promise to improve fuel economy within the existing fleet, ecodri...

E. W. Martin R. S. Finson S. A. Shaheen

2012-01-01

49

Biomass burning emissions and vertical distribution of atmospheric methyl halides and other reduced carbon gases in the South Atlantic region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA TRACE A experiment (September- October 1992) investigated effects of dry season biomass burning emissions from both South America and southern Africa on the tropical South Atlantic troposphere. Whole air canister samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft and analyzed for a wide range of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and halocarbons. Fast response in situ quantification of CH4, CO,

Nicola J. Blake; Donald R. Blake; Barkley C. Sive; Tai-Yih Chen; F. Sherwood Rowland; James E. Collins; Glen W. Sachse; Bruce E. Anderson

1996-01-01

50

Reducing carbon emissions? The relative effectiveness of different types of environmental tax: the case of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although countries experiences on environmental taxation differ, discussions in New Zealand coincide with the recent announcement by the government of a new carbon tax and a new energy tax to be introduced before the first phase of the Kyoto protoc ol. This paper provides preliminary simulation results that may help answer some policy-related questions including the relative micro- and macro-

Frank Scrimgeour; Les Oxley; Koli Fatai

2005-01-01

51

40 CFR Table - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to Subpart Aaaa of Part 60 - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits] 40 PROTECTION...Subpart AAAA of Part 60--Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal...averaging times combustion units carbon monoxide limits...

2009-07-01

52

Large-Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under two future hypothetical climate policies and assuming the wide-scale availability of cost-effective carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would likely be responsible for significant increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB\\/d from the Ecocene Green

James J. Dooley; Robert T. Dahowski

2009-01-01

53

Prescribed Burning as a Means of Reducing Emissions From Fires?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial ecosystems, particularly forest ecosystems, have been identified for their carbon sequestration potential. However, many of the world's terrestrial systems experience periodic fire events, which emit a significant amount of carbon to the atmosphere, in the form of carbon dioxide, particles, and other trace gases. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of fire emissions throughout North America and demonstrated how these emissions impact regional climate and air quality. For example, emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides from fires can have a detrimental impact on air quality in seasons not typically prone to photochemical smog. Fire emissions are also a critical component of the carbon cycle and need to be considered when evaluating regional sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Although the increasing extent and severity of wildfires can potentially result in different, and larger, emissions than those from prescribed burns, there has not been a continental-scale examination of the benefit of prescribed fire as compared to wildfire emissions of carbon dioxide, particles, and trace gases to the atmosphere. Here we use a continental-scale fire emissions model to investigate the potential changes in fire emissions when prescribed burns are applied more widely, and wildfires are assumed to be prevented. We will evaluate the impact of fire management practices on the overall emissions of carbon dioxide, particles, and other trace gases and how these emissions compare to those from anthropogenic sources. Quantifying the emissions of wildfire versus prescribed fire will aid in identifying the potential climate and air quality implications, allowing for further refinement of carbon accounting policy aimed at reducing atmospheric carbon concentrations.

Wiedinmyer, C.; Hurteau, M.

2008-12-01

54

Catalytic cracking with reduced emission of noxious gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention is a cyclic, fluidized catalytic cracking process providing reduced emissions of carbon monoxide and sulfur oxides in the regeneration zone flue gases. Substantially complete combustion of carbon monoxide takes place in the regeneration zone, and the heat evolved is absorbed by solid particles which are circulated to the reaction zone and stripping zone before returning to the regeneration

I. A. Vasalos; W. D. Ford; C. K. R. Hsieh

1979-01-01

55

REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS IN TANNERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanning, in particular chrome leather production, is still characterised by an inefficient use of raw material and the production of highly polluted wastewater and solid wastes. A part of the emissions can be prevented by introducing clean tanning technologies, the remaining emissions can be treated. Clean production technologies and waste (water) treatment technologies should have a designed complimentarity. Anaerobic wastewater

J. W. van Groenestijn; J. S. A. Langerwerf; M. Lucas

2002-01-01

56

Carbon taxes, consumer demand and carbon dioxide emissions: a simulation analysis for the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the effects of a carbon tax, one of the possible instruments for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Such taxes are currently being proposed as a means of reducing CO2 emissions, motivated by concerns about the global greenhouse effect and its potential impact on global climate and sea levels (Cline, 1991) and on global economies (Nordhaus,

Elizabeth Symons; John Proops; Philip Gay

1994-01-01

57

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Embodied in International Trade of Goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts such as the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions that may be linked to climate change focus on six greenhouse gases (GHG). Carbon dioxide is by far the largest of these by volume, representing about 80% of the total emissions of these six gases. Almost all carbon dioxide is emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels and OECD countries account

Nadim Ahmad; Andrew Wyckoff

2003-01-01

58

Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.  

PubMed

Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (±6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (±1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis. PMID:24053762

Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

2013-10-03

59

Carbon reduction emissions in South Africa  

SciTech Connect

This project is a feasibility study for a control system for existing backup generators in South Africa. The strategy is to install a system to enable backup generators (BGs) to be dispatched only when a large generator fails. Using BGs to provide ''ten minute reserve'' will save energy and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by an estimated nearly 500,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year.

Temchin, Jerome

2002-02-28

60

Electricity Load and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Effects of a Carbon Price in the Short Term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at acceptable levels will require a dramatic de-carbonization of the electric generation sector in the U.S. One increasingly discussed way to meet this policy goal is to put an explicit price on carbon emissions, either through a tax or a trading scheme. Increasing demand response has also been discussed as a way to reduce carbon

Adam Newcomer; Seth Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan

2008-01-01

61

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

National Lab Directors, . .

2001-04-05

62

Economic growth and carbon emission control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal policies of emissions control required for achieving the social goal in a private context. The results suggest that the efficiency of abatement technology is crucial for the timing of executing the emission tax. And emission tax is preferred to an input tax, as long as the detection of emissions is not costly and abatement technology is efficient. Keywords: Economic growth, Carbon emission, Power generation, Joint production, China

Zhang, Zhenyu

63

The cost of carbon retention by reduced impact logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced impact logging (RIL) is one means of reducing the carbon emissions held responsible for global warming. It may also reduce other adverse logging effects. A study of RIL’s effects in Sabah, Malaysia, found 44% reduction of area logged within a tract, 22% reduction in timber yield per logged hectare, and 18% increase in cost per m3 logged compared with

John R. Healey; Colin Price; John Tay

2000-01-01

64

Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected Martian meteorites contain reduced carbon phases associated with clay minerals. The sources of the reduced carbon within the meteorites appears to be associated with fluids which have caused preterrestrial alteration of primary silicates.

Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L.

2012-09-01

65

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

66

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

67

Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets

David Andress; T. Dean Nguyen; Sujit Das

2011-01-01

68

Reduced Martian Carbon: Evidence from Martian Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for reduced carbon species on the martian surface has been enhanced with the identification of reduced carbon components within martian meteorites of different ages. Reduced carbon has been identified in materials ranging from 3.9 Ga to as young as 600,000 Ma.

Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Verchovsky, A. P.

2010-03-01

69

Field emission study of carbon nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, carbon nanosheets (CNS), a novel nanostructure, were developed in our laboratory as a field emission source for high emission current. To characterize, understand and improve the field emission properties of CNS, a ultra-high vacuum surface analysis system was customized to conduct relevant experimental research in four distinct areas. The system includes Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), field emission energy spectroscopy (FEES), field emission I-V testing, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Firstly, commercial Mo single tips were studied to calibrate the customized system. AES and FEES experiments indicate that a pyramidal nanotip of Ca and O elements formed on the Mo tip surface by field induced surface diffusion. Secondly, field emission I-V testing on CNS indicates that the field emission properties of pristine nanosheets are impacted by adsorbates. For instance, in pristine samples, field emission sources can be built up instantaneously and be characterized by prominent noise levels and significant current variations. However, when CNS are processed via conditioning (run at high current), their emission properties are greatly improved and stabilized. Furthermore, only H2 desorbed from the conditioned CNS, which indicates that only H adsorbates affect emission. Thirdly, the TDS study on nanosheets revealed that the predominant locations of H residing in CNS are sp2 hybridized C on surface and bulk. Fourthly, a fabricating process was developed to coat low work function ZrC on nanosheets for field emission enhancement. The carbide triple-peak in the AES spectra indicated that Zr carbide formed, but oxygen was not completely removed. The Zr(CxOy) coating was dispersed as nanobeads on the CNS surface. Although the work function was reduced, the coated CNS emission properties were not improved due to an increased beta factor. Further analysis suggest that for low emission current (<1 uA), the H adsorbates affect emission by altering the work function. In high emission current (>10 uA), thermal, ionic or electronic transition effects may occur, which differently affect the field emission process.

Zhao, Xin

70

Reducing the carbon footprint of Canadian peat extraction and restoration.  

PubMed

The Canadian horticultural peat industry generates carbon emissions through various methods of peat extraction, processing, and land-use changes. This study provides a carbon emissions analysis comparing the traditional vacuum harvest (VH) and block-cut (BC) extraction techniques to a new acrotelm transplant (AT) method that restores natural peatland function by preserving and replacing the surface layer vegetation as part of the extraction process. The relative global warming potential for each extraction method was determined by estimating carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane exchange for each phase of peat extraction, including emissions from land-use change and machinery fuel consumption. Preliminary findings, based on 1 y of measurements, indicate that the AT technique has the lowest annual carbon emissions compared to the VH and BC methods. Projected total carbon emissions from a 75-ha peatland after 50 y of extraction using the AT technique produced a sink of approximately 3300 t CO2 equivalents (CO2-e). This represents a marked reduction in total carbon emissions estimated for the VH (19 000 t CO2-e) and BC (29 000 t CO2-e) extraction techniques. This analysis suggests that the AT method reestablishes peat accumulation and peatland carbon storage function more effectively than the VH and BC methods, which are associated with delayed restoration efforts. Consequently, the AT technique has the potential to greatly reduce the carbon footprint of the Canadian horticultural peat industry. PMID:19739553

Waddington, James M; Plach, Janina; Cagampan, Jason P; Lucchese, Maria; Strack, Maria

2009-06-01

71

Carbon Emission Capstone (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are two ways to reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide: limit how much carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere as we burn fossil fuels, or increase the rate at which it is absorbed. In this lesson, discussion topics include the Kyoto Protocol and the use of carbon credits to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Students can listen to a National Public Radio show that reports on new research that both illuminates and further complicates the picture of how the Earth is warming. The lesson includes an activity in which students examine their personal annual carbon emissions (calculated in the previous exercise) and determine how many trees it would take to sequester these emissions. They will then extrapolate this number to the populations of their school campus and their county.

Pratte, John

72

Carbon Trading with Imperfectly Observable Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol foresees emission trading but does not yet specify verification of (uncertain) emissions. This paper analyses a setting in which parties can meet their emission targets by reducing emissions, by investing in monitoring (reducing uncertainty of emissions) or by (bilaterally) trading permits. We derive the optimality conditions and carry out various numerical simulations. Our applications suggest that including

Odd Godal; Yuri Ermoliev; Ger Klaassen; Michael Obersteiner

2003-01-01

73

Reducing pollutant emissions by fines removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for reducing pollutant emissions, and in particular, for reducing NO \\/SUB x\\/ and particulate emissions, from a spreader-stoker-fired furnace and from a fluidized bed combustor. A combustible material of various sized particles is obtained and those smaller particles which would normally combust during the suspension phase of the spreader-stoker-fired furnace or fluidized bed combustor are separated

D. W. Pershing; G. B. Martin; J. M. Munro

1984-01-01

74

A Simple Evaluation Method for Annual CO2 Emissions Reduced by Distribution Loss Minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases is one of the serious environmental issues. Carbon dioxide is the biggest contributor to global warming. Many efforts to reduce emissions of CO2 are carrying out in various fields. In electrical power system field, various approaches to reduce CO2 emissions have been performed such as loss reduction, utilization of

Yasuhiro Hayashi; Hirotaka Takano; Junya Matsuki; Masao Yokoyama

2007-01-01

75

Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbo...

V. I. Merkulov D. H. Lowndes L. R. Baylor

1999-01-01

76

Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

Mikkonen, Seppo

77

Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from

J. P. Greenberg; P. R. Zimmerman; L. Heidt; W. Pollock

1984-01-01

78

Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films  

SciTech Connect

The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

1999-11-29

79

Greenhouse-Gas Emission Controls and International Carbon Leakage through Trade Liberalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies greenhouse-gas (GHG) emission controls in the presence of carbon leakage through international firm relocation. The Kyoto Protocol requires developed countries to reduce GHG emissions by a certain amount. Comparing emission quotas with emission taxes, we show that taxes coupled with lower trade costs facilitate more firm relocations than quotas do, causing more international carbon leakage. Thus, if

ISHIKAWA Jota; OKUBO Toshihiro

2009-01-01

80

Pricing and hedging in carbon emissions markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a model for trading in emission allowances in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). Exploiting an arbitrage relationship we derive the spot prices of carbon allowances given a forward contract whose price is exogenous to the model. The modeling is done under the assumption of no banking of carbon allowances (which is valid during the Phase I of

Umut Cetin; Michel Verschuere

2009-01-01

81

Thermal infrared emission spectroscopy of anhydrous carbonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to present the thermal emission spectra of various anhydrous, calcite- and dolomite-series carbonate minerals to illustrate the effect of the structural cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+) on shifting the positions of the carbonate absorption bands. All of the carbonate mineral emission spectra included in this study exhibit three absorption features related to three

Phillip R. Christensen

1997-01-01

82

Field Emission Site Densities of Nanostructured Carbon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The field emission properties of nanostructured carbon films deposited by cathodic vacuum arc in a He atmosphere have been studied by measuring the emission currents and the emission site density. The films have an onset field of (caret)3 V/micrometer. Th...

J. Robertson J. B. Cui W. I. Milne

2001-01-01

83

Carbon dioxide emissions and global GDP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) implicated in global warming, and GDP is shown in this paper, examining per capita income and CO2 emissions of 137 countries across 21 years. It also appears that as per capita incomes accelerate across countries emissions increases, for the most part, tend to decelerate. It could be

Michael Tucker

1995-01-01

84

Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector  

SciTech Connect

Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

2011-01-01

85

Reducing fumigant emissions after soil application.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Volatilization and soil transformation are major pathways by which pesticides dissipate from treated agricultural soil. Volatilization is a primary source of unwanted agricultural chemicals in the atmosphere and can significantly affect fumigant efficacy. Volatile pesticides may cause other unique problems; for example, the soil fumigant methyl bromide has been shown to damage stratospheric ozone and will soon be phased out. There is also great concern about the health consequences of inhalation of fumigants by people living in proximity to treated fields. Because replacement fumigants will likely face increased scrutiny in years ahead, there is a great need to understand the mechanisms that control their emission into the atmosphere so these losses can be minimized without loss of efficacy. Recent research has shown that combinations of vapor barriers and soil amendments can be effective in reducing emissions. In this paper, some potential approaches for reducing fumigant emissions to the atmosphere are described. PMID:18943891

Yates, S R; Gan, J; Papiernik, S K; Dungan, R; Wang, D

2002-12-01

86

Fossil carbon emissions associated with carbon flowsof wood products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific fossil carbon (C) emissions and primary energy useassociated with the manufacture of different wood product groups inFinland are estimated and expressed as emissions or energy use per amountof wood-based C in raw material and per amount in end product. Thecalculation includes both emissions from supplied fuels within the forestindustries, and from electricity and district heat purchased from externalsources. The

K. Pingoud; A. Lehtilä

2002-01-01

87

Carbon emissions and sequestration potential of Central African ecosystems.  

PubMed

Joint Implementation under the Climate Change Convention and Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol require a scientific understanding of current carbon stocks, fluxes, and sequestration potential, especially in tropical ecosystems where there are large carbon reservoirs, significant carbon emissions, and large land areas available for reforestation. Central Africa contains 10% of the world's remaining tropical moist forests and has received little attention in carbon studies. In 1980, above-ground carbon stocks in the central African ecosystem were 28.92 Pg and were reduced to 24.79 Pg by 1990. Improved forest management aimed at increasing biomass density could sequester 18.32 Pg of carbon, and over 500,000 km2 formerly forested land will be available by 2050 for reforestation with a capacity to offset 10 Pg carbon. Understanding the spatial distribution of biomass carbon and sequestration potential will be essential for carbon trading initiatives through Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. PMID:11757283

Zhang, Q; Justice, C O

2001-09-01

88

Management practices affects soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural practices contribute about 25% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Soil can act both as sink or source of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide fixed in plant biomass through photosynthesis can be stored in soil as organi...

89

Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.  

PubMed

We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

2012-01-09

90

Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia  

PubMed Central

We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

2012-01-01

91

An option for the coal industry in dealing with the carbon dioxide global greenhouse effect including estimates for reduced COâ emissions technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technical option for the coal industry in dealing with the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect has been devised. The option concerns a ''hydrogen economy'' based on coal. We have developed a very efficient process called HYDROCARB, which effectively splits coal into carbon and hydrogen. This process produces a clean, pure carbon fuel from coal for application in both mobile

Steinberg

1988-01-01

92

Use of natural gas to reduce emissions in waste combustors  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), together with industrial partners, is developing a technology that utilizes natural gas to reduce air pollutant emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs). This natural gas injection technology is termed METHANE de-NOX[sup sm]. The results of field evaluation tests carried out at a 90 tonne/day MWC in 1991 show simultaneous reductions of 60% in nitrogen oxides and 50% in carbon monoxide with natural gas injection equal to 15% of total waste heat input. Excess air requirements were also reduced by 40% thus increasing the overall waste-to-energy plant efficiency. This approach is now being combined with injection of sorbents to also reduce the emissions of hydrochloric acid, sulfur oxides, dioxins, and furans. This paper describes the overall system design, the results of field evaluations to date and the schedule for sorbent injection trials.

Abbasi, H.A.; Khinkis, M.J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Dunnette, R. (Olmsted County Waste-to-Energy, Rochester, MN (United States)); Nakazato, Kunihiro (Takuma Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

1992-01-01

93

EVALUATION OF SIMPLIFIED COVERING SYSTEMS TO REDUCE GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM LIVESTOCK MANURE STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia, methane, and carbon dioxide are the primary atmospheric emissions from cattle and pig farms. A significant part of these emissions is produced by the decomposition of slurry organic matter during manure storage and treatment phases. Present solutions to contain emissions from storage lagoons generally involve reducing the free surface of the slurry by covering it either with permanent fixed

M. Guarino; C. Fabbri; M. Brambilla; L. Valli; P. Navarotto

94

Aluminum: Reducing chloride emissions from aluminum production  

SciTech Connect

Reynolds Metals Company (RMC), with assistance from a NICE{sup 3} grant, is developing for commercialization a closed-loop control process that greatly reduces chlorine emissions and increases plant efficiency while maintaining metal quality. The process still utilizes chlorine to remove impurities during aluminum processing, but is more effective than current methods. With the new technology chlorine in the stack is monitored and input chlorine is adjusted continuously. This optimization of chlorine use results in substantially less waste because less chlorine has to be bought or produced by aluminum manufacturers. This innovation is a significant improvement over conventional aluminum treatments, in which chlorine is injected in a more costly and wasteful manner. By the year 2010, the new technology has the potential to reduce the energy it takes to create chlorine by 8.4 billion Btu per year and to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 1,377 tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29

95

Spatial indeterminacy and power sector carbon emissions accounting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon emission indicators are essential for understanding climate change processes, and for motivating and measuring the effectiveness of carbon reduction policy at multiple scales. Carbon indicators also play an increasingly important role in shaping cultural discourses and politics about nature-society relations and the roles of the state, markets and civil society in creating sustainable natural resource practices and just societies. The analytical and political significance of indicators is tied closely to their objective basis: how accurately they account for the places, people, and processes responsible for emissions. In the electric power sector, however, power-trading across geographic boundaries prevents a simple, purely objective spatial attribution of emissions. Using U.S. states as the unit of analysis, three alternative methods of accounting for carbon emissions from electricity use are assessed, each of which is conceptually sound and methodologically rigorous, yet produces radically different estimates of individual state emissions. Each method also implicitly embodies distinctly different incentive structures for states to enact carbon reduction policies. Because none of the three methods can be said to more accurately reflect "true" emissions levels, I argue the best method is that which most encourages states to reduce emissions. Energy and carbon policy processes are highly contested, however, and thus I examine competing interests and perspectives shaping state energy policy. I explore what it means, philosophically and politically, to predicate emissions estimates on both objectively verifiable past experience and subjectively debatable policy prescriptions for the future. Although developed here at the state scale, the issues engaged and the carbon accounting methodology proposed are directly relevant to carbon analysis and policy formation at scales ranging from the local to the international.

Jiusto, J. Scott

96

Factors that may influence responses of the US transportation sector to policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation vehicle operations in the US contribute 32% of the nation's emissions of carbon dioxide, and 7% of the world's emissions from energy use. Technical options exist to reduce emissions rates, but policies to reduce emissions must recognize the fragmentation of responsibility for key transportation activities among diverse groups of decision makers, and the need to coordinate their decisionmaking. Policies

E. L. Hillsman; F. Southworth

1990-01-01

97

The carbon dioxide emissions game: Playing the net  

SciTech Connect

Concern about rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the earth`s atmosphere has led to calls for the United States and other countries to reduce carbon emissions. These concerns resulted in the signing of the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The Framework calls for nations to develop action plans for limiting emissions of carbon and other greenhouse gases. In December 1992, in accordance with the Framework, the US Government released for public comment its National Action Plan for Global Climate Change (US Department of State, 1992). The Action Plan detailed steps for reducing carbon emissions by 93 to 130 million metric tons (MMT) by 2000. Some of the steps included in the Action Plan were reforming regulations, setting energy standards, promoting research and development of new energy technologies, expanding the use of alternative-fueled vehicles, and planting trees to sequester carbon. This paper explores the economic implications of implementing a much larger tree-planting program than the one presented in the Action Plan. Whereas the Action Plan estimated that 5 to 9 MMT of carbon (MMTC) could be sequestered in 2000 (with perhaps threefold increases in sequestration in later years when trees are growing the fastest), the program being considered in this analysis annually sequesters as much as 231 MMTC during its peak years. Our analysis focuses on how much the costs of stabilizing US carbon emissions at 1990 levels are reduced when economic criteria alone determine the number of trees that will be used. Our results show that when the focus is shifted from stabilization of gross emissions to net emissions the cost reductions are dramatic, about 20 to 80 percent depending on the assumed cost of trees. Political and institutional obstacles to the formation of such a cost effective response are explored in the conclusions.

Richards, K.R.; Edmonds, J.A.; Rosenthal, D.H.; Wise, M.

1993-06-01

98

International Trade in Carbon Emission Rights and Basic Materials: General Equilibrium Calculations for 2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions affect international trade and the pattern of comparative advantage. This paper, based on calculations with a static general equilibrium model, suggests that international trade in carbon rights is a substitute for trade in energy-intensive goods, and thus international trading in carbon rights reduces sectoral effects of emission reductions. In our model, we surprisingly find that

Carlo Perroni; Thomas F Rutherford

1993-01-01

99

Thermal infrared emission spectroscopy of anhydrous carbonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to present the thermal emission spectra of various anhydrous, calcite- and dolomite-series carbonate minerals to illustrate the effect of the structural cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+) on shifting the positions of the carbonate absorption bands. All of the carbonate mineral emission spectra included in this study exhibit three absorption features related to three specific vibrational modes of the carbonate anion (CO2-3). These anion vibrations include the out-of-plane bend, the asymmetric stretch, and the in-plane bend (i.e., the ?2,?3, and ?4 modes, respectively). The positions of the absorption-band emissivity minima are unique for each carbonate chemistry and are thus diagnostic of mineralogy. The average ?2, ?3, and ?4 wavenumber positions for the various carbonate minerals are as follows: calcite (CaCO3) 883, 1523, and 712cm-1 magnesite (MgCO3) 901, 1572, and 748cm-1 siderite (FeCO3) 876, 1523, and 736cm-1 rhodochrosite (MnCO3) 901, 1572, and 748cm-1 siderite (FeCO3) 876, 1523, and 736cm-1 rhodochrosite (MnCO3) 877, 1535, and 726cm-1 smithsonite (ZnCO3) 882, 1509, and 742cm-1 dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) 894, 1547, and 728cm-1 and kutnahorite (CaMn(CO3)2) 882, 1526, and 716cm-1. Carbonates as a general mineral class crystallize in a variety of geological environments; however, each specific carbonate mineralogy typically is limited to a narrow range of geologic settings in which it forms. Thermal infrared emission data to be received from the Mars Global Surveyor thermal emission spectrometer will contain the spectral signature of carbonates if they are present above the detectibility limit on the surface of Mars. This study presents the spectral information necessary to recognize carbonate as a mineral class as well as identify the specific type of carbonate from thermal emissivity data. Knowledge of distinct carbonate mineralogy will be useful for interpreting the environmental conditions that were present on Mars during the carbonate formation. The result of this study is that the major carbonate mineral species (calcite, dolomite, magnesite, siderite, and smithsonite) can be identified from thermal infrared emission data, provided moderate (10cm-1) spectral sampling. Because of the similarity of absorption band positions between kutnahorite and calcite, high (2cm-1) spectral sampling is required to distinguish kutnahorite. Moderate spectral sampling data are also sufficient to determine the amount of Mg and Fe in Mg-Fe solid solution minerals to within 3-5% of the cation abundance.

Lane, Melissa D.; Christensen, Phillip R.

1997-11-01

100

Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.  

PubMed

The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear. PMID:21081702

Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

2010-11-16

101

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia  

SciTech Connect

In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine.

Kostalova, M. [Office of International Economic Corp., Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Suk, J. [Inst. for Forecasting, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Kolar, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-12-01

102

Model protocells photochemically reduce carbonate to organic carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic cell-sized organic microstructures effect the long-wavelength UV photosynthesis of organic products from carbonate. Formaldehyde is the most abundant photoproduct and water is the major proton donor for this reduced form of carbon. The apparent quantum yield is ~10-5 carbon atoms per incident UV 254-nm photon. We show here that these results for model phase-bounded systems are consistent with the

Clair Folsome; Andrew Brittain

1981-01-01

103

Electron field emission of carbon nanotubes on carbon felt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized directly onto carbon felt have been\\u000a investigated as electron field emission electrodes. This CNT\\/felt\\u000a composite was prepared using the decomposition of methanol on metal\\u000a catalyst supported on carbon felt. High-resolution transmission electron\\u000a microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize\\u000a the microstructure of the films. Electron field emission was observed at\\u000a macroscopic field as low

J. Mauricio Rosolen; C. H. Patrick Poa; Simone Tronto; Marcel S. Marchesin; S. Ravi P. Silva

2006-01-01

104

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic expansion and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both a short-term energy intensity

Nan Zhou; David Fridley; Michael McNeil; Nina Zheng; Jing Ke; Mark Levine

2011-01-01

105

Integrated assessment modeling of energy consumption behavior and carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes elements of an integrated modeling approach to human behavior and energy consumption. Developing a sustainable society is a key aspect of international security, and understanding the areas where consumption and carbon emissions can be reduced is essential. We employ statistical analysis of residential energy consumption in the US and other countries to describe the underlying patterns of

Thomas F. Sanquist; Bin Shui; Heather Orr

2010-01-01

106

Carbon dioxide emission from european estuaries  

PubMed

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface waters and related atmospheric exchanges were measured in nine European estuaries. Averaged fluxes over the entire estuaries are usually in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 mole of CO2 per square meter per day. For wide estuaries, net daily fluxes to the atmosphere amount to several hundred tons of carbon (up to 790 tons of carbon per day in the Scheldt estuary). European estuaries emit between 30 and 60 million tons of carbon per year to the atmosphere, representing 5 to 10% of present anthropogenic CO2 emissions for Western Europe. PMID:9774261

Frankignoulle; Abril; Borges; Bourge; Canon; Delille; Libert; Theate

1998-10-16

107

Allowable carbon emissions lowered by multiple climate targets.  

PubMed

Climate targets are designed to inform policies that would limit the magnitude and impacts of climate change caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other substances. The target that is currently recognized by most world governments places a limit of two degrees Celsius on the global mean warming since preindustrial times. This would require large sustained reductions in carbon dioxide emissions during the twenty-first century and beyond. Such a global temperature target, however, is not sufficient to control many other quantities, such as transient sea level rise, ocean acidification and net primary production on land. Here, using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC) in an observation-informed Bayesian approach, we show that allowable carbon emissions are substantially reduced when multiple climate targets are set. We take into account uncertainties in physical and carbon cycle model parameters, radiative efficiencies, climate sensitivity and carbon cycle feedbacks along with a large set of observational constraints. Within this framework, we explore a broad range of economically feasible greenhouse gas scenarios from the integrated assessment community to determine the likelihood of meeting a combination of specific global and regional targets under various assumptions. For any given likelihood of meeting a set of such targets, the allowable cumulative emissions are greatly reduced from those inferred from the temperature target alone. Therefore, temperature targets alone are unable to comprehensively limit the risks from anthropogenic emissions. PMID:23823728

Steinacher, Marco; Joos, Fortunat; Stocker, Thomas F

2013-07-03

108

Economic analysis of global energy and carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use represent a threat to the global climate system. The issue can be examined as a global commons problem. A long-term, global, energy model is constructed, a base-case energy-use path is developed, and various carbon-limiting policy scenarios are examined. It is found that the United States acting alone can have little effect on global emissions. It is also found that the marginal cost of reducing carbon emissions (in terms of lost GNP) rises as greater reductions are required. However, the marginal cost of reductions is relatively small over most ranges. It is concluded that a major obstacle to any action is the public-goods nature of the problem in the absence of a central global authority with the power to make effective policy.

Reilly, J.M.

1983-01-01

109

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.  

PubMed

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. PMID:19368159

Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

2009-03-15

110

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options  

SciTech Connect

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson [University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Ecosystem Science and Sustainability Initiative

2009-03-15

111

Field emission of doped carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculated field-emission currents from nitrogen- and boron-doped single-walled (5,5) carbon nanotubes by integrating time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Nitrogen doping increased the emission current owing to a shift in the energy level of a localized state to the Fermi level, and the creation of coupled states that have characteristics of both localized and extended states. On the other hand, boron doping

Hyo-Shin Ahn; Kwang-Ryeol Lee; Doh-Yeon Kim; Seungwu Han

2006-01-01

112

Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

2001-12-31

113

Carbon emission trading and carbon taxes under uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of market-based carbon emission trading and carbon taxes is gaining in popularity as a global climate change policy\\u000a instrument. However, these mechanisms might not necessarily have a positive outcome unless their value reflects socioeconomic\\u000a and environmental impacts and regulations. Moreover, the fact that they have various inherent exogenous and endogenous uncertainties\\u000a raises serious concerns about their ability to

Tatiana Ermolieva; Yuri Ermoliev; Günther Fischer; Matthias Jonas; Marek Makowski; Fabian Wagner

2010-01-01

114

Carbon emission trading and carbon taxes under uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The idea of market-based carbon emission trading and carbon taxes is gaining in popularity as a global climate change policy\\u000a instrument. However, these mechanisms might not necessarily have a positive outcome unless their value reflects socioeconomic\\u000a and environmental impacts and regulations. Moreover, the fact that they have various inherent exogenous and endogenous uncertainties\\u000a raises serious concerns about their ability to

Tatiana Ermolieva; Yuri Ermoliev; Günther Fischer; Matthias Jonas; Marek Makowski; Fabian Wagner

115

ECOISLAND: A System for Persuading Users to Reduce CO2 Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant portion of the carbon dioxide emissions that have been shown to cause global warming are due to household energy consumption and traffic. EcoIsland is a computer system aimed at persuading and assisting individual families in changing their lifestyle patterns in a way that reduces CO2 emissions. The system builds on our earlier work on persuasive ubiquitous computing applications

Chihiro Takayama; Vili Lehdonvirta; M. Shiraishi; Y. Washio; H. Kimura; T. Nakajima

2009-01-01

116

On-site denitrification beds could reduce indirect greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural drainage waters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate (NO3-) laden agricultural drainage waters are non-point sources of indirect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which represent a significant fraction of total N2O emissions in the USA. On-site denitrification beds filled with woodchips were used to reduce NO3- under carbon rich anaerobic conditi...

117

Synthesis and field emission properties of carbon nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation focuses on developing carbon nanostructures for application as the electron emissive material in novel back-gated triode field emission devices. The synthesis, characterization, and field emission properties of carbon nanostructures, including 1-D carbon nanofibers (CNF), 2-D carbon nanosheets (CNS), and chromium oxide coated carbon nanosheets (CrOx-CNS), are presented in this work. First, we have fabricated aligned carbon nanofiber based

Kun Hou

2008-01-01

118

Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions  

PubMed Central

Substantial changes in population size, age structure, and urbanization are expected in many parts of the world this century. Although such changes can affect energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenario analyses have either left them out or treated them in a fragmentary or overly simplified manner. We carry out a comprehensive assessment of the implications of demographic change for global emissions of carbon dioxide. Using an energy–economic growth model that accounts for a range of demographic dynamics, we show that slowing population growth could provide 16–29% of the emissions reductions suggested to be necessary by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change. We also find that aging and urbanization can substantially influence emissions in particular world regions.

O'Neill, Brian C.; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina; Jiang, Leiwen; Pachauri, Shonali; Zigova, Katarina

2010-01-01

119

Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits. PMID:22784534

O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

2012-07-10

120

Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.  

PubMed

Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions associated with their mothers were primarily attributed to milk rather than meat production. For the Holstein system, the feedlot phase was responsible for 91% of the total GHG emission, while the calf-ranch phase was responsible for 7% with the remaining 2% from transportation. This simulation study provides baseline emissions data for California beef production systems and indicates where mitigation strategies can be most effective in reducing emissions. PMID:22952361

Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

2012-09-05

121

Reduced emissions and fuel consumption in automobile engines  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the underlying processes which cause pollutant emissions and explores possibilities for their reduction. Topics include: causes of pollutants and their toxicity; design features which influence pollutant emissions and fuel consumption; engine-related measures which reduce pollutant emissions; exhaust after treatment methods; the influence of fuel and lubricants on emissions and fuel consumption; problems with CO{sub 2} emissions; and laws regulating the emissions of pollutants and maximum fuel consumption of combustion engines (United States, Europe, and Japan).

Schaefer, F.S.; Basshuysen, R. van

1995-12-31

122

The Emission Spectrum of Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission spectrum of carbon dioxide has been studied by the electron beam excitation method used by Smyth and Arnott. The whole range of the spectrum from 6500 to 1400 has been examined and only the bands reported by Fox, Duffendack and Barker in the region from 2700 to 5000 have been observed. A particular effort was made to get

H. D. Smyth

1931-01-01

123

Uncertainty in Carbon Emissions, 1975-2075.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the results of work with the IEA/ORAU Long-Term Global Energy-CO sub 2 model to analyze model predictions of future global carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and the uncertainty surrounding such forecasts. The methodology utilized...

J. Edmonds J. Reilly R. Gardner A. Brenkert

1985-01-01

124

Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants  

SciTech Connect

The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

1999-03-01

125

Thermal Emission of Suspended Carbon Nanotube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the thermal emission spectra of individual suspended carbon nanotube induced by electrical heating. Semiconducting and metallic devices exhibit different spectra, based on their distinctive bandstructures. These spectra are compared with the ideal blackbody emission spectrum. In the response region of our detector, i.e. visible to near infrared, the thermal emission spectra of semiconducting devices agree well with Planck's law, while the spectra of metallic devices show an additional peak around 1.65 eV. For semiconducting devices, the temperature of the nanotube was fitted to Planck's law, and was compared with the temperature fitted from the G band downshift as well as the Stokes:anti-Stokes intensity ratio. For devices showing thermal non-equilibrium, the electron temperature agrees well with G+ downshift, but deviates from G- downshift. Finally, for metallic devices, partially polarized IR emission was observed, and possible mechanisms are discussed.

Liu, Zuwei; Bushmaker, Adam; Aykol, Mehmet; Cronin, Steve

2011-03-01

126

A Healthy Reduction in Oil Dependence and Carbon Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Societal dependence on oil as an energy source for personal transportation leads to increasingly negative social consequences including climate change, air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Our heavy reliance on the automobile for transportation, determined in part by urban sprawl, also contributes to the population's increasingly sedentary lifestyle and to a concomitant degradation in health. We have shown that widespread substitution of exercise, commensurate with previously recommended levels, through biking or walking instead of driving can substantially reduce oil consumption and carbon emissions. For example, if all individuals between the ages of 10 and 64 substituted one hour of cycling for driving the reduction in gasoline demand would be equivalent to the gas produced from 34.9 percent of current oil consumption. Relative to 1990 net US emissions, this constitutes a 10.9 percent reduction in carbon emissions. Therefore, substitution of exercise for driving could improve health, reduce carbon emissions and save more oil than even upper estimates of that contained in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

Higgins, P. A.; Higgins, M.

2003-12-01

127

Evaluating Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emission from Alternative Inter-regional High Speed Passenger Transport Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from transport activities from long-distance and high- demand sections is recognized especially in developed countries. This study aims to compare CO2 emission from Shinkansen high speed railway with emissions from air transport by employing LCA method. Here it is assumed that only existing airports are used for air transport but Shinkansen is

Naoki SHIBAHARA; Hirokazu KATO; Yoshitsugu HAYASHI

128

Marine Technologies for Reduced Emissions1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The exhaust emissions from ships are best controlled through optimisation of ship design and operation, in other words by consideration of the ship as part of a whole transportation system. This paper reviews several aspects of ship design and operation which influence the level of exhaust emissions from ships. The paper also outlines the various technologies available, being developed

Heinrich Schmid; German Weisser

129

Wildlife conservation and reduced emissions from deforestation in a case study of Nantu National Park, Sulawesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions on how to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation have prompted scrutiny of methods for measuring rates of forest loss, as well as discussion of the role of protected area (PA) status in reducing tropical deforestation. This study employs a range of techniques including GIS analyses and local stakeholder interviews to examine the effectiveness of three comparable PAs

Ewan A. Macdonald; Murray Collins; Paul J. Johnson; Lynn M. Clayton; Yadvinder Malhi; Joshua B. Fisher; E. J. Milner-Gulland; David W. Macdonald

2011-01-01

130

Autothermal catalytic pyrolysis of methane as a new route to hydrogen production with reduced CO 2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production plants are among major sources of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to explore new routes to hydrogen production from natural gas (or methane) with drastically reduced CO2 emissions. One approach analyzed in this paper is based on thermocatalytic decomposition (or pyrolysis) of methane into hydrogen gas and elemental carbon over carbon-based catalysts.

Nazim Muradov; Franklyn Smith; Cunping Huang; Ali T-Raissi

2006-01-01

131

Policy Planning to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preceded by the State Workbook: Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this document by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves to guide states in "identifying and evaluating options to mitigate emissions" affecting global climate change. Each of the report's three parts details climate change and policy options. Part one discusses the Initiation of Climate Change Programs. Part two describes sources of emissions and potential policy options. Part three completes the report by offering "guidance in preparing the State Action Plan." Appendices supply a glossary, references, state plans, and a specific example reduction plan.

Agency., United S.

1998-01-01

132

Reduced Future Precipitation Makes Permanence of Amazonian Carbon Sinks Questionable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropical forests of the Amazon, considered as a tipping element in Earth's climate system, provide several ecosystem services including the maintenance of favourable regional climatic conditions in the region and storage of large amounts of carbon in their above- and below-ground pools. While it is nearly impossible, at present, to put a dollar value on these ecosystem services, the developed countries have started paying large sums of money to developing countries in the tropics to reduce deforestation. Norway recently committed up to $1 billion to the Amazon fund. The United Nations' Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) program also financially supports national activities of 13 countries worldwide. The primary assumption inherent in paying for avoiding deforestation is that avoided land use change emissions contribute towards climate change mitigation. In addition, the standing forests that are spared deforestation contribute towards additional carbon sinks associated with the CO2 fertilization effect. Implicit in this reasoning is the understanding that the carbon sinks provided by avoided deforestation have some "permanence" associated with them, at least in the order of 50-100 years. Clearly, if "avoided deforestation" is essentially "delayed deforestation" then the benefits will not be long lasting. More importantly, changes in climate have the potential to adversely affect the permanence of carbon sinks, whether they are being paid for or not. This presentation will address the question of "permanence" by analyzing simulations of the second generation Canadian Earth system model (CanESM2) that are contributing results to the upcoming fifth Coupled Modeled Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). CanESM2 results for the future RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios show, that due to reduced future precipitation, the Amazonian region remains a net source of carbon over the 21st century in all scenarios. The carbon losses during the recent 2005 and 2010 droughts in the Amazonian region nearly wiped away the gains made during a decade indicating that the era of intact Amazonian forests acting as carbon sinks may be over. CanESM2 simulations imply that the future of the Amazonian region may look more like these drought years, suggesting that the future reduced precipitation over the region can indeed "tip over" the Amazonian forests.

Arora, V.

2011-12-01

133

Opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from households in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to mitigate climate threats should not exclude the household as the household is a major driver of greenhouse gas\\u000a (GHG) emissions through its consumption patterns. This paper derives an emission index that could be used to estimate inventories\\u000a of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from kerosene combustion for lighting in Nigeria and also looks at the implications of solar pv

O. Adeoti; S. O. Osho

2012-01-01

134

Field emission based sensors using carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of sensitive applications would be greatly benefited by the development of better cold cathodes that employ the electron field emission process. Among the many kinds of field emitters that could be tried, carbon nanotubes (CNT) have a number of distinct advantages because of their unique geometrical structure, chemical inertness, mechanical stiffness, and high thermal and electrical conductivities. This dissertation describes research in which CNT cathodes were fabricated and their emission characteristics were measured. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on various substrates: Ni and Hastelloy gauze, 304 stainless steel (SS) plates, and Ni-coated Si wafers. Either C2H2/Ar (or N2) source gases were used in a temperature range from 650--780°C. Nanotubes were produced with diameters that varied from 20nm to 300 nm, depending on the substrate and temperature. Structures of these nanotubes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Raman scattering. Field emission performance for samples of carbon nanotubes deposited on the various substrates was intensively investigated. Nanotubes grown on the Ni substrates were found to have turn-on fields of 1.0--2.0 V/mum, the lowest obtained. The emission from all individual samples was reproducible within 3% among operation cycles. Variations of less than 7% among different batches were found for MWNT grown on SS substrates. MWNT on the gauze substrates were very stable emitters up to a pressure of 10-6 Torr in air. Our experiments revealed that there exist absorption dominated, intermediate, and intrinsic emission regimes caused by three different gas-surface reaction processes. Operation of CNT emitters in a hydrogen atmosphere was found to improve emission stability. Tube deformation, elastic or plastic, was found to occur for high electric fields. Emission performance was also characterized by surface emission mapping and by emission pattern imaging. Experiments suggest that the emission current from a single carbon nanotube could be greater than 20 muA for the sample grown on the Hastelloy substrate and ˜4 muA for tubes grown on SS. With the help of computer simulation, an optimum design for an ion gauge with a CNT electron source was developed. This gauge was built and its operation was investigated. A total emission current of 64 muA was obtained for a CNT cathode on Ni substrate at an acceleration gate voltage of 310 V. Electron transmission through the gate grid was found to be 70--75%, only ˜10% lower than the gate transparency. This ion gauge had excellent linearity from 10-6 to 10-10 Torr, with gauge sensitivity between 2 and 2.5/Torr for nitrogen. This gauge will find application in ultra-high vacuum and extreme-high vacuum (UHV/XHV) applications.

Dong, Changkun

135

Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.

Poola, R.B.; Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baudino, J.H. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Colucci, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

136

Carbon emission targets for driving sustainable mobility with US light-duty vehicles.  

PubMed

Models and frameworks to guide "sustainable mobility" of personal transportation lack definitive quantitative targets. This paper defines sustainable mobility targets for US light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to help stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at 450 or 550 ppm. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change carbon stabilization pathways are used to equitably distribute future carbon dioxide emissions to the US. Allowable US emissions are then allocated to the LDV sector according to the current share of national emissions. Average on-road LDV well-to-wheel carbon emissions must be reduced from 160 g/mile (2002) to 20 g/mile by 2050 to contribute to a 450 ppm CO2 goal. Strategies to reduce LDV greenhouse gas emissions include reducing travel demand, improving average fuel economy, and utilizing low-carbon ethanol. Simulations using EIA modeling parameters indicate that average LDV fuel economy must reach 136 mpg, cellulosic ethanol must make up over 83% of fuel market share, or annual LDV travel demand must be reduced by about 53% by 2050 to help meet LDV greenhouse gas targets based on a 450 ppm CO2 stabilization goal. Recent federal energy security policy and plug-in hybrid technology programs may also help meet LDV carbon emission targets in the short term by reducing gasoline use, but an aggressive combination of strategies will be needed to keep vehicle CO2 in line with an emissions target to 2050. PMID:19244987

Grimes-Casey, Hilary G; Keoleian, Gregory A; Willcox, Blair

2009-02-01

137

Using advanced technologies to reduce motor vehicle greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the potential reduction in US greenhouse gas emissions that could be achieved by using advanced-technology motor vehicles and low-emission bio-fuels. These two approaches are compared to a variety of other approaches to reduce transportation sector emissions. It is concluded that only strong fiscal measures can produce emission reductions as large as are available from advanced-technology vehicles and

Carmen Difiglio

1997-01-01

138

Motorola's strategy for reducing PFC emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

PFCs are used in the semiconductor industry for plasma etching and chamber cleaning. The Kyoto Protocol, the DuPont policy, and the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that many semiconductor manufacturers signed with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are driving forces behind the reduction of PFC emissions. The Kyoto Protocol includes perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the

Laurie Beu; Paul Thomas Brown

1998-01-01

139

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is rapidly becoming known as a tangible issue that must be addressed to avoid major environmental consequences in the future. Recent change in public opinion has been caused by the physical signs of climate change-melting glaciers, rising sea levels, more severe storm and drought events, and hotter average global temperatures annually. Transportation is a major contributor of carbon

Susan Shaheen; Timothy Lipman

2007-01-01

140

MODELING MODELING MODELING MODELING CARBON CARBON CARBON CARBON DIOXIDE DIOXIDE DIOXIDE DIOXIDE EMISSIONS EMISSIONS EMISSIONS EMISSIONS WITH WITH WITH WITHA A A A SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM OF OF OF OF DIFFENTIAL DIFFENTIAL DIFFENTIAL DIFFENTIAL EQUATIONS EQUATIONS EQUATIONS EQUATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT The object of the present study is to model carbon dioxide emissions data with a system of differential equations. Carbon dioxide emissions, CO2, are one of the key attributable variables in GLOBAL WARMING along with atmospheric temperature. We develop a differential equation for each of six attributable variables that constitute CO2 emissions and a differential system of

Chris P. Tsokos

141

Reducing Crude Protein in Beef Cattle Diet Reduces Ammonia Emissions from Artificial Feedyard Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated animal feeding operations are major sources of ammonia to the atmosphere. Control methods to reduce emissions include acidifying amendments, urease inhibitors, and absorbents. For beef cattle, decreasing crude protein (CP) in diets may be the most practical and cost-effective method to reduce ammonia emissions. Our objective was to quantify the effect of reducing CP in beef cattle diet on

Richard W. Todd; N. Andy Cole; R. Nolan Clark

2006-01-01

142

Wood-based building materials and atmospheric carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the global impact of wood as a building material by considering emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Wood is compared with other materials in terms of stored carbon and emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel energy used in manufacturing. An analysis of typical forms of building construction shows that wood buildings require much lower process

Andrew H Buchanan; S. Bry Levine

1999-01-01

143

Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

144

Light absorbing carbon emissions from commercial shipping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive measurements of the emission of light absorbing carbon aerosol (LAC) from commercial shipping are presented. Vessel emissions were sampled using a photoacoustic spectrometer in the Gulf of Mexico region. The highest emitters (per unit fuel burnt) are tug boats, thus making significant contributions to local air quality in ports. Emission of LAC from cargo and non cargo vessels in this study appears to be independent of engine load. Shipping fuel consumption data (2001) was used to calculate a global LAC contribution of 133(+/-27) Ggyr-1, or ~1.7% of global LAC. This small fraction could have disproportionate effects on both air quality near port areas and climate in the Arctic if direct emissions of LAC occur in that region due to opening Arctic sea routes. The global contribution of this LAC burden was investigated using the MOZART model. Increases of 20-50 ng m-3 LAC (relative increases up to 40%) due to shipping occur in the tropical Atlantic, Indonesia, central America and the southern regions of South America and Africa.

Lack, Daniel; Lerner, Brian; Granier, Claire; Baynard, Tahllee; Lovejoy, Edward; Massoli, Paola; Ravishankara, A. R.; Williams, Eric

2008-07-01

145

Field emission of aligned grown carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tungsten carbide/cobalt hard metals were coated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) using microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition (MWCVD). The aspect ratio of the tubes and their packing density were changed by the deposition conditions and by wet-chemical pre-treatments of the substrate surfaces. The influence of the morphology of the nanotube layers on the electron field emission was investigated. The best layers yielded field enhancement factors of 1500 - 2000 and current densities up to 0.1 A/cm2.

Bartsch, Karl; Leonhardt, A.

2003-10-01

146

Correlation between calcium carbonate content and emission characteristics of incense.  

PubMed

In Taiwan and China, calcium carbonate is commonly added as a filler during incense production to lower the cost. This study has found an unexpected benefit for this practice: it reduces particulate emission. Nine types of the popular incense on the local market were chosen for this study. The calcium content in raw material incense was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The correlation between the calcium content and emission characteristics of incense was investigated. The calcium content varied from 1.8 to 60 mg/g (incense burned) among those nine different types of incense. Very little calcium (< 1%) was found in natural wood or plants, which is mainly the raw material of incense. Instead, most calcium was artificially added in the form of CaCO3 during manufacturing. The combustion characteristics, including burning rate, emission factors of particulate, ash, and solid-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (S-PAHs), varied significantly among the nine types of incense. Incense containing 2% calcium would emit 30% less S-PAHs, compared with those with little (< 0.2%) calcium. More importantly, increasing the calcium content from 0.5 to 5% by adding CaCO3 reduced the particulate emission from incense by approximately 50%. PMID:17195491

Yang, Chi-Ru; Lin, Ta-Chang; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

2006-12-01

147

Black carbon emissions in China from 1949 to 2050.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC) emissions from China are of global concern. A new BC emission inventory (PKU-BC(China)) has been developed with the following improvements: (1) The emission factor database was updated; (2) a 0.1° × 0.1° gridded map was produced for 2007 based on county-level proxies; (3) time trends were derived for 1949-2007 and predicted for 2008-2050; and (4) the uncertainties associated with the inventory were quantified. It was estimated that 1957 Gg of BC were emitted in China in 2007, which is greater than previously reported. Residential coal combustion was the largest source, followed by residential biofuel burning, coke production, diesel vehicles, and brick kilns. By using a county-level disaggregation method, spatial bias in province-level disaggregation, mainly due to uneven per capita emissions within provinces, was reduced by 42.5%. Emissions increased steadily since 1949 until leveling off in the mid-1990s, due to a series of technological advances and to socioeconomic progress. BC emissions in China in 2050 are predicted to be 920-2183 Gg/yr under various scenarios; and the industrial and transportation sectors stand to benefit the most from technological improvements. PMID:22730898

Wang, Rong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Wentao; Liu, Junfeng; Shen, Huizhong; Shen, Guofeng; Wang, Bin; Liu, Xiaopeng; Li, Wei; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Lu, Yan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Chen; Zhu, Dan; Wang, Xilong; Li, Bengang; Liu, Wenxin; Ma, Jianmin

2012-07-05

148

The Effect of Emissions Trading And Carbon Sequestration on The Cost Of CO2 Emissions Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The deployment of carbon capture and sequestration (CC&S) technologies is greatly affected by the marginal cost of controlling carbon emissions (also the value of carbon, when emissions permits are traded). Emissions limits that are more stringent in the near term imply higher near-term carbon values and therefore encourage the local development and deployment of CC&S technologies. In addition, trade in emissions obligations lowers the cost of meeting any regional or global emissions limit and so affects the rate of penetration of CC&S technologies. We examine the effects of the availability of sequestration opportunities and emissions trading (either within select regions or globally) on the cost of emissions mitigation and compliance with different emissions reduction targets for the IPCC SRES scenarios. For each base scenario and emissions target, we examine the issues outlined above and present quantitative estimates for the impacts of trade and the availability of sequestration opportunities in meeting emissions limitation obligations.

Mahasenan, Natesan; Scott, Michael J.; Smith, Steven J.

2002-08-05

149

Infrared spectra of carbon stars with silicate-like emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared photometry was carried out for 15 carbon stars, including three peculiar carbon stars (BM Gem, V778 Cyg, and EU And) which have a 10-micron emission feature similar to the silicate emission characteristic of oxygen-rich stars. It was found that these carbon stars with silicatelike emission have excesses at both the 12- and 25-micron bands regarding IRAS photometric data which

Kunio Noguchi; Hiroshi Murakami; Hiroshi Matsuo; Manabu Noda; Hiroyuki Hamada; Toyoki Watabe

1990-01-01

150

Are Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rising More Rapidly Than Expected.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At least one recent report and numerous news articles suggest that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are rising more rapidly than expected. This contention is often made by comparing recent emissions estimates with the greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios publishe...

J. Logan J. A. Leggett

2008-01-01

151

Carbon nanotubes and their potential field emission applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nano-tubes are alternatives to conventional metal\\/silicon tips for field emission sources. They exhibit extraordinary field emission properties because of their high electrical conductivity, their high aspect ratio \\

William I. Milne; Ken B. K. Teo; N. L. Rupesinghe; L. Gangloff; E. Minoux; J.-P. Schnell; Dominique Dieumegard; F. Peauger; Pierre Legagneux; David G. Hasko; Gehan A. J. Amaratunga; Didier Pribat

2005-01-01

152

Equity and carbon emissions trading: a model analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon emissions trading is a key instrument of climate policy. It helps to bring about emission reductions in that place where they are least costly. However, fair burden sharing is about more than just cost-efficiency. While focussing on the instrument of emissions trading, this paper touches upon equity issues that frame decisions on emission rights allocation. The analysis is based

Marian Leimbach

2003-01-01

153

Net carbon flux from agriculture: Carbon emissions, carbon sequestration, crop yield, and land-use change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a potential to sequester carbon in soil by changing agricultural management practices. These changes in agricultural management can also result in changes in fossil-fuel use, agricultural inputs, and the carbon emissions associated with fossil fuels and other inputs. Management practices that alter crop yields and land productivity can affect the amount of land used for crop production with

Tristram O. West; Gregg Marland

2003-01-01

154

Laser-induced light emission from carbon nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Strong absorption of light in a broad wavelength range and poor thermal conductance between particles of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, onions, nanodiamond, and carbon black, lead to strong thermal emission (blackbody radiation) upon laser excitation, even at a very low (milliwatts) power. The lasers commonly used during Raman spectroscopy characterization of carbon can cause sample heating to very high temperatures. While conventional thermometry is difficult in the case of nanomaterials, Raman spectral features, such as the G band of graphitic carbon and thermal emission spectra were used to estimate the temperature during light emission that led to extensive graphitization and evaporation of carbon nanomaterials, indicating local temperatures exceeding 3500 deg. C.

Osswald, S.; Behler, K.; Gogotsi, Y. [Materials Science and Engineering Department and A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2008-10-01

155

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Breon, F.-M. [CEA/DSM/LSCE, Gif sur Yvette, France; Ciais, P. [LSCE/CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Davis, S. [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Erickson, D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gregg, J. S. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Marland, Gregg [Appalachian State University; Miller, J. [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Oda, T [NOAA ESRL/Boulder, CO/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State Univ.; Oliver, J. G. J. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Raupach, Michael [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Rayner, P [University of Melbourne, Australia; Treanton, K. [Energy Statistics Division, International Energy Agency, Paris, France

2012-01-01

156

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-11-10

157

REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM THE WOOD FURNITURE INDUSTRY WITH WATERBORNE COATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

This program was initiated to develop meaningful, defensible, and reliable data on emission reduction benefits from the use of reduced hydrocarbon finishes. The program also included assessing add-on emission control options and considering installation aspects such as costs. Thi...

158

Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brazilian government has announced volunteer targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the 2009 COP meeting in Copenhagen. In this paper we estimate the economic impacts from alternative policies to achieve such targets, including actions to cut emissions from deforestation and agricultural production. We employ a dynamic-recursive general equilibrium model of the world economy. The main results show

Angelo Costa Gurgel

2012-01-01

159

OPTIONS FOR REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characteriz...

160

Field emission from atomically thin edges of reduced graphene oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Point sources show the best electron emission properties due to local field enhancement at the tip. A drawback of tip emitters is that they must be positioned sufficiently apart to achieve field enhancement, limiting the number of emission sites and therefore the overall current. In contrast, we report ultra-low threshold voltage emission of multiple electron beams from atomically thin edges of individual reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The emission sites observed by field emission (FEM) and field ion (FIM) microscopies are atomically spaced along the edge. FEM measurements indicate evidence for interference, suggesting that the emitted electron beams are coherent. Based on our spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and theory results, field emission is attributed to the aggregation of oxygen groups in the form of cyclic edge ethers. Such closely spaced electron beams from rGO offer prospects for novel applications and understanding the physics of linear electron sources.

Yamaguchi, Hisato; Murakami, Katsuhisa; Eda, Goki; Fujita, Takeshi; Boisse, Julien; Guan, Pengfei; Wakaya, Fujio; Cho, Kyeongjae; Chabal, Yves; Chen, Mingwei; Takai, Mikio; Chhowalla, Manish

2011-03-01

161

Predicting ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions from carbon and nitrogen biodegradability during animal waste composting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During composting of livestock manure, transformations of organic matter result in gaseous emissions, which can harm the environment. Two experiments were done in enclosures to measure the fluxes of NH 3, N 2O, CO 2, CH 4 and H 2O emitted by 8 heaps of compost representing the range of biodegradability of nitrogen and carbon in the livestock manure. The heaps were monitored for the first 2 months, corresponding to the thermophilic phase during which nearly all-mass losses occur. Four parameters describe the NH 3 emission kinetics and the main influential factors were noted: (1) the response time to reach maximum intensity is affected mainly by the initial micro-flora; (2) the amplitude depends mainly on C biodegradability and also on micro-flora; (3) the emission duration depends mainly on N biodegradability; and (4) the cumulative emission, which varied from 16.5 to 48.9% of the nitrogen initially present in the heap, depends both on C and N biodegradability. A predictive model for NH 3 and CO 2 emissions for the thermophilic phase of the composting of livestock manure is proposed. The variability in cumulative emissions of CO 2 and of NH 3 is well explained by the contents of soluble elements and hemicellulose in the dry matter (Van Soest fractioning), and soluble nitrogen (12 h extraction at 4 °C in water). In our conditions of favourable aeration and humidity, N 2O and CH 4 emissions were low. The role of the biodegradable carbon in reducing NH 3 emission is highlighted.

Paillat, Jean-Marie; Robin, Paul; Hassouna, Mélynda; Leterme, Philippe

162

Using Carbon Emissions Data to "Heat Up" Descriptive Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article illustrates using carbon emissions data in an introductory statistics assignment. The carbon emissions data has desirable characteristics including: choice of measure; skewness; and outliers. These complexities allow research and public policy debate to be introduced. (Contains 4 figures and 2 tables.)|

Brooks, Robert

2012-01-01

163

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative

Susan Solomon; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Reto Knutti; Pierre Friedlingstein

2009-01-01

164

Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuaries are known to be strong source for atmospheric CO2, however, little information is available from Indian estuaries. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge (wet) period. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between ˜300 and 18492 ?atm which are within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G. D.; Prasad, V. R.; Kumar, B. S. K.; Naidu, S. A.; Kumar, N. A.; Rao, D. B.; Sridevi, T.; Krishna, M. S.; Reddy, N. P. C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T. V. R.

2012-02-01

165

Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans act as a net sink for atmospheric CO2, however, the role of coastal bodies on global CO2 fluxes remains unclear due to lack of data. The estimated absorption of CO2 from the continental shelves, with limited data, is 0.22 to 1.0 PgC/y, and of CO2 emission by estuaries to the atmosphere is 0.27 PgC/y. The estimates from the estuaries suffer from large uncertainties due to large variability and lack of systematic data collection. It is especially true for Southeast Asian estuaries as the biogeochemical cycling of material are different due to high atmospheric temperature, seasonality driven by monsoons, seasonal discharge etc. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge wet and dry periods. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between ~300 and 18492 microatm which were within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

Sarma Vedula, VSS

2012-07-01

166

Food management in tourism: Reducing tourism’s carbon ‘foodprint’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food production and consumption have a range of sustainability implications, including their contribution to global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). As some foodstuffs entail higher GHG emissions than others, managing their use in tourism-related contexts could make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation. This article reviews the carbon intensity of selected foods and discusses how foodservice providers could adapt

Stefan Gössling; Brian Garrod; Carlo Aall; John Hille; Paul Peeters

2011-01-01

167

Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries  

SciTech Connect

This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon emissions, population, and grow domestic product have all been growing faster than OECD`s. This presentation has seven major sections: (1) overview of key trends in non-OECD energy use and carbon emissions since 1970; (2) Comparison and contrasting energy use and carbon emissions for five major non OEDC regions (former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, Pacific Rim including China, Latin America, other Asia; Africa; 3-7) presentation of aggregate and sectoral energy use and carbon emissions data for countries within each of the 5 regions.

Not Available

1994-12-01

168

Reducing CO 2 emissions by substituting biomass for fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing fossil fuels with sustainably-produced biomass will reduce the net flow of CO2 to the atmosphere. We express the efficiency of this substitution in reduced emissions per unit of used land or biomass and in costs of the substitution per tonne of C. The substitution costs are calculated as the cost difference between continued use of fossil fuels at current

Leif Gustavsson; Pål Börjesson; Bengt Johansson; Per Svenningsson

1995-01-01

169

Inorganic carbon and emission of ammonia from manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal agriculture, and manure in particular, is a major source of ammonia emissions, and numerous models have been developed for predicting ammonia emission from manure. However, even the most comprehensive models are often inaccurate. Ammonia emission is complicated by volatilization of carbon dio...

170

[Measurement model of carbon emission from forest fire: a review].  

PubMed

Forest fire is the main disturbance factor for forest ecosystem, and an important pathway of the decrease of vegetation- and soil carbon storage. Large amount of carbonaceous gases in forest fire can release into atmosphere, giving remarkable impacts on the atmospheric carbon balance and global climate change. To scientifically and effectively measure the carbonaceous gases emission from forest fire is of importance in understanding the significance of forest fire in the carbon balance and climate change. This paper reviewed the research progress in the measurement model of carbon emission from forest fire, which covered three critical issues, i. e., measurement methods of forest fire-induced total carbon emission and carbonaceous gases emission, affecting factors and measurement parameters of measurement model, and cause analysis of the uncertainty in the measurement of the carbon emissions. Three path selections to improve the quantitative measurement of the carbon emissions were proposed, i. e., using high resolution remote sensing data and improving algorithm and estimation accuracy of burned area in combining with effective fuel measurement model to improve the accuracy of the estimated fuel load, using high resolution remote sensing images combined with indoor controlled environment experiments, field measurements, and field ground surveys to determine the combustion efficiency, and combining indoor controlled environment experiments with field air sampling to determine the emission factors and emission ratio. PMID:22919858

Hu, Hai-Qing; Wei, Shu-Jing; Jin, Sen; Sun, Long

2012-05-01

171

Potential impact of (CET) carbon emissions trading on China’s power sector: A perspective from different allowance allocation options  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Copenhagen climate conference China government promised that China would cut down carbon intensity 40–45% from 2005 by 2020. CET (carbon emissions trading) is an effective tool to reduce emissions. But because CET is not fully implemented in China up to now, how to design it and its potential impact are unknown to us. This paper studies the potential impact

Rong-Gang Cong; Yi-Ming Wei

2010-01-01

172

Pathways of human development and carbon emissions embodied in trade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been assumed that human development depends on economic growth, that national economic expansion in turn requires greater energy use and, therefore, increased greenhouse-gas emissions. These interdependences are the topic of current research. Scarcely explored, however, is the impact of international trade: although some nations develop socio-economically and import high-embodied-carbon products, it is likely that carbon-exporting countries gain significantly fewer benefits. Here, we use new consumption-based measures of national carbon emissions to explore how the relationship between human development and carbon changes when we adjust national emission rates for trade. Without such adjustment of emissions, some nations seem to be getting far better development `bang' for the carbon `buck' than others, who are showing scant gains for disproportionate shares of global emissions. Adjusting for the transfer of emissions through trade explains many of these outliers, but shows that further socio-economic benefits are accruing to carbon-importing rather than carbon-exporting countries. We also find that high life expectancies are compatible with low carbon emissions but high incomes are not. Finally, we see that, despite strong international trends, there is no deterministic industrial development trajectory: there is great diversity in pathways, and national histories do not necessarily follow the global trends.

Steinberger, Julia K.; Timmons Roberts, J.; Peters, Glen P.; Baiocchi, Giovanni

2012-02-01

173

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three

C A Smith; A J Simon; R D Belles

2011-01-01

174

Emission Characteristics of NOx and Unburned Carbon in Fly Ash of Sub-bituminous Coal Combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sub-bituminous coal is considered to be one substitute fuel for bituminous coal. Since sub-bituminous coal contains more than 20% moisture, there are some problems with its utilization, such as a decrease in combustibility, high NOx emission and so on. This report describes the emission characteristics of NOx and unburned carbon in fly ash of sub-bituminous coal combustion through the use of a pulverized coal combustion test furnace. On the sub-bituminous coal combustion, ignition at the burner exit worsened and the combustion flame became diffused. Then, both NOx emission and the unburned carbon concentration in fly ash became high. In order to keep stable combustion and to form an effective NOx reduction flame, the swirl vane angle of secondary air was reduced and the Air/Coal ratio was lowered. As a result, the combustion flame became moderate, and both NOx emission and unburned carbon concentration in fly ash could be reduced.

Ikeda, Michitaka; Kozai, Yukitoshi; Makino, Hisao

175

Composting as a Strategy to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composting animal manure has the potential to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from agriculture. Agriculture has been recognized as a major contributor of greenhouse gases, releasing an estimated 81% and 70% of the anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), respectively. A significant amount of methane is emitted during the storage of liquid manure,

John W. Paul; Claudia Wagner-Riddle; Andrew Thompson; Ron Fleming; Malcolm MacAlpine

176

Carbon emissions reduction strategies in Africa from improved waste management: A review  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarises a literature review into waste management practices across Africa as part of a study to assess methods to reduce carbon emissions. Research shows that the average organic content for urban Municipal Solid Waste in Africa is around 56% and its degradation is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper concludes that the most practical and economic way to manage waste in the majority of urban communities in Africa and therefore reduce carbon emissions is to separate waste at collection points to remove dry recyclables by door to door collection, compost the remaining biogenic carbon waste in windrows, using the maturated compost as a substitute fertilizer and dispose the remaining fossil carbon waste in controlled landfills.

Couth, R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

2010-11-15

177

Effect of natural compounds on reducing formaldehyde emission from plywood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of natural compounds on reducing formaldehyde emission from plywood were investigated. Urea, catechin and vanillin were examined as the natural formaldehyde reducers. The microemission cell, with an internal volume of 35 ml, the maximum exposed test surface area of 177 cm 2 and an air purge flow rate of 50 ml min -1, was used to measure specific emission rate (SER). In the case of no reducer treatment, formaldehyde emission from plywood was fast and SERs were 4.4 mg m -2 h -1 at 30 °C and 15 mg m -2 h -1 at 60 °C. When this plywood was treated with the natural compounds, the SERs of formaldehyde were decreased at all temperatures. In the case of urea treatment, the SERs of formaldehyde decreased to 0.30 mg m -2 h -1 at 30 °C and 0.65 mg m -2 h -1 at 60 °C. When the urea treatment was applied to the inside of kitchen cabinet (made from plywood; 270 cm wide, 60 cm deep, 250 cm high), the concentration of formaldehyde was reduced substantially from 1600 to 130 ?g m -3. The reducing effect of formaldehyde continued during the observation period (6 months), with a mean concentration of 100 ?g m -3. Reducers in the plywood would react with released formaldehyde. Application of natural compounds such as urea, catechin and vanillin could provide a simple and effective approach for suppressing formaldehyde emission from plywood.

Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Matsushima, Erica; Kitao, Nahoko; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Ando, Masanori; Otsubo, Yasufumi

178

Unsuccessful Suicide by Carbon Monoxide: A Secondary Benefit of Emissions Control  

PubMed Central

Emission systems and devices are required on automobile engines to reduce air pollution problems. Catalytic converters have been used on most 1975 and newer automobiles to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to a value that meets the Environmental Protection Agency requirements established for 1975 and 1976. The 1980-1981 Boise, Idaho, study shows that with a functioning catalytic converter either unmeasurable or sublethal quantities of CO appear in automobile exhaust. Thus, emissions control has produced a secondary benefit in reducing the number of suicides by CO poisoning from automobile exhaust fumes.

Landers, Dennis

1981-01-01

179

Effects of Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and population growth will make it more challenging for California to attain health-based ambient air quality standards for ozone. This so-called climate change penalty will require even more stringent emission control measures on stationary and mobile sources of air pollution to offset the harmful effects of climate change on ozone air quality. California has set a target to decrease greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2020, and to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. We analyze the potential effects on air quality due to the first (2020) target for greenhouse gas emissions in central California. The anticipated control measures will also affect ozone precursor emissions. We develop a set of air pollution emission scenarios for central California as of 2020, and predict resulting ozone concentrations for each case. We take into account the Draft AB 32 Scoping Document and regional/state level air quality control plans, as well as the effects of population growth and technology change. This allows us to elucidate and quantify the interactions between California's air pollution and greenhouse gas control programs. An important opportunity for synergy between control programs is to place more emphasis on greenhouse gas reductions in the diesel sector, as these engines are now the dominant source of NOx and black carbon emissions in California, as well as contributing significantly to CO2.

Shearer, S. M.; Harley, R.

2008-12-01

180

Research Needs for Finely Resolved Fossil Carbon Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific research on the global carbon cycle has emerged as a high priority in biogeochemistry, climate studies, and global change policy. The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion is a dominant driver of the current net carbon fluxes between the land, the oceans, and the atmosphere, and it is a key contributor to the rise in modern radiative forcing. Contrary to a commonly held perception, our quantitative knowledge about these emissions is insufficient to satisfy current scientific and policy needs. A more highly spatially and temporally resolved quantification of the social and economic drivers of fossil fuel combustion, and the resulting CO2 emissions, is essential to supporting scientific and policy progress. In this article, a new community of emissions researchers called the CO2 Fossil Fuel Emission Effort (CO2FFEE) outlines a research agenda to meet the need for improved fossil fuel CO2 emissions information and solicits comment from the scientific community and research agencies.

Gurney, Kevin; Ansley, William; Mendoza, Daniel; Petron, Gabrielle; Frost, Greg; Gregg, Jay; Fischer, Marc; Pataki, Diane; Ackerman, Kate; Houweling, Sander; Corbin, Kathy; Andres, Robert; Blasing, T. J.

2007-12-01

181

Electron field emission from reduced graphene oxide on polymer film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field emission of reduced graphene oxide coated on polystyrene film is studied in both parallel and perpendicular configurations. Low turn-on field of 0.6 V/?m and high emission current density of 200 mA/cm2 are observed in perpendicular configuration (along the cross section), whereas a turn-on field of 6 V/?m and current density of 20 ?A/cm2 are obtained in parallel configuration (top surface). The emission characteristics follow Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling and the values of enhancement factor estimated from FN plots are 5818 (perpendicular) and 741 (parallel). Furthermore, stability and repeatability of the field emission characteristics in perpendicular configuration are presented.

Sameera, I.; Bhatia, Ravi; Ouyang, Jianyong; Prasad, V.; Menon, R.

2013-01-01

182

The study on the changing characteristics and their countermeasures for China's carbon emissions in 2000-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the quantitative calculation of 2000-2010 China's 30 provinces of carbon emissions by the method of 2006 IPCC with the data from China energy statistical yearbook and China cement Yearbook, a detailed analysis of the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of carbon emissions in both Chinese level and provinces' level was made. The result showed that most of the provinces of China's carbon emissions presented an increasing trend in the past 11 years, especially in Shandong Province, Hebei Province, Shanxi Province, Liaoning Province, Jiangsu province which is located in the national top five. Then according to the current carbon emissions trend, the author put forward some countermeasures for China, such as speeding up the pace of industrial restructuring, searching for clean energy and other measures to reduce the carbon emissions of china to low the emission rate and contribute to the world.

Wang, Qiuxian; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Lu, Qing-shui; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

2013-09-01

183

Calculation of the emission performance of the carbon nanotube array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the excellent field emission performances, the carbon nanotube array has already been used as the cold electron source in the field emission display, the vacuum microwave tube, and the electron microscopy, etc. It is necessary to estimate the emission performance of the carbon nanotube array in the design of these devices. The emission current density of a single carbon nanotube can be estimated with the Fowler-Nordheim formula approximately. Thus, the emission performance of the whole array is obtained by the sum of the current emitted from all carbon nanotubes in the array. However, this calculation is very complex and time consuming due to the large number of carbon nanotubes in the array. This paper proposes a simple model to predict the emission performance of the whole CNT array. The total emission current can be deduced easily with this model if we know the geometrical parameters of the CNT array. A few experiments have been performed to verify this model. With this model, the influences of geometric dimensions of the CNT array on the emission performance are also discussed.

Yuning, Zhang; Wei, Lei; Xiaobing, Zhang; Baoping, Wang

2005-05-01

184

Cumulative emission budgets and their implications: the case for SAFE carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk of dangerous long-term climate change due to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions is predominantly determined by cumulative emissions over all time, not the rate of emission in any given year or commitment period. This has profound implications for climate mitigation policy: emission targets for specific years such as 2020 or 2050 provide no guarantee of meeting any overall cumulative emission budget. By focusing attention on short-term measures to reduce the flow of emissions, they may even exacerbate the overall long-term stock. Here we consider how climate policies might be designed explicitly to limit cumulative emissions to, for example, one trillion tonnes of carbon, a figure that has been estimated to give a most likely warming of two degrees above pre-industrial, with a likely range of 1.6-2.6 degrees. Three approaches are considered: tradable emission permits with the possibility of indefinite emission banking, carbon taxes explicitly linked to cumulative emissions and mandatory carbon sequestration. Framing mitigation policy around cumulative targets alleviates the apparent tension between climate protection and short-term consumption that bedevils any attempt to forge global agreement. We argue that the simplest and hence potentially the most effective approach might be a mandatory requirement on the fossil fuel industry to ensure that a steadily increasing fraction of fossil carbon extracted from the ground is artificially removed from the active carbon cycle through some form of sequestration. We define Sequestered Adequate Fraction of Extracted (SAFE) carbon as a source in which this sequestered fraction is anchored to cumulative emissions, increasing smoothly to reach 100% before we release the trillionth tonne. While adopting the use of SAFE carbon would increase the cost of fossil energy much as a system of emission permits or carbon taxes would, it could do so with much less explicit government intervention. We contrast this proposal with, for example, the WBGU budget approach which also recognises the importance of cumulative emissions, noting their different implications for global equity and development considerations. The implications of cumulative emissions for the issue of historical responsibility for adaptation costs will also be discussed.

Allen, Myles; Bowerman, Niel; Frame, David; Mason, Charles

2010-05-01

185

REDUCED KINETICS AND COUPLING FUNCTIONS FOR CALCULATING CO AND NO EMISSIONS IN GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reduced chemical-kinetic mechanism consisting of two global steps for fuel oxidation and an additional step for NO production is proposed as the minimal chemistry description for calculating CO and NO emissions in gas-turbine combustion. Carbon monoxide is seen to emerge as the main intermediate during the fuel-oxidation process, which takes place in two steps: fast partial hydrocarbon oxidation to

ALAIN LÉPINETTE; AMABLE LIÑÁN; BENIGNO LÁZARO; ANTONIO L. SÁNCHEZ

2005-01-01

186

Potential of Miscanthus grasses to provide energy and hence reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using bio-fuels, such as bio-ethanol or bio-diesel in transportation, or biomass in power generation reduces CO2 emissions as the carbon is fixed by the plants from the atmosphere and saves the equivalent fossil fuel. The perennial rhizomatous\\u000a C4 grass Miscanthus has one of the highest energy intensities per hectare of land in Europe. Here we model the future potential of

Astley Hastings; John Clifton-Brown; Martin Wattenbach; Paul Stampfl; C. Paul Mitchell; Pete Smith

2008-01-01

187

Reducing Dust and Gas Emissions using an Aerodynamic Deduster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust and ammonia are two major air pollutants that are emitted from confinement animal feeding operations (CAFO) as well as odor. Many air-cleaning technologies are available, but most of them are not applicable for CAFO pollutant control not only because they are out of typical CAFO owners' budget, but also because few of them are able to reduce the emission

Yuanhui Zhang

188

Reducing terrestrial greenhouse gas emissions: a human dimensions contribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes achievements from the human dimensions research within New Zealand's 'Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Terrestrial Biosphere' programme, in three parts: (i) regional responses to climate change policy development, (ii) indigenous groups, land use and climate change, and (iii) participation in the Land Use in Rural New Zealand (LURNZ) model development. We then critically review our work,

Fiona E. Carswell; Alison J. Greenaway; Garth R. Harmsworth; Nigel Jollands; W. Troy Baisden

2007-01-01

189

Reducing future CO 2 emissions — The role of nuclear energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made to analyze the potential of reducing CO2 emissions and to identify important energy and technology options in future energy systems of Japan. The energy market optimum allocation model MARKAL was used for the analysis with a time horizon from 1990 to 2050.The analytical procedures were as follows. First, a reference energy system was established by incorporating

O. Sato; K. Tatematsu; T. Hasegawa

1998-01-01

190

REDUCING FUMIGANT EMISSIONS USING SURFACE TARPS: FIELD AND LABORATORY ASSESSMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasingly stringent regulations require that emissions of fumigants to the atmosphere be reduced to protect human and environmental health. Plastic tarps used to cover the soil surface during soil fumigation vary in their effectiveness as diffusion barriers. Virtually impermeable films (VIFs) hav...

191

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01

192

The proportionality of global warming to cumulative carbon emissions.  

PubMed

The global temperature response to increasing atmospheric CO(2) is often quantified by metrics such as equilibrium climate sensitivity and transient climate response. These approaches, however, do not account for carbon cycle feedbacks and therefore do not fully represent the net response of the Earth system to anthropogenic CO(2) emissions. Climate-carbon modelling experiments have shown that: (1) the warming per unit CO(2) emitted does not depend on the background CO(2) concentration; (2) the total allowable emissions for climate stabilization do not depend on the timing of those emissions; and (3) the temperature response to a pulse of CO(2) is approximately constant on timescales of decades to centuries. Here we generalize these results and show that the carbon-climate response (CCR), defined as the ratio of temperature change to cumulative carbon emissions, is approximately independent of both the atmospheric CO(2) concentration and its rate of change on these timescales. From observational constraints, we estimate CCR to be in the range 1.0-2.1 degrees C per trillion tonnes of carbon (Tt C) emitted (5th to 95th percentiles), consistent with twenty-first-century CCR values simulated by climate-carbon models. Uncertainty in land-use CO(2) emissions and aerosol forcing, however, means that higher observationally constrained values cannot be excluded. The CCR, when evaluated from climate-carbon models under idealized conditions, represents a simple yet robust metric for comparing models, which aggregates both climate feedbacks and carbon cycle feedbacks. CCR is also likely to be a useful concept for climate change mitigation and policy; by combining the uncertainties associated with climate sensitivity, carbon sinks and climate-carbon feedbacks into a single quantity, the CCR allows CO(2)-induced global mean temperature change to be inferred directly from cumulative carbon emissions. PMID:19516338

Matthews, H Damon; Gillett, Nathan P; Stott, Peter A; Zickfeld, Kirsten

2009-06-11

193

Impacts of urban forests on offsetting carbon emissions from industrial energy use in Hangzhou, China.  

PubMed

This study quantified carbon storage and sequestration by urban forests and carbon emissions from energy consumption by several industrial sources in Hangzhou, China. Carbon (C) storage and sequestration were quantified using urban forest inventory data and by applying volume-derived biomass equations and other models relating net primary productivity (NPP) and mean annual biomass increments. Industrial energy use C emissions were estimated by accounting for fossil fuel use and assigning C emission factors. Total C storage by Hangzhou's urban forests was estimated at 11.74 Tg C, and C storage per hectare was 30.25 t C. Carbon sequestration by urban forests was 1,328, 166.55 t C/year, and C sequestration per ha was 1.66 t C/ha/year. Carbon emissions from industrial energy use in Hangzhou were 7 Tg C/year. Urban forests, through sequestration, annually offset 18.57% of the amount of carbon emitted by industrial enterprises, and store an amount of C equivalent to 1.75 times the amount of annual C emitted by industrial energy uses within the city. Management practices for improving Hangzhou's urban forests function of offsetting C emissions from energy consumption are explored. These results can be used to evaluate the urban forests' role in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide. PMID:19914765

Zhao, Min; Kong, Zheng-hong; Escobedo, Francisco J; Gao, Jun

2009-11-14

194

METHOD FOR MEASURING CARBON FIBER EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon fibers are highly conductive, lightweight and of small dimensions. When released as emissions from production, manufacturing, processing and disposal sources they may become airborne and disperse over wide areas. If they settle onto electronic or electrical components they...

195

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 1, Summary: Draft  

SciTech Connect

Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions` levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.; Cerutti, O.M.

1992-08-01

196

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions' levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.); Cerutti, O.M.

1992-08-01

197

Derivation of burn scar depths and estimation of carbon emissions with LIDAR in Indonesian peatlands.  

PubMed

During the 1997/98 El Niño-induced drought peatland fires in Indonesia may have released 13-40% of the mean annual global carbon emissions from fossil fuels. One major unknown in current peatland emission estimations is how much peat is combusted by fire. Using a light detection and ranging data set acquired in Central Kalimantan, Borneo, in 2007, one year after the severe peatland fires of 2006, we determined an average burn scar depth of 0.33 +/- 0.18 m. Based on this result and the burned area determined from satellite imagery, we estimate that within the 2.79 million hectare study area 49.15 +/- 26.81 megatons of carbon were released during the 2006 El Niño episode. This represents 10-33% of all carbon emissions from transport for the European Community in the year 2006. These emissions, originating from a comparatively small area (approximately 13% of the Indonesian peatland area), underline the importance of peat fires in the context of green house gas emissions and global warming. In the past decade severe peat fires occurred during El Niño-induced droughts in 1997, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009. Currently, this important source of carbon emissions is not included in IPCC carbon accounting or in regional and global carbon emission models. Precise spatial measurements of peat combusted and potential avoided emissions in tropical peat swamp forests will also be required for future emission trading schemes in the framework of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in developing countries. PMID:19940252

Ballhorn, Uwe; Siegert, Florian; Mason, Mike; Limin, Suwido

2009-11-25

198

New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China  

PubMed Central

Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world’s population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st century. China’s participation is essential to global efforts in reducing N-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because China is the largest producer and consumer of fertilizer N. To evaluate the impact of China’s use of N fertilizer, we quantify the carbon footprint of China’s N fertilizer production and consumption chain using life cycle analysis. For every ton of N fertilizer manufactured and used, 13.5 tons of CO2-equivalent (eq) (t CO2-eq) is emitted, compared with 9.7 t CO2-eq in Europe. Emissions in China tripled from 1980 [131 terrogram (Tg) of CO2-eq (Tg CO2-eq)] to 2010 (452 Tg CO2-eq). N fertilizer-related emissions constitute about 7% of GHG emissions from the entire Chinese economy and exceed soil carbon gain resulting from N fertilizer use by several-fold. We identified potential emission reductions by comparing prevailing technologies and management practices in China with more advanced options worldwide. Mitigation opportunities include improving methane recovery during coal mining, enhancing energy efficiency in fertilizer manufacture, and minimizing N overuse in field-level crop production. We find that use of advanced technologies could cut N fertilizer-related emissions by 20–63%, amounting to 102–357 Tg CO2-eq annually. Such reduction would decrease China’s total GHG emissions by 2–6%, which is significant on a global scale.

Dou, Zheng-xia; He, Pan; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Powlson, David; Chadwick, Dave; Norse, David; Lu, Yue-Lai; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Liang; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cassman, Kenneth G.; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2013-01-01

199

Chinese Industrial Energy Efficiency Evaluation Considering Carbon Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is effective to evaluate energy efficiency, but few studies use this technique considering carbon emissions. This paper measures Chinese industrial sector's energy efficiency considering carbon emissions based on the slack-based measure (SBM) model in 1997-2008. The results show that Chinese industrial energy efficiency is relatively low, the average scores (SBM-based) fluctuated between 0.26 and 0.35, and

Cao Ming; Wei Xiaoping

2011-01-01

200

Indian oil company joins efforts to reduce methane emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oil and Natural Gas Corp, Ltd. (ONGC), headquartered in Dehradun, India, has joined seven U.S. and Canadian oil and natural gas companies as a partner in a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. EPA's Natural Gas STAR International Program aims to reduce methane emissions from the oil and natural gas sector while delivering more gas to markets around the world. With this partnership, ONGC agrees to implement emissions reduction practices and to submit annual reports on progress achieved; EPA agrees to assist ONGC with training technicians in new cost-effective technologies that will help achieve target emissions. The Natural Gas STAR International Program is administered under the Methane to Markets Partnership, a group of 20 countries and 600 companies across the globe that since 2004 has volunteered to cut methane emissions. More information on EPA's agreement with ONGC can be found at http://www.epa.gov/gasstar/index.htm; information about the Methane to Markets Partnership can be found at http://www.methanetomarkets.org.

Kumar, Mohi

201

Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A.; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Sales, Marcio H.

2011-10-01

202

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM EXHUMED PETROCALCIC HORIZONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The second largest pool of terrestrial carbon is pedogenic CaCO3. In addition to being an important sink of atmospheric CO2, pedogenic carbonate has the potential to be an important source of atmospheric CO2. The cemented form of pedogenic carbonate (the petrocalcic horizon) develops in geomorphical...

203

New chemical reduces coke dust emissions at Mississippi refinery  

SciTech Connect

A new chemical dust-suppression system designed specifically for use with petroleum coke is reducing emissions and maintenance requirements at Chevron U.S.A. Inc.'s Pascagoula, Miss., refinery. Dust levels have been reduced 90--95% and workers no longer are required to wear personal respirators inside the conveyor galleries. Routine cleanup requirements for the coke conveyors have been reduced, as have maintenance needs within the coke-handling facilities. The paper discusses fugitive dusts, the Chevron system, the new chemical, the original system, a demonstration trial, monitoring, results, and system adjustments.

Bennett, R.P. (Benetech Inc., Aurora, IL (United States)); Blevins, H.J.; Cuevas, H.J. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Pascagoula, MS (United States))

1994-12-26

204

Short and Long Term Impacts of Forest Bioenergy Production on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate forest annual net uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere is equivalent to ~16% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in the United States. Mitigation strategies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of energy including forest biomass. The prospect of forest derived bioenergy has led to implementation of new forest management strategies based on the assumption that they will reduce total CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by simultaneously reducing the risk of wildfire and substituting for fossil fuels. The benefit of managing forests for bioenergy substitution of fossil fuels versus potential carbon sequestration by reducing harvest needs to be evaluated. This study uses a combination of Federal Forest Inventory data (FIA), remote sensing, and a coupled carbon-nitrogen ecosystem process model (CLM4-CN) to predict net atmospheric CO2 emissions from forest thinning for bioenergy production in Oregon under varying future management and climate scenarios. We use life-cycle assessment (LCA) incorporating both the forest and forest product sinks and sources of carbon dioxide. Future modeled results are compared with a reduced harvest scenario to determine the potential for increased carbon sequestration in forest biomass. We find that Oregon forests are a current strong sink of 7.5 ± 1.7 Tg C yr-1 or 61 g C m-2 yr-1. (NBP; NEP minus removals from fire and harvest). In the short term, we find that carbon dynamics following harvests for fire prevention and large-scale bioenergy production lead to 2-15% higher emissions over the next 20 years compared to current management, assuming 100% effectiveness of fire prevention. Given the current sink strength, analysis of the forest sector in Oregon demonstrates that increasing harvest levels by all practices above current business-as-usual levels increases CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as long as the region's sink persists. In the long-term, we find that projected changes in climate and fire regimes reduce the baseline sink in drier portions of the state making thinning for bioenergy production an effective means to reduce atmospheric emissions. However, in the more productive wetter areas, management for carbon sequestration removes more CO2 from the atmosphere than substitution of fossil fuels with forest bioenergy. Management strategies should consider the emission reduction potential of reducing harvest in some areas before implementing bioenergy production.

Hudiburg, T.; Law, B. E.; Luyssaert, S.; Thornton, P. E.

2011-12-01

205

Pondering Puzzling Profiles: MG II Emission from Carbon Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained spectroscopic observations of the Mg II h & k emission lines from three carbon stars, using the moderate resolution (R>=20,000) G270M grating of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The emission profiles from all three stars are very broad and heavily mutilated by overlying absorption. The profiles from two of the

K. G. Carpenter; R. D. Robinson; H. R. Johnson

1997-01-01

206

Carbon emissions in Mediterranean shrubland wildfires: An experimental approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire emissions modify the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the earth's climate system. The Ayoraburning experiment was designed to assess and quantify fire emissions from Mediterranean shrublands. A number of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter metrics (CO2, CO, CH4, PM2.5) were measured during 3 burning replicates by using real-time monitors. Quantification of carbon emissions released during the experiments showed that 71% was CO2, 26% CO, 3% CH4, and only 0.3% was particulate carbon. Emission factors obtained for CO2, CO and CH4 were 1257 ± 40, 453 ± 28 and 46 ± 12 g kg-1 dry matter, respectively, and combustion efficiencies ranged from 0.46 to 0.99. The experiments allowed the estimation of carbon emission in the different fire phases. Thus, 25% of carbon was sampled in the flaming phase and 75% of C in the smoldering phase. Current natural greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories in Mediterranean countries underestimate the actual emissions from forest fires since they do not consider forest shrub understory and shrublands and since they assume that the CO2 emitted is offset by forest re-growth. Our results may be used to improve current forest-fire emission inventories in southern Europe with special emphasis on shrublands.

Garcia-Hurtado, Elisa; Pey, Jorge; Baeza, M. Jaime; Carrara, Arnaud; Llovet, Joan; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Vallejo, V. Ramon

2013-04-01

207

Enhanced field emission from nano-graphite coated carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method by low energy carbonhydrogen ion treatment to enhance field emission of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is demonstrated. Comparing with control, field emission (FE) currents of the CNTs by carbonhydrogen ion irradiation increased, and the turn-on field and the threshold field decreased significantly. The structure characteristic revealed by transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that CNTs are coated by nano-graphite

Qintao LI; Zhichun NI; Jinlong GONG; Dezhang ZHU; Zhiyuan ZHU

2007-01-01

208

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factor for Combustion of Swedish Peat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Swedish carbon dioxide emission factor for combustion of energy peat is reviewed. Three year old peat analysis from two Swedish peat producers indicated a notably lower emission factor than 107.3 g CO2/MJ which is the value used in Sweden's National E...

K. Nilsson

2004-01-01

209

Field emission degradation of carbon nano-tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for their excellent field emission characteristics and are considered as prima candidates as cold-cathode electron emitters. On the other hand, for these materials to be used in practical devices, such as pseudo spark switches, they need to be capable of operating for many hours without loosing the ability of field emission characteristics. In this work,

Ramesh Bokka; Hulya Kirkici

2010-01-01

210

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950-2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to

Robert Joseph Andres; J. S. Gregg; London M Losey; Gregg Marland; Thomas A Boden

2011-01-01

211

Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon em...

1994-01-01

212

Greenhouse gas emissions in Norway: do carbon taxes work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, Norway has carried out an ambitious climate policy. The main policy tool is a relatively high carbon tax, which was implemented already in 1991. Data for the development in CO2 emissions since then provide a unique opportunity to evaluate carbon taxes as a policy tool. To reveal the driving forces behind the changes in the three

Annegrete Bruvoll; Bodil Merethe Larsen

2004-01-01

213

Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

2009-01-01

214

The effect of two ammonia-emission-reducing pig housing systems on odour emission.  

PubMed

Odour nuisance from agricultural activities is increasing in densely populated countries like the Netherlands. To develop adequate regulations, a large-scale, government-financed monitoring programme was started in the mid-1990s to establish odour emission levels for both conventional and low ammonia emission housing systems for cattle, pigs and poultry. The results indicate that high- and low-odour emission housing are difficult to distinguish because of the large variation within housing systems. Measurements on different farm locations within the same housing system show both a large variation between locations and within one location (in time). The latter, however, is significantly smaller, which suggests that farm management is an important determinant in odour emission that interferes with the effects of housing systems. The current research was aimed at determining the effect of two common ammonia-reducing pig-housing systems on odour emissions compared to conventional housing systems under similar management conditions. The respective reduction principles of these systems are reducing the emitting surface of the manure pit and cooling of manure in the manure pit (both pits beneath slatted floor). Five farms that combined conventional housing with one low-ammonia system (three reduced emitting surface and two manure cooling) were selected for a direct, pair-wise comparison of (olfactometric) odour emission measurements. The results show a highly significant effect (p < 0.01) for two of the three reduced emitting surface systems and for one of the two manure cooling system. The average odour reduction percentages of these systems are 35% (from 24.9 to 16.0 OUE/s per animal) and 23% (from 30.1 to 24.0 OUE/s per animal) respectively. Although odour emission reduction through the type of housing system is possible, management factors interact with the system and thereby determine whether the system reduces odour emission or not. PMID:15484778

Mol, G; Ogink, N W M

2004-01-01

215

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

2001-04-01

216

Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

Couth, R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

2011-01-15

217

Implications of delayed actions in addressing carbon dioxide emission reduction in the context of geo-engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emissions need to be reduced well below current emissions if atmospheric concentrations are to be stabilised\\u000a at a level likely to avoid dangerous climate change. We investigate how delays in reducing CO2 emissions affect stabilisation scenarios leading to overshooting of a target concentration pathway. We show that if geo-engineering\\u000a alone is used to compensate for the delay in

O. Boucher; J. A. Lowe; C. D. Jones

2009-01-01

218

Decadal growth of black carbon emissions in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Geographical Information System (GIS) based methodology has been used to construct the black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Indian geographical region. The distribution of emissions from a broader level to a spatial resolution of 1° × 1° grid has been carried out by considering micro level details and activity data of fossil fuels and bio-fuels. Our calculated total BC emissions were 1343.78 Gg and 835.50 Gg for the base years 2001 and 1991 respectively with a decadal growth of around 61%, which is highly significant. The district level analysis shows a diverse spatial distribution with the top 10% emitting districts contributing nearly 50% of total BC emission. Coal contributes more than 50% of total BC emission. All the metropolitan cities show high BC emissions due to high population density giving rise to high vehicular emissions and more demand of energy.

Sahu, S. K.; Beig, G.; Sharma, C.

2008-01-01

219

Study of combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine operated with dimethyl carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an oxygenated additive, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is usually blended with diesel fuel to improve combustion and reduce emissions of diesel engines. However, it is difficult to fuel diesel engines directly with DMC due to its low cetane number and high latent heat of vaporization.To study DMC combustion in diesel engines, this paper proposes an approach that combines internal exhaust

Li Xiaolu; Chen Hongyan; Zhu Zhiyong; Huang Zhen

2006-01-01

220

Significance of carbon stock uncertainties on emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A historical agreement was reached in Bali under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, encouraging countries to initiate actions to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD). In this context, we use a Panama?based example to show the impacts of the current levels of uncertainty in forest carbon density estimates on GHG baseline estimation

Johanne Pelletier; Kathryn R. Kirby; Catherine Potvin

2010-01-01

221

Measured energy consumption and carbon emissions of air-conditioning in UK office buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the EU Energy Performance in Buildings Directive imminent in 2006, attention is focusing on how to reduce carbon emissions from buildings in practice. This research was undertaken to try to establish some ‘real’ buildingbased figures for the energy performance of air-conditioning systems in UK office buildings. One of the major questions to be answered is whether chilled beam and

Ian Knight; Gavin Dunn

2005-01-01

222

and reduce emissions in gas turbines by helping to reduce creep in combustion liners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-emissions combustion liner is a critical system component for gas turbines. The combustion air in a gas turbine enters through holes in the combustion chamber liner and flows along the liner to keep it cool. Liners are designed to improve durability and cooling while minimizing the flow variation from liner to liner within the same engine. Reducing variation can

Hany Rizkalla

223

Temperature dependent field emission behavior of carbon nanotube emitters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized on Ni-coated Si substrates by thermal chemical vapor deposition, and then, the field emission behavior of the MWCNTs were investigated with increasing temperature. Before the field emission measurements, a high voltage annealing was carried out for the emitters, which resulted in the formation of defective layer at the emitting tips. We have observed largely increased emission currents and non-linear Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots at high temperatures. We propose that these unusual field emission behaviors are attributed to the defective layers formed on MWCNT tips by high voltage annealing.

Lim, Seong Chu; Choi, Young Chul

2013-12-01

224

Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was

Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

2009-01-01

225

Very Stable Electron Field Emission From Strontium Titanate Coated Carbon Nanotube Matrices With Low Emission Thresholds  

SciTech Connect

PMMA-STO-CNT matrices were created by opened-tip vertically-aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with conformal coating of strontium titanate and Poly(methyl methacrylate). Emission threshold of 0.8 V/?m was demonstrated, about five-fold lower than that of the as-grown VAMWCNTs. Theoretical simulation and modeling suggest that PMMA-STO-CNT matrices have suppressed screening effects and Coulombs’ repulsion forces between electrons in adjacent CNTs, leading to low emission threshold, high emission density, and prolong emission stability. These findings are important for practical application of VA-MWCNTs in field emission devices.

Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Moscatello, Jason; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Yap, Yoke K.

2012-12-11

226

Constructing Ag nanoparticles-single wall carbon hybrid nanostructure to improve field emission properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall process of field emission can be dominated by the contact resistance between the single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and the substrate. In order to reduce the contact resistance, we present a wet chemical process of constructing Ag-SWCNTs hybrid nanostructure. Constructing Ag-SWCNTs emitters could improve the electrical contact by increasing the contact area between SWCNTs and substrate. Contact resistance is greatly reduced compared to that of pristine SWCNTs. Field emission properties of Ag-SWCNTs hybrid emitters including current density and emitting image are remarkably improved. Field emission properties based on the modified Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) equation are discussed. Our studies show that this method can enhance the field emission properties of the SWCNTs by improving the contact resistance and is a promising way for mass production of SWCNTs for field emission display.

Chen, Leifeng; Wang, Lei; Yu, Xuegong; Zhang, Shijun; Li, Dan; Xu, Chen; Zeng, Lingsheng; Zhou, Shu; Zhao, Jianjing; Guo, Fan; Hu, Liqin; Yang, Deren

2013-01-01

227

Propagation of uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios through the global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

The authors used the GLOCO model, which is a carbon cycling model that considers seven terrestrial biomes, two oceans and one atmosphere, to evaluate the rise in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration, (pCO[sub 2]) and the partitioning of carbon to the global compartments (ocean, atmosphere and terrestrial) as a function of time for a number of possible anthropogenic carbon emission scenarios, based on different energy policies as developed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF-12). The authors then evaluated the possible uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty throughout the model to obtain an envelope for the rise in pCO[sub 2]. Large fluctuations in the input signal are smoothed by the carbon cycle, resulting in more than a four-fold reduction in uncertainty in the output signal (pCO[sub 2]). In addition, they looked at the effect that other model variables have on the pCO[sub 2] envelope, specifically the ratio of carbon to nitrogen in the emissions. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) will vary throughout the next century depending on the mix on energy sources chosen. More nitrogen in the emissions can produce a cofertilization effect in the terrestrial biomes, which would lead to sequestration of additional carbon. The uncertainty in C:N will enlarge the pCO[sub 2] uncertainty envelope by up to 20 ppm.

Keller, A.A.; Goldstein, R.A. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1994-09-01

228

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

William Watson

1994-08-01

229

Latest coker designs increase liquid yields, reduce emissions  

SciTech Connect

Modern coker designs incorporate features that maximize liquid yields, enhance safety, and reduce emissions. Careful engineering of delayed cokers can as much as eliminate liquid effluents. The delayed coking process will play an increasingly important role in the modern refinery, because of its ability to convert heavy vacuum residues to distillates and petroleum coke. The flexibility inherent in delayed coking permits refiners to process a wide variety of crude oils, including those containing heavy, high-sulfur resides. These crudes frequently are bought at a discount, and if economically convertible to light distillates, can be a substantial factor in the refiner's cash flow development. The paper discusses specialty coke products, fuel-grade cokers, design trends, fractionators, coke-handling systems, and environmental impacts, including fugitive coke dust, vapor recovery, heater emissions, wastewater reuse, and waste oil disposal.

Not Available

1993-11-08

230

Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation improved by carbon-density maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation contributes 6-17% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Large uncertainties in emission estimates arise from inadequate data on the carbon density of forests and the regional rates of deforestation. Consequently there is an urgent need for improved data sets that characterize the global distribution of aboveground biomass, especially in the tropics. Here we use multi-sensor satellite data to estimate aboveground live woody vegetation carbon density for pan-tropical ecosystems with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution. Results indicate that the total amount of carbon held in tropical woody vegetation is 228.7PgC, which is 21% higher than the amount reported in the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (ref. ). At the national level, Brazil and Indonesia contain 35% of the total carbon stored in tropical forests and produce the largest emissions from forest loss. Combining estimates of aboveground carbon stocks with regional deforestation rates we estimate the total net emission of carbon from tropical deforestation and land use to be 1.0PgCyr-1 over the period 2000-2010--based on the carbon bookkeeping model. These new data sets of aboveground carbon stocks will enable tropical nations to meet their emissions reporting requirements (that is, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Tier 3) with greater accuracy.

Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Walker, W. S.; Laporte, N. T.; Sun, M.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Hackler, J.; Beck, P. S. A.; Dubayah, R.; Friedl, M. A.; Samanta, S.; Houghton, R. A.

2012-03-01

231

Options for achieving a 50% cut in industrial carbon emissions by 2050.  

PubMed

Carbon emissions from industry are dominated by production of goods in steel, cement plastic, paper, and aluminum. Demand for these materials is anticipated to double at least by 2050, by which time global carbon emissions must be reduced by at least 50%. To evaluate the challenge of meeting this target the global flows of these materials and their associated emissions are projected to 2050 under five technical scenarios. A reference scenario includes all existing and emerging efficiency measures but cannot provide sufficient reduction. The application of carbon sequestration to primary production proves to be sufficient only for cement The emissions target can always be met by reducing demand, for instance through product life extension, material substitution, or "light-weighting". Reusing components shows significant potential particularly within construction. Radical process innovation may also be possible. The results show that the first two strategies, based on increasing primary production, cannot achieve the required emissions reductions, so should be balanced by the vigorous pursuit of material efficiency to allow provision of increased material services with reduced primary production. PMID:20121181

Allwood, Julian M; Cullen, Jonathan M; Milford, Rachel L

2010-03-15

232

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01

233

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01

234

New York MARKAL: An evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the State`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO2 emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO2 emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Hamilton, L.D.

1992-12-31

235

Carbon emission trading system of China: a linked market vs. separated markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chinese government intends to upgrade its current provincial carbon emission trading pilots to a nationwide scheme by 2015. This study investigates two of scenarios: separated provincial markets and a linked inter-provincial market. The carbon abatement effects of separated and linked markets are compared using two pilot provinces of Hubei and Guangdong based on a computable general equilibrium model termed Sino-TERMCo2. Simulation results show that the linked market can improve social welfare and reduce carbon emission intensity for the nation as well as for the Hubei-Guangdong bloc compared to the separated market. However, the combined system also distributes welfare more unevenly and thus increases social inequity. On the policy ground, the current results suggest that a well-constructed, nationwide carbon market complemented with adequate welfare transfer policies can be employed to replace the current top-down abatement target disaggregation practice.

Liu, Yu; Feng, Shenghao; Cai, Songfeng; Zhang, Yaxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Yanbin; Chen, Zhanming

2013-10-01

236

Self-organized global control of carbon emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

2010-09-01

237

THE EFFECT OF SWIRL NUMBER ON REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM LIQUID FUEL BURNER SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion implicates harmful effect to the environment because of the emissions produced. The release of gaseous emissions such as oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and carbon monoxide (CO) into the atmosphere creates major environmental problems. These gaseous emissions affect plants, human being and animals. High concentration of emissions brings fatal effects to life form. A liquid fuel burner system with different

Mohamad Shaiful; Ashrul Ishak

238

Hynol—An economical process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO 2 emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO2 emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (a) hydrogasification of biomass, (b) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (c) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps.

Yuanji Dong; Meyer Steinberg

1997-01-01

239

Hynol: An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO2 emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO2 emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (1) hydrogasification of biomass, (2) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (3) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps.

M. Steinberg; Yuanji Dong

1993-01-01

240

Fire suppression and fuels treatment effects on mixed-conifer carbon stocks and emissions.  

PubMed

Depending on management, forests can be an important sink or source of carbon that if released as CO2 could contribute to global warming. Many forests in the western United States are being treated to reduce fuels, yet the effects of these treatments on forest carbon are not well understood. We compared the immediate effects of fuels treatments on carbon stocks and releases in replicated plots before and after treatment, and against a reconstruction of active-fire stand conditions for the same forest in 1865. Total live-tree carbon was substantially lower in modern fire-suppressed conditions (and all of the treatments) than the same forest under an active-fire regime. Although fire suppression has increased stem density, current forests have fewer very large trees, reducing total live-tree carbon stocks and shifting a higher proportion of those stocks into small-diameter, fire-sensitive trees. Prescribed burning released 14.8 Mg C/ha, with pre-burn thinning increasing the average release by 70% and contributing 21.9-37.5 Mg C/ha in milling waste. Fire suppression may have incurred a double carbon penalty by reducing stocks and contributing to emissions with fuels-treatment activities or inevitable wildfire combustion. All treatments reduced fuels and increased fire resistance, but most of the gains were achieved with understory thinning, with only modest increases in the much heavier overstory thinning. We suggest modifying current treatments to focus on reducing surface fuels, actively thinning the majority of small trees, and removing only fire-sensitive species in the merchantable, intermediate size class. These changes would retain most of the current carbon-pool levels, reduce prescribed burn and potential future wildfire emissions, and favor stand development of large, fire-resistant trees that can better stabilize carbon stocks. PMID:19769088

North, Malcolm; Hurteau, Matthew; Innes, James

2009-09-01

241

Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

2011-12-22

242

Impacts of incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation on global species extinctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation is a major source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, and the greatest single driver of species extinctions. The reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) has been formally recognized as a climate change mitigation option. REDD might have important co-benefits for biodiversity conservation, yet the extent of these benefits will depend on as-yet untested associations between fine-scale spatial patterns of deforestation, species distributions and carbon stocks. Here we combine a global land-use model and spatial data on species distributions to explore scenarios of future deforestation within REDD-eligible countries, to quantify and map the potential impacts on species extinctions as increased by forest loss and decreased by carbon conservation. We found that the continuation of historical deforestation rates is likely to result in large numbers of species extinctions, but that an adequately funded REDD programme could substantially reduce these losses. Under our deforestation scenarios, the projected benefits of REDD were remarkably consistent across the four methods used to estimate extinctions, but spatially variable, and highly dependent on the level of carbon payments. Our results indicate that, if well designed, adequately funded and broadly implemented, carbon-based forest conservation could play a major role in biodiversity conservation as well as climate change mitigation.

Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.; Rodrigues, Ana S. L.; Gusti, Mykola; Balmford, Andrew; Fritz, Steffen; Obersteiner, Michael; Kerry Turner, R.; Brooks, Thomas M.

2012-05-01

243

U.S. carbon emissions hit all-time high  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon emissions related to energy use hit a record high in the United States in 1993, marking the first significant increase since 1990, according to an analysis of Department of Energy data by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.The findings are “troubling” in light of the 10-year-old international Climate Change Convention and the international commitment to return to 1990 emission levels by the year 2000, wrote ACEEE Director Howard Geller, a coauthor of the report.

244

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Consumption in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying monthly sales and consumption data of coal, petroleum and natural gas, a monthly time series of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption is created for Indonesia. These are then modeled with an autoregressive function to produce a quantitative description of the seasonal distribution and long-term pattern of CO2 emissions. Currently, Indonesia holds the 21st ranked position in total anthropogenic

J. S. Gregg; A. J. Robert

2005-01-01

245

Field emission from non-uniform carbon nanotube arrays.  

PubMed

Regular arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are frequently used in studies on field emission. However, non-uniformities are always present like dispersions in height, radius, and position. In this report, we describe the effect of these non-uniformities in the overall emission current by simulation. We show that non-uniform arrays can be modeled as a perfect array multiplied by a factor that is a function of the CNTs spacing. PMID:23841961

Dall'agnol, Fernando F; den Engelsen, Daniel

2013-07-10

246

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using COâ\\/SOâ from volcanic gas analyses and SOâ flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 à 10¹² g COâ\\/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 à 10¹² g COâ\\/yr from eruptions. Volcanic COâ presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects

S. N. Williams; S. J. Schaefer; M. L. Calvache V; D. Lopez

1992-01-01

247

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO2\\/SO2 from volcanic gas analyses and SO2 flux, to be 34 +\\/- 24 x 10 exp 12 g CO2\\/yr from passive degassing and 31 +\\/- 22 x 10 exp 12 g CO2\\/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO2 presently represents only 0.22 percent of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to

Stanley N. Williams; Stephen J. Schaeffer; Marta L. Calvache; Dina Lopez

1992-01-01

248

Improved field emission of electrons from ion irradiated carbon  

SciTech Connect

Electron field emission from allotropes of carbon (graphite, diamondlike carbon, and diamond) have been reported many times in the literature. This work explores the use of ion irradiation for improving electron field emission from carbon fibers. Carbon fibers have been irradiated with H, C, Ar, and Xe ions. Field emission characteristics have been measured as a function of ion dose. A reversible reduction in the required field for a fixed current level has been observed. The critical dose, D{sub c}, defines the dose corresponding to the lowest field necessary to emit a fixed current (5 {mu}A). The critical dose appears to correlate with the nuclear energy loss (collisions with atoms) of the ion in the carbon fiber. Transmission electron microscopy and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis indicate an amorphous surface, and an increase in the sp{sup 3} content of the fiber surface to 20{percent}{endash}30{percent}. A corresponding decrease in the work function is expected and may account for the improvement in electron emission. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Walter, K.C.; Kung, H.H.; Maggiore, C.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1997-09-01

249

Energy and Carbon Emissions: Country Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to the Kyoto Protocol for preventing global warming, signed in February 2005, the Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan was developed in March 2006. In this plan, CO2 emission reduction targets to be achieved in FY 2010 was set in each sector...

S. Murakami M. D. Levine H. Yoshinovin T. Inoue T. Ikaga

2006-01-01

250

The effect of the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on world emissions of a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. We\\u000a use a large unbalanced panel data consisting of 177 countries from 1980 to 2006. The key finding of this paper is that there\\u000a are structural breaks in the data that demonstrate the effects of the international agreement. While carbon

Risa Kumazawa; Michael S. Callaghan

2012-01-01

251

Would forestation alleviate the burden of emission reduction? An assessment of the future carbon sink from ARD activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric CO2 concentration can be decreased not only by reducing fossil fuel burning but also by increasing the terrestrial ecosystems that serve as sinks for CO2. The Kyoto Protocol allows countries that are burdened with emission reduction commitments to use carbon sequestration by terrestrial sinks. However, opinions differ widely on how the inclusion of terrestrial carbon sinks in the legally

Yoshiki Yamagata; Georgii A. Alexandrov

2001-01-01

252

Electricity generation: options for reduction in carbon emissions.  

PubMed

Historically, the bulk production of electricity has been achieved by burning fossil fuels, with unavoidable gaseous emissions, including large quantities of carbon dioxide: an average-sized modern coal-burning power station is responsible for more than 10 Mt of CO(2) each year. This paper details typical emissions from present-day power stations and discusses the options for their reduction. Acknowledging that the cuts achieved in the past decade in the UK CO(2) emissions have been achieved largely by fuel switching, the remaining possibilities offered by this method are discussed. Switching to less-polluting fossil fuels will achieve some measure of reduction, but the basic problem of CO(2) emissions continues. Of the alternatives to fossil fuels, only nuclear power represents a zero-carbon large-scale energy source. Unfortunately, public concerns over safety and radioactive waste have still to be assuaged. Other approaches include the application of improved combustion technology, the removal of harmful gases from power-station flues and the use of waste heat to improve overall power-station efficiency. These all have a part to play, but many consider our best hope for emissions reduction to be the use of renewable energy. The main renewable energy contenders are assessed in this paper and realistic estimates of the contribution that each could provide are indicated. It appears that, in the time-scale envisaged by planners for reduction in CO(2) emission, in many countries renewable energy will be unlikely to deliver. At the same time, it is worth commenting that, again in many countries, the level of penetration of renewable energy will fall short of the present somewhat optimistic targets. Of renewable options, wind energy could be used in the short to medium term to cover for thermal plant closures, but for wind energy to be successful, the network will have to be modified to cope with wind's intermittent nature. Globally, hydroelectricity is currently the largest developed source of renewable electricity, but future large-scale projects will probably be limited to the less-developed world: the best schemes in the developed countries have already been exploited. Wave and tidal can be looked on as medium- to long-term generators of electricity, as their respective industries are not as mature as competing renewable resources. Municipal solid-waste combustion and landfill gas technologies can also be seen as short term, as can their rural equivalents, agriculture and forestry waste. Any widespread exploitation of renewable energy will depend on being able to transmit the energy from source to point of use, so the implications for the electrical network from the penetration of substantial levels of renewable energy are presented. Effective management of renewable energy installations will require technical assessment of the range of exploitation strategies, to compare local production of, say, hydrogen and the more traditional transmission of electricity. Such resources will have to compete with others in any national, or grid, system and detailed economic analysis will be necessary to determine the deployment that best fits the trading regime under which the energy will be sold. Consideration will also be necessary to determine how best to control the introduction of this radically new resource such that it does not attract punitive cost overheads until it is mature enough to cope. Finally, it is inescapable that nuclear power is a proven technology that could take its place in any future generation portfolio. Unfortunately, suspicion and mistrust surround waste management and radioactivity release. Unless this is overcome, the lack of confidence engendered by this public mistrust may result in few, if any, new nuclear power stations being built. In the event of that decision, it is difficult to see how CO(2) levels can be significantly reduced: the irony is that nuclear energy may emerge as environmentally essential. PMID:12460490

Whittington, H W

2002-08-15

253

Identification and Evaluation of Pollution Prevention Techniques to Reduce Indoor Emissions from Engineered Wood Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of...

C. Brockmann D. Whitaker L. Sheldon J. Baskir K. Leovic B. Howard

1997-01-01

254

RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

SciTech Connect

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of the 2006 initiative, ITP has expanded the effort in 2007 with the goal of conducting 250 more asse

Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Gemmer, Bob [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Scheihing, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy

2007-09-01

255

Field emission properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) arrays were prepared by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. Nickel layer of 7 nm in thickness on 100-nm thickness titanium nitride film was transformed into discrete islands after hydrogen plasma pretreatment. CNTs were then grown up on Ni-coated areas by MPCVD. Their field emission properties were studied and evaluated. From formulism analysis, superior CNT films with very low emission onset electric field, about 0.425 V/micron (at J =10 micro-A/cm2), are attained without post-deposition treatment. The large field amplification factor arising from small curvature radius of nanotube tips is responsible for good emission characteristics.

Feng, Zhe-Chuan; Huang, Yi-Zhe; Ting, Jyh-Hua; Chen, Li-Chyong; Lu, Weijie

2008-09-01

256

Estimating global "blue carbon" emissions from conversion and degradation of vegetated coastal ecosystems.  

PubMed

Recent attention has focused on the high rates of annual carbon sequestration in vegetated coastal ecosystems--marshes, mangroves, and seagrasses--that may be lost with habitat destruction ('conversion'). Relatively unappreciated, however, is that conversion of these coastal ecosystems also impacts very large pools of previously-sequestered carbon. Residing mostly in sediments, this 'blue carbon' can be released to the atmosphere when these ecosystems are converted or degraded. Here we provide the first global estimates of this impact and evaluate its economic implications. Combining the best available data on global area, land-use conversion rates, and near-surface carbon stocks in each of the three ecosystems, using an uncertainty-propagation approach, we estimate that 0.15-1.02 Pg (billion tons) of carbon dioxide are being released annually, several times higher than previous estimates that account only for lost sequestration. These emissions are equivalent to 3-19% of those from deforestation globally, and result in economic damages of $US 6-42 billion annually. The largest sources of uncertainty in these estimates stems from limited certitude in global area and rates of land-use conversion, but research is also needed on the fates of ecosystem carbon upon conversion. Currently, carbon emissions from the conversion of vegetated coastal ecosystems are not included in emissions accounting or carbon market protocols, but this analysis suggests they may be disproportionally important to both. Although the relevant science supporting these initial estimates will need to be refined in coming years, it is clear that policies encouraging the sustainable management of coastal ecosystems could significantly reduce carbon emissions from the land-use sector, in addition to sustaining the well-recognized ecosystem services of coastal habitats. PMID:22962585

Pendleton, Linwood; Donato, Daniel C; Murray, Brian C; Crooks, Stephen; Jenkins, W Aaron; Sifleet, Samantha; Craft, Christopher; Fourqurean, James W; Kauffman, J Boone; Marbà, Núria; Megonigal, Patrick; Pidgeon, Emily; Herr, Dorothee; Gordon, David; Baldera, Alexis

2012-09-04

257

Options for lowering U.S. carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States can decrease its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) to as much as 35 percent below 1987 levels within the next 25 years by adopting an aggressive package of policies crossing all sectors of the economy. Such emissions reductions will be difficult to achieve and may be costly, but no major technological breakthroughs are needed. In this paper, we identify a ``Tough'' package of energy conservation, energy supply, and forest managment practices to accomplish this level of emissions reductions. We also present a package of cost-effective, ``Moderate'' technical options, which if adopted, would hold CO2 emissions to about 15-percent increase over 1987 levels by 2015. In constrast, if the United State takes not new actions to curb energy use, CO2 emissions will likely rise 50 percent during that time. A variety of Federal policy initiatives will be required to achieve large reductions in U.S. CO2 emissions. Such policy actions will have to include both regulatory ``push'' and market ``pull'' mechanisms--including performance standards, tax incentive programs, carbon-emission or energy taxes, labeling and efficiency ratings, and research, development, and demostration activities.

Bierbaum, Rosina M.; Friedman, Robert M.; Levenson, Howard; Rapoport, Richard D.; Sundt, Nick

1992-03-01

258

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undisturbed grasslands can sequester significant quantities of organic carbon (OC) in soils. Irrigation and fertilization enhance CO2 sequestration in managed turfgrass ecosystems but can also increase emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). To better understand the GHG balance of urban turf, we measured OC sequestration rates and emission of N2O (a GHG ˜ 300 times more effective than CO2) in Southern California, USA. We also estimated CO2 emissions generated by fuel combustion, fertilizer production, and irrigation. We show that turf emits significant quantities of N2O (0.1-0.3 g N m-2 yr-1) associated with frequent fertilization. In ornamental lawns this is offset by OC sequestration (140 g C m-2 yr-1), while in athletic fields, there is no OC sequestration because of frequent surface restoration. Large indirect emissions of CO2 associated with turfgrass management make it clear that OC sequestration by turfgrass cannot mitigate GHG emissions in cities.

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I.

2010-01-01

259

Categorization of Scope 3 emissions for streamlined enterprise carbon footprinting.  

PubMed

Many organizations look to carbon footprint protocols for guidance on measuring their greenhouse gas emissions, or carbon footprint. Existing protocols generally require estimation of direct emissions (Scope 1) and emissions from direct purchases of energy (Scope 2), but focus less on indirect emissions upstream and downstream of the supply chain (optional Scope 3). Because on average more than 75% of an industry sector's carbon footprint is attributed to Scope 3 sources, better knowledge of Scope 3 footprints can help organizations pursue emissions mitigation projects not just within their own plants but also across their supply chain. In this work, Scope 3 footprints of U.S. economic sectors are categorized using an Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model to identify upstream emission sources that are likely to contribute significantly to different sectors' footprints. The portions of the upstream footprint captured by the sector's top-10 upstream suppliers are estimated at 3 different levels of specificity: general economy-wide, industry specific, and sector specific. The results show that enterprises can capture a large portion of their total upstream carbon footprint by collecting full emissions information from only a handful of direct suppliers, and Scope 3 footprint capture rates can be improved considerably by sector-specific categorization. Employee commuting and air transportation may be more important (7%-30%) for the services industries, but should not be a focus of detailed Scope 3 footprint estimates for the manufacturing industries (<1% of the total analyzed footprint). Protocol organizations should actively make more specific Scope 3 guidelines available for their constituents by developing sector-specific categorizations for as many sectors as they feasibly can and create broader industry-specific protocols for others. PMID:20028044

Huang, Y Anny; Weber, Christopher L; Matthews, H Scott

2009-11-15

260

Electron field emission from composite electrodes of carbon nanotubes-boron-doped diamond and carbon felts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electron field emission of carbon nanotube (CNT)\\/boron-doped diamond (BDD)\\/carbon felt electrodes (CNT\\/BDD\\/felt) have been investigated. The composite electrode was initially prepared with the growth of BDD on carbon felt and the subsequent growth of CNT by chemical decomposition of methanol. The composite electrodes were characterised using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. For the CNT\\/BDD\\/felt samples, the electron

J. Mauricio Rosolen; Simone Tronto; Marcel S. Marchesin; Erica C. Almeida; Neidenei G. Ferreira; C. H. Patrick Poa´; S. Ravi P. Silva

2006-01-01

261

Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy of Carbon Arc Plasma during Formation of Carbon Magnetic Encapsulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma diagnostics of carbon arc discharge under conditions of carbon magnetic encapsulates formation was performed by emission and absorption spectroscopy. Content of C2 and Fe species, rotational temperatures of excited (d 3?g) and non-excited (a 3?u) states, and excitation temperatures of a 5F and a 3F levels relatively to the a 5D level of Fe atoms were determined. The results pointed to a non-equilibrium state of carbon arc plasma under prevailing discharge conditions.

Lange, H.; ?abed?, O.; Huczko, A.; Bystrzejewski, M.

2011-11-01

262

Demographic Change and Future Carbon Emissions in China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether projected changes in the demographic characteristics of Chinese and Indian households over the next century could have a substantial influence on consumption, economic growth, energy demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. We use new household projections for China and India that model changes in population size, urbanization, and the size and age structure of households over the

Michael Dalton; Leiwen Jiang; Shonali Pachauri; Brian C. O'Neill

263

Timing of carbon emissions from global forest clearance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change, primarily from conventional agricultural expansion and deforestation, contributes to approximately 17% of global greenhouse-gas emissions. The fate of cleared wood and subsequent carbon storage as wood products, however, has not been consistently estimated, and is largely ignored or oversimplified by most models estimating greenhouse-gas emissions from global land-use conversion. Here, we estimate the fate of cleared wood and timing of atmospheric carbon emissions for 169 countries. We show that 30 years after forest clearance the percentage of carbon stored in wood products and landfills ranges from about 0% to 62% globally. For 90 countries, less than 5% of carbon remains after 30 years, whereas 34 countries have more than 25% in storage. Higher storage rates result primarily from a greater percentage of long-lived products such as wood panels and lumber, and tend to occur in countries with predominantly temperate forests. Alternatively, lower storage rates are associated with a greater fraction of non-merchantable wood and more wood used for energy and paper production, which tend to occur in countries with predominantly tropical forests. Hence, the country and fate of cleared wood can considerably affect the timing of greenhouse-gas emissions from forest clearance.

Mason Earles, J.; Yeh, Sonia; Skog, Kenneth E.

2012-09-01

264

Economic feasibility of the path to zero net carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States and other developed countries currently and historically have transferred considerable resources overseas to further their foreign policy objectives and to purchase oil and natural gas. These transfers are comparable in magnitude to estimates of the scale of the economic effort that would be required to create a world-wide energy system with zero carbon emissions by the middle

Stephen J. DeCanio; Anders Fremstad

2011-01-01

265

Modeling Seasonality in Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil Fuel Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using United States data, a method is developed to estimate the monthly consumption of solid, liquid and gaseous fossil fuels using monthly sales data to estimate the relative monthly proportions of the total annual national fossil fuel use. These proportions are then used to estimate the total monthly carbon dioxide emissions for each state. From these data, the goal is

P. Kishore; K. Igarashi; H. Oikawa; M. Uotome; J. S. Gregg; R. J. Andres

2004-01-01

266

Controlled Vacuum Breakdown in Carbon Nanotube Field Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a physical mechanism of controlling vacuum breakdown in field emission from carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The thermal evaporation or runaway of CNT emitters is considered to be responsible for destructive vacuum breakdowns due to an overcurrent through electronically shorted circuits, where misaligned or irregularly long CNT emitters were found. The occurrence of the destructive breakdown, however, could be under

Chan-Wook Baik; Jeonghee Lee; Deuk Seok Chung; Jun Hee Choi; In-Taek Han; Ha Jin Kim; Shang Hyeun Park; Sun Il Kim; Yong Wan Jin; Jong-Min Kim; Jin Young Kim; Segi Yu; Kyu-Ha Jang; Gun-Sik Park

2007-01-01

267

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Gregg, JS [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Losey, London M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL

2011-01-01

268

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950-2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, R. J.; Gregg, J. S.; Losey, L.; Marland, G.; Boden, T. A.

2011-07-01

269

Seasonal Odor, Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Emissions from Swine Grower-Finisher Rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], and carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rates (OGCERs) from swine facilities are vital for providing accurate source emissions and reducing the uncertainty of setback distances on the basis of emission data. In this study, a repeated measurement experimental method and a split-block statistical model were used to obtain seasonal OGCER

Gang Sun; Huiqing Guo; Jonathan Peterson; Glauber Mariano; Ani Torres; Wellington Jesus; Walter Nakaema; Maria Jorge; Rauda Mariani; Klara Slezakova; Dionísia Castro; Maria Pereira; Simone Morais; Cristina Delerue-Matos; Maria Alvim-Ferraz; Catherine Barton; Charles Zarzecki; Mark Russell; Marjaleena Aatamila; Pia Verkasalo; Maarit Korhonen; Marja Viluksela; Kari Pasanen; Pekka Tiittanen; Aino Nevalainen; Li Rong; Peter Nielsen; Guoqiang Zhang; Yi-Ming Kuo; Juu-En Chang; Kun-Yu Chang; Chih-C. Chao; Yeu-Juin Tuan; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien; Yongping Li; Guohe Huang; Arhontoula Chatzilazarou; Evangelos Katsoyannos; Olga Gortzi; Stavros Lalas; Yiannis Paraskevopoulos; Euthalia Dourtoglou; John Tsaknis; Tarek Abichou; Jeremy Clark; Sze Tan; Jeffery Chanton; Gary Hater; Roger Green; Doug Goldsmith; Morton Barlaz; Nathan Swan; Zhengmin Qian; Hung-Mo Lin; Walter Stewart; Nirav Shah; Linli Kong; Fen Xu; Denjin Zhou; Zhicao Zhu; Qingci He; Shengwen Liang; Weiqing Chen; Chungsying Lu; Hsunling Bai; Fengsheng Su; Wenfa Chen; Jyh Hwang; Hsiu-Hsia Lee; Judith Chow; John Watson; Douglas Lowenthal; Lung-Wen Chen; Nehzat Motallebi

2010-01-01

270

Historical warming reduced due to enhanced land carbon uptake.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of enhanced vegetation growth under future elevated atmospheric CO2 for 21st century climate warming. Surprisingly no study has completed an analogous assessment for the historical period, during which emissions of greenhouse gases increased rapidly and land-use changes (LUC) dramatically altered terrestrial carbon sources and sinks. Using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory comprehensive Earth System Model ESM2G and a reconstruction of the LUC, we estimate that enhanced vegetation growth has lowered the historical atmospheric CO2 concentration by 85 ppm, avoiding an additional 0.31 ± 0.06 °C warming. We demonstrate that without enhanced vegetation growth the total residual terrestrial carbon flux (i.e., the net land flux minus LUC flux) would be a source of 65-82 Gt of carbon (GtC) to atmosphere instead of the historical residual carbon sink of 186-192 GtC, a carbon saving of 251-274 GtC. PMID:24062452

Shevliakova, Elena; Stouffer, Ronald J; Malyshev, Sergey; Krasting, John P; Hurtt, George C; Pacala, Stephen W

2013-09-23

271

Historical warming reduced due to enhanced land carbon uptake  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of enhanced vegetation growth under future elevated atmospheric CO2 for 21st century climate warming. Surprisingly no study has completed an analogous assessment for the historical period, during which emissions of greenhouse gases increased rapidly and land-use changes (LUC) dramatically altered terrestrial carbon sources and sinks. Using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory comprehensive Earth System Model ESM2G and a reconstruction of the LUC, we estimate that enhanced vegetation growth has lowered the historical atmospheric CO2 concentration by 85 ppm, avoiding an additional 0.31 ± 0.06 °C warming. We demonstrate that without enhanced vegetation growth the total residual terrestrial carbon flux (i.e., the net land flux minus LUC flux) would be a source of 65–82 Gt of carbon (GtC) to atmosphere instead of the historical residual carbon sink of 186–192 GtC, a carbon saving of 251–274 GtC.

Shevliakova, Elena; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Malyshev, Sergey; Krasting, John P.; Hurtt, George C.; Pacala, Stephen W.

2013-01-01

272

Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

2013-03-01

273

Managing carbon emissions in China through building energy efficiency.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to analyse the role of building energy efficiency (BEE) in China in addressing climate change mitigation. It provides an analysis of the current situation and future prospects for the adoption of BEE technologies in Chinese cities. It outlines the economic and institutional barriers to large-scale deployment of the sustainable, low-carbon, and even carbon-free construction techniques. Based on a comprehensive overview of energy demand characteristics and development trends driven by economic and demographic growth, different policy tools for cost-effective CO(2) emission reduction in the Chinese construction sector are described. We propose a comprehensive approach combining building design and construction, and the urban planning and building material industries, in order to drastically improve BEE during this period of rapid urban development. A coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure the implementation of efficiency policies. Regulatory and incentive options should be integrated into the policy portfolios of BEE to minimise the efficiency gap and to realise sizeable carbon emissions cuts in the next decades. We analyse in detail several policies and instruments, and formulate relevant policy proposals fostering low-carbon construction technology in China. Specifically, Our analysis shows that improving building energy efficiency can generate considerable carbon emissions reduction credits with competitive price under the CDM framework. PMID:19344996

Li, Jun; Colombier, Michel

2009-04-03

274

High resolution of black carbon and organic carbon emissions in the Pearl River Delta region, China.  

PubMed

A high-resolution regional black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) emission inventory for the year 2009 was developed for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based on the collected activity data and the latest emission factors. PM(2.5), BC and OC emissions were estimated to be 303 kt, 39 kt and 31 kt, respectively. Industrial processes were major contributing sources to PM(2.5) emissions. BC emissions were mainly from mobile sources, accounting for 65.0%, while 34.1% of OC emissions were from residential combustion. The primary OC/BC ratios for individual cities in the PRD region were dependent on the levels of economic development due to differences in source characteristics, with high ratios in the less developed cities and low ratios in the central and southern developed areas. The preliminary temporal profiles were established, showing the highest OC emissions in winter and relatively constant BC emissions throughout the year. The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with a resolution of 3 km × 3 km. Large amounts of BC emissions were distributed over the central-southern PRD city clusters, while OC emissions exhibited a relatively even spatial distribution due to the significant biomass burning emissions from the outlying area of the PRD region. Uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions were usually higher than in other primary pollutants like SO(2), NO(x), and PM(10). One of the key uncertainty sources was the emission factor, due to the absence of direct measurements of BC and OC emission rates. PMID:22995707

Zheng, Junyu; He, Min; Shen, Xingling; Yin, Shasha; Yuan, Zibing

2012-09-18

275

Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon emissions reduction potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large

D. Corbus; M. Martinez; L. Rodriguez; J. Mark

1994-01-01

276

Using infrastructure optimization to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands extraction and processing.  

PubMed

The Alberta oil sands are a significant source of oil production and greenhouse gas emissions, and their importance will grow as the region is poised for decades of growth. We present an integrated framework that simultaneously considers economic and engineering decisions for the capture, transport, and storage of oil sands CO(2) emissions. The model optimizes CO(2) management infrastructure at a variety of carbon prices for the oil sands industry. Our study reveals several key findings. We find that the oil sands industry lends itself well to development of CO(2) trunk lines due to geographic coincidence of sources and sinks. This reduces the relative importance of transport costs compared to nonintegrated transport systems. Also, the amount of managed oil sands CO(2) emissions, and therefore the CCS infrastructure, is very sensitive to the carbon price; significant capture and storage occurs only above 110$/tonne CO(2) in our simulations. Deployment of infrastructure is also sensitive to CO(2) capture decisions and technology, particularly the fraction of capturable CO(2) from oil sands upgrading and steam generation facilities. The framework will help stakeholders and policy makers understand how CCS infrastructure, including an extensive pipeline system, can be safely and cost-effectively deployed. PMID:23276202

Middleton, Richard S; Brandt, Adam R

2013-01-15

277

Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for the flux footprint estimated using a simple Kormann-Meixner model. Methane emissions from central London exhibit diurnal trends both for concentrations and fluxes. The former is consistent with cycles of growth and shrinkage of the urban boundary layer. Methane fluxes are strongly correlated with those of carbon dioxide. Work is ongoing to establish to what extent the diurnal cycles reflect dynamic changes in ground sources (emissions from road traffic, commercial/ domestic heating, variations in flux footprint) and to what extent they are affected by transport efficiency between street level and the top of the tower and storage in between, given the high measurement height.

Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

2013-04-01

278

Relationship between consumption of urban residents and carbon emissions in Jiangsu Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the carbon emissions factor method and energy input-output method were respectively used to accounted for direct carbon emissions and indirect carbon emissions of urban residential consumption nearly three decades in Jiangsu Province. Then it analysed the relationship between the economic development level, residential consumption level, consumption demand of energy goods, consumption structure of urban residents, characteristic of

Chunmei Mao; Xiuping Yin

2011-01-01

279

Monthly carbon emissions from natural-gas flaring and cement manufacture in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annual data on carbon emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement manufacture have been used in studies of the carbon cycle for the last few decades. However, annual data do not specify carbon emissions on the seasonal timescales relevant to biospheric uptake and other processes affecting the carbon cycle. Estimates of monthly emissions from fossil-fuel consumption in the United States (US) have shown that an increasing percentage of the annual emissions are occurring during the growing season; however, carbon emitted from flaring natural gas at well sites was not accounted for in those emissions estimates, nor was carbon emitted during cement manufacture. Here we show that emissions from flaring, which amount to around 0.1 % of all fossil-fuel carbon emissions in the US, have no clear and persistent annual pattern that can be detected in the data. In contrast, carbon emissions from cement manufacture, which add about 0.7% to carbon emissions from fossil fuels in the US, have a clear and persistent annual pattern including low values in late winter and early spring. In this paper, we provide a few remarks on carbon emissions from natural-gas flaring before presenting monthly emissions estimates. We then focus on the methodology for calculating carbon emissions from cement manufacture before presenting and discussing the monthly emissions estimates.

Blasing, T. J.; Hand, Kimberly

2007-02-01

280

Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

2012-11-15

281

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions are important, but poorly quantified, components of riverine carbon (C) budgets. This is largely because the data needed for gas flux calculations are sparse and are spatially and temporally variable. Additionally, the importance of C gas emissions relative to lateral C exports is not well known because gaseous and aqueous fluxes are not commonly measured on the same rivers. We couple measurements of aqueous CO2 and CH4 partial pressures (pCO2, pCH4) and flux across the water-air interface with gas transfer models to calculate subbasin distributions of gas flux density. We then combine those flux densities with remote and direct observations of stream and river water surface area and ice duration, to calculate C gas emissions from flowing waters throughout the Yukon River basin. CO2 emissions were 7.68 Tg C yr-1 (95% CI: 5.84 -10.46), averaging 750 g C m-2 yr-1 normalized to water surface area, and 9.0 g C m-2 yr-1 normalized to river basin area. River CH4 emissions totaled 55 Gg C yr-1 or 0.7% of the total mass of C emitted as CO2 plus CH4 and ˜6.4% of their combined radiative forcing. When combined with lateral inorganic plus organic C exports to below head of tide, C gas emissions comprised 50% of total C exported by the Yukon River and its tributaries. River CO2 and CH4 derive from multiple sources, including groundwater, surface water runoff, carbonate equilibrium reactions, and benthic and water column microbial processing of organic C. The exact role of each of these processes is not yet quantified in the overall river C budget.

Striegl, Robert G.; Dornblaser, M. M.; McDonald, C. P.; Rover, J. R.; Stets, E. G.

2012-12-01

282

40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing...of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing...Starting with the 2012 model year for carbon-related exhaust emissions and with...

2013-07-01

283

The Effect of Exports on Carbon Emission in China: An Empirical Study Based on Panel Data of 28 Manufacturing Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

With continuous increase of carbon emission, China is facing more and more pressure from international community. However, what is the driving force of China's carbon emission growth? Whether China's carbon emission should be borne by the Chinese people? Based on carbon accounting resulted from energy consumption, this paper quantitativly analyze the effect of exports on carbon emission using China's 28

Li Ping; Shen Defang

2010-01-01

284

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} from volcanic gas analyses and SO{sub 2} flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO{sub 2} presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects at times in Earth history. Models of climate response to CO{sub 2} increases may be tested against geological data.

Williams, S.N.; Schaefer, S.J. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Calvache V., M.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States) Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia, Pasto (Colombia)); Lopez, D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1992-04-01

285

2002 Monthly Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Mexico at a 10x10k Spatial Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of fossil fuel CO2 emissions to the total measured amount of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere remains an important component of carbon cycle science, particularly as efforts to understand the net exchange of carbon at the surface move to smaller scales. In order to reduce the uncertainty of this flux, researchers led by Purdue University have built a high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 flux inventory for the United States, called “Vulcan”. The Vulcan inventory quantifies emissions for the United States at 10km resolution every hour for the year 2002 and can be seen as a key component of a national assessment and verification system for greenhouse gas emissions and emissions mitigation. As part of the North American Carbon Project, the 2002 carbon dioxide emissions from Mexico are presented at the monthly temporal and municipality spatial scale. Mexico is of particular importance because of the scientific integration under the North American Carbon Program. Furthermore, Mexico has seen a notable growth in its population as well as migration toward urban centers and increasing energy requirements due in part to industrial intensification. The native resolution of the emissions is geolocated (lat/lon) for point sources, such as power plants, airports, and large industry. The emissions are estimated at the municipality level for residential and commercial sources, and allocated to roads for the mobile transport sector. Data sources include the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), and Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA). CO2 emissions are calculated from the 1999 NEI data by converting CO emissions using sector and process-dependent emission factors, and is scaled up to 2002 using statistics obtained from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center CDIAC. CEC and CARMA data, which encompass power plant emissions, are already in units of CO2. Emissions are regridded to 10x10k and 0.1x0.1 deg grids to enable atmospheric CO2 transport modeling. All economic sectors are analyzed, including power plants, commercial, residential, industrial, on-road, and non-road. Municipality and regional scale analysis is presented to explore the differences in economic and industrial development and need. Specific centers of high emissions are highlighted and analyzed in order to put into context the development and growth of certain economic sectors. The annualized emissions are compared to estimates by the International Energy Agency and found to be very similar although some discrepancies are expected due to the different methods of obtaining results. Vulcan reports process-based emissions while IEA reports fuel sales. The Vulcan output is also disaggregated by fuel type and comparisons with IEA are presented across economic sectors. A monthly product based on monthly sales is also presented. Sales by major fuel types (oil, natural gas, coal) are obtained from EIA data and those results shape the monthly cycle. These results are compared to a similar national studies, and similarities and differences are analyzed and discussed.

Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Geethakumar, S.; Zhou, Y.; Sahni, N.

2009-12-01

286

Light Emission from Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since their discovery in 1991, research in carbon nanotubes has grown rapidly. Part of this interest is driven by the remarkable electrical and mechanical properties demonstrated by carbon nanotubes which could have significant technological impact (1,2). Recent progress has included demonstrations of interesting opto-electronic properties of carbon nanotubes. In one experiment we have shown that single carbon nanotubes can be a source of infrared optical emission (3). We have also shown how a single carbon nanotube can be used as a photoconductive detector (4). In this talk, we will examine the opto-electronic properties of individual single wall carbon nanotubes. (1) M.S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, and Ph. Avouris (eds.), "Carbon Nanotubes", Topics Appl. Phys. 80, (2001). (2) Ph. Avouris, Acct. Chem. Res. 35, 1026 (2002). (3) J.A. Misewich, R. Martel, Ph. Avouris, J. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, Science 300, 783 (2003). (4) M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J.A. Misewich, R. Martel, and Ph. Avouris, Nanoletters 3, 1067 (2003).

Misewich, James

2004-03-01

287

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by

Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson

2009-01-01

288

Electron Field Emission of Silicon-Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we demonstrate that the field emission characteristics of disordered Si-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films depend not only on properties of the conductive clustered sp2 phase and the insulating sp3 matrix (or sp2/sp3 ratio) but also on the presence of Si-Hn and C-Hn species in the film. The presence of such species reduces the hardness of the film and simultaneously enhances the field emission performance. A turn on electric field (ETOF) of 6.76 V/?m produced a field emission current density of ˜0.2 mA/cm2, when an electric field of ˜20 V/?m was applied. The Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling model is appropriate to explain the field emission mechanism only within limited range of the current density. However, it is found that there is an apparent crossover between space charge limited current (SCLC) and the Frenkel effect due to impurities incorporated during the fabrication of Si-DLC films. This combined effect (SCLC + Frenkel) allows for the emission of electrons from the top of the reduced barriers due to the formation of comparatively soft DLC:Si films. The emission also occurs through tunneling from one conductive cluster (sp2 C=C) to another separated by an insulating matrix (sp3 C-C) after reducing the effective depth of a trap on application of high electric field.

Ray, Sekhar Chandra; Ghosh, Sarit Kumar; Chiguvare, Zivayi; Palnitkar, Umesh; Pong, Way-Faung; Lin, I-Nan; Papakonstantinou, Pagona; Strydom, André Michael

2010-11-01

289

Results from the U.S. DOE 2006 Save Energy now Assessment Iintiative: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman...

B. Gemmer D. Wright J. Quinn M. A. Martin P. Seheihing

2007-01-01

290

RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of

Anthony L Wright; Michaela A Martin; Bob Gemmer; Paul Scheihing; James Quinn

2007-01-01

291

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use, 1751 1950  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly compiled energy statistics allow for an estimation of the complete time series of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel use for the years 1751 to the present. The time series begins with 3×106 metric tonnes carbon (C). This initial flux represents the early stages of the fossil-fuel era. The CO2 flux increased exponentially until World War I. The time series derived here seamlessly joins the modern 1950 to present time series. Total cumulative CO2 emissions through 1949 were 61.0×109 tonnes C from fossil-fuel use, virtually all since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution around 1860. The rate of growth continues to grow during present times, generating debate on the probability of enhanced greenhouse warming. In addition to global totals, national totals and 1° global distributions of the data have been calculated.

Andres, R. J.; Fielding, D. J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T. A.; Kumar, N.; Kearney, A. T.

1999-09-01

292

Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Some International Comparisons  

EIA Publications

Presents energy use and carbon emissions patterns in a world context. The report contrasts trends in economically developed and developing areas of the world since 1970, presents a disaggregated view of the "Group of Seven" (G7) key industrialized countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and examines sectoral energy use patterns within each of the G7 countries.

Information Center

1994-04-01

293

Offsetting China's CO 2 Emissions by Soil Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuel emissions of carbon (C) in China in 2000 was about 1 Pg\\/yr, which may surpass that of the U.S. (1.84 Pg C) by 2020. Terrestrial C pool of China comprises about 35 to 60 Pg in the forest and 120 to 186 Pg in soils. Soil degradation is a major issue affecting 145 Mha by different degradative processes,

R. Lal

2004-01-01

294

Plasma-induced field emission study of carbon nanotube cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation on the plasma-induced field emission (PFE) properties of a large area carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode on a 2 MeV linear induction accelerator injector is presented. Experimental results show that the cathode is able to emit intense electron beams. Intense electron beams of 14.9-127.8A\\/cm2 are obtained from the cathode. The CNT cathode desorbs gases from the CNTs during the

Yi Shen; Liansheng Xia; Huang Zhang; Xingguang Liu; Anmin Yang; Jinshui Shi; Linwen Zhang; Qingliang Liao; Yue Zhang

2011-01-01

295

Field emission from amorphous carbon and silicon-carbon films, prepared by VHF CVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study field emission from carbon and silicon-carbon films prepared by Very High Frequency Chemical Vapour Deposition (VHF CVD). The films were prepared by capacitive discharge at a frequency f=58 MHz from argon-methane, hexane, hexane-hydrogen and hexane-silane-hydrogen mixtures on substrates of silicon, quartz and titanium-coated ceramics at temperatures of 200-250°C. The films were characterised

A. I. Kosarev; A. N. Andronov; S. V. Robozerov; T. E. Felter; A. J. Vinogradov; V. V. Zhirnov; M. V. Shutov

1998-01-01

296

Integrating livestock production with crops and saline fish ponds to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive grazing systems in the tropics have large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here an integrated cropping, livestock farming and saline pond aquaculture system is described which also reduces GHG emissions in tropical farming. The system was developed in the 1980s in the central Philippines and is re-evaluated in terms of its potential to reduce emissions from livestock production, particularly in

Damian M. Ogburn; Ian White

2011-01-01

297

Manufacturing sector carbon dioxide emissions in nine OECD countries 1973--87: A Divisia index decomposition to changes in fuel mix, emission coefficients, industry structure, energy intensities, and international structure  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the reduction in energy-related manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions for nine OECD countries in the period 1973 to 1987 is analyzed. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from energy use data. The emphasis is on carbon dioxide intensities, defined as emissions divided by value added. The overall manufacturing carbon dioxide intensity for the nine OECD countries was reduced by 42% in the period 1973--1987. Five fuels are specified together with six subsectors of manufacturing. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from fossil fuel consumption, employing emissions coefficients for gas, oil and solids. In addition, electricity consumption is specified. For electricity use an emission coefficient index is calculated from the shares of fossil fuels, nuclear power and hydro power used to generate electricity, and the efficiency in electricity generation from these energy sources. A Divisia index approach is used to sort out the contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity from different components. The major finding is that the main contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity is from the general reduction in manufacturing energy intensity, most likely driven by economic growth and increased energy prices, giving incentives to invest in new technology and new industrial processes. There is also a significant contribution from reduced production in the most carbon dioxide intensive subsectors, and a contribution from higher efficiency in electricity generation together with a larger nuclear power share at the expense of oil. 19 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

Torvanger, A. (Senter for Anvendt Forskning, Oslo (Norway) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-11-01

298

A thin film triode type carbon nanotube field emission cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field electron emission of carbon nanotubes has been heavily studied over the past two decades for various applications, such as in display technologies, microwave amplifiers, and spacecraft propulsion. However, a commercializable lightweight and internally gated electron source has yet to be realized. This work presents the fabrication and testing of a novel internally gated carbon nanotube field electron emitter. Several specific methods are used to prevent electrical shorting of the gate layer, a common failure for internally gated devices. A unique design is explored where the etch pits extend into the silicon substrate and isotropic etching is used to create a lateral buffer zone between the gate and carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are self-aligned to and within 10 microns from the gate, which creates large electric fields at low potential inputs. Initial tests confirm high field emission performance with an anode current density (based on total area of the device) of 293 ?A cm-2 and a gate current density of 1.68 mA cm-2 at 250 V.

Sanborn, Graham; Turano, Stephan; Collins, Peter; Ready, W. Jud

2013-01-01

299

Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily  

SciTech Connect

Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

2009-03-31

300

Application of Pollution Prevention Techniques to Reduce Indoor Air Emissions from Engineered Wood Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood: oak-veneered particleboard coated and cur...

C. M. Brockmann L. S. Sheldon D. A. Whitaker J. N. Baskir

1998-01-01

301

Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy of Carbon Arc Plasma during Formation of Carbon Magnetic Encapsulates  

SciTech Connect

Plasma diagnostics of carbon arc discharge under conditions of carbon magnetic encapsulates formation was performed by emission and absorption spectroscopy. Content of C{sub 2} and Fe species, rotational temperatures of excited (d {sup 3} product {sub g}) and non-excited (a {sup 3} product {sub u}) states, and excitation temperatures of a {sup 5}F and a {sup 3}F levels relatively to the a {sup 5}D level of Fe atoms were determined. The results pointed to a non-equilibrium state of carbon arc plasma under prevailing discharge conditions.

Lange, H.; Labedz, O.; Huczko, A.; Bystrzejewski, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University, Pasteur str. 1,02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

2011-11-29

302

Scanning tunneling microscopy and field emission studies of carbon nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is divided into three sections. The first section describes the design and construction of an ultrahigh vacuum, low temperature, high magnetic field, scanning tunneling microscope (STM) system. This system has been designed specifically for the characterization of nanometer-scale materials with low-dimensional electronic properties, and for the manipulation and modification of these materials to fabricate novel electronic devices. The successful operation of this system marks the beginning of a long term, potentially fruitful research program. The second section discusses experiments performed with an STM on two carbon materials. The first material is the fullerene molecule C36, which is investigated through scanning tunneling spectroscopy. These measurements prove C36 to be a material with an 0.8 eV electronic gap and sharp, molecular-like electronic energy levels. However, the spacing of these levels varies slightly from the theoretical predictions for isolated C36 molecules. Through further analysis, a new, dimerized C36 morphology is proposed and a better appreciation of the high chemical reactivity of this material is gained. Carbon nanotubes are a second material studied in this thesis. Besides conventional STM measurements, length-dependent transport characteristics of nanotubes are measured using the STM tip as a sliding electrical contact. These measurements identify unusual transport properties which appear to be initiated at particular physical positions along a nanotube. The behavior agrees with theoretical models in which a defect is incorporated in a carbon nanotube, indicating that the control of such defects may be a critical issue in the development of nanotube-based electronic devices. The third section of this thesis discusses field emission characteristics of carbon nanotube-filled composites. Nanotube-based field emission sources are shown to have excellent device characteristics which meet or exceed all of the requirements of commercial, high intensity, field emission sources. Surprisingly, though, a quantitative analysis of the emission current reveals that the nanotubes are not conventional emitters at all. Instead, they display a variety of interesting behaviors including an unusually low voltage onset, an anomalously sharp current increase above the onset, and a high field regime in which nanotube interactions tend to smooth and stabilize the field emission current. By looking beyond conventional field emission theory, each of these behaviors may be understood in terms of nanotube properties.

Collins, Philip Godfrey

303

Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in ...

D. Corbus M. Martinez L. Rodriguez J. Mark

1994-01-01

304

Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

2010-01-01

305

Costs and Carbon Benefits of Global Forestation and Reduced Deforestation in Response to a Carbon Market 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the global potential for carbon sequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbon emissions from deforestation, in response to four carbon price scenarios from 2000 to 2100. The world forest sector was disaggregated into ten regions, four largely temperate, developed regions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; and six developing, mostly tropical,

Jayant Sathaye; Peter Chan

306

Space-based observational approaches for carbon dioxide emissions treaty assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing demand for methodologies to support the assessment of international treaties on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The situation is complicated by the fact that the treaty protocols under consideration require the evaluation of the net global CO2 emissions (total anthropogenic emissions less sequestration or accumulation in long-term carbon stocks) on spatial scales of nation states (~100 km). These signals must also be disentangled from the large natural CO2 sources and sinks with high confidence. The current state of the art for observationally driven estimates of global CO2 fluxes comes from the TRANSCOM experiment and is limited to spatial resolutions of order 10,000 km (~25 global regions). Simulations of satellite data from the Greenhouse Gas Observations Satellite (GOSAT) or the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) sensors have shown the potential to reduce flux uncertainties by a factor of 10 or more while increasing the number of regions to ~100. We will present a series of flux inversion simulations using constellations of up to 4 OCO-like satellites that demonstrate the ability of space-based measurements to deliver weekly global CO2 fluxes on a 1° x 2.5° spatial resolution (~100 km x 200 km or 30,000 global regions) with flux uncertainties that are consistent with those needed to support the assessment of treaties regulating CO2 emissions.

Miller, Charles; Baker, David; Duren, Riley; Crisp, David

2010-05-01

307

Baselines for carbon emissions in the Indian and Chinese power sectors: Implications for international carbon trading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the dynamics of carbon emissions baselines of electricity generation in Indian states and Chinese provinces in the backdrop of ongoing electricity sector reforms in these countries. Two Indian states—Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, and three Chinese provinces–Guangdong, Liaoning and Hubei have been chosen for detailed analysis to bring out regional variations that are not captured in aggregate country

Chi Zhang; P. R. Shukla; David G. Victor; Thomas C. Heller; Debashish Biswas; Tirthankar Nag

2006-01-01

308

Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.  

PubMed

Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers. PMID:21280649

Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

2011-01-31

309

Method and apparatus for reducing nitrous oxides and CO emissions in a gas-fired recuperated radiant tube burner  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A radiant tube burner assembly and method is provided to reduce nitrous oxides and carbon monoxide emissions in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The burner assembly comprises a burner section, exhaust section, radiant tube, plenum and a jet pump assembly. A volume of exhaust gas drawn from the stream of exhaust gases into the jet pump assembly by way of a motive gas is flowed into a stream of combustion air so as to vitiate the oxygen content of the combustion mixture. When the combustion mixture is combusted with fuel in the burner section, the production of nitrous oxides and other harmful emission is mitigated.

2001-02-20

310

MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR REDUCING AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM POULTRY LITTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia emissions from poultry litter not only result in air pollution; high levels of ammonia in poultry houses cause poor bird performance, increase the susceptibility of birds to viral diseases, and negatively impact human health. Although ammonia emissions are a concern, few cost-effective best ...

311

DEVELOPING METHODS TO REDUCE EMISSIONS FROM SOIL FUMIGATION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Regulations on uses of soil fumigants are primarily based on their toxicity and air emissions. In addition to maintaining practical use of alternative fumigants for production of high value crops, minimizing emissions is also critical to protecting workers, bystanders, and the environment. The obje...

312

Northern Eurasian Wetlands and the Carbon Cycle: Model Estimates of Carbon Storage and Methane Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eurasian Arctic drainage constitutes over ten percent of the global land area, and stores a substantial fraction of the terrestrial carbon pool in its soils and boreal forests. Specifically, boreal forests in this region constitute an estimated carbon sink of 0.5 Pg/y. However, assessments of carbon storage and fluxes in this region, and their role in climate change, vary considerably due to large uncertainties in the extent of wetlands, which both store carbon as peat and emit carbon as methane. Accurate estimates of wetland extent have been confounded by insufficient resolution of satellite imagery and poor coverage of in situ observations. In this study we refine these estimates of wetland extent, carbon storage, and methane emissions using a system of linked large-scale models of hydrology, terrestrial carbon dynamics, and methane emissions. Large-scale hydrology comes from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model, which includes an updated lake/wetland parameterization that estimates the water table depth as a function of both lake level and wetland soil moisture. Fast ecosystem processes such as photosynthesis and respiration are simulated via the Biosphere Energy-Transfer Hydrology (BETHY) terrestrial carbon model. Methane emissions in areas of open water or saturated soil are simulated with the Walter-Heimann methane model. We validate this modeling system with respect to in situ observations of soil moisture and temperature, evaporation, and fluxes of CO2 and methane at flux towers at Fyodorovskoje, Hakasia, and Cherskii, Russia, over the period 1998- 2004. Sensitivity to calibration parameters such as the rooting depth and the proportionality between methane production rate and NPP are also explored.

Bohn, T. J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Sathulur, K.; Bowling, L. C.; McDonald, K. C.

2006-12-01

313

Electron field emission from silicon tip arrays coated by magnetron sputtering carbon nitride film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field emission properties of silicon tip arrays coated by magnetron sputtering carbon nitride films (CNx) were investigated. The coated Si tip arrays with the height of 3 ?m and the density of 106 tips/cm2 exhibit good field emission properties with the lowest threshold field of 2 V/?m, which is much better than that of uncoated Si tip arrays. The results demonstrate that CNx films effectively lower a surface potential barrier to improve the electron field emission properties of silicon tips. In particular, it was found that the variation of deposition conditions of CNx films coated on the Si tips had a significant influence on the field emission property of Si tip arrays. The dc substrate bias could reduce the field emission property of silicon tips, but a higher nitrogen partial pressure and moderate input power are favorable to the enhancement of the field emission property of Si tips. The effects of deposition conditions on the electron field emission are attributed to the change of sp2 C N bonds content in the CNx films and the apex shape of Si tip.

Li, J. J.; Zheng, W. T.; Gu, C. Z.; Jin, Z. S.

2004-10-01

314

Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Biogeochemical transformations occurring in the anoxic zones of stratified sedimentary microbial communities can profoundly influence the isotopic and organic signatures preserved in the fossil record. Accordingly, we have determined carbon isotope discrimination that is associated with both heterotrophic and lithotrophic growth of pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). For heterotrophic-growth experiments, substrate consumption was monitored to completion. Sealed vessels containing SRB cultures were harvested at different time intervals, and ?13C values were determined for gaseous CO2, organic substrates, and products such as biomass. For three of the four SRB, carbon isotope effects between the substrates, acetate or lactate and CO2, and the cell biomass were small, ranging from 0 to 2‰. However, for Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans, the carbon incorporated into biomass was isotopically heavier than the available substrates by 8 to 9‰. SRB grown lithoautotrophically consumed less than 3% of the available CO2 and exhibited substantial discrimination (calculated as isotope fractionation factors [?]), as follows: for Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, ? values ranged from 1.0100 to 1.0123; for Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, the ? value was 0.0138, and for Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans, the ? value was 1.0310. Mixotrophic growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans on acetate and CO2 resulted in biomass with a ?13C composition intermediate to that of the substrates. The extent of fractionation depended on which enzymatic pathways were used, the direction in which the pathways operated, and the growth rate, but fractionation was not dependent on the growth phase. To the extent that environmental conditions affect the availability of organic substrates (e.g., acetate) and reducing power (e.g., H2), ecological forces can also influence carbon isotope discrimination by SRB.

Londry, Kathleen L.; Des Marais, David J.

2003-01-01

315

Global Biogenic Emission of Carbon Dioxide from Landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human-induced increases in the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gas components have been underway over the past century and are expected to drive climate change in the coming decades. Carbon dioxide was responsible for an estimated 55 % of the antropogenically driven radiactive forcing of the atmosphere in the 1980s and is predicted to have even greater importance over the next century (Houghton et al., 1990). A highly resolved understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2, and how they are affected by climate and land use, is essential in the analysis of the global carbon cycle and how it may be impacted by human activities. Landfills are biochemical reactors that produce CH4 and CO2 emissions due to anaerobic digestion of solid urban wastes. Estimated global CH4 emission from landfills is about 44 millions tons per year and account for a 7.4 % of all CH4 sources (Whiticar, 1989). Observed CO2/CH4 molar ratios from landfill gases lie within the range of 0.7-1.0; therefore, an estimated global biogenic emission of CO2 from landfills could reach levels of 11.2-16 millions tons per year. Since biogas extraction systems are installed for extracting, purifying and burning the landfill gases, most of the biogenic gas emission to the atmosphere from landfills occurs through the surface environment in a diffuse and disperse form, also known as non-controlled biogenic emission. Several studies of non-controlled biogenic gas emission from landfills showed that CO2/CH4 weight ratios of surface landfill gases, which are directly injected into the atmosphere, are about 200-300 times higher than those observed in the landfill wells, which are usually collected and burned by gas extraction systems. This difference between surface and well landfill gases is mainly due to bacterial oxidation of the CH4 to CO2 inducing higher CO2/CH4 ratios for surface landfill gases than those well landfill gases. Taking into consideration this observation, the global biogenic CO2 emission from landfills could be estimated about 8.8-13.2\\times103 million tons per year, equivalent to a 0.04-0.06 % of the fossil fuel emission of CO2.

Lima, R.; Nolasco, D.; Meneses, W.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P.; Pérez, N.

2002-12-01

316

Return to 1990: The cost of mitigating United States carbon emissions in the post-2000 period  

SciTech Connect

The Second Generation Model (SGM) is employed to examine four hypothetical agreements to reduce emissions in Annex 1 nations (OECD nations plus most of the nations of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) to levels in the neighborhood of those which existed in 1990, with obligations taking effect in the year 2010. The authors estimate the cost to the US of complying with such agreements under three distinct conditions: no trading of emissions rights, trading of emissions rights only among Annex 1 nations, and a fully global trading regime. The authors find that the marginal cost of returning to 1990 emissions levels in the US in the absence of trading opportunities is approximately $108 per metric ton carbon in 2010. The total cost in that year is approximately 0.2% of GDP. International trade in emissions permits lowers the cost of achieving any mitigation objective by equalizing the marginal cost of carbon mitigation among countries. For the four mitigation scenarios in this study, economic costs to the US remain below 1% of GDP through at least the year 2020.

Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; MacCracken, C.N.; Sands, R.D.; Wise, M.A.

1997-10-01

317

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

PubMed Central

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450–600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the “dust bowl” era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4–1.0 m if 21st century CO2 concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6–1.9 m for peak CO2 concentrations exceeding ?1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer.

Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2009-01-01

318

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450-600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the "dust bowl" era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4-1.0 m if 21st century CO(2) concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6-1.9 m for peak CO(2) concentrations exceeding approximately 1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer. PMID:19179281

Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2009-01-28

319

Field Emission from Individual Free-Standing Carbon Nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field emission (FE) characteristics of individual free-standing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) grown by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) were studied. The processes comprised electron beam lithography (EBL) with various exposure periods, the deposition of nickel metal followed by lift-off, and the growth of carbon nanotubes by ICP-CVD on a < 100> p-type silicon substrate. Straight tubular and stubby conical VACNFs were formed by varying the size of the graphite electrode that supports the silicon substrate. Current-voltage (I-V) curve characteristics for the tubular shape of isolated carbon nanotubes with different diameters and lengths were studied. The lowest turn-on voltage was shown to be about 24.5 V for the highest aspect ratio of a single vertically-aligned CNT. The highest field enhancement factor ? determined from fitting the FN equation was about 110. In addition, the enhancement factor was proportional to the aspect ratio of the CNTs. The turn-on field at an emission current of 1 nA was 8-12 V/?m for a single straight tubular VACNT and 4-8 V/?m for a stubby conical VACNF. The stubby conical CNFs (with smaller radii of curvature of their tips) had a lower turn-on field, but a slightly lower ?, than the long tubular CNTs (with higher aspect ratio).

Tseng, Shih-chun; Yao, Bin-cheng; Tsai, Chuen-horng

2010-10-01

320

Emission from Pulsating Combustion of Silane at a Reduced Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulsating combustion was found to continue successively, after a mixture of flowing SiH4/He and O2 was ignitied by appropriate means in a Pyrex vessel at a total pressure of ca. 400 Pa. Light emission in the UV and visible region was spectroscopically resolved to be composed of band emissions of SiO(\\Tilde{A}-\\Tilde{X}) and OH(\\Tilde{A}-\\Tilde{X}), as well as a broad emission in the visible region. These findings were discussed from the mechanistic viewpoints of silane combustion and chemical vapor deposition of SiO2 films.

Suga, Shinsuke; Koda, Seiichiro

1988-10-01

321

How Could Carbon Credits for Reducing Deforestation Compete with Returns from Palm Oil: A Proposal for a More Flexible REDD Valuation Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for carbon credits awarded for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation of forests (REDD) to be effective, they need to be competitive with alternative land uses. In the case of Southeast Asia, oil palm cultivation is one of the most lucrative possible land uses. Existing mechanisms for awarding certified emission reductions (CERs) might not be adequately flexible to

Alexandra C. Morel; Benoit F. Morel

2012-01-01

322

Laboratory and field investigations of particulate and carbon monoxide emissions from traditional and improved cookstoves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We implemented a program in which emission characterization is enabled through collaborations between academic, US and international non-governmental entities that focus on evaluation, dissemination, and in-use testing, of improved cookstoves. This effort resulted in a study of field and laboratory emissions from traditional and improved biofuel cookstoves. We found that field measured particulate emissions of actual cooking average three times those measured during simulated cooking in the laboratory. Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in laboratory settings. The single scattering albedo (SSA) of the emissions was very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate warming. Over the course of three summers in Honduras, we measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively new improved cookstoves, and "broken-in" improved cookstoves. We found that well-designed improved cookstoves can significantly reduce PM and CO emission factors below traditional cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.2 g kg -1 - significantly larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 6.6 g kg -1 and 4.5 g kg -1, respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories.

Roden, Christoph A.; Bond, Tami C.; Conway, Stuart; Osorto Pinel, Anibal Benjamin; MacCarty, Nordica; Still, Dean

323

Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an emission inventory of primary black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) aerosols from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion between 1850 and 2000. We reconstruct fossil fuel consumption and represent changes in technology on a national and sectoral basis. Our estimates rely on new estimates of biofuel consumption, and updated emission factors for old technologies. Emissions of

Tami C. Bond; Ekta Bhardwaj; Rong Dong; Rahil Jogani; Soonkyu Jung; Christoph Roden; David G. Streets; Nina M. Trautmann

2007-01-01

324

40 CFR Table U-1 to Subpart U of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates... Table U-1 to Subpart U of Part 98âCO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates Mineral nameâcarbonate CO2 emission factor(tons CO2 /ton...

2013-07-01

325

Space-based observational approaches for carbon dioxide emissions treaty assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing demand for methodologies to support the assessment of international treaties on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The situation is complicated by the fact that the treaty protocols under consideration require the evaluation of the net global CO2 emissions (total anthropogenic emissions less sequestration or accumulation in long-term carbon stocks) on spatial scales of nation states (~100 km). These

Charles Miller; David Baker; Riley Duren; David Crisp

2010-01-01

326

Carbon Emission of Food Consumption: An Empirical Analysis of China's Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the application of life cycle analysis (LCA), this paper quantifies the impact of food consumption on carbon emission during the period 1990-2006. The results showed that the carbon footprint due to food consumption is increasing. The impact of direct food consumption on carbon emission was just a small part of the life cycle of food consumption, and about

Jing Zhi; Jixi Gao

2009-01-01

327

Field emission, morphological and mechanical properties of variety of diamond-like carbon thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of nitrogen incorporation and sandwich titanium and copper layers, on field emission, morphological and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films is explored. The introduction of foreign element (N2) and sandwich Cu and Ti layers changed the amorphous morphology to nanostructured, reduced the stress, enhanced the hardness (except N2 incorporated DLC film) and improved the field emission (except Ti/DLC bilayer) of modified DLC films. The associated versatile electrical and mechanical properties of modified DLC film made it a material of great utility in the development of field emission display panels and also lead to its application as a hard and protective coating on cutting tools, automobile parts etc. It is important to mention that DLC-based electronic materials may replace currently used soft electronic materials (such as Si) due to their enhanced stability under high energy radiation.

Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Tripathi, R. K.; Malik, H. K.; Panwar, O. S.

2011-11-01

328

The European carbon balance. Part 1: fossil fuel emissions  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed the magnitude, the trends and the uncertainties of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions in the European Union 25 member states (hereafter EU-25), based on emission inventories from energy-use statistics. The stability of emissions during the past decade at EU-25 scale masks decreasing trends in some regions, offset by increasing trends elsewhere. In the recent 4 years, the new Eastern EU-25 member states have experienced an increase in emissions, reversing after a decade-long decreasing trend. Mediterranean and Nordic countries have also experienced a strong acceleration in emissions. In Germany, France and United Kingdom, the stability of emissions is due to the decrease in the industry sector, offset by an increase in the transportation sector. When four different inventories models are compared, we show that the between-models uncertainty is as large as 19% of the mean for EU-25, and even bigger for individual countries. Accurate accounting for fossil CO2 emissions depends on a clear understanding of system boundaries, i.e. emitting activities included in the accounting. We found that the largest source of errors between inventories is the use of distinct systems boundaries (e.g. counting or not bunker fuels, cement manufacturing, nonenergy products). Once these inconsistencies are corrected, the between-models uncertainty can be reduced down to 7% at EU-25 scale. The uncertainty of emissions at smaller spatial scales than the country scale was analyzed by comparing two emission maps based upon distinct economic and demographic activities. A number of spatial and temporal biases have been found among the two maps, indicating a significant increase in uncertainties when increasing the resolution at scales finer than 200 km. At 100km resolution, for example, the uncertainty of regional emissions is estimated to be 60 gCm2 yr1, up to 50% of the mean. The uncertainty on regional fossil-fuel CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere could be reduced by making accurate 14C measurements in atmospheric CO2, and by combining them with transport models.

Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Paris, J. D. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Peylin, Philippe [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Piao, S. L. [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; River, L. [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Levin, I. [University of Heidelberg; Pregger, T. [Universitat Stuttgart; Scholz, Y. [Universitat Stuttgart; Friedrich, R. [Universitat Stuttgart; Schulze, E.-D. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry

2009-05-01

329

Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that ar...

D. Jones H. Hilger J. Bogner J. Oliver

2009-01-01

330

Binding of blood proteins to carbon nanotubes reduces cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

With the potential wide uses of nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes in biomedical applications, and the growing concerns of nanotoxicity of these engineered nanoparticles, the importance of nanoparticle–protein interactions cannot be stressed enough. In this study, we use both experimental and theoretical approaches, including atomic force microscope images, fluorescence spectroscopy, CD, SDS-PAGE, and molecular dynamics simulations, to investigate the interactions of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with human serum proteins, and find a competitive binding of these proteins with different adsorption capacity and packing modes. The ?-? stacking interactions between SWCNTs and aromatic residues (Trp, Phe, Tyr) are found to play a critical role in determining their adsorption capacity. Additional cellular cytotoxicity assays, with human acute monocytic leukemia cell line and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, reveal that the competitive bindings of blood proteins on the SWCNT surface can greatly alter their cellular interaction pathways and result in much reduced cytotoxicity for these protein-coated SWCNTs, according to their respective adsorption capacity. These findings have shed light toward the design of safe carbon nanotube nanomaterials by comprehensive preconsideration of their interactions with human serum proteins.

Ge, Cuicui; Du, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Lina; Wang, Liming; Liu, Ying; Li, Denghua; Yang, Yanlian; Zhou, Ruhong; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang; Chen, Chunying

2011-01-01

331

Electron emission induced modifications in amorphous tetrahedral diamondlike carbon  

SciTech Connect

The cold-cathode electron emission properties of amorphous tetrahedral diamondlike carbon are promising for flat-panel display and vacuum microelectronics technologies. The onset of electron emission is, typically, preceded by {open_quotes}conditioning{close_quotes} where the material is stressed by an applied electric field. To simulate conditioning and assess its effect, we combined the spatially localized field and current of a scanning tunneling microscope tip with high-spatial-resolution characterization. Scanning force microscopy shows that conditioning alters surface morphology and electronic structure. Spatially resolved electron-energy-loss spectroscopy indicates that the predominant bonding configuration changes from predominantly fourfold to threefold coordination. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Mercer, T.W. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania19104 (United States); DiNardo, N.J. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)]|[Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Rothman, J.B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Siegal, M.P.; Friedmann, T.A. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico87185 (United States); Martinez-Miranda, L.J. [Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland20742 (United States)

1998-05-01

332

Electron field emission properties of highly dense carbon nanotube arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have studied field emission properties of highly dense arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) used as cathodes in diode-type field emission devices with a phosphor screen. For the high-density CNT emitters it is demonstrated that the emission sites are located on the CNT-cathode edges, which is direct experimental evidence of the `edge effect'. The results of computer simulations (using `ANSYS Electromagnetic' software) are presented to confirm the experimental data and to analyze the effect of patterning on the electric field distribution for high-density CNT arrays. It is shown that selective-area removal of nanotubes in the arrays leads to the formation of additional edges characterized by the high field enhancement factor and enhanced emission from the CNT cathodes. In addition, scanning probe microscopy techniques are employed to examine surface properties of the high-density CNT arrays. For CNT arrays of `short' nanotubes, the work function distribution over the sample surface is detected using a scanning Kelvin microscopy method.

Pimenov, Sergei M.; Frolov, Vadim D.; Zavedeev, Evgeny V.; Abanshin, Nikolay P.; Du, He-Yun; Chen, Wei-Chao; Chen, Li-Chyong; Wu, Jih-Jen; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

2011-10-01

333

Title: Reduction of Ammonia, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Swine Waste by Dietary Manipulation, NPB #03-072  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding fiber sources to reduced crude protein, amino acid-supplemented diets on nitrogen excretion and methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia emissions from the manure. To produce the manure, twenty four barrows were allotted randomly to two dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were: 1) fortified corn-soybean meal control (Control), and 2) as Diet 1

Scott Carter

334

Positron Emission Imaging Studies of Carbon Partitioning in Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two centuries the atmospheric CO2 concentration has increased dramatically, and climate experts predict that CO2 levels will double by the end of this century. To understand plant responses to these global change conditions, we use short-lived radioisotope labeling techniques to trace the distribution of carbon in plants grown at ambient (350 PPM) and elevated (700 PPM) CO2 concentrations. The plants are grown and labeled in environmental growth chambers at the Duke University Phytotron, and carbon-11 dioxide is produced at TUNL using the ^14N(p,?)^11C reaction. The close proximity of TUNL and the Duke University Phytotron creates a unique opportunity for these global change studies. Recent experiments seek to quantify the fraction of carbon that is released from the roots either as soluble carbon in the root nutrient solution or as respired CO2 dissolved in the nutrient solution. Preliminary results from this experiment will be presented, as well as results from single detectors collimated to restrict the field of each detector to a specific region of the plant and development of a high spatial resolution planar positron emission imager.

Kiser, M. R.; Howell, C. R.; Crowell, A. S.; Reid, C. D.; Phillips, R. P.

2006-11-01

335

The potential impact of conservation, alternative energy sources, and reduced nonenergy emissions on global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we examine two global energy consumption scenarios and corresponding nonenergy scenarios to determine how each will contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. A steady emissions trend scenario assumes only modest energy conservation and little change in the world's energy consumption patterns and nonenergy emissions. A reduced emissions trend scenario assumes significant conservation, switching from a

E. A. Aronson; M. W. Edenburn

1989-01-01

336

Analysis of carbon dioxide emission from energy systems  

SciTech Connect

A linear programming model MARKAL is used to explore technology options and cost for meeting energy demands while reducing CO[sub 2] emissions from energy system of Japan. The model consists of an extension of the existing energy system and possible alternative energy technologies available during 45 years from 1983 to 2027. Using two scenarios of high- and low-energy demand, an optimal configuration of the model is examined under the mix of specified constraints on the use of technologies and fuels. The results show that energy conservation is robust in yielding reduction in CO[sub 2] emissions under a variety of conditions, and that stringent constraints on the national CO[sub 2] emissions produce major shifts in the market shares of fossil and non-fossil fuels that necessitate advanced technologies and an increase in the total system cost.

Ihara, S.; Koyama, S. (Nippon Inst. of Tech., Saitama (Japan) Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

1992-01-01

337

Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

2010-05-20

338

The Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption are presented for the five Asian countries that are among the global leaders in anthropogenic carbon emissions: China (13% of global total), Japan (5% of global total), India (5% of global total), South Korea (2% of global total), and Indonesia (1% of global total). Together, these five countries represent over a quarter of the world's fossil-fuel based carbon emissions. Moreover, these countries are rapidly developing and energy demand has grown dramatically in the last two decades. A method is developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal flux of fossil-fuel consumption, thereby greatly improving the temporal and spatial resolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Currently, only national annual data for anthropogenic carbon emissions are available, and as such, no understanding of seasonal or sub-national patterns of emissions are possible. This methodology employs fuel distribution data from representative sectors of the fossil-fuel market to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel consumption. These patterns of fuel consumption are then converted to patterns of carbon emissions. The annual total emissions estimates produced by this method are consistent to those maintained by the United Nations. Improved estimates of temporal and spatial resolution of the human based carbon emissions allows for better projections about future energy demands, carbon emissions, and ultimately the global carbon cycle.

Gregg, J. S.; Andres, R. J.

2006-12-01

339

Carbon, nitrogen balances and greenhouse gas emission during cattle feedlot manure composting.  

PubMed

Carbon and N losses reduce the agronomic value of compost and contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated GHG emissions during composting of straw-bedded manure (SBM) and wood chip-bedded manure (WBM). For SBM, dry matter (DM) loss was 301 kg Mg(-1), total carbon (TC) loss was 174 kg Mg(-1), and total nitrogen (TN) loss was 8.3 kg Mg(-1). These correspond to 30.1% of initial DM, 52.8% of initial TC, and 41.6% of initial TN. For WBM, DM loss was 268 kg Mg(-1), TC loss was 154 kg Mg(-1), and TN loss was 1.40 kg Mg(-1), corresponding to 26.5, 34.5, and 11.8% of initial amounts. Most C was lost as CO2 with CH4 accounting for <6%. However, the net contribution to greenhouse gas emissions was greater for CH4 since it is 21 times more effective at trapping heat than CO2. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were 0.077 kg N Mg(-1) for SBM and 0.084 kg N Mg(-1) for WBM, accounting for 1 to 6% of total N loss. Total GHG emissions as CO2-C equivalent were not significantly different between SBM (368.4 +/- 18.5 kg Mg(-1)) and WBM (349.2 +/- 24.3 kg Mg(-1)). However, emission of 368.4 kg C Mg(-1) (CO2-C equivalent) was greater than the initial TC content (330.5 kg Mg(-1)) of SBM, raising the question of the net benefits of composting on C sequestration. Further study is needed to evaluate the impact of composting on overall GHG emissions and C sequestration and to fully investigate livestock manure management options. PMID:14964356

Hao, Xiying; Chang, Chi; Larney, Francis J

340

Comparison of carbon emission and accumulation rates in sub-arctic lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes play an important role for the carbon cycling in the sub-arctic landscape by both storing carbon in sediments and by releasing carbon to the atmosphere. Still, our knowledge regarding the importance of carbon accumulation rates vs. carbon emissions in lakes is poor, restricting large scale assessment of source sink potential of lakes in the landscape. In this study we compare annual carbon accumulation rates and CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere for six Swedish subarctic lakes. We measured the partial pressure of CO2 (every second hour) during the ice free season. CH4 emissions were measured using floating chambers. Furthermore, we sampled sediment cores from each lake (one to three cores per lake depending on lakes sizes) and calculated the recent accumulation rate of carbon into sediments by dating each core, using 210Pb. Total annual carbon emissions (CO2 + CH4) ranged between 5 to 54 g C m-2 yr-1; hence, all lakes were atmospheric net sources of carbon. Carbon emissions were overall dominated by CO2 which made up to over 90 % of the total annual carbon emission in all lakes except one, having low CO2 emission, where CH4 counted for 40% of the annual carbon emission. Sediment carbon accumulation rates were of comparable magnitudes as the emissions, counting for rates of 30 to 60% of the total carbon emission to the atmosphere. This results stress the dual role of subarctic lakes as they are acting both as atmospheric sources of CO2 and CH4 and as significant storages of carbon in sediments.

Lundin, Erik; Bastviken, David; Klaminder, Jonatan; Olid Garcia, Carolina; Karlsson, Jan

2013-04-01

341

[Decomposition model of energy-related carbon emissions in tertiary industry for China].  

PubMed

Tertiary industry has been developed in recent years. And it is very important to find the factors influenced the energy-related carbon emissions in tertiary industry. A decomposition model of energy-related carbon emissions for China is set up by adopting logarithmic mean weight Divisia method based on the identity of carbon emissions. The model is adopted to analyze the influence of energy structure, energy efficiency, tertiary industry structure and economic output to energy-related carbon emissions in China from 2000 to 2009. Results show that the contribution rate of economic output and energy structure to energy-related carbon emissions increases year by year. Either is the contribution rate of energy efficiency or the tertiary industry restraining to energy-related carbon emissions. However, the restrain effect is weakening. PMID:23002638

Lu, Yuan-Qing; Shi, Jun

2012-07-01

342

Evaluating Transportation Controls to Reduce Motor Vehicle Emissions in Major Metropolitan Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report evaluates transportation controls to reduce motor vehicle emissions in major metropolitan areas. It brings together in a preliminary form, a description and evaluation of those transportation controls which could conceivably reduce motor vehicl...

J. W. Hoicka D. Infeld A. Karavengelos S. Myers G. Nelson

1972-01-01

343

Improved field emission performance of carbon nanotube by introducing copper metallic particles  

PubMed Central

To improve the field emission performance of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a simple and low-cost method was adopted in this article. We introduced copper particles for decorating the CNTs so as to form copper particle-CNT composites. The composites were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition technique which produced copper metallic particles localized on the outer wall of CNTs and deposited them onto indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The results showed that the conductivity increased from 10-5 to 4 × 10-5 S while the turn-on field was reduced from 3.4 to 2.2 V/?m. Moreover, the field emission current tended to be undiminished after continuous emission for 24 h. The reasons were summarized that introducing copper metallic particles to decorate CNTs could increase the surface roughness of the CNTs which was beneficial to field emission, restrain field emission current from saturating when the applied electric field was above the critical field. In addition, it could also improve the electrical contact by increasing the contact area between CNT and ITO electrode that was beneficial to the electron transport and avoided instable electron emission caused by thermal injury of CNTs.

2011-01-01

344

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the United States, 1990-2004  

SciTech Connect

Changes in cropland production and management influence energy consumption and emissions of CO2 from fossil-fuel combustion. A method was developed to calculate on-site and off-site energy and CO2 emissions for cropping practices in the US at the county scale. Energy consumption and emissions occur on-site from the operation of farm machinery and occur off-site from the manufacture and transport of cropland production inputs, such as fertilizers, pesticides, and agricultural lime. Estimates of fossil-fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions for cropping practices enable (a) the monitoring of energy and emissions with changes in land management, and (b) the calculation and balancing of regional and national carbon budgets. Results indicate on-site energy use and total energy use (i.e., the sum of on-site and off-site) on US croplands in 2004 ranged from 1.6-7.9 GJ ha-1 yr-1 and from 5.5-20.5 GJ ha-1 yr-1, respectively. On-site and total CO2 emissions in 2004 ranged from 23-176 kg C ha-1 yr-1 and from 91-365 kg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. During the period of this analysis (1990-2004), national total energy consumption for crop production ranged from 1204-1297 PJ yr-1 (Petajoule = 1 1015 Joule) with associated total fossil CO2 emissions ranging from 22.0-23.2 Tg C yr-1 (Teragram = 1 1012 gram). The annual proportion of on-site CO2 to total CO2 emissions changed depending on the diversity of crops planted. Adoption of reduced tillage practices in the US from 1990 to 2004 resulted in a net emissions reduction of 2.4 Tg C.

West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Nelson, Richard G [ORNL; Hellwinckel, Chad M [ORNL; De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G [ORNL

2009-01-01

345

Electrically-Induced Infrared Emission from Carbon Nanotube Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are currently the focus of intense study. CNTs are direct band gap materials and their optical spectra have long been attributed to transitions between free particle bands. We show that studies of electrically-excited infrared (IR) emission from single nanotube molecules provide new insights into the electron-hole interactions in quasi-1D systems. We demonstrate strongly-enhanced electroluminescence from a partially suspended CNTFET operated under unipolar transport conditions [1]. In our devices, carriers are generated locally, when a single type of carrier is accelerated under high local electric fields at intra-molecular junctions to energies sufficient to create strongly correlated e-h pairs (excitons). This excitation mechanism contrasts with emission from radiative recombination of carriers (electrons and holes) injected from the opposite ends (source and drain) of a CNTFET operated under ambipolar transport conditions. The new excitation mechanism is about 1000 times more efficient than recombination of independently injected electrons and holes, and it results from weak electron-phonon scattering and strong electron-hole binding caused by one-dimensional confinement. We show that the light emission intensity increases exponentially with the drive current in partially suspended CNTFETs, while in 3D materials light emission is usually proportional to the product of the electron and the hole currents. The strong Coulomb interaction between electrons and holes in a 1D CNT creates bound excitons whose binding energies are more than an order of magnitude larger that those in 3D materials, preventing them from dissociating under electrical fields thus contributing little to drive current compared with that in 3D. Finally, the much higher exciton density achieved in our devices than that in typical photoluminescence experiments allows us to detect emission from higher excitation states in CNTs. [1] J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, Ph. Avouris, Science 310, 1171 (2005).

Chen, Jia

2006-03-01

346

How Should Transport Emissions Be Reduced?: Potential for Emission Trading Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developed countries, transport generates approximately 25 to 30 per cent of emissions of CO2, the main greenhouse gas (GHG) and these emissions are increasing sharply. There are two explanations for the increase in emissions from transport: the first is dependency on the internal combustion engine for transport with no wide-scale economically viable alternative available in the medium term; the

Charles Raux

2008-01-01

347

Enhanced electron emission of carbon nanotube arrays grown using the resist?protection?assisted positioning technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field emitter arrays (FEAs) were developed using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electron emission sources. The CNTs were grown using a selective?positioning technique with a resist?protection layer. The light emission properties were studied through the electron emission of the CNTs on patterned islands, which were modulated with island diameter and spacing. The electron emission of CNT arrays with 5 ?m diameters

Je Hwang Ryu; Ki Seo Kim; Yi Yin Yu; Chang Seok Lee; Yi Sang Lee; Jin Jang; Kyu Chang Park

2008-01-01

348

Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various land-use transitions in the tropics contribute to atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversion for small-scale farming, cattle ranching, and production of commodities such as soya and palm oil. These transitions involve fire as an effective and inexpensive means for clearing. We applied the DECAF (DEforestation CArbon Fluxes) model to Mato Grosso, Brazil to estimate fire emissions from various land-use transitions during 2001-2005. Fires associated with deforestation contributed 67 Tg C/yr (17 and 50 Tg C/yr from conversion to cropland and pasture, respectively), while conversion of savannas and existing cattle pasture to cropland contributed 17 Tg C/yr and pasture maintenance fires 6 Tg C/yr. Large clearings (>100 ha/yr) contributed 67% of emissions but comprised only 10% of deforestation events. From a policy perspective, results imply that intensification of agricultural production on already-cleared land and policies to discourage large clearings would reduce the major sources of emissions from fires in this region.

DeFries, R. S.; Morton, D. C.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Randerson, J. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Kasibhatla, P. K.; Shimabukuro, Y.

2008-11-01

349

POTENTIAL OF USING SURFACE WATER APPLICATIONS TO REDUCE FUMIGATION EMISSIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High emission rates of fumigants from soil increase the risk of detrimental impact on workers, bystanders and the environment, and jeopardize future availability of fumigants. Efficient and cost-effective approaches to minimize fumigant use are needed. This study evaluated the potential of surface w...

350

Strategies to reduce gaseous emissions of nitrogen from irrigated agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilizer nitrogen (N) is not used efficiently in irrigation agriculture because much of the N applied is lost from the plant-soil system by emission of gaseous compounds to the atmosphere. Nitrogen may be emitted by ammonia volatilization, and as nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and dinitrogen during nitrification, biological denitrification and chemodenitrification. Nitrogen emitted to the atmosphere as ammonia may be

J. R. Freney

1997-01-01

351

Superconducting Ducted Fan Design for Reduced Emissions Aeropropulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new conceptual design tool for an environmentally sustainable method of aeropropulsion: a ducted fan system driven by a fully superconducting electrical machine. Such a system could help mitigate aviation's contribution to global climate change by enabling the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft. An electro-thermal motor sizing model was coupled with cycle analysis and weight

Philippe J. Masson; Taewoo Nam; Taeyun P. Choi; Pascal Tixador; Mark Waters; David Hall; Cesar A. Luongo; Dimitri N. Mavris

2009-01-01

352

MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO REDUCE AMMONIA EMISSIONS AND PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two of the biggest environmental challenges facing the poultry industry are atmospheric ammonia emissions and non-point source phosphorus runoff from fields fertilized with litter. High ammonia levels in poultry houses result in an unhealthy working environment for producers and cause negative impa...

353

Costs of Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to identify the reduction techniques of nitrogen oxide emissions and their costs in power plants. The target group studied consisted of both over 200 MW retrofit plants and over 50 MW new plants. Primary means applicable for ...

Y. Riionheimo M. Kosonen G. Hellen M. Jaervinen V. Yrjoelae

1989-01-01

354

Optimal Learning on Climate Change: Why Climate Skeptics should reduce Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate skeptics argue that the possibility that global warming is exogenous implies that we should not take additional action towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions until we know more. However this paper shows that even climate skeptics have an incentive to reduce emissions: such a change of direction facilitates their learning process on the causes of global warming. Since the optimal

Sweder van Wijnbergen; Tim Willems

2012-01-01

355

Application of the Miller cycle to reduce NO x emissions from petrol engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual analysis of the mechanism of the Miller cycle for reducing NOx emissions is presented. Two versions of selected Miller cycle (1 and 2) were designed and realized on a Rover “K” series 16-valve twin-camshaft petrol engine. The test results showed that the application of the Miller cycle could reduce the NOx emissions from the petrol engine. For Miller

Yaodong Wang; Lin Lin; Shengchuo Zeng; Jincheng Huang; Anthony P. Roskilly; Yunxin He; Xiaodong Huang; Shanping Li

2008-01-01

356

Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development  

SciTech Connect

The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-07-31

357

Freshwater greenhouse gas emissions and their implications on landscape level carbon balances in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from global freshwaters are important sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. It has been estimated that about 0.65 Pg of C (CO2 equiv.) yr-1 in the form of CH4 and 1.4 Pg C yr -1 in the form of CO2 is being emitted from global freshwaters. Therefore, including freshwater emissions in the greenhouse gas budgets in the national or global levels could significantly reduce the estimated land carbon sink, but present estimates suffer from lack of data, in particular from tropical freshwaters. Hence, we attempted to test the validity of the land carbon sink estimate in India, a tropical country with a large number of natural and man-made water bodies. We measured the CH4 and CO2 fluxes and surface water concentrations from a wide variety of inland freshwaters like lakes, ponds, rivers, reservoirs, open wells, canals and springs in three South Indian states, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. We observed that almost all of these freshwater systems emitted varied amounts of CH4 and a majority of them emitted CO2, similar to other tropical locations in South America. We extrapolated the measured fluxes for the whole of Indian inland waters by using the total area of different categories of inland waters in the national wetland atlas of India. By comparing our estimates of aquatic fluxes with the national greenhouse gas budget, we show that the land carbon sink of India is substantially overestimated. Thus, freshwater emissions are important components of greenhouse gas budgets on a landscape level and it is necessary to incorporate them in national and global greenhouse gas budgets to accurately quantify the land carbon sink.

Panneer Selvam, B.; Natchimuthu, S.; Arunachalam, L.; Bastviken, D.

2012-04-01

358

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+): game changer or just another quick fix?  

PubMed

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) provides financial compensation to land owners who avoid converting standing forests to other land uses. In this paper, we review the main opportunities and challenges for REDD+ implementation, including expectations for REDD+ to deliver on multiple environmental and societal cobenefits. We also highlight a recent case study, the Norway-Indonesia REDD+ agreement and discuss how it might be a harbinger of outcomes in other forest-rich nations seeking REDD+ funds. Looking forward, we critically examine the fundamental assumptions of REDD+ as a solution for the atmospheric buildup of greenhouse gas emissions and tropical deforestation. We conclude that REDD+ is currently the most promising mechanism driving the conservation of tropical forests. Yet, to emerge as a true game changer, REDD+ must still demonstrate that it can access low transaction cost and high-volume carbon markets or funds, while also providing or complimenting a suite of nonmonetary incentives to encourage a developing nation's transition from forest losing to forest gaining, and align with, not undermine, a globally cohesive attempt to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. PMID:22168380

Venter, Oscar; Koh, Lian Pin

2011-12-14

359

Predicting ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions from carbon and nitrogen biodegradability during animal waste composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

During composting of livestock manure, transformations of organic matter result in gaseous emissions, which can harm the environment. Two experiments were done in enclosures to measure the fluxes of NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 and H2O emitted by 8 heaps of compost representing the range of biodegradability of nitrogen and carbon in the livestock manure. The heaps were monitored for the

Jean-Marie Paillat; Paul Robin; Mélynda Hassouna; Philippe Leterme

2005-01-01

360

Low-threshold field emission from carbon nano-clusters.  

PubMed

Detonation carbon materials (DCM) composed of non-equilibrium nano-structures show the low-threshold field emission (LTFE). These materials have forward-looking application especially due to high reproducibility of the LTFE-phenomenon on a surface of emitter, where the emitting centers are homogeneously distributed. In this paper we link the effect of LTFE to the nature of the corresponding wave functions based on the experiment results obtained for DCM by the field effect on electrolytes. As we had shown before DCM had been described by an ultra-relativistic dispersion function with extremely small effective mass of electrons and the size-quantization effect had been observed in DCM at even room temperature. Our results based on emission and electrolyte technics of the field-effect measurements in DCM along with modern observations of the field emission in strong electric fields allowed to propose a new resonance transmission model for LTFE-phenomenon, which is alternative to most widely discussed models based on the field-enhancing factors or barrier-lowering mechanisms. PMID:21292400

Yafyasov, A; Bogevolnov, V; Fursey, G; Pavlov, B; Polyakov, M; Ibragimov, A

2011-01-07

361

Enhancement of field emission properties of cyanoacrylate carbon nanotube arrays by laser treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanoacrylate-carbon nanotube arrays are prepared by embedding carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays grown on silicon substrate in cyanoacrylate adhesive. Upon laser treatment, enhanced field emission properties are obtained. Moreover, the binding force between the carbon nanotubes and the substrate is strengthened by the cyanoacrylate adhesive. When the field emission current is large enough at high electric field, the carbon nanotubes cannot be pulled out of the substrate by electric field force. A large field emission current can be obtained from cyanoacrylate-carbon nanotube arrays at relatively low voltage just by decreasing the distance between the anode and the cathode.

Liu, Yuming; Fan, Shou Shan

2004-08-01

362

Reducing health care's carbon footprint--the power of nursing.  

PubMed

Global warming and environmentalism continue to be national and international issues as their complexities and implications become better understood. One ironic contributor to the degradation of the environment is the health care system. Serving as clinical laboratories, hotels, restaurants, and offices that never close, U.S. hospitals produce more than 2 million tons of waste annually. Although the consequences and significance of health care's carbon footprint are undeniable, strategies to reduce this impact are challenging. This article discusses how the role, traits, and knowledge of nurses combined with their positions in the health care system make them key players in creating an environmentally sustainable health care industry. With an analysis of environmental action versus inaction, this article explores how nurses at the forefront of health care are equipped to change practice that will reach far beyond the bedside. PMID:23413481

Muñoz, Aliria

2012-11-01

363

Setting cumulative emissions targets to reduce the risk of dangerous climate change  

PubMed Central

Avoiding “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” requires stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and substantial reductions in anthropogenic emissions. Here, we present an inverse approach to coupled climate-carbon cycle modeling, which allows us to estimate the probability that any given level of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will exceed specified long-term global mean temperature targets for “dangerous anthropogenic interference,” taking into consideration uncertainties in climate sensitivity and the carbon cycle response to climate change. We show that to stabilize global mean temperature increase at 2 °C above preindustrial levels with a probability of at least 0.66, cumulative CO2 emissions from 2000 to 2500 must not exceed a median estimate of 590 petagrams of carbon (PgC) (range, 200 to 950 PgC). If the 2 °C temperature stabilization target is to be met with a probability of at least 0.9, median total allowable CO2 emissions are 170 PgC (range, ?220 to 700 PgC). Furthermore, these estimates of cumulative CO2 emissions, compatible with a specified temperature stabilization target, are independent of the path taken to stabilization. Our analysis therefore supports an international policy framework aimed at avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference formulated on the basis of total allowable greenhouse gas emissions.

Zickfeld, Kirsten; Eby, Michael; Matthews, H. Damon; Weaver, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

364

Warming Reduces Carbon Losses from Grassland Exposed to Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

The flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere may ameliorate or exacerbate climate change, depending on the relative responses of ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration to warming temperatures, rising atmospheric CO2, and altered precipitation. The combined effect of these global change factors is especially uncertain because of their potential for interactions and indirectly mediated conditions such as soil moisture. Here, we present observations of CO2 fluxes from a multi-factor experiment in semi-arid grassland that suggests a potentially strong climate – carbon cycle feedback under combined elevated [CO2] and warming. Elevated [CO2] alone, and in combination with warming, enhanced ecosystem respiration to a greater extent than photosynthesis, resulting in net C loss over four years. The effect of warming was to reduce respiration especially during years of below-average precipitation, by partially offsetting the effect of elevated [CO2] on soil moisture and C cycling. Carbon losses were explained partly by stimulated decomposition of soil organic matter with elevated [CO2]. The climate – carbon cycle feedback observed in this semiarid grassland was mediated by soil water content, which was reduced by warming and increased by elevated [CO2]. Ecosystem models should incorporate direct and indirect effects of climate change on soil water content in order to accurately predict terrestrial feedbacks and long-term storage of C in soil.

Pendall, Elise; Heisler-White, Jana L.; Williams, David G.; Dijkstra, Feike A.; Carrillo, Yolima; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

365

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations...EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures...Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

2013-07-01

366

Mobile laboratory measurements of black carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other vehicle emissions in Mexico City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of concern due to their effects on climate and health. The main goal of this research is to provide the first estimate of emissions of BC and particle-phase PAHs (PPAHs) from motor vehicles in Mexico City. The emissions of other pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter of diameter 2.5 µm and less (PM2.5) are also estimated. As a part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign in April 2003 (MCMA-2003), a mobile laboratory was driven throughout the city. The laboratory was equipped with a comprehensive suite of gas and particle analyzers, including an aethalometer that measured BC and a photoionization aerosol sensor that measured PPAHs. While driving through traffic, the mobile lab is continuously sampling exhaust plumes from the vehicles around it. We have developed a method of automatically identifying exhaust plumes, which are then used as the basis for calculation of fleet-average emission factors. In the approximately 75 h of on-road sampling during the field campaign, we have identified ~30 000 exhaust measurement points that represent a variety of vehicle types and driving conditions. The large sample provides a basis for estimating fleet-average emission factors and thus the emission inventory. Motor vehicles in the Mexico City area are estimated to emit 1700±200 metric tons BC, 57±6 tons PPAHs, 1 190 000±40 000 tons CO, 120 000±3000 tons NOx, 202 000±4000 tons VOCs, and 4400±400 tons PM2.5 per year, not including cold start emissions. The estimates for CO, NOx, and PPAHs may be low by up to 10% due to the slower response time of analyzers used to measure these species. Compared to the government's official motor vehicle emission inventory for the year 2002, the estimates for CO, NOx, VOCs, and PM2.5 are 38% lower, 23% lower, 7% higher, and 26% higher, respectively. The distributions of emission factors of BC, PPAHs, and PM2.5 are highly skewed, i.e. asymmetric, while those for benzene, measured as a surrogate for total VOCs, and NOx are less skewed. As a result, the total emissions of BC, PPAHs, and PM2.5 could be reduced by approximately 50% if the highest 20% of data points were removed, but ''super polluters'' are less influential on overall NOx and VOC emissions.

Jiang, M.; Marr, L. C.; Dunlea, E. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Kolb, C. E.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

2005-08-01

367

Evidence for adsorbate-enhanced field emission from carbon nanotube fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used residual gas analysis (RGA) to identify the species desorbed during field emission (FE) from a carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber. The RGA data show a sharp threshold for H2 desorption at an external field strength that coincides with a breakpoint in the FE data. A comprehensive model for the gradual transition of FE from adsorbate-enhanced CNTs at low bias to FE from CNTs with reduced H2 adsorbate coverage at high bias is developed which accounts for the gradual desorption of the H2 adsorbates, alignment of the CNTs at the fiber tip, and importance of self-heating effects with applied bias.

Murray, P. T.; Back, T. C.; Cahay, M. M.; Fairchild, S. B.; Maruyama, B.; Lockwood, N. P.; Pasquali, M.

2013-07-01

368

The 217.5 nm Band, Infrared Absorption, and Infrared Emission Features in Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon nanoparticles whose spectral characteristics include an absorption band at 217.5 nm with the profile and characteristics of the interstellar 217.5 nm feature. Vibrational spectra of these particles also contain the features commonly observed in absorption and emission from dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. These materials are produced under "slow" deposition conditions by minimizing the flux of incident carbon atoms and by reducing surface mobility. The initial chemistry leads to the formation of carbon chains, together with a limited range of small aromatic ring molecules, and eventually results in carbon nanoparticles having an sp 2/sp 3 ratio ? 0.4. Spectroscopic analysis of particle composition indicates that naphthalene and naphthalene derivatives are important constituents of this material. We suggest that carbon nanoparticles with similar composition are responsible for the appearance of the interstellar 217.5 nm band and outline how these particles can form in situ under diffuse cloud conditions by deposition of carbon on the surface of silicate grains. Spectral data from carbon nanoparticles formed under these conditions accurately reproduce IR emission spectra from a number of Galactic sources. We provide the first detailed fits to observational spectra of Type A and B emission sources based entirely on measured spectra of a carbonaceous material that can be produced in the laboratory.

Duley, W. W.; Hu, Anming

2012-12-01

369

THE 217.5 nm BAND, INFRARED ABSORPTION, AND INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES IN HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS CARBON NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

We report on the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon nanoparticles whose spectral characteristics include an absorption band at 217.5 nm with the profile and characteristics of the interstellar 217.5 nm feature. Vibrational spectra of these particles also contain the features commonly observed in absorption and emission from dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. These materials are produced under ''slow'' deposition conditions by minimizing the flux of incident carbon atoms and by reducing surface mobility. The initial chemistry leads to the formation of carbon chains, together with a limited range of small aromatic ring molecules, and eventually results in carbon nanoparticles having an sp {sup 2}/sp {sup 3} ratio Almost-Equal-To 0.4. Spectroscopic analysis of particle composition indicates that naphthalene and naphthalene derivatives are important constituents of this material. We suggest that carbon nanoparticles with similar composition are responsible for the appearance of the interstellar 217.5 nm band and outline how these particles can form in situ under diffuse cloud conditions by deposition of carbon on the surface of silicate grains. Spectral data from carbon nanoparticles formed under these conditions accurately reproduce IR emission spectra from a number of Galactic sources. We provide the first detailed fits to observational spectra of Type A and B emission sources based entirely on measured spectra of a carbonaceous material that can be produced in the laboratory.

Duley, W. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Hu, Anming, E-mail: wwduley@uwaterloo.ca, E-mail: a2hu@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Centre for Advanced Material Joining, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)] [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Centre for Advanced Material Joining, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2012-12-20

370

The effect of two ammonia-emission-reducing pig housing systems on odour emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odour nuisance from agricultural activities is increasing in densely populated countries like the Netherlands. To develop adequate regulations, a large-scale, government-financed monitoring programme was started in the mid-1990s to establish odour emission levels for both conventional and low ammonia emission housing systems for cattle, pigs and poultry. The results indicate that high- and low-odour emission housing are difficult to distinguish

G. Mol; N. W. M. Ogink

2004-01-01

371

Wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from dairy manure storage  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the use of a wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from liquid manure was conducted in both a laboratory and a pilot system. Two straw covers with different thicknesses (5 cm and 10 cm) were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing odorous gas emissions. The rates of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from the treatments were monitored; concentrations of ammonia, dissolved sulfide, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH of the liquid manure were measured. Additionally, the overall mass transfer coefficients of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were calculated for the conditions of the experiment. The results demonstrated that both the 5-cm and 10-cm straw covers were effective in reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from manure storage. In the laboratory tests, when a crust formed on the manure surface within three to four weeks after the straw application, ammonia emissions were reduced by up to 95%. A similar trend was observed in the pilot experiments in the field. Hydrogen sulfide emissions were suppressed by 95% with the wheat straw cover. The mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen sulfide with the straw covers were significantly lower than those of the control, which indicated the effectiveness of a straw cover as a physical barrier for reducing hydrogen sulfide emissions. Reduced pH and decreased ammonia that biological reactions might also be a factor contributing to the emission reductions.

Xue, S.K.; Hermanson, R.E.

1999-08-01

372

The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the planet’s climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2007-07-11

373

Greenhouse gas emission accounting and management of low-carbon community.  

PubMed

As the major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, cities have been under tremendous pressure of energy conservation and emission reduction for decades. Community is the main unit of urban housing, public facilities, transportation, and other properties of city's land use. The construction of low-carbon community is an important pathway to realize carbon emission mitigation in the context of rapid urbanization. Therefore, an efficient carbon accounting framework should be proposed for CO? emissions mitigation at a subcity level. Based on life-cycle analysis (LCA), a three-tier accounting framework for the carbon emissions of the community is put forward, including emissions from direct fossil fuel combustion, purchased energy (electricity, heat, and water), and supply chain emissions embodied in the consumption of goods. By compiling a detailed CO? emission inventory, the magnitude of carbon emissions and the mitigation potential in a typical high-quality community in Beijing are quantified within the accounting framework proposed. Results show that emissions from supply chain emissions embodied in the consumption of goods cannot be ignored. Specific suggestions are also provided for the urban decision makers to achieve the optimal resource allocation and further promotion of low-carbon communities. PMID:23251104

Song, Dan; Su, Meirong; Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

2012-12-02

374

Reducing greenhouse gases through conditional trading of emission entitlements  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the wheels of the industrialized world turn on fossil fuels, which are subject to international trade and transport across oceans and continents. Keep in mind that the per capita use of energy in the developing counties is a small fraction of what is used in North America, in Europe (including Russia), and in Japan. Yearly, we burn fossil fuels amounting to more than 8 cubic kilometers or 2 cubic miles of oil equivalent. (In 1987, approximately 4,600 megatonnes of coal, 3,080 megatonnes of oil and LNG, 27 megatonnes of oil shale and bitumen, and 1,923 gigacubic meters of natural gas). The combustion products poured into the air from burning fossil fuels affect the atmosphere and the global climate in a way that causes concern. Countermeasures are called for, which is why this year saw the world's largest international governmental meeting ever in Rio de Janeiro. There, all 153 countries present signed a legally binding treaty to stabilize atmospheric emissions at 1990 levels and all, except the United States, within various target dates. It means that energy producers all over the world must put the control of emissions on their agenda. So far, scientists, bureaucrats and politicians have been the main actors on this issue.

Vinjar, A. (Norwegian Energy Administration (Norway))

1992-10-01

375

Tillage, Cropping Sequence, and Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Dryland Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission and Carbon Content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO2 emission and increase C sequestration that can influence global warming. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland soil surface CO2 flux, temperature and water content at the 0- to 1...

376

Carbon emission offsets for aviation-generated emissions due to international travel to and from New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

International air transport emissions are not subject to liability under the Kyoto Protocol. However, pressure is mounting globally for international aviation to be included in post-Kyoto arrangements. In the absence of international collective action, a number of so-called carbon offsetting schemes have emerged that allow individual travellers and companies to compensate for their international air travel emissions. These schemes offer

Inga J. Smith; Craig J. Rodger

2009-01-01

377

Using Sensor Information to Reduce the Carbon Footprint of Perishable Goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensors enhance the control of perishable goods. New applications not only help to increase profits but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. An abatement cost analysis examines the trade-offs between profit maximization and emission minimization.

Alexander Ilic; Thorsten Staake; Elgar Fleisch

2009-01-01

378

Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase reduces brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Carbonic anhydrase-1 (CA-1) is a metalloenzyme present at high concentrations in erythrocytes. Our previous studies showed that erythrocyte lysis contributes to brain edema formation after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and a recent study indicates that CA-1 can cause blood-brain barrier disruption. The present study investigated the role of CA-1 in ICH-induced brain injury. There were three groups in the study. In the first, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received 100 ?l autologous blood injection into the right caudate. Sham rats had a needle insertion. Rat brains were used for brain CA-1 level determination. In the second group, rats received an intracaudate injection of either 50 ?l CA-1 (1 ?g/?l) or saline. Brain water content, microglia activation and neuronal death (Fluoro-Jade C staining) were examined 24 hours later. In the third group, acetazolamide (AZA, 5 ?l, 1 mM), an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrases, or vehicle was co-injected with 100 ?l blood. Brain water content, neuronal death and behavioral deficits were measured. We found that CA-I levels were elevated in the ipsilateral basal ganglia at 24 hours after ICH. Intracaudate injection of CA-1 induced brain edema (79.0 ± 0.6 vs. 78.0±0.2% in saline group, p<0.01), microglia activation and neuronal death (p<0.01) at 24 hours. AZA, an inhibitor of CA, reduced ICH-induced brain water content (79.3 ± 0.7 vs. 81.0 ± 1.0% in the vehicle-treated group, p<0.05), neuronal death and improved functional outcome (p<0.05). These results suggest that CA-1 from erythrocyte lysis contributes to brain injury after ICH.

Guo, Fuyou; Hua, Ya; Wang, Jinhu; Keep, Richard F.; Xi, Guohua

2011-01-01

379

A Strategic Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Food Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global warming is considered a problem caused by combined worldwide greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Many greenhouse gases\\u000a occur naturally as a result of Earth’s geological, hydrological, and biological cycles. They include water vapor, carbon dioxide\\u000a (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3). In addition, other photochemically important gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO\\u000a x

Aydin Kilic; Adnan Midilli; Ibrahim Dincer

380

EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURE ON CLIMATE CHANGE: A CROSS COUNTRY STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING CARBON EMISSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture affects atmosphere by releasing green house gases and get affected in turn, from climate change. This paper reviews the literature on both the aspects and test empirically that what affects emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Data on carbon emissions, energy consumption and agriculture related national level variables are obtained for 120 countries from the World Bank's Green

Krishna Prasad Pant

2009-01-01

381

Local food, food miles and carbon emissions: A comparison of farm shop and mass distribution approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a critical commentary on the conception of food miles followed by an empirical application of food miles to two contrasting food distribution systems based on carbon emissions accounting within these systems. The comparison is between the carbon emissions resultant from operating a large-scale vegetable box system and those from a supply system where the customer travels to

David Coley; Mark Howard; Michael Winter

2009-01-01

382

The Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption are presented for the five Asian countries that are among the global leaders in anthropogenic carbon emissions: China (13% of global total), Japan (5% of global total), India (5% of global total), South Korea (2% of global total), and Indonesia (1% of global total). Together, these five countries represent over a quarter of the

J. S. Gregg; R. J. Andres

2006-01-01

383

Reversible and irreversible impacts of greenhouse gas emissions in multi-century projections with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The legacy of historical and the long-term impacts of 21st century greenhouse gas emissions on climate, ocean acidification, and carbon-climate feedbacks are investigated with a coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Emission commitment scenarios with zero emissions after year 2100 and 21st century emissions of 1,800, 900, and 0 gigatons of carbon are run up to year 2500. The reversibility and irreversibility of impacts is quantified by comparing anthropogenically-forced regional changes with internal, unforced climate variability. We show that the influence of historical emissions and of non-CO2 agents is largely reversible on the regional scale. Forced changes in surface temperature and precipitation become smaller than internal variability for most land and ocean grid cells in the absence of future carbon emissions. In contrast, continued carbon emissions over the 21st century cause irreversible climate change on centennial to millennial timescales in most regions and impacts related to ocean acidification and sea level rise continue to aggravate for centuries even if emissions are stopped in year 2100. Undersaturation of the Arctic surface ocean with respect to aragonite, a mineral form of calcium carbonate secreted by marine organisms, is imminent and remains widespread. The volume of supersaturated water providing habitat to calcifying organisms is reduced from preindustrial 40 to 25% in 2100 and to 10% in 2300 for the high emission case. We conclude that emission trading schemes, related to the Kyoto Process,should not permit trading between emissions of relatively short-lived agents and CO2 given the irreversible impacts of anthropogenic carbon emissions.

Froelicher, T. L.; Joos, F.

2010-12-01

384

Reversible and irreversible impacts of greenhouse gas emissions in multi-century projections with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The legacy of historical and the long-term impacts of 21st century greenhouse gas emissions on climate, ocean acidification, and carbon-climate feedbacks are investigated with a coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Emission commitment scenarios with zero emissions after year 2100 and 21st century emissions of 1,800, 900, and 0 gigatons of carbon are run up to year 2500. The reversibility and irreversibility of impacts is quantified by comparing anthropogenically-forced regional changes with internal, unforced climate variability. We show that the influence of historical emissions and of non-CO2 agents is largely reversible on the regional scale. Forced changes in surface temperature and precipitation become smaller than internal variability for most land and ocean grid cells in the absence of future carbon emissions. In contrast, continued carbon emissions over the 21st century cause irreversible climate change on centennial to millennial timescales in most regions and impacts related to ocean acidification and sea level rise continue to aggravate for centuries even if emissions are stopped in year 2100. Undersaturation of the Arctic surface ocean with respect to aragonite, a mineral form of calcium carbonate secreted by marine organisms, is imminent and remains widespread. The volume of supersaturated water providing habitat to calcifying organisms is reduced from preindustrial 40 to 25% in 2100 and to 10% in 2300 for the high emission case. We conclude that emission trading schemes, related to the Kyoto Process, should not permit trading between emissions of relatively short-lived agents and CO2 given the irreversible impacts of anthropogenic carbon emissions.

Frölicher, Thomas L.; Joos, Fortunat

2010-12-01

385

A Systems Approach to Reducing Institutional GHG Emissions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish necessity and methods for considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies at a system-level. The research emphasizes connecting narrowly focused GHG mitigation objectives (e.g. reduce single occupancy vehicle travel) with broader institutional objectives (e.g. growth in student population)…

Williamson, Sean R.

2012-01-01

386

Future ocean increasingly transparent to low-frequency sound owing to carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-frequency sound in the ocean is produced by natural phenomena such as rain, waves and marine life, as well as by human activities, such as the use of sonar systems, shipping and construction. Sea water absorbs sound mainly owing to the viscosity of the water and the presence of chemical constituents, such as magnesium sulphate, boric acid and carbonate ions. The concentration of dissolved chemicals absorbing sound near 1kHz depends on the pH of the ocean, which has declined as a result of increases in acidity due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. Here we use a global ocean model forced with projected carbon dioxide emissions to predict regional changes in pH, and thus sound absorption, in the years 1800-2300. According to our projections, ocean pH could fall by up to 0.6 units by 2100. Sound absorption-in the range between ~100Hz and ~10kHz-could fall by up to 60% in the high latitudes and in areas of deep-water formation over the same time period. We predict that over the twenty-first century, chemical absorption of sound in this frequency range will nearly halve in some of the regions that experience significant radiated noise from industrial activity, such as the North Atlantic Ocean. We suggest that our forecast of reduced sound absorption in acoustic hotspots will help in identifying target regions for future monitoring.

Ilyina, Tatiana; Zeebe, Richard E.; Brewer, Peter G.

2010-01-01

387

Electron emission from films of carbon nanotubes and ta-C coated nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

The field emission properties of multiwall carbon nanotube films with and without a coating of tetrahedrally bonded amorphous carbon (ta-C) were investigated. Voltage thresholds of 2.4 V/{mu}m for uncoated films and 1.5 V/{mu}m for ta-C coated films were found. The results for the uncoated films are in good agreement with previous measurements of field emission from carbon nanotubes. The effect of the ta-C coating on the emission properties is discussed in light of current field emission models. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Dimitrijevic, S.; Withers, J.C. [MER Corporation, 7960 South Kolb Road, Tucson, Arizona 85706 (United States); Mammana, V.P. [Instituto de Fisica, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo SP 05315 (Brazil); Monteiro, O.R.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1999-10-01

388

Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8 %) and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %), followed by South Asia (India; 31 %), however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting that these results greatly underestimate the full air pollution-related mortality benefits of BC mitigation strategies which generally decrease both BC and OC. The choice of concentration-response factor and health effect thresholds affects estimated global avoided deaths by as much as 56 % but does not strongly affect the regional distribution. Confidence in our results would be strengthened by reducing uncertainties in emissions, model parameterization of aerosol processes, grid resolution, and PM2.5 concentration-mortality relationships globally.

Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

2011-07-01

389

Using Surface Water Application to Reduce 1,3-Dichloropropene Emission from Soil Fumigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High emissions from soil fumigants increase the risk of detrimental impact on workers, bystanders, and the environment, and jeopar- dize future availability of fumigants. Efficient and cost-effective ap- proaches to minimize emissions are needed. This study evaluated the potential of surface water application (or water seal) to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) emissions from soil (Hanford sandy loam) columns. Treatments included dry

Suduan Gao; Thomas J. Trout

2006-01-01

390

Individual measurements of the emission factor of aerosol black carbon in automobile plumes  

SciTech Connect

As automobiles passed a measuring point, the authors recorded the concentrations of carbon dioxide and aerosol black carbon (BC) in their dispersing exhaust plumes. After subtraction of background levels, the ratio of the increments of these species allowed them to calculate the emission factor of BC per unit mass of fuel from each individual vehicle. These factors spanned a range of greater than two orders of magnitude, representing the emission of from 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 10{sup {minus}3} grams of aerosol black carbon per gram of carbon consumed in the fuel. Their distribution showed that 20% of the vehicles accounted for 65% of the emissions. The real-time measurement methodology allows for a determination of the distribution of emission factors across the actual population of sources. These results are similar to the side range of carbon monoxide emission factors reported recently.

Hansen, A.D.A.; Rosen, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States))

1990-12-01

391

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-08-01

392

Fluorinated diamond like carbon as an electron field emission material.  

PubMed

Fluorinated DLC films were deposited via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique on glass and silicon substrates. The precursor gas used was acetylene and for fluorine incorporation hydrofluoric acid dissolved in methanol was used. The at.% of fluorine in the films was varied from 0% to 15.3% as measured from energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The chemical binding was investigated by XPS studies. AFM studies showed that the increase of surface roughness with fluorine percentage. We have studied electron field emission from F:DLC thin films for a fixed anode-sample separation of 100 microm for different F at.% in the films. The threshold field was found to vary from 8.5 to 2.9 V/microm with a variation of fluorine at.% in the films 0% to 15.3%. The threshold field and field enhancement factor are calculated and we have tried to explain the emission mechanism there from. It was found that the threshold field and effective emission barrier were reduced by F doping than undoped DLC. PMID:19928261

Ahmed, Sk F; Mitra, M K; Chattopadhyay, K K

2009-09-01

393

Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-10-27

394

APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM ENGINEERED WOOD PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood: oak-veneered particleboard coated and cured with a heat-curable, a...

395

Utilizing hydrogen energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Canada's residential sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the residential sector by using hydrogen energy is reported. The residential sectors in provinces across Canada are considered. Greenhouse gas emissions are determined from the consumption of fossil fuels associated with the energy requirements in the residential sector. The use of hydrogen technologies in the residential sector is compared

Luthfi I. Lubis; Ibrahim Dincer; Greg F. Naterer; Marc A. Rosen

2009-01-01

396

The impact of electric passenger transport technology under an economy-wide climate policy in the United States: Carbon dioxide emissions, coal use, and carbon dioxide capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear.

Marshall A. Wise; G. Page Kyle; James J. Dooley; Son H. Kim

2010-01-01

397

Fabrication and electrical characteristics of carbon nanotube field emission microcathodes with an integrated gate electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the fabrication of field emission microcathodes which use carbon nanotubes as the field emission source. The devices incorporated an integrated gate electrode in order to achieve truly low-voltage field emission. A single-mask, self-aligned technique was used to pattern the gate, insulator and catalyst for nanotube growth. Vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes were then grown inside the gated structure by

G. Pirio; P. Legagneux; D. Pribat; K. B. K. Teo; M. Chhowalla; G. A. J. Amaratunga; W. I. Milne

2002-01-01

398

High Efficiency - Reduced Emissions Boiler Systems for Steam, Heat, and Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The demonstration of a cost effective solution to the problem of improving boiler efficiency and reducing emissions by means of a novel combustion control system and a sensor package was the main objective of the Environmental Security Technology Certific...

D. Liscinsky H. Hollick J. Mantese M. Colket R. Garvey

2012-01-01

399

High Efficiency - Reduced Emissions Boiler Systems for Steam, Heat, and Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The demonstration of a cost effective solution to the problem of improving boiler efficiency and reducing emissions by means of a novel combustion control system and a sensor package was the main objective of this project. United Technologies Research Cen...

D. Liscinsky H. Hollick J. Mantese M. Colket R. Garvey

2012-01-01

400

Analyzing the efficacy of subtropical urban forests in offsetting carbon emissions from cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban forest management and policies have been promoted as a tool to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This study used existing CO2 reduction measures from subtropical Miami-Dade and Gainesville, USA and modeled carbon storage and sequestration by trees to analyze policies that use urban forests to offset carbon emissions. Field data were analyzed, modeled, and spatially analyzed to compare CO2

Francisco Escobedo; Sebastian Varela; Min Zhao; John E. Wagner; Wayne Zipperer

2010-01-01

401

Historical and future anthropogenic emission pathways derived from coupled climate–carbon cycle simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a coupled climate–carbon cycle model, fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are derived through a reverse approach of prescribing atmospheric CO2 concentrations according to observations and future projections, respectively. In the second half of the twentieth century,\\u000a the implied fossil fuel emissions, and also the carbon uptake by land and ocean, are within the range of observational estimates.\\u000a Larger

Erich Roeckner; M. A. Giorgetta; T. Crueger; M. Esch; Julia Pongratz

2011-01-01

402

4.4: High field emission performance from a carbon nanotube fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

We fabricated the point emitter using a tip-treated carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber. The CNT point emitter showed the high emission current and good emission stability. It is considered that the excellent field emission properties are attributed to a large field enhancement factor caused by a large aspect ratio of the sharp tip of the point emitter and the tight binding

Dong Hoon Shin; Yenan Song; Yuning Sun; Ji Yong Lee; Bawl Kim; Ji Hong Shin; Guohai Chen; Cheol Jin Lee

2010-01-01

403

Impact of Process and Energy Efficiency in Mineral Processing on Abatement of Carbon Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral processing industry is facing tough challenges regarding abatement of carbon emissions, the use of water and energy. Mine activities requires bulk material handling, mineral ore transportation with haul trucks and machinery with important use of diesel fuel that produce direct emissions while plant operations have an intensive use of electrical energy with important indirect emissions. Based on available secondary

Jorge Pontt; Juan Yianatos; Luis Bergh; Waldo Valderrama; Fernando Rojas; Manuel Olivares; Hernán Robles; Manuel López

2010-01-01

404

Partial Carbon Permits Allocation of Potential Emission Trading Scheme in Australian Electricity Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission trading is widely considered to be the most effective policy to minimize the overall costs for CO2 abatement. However, the political feasibility of an emission trading scheme may crucially depend on the free initial allocation of emission permits to carbon-intensive industries in order to offset the reduction in profits. This paper aims to analyze these potential profit impacts and

Xun Zhou; Geoff James; Ariel Liebman; Zhao Yang Dong; Carla Ziser

2010-01-01

405

The environmental effects of airline carbon emissions taxation in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how air traffic emissions taxes may impact carbon emissions in the US. The magnitude of emissions savings in the US domestic airline industry that would result from lower demand for air travel as taxes are levied and air fares increase is estimated. At the same time, the air-automobile substitution effect is considered and it is argued that

Christian Hofer; Martin E. Dresner; Robert J. Windle

2010-01-01

406

Modeling and simulation for the field emission of carbon nanotubes array  

Microsoft Academic Search

To optimize the field emission of the infinite carbon nanotubes (CNTs) array on a planar cathode surface, the numerical simulation for the behavior of field emission with finite difference method was proposed. By solving the Laplace equation with computer, the influence of the intertube distance, the anode–cathode distance and the opened\\/capped CNT on the field emission of CNTs array were

X. Q. Wang; M. Wang; H. L. Ge; Q. Chen; Y. B. Xu

2005-01-01

407

On-site denitrification beds could reduce indirect greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural drainage waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate (NO3-) laden agricultural drainage waters are non-point sources of indirect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which represent a significant fraction of total N2O emissions in the USA. On-site denitrification beds filled with woodchips were used to reduce NO3- under carbon rich anaerobic conditions. However, the anaerobic conditions may produce N2O and methane (CH4) to overcome the benefit of NO3- removal. We measured dissolved NO3-, N2O, and CH4 in influents and effluents of denitrification beds as well as soil surface N2O and CH4 fluxes above the bioreactors at two agricultural fields with corn-soybean rotation systems located in the upper Midwest of USA (Dundas and Claremont, Minnesota). Denitrification beds at both sites decrease NO3- from the drainage waters with an average rate of 5.0 g N m-3 d-1 in Dundas and 3.8 g N m-3 d-1 in Claremont. The surface fluxes of N2O and CH4 above the beds were similar to the fluxes measured from adjacent unfertilized fields. Dissolved CH4 in effluents was 38 times and 197 times greater than that in influents in Dundas and Claremont, respectively. Dissolved N2O in effluents was 40% less than that in influents at Dundas, but 15 times greater than that in influents in Claremont. The relationship between effluent to influent ratio of NO3- and hydraulic residence time (HRT) indicated that 50% of NO3- reduction requires 1.1 d in Dundas and 2.3 d in Claremont, although an average HRT was 2.1 d in Dundas and 0.6 d in Claremont. Balance of estimated global warming potential (GWP) indicated that denitrification bed in Claremont increased GWP by 138 g CO2 eq. ha-1 d-1, however, denitrification beds in Dundas reduced GWP by 151 g CO2 eq. ha-1 d-1. These results suggest that denitrification beds could mitigate indirect greenhouse gas emissions if hydraulic residence time is long enough, and denitrification process goes to completion, i.e., from NO3 to di-nitrogen.

Fujinuma, R.; Venterea, R. T.; Ranaivoson, A.; Moncrief, J.; Dittrich, M. A.

2011-12-01

408

China's 11th Five-Year Plan and the Environment: Reducing SO2 Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's rapid economic growth has been accompanied by a high level of environmental degradation. One of the major sources of health and ecosystem damages is sulfur dioxide (SO2). Reducing SO2 emissions is a priority of China's environmental authorities, and the 11th Five-Year Plan (2006–2010) includes the target of reducing total SO2 emissions by 10 percent from the 2005 level. Given

Jing Cao; Richard Garbaccio; Mun S. Ho

2009-01-01

409

EPA RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR REDUCING CO2 EMISSIONS THROUGH EFFICIENT ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses EPA research in a number of areas that can potentially contribute to the ultimate reduction of global carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emissions. t provides a brief overview of the major research programs, describing in more detail the development...

410

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect

The industrial sector is the most important end-use sector in developing countries in terms of energy use and was responsible for 50% of primary energy use and 53% of associated carbon dioxide emissions in 1995 (Price et al., 1999). The industrial sector is extremely diverse, encompassing the extraction of natural resources, conversion of these resources into raw materials, and manufacture of finished products. Five energy-intensive industrial subsectors account for the bulk of industrial energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions: iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and cement. In this paper, we focus on the steel and cement sectors in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico.1 We review historical trends, noting that China became the world's largest producer of cement in 1985 and of steel in 1996. We discuss trends that influence energy consumption, such as the amount of additives in cement (illustrated through the clinker/cement ratio), the share of electric arc furnaces, and the level of adoption of continuous casting. To gauge the potential for improvement in production of steel and cement in these countries, we calculate a ''best practice'' intensity based on use of international best practice technology to produce the mix of products manufactured in each country in 1995. We show that Brazil has the lowest potential for improvement in both sectors. In contrast, there is significant potential for improvement in Mexico, India, and especially China, where adoption of best practice technologies could reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production by 50% and cement production by 37%. We conclude by comparing the identified potential for energy efficiency improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in these key developing countries to that of the U.S. This comparison raises interesting questions related to efforts to improve energy efficiency in developing countries, such as: what is the appropriate role of industrialized countries in promoting the adoption of low carbon technologies, how do international steel and cement companies influence the situation, and how can such information be used in the context of Clean Development Mechanism in the Kyoto Protocol?

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-09-01

411

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10 metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of

W. Makundi; J. Sathaye; P. M. Fearnside

1992-01-01

412

Estimates of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Mexico at Monthly Time Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human consumption of fossil fuels has greatly contributed to the rise of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere. To better understand the global carbon cycle, it is important to identify the major sources of these fossil fuels. Mexico is among the top fifteen nations in the world for producing fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions. Based on this information and that

L. M. Losey; R. J. Andres

2003-01-01

413

Structures and field emission properties of silicon nanowire arrays implanted with energetic carbon ion beam.  

PubMed

Structures and field emission properties of silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWAs), which were fabricated by using of electroless-chemical etching method and post-implanted by the energetic carbon ion beam with an average energy of 20 keV at various doses, have been investigated. Structural analysis of SEM and XPS shows that SiC compound had been formed at the top of SiNWAs, and Si-C/Si composite nanostructure had been obtained. Compared to as-grown SiNWAs, the C ion implanted SiNWAs have better field emission characteristics. The turn-on field and the applied field at 100 microA/cm2 are reduced from 5.01 V/microm and 5.93 V/microm for as-grown SiNWAs to 4.45 V/microm and 5.40 V/microm for SiNWAs implanted at the dose of 1 x 10(16) cm(-2), respectively. However, large implanting amounts made serious structural damages at the top of nanowires, and impaired the field emission characteristics. The influence of energetic C ion implantation on the structures and field emission properties of SiNWAs has been discussed. PMID:22962782

Cheng, Guo-An; Zhao, Fei; Wu, Shao-Long; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Deng, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Rui-Ting; Ping, Zhao-Xia

2012-08-01

414

Surface seals reduce 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions in field tests.  

PubMed

Reducing emissions is essential for minimizing the impact of soil fumigation on the environment. Water application to the soil surface (or water seal) has been demonstrated to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) emissions in soil column tests. This study determined the effectiveness of water application to reduce emissions of 1,3-D and chloropicrin (CP) in comparison to other surface seals under field conditions. In a small-plot field trial on a Hanford sandy loam soil (coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Typic Xerorthents) in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Telone C35 (61% 1,3-D and 35% CP) was shank-applied at a depth of 46 cm at a rate of 610 kg ha-1. Soil surface seal treatments included control (no tarp and no water application), standard high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp over dry and pre-irrigated soil, virtually impermeable film (VIF) tarp, initial water application by sprinklers immediately following fumigation, and intermittent water applications after fumigation. The atmospheric emissions and gas-phase distribution of fumigants in soil profile were monitored for 9 d. Among the surface seals, VIF and HDPE tarp over dry soil resulted in the lowest and the highest total emission losses, respectively. Intermittent water applications reduced 1,3-D and CP emissions significantly more than HDPE tarp alone. The initial water application also reduced emission peak and delayed emission time. Pre-irrigated soil plus HDPE tarp reduced fumigant emissions similarly as the intermittent water applications and also yielded the highest surface soil temperature, which may improve overall soil pest control. PMID:17215218

Gao, Suduan; Trout, Thomas J

2007-01-09

415

Biomass collapse and carbon emissions from forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fragmentation due to deforestation is one of the major causes of forest degradation in the Amazon. Biomass collapse near forest edges, especially within 100 m, alters aboveground biomass and has potentially important implications for carbon emissions in the region. This phenomenon is tightly linked to spatial and temporal dynamics of forest edges in a landscape. However, the potential biomass loss and carbon emissions from forest edges and these spatiotemporal changes have never been estimated for actual landscapes in the Amazon. We conducted a deep temporal analysis of Rondônia, southwestern Brazilian Amazonia, using six Landsat path-row scenes covering the 1985-2008 time period to estimate annual biomass loss and associated carbon emissions within 100 m of forest edges. Annual edge biomass loss averaged 9.1% of the biomass loss from deforestation during the study period, whereas average annual edge-related carbon emissions from biomass loss were 6.0% of deforestation-derived carbon emissions. However, because many edges were subsequently deforested during the 24 year study period, actual unaccounted for edge-related carbon emissions during the 1985-2008 period, calculated from edges of all ages extant on the landscape in 2008, amounted to 3.6% of that attributed to all deforestation-derived carbon fluxes for this time interval. Biomass loss and carbon emissions are highly influenced by the extent and age of edge-affected forests. Large annual contributions of biomass loss and carbon emissions were found from active deforestation regions with young edges, whereas regions dominated by older edges had lower biomass loss and carbon emissions from edges.

Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A.; Roberts, Dar A.; Soares, JoãO. V.; Souza, Carlos M.; Sales, Marcio H.

2010-09-01

416

Particulate, carbon monoxide, and acid emission factors for residential wood burn stoves  

SciTech Connect

Emissions from residential wood burning stoves are of increasing concern in many areas. This concern is due to the magnitude of the emissions and the toxic and chemical characteristics of the pollutants. Recent testing of standard and new technology woodstoves has provided data for developing a family of particulate and carbon monoxide emission factor curves. This testing has also provided data illustrating the acidity of woodstove emissions. The particulate and carbon monoxide curves relate the actual stove emissions to the stove size and operating parameters of burn rate, fuel loading, and fuel moisture. Curves relating stove types to the acidity of emissions have also been constructed. Test data show actual emissions vary from 3 to 50 grams per kilogram for particles and from 50 to 300 grams per kilogram for carbon monoxide. Since woodstove emissions are the largest single category of particulate emissions in many area, it is essential that these emissions be quantified specifically for geographic regions, allowing meaningful impact analysis modeling to be accomplished. Emission factors for particles and carbon monoxide are presented from several stove sizes and burn rates. The acidic nature of woodstove emissions has been clearly demonstrated. Tests indicate woodstove flue gas condensate solutions to be predominantly in the 2.8 to 4.2 pH range. Condensate solutions from conventional woodstoves exhibited the characteristic buffering capacity of carboxylic acids when titrations were performed with a strong base. The environmental impact of buffered acidic woodstove emissions is not currently well understood; however, it is possible with the data presented here to make semi-quantitative estimates of acid emission from particulate and carbon monoxide emission factors and wood use inventories.

Burnet, P.G.; Edmisten, N.G.; Tiegs, P.E.; Houck, J.E.; Yoder, R.A.

1986-09-01

417

Effect of Reduced Sulfur Dioxide Emissions on Hydrogen Peroxide Concentrations in Wilmington, NC, USA Rainwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), pH, dissolved organic carbon and nonseasalt sulfate (NSS) in rainwater were conducted on an event basis at a single site in Wilmington, N.C. for the past decade in a study that included over 600 individual rain events. Annual volume weight average (VWA) H2O2 concentrations were negatively correlated (p < 0.001) with annual VWA NSS concentrations in low pH (<5) rainwater. Under these conditions H2O2 is the primary aqueous-phase oxidant of SO2 in the atmosphere. Annual volume weighted average H2O2 concentrations in low pH (<5) rains showed a significant increase over the time scale of this study, which represents the only long term continuous data set of H2O2 concentrations in wet deposition at a single location. We attribute the increase of H2O2 to decreasing SO2 emissions which has had the effect of reducing a major tropospheric sink for H2O2. This compositional change has important implications because H2O2 is a major oxidant in both the atmosphere and surface waters. Greater wet deposition of H2O2 could influence the redox chemistry of receiving watersheds which typically have H2O2 concentrations two to three orders of magnitude lower than rainwater.

Mullaugh, K. M.; Kieber, R. J.; Willey, J. D.; Avery, B.

2011-12-01

418

Prediction of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbon Emissions in Isooctane HCCI Engine Combustion Using Multi-Zone Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignitions (HCCI) engines show promise as an alternative to Diesel engines, yet research remains: development of practical HCCI engines will be aided greatly by accurate modeling tools. A novel detailed chemical kinetic model that incorporates information from a computational fluid mechanics code has been developed to simulate HCCI combustion. This model very accurately predicts many aspects of the HCCI combustion process. High-resolution computational grids can be used for the fluid mechanics portion of the simulation, but the chemical kinetics portion of the simulation can be reduced to a handful of computational zones (for all previous work 10 zones have been used). While overall this model has demonstrated a very good predictive capability for HCCI combustion, previous simulations using this model have tended to underpredict carbon monoxide emissions by an order of magnitude. A factor in the underprediction of carbon monoxide may be that all previous simulations have been conducted with 10 chemical kinetic zones. The chemistry that results in carbon monoxide emissions is very sensitive to small changes in temperature within the engine. The resolution in temperature is determined directly by the number of zones. This paper investigates how the number of zones (i.e. temperature resolution) affects the model's prediction of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions in an HCCI engine. Simulations with 10, 20, and 40 chemical kinetic zones have been conducted using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism (859 species, 3606 reactions) to simulate an isooctane fueled HCCI engine. The results show that 10-zones are adequate to resolve the hydrocarbon emissions, but a greater numbers of zones are required to resolve carbon monoxide emissions. Results are also presented that explore spatial sources of the exhaust emissions within the HCCI engine combustion chamber.

Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Dibble, R

2002-05-02

419

Assessment of the Contribution of Gas to the Global Emissions of Carbon Dioxide. Final Report February-December 1983,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the project is to assess the contribution of future gas combustion to the global emissions of carbon dioxide. The resources of natural gas are too small to make a significant contribution to ultimate carbon emissions. The carbon emissions...

D. B. Reister

1984-01-01

420

Monthly Estimates of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Five European Countries: The United Kingdom, France, Spain, Italy and Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human consumption of fossil fuels has greatly contributed to the rise of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the Earth's atmosphere. To better understand the global carbon cycle, it is important to identify the major sources of these fossil fuel emissions. Annual analyses for fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions have dominated the literature to this date. By studying the monthly consumption

L. M. Losey; R. J. Andres

2004-01-01