These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Assessing the potential of hybrid energy technology to reduce exhaust emissions from global shipping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of a prime mover and an energy storage device for reduction of fuel consumption has successfully been used in automotive industry. The shipping industry has utilised this for conventional submarines. The potential of a load levelling strategy through use of a hybrid battery–diesel–electric propulsion system is investigated. The goal is to reduce exhaust gas emissions by reducing fuel

Eleftherios K. Dedes; Dominic A. Hudson; Stephen R. Turnock

2

External fins and ejector action for reducing the infrared emission of engine exhaust ducting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using external fins and ejector action on the exhaust ducting of a helicopter to reduce the infrared emission of the aircraft. Temperatures were calculated for both circular disk fins and pin fins. Results show that combining ejector action with fins can lower the metal temperature to acceptable levels at least

G. J. Vanfossen Jr.

1975-01-01

3

External fins and ejector action for reducing the infrared emission of engine exhaust ducting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using external fins and ejector action on the exhaust ducting of a helicopter to reduce the infrared emission of the aircraft. Temperatures were calculated for both circular disk fins and pin fins. Results show that combining ejector action with fins can lower the metal temperature to acceptable levels at least for high flight speeds.

Vanfossen, G. J., Jr.

1975-01-01

4

REDUCING DIESEL NOX AND SOOT EMISSIONS VIA PARTICLE-FREE EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel engines play an important role in the United States economy for power generation and transportation. However, NOx and soot emissions from both stationary and mobile diesel engines are a major contributor to air pollution. Many engine modifications and exhaust-after-t...

5

Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The direct release of exhaust gas components from combustion processes into the environment, i.e. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a emission, is the primary and most important process in the chain of emission, \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a transmission, \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a pollutant input and \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a impact. Naturally, a basic distinction is made between emissions from vegetation, oceans, volcanic activity or biomass decomposition\\u000a for instance and anthropogenic emissions, i.e. emissions caused or influenced by humans,

Helmut Tschoeke; Andreas Graf; Jürgen Stein; Michael Krüger; Johannes Schaller; Norbert Breuer; Kurt Engeljehringer; Wolfgang Schindler

6

Vehicle's exhaust emissions under car-following model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we explore each vehicle's exhaust emissions under the full velocity difference (FVD) model and the car-following model with consideration of the traffic interruption probability during three typical traffic situations. Numerical results show that the vehicle's exhaust emissions of the second model are less than those of the first model under the three typical traffic situations, which shows that the second model can reduce each vehicle's exhaust emissions.

Tang, Tie-Qiao; Li, Jin-Gang; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Yun-Peng

2014-12-01

7

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DUAL CATALYST EQUIPPED VEHICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

A test program was initiated to characterize exhaust gas emissions from an automobile equipped with a dual catalyst system. The dual catalyst system was designed by Gould, Inc. to reduce emissions of engine exhaust hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. It basically ...

8

Reducing Soot in Diesel Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrically charged fuel improves oxidation. Fuel injection system reduces amount of soot formed in diesel engines. Spray injector electrically charges fuel droplets as they enter cylinder. Charged droplets repel each other, creating, dilute fuel mist easily penetrated by oxygen in cylinder.

Bellan, J.

1984-01-01

9

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust...

2011-07-01

10

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust...

2013-07-01

11

Exhaust emission reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust emission of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or emissions. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.

Moffett, R. N.

1979-01-01

12

Effects of gasoline composition on exhaust emissions and driveability  

SciTech Connect

A study of the effects of changes in gasoline composition is one area to explore in our effort to reduce tailpipe emissions from vehicles. However, affects on vehicle performances should also be considered from the perspective of practical useage. In this paper, the influence of gasoline composition (aromatics), volatility, and MTBE blending on engine outlet and tailpipe emissions are discussed in particular, focusing on distillation properties which have a close relationship to driveability. Under stable driving conditions and without a catalitic converter, the effects of gasoline volatility is small, while aromatics in gasoline affect exhaust HC and NO{sub x} emissions. MTBE has a leaning effect on the engine intake air/fuel mixture. During a transient driving cycle, a high gasoline 50% distillation temperature causes poor driveability, as a result, HC emissions increase.

Hoshi, H.; Nakada, M.; Kato, M.; Okada, M.; Kayanuma, N.

1990-01-01

13

EVALUATION OF A PROPORTIONAL SAMPLER FOR AUTOMOTIVE EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A test program was conducted to evaluate a proportional sampler for use in automotive exhaust gas emissions research. Automobile emissions test results obtained using the proportional sampler were compared with results obtained using the conventional constant volume sampler. Meas...

14

Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

2014-08-01

15

EFFECTS OF BIODIESEL BLENDING ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

E-print Network

in on- and off-road diesel engines. Research shows that the use of biodiesel made from various feedstocks can reduce the emission of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM), but there is often some increase in nitrogen...

Guo, Jing

2011-08-31

16

40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust...year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in...

2012-07-01

17

40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust...year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in...

2013-07-01

18

40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust...year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in...

2011-07-01

19

40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust...year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in...

2010-07-01

20

Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

2003-03-01

21

Low-Emissions Exhaust Quality Control System to Optimize  

E-print Network

are available for small scale systems, a system to control both temperature and overall flow rate and flow rate by injecting fuel and tempering air depending on the exhaust conditions, to matchLow-Emissions Exhaust Quality Control System to Optimize DG/CCHP Systems Renewable Energy Research

22

Progress and future challenges in controlling automotive exhaust gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the early 1970s increased use of cars in some major cities had resulted in serious concerns about urban air quality caused by engine exhaust gas emissions themselves, and by the more harmful species derived from them via photochemical reactions. The three main exhaust gas pollutants are hydrocarbons (including partially oxidised organic compounds), carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Engine modifications

Martyn V. Twigg

2007-01-01

23

Exhaust system with emissions storage device and plasma reactor  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system for a combustion system, comprising a storage device for collecting NO.sub.x, hydrocarbon, or particulate emissions, or mixture of these emissions, and a plasma reactor for destroying the collected emissions is described. After the emission is collected in by the storage device for a period of time, the emission is then destroyed in a non-thermal plasma generated by the plasma reactor. With respect to the direction of flow of the exhaust stream, the storage device must be located before the terminus of the plasma reactor, and it may be located wholly before, overlap with, or be contained within the plasma reactor.

Hoard, John W. (Livonia, MI)

1998-01-01

24

EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were performed using (1) Diesel particles collected from the undiluted exhaust of a single-cylinder engine, operated at constant speed and load, using a binary pure hydrocarbon fuel with air or gas mixture oxidizers, and (2) Diesel particles collected from the diluted exh...

25

Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

1982-01-01

26

40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions. 87...analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions. Link...sampling and measurement of gaseous emissions shall be as specified...Report CO2 by calculation from fuel mass flow rate...

2012-07-01

27

Exhaust emission control of S. I. engines by engine modification: the SEEC-T system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently developed SEEC-T (Subaru Exhaust Emission Control--Thermal and Thermodynamic Control ) system meets the 1977 emission standards of the United States including California and the 1976 standards of Japan without catalytic converters or thermal reactors and will satisfy the more stringent emission standards expected in the future. The SEEC-T system reduces HC, CO and NO\\/sub x\\/ by the following

T. Fukushima; H. Nakamura; T. Sakai

1977-01-01

28

Non-exhaust emissions of PM and the efficiency of emission reduction by road sweeping and washing in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

From research on PM(2.5) and PM(10) in 2007/2008 in the Netherlands, it was concluded that the coarse fraction (PM(2.5-10)) attributed 60% and 50% respectively, to the urban-regional and street-urban increments of PM(10). Contrary to Scandinavian and Mediterranean countries which exhibit significant seasonal variation in the coarse fraction of particulate matter (PM), in the Netherlands the coarse fraction in PM at a street location is rather constant during the year. Non-exhaust emissions by road traffic are identified as the main source for coarse PM in urban areas. Non-exhaust emissions mainly originate from re-suspension of accumulated deposited PM and road wear related particles, while primary tire and brake wear hardly contribute to the mass of non-exhaust emissions. However, tire and brake wear can clearly be identified in the total mass through the presence of the heavy metals: zinc, a tracer for tire wear and copper, a tracer for brake wear. The efficiency of road sweeping and washing to reduce non-exhaust emissions in a street-canyon in Amsterdam was investigated. The increments of the coarse fraction at a kerbside location and a housing façade location versus the urban background were measured at days with and without sweeping and washing. It was concluded that this measure did not significantly reduce non-exhaust emissions. PMID:20627203

Keuken, Menno; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; van der Valk, Karin

2010-09-15

29

Particulate exhaust emissions from an experimental combustor. [gas turbine engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concentration of dry particulates (carbon) in the exhaust of an experimental gas turbine combustor was measured at simulated takeoff operating conditions and correlated with the standard smoke-number measurement. Carbon was determined quantitatively from a sample collected on a fiberglass filter by converting the carbon in the smoke sample to carbon dioxide and then measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed by gas chromatography. At a smoke of 25 (threshold of visibility of the smoke plume for large turbojets) the carbon concentration was 2.8 mg carbon/cu m exhaust gas, which is equivalent to an emission index of 0.17 g carbon/kg fuel.

Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

1975-01-01

30

Exhaust gas emissions of a vortex breakdown stabilized combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exhaust gas emission data are described for a swirl stabilized continuous combustor. The combustor consists of confined concentric jets with premixed fuel and air in the inner jet and air in the outer jet. Swirl may be induced in both inner and outer jets with the sense of rotation in the same or opposite directions (co-swirl and counter-swirl). The combustor limits NO emissions by lean operation without sacrificing CO and unburned hydrocarbon emission performance, when commercial-grade methane and air fired at one atmosphere without preheat are used. Relative swirl direction and magnitude are found to have significant effects on exhaust gas concentrations, exit temperatures, and combustor efficiencies. Counter-swirl gives a large recirculation zone, a short luminous combustion zone, and large slip velocities in the interjet shear layer. For maximum counter-swirl conditions, the efficiency is low.

Yetter, R. A.; Gouldin, F. C.

1976-01-01

31

78 FR 34375 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty Vehicles in Metropolitan Detroit...request (ICR), ``Exhaust Emissions of Light-duty Vehicles in Metropolitan Detroit...population for the project will include light-duty cars and trucks certified to...

2013-06-07

32

Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Due to their excellent fuel efficiency, reliability, and durability, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engines have been used extensively to power almost all highway trucks, urban buses, off-road vehicles, marine carriers, and industrial equipment. CIDI engines burn 35 to 50% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, and they emit far less greenhouse gases (Carbon Dioxides), which have been implicated in global warming. Although the emissions of CIDI engines have been reduced significantly over the last decade, there remains concern with the Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM) emission levels. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting the Tier II standards requires NOX and PM emissions to be reduced dramatically. Achieving such low emissions while minimizing fuel economy penalty cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOX and PM aftertreatment control devices. A joint effort was made between Cummins Inc. and the Department of Energy to develop the generic aftertreatment subsystem technologies applicable for Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) and Light-Duty Truck (LDT) engines. This paper provides an update on the progress of this joint development program. Three NOX reduction technologies including plasmaassisted catalytic NOX reduction (PACR), active lean NOX catalyst (LNC), and adsorber catalyst (AC) technology using intermittent rich conditions for NOX reduction were investigated in parallel in an attempt to select the best NOX control approach for light-duty aftertreatment subsystem integration and development. Investigations included system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

2002-06-01

33

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions...vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using...vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle highway carbon-related exhaust emissions...

2011-07-01

34

European technology for reducing exhaust pollution from naval ship engines. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

In response to the world wide interest in reducing air pollution, the US Navy is studying methods for lowering emissions from new, as well as existing, ship engines. As part of those studies, this report summarizes an examination of the science and technology base in Europe related to marine engine combustion and emissions. On site visits in 1995 found a strong theoretical and bench scale science capability, as well as considerable facilities for full scale engine operation and diagnostics. Activities on the part of the owner/operator community were found to be diverse, with some aggressively pursuing low emission engines, while others were delaying action until the international regulatory situation clarified. It is concluded that the European science and technology base for the reduction of ship engine emissions is quite good, due in large part to prior work in support of European Community and national programs to reduce exhaust pollution from land vehicles and aircraft. The technology is believed to be adequate to provide realistic options for meeting foreseeable international regulations on exhaust emissions from naval ships.

Quandt, E.

1996-04-01

35

Generating efficiency and NO x emissions of a gas engine generator fueled with a biogas–hydrogen blend and using an exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the generating efficiency and NOx emissions of a gas engine generator with a low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation system, fueled by a model biogas. Experiments for improving the generating efficiency and reducing NOx emissions were conducted, utilizing optimum spark timings based on the maximum generating efficiencies with varying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. The test results show

Kyungtaek Lee; Taesoo Kim; Hyoseok Cha; Soonho Song; Kwang Min Chun

2010-01-01

36

Dynamic Control of Engine NOx Emissions: Characterization and Improvement of the Transient Response of an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method for reducing NOx emissions from automotive engines is to use exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to dilute the inducted air-fuel charge. Previous work has shown that degraded propagation delay and rise time characteristics of an EGR system can result in increases in NOx emissions for engine operation over dynamic rpm\\/torque versus time trajectories as exemplified by the Federal

M. J. Throop; D. R. Hamburg

1985-01-01

37

Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.  

PubMed

A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ? 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models. PMID:22894824

Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

2012-10-01

38

Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor vehicles are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Improved understanding of PAH emission profiles in mobile sources is the key to determining the viable approach for reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles. Very limited data is available on the levels of PAH emissions in the urban atmospheres in Syria and no data are currently available on the level of PAH emissions from different combustion sources in the country. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAH in exhaust emissions of light and heavy-duty vehicles running on the roads of Damascus city. Three different types of vehicles (passenger cars, minivans and buses) were selected along with different age groups. Vapor- and particulate-phase PAH were collected from the vehicular exhausts of six in-service vehicles (with/without catalytic converters). High-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with UV-Visible and fluorescence detectors, was used for the identification and quantification of PAH compounds in the cleaned extracts of the collected samples. The mean concentration of total PAH emissions (sum of 15 compounds) from all types of studied vehicles ranged between 69.28 ± 1.06 ?g/m3 for passenger cars equipped with catalytic converters and 2169.41 ± 5.17 ?g/m3 for old diesel buses without pollution controls. Values of total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (? B[a]Peq) ranged between 1.868 ?g/m3and 37.652 ?g/m3. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of catalytic converters resulted into cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained in the absence of catalytic converters.

Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

2013-02-01

39

Application of hybrid evolutionary algorithms to low exhaust emission diesel engine design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid evolutionary algorithm, consisting of a genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), is proposed. Generally, GAs maintain diverse solutions of good quality in multi-objective problems, while PSO shows fast convergence to the optimum solution. By coupling these algorithms, GA will compensate for the low diversity of PSO, while PSO will compensate for the high computational costs of GA. The hybrid algorithm was validated using standard test functions. The results showed that the hybrid algorithm has better performance than either a pure GA or pure PSO. The method was applied to an engineering design problem—the geometry of diesel engine combustion chamber reducing exhaust emissions such as NOx, soot and CO was optimized. The results demonstrated the usefulness of the present method to this engineering design problem. To identify the relation between exhaust emissions and combustion chamber geometry, data mining was performed with a self-organising map (SOM). The results indicate that the volume near the lower central part of the combustion chamber has a large effect on exhaust emissions and the optimum chamber geometry will vary depending on fuel injection angle.

Jeong, S.; Obayashi, S.; Minemura, Y.

2008-01-01

40

Turbine engine exhaust gas measurements using in-situ FT-IR emission/transmission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

12 An advanced multiple gas analyzer based on in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to successfully measure the exhaust plume composition and temperature of an operating gas turbine engine at a jet engine test stand. The sensor, which was optically coupled to the test cell using novel broadband hollow glass waveguides, performed well in this harsh environment (high acoustical noise and vibration, considerable temperature swings in the ambient with engine operation), providing quantitative gas phase information. Measurements were made through the diameter of the engine's one meter exhaust plume, about 0.7 meters downstream of the engine exit plane. The sensor performed near simultaneous infrared transmission and infrared emission measurements through the centerline of the plume. Automated analysis of the emission and transmission spectra provided the temperature and concentration information needed for engine tuning and control that will ensure optimal engine operation and reduced emissions. As a demonstration of the utility and accuracy of the technique, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, water, and carbon dioxide were quantified in spite of significant variations in the exhaust gas temperature. At some conditions, unburned fuel, particulates (soot/fuel droplets), methane, ethylene and aldehydes were identified, but not yet quantified.

Marran, David F.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Neira, Jorge; Markham, James R.; Rutka, Ronald; Strange, Richard R.

2001-02-01

41

Nitrogen dioxide in exhaust emissions from motor vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NO 2/NO x (v/v) fractions and NO 2 exhaust emission rates were determined for diesel- and gasoline-powered passenger cars and a diesel truck, at several conditions of constant engine load and speed. Vehicles with various kinds of emission control equipment were investigated. Also, integrations of NO 2/NO x percentages during Federal Test Procedure driving cycles were made for six types of passenger car. High (> 30 %) NO 2 fractions were measured for gasoline cars with air injection, and for diesel vehicles. A gasoline car with a 3-way catalyst had low NO x totals with small (< 1 %) NO 2 fractions. A passenger diesel with particle trap yielded surprisingly small (0-2%) NO 2 fractions at moderate speeds. The results have implications for NO 2 concentration in the atmosphere of northern cities during wintertime inversions, in view of the increasing use of air injection systems for passenger cars to meet legal restrictions on vehicle emissions of hydrocarbons and CO.

Lenner, Magnus

42

40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction, ppm. ...exhaust bag sample volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction...concentration of the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, in ppm. (B)...

2013-07-01

43

40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exhaust sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction, ppm. ...exhaust bag sample volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction...concentration of the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, in ppm. (B)...

2012-07-01

44

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. 1037.105...1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a) The...under § 1037.150(m). (b) The CO2 standards of this section are given...

2012-07-01

45

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. 1037.105...1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a) The...under § 1037.150(m). (b) The CO2 standards of this section are given...

2013-07-01

46

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2012-07-01

47

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2010-07-01

48

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2011-07-01

49

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2013-07-01

50

Development of naval diesel engine duty cycles for air exhaust emission environmental impact analysis. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strategy for testing naval diesel engines for exhaust emissions was developed. A survey of existing international and national standard diesel engine duty cycles was conducted. All were found to be inadequate for testing and certification of engine exhaust emissions from naval diesel powered ships. Naval ship data covering 11,500 hours of engine operation of four U.S. Navy LSD 41

Markle

1994-01-01

51

40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...Requirements § 1054.107 What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...section describes an engine family's useful life, which is the period during which...

2012-07-01

52

40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...Requirements § 1054.107 What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...section describes an engine family's useful life, which is the period during which...

2013-07-01

53

Biological activity of exhaust emissions from two after-treatment device-equipped light-duty diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Whole diesel exhaust has recently been classified as a portable carcinogen, and particulate exhaust known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals, has clearly shown to be mutagenic in several genotoxicity studies. The goal of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, the installation of some exhaust aftertreatment devices on two light-duty diesel engines (1930 cc and 2500 cc) EGR-valve equipped may reduce mutagenic activity associated to particles collected during both USA and European driving cycles. The preliminary results point out the usefulness of mutagenicity tests in the research of even new more efficient automotive emission aftertreatment devices. The aim of this investigation is to determine whether, and to what range, the use of some new aftertreatment devices on light-duty diesel engines could reduce the particle-associated genotoxic potential of diesel emissions. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Carraro, E.; Locatelli, A.L.; Ferrero, C.; Fea, E.; Gilli, G. [Univ. of Turin (Italy)

1995-10-01

54

Subsonic Jet Noise Reduced With Improved Internal Exhaust Gas Mixers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft noise pollution is becoming a major environmental concern for the world community. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is responding to this concern by imposing more stringent noise restrictions for aircraft certification then ever before to keep the U.S. industry competitive with the rest of the world. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, attempts are underway to develop noise-reduction technology for newer engines and for retrofitting existing engines so that they are as quiet as (or quieter than) required. Lewis conducted acoustic and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) tests using Pratt & Whitney's Internal Exhaust Gas Mixers (IEGM). The IEGM's mix the core flow with the fan flow prior to their common exhaust. All tests were conducted in Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory--a semihemispheric dome open to the ambient atmosphere. This was the first time Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used in such a facility at Lewis. Jet exhaust velocity and turbulence and the internal velocity fields were detailed. Far-field acoustics were also measured. Pratt & Whitney provided 1/7th scale model test hardware (a 12-lobe mixer, a 20-lobe mixer, and a splitter) for 1.7 bypass ratio engines, and NASA provided the research engineers, test facility, and test time. The Pratt & Whitney JT8D-200 engine power conditions were used for all tests.

1996-01-01

55

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES  

SciTech Connect

Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus networks.

COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

2003-08-24

56

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction, in ppm...the dilute exhaust volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction, in...concentration of the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, in ppm. (B)...

2013-07-01

57

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exhaust sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction, in ppm...the dilute exhaust volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction, in...concentration of the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, in ppm. (B)...

2012-07-01

58

Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): I. Exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present global emission projections of primary particulate matter (PM) from exhaust of on-road vehicles under four commonly-used global fuel use scenarios from 2010 to 2050. The projections are based on a dynamic model of vehicle population linked to emission characteristics, SPEW-Trend. Unlike previous models of global emissions, this model incorporates more details on the technology stock, including the vehicle type and age, and the number of emitters with very high emissions ("superemitters"). However, our estimates of vehicle growth are driven by changes in predicted fuel consumption from macroeconomic scenarios, ensuring that PM projections are consistent with these scenarios. Total emissions are then obtained by integrating emissions of heterogeneous vehicle groups of all ages and types. Changes in types of vehicles in use are governed by retirement rates, timing of emission standards and the rate at which superemitters develop from normal vehicles. Retirement rates are modeled as a function of vehicle age and income level with a relationship based on empirical data, capturing the fact that people with lower income tend to keep vehicles longer. Adoption dates of emission standards are either estimated from planned implementation or from income levels. We project that global PM emissions range from 1100 Gg to 1360 Gg in 2030, depending on the scenario. An emission decrease is estimated until 2035 because emission standards are implemented and older engines built to lower standards are phased out. From 2010 to 2050, fuel consumption increases in all regions except North America, Europe and Pacific, according to all scenarios. Global emission intensities decrease continuously under all scenarios for the first 30 years due to the introduction of more advanced and cleaner emission standards. This leads to decreasing emissions from most regions. Emissions are expected to increase significantly in only Africa (1.2-3.1% per year). Because we have tied emission standards to income levels, Africa introduces those standards 30-40 years later than other regions and thus makes a remarkable contribution to the global emissions in 2050 (almost half). All Asian regions (South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia) have a decreasing fractional contribution to global totals, from 32% in 2030 to around 22% in 2050. Total emissions from normal vehicles can decrease 1.3-2% per year. However, superemitters have a large effect on emission totals. They can potentially contribute more than 50% of global emissions around 2020, which suggests that they should be specifically addressed in modeling and mitigation policies. As new vehicles become cleaner, the majority of on-road emissions will come from the legacy fleet. This work establishes a modeling framework to explore policies targeted at that fleet.

Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Jung, Soonkyu; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

2011-09-01

59

Reducing children's exposure to school bus diesel exhaust in one school district in North Carolina.  

PubMed

Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from general environmental air quality standards to more specific legislation that targets diesel exhaust near school children. School nurse standards of practice specify that school nurses should attain current knowledge of environmental health concepts, implement environmental health strategies, and advocate for environmental health principles. This article provides a description of the professional responsibilities of school nurses in protecting children from harmful environmental exposures, provides an overview of legislative initiatives intended to protect school children from diesel exhaust exposure, and summarizes one school district's effort to reduce diesel exhaust exposure among school children. PMID:23850988

Mazer, Mary E; Vann, Julie C Jacobson; Lamanna, Beth F; Davison, Jean

2014-04-01

60

Combustor exhaust emissions with air-atomizing splash-groove fuel injectors burning Jet A and Diesel number 2 fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air-atomizing, splash-groove injectors were shown to improve primary-zone fuel spreading and reduce combustor exhaust emissions for Jet A and diesel number 2 fuels. With Jet A fuel large-orifice, splash-groove injectors the oxides-of-nitrogen emission index was reduced, but emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, or smoke were unaffected. Small-orifice, splash-groove injectors did not reduce oxides of nitrogen, but reduced the smoke number and carbon monoxide and unburned-hydrocarbon emission indices. With diesel number 2 fuel, the small-orifice, splash-groove injectors reduced oxides of nitrogen by 19 percent, smoke number by 28 percent, carbon monoxide by 75 percent, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50 percent. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons were twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel. Combustor blowout limits were similar for diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels.

Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

1975-01-01

61

75 FR 67634 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...RIN-2126-AB31 Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration,...

2010-11-03

62

Biodegradable plastic reduces ammonia emission during composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia is the greatest nuisance odor compound among the exhaust gases that evolve during the composting process, in which raw materials with high concentrations of nitrogen, such as wastewater sludge, are decomposed. In the present study, a reduction of NH3 emission during composting of wastewater sludge was tried by mixing biodegradable plastic into composting raw material. Biodegradable plastic acts as

K Nakasaki; A Ohtaki; H Takano

2000-01-01

63

Measurement of exhaust emissions from two J-58 engines at simulated supersonic cruise flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16 to 23 km. For each flight condition, exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions decreased with increasing altitude, and increased with increasing flight speed. NOX emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude, and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

Holdeman, J. D.

1976-01-01

64

Measurement of exhaust emissions from two J-58 engines at simulated supersonic cruise flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16 to 23 km. For each flight condition, exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen emissions decreased with increasing altitude and increased with increasing flight speed. NO(x) emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

Holdeman, J. D.

1976-01-01

65

Comparison of the mutagenicity of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles using leaded and unleaded gasoline as fuel.  

PubMed

While unleaded gasoline has the advantage of eliminating lead from automobile exhaust, its potential to reduce the exhaust gas and particles, merits further examination. In the present studies, the concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon mono-oxides (CO) in emissions were analyzed on Santana engine Dynamometer under a standard test cycle, and total exhaust particles were collected from engines using leaded and unleaded gasoline. It was found that unleaded gasoline reduced the emissions of CO and HC, and decreased the quantity of vehicle exhaust particulate matters by 60%. With the unleaded gasoline, only 23 kinds of organic substances, adsorbed in the particles, were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) while 32 components were detected using the leaded gasoline. The results of in vitro Salmonella/microsomal test and micronucleus induction assay in CHL cells indicated that both types of gasoline increased the number of histidine-independent colonies and the frequencies of micronucleus induction; no significant difference was found in their mutagenicity. PMID:10560539

Yuan, D; Zhou, W; Ye, S H

1999-06-01

66

Analysis of Carbon Monoxide and Propane Concentrations in Moped Exhaust Emission using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to determine the concentration of carbon monoxide and propane in exhaust emission from a Piaggio Ciao moped. Emissions from vary- ing ways of driving have been collected and examined using a Perkin- Elmer 1725X Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The obtained spectra have then been compared to spectra from calibration gases.

Lisa Carlsson; Martin Engstrom; Ulrika Kumlien; Ami Ljungstrom; Sara Nordenhall

67

Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

He, Xin (Denver, CO); Durrett, Russell P. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

2012-01-24

68

A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF BIODIESEL IMPACTS ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Existing emissions data from heavy-duty diesel engines was assembled into a database. Statistical regression analysis was used to correlate biodiesel concentration with changes in emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants. The report concludes that biodiesel produces sm...

69

EXHAUST EMISSION PATTERNS FROM TWO LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL AUTOMOBILES  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate and gaseous emissions from two light-duty diesel automobiles were examined over six operating cycles. Particulate characterizations included mass emission rate, soluble organic content, and trace element content determinations. The particulate matter was sampled using...

70

Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption  

PubMed Central

An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

Su, Jye-Chau

2014-01-01

71

Combination of Methods for Characterization Diesel Engine Exhaust Particulate Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a study of the exhaust aerosols produced by a diesel engine. A combination of techniques for collecting and measure particulate matter in a diluted exhaust gases are presented. Three techniques have been used: a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI), a Low Pressure Impactor (LPI) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). A direct injection naturally aspirated diesel engine was used in the study at three different equivalance ratios: 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 at an engine speed of 1400 rpm which is rated torque speed. Mass concentration measurements made with the MOUDI were in qualitative, but not quantitative, agreement with those calculated from the aerosol volume concentrations measured by the SMPS. The particulate matter obtained from the LPI was analyzed using transmission electron microscope and was found to be comprised of individual spherical particles ranging from 10 nm to 50 nm with a mean size of approximately 25 nm. Some conclusions about the size distribution measurement possibilities can be drawn.

Abu-Qudais, Moh'D.; Matson, Andreas; Kittelson, David

72

Jet engine exhaust emissions of high altitude commercial aircraft projected to 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high-altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on:(1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; and (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft fueled by either JP fuel, liquefied natural gas, or hydrogen. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of both an emission index (g constituent/kg fuel) and an emission rate (g constituent/hr).

Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

1974-01-01

73

Exhaust Fine Particle and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks are a source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions as well as primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. Heavy-duty trucks contribute significantly to elevated levels of diesel particulate matter found near highways and in communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. To reduce the air quality impact of diesel engine emissions, the California Air Resources Board has adopted new rules requiring the retrofit or replacement of in-use HD trucks. These rules take effect during 2010 at ports and railyards, and apply to all trucks operating in California by 2014. This study involves on-road measurements of PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factor distributions from individual HD trucks driving into the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay area. Measurements of exhaust plumes from individual trucks were made using a mobile laboratory equipped with fast time response (1 Hz) PM2.5, BC, NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors. The mobile laboratory was stationed on an overpass above an arterial roadway that connects the Port to a nearby highway (I-880). The air sampling inlet was thereby located above the vertical exhaust pipes of HD diesel trucks passing by on the arterial roadway below. Fuel-specific PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which concentrations of these species in an exhaust plume are normalized to CO2 concentrations. Initial field sampling was conducted in November, 2009 prior to the implementation of new emission rules. Additional emission measurements were made at the same location during June 2010 and emission factor distributions and averages will be compared.

Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T.

2010-12-01

74

A comprehensive inventory of the ship traffic exhaust emissions in the Baltic Sea from 2006 to 2009.  

PubMed

This study addresses the exhaust emissions of CO?, NO(x), SO(x), CO, and PM(2.5) originated from Baltic Sea shipping in 2006-2009. Numerical results have been computed using the Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model. This model is based on the messages of the automatic identification system (AIS), which enable the positioning of ships with a high spatial resolution. The NO(x) emissions in 2009 were approximately 7 % higher than in 2006, despite the economic recession. However, the SO(x) emissions in 2009 were approximately 14 % lower, when compared to those in 2006, mainly caused by the fuel requirements of the SO(x) emission control area (SECA) which became effective in May 2006, but affected also by changes in ship activity. Results are presented on the differential geographic distribution of shipping emissions before (Jan-April 2006) and after (Jan-April 2009) the SECA regulations. The predicted NO(x) emissions in 2009 substantially exceeded the emissions in 2006 along major ship routes and at numerous harbors, mostly due to the continuous increase in the number of small vessels that use AIS transmitters. Although the SO(x) emissions have been reduced in 2009 in most major ship routes, these have increased in the vicinity of some harbors and on some densely trafficked routes. A seasonal variation of emissions is also presented, as well as the distribution of emissions in terms of vessel flag state, type, and weight. PMID:23479266

Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Johansson, Lasse; Kukkonen, Jaakko

2014-04-01

75

Multicomponent remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions by dispersive IR and UV spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions under real-world driving conditions is desirable for a number of reasons, including: identifying high emitters, investigating the chemical composition of the exhaust, and probing fast reactions in the plume. A remote sensor, incorporating IR and UV spectrometers, was developed. The IR spectrometer consists of a grating system mounted on a synchronous motor, optically interfaced to a room temperature PbSe detector. UV-vis measurements are made with a CCD array spectrometer. Eight optical passes through the exhaust plume allow rapid and sensitive monitoring of the exhaust stream emitted by moving vehicles on a car-by-car basis. The combination of these two techniques resulted in unprecedented, direct measurement capability of over 25 pollutants in the exhaust plume. Emissions from a fleet of vehicles powered by a range of fuels (gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and methanol) were tested. The exhaust from hot gasoline- and methanol-powered cars contained high levels of NH3, up to 1500 ppm. These emissions were up to 14 times higher than the corresponding NOx emissions. Unlike most previous work, NOx was measured as the sum of NO and NO2; N2O was also measured. Field testing at a southern California freeway on-ramp was conducted over a one week period, totaling >4,500 measurements. It was found that 66.4% of the emitted NH3 was produced by 10% of the fleet, following the (gamma) - distribution that has been reported for criteria pollutants. Mean NH3 emission rates were calculated at 138 mg km-1, nearly twice as high was previous estimates.

Baum, Marc M.; Kiyomiya, Eileen S.; Kumar, Sasi; Lappas, Anastasios M.; Lord, Harry C., III

2000-12-01

76

Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than diesel does. Major difference in both fuels is formaldehyde emission which drops by 23% on the average. Lower aldehyde emissions found in B20 correspond to lower ozone formation potentials. As a result, use of biodiesel in diesel engines has the beneficial effect in terms of aldehyde emissions.

Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

77

Engine performance and exhaust emissions: methanol versus isooctane  

SciTech Connect

Operating characteristics of a single-cylinder, spark-ignition engine fueled by both methanol and isooctane were determined. Engine output, indicated specific fuel consumption, and specific emissions of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and aldehydes were measured for both fuels and compared using the performance maps. The engine output comparisons showed that lean misfire limits occurred at leaner mixtures with methanol than with isooctane and that maximum engine output levels were nearly equal for both fuels. Comparison of the specific parameters of each fuel at equivalent power levels obtained with maximum power spark timing permits the following conclusions: use of methanol results in higher indicated specific fuel consumption, greater emission of aldehydes, but lower emissions of hydrocarbon and nitric oxide; the two fuels showed similar trends of carbon monoxide emission.

Ebersole, G.D.; Manning, F.S.

1980-01-01

78

Carbonyl emissions from vehicular exhausts sources in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for airborne carbonyls in urban area. Six types of VE-dominated samples were collected at representative locations in Hong Kong where polluted by a particular fueled type of vehicles, including (i) a gas refilling taxis station (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] emission); (ii) a light-duty passenger car park (gasoline emission); (iii) a minibus station (diesel emission); (iv) a single-deck-bus depot (diesel emission); (v) a double-deck-bus depot (diesel emission); and (vi) a whole-food market entrance for light- and heavy-duty vehicles (diesel emission). A total of 15 carbonyls in the samples were quantified. Formaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl among the VE-dominated samples, and its contribution to the total quantified amount on a molar basis ranged from 54.8% to 60.8%. Acetaldehyde and acetone were the next two abundant carbonyls. The carbonyls were quantified at three roadside locations in Hong Kong. The highest concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, 22.7 +/- 8.4 and 6.0 +/- 2.8 microg/m3, respectively, were determined in the samples collected at a main transportation gate for goods between Hong Kong and Mainland China. The total quantified carbonyl concentration, 37.9 +/- 9.3 microg/m3, was the highest at an entrance of a cross-harbor tunnel in downtown area. The theoretical carbonyls compositions of the three roadside locations were estimated according to the VE-dominated sample profiles and the statistics on vehicle numbers and types during the sampling period. The measured compositions of formaldehyde were much higher than the theoretical compositions in summer, demonstrating that photochemical reactions significantly contributed to the formaldehyde production in the roadsides. PMID:22442938

Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Cheng, Yan; Yu, Jian Zhen; Lam, Ka Man; Feng, Natale Sin Yau; Huang, Yu

2012-02-01

79

General aviation piston-engine exhaust emission reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support the promulgation of aircraft regulations, two airports were examined, Van Nuys and Tamiami. It was determined that the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from piston-engine aircraft have a significant influence on the CO levels in the ambient air in and around airports, where workers and travelers would be exposed. Emissions standards were set up for control of emissions from aircraft piston engines manufactured after December 31, 1979. The standards selected were based on a technologically feasible and economically reasonable control of carbon monoxide. It was concluded that substantial CO reductions could be realized if the range of typical fuel-air ratios could be narrowed. Thus, improvements in fuel management were determined as reasonable controls.

Kempke, E. E., Jr.; Houtman, W. H.; Westfield, W. T.; Duke, L. C.; Rezy, B. J.

1977-01-01

80

Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

2012-06-01

81

78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...45 [Docket No.: FAA-2012-1333; Amendment No. 34-5A] RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages...

2013-11-01

82

Effects of particulate matter from gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust emissions on silicate stones sulfation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of particulate matter (PM) from diesel and leaded gasoline motor vehicles exhaust emissions on sulfation of granites, syenite and gabbro stones have been experimentally studied. Abundant gypsum crystals and corrosion features developed on stones covered with diesel PM (DPM) following 72h exposure to 100ppm SO2 at a relative humidity of 100%. In contrast, very small amounts of gypsum

J. Simão; E. Ruiz-Agudo; C. Rodriguez-Navarro

2006-01-01

83

Exhaust emission and combustion evaluation of coconut oil-powered indirect injection diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of experimental work carried out to evaluate the exhaust emissions characteristics of ordinary Malaysian coconut oil (COCO) blended with conventional diesel oil (OD) fueled in a diesel engine. This project complies with Malaysian Government strategy on biofuel research activity. The results showed that the addition of 30% COCO with OD produced higher brake power and

M. A Kalam; M Husnawan; H. H Masjuki

2003-01-01

84

40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR...1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR. (a) The CO2 standards of this section apply for...

2012-07-01

85

40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR...1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR. (a) The CO2 standards of this section apply for...

2013-07-01

86

40 CFR 1033.101 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standard = (Ei ) × (1.1 + (1—ELHi /std)) Where: Ei = The deteriorated...paragraph (e)(6) of this section. std = The applicable line-haul duty-cycle...brake-specific emission rate for pollutant i and std is the applicable switch cycle...

2013-07-01

87

40 CFR 1033.101 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...standard = (Ei ) × (1.1 + (1—ELHi /std)) Where: Ei = The deteriorated...paragraph (e)(6) of this section. std = The applicable line-haul duty-cycle...brake-specific emission rate for pollutant i and std is the applicable switch cycle...

2011-07-01

88

40 CFR 1033.101 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standard = (Ei ) × (1.1 + (1—ELHi /std)) Where: Ei = The deteriorated...paragraph (e)(6) of this section. std = The applicable line-haul duty-cycle...brake-specific emission rate for pollutant i and std is the applicable switch cycle...

2010-07-01

89

40 CFR 1033.101 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standard = (Ei ) × (1.1 + (1—ELHi /std)) Where: Ei = The deteriorated...paragraph (e)(6) of this section. std = The applicable line-haul duty-cycle...brake-specific emission rate for pollutant i and std is the applicable switch cycle...

2012-07-01

90

Impact of California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline on atmospheric reactivity of exhaust and evaporative emissions  

SciTech Connect

Phase 2 of California`s reformulated gasoline (RFG) program took effect statewide in the first half of 1996. Changes to gasoline composition required by Phase 2 specifications included: lower vapor pressure; lower olefin, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur content; lower T50 and T90; and a minimum oxygen content. In this paper, impacts of Phase 2 RFG on the atmospheric reactivity of motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative emissions are described. Volatile organic compounds in motor vehicle exhaust were measured at the Caldecott tunnel in summer 1995 and 1996. Aggregate emissions of greater than 8000 vehicles were measured each day. Regular and premium grade gasoline samples were collected from service stations in Berkeley concurrently with tunnel measurements both summers. Liquid gasoline samples and their headspace vapors were analyzed to determine detailed chemical composition. Normalized reactivity was calculated for exhaust and evaporative emissions by applying maximum incremental reactivity values to the detailed speciation profiles. Results indicate that the composition of gasoline in 1996 differed markedly from that of 1995. Changes in liquid gasoline composition led to corresponding changes in the speciation of vehicle exhaust and of gasoline headspace vapors. Benzene concentration in liquid gasoline decreased from 2.0 to 0.6 wt%, which contributed to a 70 and 37% reduction in benzene weight fraction in headspace vapors and vehicle exhaust, respectively. Addition of MTBE and reduction of olefins and aromatics in gasoline led to significant reductions in the atmospheric reactivity of unburned gasoline and gasoline headspace vapors. The normalized reactivity of liquid gasoline and headspace vapors decreased by 23 and 19%, respectively, between 1995 and 1996. The normalized reactivity of non-methane organic compounds in vehicle exhaust decreased by about 8%, but the uncertainty in this change was large.

Kirchstetter, T.W.; Singer, B.C.; Harley, R.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Kendall, G.R.; Traverse, M. [Bay Area Air Quality Management District, San Francisco, CA (United States). Technical Services Div.

1997-12-31

91

Catalytic converters for exhaust emission control of commercial equipment powered by internal combustion engines.  

PubMed Central

The development of PTX, monolithic catalytic exhaust purifiers, is outlined, and their first use for exhaust emissions control of commercial equipment is described. The main use of PTX converters is on forklift trucks. The purification achievable with PTX-equipped fork-lift trucks under various operational conditions is discussed, and examples from the field are given. During more than ten years of operation, no adverse health effects have been reported, and PTX-equipped internal combustion engines appear safe for use in confined areas. PMID:50933

Cohn, J G

1975-01-01

92

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

93

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

94

Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel/biodiesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely studied in environmental matrices, such as air, water, soil and sediment, because of their toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of these properties, the environmental agencies of developed countries have listed sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants. Few countries have limits for these compounds for ambient air, but they only limit emissions from stationary and mobile sources and occupational areas. There are several studies to specifically address the 16 priority PAHs and very little for the alkyl PAHs. These compounds are more abundant, more persistent and frequently more toxic than the non-alkylated PAHs, and the toxicity increases with the number of alkyl substitutions on the aromatic ring. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of PAHs and alkyl PAHs by using a GC-MS and large injection volume injection coupled with program temperature vaporisation, which allows for limits of detection below 1.0 ng ?L-1. Several variables were tested, such as the injection volume, injection velocity, injector initial temperature, duration of the solvent split and others. This method was evaluated in samples from particulate matter from the emissions of engines employing standard diesel, commercial diesel and biodiesel B20. Samples were collected on a dynamometer bench for a diesel engine cycle and the results ranged from 0.5 to 96.9 ng mL-1, indicating that diesel/biodiesel makes a significant contribution to the formation of PAHs and alkyl PAHs.

Casal, Carina S.; Arbilla, Graciela; Corrêa, Sergio M.

2014-10-01

95

Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China's Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

2012-01-01

96

Effects of gasoline volatility on the hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a 1984 Oldsmobile Cutlass. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a gasoline volatility/exhaust emission test program done under EPA contract by ATL Laboratories in Columbus, Ohio. The program was developed to help explain why hydrocarbon exhaust emissions frequently increase when using fuels with high volatility. The testing involved a 1984 3.8L Olds Cutlass with multi-point fuel injection. Two different fuels (9.0 and 11.5 psi RVP) were used, along with three different conditions of the evaporative canister (no purge, Standard canister loading, and a loading beyond breakthrough). In addition, tests were performed with both fuels with the catalytic converter removed and a standard canister loading to determine the effect of RVP on engine-out emissions.

Schuler, A.E.

1987-08-01

97

Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust emission from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra reduction of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small reduction are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.

Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi

98

Particle-Bound PAH Emission from the Exhaust of Combustion Chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are harmful, semi-volatile organic compounds which are generated due to the incomplete combustion of organic substances. PAHs are of concern as a pollutant because some of these compounds are carcinogenic and mutagenic even at low levels. Most of the PAHs are recalcitrant and persistent in the environment. The PAHs carcinogenic potential can be increased by the adsorption onto small size particles (< 1?m) which can easily get into the bronchioles and alveoli of the lungs. PAHs associated with sub-micron particles are mostly generated from high temperature sources like combustion chambers. In this current study, the presence of 16 priority PAHs (listed by United States Environmental Protection Agency) which are attached to the particulates emitted from the exhaust of the jet engine are evaluated. The engine was operated at different swirl numbers (S; the ratio of tangential air flow to axial air flow) to investigate the effect of this parameter on the effluent of combustion chamber. The samples were collected using two instruments simultaneously: a particle analyzer and a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposited Impactor (MOUDI). Particle analyzer was used to count the number of particles in different sizes and MOUDI was used to collect particles with respect to their size as they were emitted from the exhaust. The MOUDI's aluminum substrates were weighed before and after the experiment in order to measure the mass of particles that were collected during the sampling period. The concentration of PAHs associated with the particles was measured by extracting the particles with dichloromethane followed by analysis via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In general, lower molecular weight PAHs emitted from the exhaust of combustion chamber are mostly in gas phase while PAHs of higher molecular weight are adsorbed onto particles. Preliminary results from GC/MS confirm the presence of higher molecular weight PAHs like Benzo[a]pyrene in most of the samples. Better recirculation between air and fuel in higher swirl numbers results in better combustion. In higher swirl numbers, the temperature of the combustion process increases which leads to a more complete combustion. Another result of higher swirl number is a longer residence time which allows the organic substances in the fuel to remain in the reaction longer and also leads to a more complete combustion. The preliminary results from particle analyzer show that the abundance ratio of smaller particles to larger particles increases at higher swirl numbers. For example, at swirl 86, the abundance ratio of 0.3 micron particles to 0.7 micron particles was 400 while at swirl 0, this ratio was 35. Smaller particles have higher specific surface area which allows for more PAH adsorption. The preliminary results show that operating the jet engine at higher swirl numbers can have positive or negative effects on particle-bound PAH emissions. Higher temperature and residence time as well as better mixture of fuel and air can reduce PAH emission while generating more small size particles can increase surface available for PAH adsorption and, as a result, increases PAH emission. In future experiments, particle-bound PAHs of different swirl numbers will be compared in order to find a swirl number range which generates fewer Particle-bound PAHs.

Asgari Lamjiri, M.; Medrano, Y. S.; Guillaume, D. W.; Khachikian, C. S.

2013-12-01

99

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

100

US Coast Guard/US Maritime Administration Cooperative Research on marine engine exhaust emissions. Marine exhaust emissions measurement of the M/V Kings Pointer. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of emissions testing conducted on board the M/V KINGS POINTER in May 1995. The objective of this testing was to conduct baseline instrumentation, monitoring, and evaluation of the engine exhaust emissions as part of joint U.S. Coast Guard/Maritime Administration cooperative research on controlling air pollution from ships. The U.S. Coast Guard`s interest in emissions testing arises from both its desire to meet all federal and state air quality regulations and the fact that in the future it may be called upon to enforce regulations in the marine environment. The U.S. Maritime Administration`s interest in this and related research is based on its efforts to assure that its vessels and those of the privately-owned U.S. Flag Merchant Marine can comply with future air pollution control requirements. Underway tests were conducted of the 224-foot M/V KINGS POINTER in which two of its four diesel-electric generators were sampled for NO, NO2, CO, and SO2 in the exhaust. Additional data on fuel flow and power output were collected at five speeds over the full range of vessel operating ranges. NOx values were calculated and compared with standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Results showed that average NOx values were 9.4 g/kWh which is slightly below the 10.9 g/kWh upper limit or cap that is being proposed by the IMO for a diesel engine with a rated speed of 1200 RPM. Additional conclusions and recommendations on the technique of portable emissions monitoring instrumentation are made.

Allen, S.J.; Bentz, A.P.

1996-07-01

101

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions from automotive internal combustion engines is described in which the rate or amount of exhaust gases recirculated into the intake manifold of the engine is controlled in relation to the operating conditions of the engine. A device for supplying secondary air into the exhaust is also provided. An exhaust gas

Hayashi

1974-01-01

102

Artificial neural network approach for modelling nitrogen dioxide dispersion from vehicular exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are useful alternative techniques in modelling the complex vehicular exhaust emission (VEE) dispersion phenomena. This paper describes a step-by-step procedure to model the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) dispersion phenomena using the ANN technique. The ANN-based NO2 models are developed at two air-quality-control regions (AQCRs), one, representing, a traffic intersection (AQCR1) and the other, an arterial road (AQCR2)

S. M. Shiva Nagendra; Mukesh Khare

2006-01-01

103

Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during the first minutes of the cycle, before the light-off of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Less ammonia has been emitted with ethanol fuel, in particular in low ambient condition (E75 versus E5). Ammonia is a harmful compound for human health and vegetation, and is a precursor of secondary aerosol. Even if agricultural activities are the main source of anthropogenic ammonia, the contribution from the transport sector increases significantly during the cold season. Consequently, using high concentrated ethanol as fuel may have a positive impact on ammonia emission in urban area. However, ethanol fuel had a negative impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The latter together with methane was notably emitted in low ambient temperature, in comparison with gasoline fuel (E5). Moreover, the OFP at -7°C was influenced by the amount of ethanol in gasoline, mainly because of the increase of ozone precursors linked to ethanol (ethylene, acetylene, and acetaldehyde). Even if ozone concentration levels are generally lower during the cold seasons these results show that the issue should be considered globally before promoting the use of high concentrated ethanol fuel in a large scale.

Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

2011-12-01

104

Gaseous exhaust emissions from a J-58 engine at simulated supersonic flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from a J-58 engine at simulated flight conditions of Mach 2.0, 2.4, and 2.8 at 19.8 km altitude are reported. For each flight condition, measurements were made for four engine power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. These measurements were made 7 cm downstream of the engine primary nozzle using a single point traversing gas sample probe. Results show that emissions vary with flight speed, engine power level, and with radial position across the exhaust.

Holdeman, J. D.

1974-01-01

105

European technology for reducing exhaust pollution from naval ship engines. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the world wide interest in reducing air pollution, the US Navy is studying methods for lowering emissions from new, as well as existing, ship engines. As part of those studies, this report summarizes an examination of the science and technology base in Europe related to marine engine combustion and emissions. On site visits in 1995 found a

Quandt

1996-01-01

106

Exhaust emission calibration of two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude, supersonic flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, nitric oxide, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16.0 to 23.5 km. For each flight condition exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels, from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen emissions decreased with increasing altitude and increased with increasing flight speed. Oxides of nitrogen emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

Holdeman, J. D.

1976-01-01

107

Characteristics of volatile organic compounds from motorcycle exhaust emission during real-world driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of motorcycles has increased significantly in Asia, Africa, Latin American and Europe in recent years due to their reasonable price, high mobility and low fuel consumption. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics of motorcycles are an important consideration for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. Results of this study indicate that most volatile organic compound (VOC) emission factors were in the range of several decades mg/km during on-road driving. Toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were the most abundant VOCs in motorcycle exhaust, with emission factors of hundreds mg/km. Motorcycle exhaust was 15.4 mg/km for 15 carbonyl species. Acetaldehyde, acetone, formaldehyde and benzaldehyde were the major carbonyl species, and their emission factors ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/km 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, toluene, o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, propene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, m-diethylbenzene, and m-ethyltoluene were the main ozone formation potential (OFP) species, and their OFP was 200 mg-O3/km or higher.

Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2014-12-01

108

FTIR airborne measurement of aircraft jet engine exhaust gas emissions under cruise conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flight qualified Fourier transform infrared spectrometer has been built by applying the MIROR principle (Michelson interferometer with rotating retroreflector) where an eccentrically rotating retroreflector generates optical path differences. The unique optical design is especially suiting the rough environment of airborne missions. The purely optical and passive method in no way influences the gases as sample collecting procedures are likely to do. It is able to deliver true space/time resolved spectra of several species in the exhaust plume simultaneously. First measurements aboard a civil jet aircraft have been performed, successfully collecting spectra of the infrared radiation emitted by the hot exhaust gases just behind the engine's nozzle. The spectra were radiometrically calibrated and column densities of trace gases in the plume and in the for- and background as well as gas temperatures were calculated applying inversion algorithms. From these then emission indices (mass pollutant per mass kerosene) of the engine for specific trace gases were determined.

Tank, Volker; Haschberger, Peter; Lindermeir, Erwin; Matthern, K. H.

1995-09-01

109

40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.  

...Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures...sec). (iii) CFV sample flow rate is fixed by the venturi design. (5) Attach the exhaust tube to the vehicle...

2014-07-01

110

40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.  

...Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...rear engine compartments (or if special designs make the above impractical), the...sample flow rate is fixed by the venturi design. (v) Attach the exhaust tube to...

2014-07-01

111

40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.  

...Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty...rear engine compartments (or if special designs make the above impractical), the...sample flow rate is fixed by the venturi design. (v) Attach the exhaust tube to...

2014-07-01

112

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

113

40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

114

REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING  

E-print Network

REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: REVISITING Change Research Working Paper 115 #12;REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) under the United Nations Framework Convention

Watson, Andrew

115

Control of variable geometry turbocharged diesel engines for reduced emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission control problem for an automotive direct injected compression ignition (diesel) engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) is considered. The objective is to operate the engine to meet driver's torque demand and minimize NOx emissions while at the same time avoiding visible smoke generation. It is demonstrated that the steady-state optimization of

Anna G. Stefanopoulou; Ilya Kolmanovsky; James S. Freudenberg

2000-01-01

116

Ten Recommendations for Reducing Carbon Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former U.S. Vice President Al Gore testified about possible solutions to mitigate anthropogenic climate change at two 21 March hearings held before committees of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. His 10 recommendations to reduce U.S. carbon emissions:

2007-04-01

117

Impact of higher alcohols blended in gasoline on light-duty vehicle exhaust emissions.  

PubMed

Certification gasoline was splash blended with alcohols to produce four blends: ethanol (16 vol%), n-butanol (17 vol%), i-butanol (21 vol%), and an i-butanol (12 vol%)/ethanol (7 vol%) mixture; these fuels were tested in a 2009 Honda Odyssey (a Tier 2 Bin 5 vehicle) over triplicate LA92 cycles. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, non-methane organic gases (NMOG), unburned alcohols, carbonyls, and C1-C8 hydrocarbons (particularly 1,3-butadiene and benzene) were determined. Large, statistically significant fuel effects on regulated emissions were a 29% reduction in CO from E16 and a 60% increase in formaldehyde emissions from i-butanol, compared to certification gasoline. Ethanol produced the highest unburned alcohol emissions of 1.38 mg/mile ethanol, while butanols produced much lower unburned alcohol emissions (0.17 mg/mile n-butanol, and 0.30 mg/mile i-butanol); these reductions were offset by higher emissions of carbonyls. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and butyraldehyde were the most significant carbonyls from the n-butanol blend, while formaldehyde, acetone, and 2-methylpropanal were the most significant from the i-butanol blend. The 12% i-butanol/7% ethanol blend was designed to produce no increase in gasoline vapor pressure. This fuel's exhaust emissions contained the lowest total oxygenates among the alcohol blends and the lowest NMOG of all fuels tested. PMID:24180630

Ratcliff, Matthew A; Luecke, Jon; Williams, Aaron; Christensen, Earl; Yanowitz, Janet; Reek, Aaron; McCormick, Robert L

2013-12-01

118

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motor vehicle fuels and exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions. Improved understanding of the relationship between fuel composition and PAH emissions is needed to determine whether fuel reformulation is a viable approach for reducing PAH emissions. PAH concentrations were quantified in gasoline and diesel fuel samples collected in summer 1997 in northern California. Naphthalene was the predominant PAH

Linsey C. Marr; Thomas W. Kirchstetter; Robert A. Harley; S. K. Hammond; A. H. Miguel

1999-01-01

119

Effects of Transient Conditions on Exhaust Emissions from two Non-road Diesel Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing interest in quantifying and reducing the amount of engine emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides loading the environment has led to increasingly tighter environmental regulations. However, current non-road emission standards are performed according to a steady-state test cycle, which does not include transient effects and thus underestimates the amount of emissions produced in real use of the

M Lindgren; P.-A Hansson

2004-01-01

120

Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.  

PubMed

Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine. PMID:24350455

Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

2013-01-01

121

Exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled by waste cooking oil biodiesel.  

PubMed

The exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator operating with waste cooking oil biodiesel blends have been studied. Fuel blends with 25%, 50% and 75% of biodiesel concentration in diesel oil were tested, varying engine load from 0 to 25 kW. The original engine settings for diesel oil operation were kept the same during the experiments with the biodiesel blends. The main physical-chemical characteristics of the fuel blends used were measured to help with the analysis of the emission results. The results show that the addition of biodiesel to the fuel increases oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and exhaust gas opacity were also increased with the use of biodiesel. Major increase of NO(X) was observed at low loads, while CO and HC were mainly increased at high loads. Using 50% of biodiesel in diesel oil, the average increase of CO(2), CO, HC and NO(X) throughout the load range investigated was 8.5%, 20.1%, 23.5% and 4.8%, respectively. PMID:22664538

Valente, Osmano Souza; Pasa, Vanya Márcia Duarte; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Sodré, José Ricardo

2012-08-01

122

Calculation of exhaust plume structure and emissions of the ER 2 aircraft in the stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations are presented for the NASA ER 2 aircraft at high altitude to simulate measurements taken of its own emissions during a wake-crossing event. Results are presented for a Mach = 0.71 case in the lower stratosphere with an engine NOx emission index of 4.6 corresponding to the measured value. A series of codes was used in the analysis to calculate the flow field and chemical kinetics, from the engine combustor out to a distance of about 20.2 km (97 s). Initial plume properties were calculated with a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code with finite rate chemistry. The results of the plume code initialized a three-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) reacting flow solution, where the plume dynamics interacting with the aircraft wake were calculated out to the region of plume breakup. Results show that the early shape and mixing rate of the engine exhaust plume are dominated by the presence of the aircraft vortex wake. Model results for NOY emissions compare well to in situ measurements taken in the field. Calculated exhaust species evolutions predict several species ratios in good agreement with field data. The mixing rate of the engine plume was also predicted to be consistent with dilution measured in the field.

Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.

1996-02-01

123

Estimation and validation of PM 2.5/PM 10 exhaust and non-exhaust emission factors for practical street pollution modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to carry out efficient traffic and air quality management, validated models and PM emission estimates are needed. This paper compares current available emission factor estimates for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from emission databases and different emission models, and validates these against eight high quality street pollution measurements in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Finland and Austria. The data sets show large variation of the PM concentration and emission factors with season and with location. Consistently at all roads the PM 10 and PM 2.5 emission factors are lower in the summer month than the rest of the year. For example, PM 10 emission factors are in average 5-45% lower during the month 6-10 compared to the annual average. The range of observed total emission factors (including non-exhaust emissions) for the different sites during summer conditions are 80-130 mg km -1 for PM 10, 30-60 mg km -1 for PM 2.5 and 20-50 mg km -1 for the exhaust emissions. We present two different strategies regarding modelling of PM emissions: (1) For Nordic conditions with strong seasonal variations due to studded tyres and the use of sand/salt as anti-skid treatment a time varying emission model is needed. An empirical model accounting for these Nordic conditions was previously developed in Sweden. (2) For other roads with a less pronounced seasonal variation (e.g. in Denmark, Germany, Austria) methods using a constant emission factor maybe appropriate. Two models are presented here. Further, we apply the different emission models to data sets outside the original countries. For example, we apply the "Swedish" model for two streets without studded tyre usage and the "German" model for Nordic data sets. The "Swedish" empirical model performs best for streets with studded tyre use, but was not able to improve the correlation versus measurements in comparison to using constant emission factors for the Danish side. The "German" method performed well for the streets without clear seasonal variation and reproduces the summer conditions for streets with pronounced seasonal variation. However, the seasonal variation of PM emission factors can be important even for countries not using studded tyres, e.g. in areas with cold weather and snow events using sand and de-icing materials. Here a constant emission factor probably will under-estimate the 90-percentiles and therefore a time varying emission model need to be used or developed for such areas. All emission factor models consistently indicate that a large part (about 50-85% depending on the location) of the total PM 10 emissions originates from non-exhaust emissions. This implies that reduction measures for the exhaust part of the vehicle emissions will only have a limited effect on ambient PM 10 levels.

Ketzel, Matthias; Omstedt, Gunnar; Johansson, Christer; Düring, Ingo; Pohjola, Mia; Oettl, Dietmar; Gidhagen, Lars; Wåhlin, Peter; Lohmeyer, Achim; Haakana, Mervi; Berkowicz, Ruwim

124

Opacity meter for monitoring exhaust emissions from non-stationary sources  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for determining the opacity of exhaust plumes from moving emissions sources. In operation, a light source is activated at a time prior to the arrival of a diesel locomotive at a measurement point, by means of a track trigger switch or the Automatic Equipment Identification system, such that the opacity measurement is synchronized with the passage of an exhaust plume past the measurement point. A beam of light from the light source passes through the exhaust plume of the locomotive and is detected by a suitable detector, preferably a high-rate photodiode. The light beam is well-collimated and is preferably monochromatic, permitting the use of a narrowband pass filter to discriminate against background light. In order to span a double railroad track and provide a beam which is substantially stronger than background, the light source, preferably a diode laser, must provide a locally intense beam. A high intensity light source is also desirable in order to increase accuracy at the high sampling rates required. Also included is a computer control system useful for data acquisition, manipulation, storage and transmission of opacity data and the identification of the associated diesel engine to a central data collection center.

Dec, John Edward (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

125

Emission projection and uncertainty analysis of exhaust emissions from global and Asian on-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the most notable impacts from emissions of air pollutants are climate change and hemispheric or intercontinental transport. Global emission projections are identified as critical elements in understanding these large-scale impacts. Such projections are required to understand the net response of climate to combined emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols, and other trace species in the next 30 to 50

F. Yan; E. Winijkul; T. Bond; D. G. Streets

2009-01-01

126

Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

2014-10-01

127

Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

None

1982-03-01

128

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

Ruether, J.A.

1998-02-01

129

Effect of operating conditions on the exhaust emissions from a gas turbine combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exhaust concentrations of total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide were measured from a single J-57 combustor liner installed in a 30 diameter test section. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet total pressures from 1 to 20 atmospheres, inlet total temperatures from 310 to 590 K, reference velocities from 8 to m/sec, and fuel-air ratios from 0.004 to 0.015. Most of the data were obtained using ASTM A-1 fuel; however, a limited number of tests was performed with natural gas fuel. Combustion efficiency and emission levels are correlated with operating conditions. Sampling error at operating conditions for which combustion efficiency was below about 90 percent resulted in abnormally low readings for hydrocarbon emissions.

Briehl, D.; Papathakos, L.; Strancar, R. J.

1972-01-01

130

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from different reformulated diesel fuels and engine operating conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of light-duty diesel engine exhaust emissions is important due to their impact on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. In this study, both the gas and the particulate phase of fuel exhaust were analyzed to investigate the effects of diesel reformulation and engine operating parameters. The research was focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds on particulate phase due to their high toxicity. These were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. Although PAH profiles changed for diesel fuels with low-sulfur content and different percentages of aromatic hydrocarbons (5-25%), no significant differences for total PAH concentrations were detected. However, rape oil methyl ester biodiesel showed a greater number of PAH compounds, but in lower concentrations (close to 50%) than the reformulated diesel fuels. In addition, four engine operating conditions were evaluated, and the results showed that, during cold start, higher concentrations were observed for high molecular weight PAHs than during idling cycle and that the acceleration cycles provided higher concentrations than the steady-state conditions. Correlations between particulate PAHs and gas phase products were also observed. The emission of PAH compounds from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel depended greatly on the source of the fuel and the driving patterns.

Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A.; Vázquez, Monica; Zielinska, Barbara

2009-12-01

131

Effects of secondary combustion on efficiencies and emission reduction in the diesel engine exhaust heat recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on the effects of secondary combustion on efficiencies and emission reduction in the diesel engine exhaust heat recovery system has been undertaken. The co-generation concept is utilized in that the electric power is produced by the generator connected to the diesel engine, and heat is recovered from both combustion exhaust gases and the engine by the fin-and-tube

Dae Hee Lee; Jun Sik Lee; Jae Suk Park

2010-01-01

132

Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

1991-08-01

133

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...for a model type. (a) Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

2012-07-01

134

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...for a model type. (a) Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

2013-07-01

135

Reducing Methyl Halide Emissions from Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatilization and soil transformation are major pathways by which pesticides dissipate from treated agricultural soil. Methyl bromide (MeBr) emissions from agricultural fumigation can lead to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. This has led to a gradual phase-out of MeBr and replacement by other halogenated chemicals. However, MeBr continues to be widely used under Critical Use Exemptions and development of emission-reduction strategies remains important. Several methods to reduce emissions of MeBr, and other halogenated soil fumigants, have been developed and are currently being tested under field conditions. In this paper, several approaches for reducing fumigant emissions to the atmosphere are described and include the use of virtually impermeable films, the creation of reactive soil barriers and a recently developed reactive film which was designed to limit loss of MeBr from soil without adding any material to the soil surface. Ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) was used to create a reactive layer. For a reactive soil layer, ATS was sprayed on the soil surface or incorporated to a depth of 1-2 cm. For the reactive film, ATS was placed between two layers of plastic film. The lower plastic layer was a high-density polyethylene film (HDPE), which is readily permeable to MeBr. The upper layer was a virtually impermeable film (VIF) and limits MeBr diffusion. MeBr diffusion and transformation through VIFs and reactive layers were tested in laboratory and field experiments. Although ineffective when dry, when sufficient water was present, reactive barriers substantially depleted halogenated fumigants, including MeBr. When ATS was activated in laboratory experiments, MeBr half-life was about 9.0 h (20C) in a reactive film barrier, and half life decreased with increasing temperature. When the soil was covered with VIF, less than 10% of the added MeBr diffused through the film and the remainder was transformed within the soil. This compares with 60 to 90% emission losses, respectively, for a soil covered with HDPE or for a bare soil surface. These findings demonstrate that several methods are available to reduce atmospheric emissions of MeBr and other halogenated fumigants.

Yates, S. R.; Xuan, R.; Ashworth, D.; Luo, L.

2011-12-01

136

Exhaust emissions from an SI engine operating on gaseous fuel mixtures containing hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission characteristics of a spark ignition (SI) engine operated in turn on H2 and some of its mixtures with CH4 and CO are examined experimentally. The role of changes in some key operating variables affecting the production of the pollutants CO, NOx and unburned hydrocarbons are examined and some guidelines for reducing the undesirable emissions are outlined. It is

Hailin Li; Ghazi A. Karim

2005-01-01

137

Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to review the potential of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the exhaust emissions, particularly NOX emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique. A detailed analysis of previous and current results of EGR effects on the emissions and performance of Diesel engines, spark ignition engines and duel fuel engines is introduced.

G. H. Abd-Alla

2002-01-01

138

Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

2011-01-01

139

Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 +/- 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m(3) of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 +/- 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 +/- 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m(-3) (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust. PMID:18264702

Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

2008-04-01

140

Effects of prevaporized fuel on exhaust emissions of an experimental gas turbine combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of fuel vaporization on the exhaust emission levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, and smoke number were obtained in an experimental turbojet combustor segment. Two fuel injector types were used in which liquid ASTM A-1 jet fuel and vapor propane fuel were independently controlled to simulate varying degrees of vaporization. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet-air temperatures from 478 to 700 K (860 to 1260 R), pressures from 4 to 20 atmospheres, and combustor reference velocities from 15.3 to 27.4 m/sec (50 to 90 ft/sec). Converting from liquid to complete vapor fuel resulted in NOX reductions as much as 22 percent and smoke number reductions up to 51 percent.

Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

1973-01-01

141

Potential dilemma: the methods of meeting automotive exhaust emission standards of the clean air act of 1970.  

PubMed

This review attempts to provide an overview of the interconnected industrial changes associated with compliance with the exhaust emission standards of the Clean Air Act of 1970. To understand the complex nature of air pollution problems, Federal legislation, and compliance with this legislation requires an understanding of automotive technology, petroleum refining, atmospheric chemistry and physics, economics, and public health. The endeavors of all of these different areas impinge to a greater or lesser extent on the final response to the Clean Air Act which is designed to safeguard public health. This overview begins by examining gasoline refinery practice and gasoline composition. Included in this discussion are average values for trace contaminants in gasoline, and an explanation of the function of the many gasoline additives. Next, exhaust emissions are characterized, average values of exhaust components given, and a summary of important atmospheric air pollution reactions presented. Emission control devices and sulfate emissions from these devices are described. This is followed by a complete discussion of methyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a substitute antiknock for tetraethyllead. In the event TEL is legally banned from gasoline, or removed because it poisons the catalytic muffler surface, this manganese antiknock is the most efficaous replacement. In this discussion, the adverse health effects caused by exposure to manganese oxide particulates, the possible exhaust emission products from this additive, are examined in detail. The review concludes with comments on automotive engine and gasoline composition redesign as an approach to automotive air pollution. PMID:4143457

Piver, W T

1974-08-01

142

Potential Dilemma: The Methods of Meeting Automotive Exhaust Emission Standards of the Clean Air Act of 1970  

PubMed Central

This review attempts to provide an overview of the interconnected industrial changes associated with compliance with the exhaust emission standards of the Clean Air Act of 1970. To understand the complex nature of air pollution problems, Federal legislation, and compliance with this legislation requires an understanding of automotive technology, petroleum refining, atmospheric chemistry and physics, economics, and public health. The endeavors of all of these different areas impinge to a greater or lesser extent on the final response to the Clean Air Act which is designed to safeguard public health. This overview begins by examining gasoline refinery practice and gasoline composition. Included in this discussion are average values for trace contaminants in gasoline, and an explanation of the function of the many gasoline additives. Next, exhaust emissions are characterized, average values of exhaust components given, and a summary of important atmospheric air pollution reactions presented. Emission control devices and sulfate emissions from these devices are described. This is followed by a complete discussion of methyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a substitute antiknock for tetraethyllead. In the event TEL is legally banned from gasoline, or removed because it poisons the catalytic muffler surface, this manganese antiknock is the most efficaous replacement. In this discussion, the adverse health effects caused by exposure to manganese oxide particulates, the possible exhaust emission products from this additive, are examined in detail. The review concludes with comments on automotive engine and gasoline composition redesign as an approach to automotive air pollution. PMID:4143457

Piver, Warren T.

1974-01-01

143

Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.

Poola, R.B.; Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baudino, J.H. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Colucci, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

144

Nanoparticle emissions from 11 non-vehicle exhaust sources - A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle emissions from road vehicles have been studied extensively in the recent past due to their dominant contribution towards the total airborne particle number concentrations (PNCs) found in the urban atmospheric environment. In view of upcoming tighter vehicle emission standards and adoption of cleaner fuels in many parts of the world, the contribution to urban nanoparticles from non-vehicle exhaust sources (NES) may become more pronounced in future. As of now, only limited information exists on nanoparticle emissions from NES through the discretely published studies. This article presents critically synthesised information in a consolidated manner on 11 NES (i.e. road-tyre interaction, construction and demolition, aircraft, ships, municipal waste incineration, power plants, domestic biomass burning, forest fires, cigarette smoking, cooking, and secondary formation). Source characteristics and formation mechanisms of nanoparticles emitted from each NES are firstly discussed, followed by their emission strengths, airborne concentrations and physicochemical characteristics. Direct comparisons of the strengths of NES are not straightforward but an attempt has been made to discuss their importance relative to the most prominent source (i.e. road vehicles) of urban nanoparticles. Some interesting comparisons emerged such as 1 kg of fast and slow wood burning produces nearly the same number of particles as for each km driven by a heavy duty vehicle (HDV) and a light duty vehicle, respectively. About 1 min of cooking on gas can produce the similar particle numbers generated by ˜10 min of cigarette smoking or 1 m travel by a HDV. Apportioning the contribution of numerous sources from the bulk measured airborne PNCs is essential for determining their relative importance. Receptor modelling methods for estimation of source emission contributions are discussed. A further section evaluates the likely exposure risks, health and regulatory implications associated with each NES. It is concluded that much research is needed to provide adequate quantification of all nanoparticle sources, and to establish the relative toxicity of nanosize particles from each.

Kumar, Prashant; Pirjola, Liisa; Ketzel, Matthias; Harrison, Roy M.

2013-03-01

145

40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...light-duty vehicle and light light-duty truck fleet shall be defined as the total...year provisions, and light light-duty trucks certified to the exhaust emission standards...light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks certified as TLEVs. As an option,...

2011-07-01

146

Understanding the catalytic conversion of automobile exhaust emissions using model catalysts: CO+NO reaction on Pd(111)  

E-print Network

Understanding the catalytic conversion of automobile exhaust emissions using model catalysts: CO important reactions that take place on Pd-based industrial three-way catalysts (TWC). In this review, we catalyst surface within a wide range of pressures (10)6 ­450 Torr) and temperatures (80­650 K

Goodman, Wayne

147

Effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions during cold start of direct injection (DI) diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through experiments conducted on a single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine, effects of exhaust gas recirculatoin (EGR) on combustion and emission during cold start were investigated. Combustion of first firing cycle can be promoted significantly by introducing EGR. In experiments, when partially closed choking valve and partially or fully opened EGR valve, peak cylinder pressure of first firing cycle

Haiyong Peng; Yi Cui; Lei Shi; Kangyao Deng

2008-01-01

148

40 CFR 1054.235 - What exhaust emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity? 1054.235 Section 1054.235 Protection of Environment...testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity? This section describes the exhaust emission testing...

2010-07-01

149

Combined particle emission reduction and heat recovery from combustion exhaust—A novel approach for small wood-fired appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing fossil fuels by renewable sources of energy is one approach to address the problem of global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Wood combustion can help to replace fuel oil or gas. It is advisable, however, to use modern technology for combustion and exhaust gas after-treatment in order to achieve best efficiency and avoid air quality problems

A. Messerer; V. Schmatloch; U. Pöschl; R. Niessner

2007-01-01

150

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2011-07-01

151

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2013-07-01

152

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2012-07-01

153

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

...2013-07-01 true Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards...86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards... Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi)...

2014-07-01

154

Influence of ethanol–diesel blended fuels on diesel exhaust emissions and mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of ethanol addition on diesel exhaust emissions and the toxicity of particulate extracts. The experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty diesel engine and five fuels were used, namely: E0 (base diesel fuel), E5 (5%), E10 (10%), E15 (15%) and E20 (20%), respectively. The regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, PM) and polycyclic aromatic

Chong-Lin Song; Ying-Chao Zhou; Rui-Jing Huang; Yu-Qiu Wang; Qi-Fei Huang; Gang Lü; Ke-Ming Liu

2007-01-01

155

Final summary report on project 3310 marine diesel exhaust emissions (alternative fuels). Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a 5-year study to ascertain the magnitude of emission problems from Coast Guard and commercial vessels; to develop methodology applicable for use on small vessels by using portable emission analyzers, and to examine various potential means of reducing excessive emissions. During this project, the Coast Guard RD Center tested eight vessels (of six types); and the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center tested six Coast Guard vessels (of five types) operating on the West Coast. Of the 14 vessels tested, eight were found to exceed the proposed NOx limits, although some by very small amounts.

Bentz, A.P.

1997-09-01

156

Effects of particulate matter from gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust emissions on silicate stones sulfation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of particulate matter (PM) from diesel and leaded gasoline motor vehicles exhaust emissions on sulfation of granites, syenite and gabbro stones have been experimentally studied. Abundant gypsum crystals and corrosion features developed on stones covered with diesel PM (DPM) following 72 h exposure to 100 ppm SO 2 at a relative humidity of 100%. In contrast, very small amounts of gypsum were observed on stones covered with gasoline PM (GPM), while no effect was observed on naked control stones. Abundant elemental C and Fe-rich particles in DPM play a critical role in the catalytic oxidation of SO 2 and the formation of H 2SO 4, which is responsible for silicate stone sulfation. Conversely, organic C and Pb-rich particles that are main components of GPM, do not play a significant role in sulfation. The response of each stone type towards sulfation is related to the stability of their constituent silicate minerals towards acid attack. Thus, the stones most susceptible to sulfation are those including nepheline (syenite), olivine, and pyroxene (gabbro), while granites in general, are most resistant to sulfation-related chemical weathering. These results help to explain how black (gypsum) crusts develop on silicate stones, and support limitations for (diesel) vehicular traffic and emission loads in urban centers.

Simão, J.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

157

Characteristics and photochemical potentials of volatile organics emission from stack exhaust gas of industrial processes  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project was to measure the main volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in stack gas from the downstream petrochemical plants. Six pollution sources of industrial processes, including Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Vinyl Chloride(VC), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Acrylic Resin, para-Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Polyurethane (PU) synthetic manufacturing processes, were measured by using USEPA Method 18. The concentration and emission rate database of twenty-seven VOCs has been established. Fifty-two selected stacks were sampled and analyzed for VOCs. Analysis of emission factors and characteristics of the twenty-seven VOCs in these stacks show that the emission characteristics are various among different industrial processes. The order of the single-stack VOCs average emission factor are ABS (1.109 lbs VOCs/ton-ABS; 22 stacks) {gt} Acrylic Resin (0.651 lbs VOCs/ton-acrylic resin; 7 stacks) {gt} PU Synthetic (0.606 lbs VOCs/ton-PU synthetic; 4 stacks) {gt} PTA (0.054 lbs VOCs/ton-PTA; 4 stacks) {gt} PVC (0.014 lbs VOCs/ton-PVC; 11 stacks) {gt} VC ({lt} 0.001; 4 stacks) manufacturing processes. The emission factors of VOC in AP-42 database for the processes of are 5 to 40 times higher than those of VOCs in this research. Because of the equipment of pollutant control setting up before the emitted exhaust gas, their average emission factors in these measured processes are almost lower than those of VOCs in AP-42 database. Compared with the characteristics of VOCs, there is little similarity in VOC characteristics for the stacks of six processes between the results from this research and the data from US EPA SPECIATE data system. Furthermore, according to maximum incremental reactivities (MIR) of VOCs probed into photochemical reaction potentials, the results show that those of PTA manufacturing process have an ozone formation potential of 2.33 g O{sub 3}/g VOCs, which is higher than other processes.

Hsu, Y.C.; Tsai, J.H.; Lin, T.C.; Cheng, C.C.; Huang, Y.H.

1999-07-01

158

A coupled road dust and surface moisture model to predict non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions (NORTRIP). Part 2: Surface moisture and salt impact modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-exhaust traffic induced emissions are a major source of airborne particulate matter in most European countries. This is particularly important in Nordic and Alpine countries where winter time road traction maintenance occurs, e.g. salting and sanding, and where studded tyres are used. Though the total mass generated by wear sources is a key factor in non-exhaust emissions, these emissions are also strongly controlled by surface moisture conditions. In this paper, Part 2, the road surface moisture sub-model of a coupled road dust and surface moisture model (NORTRIP) is described. We present a description of the road surface moisture part of the model and apply the coupled model to seven sites in Stockholm, Oslo, Helsinki and Copenhagen over 18 separate periods, ranging from 3.5 to 24 months. At two sites surface moisture measurements are available and the moisture sub-model is compared directly to these observations. The model predicts the frequency of wet roads well at both sites, with an average fractional bias of -2.6%. The model is found to correctly predict the hourly surface state, wet or dry, 85% of the time. From the 18 periods modelled using the coupled model an average absolute fractional bias of 15% for PM10 concentrations was found. Similarly the model predicts the 90'th daily mean percentiles of PM10 with an average absolute bias of 19% and an average correlation (R2) of 0.49. When surface moisture is not included in the modelling then this average correlation is reduced to 0.16, demonstrating the importance of the surface moisture conditions. Tests have been carried out to assess the sensitivity of the model to model parameters and input data. The model provides a useful tool for air quality management and for improving our understanding of non-exhaust traffic emissions.

Denby, B. R.; Sundvor, I.; Johansson, C.; Pirjola, L.; Ketzel, M.; Norman, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Kauhaniemi, M.; Omstedt, G.

2013-12-01

159

On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions  

PubMed Central

Equity is of fundamental concern in the quest for international cooperation to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations by the reduction of emissions. By modeling the carbon cycle, we estimate the global CO2 emissions that would be required to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO2 at levels ranging from 450 to 1,000 ppm. These are compared, on both an absolute and a per-capita basis, to scenarios for emissions from the developed and developing worlds generated by socio-economic models under the assumption that actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are not taken. Need and equity have provided strong arguments for developing countries to request that the developed world takes the lead in controlling its emissions, while permitting the developing countries in the meantime to use primarily fossil fuels for their development. Even with major and early control of CO2 emissions by the developed world, limiting concentration to 450 ppm implies that the developing world also would need to control its emissions within decades, given that we expect developing world emissions would otherwise double over this time. Scenarios leading to CO2 concentrations of 550 ppm exhibit a reduction of the developed world's per-capita emission by about 50% over the next 50 years. Even for the higher stabilization levels considered, the developing world would not be able to use fossil fuels for their development in the manner that the developed world has used them. PMID:11296250

Bolin, Bert; Kheshgi, Haroon S.

2001-01-01

160

A comparison of exhaust pipe, dilution tunnel and roadside diesel particulate SOF and gaseous hydrocarbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent organic fraction (SOF) of particulates from the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine, a dilution tunnel and a roadside sample are compared. Three different techniques of SOF analysis are also compared, vacuum oven, solvent extraction and pyroprobe\\/GC. Gaseous hydrocarbons and the methane contribution were measured in the exhaust pipe throughout the speed and load range of the engine

P. T. Williams; M. K. Abbass; L. P. Tam; G. E. Andrews; K. L. Ng; K. D. Bartle

1988-01-01

161

Particulate emissions in the exhaust plume from commercial jet aircraft under cruise conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ measurements of total concentration, size distribution, and hydration properties of jet engine exhaust from a range of commercial transports is reported. Significant concentration enhancements (above ambient background) for aircraft exhaust particulates is reported permitting the detection of not only newly formed but also aged plumes, even in the presence of considerable ambient pollution. Two types of particle size

D. E. Hagen; P. D. Whitefield; H. Schlager

1996-01-01

162

Exhausting handgrip exercise reduces the blood flow in the active calf muscle exercising at low intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calf and forearm blood flows (Q\\u000acalf and Q\\u000aforearm respectively), blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen uptake of six men and women were studied during combined leg and handgrip exercise to determine whether a reduction of exercise-induced hyperaemia would occur in the active leg when exhausting rhythmic handgrip exercise at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was superimposed upon

Atsuko Kagaya; Mitsuru Saito; Futoshi Ogita; Minoru Shinohara

1994-01-01

163

Effects of ethanol–diesel fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ethanol with conventional diesel fuel, with 5% and 10% (by vol.) ethanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a fully instrumented, six-cylinder, turbocharged and after-cooled, heavy duty, direct injection (DI), Mercedes–Benz engine, installed at the authors’ laboratory, which is used to power the mini-bus diesel engines

D. C. Rakopoulos; C. D. Rakopoulos; E. C. Kakaras; E. G. Giakoumis

2008-01-01

164

The Effects of ? and ? on Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Using Ethanol–unleaded Gasoline Blends in an SI Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of relative air-fuel ratio (?) and compression ratio (?) on engine performance and exhaust emissions was experimentally investigated. The experiments were performed by varying ethanol–unleaded gasoline blends as E0 (100% unleaded gasoline), E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline blend), E30 (30% ethanol and 70% gasoline blend), and E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline blend). In

H. Bayindir; H. S. Yücesu; H. Aydin

2010-01-01

165

Policy Planning to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preceded by the State Workbook: Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this document by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves to guide states in "identifying and evaluating options to mitigate emissions" affecting global climate change. Each of the report's three parts details climate change and policy options. Part one discusses the Initiation of Climate Change Programs. Part two describes sources of emissions and potential policy options. Part three completes the report by offering "guidance in preparing the State Action Plan." Appendices supply a glossary, references, state plans, and a specific example reduction plan.

Agency., United S.

1998-01-01

166

Real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions of light-duty diesel vehicles and their correlation with road conditions.  

PubMed

The real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emission profiles of CO, HC and NOx for light-duty diesel vehicles were investigated. Using a portable emissions measurement system, 16 diesel taxies were tested on different roads in Macao and the data were normalized with the vehicle specific power bin method. The 11 Toyota Corolla diesel taxies have very good fuel economy of (5.9 +/- 0.6) L/100 km, while other five diesel taxies showed relatively high values at (8.5 +/- 1.7) L/100 km due to the variation in transmission systems and emission control strategies. Compared to similar Corolla gasoline models, the diesel cars confirmed an advantage of ca. 20% higher fuel efficiency. HC and CO emissions of all the 16 taxies are quite low, with the average at (0.05 +/- 0.02) g/km and (0.38 +/- 0.15) g/km, respectively. The average NOx emission factor of the 11 Corolla taxies is (0.56 +/- 0.17) g/km, about three times higher than their gasoline counterparts. Two of the three Hyundai Sonata taxies, configured with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) + diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) emission control strategies, indicated significantly higher NO2 emissions and NO2/NOx ratios than other diesel taxies and consequently trigger a concern of possibly adverse impacts on ozone pollution in urban areas with this technology combination. A clear and similar pattern for fuel consumption and for each of the three gaseous pollutant emissions with various road conditions was identified. To save energy and mitigate CO2 emissions as well as other gaseous pollutant emissions in urban area, traffic planning also needs improvement. PMID:22893964

Hu, Jingnan; Wu, Ye; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Haitao; Bao, Xiaofeng; Hao, Jiming

2012-01-01

167

Combustor exhaust-emissions and blowout-limits with diesel number 2 and jet A fuels utilizing air-atomizing and pressure atomizing nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental tests with diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels were conducted in a combustor segment to obtain comparative data on exhaust emissions and blowout limits. An air-atomizing nozzle was used to inject the fuels. Tests were also made with diesel number 2 fuel using a pressure-atomizing nozzle to determine the effectiveness of the air-atomizing nozzle in reducing exhaust emissions. Test conditions included fuel-air ratios of 0.008 to 0.018, inlet-air total pressures and temperatures of 41 to 203 newtons per square centimeter and 477 to 811 K, respectively, and a reference velocity of 21.3 meters per second. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons were twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel. This was attributed to diesel number 2 having a higher concentration of aromatics and lower volatility than Jet A fuel. Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and blowout limits were approximately the same for the two fuels. The air-atomizing nozzle, as compared with the pressure-atomizing nozzle, reduced oxides-of-nitrogen by 20 percent, smoke number by 30 percent, carbon monoxide by 70 percent, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50 percent when used with diesel number 2 fuel.

Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

1975-01-01

168

40 CFR 1039.102 - What exhaust emission standards and phase-in allowances apply for my engines in model year 2014...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and...engines: (i) Engines below 37 kW for model years before 2013. (ii) Engines certified under Option #1 of...

2013-07-01

169

Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison of aerosol emissions between ground and altitude is less straight forward. The implications of these factors for developing new aviation emissions factors / inventories related to aerosol species will be discussed.

Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

2011-12-01

170

Current and future emission estimates of exhaust gases and particles from shipping at the largest port in Korea.  

PubMed

The emissions of exhaust gases (NOx , SO2, VOCs, and CO2) and particles (e.g., PM) from ships traversing Busan Port in Korea were estimated over three different years (the years 2006, 2008, and 2009). This analysis was performed according to the ship operational modes ("at sea," "maneuvering," and "in port") and ship types based on an activity-based method. The ship emissions for current (base year 2009) and future scenarios (years 2020 and 2050) were also compared. The annual emissions of SO2, VOCs, PM, and CO2 were highest (9.6?×?10(3), 374, 1.2?×?10(3), and 5.6?×?10(5) ton year(-1), respectively) in 2008. In contrast, the annual NO x emissions were highest (11.7?×?10(3) ton year(-1)) in 2006 due mainly to the high NO x emission factor. The emissions of air pollutants for each ship operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in "in port" mode. In addition, the largest fraction (approximately 45-67%) of the emissions of all air pollutants during the study period was emitted from container ships. The future ship emissions of most pollutants (except for SO2 and PM) in 2020 and 2050 are estimated to be 1.4-1.8 and 4.7-6.1 times higher than those in 2009 (base year), respectively. PMID:24497306

Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

2014-05-01

171

REDUCING STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM SPRAYED FILLED RESINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Styrene emissions are coming under increasing study as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops maximum achievable control technology standards. During the manufacture of fiber-reinforced plastics/composites products, styrene, a volatile organic compound and a haz...

172

Observations and model calculations of jet aircraft exhaust products at cruise altitude and inferred initial OH emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhaust emissions of NO, HNO2, and HNO3 in the near-field plume of two B747 jet airliners cruising in the upper troposphere were measured in situ using the research aircraft Falcon of the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt. In addition, CO2 was measured providing exhaust plume dilution rates for the species. The observations were used to estimate the initial OH mixing ratio OH0 and the initial NO2/NOx ratio (NO2/NOx)0 at the engine exit and the combustor exit by comparison with calculations using a plume chemistry box model. From the two different plume events, and using two different model simulation modes in each case, we inferred OH emission indices EI(OH) = 0.32-0.39 g (kg fuel)-1 (OH0 = 9.0-14.4 ppmv) and (NO2/NOx)0 = 0.12-0.17. Furthermore, our results indicate that the chemistry of the exhaust species during the short period between the combustion chamber exit and the engine exit must be considered with respect to the amount of OH at the engine exit plane because OH is already consumed to a great extent in this engine section because of conversion to HNO2 and HNO3. For the engines discussed here the modeled OH concentration decreases by a factor of ˜350 between combustor exit and engine exit, leading to OH concentrations of 1-2 × 1012 molecules cm-3 (= 0.3-0.7 ppmv) at the engine exit.

Tremmel, H. G.; Schlager, H.; Konopka, P.; Schulte, P.; Arnold, F.; Klemm, M.; Droste-Franke, B.

1998-05-01

173

Instrumental and bio-monitoring of heavy metal and nanoparticle emissions from diesel engine exhaust in controlled environment.  

PubMed

In the present article we characterized the emissions at the exhaust of a Common Rail (CR) diesel engine, representative of light-duty class, equipped with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) in controlled environment. The downstream exhausts were directly analyzed (for PM, CO, CO2, 02, HCs, NOx) by infrared and electrochemical sensors, and SEM-EDS microscope; heavy metals were chemically analyzed using mosses and lichens in bags, and glass-fibre filters all exposed at the engine exhausts. The highest particle emission value was in the 7-54 nm size range; the peak concentration rose until one order of magnitude for the highest load and speed. Particle composition was mainly carbonaceous, associated to noticeable amounts of Fe and silica fibres. Moreover, the content of Cu, Fe, Na, Ni and Zn in both moss and lichen, and of Al and Cr in moss, was significantly increased. Glass-fibre filters were significantly enriched in Al, B, Ba, Cu, Fe, Na, and Zn. The role of diesel engines as source of carbonaceous nanoparticles has been confirmed, while further investigations in controlled environment are needed to test the catalytic muffler as a possible source of silica fibres considered very hazardous for human health. PMID:21174966

Giordano, Simonetta; Adamo, Paola; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Vaglieco, Bianca Maria

2010-01-01

174

Reducing Crude Protein in Beef Cattle Diet Reduces Ammonia Emissions from Artificial Feedyard Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated animal feeding operations are major sources of ammonia to the atmosphere. Control methods to reduce emissions include acidifying amendments, urease inhibitors, and absorbents. For beef cattle, decreasing crude protein (CP) in diets may be the most practical and cost-effective method to reduce ammonia emissions. Our objective was to quantify the effect of reducing CP in beef cattle diet on

Richard W. Todd; N. Andy Cole; R. Nolan Clark

2006-01-01

175

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines  

E-print Network

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continued, but it can also result in reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot when used in diesel engines. ct & LOGISTICS SYMPOSIUM page 3 CIVIL ENGINEERING DIRECTIONS page 4 WORK-ZONE SAFETY page 5 PUBLIC AFFAIRS PH

Minnesota, University of

176

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at  

E-print Network

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at Dartmouth College Summary: Environmental Analysis and Policy Formation during the spring 2004 term. We were dealt the charge: "Identify selected the mission: "To reduce Dartmouth College's fossil carbon emissions." We believe this mission

177

Diesel exhaust particles impair endothelial progenitor cells, compromise endothelial integrity, reduce neoangiogenesis, and increase atherogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of the harmful cardiovascular effects of small particulate matter are incompletely understood. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) predict outcome of patients with vascular disease. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on EPC and on the associated vascular damage in mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to DEP. 2 ?g DEP/day was applicated intranasally for 3 weeks. Exposure to DEP reduced DiLDL/lectin positive EPC to 58.4 ± 5.6% (p < 0.005). Migratory capacity was reduced to 65.8 ± 3.9% (p < 0.0001). In ApoE(-/-) mice, DEP application reduced the number of EPC to 75.6 ± 6.4% (p < 0.005) and EPC migration to 58.5 ± 6.8% (p < 0.005). Neoangiogenesis was reduced to 39.5 ± 14.6% (p < 0.005). Atherogenesis was profoundly increased by DEP treatment (157.7 ± 18.1% vs. controls, p < 0.05). In cultured human EPC, DEP (0.1-100 ?g/mL) reduced migratory capacity to 25 ± 2.6% (p < 0.001). The number of colony-forming units was reduced to 8.8 ± 0.9% (p < 0.001) and production of reactive oxygen species was elevated by DEP treatment (p < 0.001). Furthermore, DEP treatment increased apoptosis of EPC (to 266 ± 62% of control, p < 0.05). In a blood-brain barrier model, DEP treatment impaired endothelial cell integrity during oxygen-glucose deprivation (p < 0.001). Diesel exhaust particles impair endothelial progenitor cell number and function in vivo and in vitro. The reduction in EPC was associated with impaired neoangiogenesis and a marked increase in atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:23584878

Pöss, Janine; Lorenz, Dominik; Werner, Christian; Pavlikova, Valerie; Gensch, Christoph; Speer, Thimoteus; Alessandrini, Francesca; Berezowski, Vincent; Kuntz, Mélanie; Mempel, Martin; Endres, Matthias; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

2013-09-01

178

Role of average speed in N?O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?  

PubMed

Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. PMID:22245865

Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

2012-05-15

179

Methods for reducing pollutant emissions from jet aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pollutant emissions from jet aircraft and combustion research aimed at reducing these emissions are defined. The problem of smoke formation and results achieved in smoke reduction from commercial combustors are discussed. Expermental results of parametric tests performed on both conventional and experimental combustors over a range of combustor-inlet conditions are presented. Combustor design techniques for reducing pollutant emissions are discussed. Improved fuel atomization resulting from the use of air-assist fuel nozzles has brought about significant reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at idle. Diffuser tests have shown that the combustor-inlet airflow profile can be controlled through the use of diffuser-wall bleed and that it may thus be possible to reduce emissions by controlling combustor airflow distribution. Emissions of nitric oxide from a shortlength annular swirl-can combustor were significantly lower than those from a conventional combustor operating at similar conditions.

Butze, H. F.

1971-01-01

180

PARKING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report defines the concept of parking management and explores how parking management can be used to improve air quality, support mass transit, reduce energy consumption and improve the amenities of life in urban areas. Specific aspects of this analysis were developments of a...

181

Measurement of Exhaust Emissions in Piston And Diesel Engines by Dispersive Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile but simple, reliable, rugged, and compact vehicle exhaust monitoring system has been developed, allowing detection of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (COo), high and low hydrocarbons (HHC and LHC), and nitric oxide (NO). The analysis is performed by dispersive absorption spectroscopy with instrumentation designed and fabricated for this demanding industrial environment. The operation of the instrumentation is described

H. C. Lord; D. W. Egan; F. L. Johnson; L. D. Mc Intosh

1974-01-01

182

The 1977 emissions inventory for southeastern Virginia. [environment model of air quality based on exhaust emission from urban areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regional tropospheric air pollution modeling and data compilation to simulate the time variation of species concentrations in and around an urban area is discussed. The methods used to compile an emissions inventory are outlined. Emissions factors for vehicular travel in the urban area are presented along with an analysis of the emission gases. Emission sources other than vehicular including industrial wastes, residential solid waste disposal, aircraft emissions, and emissions from the railroads are investigated.

Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.; Quinn, L. C.

1979-01-01

183

A quantitative estimation of the exhaust, abrasion and resuspension components of particulate traffic emissions using electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of the three traffic-related components exhaust, abrasion, and resuspension to kerbside and urban background PM10 and PM1 levels was quantified based on the analysis of individual particles by scanning electron microscopy. A total of 160 samples was collected on 38 days between February and September 2009 at a kerbside and an urban background station in the urban/industrial Ruhr area (Germany). Based on size, morphology, chemical composition and stability under electron bombardment, the 111,003 particles studied in detail were classified into the following 14 particle classes: traffic/exhaust, traffic/abrasion, traffic/resuspension, carbonaceous/organic, industry/metallurgy, industry/power plants, secondary particles, (aged) sea salt, silicates, Ca sulfates, carbonates, Fe oxides/hydroxides, biological particles, and other particles. The traffic/exhaust component consists predominantly of externally mixed soot particles and soot internally mixed with secondary particles. The traffic/abrasion component contains all particles with characteristic tracer elements (Fe, Cu, Ba, Sb, Zn) for brake and tire abrasion. The traffic/resuspension component is defined by the mixing state and comprises all internally mixed particles with a high proportion of silicates or Fe oxides/hydroxides which contain soot or abrasion particles as minor constituent. In addition, silicates and Fe oxides/hydroxides internally mixed with chlorine and sulphur containing particles were also assigned to the traffic/resuspension component. The total contribution of traffic to PM10 was found to be 27% at the urban background station and 48% at the kerbside station, the corresponding values for PM1 are 15% and 39%. These values lie within the range reported in previous literature. The relative share of the different traffic components for PM10 at the kerbside station was 27% exhaust, 15% abrasion, and 58% resuspension (38%, 8%, 54% for PM1). For the urban background, the following relative shares were obtained for PM10: 22% exhaust, 22% abrasion and 56% resuspension (40%, 27%, 33% for PM1). Compared to previous publications we have observed a significantly lower portion of exhaust particles and a significantly higher portion of resuspension particles. The high abundance of resuspension particles underlines their significance for the observed adverse health effects of traffic emissions and for mitigation measures.

Weinbruch, Stephan; Worringen, Annette; Ebert, Martin; Scheuvens, Dirk; Kandler, Konrad; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Bruckmann, Peter

2014-12-01

184

REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM THE WOOD FURNITURE INDUSTRY WITH WATERBORNE COATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

This program was initiated to develop meaningful, defensible, and reliable data on emission reduction benefits from the use of reduced hydrocarbon finishes. The program also included assessing add-on emission control options and considering installation aspects such as costs. Thi...

185

OPTIONS FOR REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characteriz...

186

Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today.\\u000aIn order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof,\\u000athe emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane\\u000a(CH4 ) should be reduced.\\u000aMuch greenhouse gases are emitted due

Marko Peter Hekkert

2000-01-01

187

Mathematical study of methods to reduce emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate from a compression ignited, direct injection engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phenomenological model based on the multizone concept and a three-dimensional CFD model were used to predict the effect of engine modification on particulated and NOx emission from a compression ignited direct injection (CIDI) engine. The phenomenological model consisted of a spray model, an evaporation model, a heat release model, NOx formation, soot formation, and oxidation model, and can be used to predict the combustion process and pollutant emission in a CIDI diesel engine. The advantage of the multizone model over the 3-D CFD model is the small CPU and memory it requires for a simulation. In this study, the phenomenological model was used to investigate (1) the effect of increasing the intake-air O2 content on soot and NO x emission as a function of power level and wall temperature; and (2) the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and split fuel injection on pollutant emission, and compare their soot penalty at a given NOx emission. The results indicate that EGR with a relatively low temperature can reduce NOx emission with a minimum penalty of soot particle emission. The use of EGR is promising for significantly reducing NOx emission with small or no penalty of soot particle emission. The effect of auxiliary gas injection (AGI) on diesel engine combustion and emission was studied using KIVA 3V, a multidimensional computation fluid dynamics code. AGI enhances the diesel combustion via mixing to reduce the emission of pollutants. The simulation of a high-speed gas jet model with a relatively coarse computational grids was described. The choice of turbulent length scale for optimum simulation suitability is dependent of local mesh grid. The results demonstrate that AGI creates a second-way flow in the cylinder, which improves the mixing of charge in the cylinder. The effect of AGI on combustion and flow movement is significant. The use of exhaust gas on the AGI can reduce soot emission, while NOx emission also can be decreased to some degree. To reduce soot and NOx emission effectively, the combination effect of EGR and AGI on pollutant emission was analyzed. The results showed that soot and NOx emission were reduced more than 50%, respectively.

Gao, Zhiming

2001-11-01

188

Particulate emissions in the exhaust plume from commercial jet aircraft under cruise conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ measurements of total concentration, size distribution, and hydration properties of jet engine exhaust from a range of commercial transports is reported. Significant concentration enhancements (above ambient background) for aircraft exhaust particulates is reported permitting the detection of not only newly formed but also aged plumes, even in the presence of considerable ambient pollution. Two types of particle size distributions are found in the near-field (˜8 km behind source) exhaust plume from jet aircraft operating under cruise conditions. One type exhibits the form of the Junge distribution with exponential coefficient -2.4. The second exhibits the Junge distribution form in the small-particle region, below about 50 nm, followed by a larger-particle mode between 0.1 and 0.2 ?m. Neither of these observed types of distributions exhibit the sharp drop-off in particle concentrations at the small-particle end of the spectrum that was found in ground-based engine tests. Binary nucleation of sulfuric acid aerosols and heterogeneous nucleation on ion clusters are postulated for particles in this size range. This is supported by the finding of significant numbers of particles having high soluble mass fractions. These data are compared with those taken in ground test cells and those reported by other investigators.

Hagen, D. E.; Whitefield, P. D.; Schlager, H.

1996-08-01

189

Effects of alkylate fuel on exhaust emissions and secondary aerosol formation of a 2-stroke and a 4-stroke scooter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulated and unregulated emissions from a 2-stroke and a 4-stroke scooter were characterized during a legislative driving cycle in a certified laboratory. Scooter exhaust was analyzed at the tailpipe, in a dilution tunnel, and partly collected in a mobile smog chamber for photochemical ageing. We present evidence that the photochemically aged exhaust from a 2-stroke and a 4-stroke scooter produces considerable amounts of secondary organic aerosol: from 1.5 to 22.0 mg/km, and from 5.5 to 6.6 mg/km, respectively. Tests were repeated after replacing the standard petrol and synthetic lube oil with an alkylate fuel (with low content of aromatic compounds) and ultra-clean lube oil (low ash forming potential). We observed emission reduction (with some exceptions) for several gaseous and particulate phase species, in particular for carbon monoxide (from 8% up to 38% and from 31% to 50%, for the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke scooters, respectively), particulate mass (from 32% up to 75% for the 2-stroke scooter), aromatic compounds (89% and 97% for the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke scooter, respectively), and secondary organic aerosol (from 87% to 100% and 99% for the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke scooters, respectively). We attribute the organic aerosol reduction to the low content of aromatics in the alkylate fuel.

Zardini, Alessandro A.; Platt, Stephen M.; Clairotte, Michael; El Haddad, Imad; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Ježek, Irena; Drinovec, Luka; Mo?nik, Griša; Slowik, Jay G.; Manfredi, Urbano; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; Astorga, Covadonga

2014-09-01

190

Full-scale experiments with an ejector to reduce jet engine exhaust noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments with a modified J65 turbojet engine and ejector resulted in noise power reductions as large as 13 decibels in the low-frequency range. High-frequency noise power, which appeared to originate mainly from the mixing processes within the ejector, increased. Peak velocities at the ejector exit were reduced by one-half to two-thirds, although survey rakes showed that mixing was not complete. Acoustical lining inside the ejector would reduce the perceived noise level (in PNdB) by removing much of the high-frequency noise.

Clark, B. J.

1973-01-01

191

78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...comments amending the emission standards for turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

192

78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...amended the emission standards for certain turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

193

40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Natural gas-fueled snowmobiles: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled snowmobiles: THCE emissions. (3) Other snowmobiles...Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

2012-07-01

194

40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Natural gas-fueled snowmobiles: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled snowmobiles: THCE emissions. (3) Other snowmobiles...Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

2011-07-01

195

40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Natural gas-fueled snowmobiles: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled snowmobiles: THCE emissions. (3) Other snowmobiles...Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

2013-07-01

196

The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2011-12-31

197

RSM based optimization of chemical and enzymatic transesterification of palm oil: biodiesel production and assessment of exhaust emission levels.  

PubMed

Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 ± 1.5, 92.7 ± 2.5, and 95.4 ± 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 ± 3.1 and 62.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from -2.1 to -68.7% and -6.2 to -58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel. PMID:25162053

Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Mukhtar, Hamid; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

2014-01-01

198

RSM Based Optimization of Chemical and Enzymatic Transesterification of Palm Oil: Biodiesel Production and Assessment of Exhaust Emission Levels  

PubMed Central

Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 ± 1.5, 92.7 ± 2.5, and 95.4 ± 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 ± 3.1 and 62.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from ?2.1 to ?68.7% and ?6.2 to ?58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel. PMID:25162053

Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

2014-01-01

199

Light-Duty Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Cost Estimates Using a Part-Pricing Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substantial reductions in motor vehicle emissions that have occurred since the late 1960s have been accompanied by continuous increases in vehicle emission control costs, and cost increases or decreases due to changes in vehicle performance such as driveability, power, fuel economy, and vehicle maintenance. In this paper, a systematic approach has been developed to estimate emission control costs for

Quanlu Wang; Catherine Kling; Daniel Sperling

1993-01-01

200

Seeing REDD: Reducing Emissions and Conserving Biodiversity by Avoiding Deforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection of existing forests through Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)—a system of providing incentives for reduced deforestation—has the potential to deliver both climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation benefits. This article explores how these complementary environmental goals can be supported by international payments for ecosystem services (IPES) via the emerging global carbon market. REDD, through an IPES framework,

Annah L. Peterson; Louise A. Gallagher; David Huberman; Ivo Mulder

2012-01-01

201

Reducing CO 2 emissions by substituting biomass for fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing fossil fuels with sustainably-produced biomass will reduce the net flow of CO2 to the atmosphere. We express the efficiency of this substitution in reduced emissions per unit of used land or biomass and in costs of the substitution per tonne of C. The substitution costs are calculated as the cost difference between continued use of fossil fuels at current

Leif Gustavsson; Pål Börjesson; Bengt Johansson; Per Svenningsson

1995-01-01

202

A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

1996-01-01

203

Exhaust emission survey of an F100 afterburning turbofan engine at simulated altitude flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of carbon monoxide, total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide from an F100, afterburning, two spool turbofan engine at simulated flight conditions are reported. For each flight condition emission measurements were made for two or three power levels from intermediate power (nonafterburning) through maximum afterburning. The data showed that emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the nozzle. Carbon monoxide emissions were low for intermediate power (nonafterburning) and partial afterburning, but regions of high carbon monoxide were present downstream of the flame holder at maximum afterburning. Unburned hydrocarbon emissions were low for most of the simulated flight conditions. The local NOX concentrations and their variability with power level increased with increasing flight Mach number at constant altitude, and decreased with increasing altitude at constant Mach number. Carbon dioxide emissions were proportional to local fuel air ratio for all conditions.

Moss, J. E.; Cullom, R. R.

1981-01-01

204

Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies relating to environmental emissions associated with the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) military jet and charter jet aircraft were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report includes engine emission results for baseline 1990 charter and military scenario and the projected jet engine emissions results for a 2015 scenario for a Mach 1.6 HSCT charter and military fleet. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

Landau, Z. Harry; Metwally, Munir; Vanalstyne, Richard; Ward, Clay A.

1994-01-01

205

Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment  

SciTech Connect

On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

Davis, W.E.

1995-12-01

206

In Brief: Reducing black carbon emissions could immediately reduce global temperature increases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new assessment by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) shows that measures to reduce emissions of black carbon, or soot, which is produced through burning of wood and other biofuels as well as by some industrial processes, could improve public health and help to significantly reduce projected global temperature increases. The Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone highlights how specific measures targeting black carbon and other emissions from fossil fuel extraction, residential wood-burning cooking, diesel vehicles, waste management, agriculture, and small industries could affect climate. Full implementation of a variety of measures to reduce black carbon and methane emissions could reduce future global warming by about 0.5°C, the assessment found. Reducing black carbon could have substantial benefits in the Arctic, the Himalayas, and other snow-covered regions because black carbon that settles on top of snow absorbs heat, speeding melting of snow and ice. Black carbon emission reductions would affect global temperatures more quickly than carbon dioxide emission reductions. Furthermore, reducing black carbon emissions would improve public health in the regions that emit large amounts of the harmful air pollutant.

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-03-01

207

77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...action amends the emission standards for turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of ICAO. The...

2012-12-31

208

A GIS-BASED MODAL MODEL OF AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS (EPA/600/R-98/097)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents progress toward the development of a computer tool called MEASURE, the Mobile Emission Assessment System for Urban and Regional Evaluation. The tool works toward a goal of providing researchers and planners with a way to assess new mobile emission mitigation s...

209

40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

...b) Starting January 1, 2011, report CO2 values along with your emission levels...January 1, 2011. By January 1, 2011, report CO2 values along with your emission levels...engine was before January 1, 2011. Round CO2 to the nearest 1 g/kilonewton rO....

2014-07-01

210

Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine From Various Biodiesel Feedstock  

E-print Network

of this study is to investigate the performance and emissions of two diesel engines operating on different biodiesel fuels (i.e. canola oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, peanut oil, and chicken fat) and compare them to the performance and emissions when...

Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

2011-02-22

211

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

212

Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.  

SciTech Connect

Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with the slotted baffle plates is recommended. Some particles will also deposit in the exhaust ducts

Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2008-06-30

213

Composting as a Strategy to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composting animal manure has the potential to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from agriculture. Agriculture has been recognized as a major contributor of greenhouse gases, releasing an estimated 81% and 70% of the anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), respectively. A significant amount of methane is emitted during the storage of liquid manure,

John W. Paul; Claudia Wagner-Riddle; Andrew Thompson; Ron Fleming; Malcolm MacAlpine

214

Ammonia exhaust emissions from spark ignition vehicles over the New European Driving Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study aiming to measure ammonia emissions from light duty vehicles has been performed in the Vehicle Emission Laboratory at the European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. Ammonia, known for being toxic and dangerous for the environment, also contributes to the formation of particulate matter that has been related with adverse health and environmental effects. Nine modern light duty vehicles tested over the New European Driving Cycle showed that ammonia emissions are considerable for gasoline and ethanol flexi-fuel vehicles and also for one diesel vehicle equipped with a selective catalytic reduction system, ranging from 4 mg/km to 70 mg/km. Real-time ammonia emission profiles were monitored at the tailpipe by a High Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer during tests at 22 and/or -7 °C. Ammonia emissions are thoroughly discussed and compared to those of its precursors, CO and NO, and other regulated compounds.

Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

2014-11-01

215

Reducing Children's Exposure to School Bus Diesel Exhaust in One School District in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from…

Mazer, Mary E.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Lamanna, Beth F.; Davison, Jean

2014-01-01

216

Emissions Measured in the Exhaust of a CFM-56 Engine on a DC-8  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A very extensive set of gaseous- and particulate-emissions data from an in service commercial aircraft engine was obtained by a team of researchers from NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Defense. The program was led and organized by Dr. Chowen Wey of the UEET Project Office at the NASA Glenn Research Center and was dubbed the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX). Testing was done at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The main object of APEX was to identify particulate emissions from commercial-aircraft engines.

Wey, Changlie; Penko, Paul F.

2005-01-01

217

Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A  

SciTech Connect

Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

218

75 FR 57191 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards...Systems AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT...TMA), the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA...DC 20590-0001. (4) Hand Delivery: Same as mail address...

2010-09-20

219

40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Sampling and analytical procedures...Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures...The system and procedures for sampling and measurement of smoke...

2010-07-01

220

14 CFR 34.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Sampling and analytical procedures...Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.64 Sampling and analytical procedures...The system and procedure for sampling and measurement...

2010-01-01

221

14 CFR 34.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Sampling and analytical procedures...Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.82 Sampling and analytical procedures...The system and procedures for sampling and measurement...

2010-01-01

222

40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical...

2011-07-01

223

Evaluation of Catalytic Emission Controls to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisonings from Houseboat Generator Exhaust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Working under an interagency agreement with the United States Coast Guard, researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) evaluated carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, exposures, and controls from gasoline-powered generator...

A. Garcia, G. S. Earnest, R. McCleery, R. M. Hall

2006-01-01

224

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in Borneo will also be discussed.

Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

2011-12-01

225

Detection of emission indices of aircraft exhaust compounds by open-path optical methods at airports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different thrust levels (Idle, approach, cruise and take-off). It is a common procedure to use this data base as a starting point to estimate aircraft emissions at airports and further on to calculate the contribution of airports on local air quality. The comparison of these indices to real in use measurements therefore is a vital task to test the quality of air quality models at airports. Here a method to determine emission indices is used, where concentration measurements of CO2 together with other pollutants in the aircraft plume are needed. During intensive measurement campaigns at Zurich (ZRH) and Paris Charles De Gaulle (CDG) airports, concentrations of CO2, NO, NO2 and CO were measured. The measurement techniques were Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). The big advantage of these methods is that no operations on the airport are influenced during measurement times. Together with detailed observations of taxiway movements, a comparison of emission indices with real in use emissions is possible.

Schürmann, Gregor; Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Hoffmann, Herbert; Utzig, Selina

2005-10-01

226

Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

2014-06-01

227

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate...210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate...Otto-cycle vehicles), also apply to diesel vehicles that are not required to...

2012-07-01

228

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION  

E-print Network

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) COOLER TESTING Southwest Research Institute® #12;overnment) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers is considered research, offers complete facilities for testing diesel engines and their emissions control systems

Chapman, Clark R.

229

Transient Suppression Packaging for Reduced Emissions from Rotary Kiln Incinerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on ground corncob sorbent. When containers of waste are batch charged into rotary kilns, the rupture of the container is often followed

PAUL M. LEMIEUX; WILLIAM P. LINAK; JOSEPH A. McSORLEY; JOST O. L. WENDT

1992-01-01

230

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at  

E-print Network

, Interview Dartmouth Dining Services Bo Petersson, Facilities Operation and Management, Dartmouth CollegeReducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at Dartmouth College A report Environmental Awareness at Dartmouth College By the Members of Environmental Studies 50 Dartmouth College Spring

231

TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

232

Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.  

PubMed

Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (<0.5-5 ?m) are abundant upstream of the DPF and are ash-free or contain notably little attached ash. Post-DPF soot agglomerates are very few, typically large (>1-5 ?m, exceptionally 13 ?m), rarely <0.5 ?m, and contain abundant ash carried mostly from inside the DPF. The ash that reaches the atmosphere also occurs as separate aggregates ca. 0.2-2 ?m in size consisting of sintered primary phases, ca. 20-400 nm large. Insoluble particles of these sizes may harm the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The DPF probably promotes breakout of large soot agglomerates (mostly ash-bearing) by favoring sintering. Noble metals detached from the DOC coating may reach the ambient air. Finally, very few agglomerates of Fe-oxide nanoparticles form newly from engine wear and escape into the atmosphere. PMID:24274188

Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

2013-12-17

233

Substitution of bus for car travel in urban Britain: an economic evaluation of bus and car exhaust emission and other costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Car exhaust emissions cause serious air pollution problems in many regions and, at a global level, contribute to climate change. Car use is also an important factor in other problems including traffic congestion, road accidents, noise pollution, community severance, and loss of countryside from road building. Forecasts of further increases in car ownership and use have prompted calls for policy-makers

Peter Romilly

1999-01-01

234

Influence of ethanol blends on the combustion performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a four-cylinder diesel engine at various engine loads and injection timings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of ethanol blending to diesel fuel on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a four-cylinder diesel engine with a common-rail injection system. The overall spray characteristics, such as the spray tip penetration and the spray cone angle, were studied with respect to the ethanol blending ratio. A spray visualization

Su Han Park; In Mo Youn; Chang Sik Lee

2011-01-01

235

Effects of exhaust post-treatment technology on diesel engine emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-cylinder turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine with optimized advance injection angle and EGR opening has been adopted for test and research which have been carried out in combination with diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and particulate oxidation catalytic converter (POC) on professional test bench to verify the effects of DOC and POC technology on diesel engine emissions. Also their rules of

Zou Zhen Yu; Liu Jing

2011-01-01

236

40 CFR 86.1823-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

...manufacturers may use a multiplicative CO2 deterioration factor of one or an additive...or update the deterioration factor for CO2 emissions, including air conditioning...1823-08 (c) or (d)(1) to determine CO2 deterioration factors. In this...

2014-07-01

237

Exhaust emissions from the engine running on multi-component fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible alternative raw materials for producing biodiesel fuel are as follows: Camelina sativa oil, fibre linseed oil and waste animal fat. The aim of this work was to analyse the emissions of the engine running on multi-component fuels containing fossil diesel fuel (D), linseed or Camelina sativa oil fatty acid methyl esters (LSME and CME respectively) and beef tallow (TME)

Egl? Sendžikien?; Violeta Makarevi?ien?; Svitlana Kalenska

2012-01-01

238

Biodiesel Impacts on Compression Ignition Engine (CIE): Analysis of Air Pollution Issues Relating to Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cities across the globe, the personal automobile is the single greatest polluter, as emissions from millions of vehicles on the road add up to a planet-wide problem. Vegetable oils have become more attractive recently because of their environmental benefits and the fact that they are made from renewable resources. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum

AYHAN DEM?RBA?

2005-01-01

239

40 CFR 91.104 - Exhaust emission standards for outboard and personal watercraft engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standard by model year P > 4.3 kW HC+NOX emission standard by...00 where: P = the average power of an engine family in kW (sales weighted). The power of each configuration is the rated output in kilowatts as determined by...

2010-07-01

240

Indian oil company joins efforts to reduce methane emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oil and Natural Gas Corp, Ltd. (ONGC), headquartered in Dehradun, India, has joined seven U.S. and Canadian oil and natural gas companies as a partner in a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. EPA's Natural Gas STAR International Program aims to reduce methane emissions from the oil and natural gas sector while delivering more gas to markets around the world. With this partnership, ONGC agrees to implement emissions reduction practices and to submit annual reports on progress achieved; EPA agrees to assist ONGC with training technicians in new cost-effective technologies that will help achieve target emissions. The Natural Gas STAR International Program is administered under the Methane to Markets Partnership, a group of 20 countries and 600 companies across the globe that since 2004 has volunteered to cut methane emissions. More information on EPA's agreement with ONGC can be found at http://www.epa.gov/gasstar/index.htm; information about the Methane to Markets Partnership can be found at http://www.methanetomarkets.org.

Kumar, Mohi

241

The cost-effectiveness of remote sensing and repair in reducing motor vehicle nitrogen oxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Ozone and carbon monoxide remain serious air quality problems in many urban areas throughout the US, and motor vehicles are significant contributors. In response to these problems, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required many areas of the country to implement motor vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs and adopt the use of reformulated gasoline. These programs have not been well received by the general public, and their effectiveness is currently a source of debate in the scientific community. On-road, remote sensing studies of vehicle emissions have shown that vehicle emissions tend to follow a gamma distribution with up to 50% of vehicle emissions coming from only 10% of the vehicle fleet. Instead of subjecting all vehicles to a control program such as I/M or reformulated gas, it has been suggested that remote sensors could be used to identify high-emitting vehicles and target them for repair. Such remote sensing and repair (RS and R) programs have been shown to be cost-effective methods for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. It is not clear, however, if such a program would be a cost-effective method for controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides. In this paper, the authors evaluate the potential for using a NO{sub x}-RS and R program as an urban ozone control strategy in a NO{sub x}-limited airshed, specifically Charlotte, NC. They estimate the cost-effectiveness of a potential NO{sub x}-RS and R program and compare it to other NO{sub X} control strategies for mobile and point sources which have been proposed for Charlotte. RS and R is shown to be relatively expensive, but within the range of the cost effectiveness estimates for the control measures proposed for Charlotte. In the future as inexpensive control measures are exhausted and remote sensing technology improves, RS and R promises to be an excellent alternative for controlling NO{sub x} emissions.

Keating, T.J. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering; Taylor, J.D. [Hicks and Associates, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

242

Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands  

PubMed Central

The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO2 per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO2 per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N2O emissions compared to CO2 losses remains unclear. PMID:21081702

Murdiyarso, D.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Verchot, L. V.

2010-01-01

243

Exhaust emissions from a premixing, prevaporizing flame tube using liquid jet A fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons were measured in a burner where liquid Jet A fuel was sprayed into the heated air stream and vaporized upstream of a perforated plate flameholder. The burner was tested at inlet air temperatures at 640, 800, and 833 K, an inlet pressure of 5.6 X 100,000 N/m squared, a reference velocity of 25 m/sec, and equivalence ratios from lean blowout to 0.7. Nitrogen oxide levels of below 1.0 g NO2/kg fuel were obtained at combustion efficiencies greater than 99 percent. The measured emission levels for the liquid fuel agreed well with previously reported premixed gaseous propane data and agreed with well stirred reactor predictions. Autoignition of the premixed fuel air mixture was a problem at inlet temperatures above 650 K with 104 msec premixing time.

Marek, C. J.; Papathakos, L. C.

1976-01-01

244

Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

245

Control of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines for Reduced Emissions  

E-print Network

INJECTION EXHAUST MANIFOLD EGR VALVE EGR COOLER AIR EXHAUST Figure 1: Schematic representation of the Diesel, typically, accomplished with an EGR valve that connects the intake manifold and the ex- haust manifold (See air ow into the cylin- ders. First, burned gas fraction from the EGR valve dis- places fresh air from

Stefanopoulou, Anna

246

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.  

PubMed

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. PMID:19368159

Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

2009-03-15

247

Measurement of plasma parameters in the exhaust of a magnetoplasma rocket by gridded energy analyzer and emissive Langmuir probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 10 kilowatt prototype of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) engine, abbreviated as VX-10, is designed to eject plasma at exhaust velocities of tens of kilometers per second. In this device, energy is imparted to the plasma ions by two mechanisms: ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH), and acceleration in an ambipolar electric field. Measurements from two different electrostatic probes are combined to determine how much each mechanism contributes to the total ion energy. The first probe is a gridded retarding potential analyzer (RPA) that incorporates a multi-channel collimator to obtain precise measurement of the ion and electron parallel energy distributions. The second is an emissive Langmuir probe that measures the DC and RF components of the plasma potential. The plasma potential obtained from the emitting probe allows calculation of the parallel velocity distribution once the parallel energy distribution is obtained from the energy analyzer data. Biasing the RPA housing is shown to minimize the plasma perturbation, as monitored by an auxiliary probe. When this minimization is done, the RPA measurements become compatible with the emissive probe's measurement of plasma potential. The collimated RPA and emissive probe have been used to examine the effects of a double dual half-turn (DDHT) antenna encircling the plasma. When power at the ion cyclotron frequency is applied, changes are seen in the saturation current and mean ion energy of the collimated RPA characteristic. The evolution of these changes as the RPA is moved downstream from the antenna is interpreted as firm evidence of ion cyclotron heating, albeit at absorbed energies of less than 1 electronvolt per ion. The emissive probe shows that, within experimental error, all of the increased ion energy is accounted for by an increase in the plasma potential that occurs when the ICRF power is applied. The combined RPA and emissive probe data also show that there is a jet of flowing plasma in the VX-10 when operated with the helicon source alone but that the signal from this jet is overwhelmed by a rapidly growing stationary plasma within the first second of the discharge.

Glover, Timothy Ward

2002-01-01

248

Secondary effects of catalytic diesel particulate filters: reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of the exhaust.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust contains numerous toxic substances that show different modes of action such as triggering aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated pathways. We investigated AhR-mediated activity of exhaust generated by a heavy-duty diesel engine operated with or without iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs). AhR agonists were quantified using the DR-CALUX reporter gene assay (exposure of cells for 24 h). We found 54-60 ng 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin CALUX equivalents (TCDD-CEQs) per m3 of exhaust in unfiltered samples and 6-16 ng TCDD-CEQ m3 in DPF-treated samples. DPF applications decreased TCDD-CEQ concentrations by almost 90%. Concentrations of known AhR agonists were determined with GC/HRMS and converted to TCDD-CEQ concentrations using compound-specific relative potency values. The analyzed nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the 172,3,7,8-chlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (23,7,8-PCDD/Fs) contributed only marginally (0.6-1.6%) to the total agonist concentration. However, both DPFs also decreased concentrations of individual PAHs by 7(0-80%. Variation of the assay exposure time (8, 24, 48,72, and 96 h) revealed that AhR-mediated activity decreased over time and reached a plateau after 72 h, which was most likely due to biotransformation of AhR agonists by the exposed H4IIE cells. At the plateau, we measured 1-2 ng TCDD-CEQ m(-3) in both an unfiltered and a filtered exhaust sample. Our findings show that DPFs are a promising technology to detoxify diesel exhaust regarding compounds with AhR-mediated activity. PMID:18497156

Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Zennegg, Markus; Kohler, Martin; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

2008-04-15

249

Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

Higgins, P. A.

2004-12-01

250

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

1992-09-01

251

Bioavailability and biotransformation of the mutagenic component of particulate emissions present in motor exhaust samples.  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetic concepts of bioavailability and biotransformation are introduced into the assessment of public health risk from experimental data concerning the emissions of potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic substances from motor vehicles. The inappropriateness of an automatic application in the risk assessment process of analytical or experimental results, obtained with extracts and procedures incompatible with the biological environment, is illustrated on the discrepancy between short-term laboratory tests predictions that wider use of diesel engines on our roads will increase the risk of respiratory cancer and the widely negative epidemiological evidence. Mutagenic activity of diesel particulates was minimal or negative when tested in extracts obtained with biological fluids, was substantially dependent on the presence of nitroreductase in the microbial tester strain, and disappeared completely 48 hr after the diesel particles had been phagocytized by alveolar macrophages. Similarly, long-term animal inhalation exposures to high concentrations of diesel particles did not induce the activity of hydrocarbon metabolizing enzymes or specific adverse immune response unless organic solvent extracts of diesel particles were administered intratracheally or parenterally in doses that highly exceed the predicted levels of public exposure even by the year 2000. Furthermore, the suspected cancer producing effects of inhaled diesel particles have thus far not been verified by experimental animal models or available long-term epidemiological observations. It is concluded that unless the biological accessibility of the active component on the pollutant as well as its biotransformation and clearance by natural defense mechanisms are considered, lung cancer risk assessment based solely on laboratory microbial tests will remain an arbitrary and unrealistic process and will not provide meaningful information on the potential health hazard of a pollutant. PMID:6186478

Vostal, J J

1983-01-01

252

Examination of charge dilution with EGR to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from a natural gas-fuelled 16 valve DOHC four-cylinder engine  

SciTech Connect

Charge dilution is commonly used to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from internal combustion engine exhaust gas. The question of whether to use air or exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a charge diluent for the natural gas-fuelled test engine is addressed first. The decision to use EGR is based on the potentially lower NO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbon emissions that could be achieved if a three-way catalyst were applied to the engine. The effect of EGR on the spark advance for maximum brake torque (MBT), NO{sub x}, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions is then examined in detail. The effect on fuel efficiency is discussed briefly. 37 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

Jaeaeskelaeinen, H.E.; Wallace, J.S.

1994-10-01

253

Evaluation of concepts for controlling exhaust emissions from minimally processed petroleum and synthetic fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rich-lean combustor concepts designed to enhance rich combustion chemistry and increase combustor flexibility for NO(x) reduction with minimally processed fuels are examined. Processes such as rich product recirculation in the rich chamber, rich-lean annihilation, and graduated air addition or staged rich combustion to release bound nitrogen in steps of reduced equivalence ratio are discussed. Variations to the baseline rapid quench section are considered, and the effect of residence time in the rich zone is investigated. The feasibility of using uncooled non-metallic materials for the rich zone combustion construction is also addressed. The preliminary results indicate that rich primary zone staged combustion provides environmentally acceptable operation with residual and/or synthetic coal-derived liquid fuels

Russell, P. L.; Beal, G. W.; Sederquist, R. A.; Shultz, D.

1981-01-01

254

Duplex tab exhaust nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

2012-01-01

255

Technologies to reduce or capture and store carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

The report focuses on a broad suite of technologies to reduce, capture and store CO{sub 2} emissions, primarily as they relate to direct coal combustion and also coal gasification and liquefaction. The report surveys and summarizes existing research, discusses relevant federal programs, makes recommendations regarding additional research opportunities and public policy objectives, and recommends a technology-based framework for mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-based electricity generation plants. The US Department of Energy is already at work to foster the development of these technologies. The report recognizes the scope of that work and in essence, concludes that much work still remains. A summary of the report is published in hard copy and on the CD-ROM. The full 160 page report is on the CD-ROM.

Nelson, G.; Mueller, M.; McCall, M.; Knipp, R. [PTI Resources Inc. (United States)

2007-06-15

256

Certification of Pd and Pt single spikes and application to the quantification of Pt and Pd in automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous epidemiological studies show the effect of increased ambient pollution. Therefore measurement networks for air quality have been installed worldwide and legislation requires the monitoring of air pollution. Besides monitoring it is also important to be able to identify, to quantify and finally to regulate the emission of distinct sources in order to improve the quality of life. Automotive vehicles are a major source of environmental pollution especially through contaminants such as CO, NOX, SOX and hydrocarbons which derive from petrol combustion, while for example Platinum Group Elements (PGE) can be present from catalytic converters. The release of PGE into the environment, however, may be damaging in terms of public health, ecological and economic interests. In order to reliably assess the risks from PGEs, traceable and thus comparable data on the release rates of PGE from automotive catalysers are needed. As no Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are available for such samples the development of analytical procedures enabling SI-traceable results will be challenging. Therefore reference procedures for Pd and Pt in automotive exhaust emissions based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) have been developed and applied to specifically sampled automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the commonly known advantages, IDMS often is applied for quantification PGEs, as is the case within this work. The main reasons here are the required accuracy and the low PGE mass fractions in the sample. In order to perform IDMS analysis the analyte element must be available in an isotopically enriched form as so-called spike material or solution thereof, which is mixed with the sample. Unfortunately, no certified PGE spike solutions are available yet. To fill this gap two single PGE spikes, one 106Pd and one 194Pt spike, have been produced and characterized. The selection of the isotopes, the production of the solutions and the ampoulation will be described in this presentation. Details on the characterization of these spike solutions by reverse IDMS using a primary assay for Pd and Pt will be given. With measurement uncertainties < 0.1 % for the Pd and Pt mass fraction both spike solutions are well suited to become certified reference materials under the ERM® label. The newly developed IDMS reference procedures consist of a dissolution step by microwave assisted digestion or wet high pressure ashing, followed by a 2-step ion chromatographic Pd- and Pt-matrix separation. The total blank values for this analytical procedure are ? 5 pg for Pd and ? 75 pg for Pt. First results on filters obtained under harmonized driving cycles (e.g. Artemis, NEDC) show Pd and Pt masses below 1 ng down to 100 pg with some filters showing relatively high values of 4 - 6 ng, which of course depends on the driving cycle.

Vogl, Jochen; Meyer, Christian; Noordmann, Janine; Rienitz, Olaf; Geilert, Sonja

2014-05-01

257

Impacts of reducing shipboard NOx? and SOx? emissions on vessel performance  

E-print Network

The international maritime community has been experiencing tremendous pressures from environmental organizations to reduce the emissions footprint of their vessels. In the last decade, air emissions, including nitrogen ...

Caputo, Ronald J., Jr. (Ronald Joseph)

2010-01-01

258

Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector  

SciTech Connect

Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

2011-01-01

259

Closed loop exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed loop exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is described that has an intake system, an exhaust manifold, a throttle disposed within the intake system for controlling air flow therein, a conduit coupling the exhaust manifold to the intake system for supplying exhaust gases back to the intake system for controlling the generation and emission of

Toelle

1979-01-01

260

Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry  

E-print Network

A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

Plumley, Michael J

2005-01-01

261

Turbocharged internal combustion engine having reduced high speed emissions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust driven supercharger assembly. : a turbine portion, having a housing with an inlet, an outlet, and an impeller rotatably supported therein, a compressor portion, having a housing with an inlet, an outlet, and an impeller rotatably supported therein, a rotor shaft extending between, and interconnecting the turbine and compressor impellers, and a turbine inlet pressure dependent wastegate apparatus for bypassing exhaust gas entering the turbine around the impeller to limit turbine speed and compressor output. This paper also comprises: turbine bypass; a valve member; a valve shaft and valve biasing means.

Potter, M.A.

1992-09-22

262

Differential Responses upon Inhalation Exposure to Biodiesel versus Diesel Exhaust on Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Immune Outcomes  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodiesel (BD) exhaust may have reduced adverse health effects due to lower mass emissions and reduced production of hazardous compounds compared to diesel exhaust. To investigate this possibility, we compared adverse effects in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation ex...

263

Diesel emissions and ventilation exhaust sampling in the North Ramp of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility  

SciTech Connect

A series of ventilation experiments have been performed to assess the potential retention of diesel exhaust constituents in the North Ramp of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Measurements were taken to help evaluate the potential impact of retained diesel exhaust constituents on future in-situ experiments and long-term waste isolation. Assessment of the diesel exhaust retention in the ESF North Ramp required the measurement of air velocities, meteorological measurements, quantification of exhaust constituents within the ventilation air stream, multiple gas sample collections, and on-line diesel exhaust measurements. In order to assess variability within specific measurements, the experiment was divided into three separate sampling events. Although somewhat variable from event to event, collected data appear to support pre-test assumptions of high retention rates for exhaust constituents within the tunnel. The results also show that complete air exchange in the ESF does not occur within the estimated 16 to 20 minutes derived from the ventilation flowrate measurements. Because the scope of work for these activities covered only measurement and acquisition of data, no judgment is offered by the author as to the implications of this work. Final analyses and decisions based upon the entire compendium of data associated with this investigation is being undertaken by the Repository and ESF Ventilation Design Groups of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

George, J.T.

1995-11-01

264

A Survey of Studies of the Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys various estimates of the macroeconomic implications of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Most available studies focus on policies to reduce CO2 emissions and are limited to the costs of such policies. The survey first examines the key factors shaping baseline emission scenarios. It then looks at the aggregate cost of emission reductions, as shown by both global and

Peter Hoeller; Andrew Dean; Jon Nicolaisen

1990-01-01

265

Traffic generated non-exhaust particulate emissions from concrete pavement: A mass and particle size study for two-wheelers and small cars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to understand the non-exhaust (NE) emission of particles from wear of summer tire and concrete pavement, especially for two wheelers and small cars. A fully enclosed laboratory-scale model was fabricated to simulate road tire interaction with a facility to collect particles in different sizes. A road was cast using the M-45 concrete mixture and the centrifugal casting method. It was observed that emission of large particle non exhaust emission (LPNE) as well as PM 10 and PM 2.5 increased with increasing load. The LPNE was 3.5 mg tire -1 km -1 for a two wheeler and 6.4 mg tire -1 km -1 for a small car. The LPNE can lead to water pollution through water run-off from the roads. The contribution of the PM 10 and PM 2.5 was smaller compared to the LPNE particles (less than 0.1%). About 32 percent of particle mass of PM 10 was present below 1 ?m. The number as well as mass size distribution for PM 10 was observed to be bi-modal with peaks at 0.3 ?m and 4-5 ?m. The NE emissions did not show any significant trend with change in tire pressure.

Aatmeeyata; Kaul, D. S.; Sharma, Mukesh

266

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

PubMed

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2011-01-01

267

40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exhaust streams before emission sampling, you may configure the exhaust system with turbulence generators, such as orifice plates or fins, to achieve good mixing. We recommend a minimum Reynolds number, Re# , of 4000 for the combined...

2010-07-01

268

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) Natural gas-fueled ATVs: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled ATVs: THCE emissions. (3) Other ATVs: THC emissions...Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

2013-07-01

269

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (1) Natural gas-fueled ATVs: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled ATVs: THCE emissions. (3) Other ATVs: THC emissions...Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

2011-07-01

270

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (1) Natural gas-fueled ATVs: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled ATVs: THCE emissions. (3) Other ATVs: THC emissions...Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

2012-07-01

271

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (1) Natural gas-fueled ATVs: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled ATVs: THCE emissions. (3) Other ATVs: THC emissions...Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

2010-07-01

272

The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles  

E-print Network

The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

Perez, Alberto, Jr

2009-01-01

273

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2010-07-01

274

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2013-07-01

275

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2012-07-01

276

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2011-07-01

277

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

...true Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW...416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow...Measurement of the air flow and the...

2014-07-01

278

The role of exhaust ventilation systems in reducing occupational exposure to organic solvents in a paint manufacturing factory  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the successful design and implementation of several exhaust ventilation systems in a paint manufacturing factory. The ventilation systems were designed based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendations. The duct works, fans, and other parts were made and mounted by local manufacturers. The concentrations of toluene and xylene as the common solvents used in paint mixing factories were measured to evaluate the role of ventilation systems in controlling the organic solvents. Occupational exposure to toluene and xylene as the major pollutants was assessed with and without applying ventilation systems. For this purpose, samples were taken from breathing zone of exposed workers using personal samples. The samples were analyzed using Occupational Safety and Health Administration analytical method No.12. The samples were quantified using gas chromatography. The results showed that the ventilation systems successfully controlled toluene and xylene vapors in workplace, air well below the recommended threshold limit value of Iran (44.49 and 97.73 ppm, respectively). It was also discovered that benzene concentration in workplace air was higher than its allowable concentrations. This could be from solvents impurities that require more investigations. PMID:20040984

Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Karimi, Ali; Azari, Mansoor Rezazadeh

2008-01-01

279

Emissions R&D at GE/CRD coal-fueled diesel: Technology development methods for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal from coal diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Four processes were investigated at the GE Research and Development Center (GE-CRD) for the removal of gaseous pollutants from the exhaust of a coal-fired diesel locomotive engine. The minimum goal for emissions control was to reduce the pollutant levels at least to the levels of a conventional diesel engine. It should be noted, however, that some of the methods investigated were capable of reducing emissions below these levels. Achieving the minimum goal requires a reduction of approximately 50% in SO{sub 2} emissions and a 90 to 95% reduction in particulate emissions, the actual percentages varying with the fuel. NO{sub x} emissions from the coal diesel are approximately 50% of the conventional diesel level. The space limitations on board the locomotive present the greatest obstacle to the design of an emissions control system. The cleanup system must be compact as well as multifunctional. The development of a particulate collection device was undertaken by GE Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI). Among the options they evaluated were high-temperature metal filters, cyclones, and a granular bed. The development of a cleanup method or SO{sub 2} and possibly NO{sub x} was undertaken at GE-CRD. A process was sought which could incorporate one of the particulate removal devices under consideration. Four processes utilizing three classes of sorbents -- copper oxide, calcium-based, and sodium bicarbonate --were investigated for SO{sub 2} capture: Two of these processes use copper oxide (CuO), a regenerable SO{sub 2} sorbent. The CuSO{sub 4} formed has the added property that it catalyzes the reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} in the presence of NH{sub 3}. This NO{sub x} removal capability was tested for both CuO processes.

Cohen, M.R.; Leonard, G.L.; Slaughter, D.M.

1993-10-01

280

A coupled road dust and surface moisture model to predict non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions (NORTRIP). Part 1: Road dust loading and suspension modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-exhaust traffic induced emissions are a major source of particle mass in most European countries. This is particularly important in Nordic and Alpine countries where winter time road traction maintenance occurs, e.g. salting and sanding, and where studded tyres are used. In this paper, Part 1, the road dust sub-model of a coupled road dust and surface moisture model (NORTRIP) is described. The model provides a generalised process based formulation of the non-exhaust emissions, with emphasis on the contribution of road wear, suspension, surface dust loading and the effect of road surface moisture (retention of wear particles and suspended emissions). The model is intended for use as a tool for air quality managers to help study the impact of mitigation measures and policies. We present a description of the road dust sub-model and apply the model to two sites in Stockholm and Copenhagen where seven years of data with surface moisture measurements are available. For the site in Stockholm, where studded tyres are in use, the model predicts the PM10 concentrations very well with correlations (R2) in the range of R2 = 0.76-0.91 for daily mean PM10. The model also reproduces well the impact of a reduction in studded tyres at this site. For the site in Copenhagen the correlation is lower, in the range 0.44-0.51. The addition of salt is described in the model and at both sites this leads to improved correlations due to additional salt emissions. For future use of the model a number of model parameters, e.g. wear factors and suspension rates, still need to be refined. The effect of sanding on PM10 emissions is also presented but more information will be required before this can be confidently applied for management applications.

Denby, B. R.; Sundvor, I.; Johansson, C.; Pirjola, L.; Ketzel, M.; Norman, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Omstedt, G.

2013-10-01

281

Opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from households in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to mitigate climate threats should not exclude the household as the household is a major driver of greenhouse gas\\u000a (GHG) emissions through its consumption patterns. This paper derives an emission index that could be used to estimate inventories\\u000a of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from kerosene combustion for lighting in Nigeria and also looks at the implications of solar pv

O. Adeoti; S. O. Osho

2012-01-01

282

The Heat Transfer and the Soot Deposition Characteristics in Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Cooling Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooiing devices are used in EGR systems to significantly reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines. However, the thermal and hydraulic performances of these devices change over time during operation due to the deposition of soot from the diesel exhaust gas in these devices. The objective of this work was to investigate in detail the heat transfer

Basel Ismail A. Ismail

2004-01-01

283

The heat transfer and the soot deposition characteristics in diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system cooling devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooling devices are used in EGR systems to significantly reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines. However, the thermal and hydraulic performances of these devices change over time during operation due to the deposition of soot from the diesel exhaust gas in these devices. The objective of this work was to investigate in detail the heat transfer

Basel Ismail A Ismail

2004-01-01

284

Control of a turbocharged Diesel engine fitted with high pressure and low pressure exhaust gas recirculation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation is an effective way for reducing nitric oxides emissions in Diesel engine achieving low temperature combustion (LTC). Two strategies can be applied to recirculate burnt gas in a turbocharged Diesel engine using the high pressure loop or the low pressure loop. This paper describes a generic model based control structure for Diesel engines with dual-loop exhaust gas

Olivier Grondin; Philippe Moulin; Jonathan Chauvin

2009-01-01

285

Wildlife conservation and reduced emissions from deforestation in a case study of Nantu National Park,  

E-print Network

Wildlife conservation and reduced emissions from deforestation in a case study of Nantu National Measures of success a b s t r a c t Discussions on how to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation of the role of protected area (PA) status in reducing tropical deforestation. This study employs a range

Malhi, Yadvinder

286

Characterization of odor emission from alternating aerobic and anoxic activated sludge systems using real-time total reduced sulfur analyzer.  

PubMed

Anaerobic biodegradation of sulfur-containing compounds always generates volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) including H2S, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). VSC emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) result in odor complaints from people living nearby. To control odor-causing compounds in WWTPs, it is important to know the odor emission quantity particularly with continuous monitoring. Since modified activated sludge processes always include anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions for nutrient removal, odor emission from these different environmental settings is expected. In this study, continuous monitoring of VSCs from the headspace of an alternating aerobic and anoxic (AAA) activated sludge process via total reduced sulfur (TRS) analyzer was performed. There is clear pattern of the initial TRS peak immediately after the initiation of the aeration in the AAA system and TRS concentration begins to drop through the remaining air-on cycle. On the other hand, during the air-off period, TRS concentrations increase with time. In particular, a clear inflection point in the TRS profile could be observed after complete removal of nitrate during air-off, meaning more VSCs formation. Since the highest odor emission occurs after the initiation of aeration, the future control of exhausted air should only deal with air collected during the initial aeration period (e.g., 30min), a similar concept for the treatment of first flush in combined sewer overflow. In addition, application of a control scheme to initiate aeration immediately after denitrification is completed during air-off should be beneficial in reducing odor emission. PMID:25180483

Kim, Hyunook; Lee, Hyunjoo; Choi, Eunsun; Choi, Il; Shin, Taesub; Im, Hyungjoon; Ahn, Soobin

2014-12-01

287

Exhaust gas recirculation flow control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed-loop exhaust gas recirculation flow control system for minimizing nitrogen oxide emissions from internal combustion engines is described that, unlike prior-art devices, compensates for changes in sensed engine variables by incorporating feedback from the exhaust gas recirculation system. A valve that is responsive to engine air flow and to recirculated exhaust gas flow provides a scheduled flow control signal

Wertheimer

1974-01-01

288

Task-specific tailored multiple-reflection mirror systems for sensitivity enhancement of spectroscopic measurements: application for aircraft engine exhaust emission measurements with FT-IR spectro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-path reflection mirror systems in White- or Herriott- type configuration have been widely used to enhance the absorption path-length and thus the sensitivity of laboratory spectroscopic systems, e.g. for smog chamber studies and molecular spectroscopy. Field studies, for instance using mobile tunable diode laser spectroscopy have widened the range of applications of these mirror systems for specific measurement tasks. In this paper a special designed White-type system mounted in two racks with 5 m base-length and adjustable optical path-length up to 74 passes is described. This system has been tested and successfully used to enhance the sensitivity of non-intrusive FT-IR measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions in the harsh environment of an engine test bed. The open cell around the engine plume including the transfer optics for the adaption of the spectrometers in a separate room allowed manual switching between passive FT-IR emission measurements, FT-IR absorption measurements with the cell, and, by covering the infrared source (globar) with a shutter, multi-path FT-IR emission measurements. Tests prior to the aircraft engine measurements were made to investigate the influence of different path- lengths, the position of the plume in the White cell, soot in the exhaust gas, and vibrations of the mirrors. The FT-IR spectra from all three measurement modes using the White cell during the engine measurements were found to be of good quality and the results of the analyses were comparable to the results from intrusive measurement systems.

Brockmann, Klaus; Kurtenbach, Ralf; Kriesche, Volker; Wiesen, Peter; Heland, Joerg; Schaefer, Klaus

1999-09-01

289

Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions  

PubMed Central

The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting ?-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination. PMID:25335793

Penuelas, Josep; Farre-Armengol, Gerard; Llusia, Joan; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Rico, Laura; Sardans, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume; Filella, Iolanda

2014-01-01

290

Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions.  

PubMed

The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting ?-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination. PMID:25335793

Peñuelas, Josep; Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Llusia, Joan; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Rico, Laura; Sardans, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume; Filella, Iolanda

2014-01-01

291

Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting ?-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination.

Peñuelas, Josep; Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Llusia, Joan; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Rico, Laura; Sardans, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume; Filella, Iolanda

2014-10-01

292

40 CFR 1037.510 - Duty-cycle exhaust testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Test and Modeling Procedures § 1037.510 Duty-cycle exhaust testing. This section applies where exhaust emission testing is...

2012-07-01

293

40 CFR 1037.510 - Duty-cycle exhaust testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Test and Modeling Procedures § 1037.510 Duty-cycle exhaust testing. This section applies where exhaust emission testing is...

2013-07-01

294

Ecological effects and environmental fate of solid rocket exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specific target processes were classified as to the chemical, chemical-physical, and biological reactions and toxic effects of solid rocket emissions within selected ecosystems at Kennedy Space Center. Exposure of Citris seedlings, English peas, and bush beans to SRM exhaust under laboratory conditions demonstrated reduced growth rates, but at very high concentrations. Field studies of natural plant populations in three diverse ecosystems failed to reveal any structural damage at the concentration levels tested. Background information on elemental composition of selected woody plants from two terrestrial ecosystems is reported. LD sub 50 for a native mouse (peromysous gossypinus) exposed to SRM exhaust was determined to be 50 ppm/g body weight. Results strongly indicate that other components of the SRM exhaust act synergically to enhance the toxic effects of HCl gas when inhaled. A brief summary is given regarding the work on SRM exhaust and its possible impact on hatchability of incubating bird eggs.

Nimmo, B.; Stout, I. J.; Mickus, J.; Vickers, D.; Madsen, B.

1974-01-01

295

Reducing emissions from deforestation--The ``combined incentives'' mechanism and empirical simulations  

E-print Network

Reducing emissions from deforestation--The ``combined incentives'' mechanism and empirical throughout a century of climate-change (Gullison et al., 2007). The financial rationale for deforestation be sufficient to greatly reduce deforestation (Stern, 2007). For political and methodological reasons

Vermont, University of

296

The potential impact of conservation, alternative energy sources, and reduced nonenergy emissions on global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we examine two global energy consumption scenarios and corresponding nonenergy scenarios to determine how each will contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. A steady emissions trend scenario assumes only modest energy conservation and little change in the world's energy consumption patterns and nonenergy emissions. A reduced emissions trend scenario assumes significant conservation, switching from a

E. A. Aronson; M. W. Edenburn

1989-01-01

297

40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.  

...projected NOX emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, shall not be greater...R99-2. Both the projected emissions and the Highway Fuel Economy Test standard shall be rounded to the nearest 0.1...

2014-07-01

298

40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.  

...projected NOX emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR part 600, subpart B, shall be not greater...R99-9. Both the projected emissions and the Highway Fuel Economy Test standard shall be rounded to the nearest 0.1...

2014-07-01

299

Parameterized MPC to reduce dispersion of road traffic emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has two main contributions. First, it presents a simple area-wide emission (or dispersion) model for a freeway traffic networks. The model takes the variation of the wind speed and direction into account. Second, it presents a nonlinear parameterized MPC controller for freeway traffic systems. Next, the proposed model and control approach are illustrated with a simulation-based case study.

S. K. Zegeye; B. De Schutter; J. Hellendoorn; E. A. Breunesse

2011-01-01

300

Management options for reducing CO2 emissions from agricultural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop-based agriculture occupies 1.7 billion hectares, globally, with a soil C stock of about 170 Pg. Of the past anthropogenic CO2 additions to the atmosphere, about 50 Pg C came from the loss of soil organic matter (SOM) in cultivated soils. Improved management practices, however, can rebuild C stocks in agricultural soils and help mitigate CO2 emissions. Increasing soil C

K. PAUSTIAN; E. T. ELLIOTT; H. W. HUNT

2000-01-01

301

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2010-07-01

302

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2011-07-01

303

Comparison of diesel exhaust emissions using JP-8 and low-sulfur diesel fuel. Interim report, March 1994March 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 wt% was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994

D. M. Yost; D. A. Montalvo

1995-01-01

304

Model Project Streamlines Compliance, Reduces Emissions and Energy Use  

E-print Network

Marathon's Texas City refinery was subject to five separate EPA regulations in addition to a state program for monitoring and repairing fugitive leaks. The refinery sought an organizational solution that reduced monitoring costs and kept...

Vining, S. K.

305

ADVANCED DEHYDRATOR DESIGN SAVES GAS AND REDUCES HAP EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Glycol dehydrators remove water from gas pipe lines. An advanced dehydrator by Engineered Concepts, Farmington, NM, saves a significant amount of gas, while reducing hazardous air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and CO2 air pollutants...

306

Reducible emission probabilities and thermal scaling in multifragmentation  

SciTech Connect

Intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for a variety of reactions at intermediate energies are shown to be binomial and thus reducible at all measured transverse energies. From these distributions a single binary event probability can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. A strong thermal signature is also found in the charge distributions. The {eta}-fold charge distributions are reducible to the {eta}-fold charge distributions through a simple scaling that is dictated by fold number and charge conservation.

Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Tso, K. [and others

1995-08-01

307

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

Not Available

1997-10-01

308

Wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from dairy manure storage  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the use of a wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from liquid manure was conducted in both a laboratory and a pilot system. Two straw covers with different thicknesses (5 cm and 10 cm) were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing odorous gas emissions. The rates of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from the treatments were monitored; concentrations of ammonia, dissolved sulfide, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH of the liquid manure were measured. Additionally, the overall mass transfer coefficients of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were calculated for the conditions of the experiment. The results demonstrated that both the 5-cm and 10-cm straw covers were effective in reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from manure storage. In the laboratory tests, when a crust formed on the manure surface within three to four weeks after the straw application, ammonia emissions were reduced by up to 95%. A similar trend was observed in the pilot experiments in the field. Hydrogen sulfide emissions were suppressed by 95% with the wheat straw cover. The mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen sulfide with the straw covers were significantly lower than those of the control, which indicated the effectiveness of a straw cover as a physical barrier for reducing hydrogen sulfide emissions. Reduced pH and decreased ammonia that biological reactions might also be a factor contributing to the emission reductions.

Xue, S.K.; Hermanson, R.E.

1999-08-01

309

A Systems Approach to Reducing Institutional GHG Emissions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish necessity and methods for considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies at a system-level. The research emphasizes connecting narrowly focused GHG mitigation objectives (e.g. reduce single occupancy vehicle travel) with broader institutional objectives (e.g. growth in student population) to…

Williamson, Sean R.

2012-01-01

310

Nitrogen and phosphorous limitations significantly reduce future allowable CO2 emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 emissions are the emissions of CO2 allowed in order to follow a prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentration pathway. Allowable emissions depend on the uptake rates by the land and ocean and carbon-climate interaction. Few Earth System Models used for estimating allowable emissions include nitrogen limitation on land, and none include phosphorus. We provide the first estimate of how nitrogen and phosphorus limitations alter the allowable emissions between 2006 and 2100 for two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). We show that nutrient limitations on land have little influence on ocean carbon uptake but reduce the land carbon uptake and allowable emissions by 69 Pg C (21%) for RCP2.6 and by 250 Pg C (13%) for RCP8.5 by 2100, as compared with the emissions estimated using integrated assessment models. We therefore demonstrate the importance of nutrient limitations in estimating future CO2 emissions to achieve the climate change limits implied by RCPs.

Zhang, Q.; Wang, Y. P.; Matear, R. J.; Pitman, A. J.; Dai, Y. J.

2014-01-01

311

40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...certification purposes only, Type C hybrid electric vehicles shall...requirements. Light light-duty trucks shall comply with the emission...specified in § 86.1773. Hybrid electric vehicles, natural...model year light light-duty trucks certified as LEVs and...

2011-07-01

312

Performance and exhaust emissions of a gasoline engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels using artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the performance and the pollutant emissions of a four-stroke SI engine operating on ethanol–gasoline blends of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with the aid of artificial neural network (ANN). The properties of bioethanol were measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The experimental results revealed that

G. Najafi; B. Ghobadian; T. Tavakoli; D. R. Buttsworth; T. F. Yusaf; M. Faizollahnejad

2009-01-01

313

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

...2013-07-01 true Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure...

2014-07-01

314

Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a spark ignition engine using ethanol and ethanol-reformed gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ethanol is a renewable source of energy and has lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than gasoline, ethanol produced from biomass is expected to be used more frequently as an alternative fuel. It is recognized that for spark ignition (SI) engines, ethanol has the advantages of high octane and high combustion speed and the disadvantage of ignition difficulties at low

Young Choi; Changgi Kim; Seungmook Oh; Gihun Lim; Yasuo Moriyoshi

2010-01-01

315

Exhaust emissions of low level blend alcohol fuels from two-stroke and four-stroke marine engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard mandates that by 2022, 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be produced on a yearly basis. Ethanol production is capped at 15 billion gallons, meaning 21 billion gallons must come from different alternative fuel sources. A viable alternative to reach the remainder of this mandate is iso-butanol. Unlike ethanol, iso-butanol does not phase separate when mixed with water, meaning it can be transported using traditional pipeline methods. Iso-butanol also has a lower oxygen content by mass, meaning it can displace more petroleum while maintaining the same oxygen concentration in the fuel blend. This research focused on studying the effects of low level alcohol fuels on marine engine emissions to assess the possibility of using iso-butanol as a replacement for ethanol. Three marine engines were used in this study, representing a wide range of what is currently in service in the United States. Two four-stroke engine and one two-stroke engine powered boats were tested in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, near Annapolis, Maryland over the course of two rounds of weeklong testing in May and September. The engines were tested using a standard test cycle and emissions were sampled using constant volume sampling techniques. Specific emissions for two-stroke and four-stroke engines were compared to the baseline indolene tests. Because of the nature of the field testing, limited engine parameters were recorded. Therefore, the engine parameters analyzed aside from emissions were the operating relative air-to-fuel ratio and engine speed. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each alcohol fuel for the four-stroke engines were consistent, when analyzing a single round of testing. The same trends were not consistent when comparing separate rounds because of uncontrolled weather conditions and because the four-stroke engines operate without fuel control feedback during full load conditions. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each alcohol fuel for the two-stroke engine were consistent for all rounds of testing. This is due to the fact the engine operates open-loop, and does not provide fueling compensation when fuel composition changes. Changes in emissions with respect to the baseline for iso-butanol were consistent with changes for ethanol. It was determined iso-butanol would make a viable replacement for ethanol.

Sevik, James M., Jr.

316

Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype fiat 131TC 2.4 liter automobile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Fiat 131 turbocharged diesel vehicle are presented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a United States number 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications results in small but substantial improvements in regulated emissions, fuel economy, and performance. Notably, particulate levels were reduced by 30 percent.

Quayle, S. S.

1982-01-01

317

An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Samo, Khalid; Faturachman, Danny

2012-09-01

318

Designing stainless exhaust systems  

SciTech Connect

With the ever-increasing price of automobiles, durability and reduced operating costs have become major concerns in North America, Europe, and Japan. In the US, the exhaust system was once thought of as disposable every 3--4 years, but it is now considered a nonreplaceable item for at least 5--7 years, the average time an initial owner keeps a vehicle. Through the mid-1980s, the only stainless steel on most US car exhausts was the downpipe and catalytic converter, and these were due to government warranty mandates. Today, most US passenger car exhaust systems are almost entirely stainless steel, and with the 1996 model year switch of GM light trucks, the average use of stainless alloys in US vehicles will exceed 23 kg per vehicle. The US experience with stainless has shown that certain design considerations can further increase system life and reduce manufacturing problems. Such considerations may also benefit the European situation, which has seen an increase in the use of stainless alloys in exhaust components since tighter pollution laws began taking effect in 1990.

Douthett, J.A.

1995-11-01

319

PARTICLE TRAP EFFECTS ON HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The ceramic trap used in this study was highly effective in reducing particle emissions in the diesel exhaust; the weight of emitted particles and their associated chemicals in the filtered exhaust was reduced by over 90% under the two different work loads. As a consequence...

320

Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit  

SciTech Connect

The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

2012-11-15

321

Experimental evidence for the reducibility of multifragment emission probabilities  

SciTech Connect

Multifragmentation has been studied for {sup 36}Ar-induced reactions on a {sup 197}Au target at E/A = 80 and 110 MeV and for {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions on several targets ({sup nat}Cu, {sup 89}y, {sup 165}ho, {sup 197}Au) and E/A = 40, 50 and 60 MeV. The probability of emitting n intermediate-mass-fragments is shown to be binomial at each transversal energy and reducible to an elementary binary probability p. For each target and at each bombarding energy, this probability p shows a thermal nature by giving linear Arrhenius plots. For the {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions, a nearly universal linear Arrhenius plot is observed at each bombarding energy, indicating a large degree of target independence.

Wozniak, G.J.; Tso, K.; Phair, L. [and others

1995-01-01

322

Shaping the Terms of Competition: Environmental Regulation and Corporate Strategies to Reduce Diesel Vehicle Emissions  

E-print Network

Diesel Vehicle Emissions by Christine Bik-Kay Ng B.S., Civil and Environmental Engineering University Strategies to Reduce Diesel Vehicle Emissions by Christine Bik-Kay Ng Submitted to the Engineering Systems. This research explains the conditions under which competitive regulatory strategies are pursued in the diesel

de Weck, Olivier L.

323

Dynamics of implementation of mitigating measures to reduce CO? emissions from commercial aviation  

E-print Network

Increasing demand for air transportation and growing environmental concerns motivate the need to implement measures to reduce CO? emissions from aviation. Case studies of historical changes in the aviation industry have ...

Kar, Rahul, 1979-

2010-01-01

324

MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER REDUCED AMBIENT TEMPERATURE IDLE OPERATING CONDITIONS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasoline motor vehicle organic emissions are elevated by reduced ambient temperature operating conditions, and the practice of warming vehicles with extended idle periods, as is common during winter months. Total hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and formaldehyde emi...

325

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends  

SciTech Connect

Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportion of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.

Merritt, P. M.; Ulmet, V.; McCormick, R. L.; Mitchell, W. E.; Baumgard, K. J.

2005-11-01

326

Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.  

PubMed

Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

2005-09-01

327

High-pressure combustor exhaust emissions with improved air-atomizing and conventional pressure-atomizing fuel nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-pressure combustor segment 0.456 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was tested with specially designed air-atomizing and conventional pressure-atomizing fuel nozzles at inlet-air temperatures of 340 to 755 k (610 deg to 1360 R), reference velocities of 12.4 to 26.1 meters per second (41 to 86 ft/sec), and fuel-air ratios of 0.008 to 0.020. Increasing inlet-air pressure from 4 to 20 atmospheres generally increased smoke number and nitric oxide, but decreased carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon concentrations with air-atomizing and pressure-atomizing nozzles. Emission indexes for carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were lower at 4, 10, and 20 atmospheres, and nitric oxide emission indexes were lower at 10 and 20 atmospheres with air-atomizing than with pressure-atomizing nozzles.

Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

1973-01-01

328

Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = -0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = -.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = -0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R(2)  = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. PMID:24134551

Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

2014-12-01

329

Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

Rudey, R. A.

1975-01-01

330

Impact of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Performances of Diesel Engine  

E-print Network

“Worldwide emission regulation has been tightening year after year. Numbers of researchers are trying to work out combinations of key technologies to meet the forth-coming emission norms. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for diesel engine to reduce oxides of nitrogen is chosen for present work. The emphasis is given on oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Experiments were carried out on computerized single cylinder four- stroke diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer (10 BHP 7.4 KW).” “Exhaust gas re-circulation set-up is developed. It consists of EGR cooler; air filters box, rota-meter, exhaust control valve, pressure gauge and temperature indicator etc. Engine set-up was modified and coupled with EGR setup. Exhaust gas recirculation system was tested with different EGR

P. V. Walke; Dr. N. V. Deshp; R. G. Bodkhe

331

Reduction in (pro-)inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust treated with a non-catalyzed diesel particle filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly stringent regulation of particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles has led to the widespread use of diesel particle filters (DPFs), the effect of which on exhaust toxicity is so far poorly understood. We exposed a cellular model of the human respiratory epithelium at the air-liquid interface to non-catalyzed wall-flow DPF-filtered diesel exhaust and compared the resulting biological responses to the ones observed upon exposure to unfiltered exhaust. Filtered diesel exhaust acted highly oxidative, even though to a lesser extent than unfiltered exhaust (quantification of total reduced glutathione), and both exhaust types triggered comparable responses to oxidative stress (measurement of heme-oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD1) gene expression). Further, diesel exhaust filtration significantly reduced pro-inflammatory responses (measurement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression and quantification of the secretion of their gene products TNF-? and IL-8). Because inflammatory processes are central to the onset of adverse respiratory health effects caused by diesel exhaust inhalation, our results imply that DPFs may make a valuable contribution to the detoxification of diesel vehicle emissions. The induction of significant oxidative stress by filtered diesel exhaust however, also implies that the non-particulate exhaust components also need to be considered for lung cell risk assessment.

Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Müller, Loretta L.; Heeb, Norbert V.; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

2013-12-01

332

Apparatus and method to reduce automotive emissions using filter catalyst interactive with Uego  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for cleansing the gaseous emission stream generated by the combustion of an A/F mixture within cylinders of an internal combustion engine. It comprises a low mass, three-way filter catalyst stationed close to the source of the stream effective to affect substantially the entire emission stream by filtering out random combustion effects within the stream, the filter catalyst being limited in conversion efficiency to less than that of the main catalyst; a high mass, three-way main catalyst stationed downstream of the filter catalyst effective to convert the remainder of noxious emissions in the stream to desired levels; a continuous universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor stationed in the stream between the catalysts effective to symmetrically and accurately indicate the level of oxygen within the stream leaving the filter catalyst within a time response period of less than 60 milliseconds; and proportional control means for adjusting in closed loop the A/F ratio of the mixture in interactive response to a deviation of the sensed oxygen level from a target level.

Anderson, M.J.

1992-01-28

333

Effectiveness of US state policies in reducing CO2 emissions from power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

President Obama's landmark initiative to reduce the CO2 emissions of existing power plants, the nation's largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutants, depends heavily on states and their ability to devise policies that meet the goals set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan, states will be responsible for cutting power plants' carbon pollution 30% from 2005 levels by 2030. States have already adopted several policies to reduce the electricity sector's climate impact. Some of these policies focus on reducing power plants' CO2 emissions, and others address this outcome in a more roundabout fashion by encouraging energy efficiency and renewable energy. However, it remains unclear which, if any, of these direct and indirect strategies actually mitigate plants' emissions because scholars have yet to test their effects using plant-level emission data. Here we use a newly released data source to determine whether states' policies significantly shape individual power plants' CO2 emissions. Findings reveal that certain types of direct strategy (emission caps and GHG targets) and indirect ones (public benefit funds and electric decoupling) lower plants' emissions and thus are viable building blocks of a federal climate regime.

Grant, Don; Bergstrand, Kelly; Running, Katrina

2014-11-01

334

Oxidized and reduced biogenic nitrogen compound emissions into the rural troposphere: Characterization and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a dynamic flow-through chamber technique in conjunction with a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory, this research attempts to characterize and model oxidized and reduced biogenic nitrogen compound emissions into the rural troposphere. Nitrogen compound emissions are known to have profound effects on air quality. Consequences associated with increased emissions of oxidized and reduced nitrogen species are known to be increased tropospheric ozone production, fine particulate aerosol production, nitrate contamination of drinking water, eutrophication and acidification of soil and water bodies. It is well recognized that soil emissions can contribute a substantial percent of the total inventory for both the oxidized and reduced species, but great uncertainty still exists in this inventory. A controlled experiment involving the application of municipal waste biosolids to agricultural soils was shown to enhance NO emissions. A more detailed analysis throughout several seasons found the nitric oxide emissions from biosolid amended soils to have a strong temperature dependence and that their source strength is much larger relative to soils amended with chemically derived fertilizers. Emissions of nitric oxide from biosolid amended soils were modeled using the MultiScale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP). Results from this model indicated that ozone concentrations can decrease by approximately 12% (in the evening) and increase by approximately 2% (during the daylight hours) when these biosolid amended soils are taken into consideration in the land use database. Emissions of ammonia from soils amended with swine waste effluent were also measured and modeled. This study revealed that while the average source strength of ammonia from soils is significantly smaller than that of the lagoons, the much larger surface area of the soils causes them to also be an important emissions source. A fundamental mechanistic mass transfer model is presented and discussed in terms of its applicability for estimating NH3 flux and was found to be an effective predictor of the NH3 emissions for time periods immediately following slurry application.

Roelle, Paul Andrew

2001-12-01

335

Diesel engine performance and emission evaluation using emulsified fuels stabilized by conventional and gemini surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel engines exhausting gaseous emission and particulate matter have long been regarded as one of the major air pollution sources, particularly in metropolitan areas, and have been a source of serious public concern for a long time. The emulsification method is not only motivated by cost reduction but is also one of the potentially effective techniques to reduce exhaust emission

M. Nadeem; C. Rangkuti; K. Anuar; M. R. U. Haq; I. B. Tan; S. S. Shah

2006-01-01

336

Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Fiat 131 NA 2.4 liter automobile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a U.S. no. 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. The vehicle was tested with retarded timing and with and without an oxidation catalyst. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that while the catalyst was generally effective in reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels, it was also a factor in increasing particulate emissions. Increased particulate emission rates were particularly evident when the vehicle was operated on the European fuel which has a high sulfur content.

Quayle, S. S.; Davis, M. M.; Walter, R. A.

1981-01-01

337

Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector  

PubMed Central

Background Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies. Results The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Conclusion Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets. PMID:17062161

Yoshida, Yukiko

2006-01-01

338

Demonstration of oxygen-enriched combustion system on a light-duty vehicle to reduce cold-start emissions  

SciTech Connect

The oxygen content in the ambient air drawn by combustion engines can be increased by polymer membranes. The authors have previously demonstrated that 23 to 25% (concentration by volume) oxygen-enriched intake air can reduce hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), air toxics, and ozone-forming potential (OFP) from flexible-fueled vehicles (FFVs) that use gasoline or M85. When oxygen-enriched air was used only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods, the emission levels of all three regulated pollutants [CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and NO{sub x}] were lower than the U.S. EPA Tier II (year 2004) standards (without adjusting for catalyst deterioration factors). In the present work, an air separation membrane module was installed on the intake of a 2.5-L FFV and tested at idle and free acceleration to demonstrate the oxygen-enrichment concept for initial start-up and warm-up periods. A bench-scale, test set-up was developed to evaluate the air separation membrane characteristics for engine applications. On the basis of prototype bench tests and from vehicle tests, the additional power requirements and module size for operation of the membrane during the initial period of the cold-phase, FTP-75 cycle were evaluated. A prototype membrane module (27 in. long, 3 in. in diameter) supplying about 23% oxygen-enriched air in the engine intake only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods of a 2.5-L FFV requires additional power (blower) of less than one horsepower. With advances in air separation membranes to develop compact modules, oxygen enrichment of combustion air has the potential of becoming a more practical technique for controlling exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles.

Sekar, R.; Poola, R.B.

1997-08-01

339

How to reduce pollutant emissions from small fluidised-bed combustors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of 27 series of tests, it was concluded that the maximum reduction of NOx emissions occurred when the sulphur retention was also at its highest, so emphasising the important role that CaSO4 plays as a catalyst in pollution-reducing reactions. Although the minimal emissions of both SO2 and NOx (at 85 and 45 ppm, respectively) presently recorded occurred

K. Findlay; S. D. Probert

1992-01-01

340

Control system for use in exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system is described for use in an exhaust gas recirculation system of an internal combustion engine, in which part of exhaust gases is recirculated from an exhaust system to an intake system in an attempt to reduce the amount of harmful components contained in exhaust gases from the engine as well as to prevent lowering of the running

Onaka

1977-01-01

341

Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

1976-01-01

342

In situ studies on volatile jet exhaust particle emissions: Impact of fuel sulfur content and environmental conditions on nuclei mode aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ measurements of ultrafine aerosol particle emissions were performed at cruise altitudes behind the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt ATTAS research jet (Rolls-Royce/Snecma M45H M501 engines) and a B737-300 aircraft (CFM International 56-3B1 engines). Measurements were made 0.15-20 s after emission as the source aircraft burned fuel with sulfur contents (FSC) of 2.6, 56, or 118mg kg-1. Particle size distributions of from 3- to 60-nm diameter were determined by using condensationnuclei-counters with varying lower size detection limits. Volatile particle concentrations in the aircraft plumes strongly increased as diameter decreased toward the sizes of large molecular clusters, illustrating that apparent particle emissions are extremely sensitive to the smallest particle size detectable by the instrument used. Environmental conditions and plume age alone could influence the number of detected ultrafine (volatile) aerosols within an order of magnitude, as well. The observed volatile particle emissions decreased nonlinearly as FSC decreased to 60mg kg-1, reaching minimum values of about 2×1017kg-1 and 2×1016kg-1 for particles >3nm and >5nm, respectively. Volatile particle emissions did not change significantly as FSCs were further reduced below 60mg kg-1. Volatile particle emissions did not differ significantly between the two studied engine types. In contrast, soot particle emissions from the modern CFM56-3B1 engines were 4-5 times less (4×1014kg-1) than from the older RR M45H M501 engines (1.8×1015kg-1). Contrail processing has been identified as an efficient sink/quenching parameter for ultrafine particles and reduces the remaining interstitial aerosol by factors of 2-10 depending on particle size. These and previously published data are consistent with volatile particle emissions of 2.4×1017kg-1 independent of environmental conditions, engine type and FSCs ranging between 2.6 and 2700mg kg-1. There are clear experimental indications that nonsulfate compounds (probably nonmethane hydrocarbons) begin to dominate the volatile particle composition as FSC decreases below ˜l00mg kg-1.

Schröder, F.; Brock, C. A.; Baumann, R.; Petzold, A.; Busen, R.; Schulte, P.; Fiebig, M.

2000-08-01

343

Development of Low Temperature Combustion Modes to Reduce Overall Emissions from a Medium-Duty, Four Cylinder Diesel Engine  

E-print Network

beautiful wife whose unwavering patience and love have made me who I am today. vi NOMENCLATURE BMEP Brake Mean Effective Pressure bTDC before Top Dead Center CA Crank Angle in degrees CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics CO Carbon Monoxide EGR Exhaust................................ 65 5.5.1 Ability of high EGR to reduce pressure rise rates ..................... 65 5.5.2 Ability of highly cooled EGR to reduce pressure rise rates ....... 68 5.5.3 Ability...

Breen, Jonathan Robert

2011-10-21

344

Review of cost estimates for reducing CO2 emissions. Final report, Task 9  

SciTech Connect

Since the ground breaking work of William Nordhaus in 1977, cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions have been developed by numerous groups. The various studies have reported sometimes widely divergent cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Some recent analyses have indicated that large reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved at zero or negative costs (e.g. Rocky Mountain Institute 1989). In contrast, a recent study by Alan Manne of Stanford and Richard Richels of the Electric Power Research Institute (Manne-Richels 1989) concluded that in the US the total discounted costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 20 percent below the 1990 level could be as much as 3.6 trillion dollars over the period from 1990 to 2100. Costs of this order of magnitude would represent about 5 percent of US GNP. The purpose of this briefing paper is to summarize the different cost estimates for CO{sub 2} emission reduction and to identify the key issues and assumptions that underlie these cost estimates.

Not Available

1990-10-01

345

Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

346

Waste management options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from paper in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lifecycle assessment to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in Australia from the paper cycle is summarised. The greenhouse gas emissions from paper in Australia in 1999/2000 were estimated to be 12.1 million tonnes (Mt) of CO 2 equivalent. Nearly half of this amount consisted of CH 4 emissions from landfilled waste paper. Various waste management options were modelled to investigate the greenhouse impact of a tonne of paper over its whole lifecycle. Options that keep paper out of landfills significantly reduce greenhouse emissions, waste-to-energy recovery being most effective. Recycling is also beneficial, and is of particular interest from a management perspective because it can be controlled by the pulp and paper industry. These findings can be extended to other wood-based and organic wastes.

Pickin, J. G.; Yuen, S. T. S.; Hennings, H.

347

Reconsidering California Transport Policies: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Uncertain Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past decade, the state of California has set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions targets across all sectors of the economy. The first major target occurs in 2020, when the state hopes to have reduced statewide greenhouse gas emission from their current levels to 1990 levels. This 320-page paper from RAND researcher Ryan Keefe takes a critical look at the policies adopted by California in its attempt to achieve these long-term goals. Visitors can look over the complete document if they are so inclined, but there is a brief summary available as well. The paper provides a history of climate policy in California, sections on policy options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles, and new methods for evaluating California's light-duty transportation policies. Finally, the paper also includes a wealth of graphs, charts, and technical appendices.

Keefe, Ryan

2012-02-24

348

The comparative cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens by abating chemical plant emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports results from academic work performed at the University of Texas at Austin. Although the first author is a staff member at the Texas Air Control Board (TACB), the approaches, work, conclusions, and opinions expressed in this paper are solely those of the authors. The work reported here was done to look at the reasonableness and cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens by reducing the emissions of carcinogens from existing chemical plant vents. The results are compared with the cost effectiveness of controls typically applied to new sources of VOC emissions that are controlled because of their contribution to photochemical air pollution, not because of their carcinogenicity. An attempt has also been made to see whether the costs of reducing public exposure by controlling emissions from existing chemical plant vents are low or high compared with the costs of reducing public exposure to carcinogens through air, food, or drinking water. Harris County, Texas, which contains the City of Houston, was chosen for the study because: (1) it contains many synthetic organic chemical plants that have large production capacities; (2) emissions inventory data were available on chemical plant vents; and (3) data necessary to establish the population distribution in the county were available.

Price, J.H.; Ledbetter, J.O.

1983-06-01

349

Advanced methods of optimizing ship operations to reduce emissions detrimental to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maritime shipping is an important and economical mode of international cargo transportation, but it does contribute significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHG) associated with global warming. The quantity of GHG emission from combustion of petroleum-based fuels is directly proportional to fuel consumption. A computer program called voyage and vessel optimization system (VVOS) provides the ability to reduce a ship's fuel

Phil Ballou; Henry Chen; J. D. Horner

2008-01-01

350

Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry production facilities in Texas.  

E-print Network

the ammonia and the resulting product can be used for fertilizer. However, sulfuric acid costs more facilities that uses sulfuric acid to scrub ammonia out of the air. It has been effective in removingTitle: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry

Mukhtar, Saqib

351

Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Clean Cities Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

Not Available

2012-01-01

352

Global Climate Control: Is There a Better Strategy Than Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many environmentalists and some developed nations appear to have concluded that there is one Many environmentalists and some developed nations appear to have concluded that there is one climate change problem, global warming, and that there is only one solution to it, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, usually through the Kyoto Protocol. This paper argues instead that there are actually four

Alan Carlin

2006-01-01

353

UA Researchers participate in a European project aimed to reduce pollutants emission with hemp ecological filters  

E-print Network

UA Researchers participate in a European project aimed to reduce pollutants emission with hemp activated carbon filters from waste hemp. The initiative, funded by the European Commission, has a total", Cazorla says. For the manufacture of the filters, hemp waste from agriculture and industrial processing

Escolano, Francisco

354

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2  

EIA Publications

This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

2001-01-01

355

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF FUEL OIL ADDITIVES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS AND INCREASING EFFICIENCY OF BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of combustion-type fuel oil additives to reduce emissions and increase efficiency in a 50-bhp (500 kw) commercial oil-fired packaged boiler. Most additive evaluation runs were made during continuous firing, constant-l...

356

New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China.  

PubMed

Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world's population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st century. China's participation is essential to global efforts in reducing N-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because China is the largest producer and consumer of fertilizer N. To evaluate the impact of China's use of N fertilizer, we quantify the carbon footprint of China's N fertilizer production and consumption chain using life cycle analysis. For every ton of N fertilizer manufactured and used, 13.5 tons of CO2-equivalent (eq) (t CO2-eq) is emitted, compared with 9.7 t CO2-eq in Europe. Emissions in China tripled from 1980 [131 terrogram (Tg) of CO2-eq (Tg CO2-eq)] to 2010 (452 Tg CO2-eq). N fertilizer-related emissions constitute about 7% of GHG emissions from the entire Chinese economy and exceed soil carbon gain resulting from N fertilizer use by several-fold. We identified potential emission reductions by comparing prevailing technologies and management practices in China with more advanced options worldwide. Mitigation opportunities include improving methane recovery during coal mining, enhancing energy efficiency in fertilizer manufacture, and minimizing N overuse in field-level crop production. We find that use of advanced technologies could cut N fertilizer-related emissions by 20-63%, amounting to 102-357 Tg CO2-eq annually. Such reduction would decrease China's total GHG emissions by 2-6%, which is significant on a global scale. PMID:23671096

Zhang, Wei-Feng; Dou, Zheng-Xia; He, Pan; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Powlson, David; Chadwick, Dave; Norse, David; Lu, Yue-Lai; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Liang; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cassman, Kenneth G; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2013-05-21

357

Symbiotic relationships between soil fungi and plants reduce N2O emissions from soil.  

PubMed

N2O is a potent greenhouse gas involved in the destruction of the protective ozone layer in the stratosphere and contributing to global warming. The ecological processes regulating its emissions from soil are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a dominant group of soil fungi, which form symbiotic associations with the majority of land plants and which influence a range of important ecosystem functions, can induce a reduction in N2O emissions from soil. To test for a functional relationship between AMF and N2O emissions, we manipulated the abundance of AMF in two independent greenhouse experiments using two different approaches (sterilized and re-inoculated soil and non-mycorrhizal tomato mutants) and two different soils. N2O emissions were increased by 42 and 33% in microcosms with reduced AMF abundance compared to microcosms with a well-established AMF community, suggesting that AMF regulate N2O emissions. This could partly be explained by increased N immobilization into microbial or plant biomass, reduced concentrations of mineral soil N as a substrate for N2O emission and altered water relations. Moreover, the abundance of key genes responsible for N2O production (nirK) was negatively and for N2O consumption (nosZ) positively correlated to AMF abundance, indicating that the regulation of N2O emissions is transmitted by AMF-induced changes in the soil microbial community. Our results suggest that the disruption of the AMF symbiosis through intensification of agricultural practices may further contribute to increased N2O emissions. PMID:24351937

Bender, S Franz; Plantenga, Faline; Neftel, Albrecht; Jocher, Markus; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Köhl, Luise; Giles, Madeline; Daniell, Tim J; van der Heijden, Marcel Ga

2014-06-01

358

Nitrogen and phosphorous limitations significantly reduce future allowable CO2 emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth System Models (ESMs) can be used to diagnose the emissions of CO2 allowed in order to follow the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) that are consistent with different climate scenarios. By mass balance, the allowable emission is calculated as the sum of the changes in atmospheric CO2, land and ocean carbon pools. Only two ESMs used in the fifth assessment (AR5) of International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) include nitrogen (N) limitation, and none include phosphorous (P) limitation. In this study we quantified the effects of N and P limitations on the allowable emissions using an ESM simulating land and ocean CO2 exchanges to the atmosphere in RCPs used for IPCC AR5. The model can run with carbon cycle alone (C only), carbon and nitrogen (CN) or carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (CNP) cycles as its land configurations. We used the simulated land and ocean carbon accumulation rates from 1850 to 2100 to diagnose the allowable emissions for each of three simulations (C only, CN or CNP). These were then compared with the emissions estimated by the Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) used to generate RCP2.6 and RCP8.5. N and P limitations on land in our ESM led to systematically lower land carbon uptake, and thus reduced allowable emissions by 69 Pg C (21%) for RCP2.6, and by 250 Pg C (13%) for RCP8.5 from 2006 to 2100. Our results demonstrated that including N and P limitations requires a greater reduction in human CO2 emissions than assumed in the IAMs used to generate the RCPs. Reference: Zhang, Q., Y. P. Wang, R. J. Matear, A. J. Pitman, and Y. J. Dai (2014), Nitrogen and phosphorous limitations significantly reduce future allowable CO2 emissions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2013GL058352.

Zhang, Qian; Wang, Ying-Ping; Matear, Richard; Pitman, Andy; Dai, Yongjiu

2014-05-01

359

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engines having a detachable gasket member between an exhaust gas recirculation valve and an exhaust pipe of the engine, the exhaust gas recirculation rate is controlled by a flow control orifice formed in the detachable gasket member. The recirculation valve can be applied to various types of engines requiring various recirculation

K. Numata; Y. Muramatu

1977-01-01

360

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for use in an internal combustion engine includes an intake manifold having a riser portion serving as a heating source for an intake mixture charge, an exhaust gas recirculation passage running from an exhaust manifold to an intake system for introducing part of exhaust gases from the former to the latter, and a temperature-responsive valve

N. Kawai; H. Yamamoto

1980-01-01

361

Exhaust gas recirculator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculator for an internal combustion engine having an exhaust pipe, an intake manifold and a carburetor throttle valve. The exhaust gas recirculator comprises an egr passage which makes the exhaust pipe communicate with the intake manifold, an egr controlling valve and an egr valve respectively arranged in the upper and lower portions of the egr passage. The

Suda

1983-01-01

362

Sadhana Vol. 29, Part 3, June 2004, pp. 275284. Printed in India Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust  

E-print Network

like exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Re-circulating part of the exhaust gas helps in reducing NOx. An experimental investigation was conducted to observe the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation on the exhaust gas, electronic management system, lube oil consumption control etc. However, technologies like exhaust gas

Jagannatham, Aditya K.

363

The field emission of vacuum filtered graphene films reduced by microwave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A green, convenient, and inexpensive approach to producing graphene field emitters has been developed. Graphite oxide (GO) produced by hummer method was reduced to graphene in a microwave synthesis system. The vacuum filtration method made it possible to form pure and uniform graphene thin films without any additives and it's easy to transfer to other substrates. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis) measurements proved that the graphene prepared by microwave has nearly the same reduction level as that prepared by hydrazine. The results of field emission testing demonstrated that graphene films reduced by microwave are more suitable as field emitters than those reduced by hydrazine, which pave a way to mass-produce low-cost graphene emitter for field emission applications.

Wang, Kai; Feng, Tao; Qian, Min; Ding, Hui; Chen, Yiwei; Sun, Zhuo

2011-04-01

364

International potential of IGCC technology for use in reducing global warming and climate change emissions  

SciTech Connect

High efficiency advanced coal-based technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) that can assist in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions which contribute to Global Warming and Climate Change are becoming commercially available. U-GAS is an advanced gasification technology that can be used in many applications to convert coal in a high efficiency manner that will reduce the total amount of CO{sub 2} produced by requiring less coal-based fuel per unit of energy output. This paper will focus on the status of the installation and performance of the IGT U-GAS gasifiers which were installed at the Shanghai Cooking and Chemical Plant General located in Shanghai, China. Its use in future IGCC project for the production of power and the benefits of IGCC in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through its high efficiency operation will be discussed.

Lau, F.S. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

365

Relationship between Vehicle Emissions Laws and Incidence of Suicide by Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas in Australia, 2001-06: An Ecological Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG). Although MVEG remains the second most common method of suicide in Australia, its incidence decreased by nearly 70% in the decade to 2006. The extent to which this phenomenon has been driven by national laws in 1986 and 1999 that lowered permissible levels of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is unknown. The objective of this ecological study was to test the relationship by investigating whether areas of Australia with fewer noxious vehicles per capita experienced lower rates of MVEG suicide. Methods and Findings We merged data on MVEG suicides in Australia (2001–06) with data on the number and age of vehicles in the national fleet, as well as socio-demographic data from the national census. Poisson regression was used to analyse the relationship between the incidence of suicide within two levels of geographical area—postcodes and statistical subdivisions (SSDs)—and the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 passenger vehicles in those areas. (There was a mean population of 8,302 persons per postcode in the study dataset and 87,413 persons per SSD.) The annual incidence of MVEG suicides nationwide decreased by 57% (from 2.6 per 100,000 in 2001 to 1.1 in 2006) during the study period; the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 vehicles decreased by 55% (from 14.2 per 100 persons in 2001 to 6.4 in 2006) and 26% (from 44.5 per 100 persons in 2001 to 32.9 in 2006), respectively. Area-level regression analysis showed that the suicide rates were significantly and positively correlated with the presence of older vehicles. A percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1986 vehicles was associated with a 6% decrease (rate ratio [RR]?=?1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.08) in the incidence of MVEG suicide within postcode areas; a percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1999 vehicles was associated with a 3% decrease (RR?=?1.03; 95% CI 1.02–1.04) in the incidence of MVEG suicide. Conclusions Areas of Australia with fewer vehicles predating stringent CO emission laws experience lower rates of MVEG suicide. Although those emission laws were introduced primarily for environmental reasons, countries that lack them may miss the benefits of a serendipitous suicide prevention strategy. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20052278

Studdert, David M.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Jatkar, Uma; Pirkis, Jane

2010-01-01

366

Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the farm gate). Strategies included were (1) dietary supplementation of an extruded linseed product (56% linseed; 1kg/cow per day in summer and 2kg/cow per day in winter), (2) dietary supplementation of a nitrate source (75% nitrate; 1% of dry matter intake), and (3) reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage (grazing at 1,400 instead of 1,700kg of dry matter/ha and harvesting at 3,000 instead of 3,500kg of dry matter/ha). A dairy farm linear programing model was used to define an average Dutch dairy farm on sandy soil without a predefined feeding strategy (reference situation). Subsequently, 1 of the 3 feeding strategies was implemented and the model was optimized again to determine the new economically optimal farm situation. Enteric CH4 production in the reference situation and after implementing the strategies was calculated based on a mechanistic model for enteric CH4 and empirical formulas explaining the effect of fat and nitrate supplementation on enteric CH4 production. Other GHG emissions along the chain were calculated using life cycle assessment. Total GHG emissions in the reference situation added up to 840kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per t of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and yearly labor income of €42,605. Supplementation of the extruded linseed product reduced emissions by 9kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €16,041; supplementation of the dietary nitrate source reduced emissions by 32kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €5,463; reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage reduced emissions by 11kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €463. Of the 3 strategies, reducing grass maturity was the most cost-effective (€57/t of CO2e compared with €241/t of CO2e for nitrate supplementation and €2,594/t of CO2e for linseed supplementation) and had the greatest potential to be used in practice because the additional costs were low. PMID:24485690

Van Middelaar, C E; Dijkstra, J; Berentsen, P B M; De Boer, I J M

2014-04-01

367

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...emission detection methods may be used only with... (b) Raw exhaust sampling for gaseous emissions...the exhaust prior to sampling is allowed for gaseous...The equipment and methods used for dilution, sampling and analysis...

2012-07-01

368

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emission detection methods may be used only with... (b) Raw exhaust sampling for gaseous emissions...the exhaust prior to sampling is allowed for gaseous...The equipment and methods used for dilution, sampling and analysis...

2013-07-01

369

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...emission detection methods may be used only with... (b) Raw exhaust sampling for gaseous emissions...the exhaust prior to sampling is allowed for gaseous...The equipment and methods used for dilution, sampling and analysis...

2011-07-01

370

Options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during wastewater treatment for agricultural use.  

PubMed

Treatment of primarily-domestic sewage wastewater involves on-site greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to energy inputs, organic matter degradation and biological nutrient removal (BNR). BNR causes both direct emissions and loss of fertilizer value, thus eliminating possible reduction of emissions caused by fertilizer manufacture. In this study, we estimated on-site GHG emissions under different treatment scenarios, and present options for emission reduction by changing treatment methods, avoiding BNR and by recovering energy from biogas. Given a typical Israeli wastewater strength (1050mg CODl(-1)), the direct on-site GHG emissions due to energy use were estimated at 1618 and 2102g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively, at intermediate and tertiary treatment levels. A potential reduction of approximately 23-55% in GHG emissions could be achieved by fertilizer preservation and VS conversion to biogas. Wastewater fertilizers constituted a GHG abatement potential of 342g CO(2)-eq m(-3). The residual component that remained in the wastewater effluent following intermediate (oxidation ponds) and enhanced (mechanical-biological) treatments was 304-254g CO(2)-eq m(-3) and 65-34g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively. Raw sludge constituted approximately 47% of the overall wastewater fertilizers load with an abatement potential of 150g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (385kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)). Inasmuch as anaerobic digestion reduced it to 63g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (261kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)), the GHG abatement gained through renewable biogas energy (approx. 428g CO(2)-eq m(-3)) favored digestion. However, sludge composting reduced the fertilizer value to 17g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (121kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)) or less (if emissions, off-site inputs and actual phytoavailability were considered). Taking Israel as an example, fully exploiting the wastewater derived GHG abatement potential could reduce the State overall GHG emissions by almost 1%. This demonstrates the possibility of optional carbon credits which might be exploited in the construction of new wastewater treatment facilities, especially in developing countries. PMID:22209373

Fine, Pinchas; Hadas, Efrat

2012-02-01

371

Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

2013-12-01

372

40 CFR 86.1728-99 - Compliance with emission standards.  

...provisions: (1)(i) The regeneration exhaust emission data (diesel...shall be used to determine the regeneration exhaust emissions interpolated to the 50,000-mile point. The regeneration exhaust emission results...

2014-07-01

373

40 CFR 86.1728-99 - Compliance with emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...provisions: (1)(i) The regeneration exhaust emission data (diesel...shall be used to determine the regeneration exhaust emissions interpolated to the 50,000-mile point. The regeneration exhaust emission results...

2010-07-01

374

At what cost do we reduce pollution Shadow prices of SO[sub 2] emissions  

SciTech Connect

The US EPA's infant market for SO[sub 2] emissions has the potential for improving the cost effectiveness of reducing acid rain pollutants. If the market works as planned, over time one should see the cost of reducing additional amounts of sulfur dioxide converge across plants. The results of the study described here demonstrate that before the market opened marginal abatement costs varied wildly across plants. This work provides estimates of the shadow price of SO[sub 2] abatement using the output distance function approach for Illinois, Minnesota and Wisconsin coal-burning electric plants. The results demonstrate that the coal-burning electric plants with the highest emissions rates are also the plants with the lowest marginal abatement costs, a fact that may explain lower-than-expected prices in the new market for allowances. The data include information about plants with installed scrubber capital allowing for an investigation of the effect of scrubber capital on marginal abatement costs.

Swinton, J.R. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States))

1998-01-01

375

Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss  

PubMed Central

Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5? grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO2. Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435

Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N.; Jardine, Sunny L.

2012-01-01

376

Urea-SCR: a promising technique to reduce NO x emissions from automotive diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea-SCR, the selective catalytic reduction using urea as reducing agent, has been investigated for about 10 years in detail and today is a well established technique for DeNOx of stationary diesel engines. It is presently also considered as the most promising way to diminish NOx emissions originating from heavy duty vehicles, especially trucks.The paper discusses the fundamental problems and challenges

M. Koebel; M. Elsener; M. Kleemann

2000-01-01

377

Ultra High Bypass Ratio Engine Research for Reducing Noise, Emissions, and Fuel Consumption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pictorial history of NASA development of advanced engine technologies for reducing environmental emissions and increasing performance from the 1970s to 2000s is presented. The goals of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Program portion of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program are discussed, along with the areas of investigation currently being pursued by the Ultra High Bypass Partnership Element of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Program.

Hughes, Christopher E.; Schweitzer, Jeff

2007-01-01

378

Arctic Black Carbon Initiative: Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from Power & Industry in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of black carbon (BC) on snow and ice is widely considered to have a climate warming effect by reducing the surface albedo and promoting snowmelt. Such positive climate feedbacks in the Arctic are especially problematic because rising surface temperatures may trigger the release of large Arctic stores of terrestrial carbon, further amplifying current warming trends. Recognizing the Arctic as a vulnerable region, the U.S. government committed funds in Copenhagen in 2009 for international cooperation targeting Arctic BC emissions reductions. As a result, the U.S. Department of State has funded three research and demonstration projects with the goal to better understand and mitigate BC deposition in the Russian Arctic from a range of sources. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Arctic BC initiative presented here is focused on mitigating BC emissions resulting from heat and power generation as well as industrial applications. A detailed understanding of BC sources and its transport and fate is required to prioritize efforts to reduce BC emissions from sources that deposit in the Russian Arctic. Sources of BC include the combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, fuel oil, diesel) and the combustion of biomass (e.g. wildfires, agricultural burning, residential heating and cooking). Information on fuel use and associated emissions from the industrial and heat & power sectors in Russia is scarce and difficult to obtain from the open literature. Hence, our project includes a research component designed to locate Arctic BC emissions sources in Russia and determine associated BC transport patterns. We use results from the research phase to inform a subsequent assessment/demonstration phase. We use a back-trajectory modeling method (potential source contribution function - PSCF), which combines multi-year, high-frequency measurements with knowledge about atmospheric transport patterns. The PSCF modeling allows us to map the probability (by season and year) at course resolution (2.5° x 2.5° spatial resolution) that a particular region emits BC which deposits in the Russian Arctic. We utilize data from three Arctic measurement stations during the most recent decade: Alert, Northwest Territories, Canada; Barrow, Alaska; and Tiksi Bay, Russia. To understand more about individual Arctic BC sources, we conduct further research to improve inventory estimates of Russian industrial and energy sector BC emissions. By comparing inventory data on power plant locations and emissions from two publically-available databases (EDGAR-HTAP and CARMA databases) to each other and to additional observations from satellites and the AERONET observation network in Russia, we assess the accuracy of the Russian BC emission inventory in EDGAR-HTAP, a commonly used database for atmospheric transport modeling. We then use a global (GEOS-CHEM) atmospheric transport model to quantify the finer spatial distribution of BC within the Arctic. Lastly, we use data on Russian fuel use combined with published emissions factors to build a national-scale model of energy use and associated emissions from critical industrial and heat & power sources of BC. We use this model to estimate the technical potential of reducing BC emissions through proven mitigation efforts such as improvements in energy efficiency and in emission control technologies.

Cresko, J.; Hodson, E. L.; Cheng, M.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.; Storey, J.

2012-12-01

379

Advanced pumped storage hydroelectric power may reduce NO{sub x} and VOC emissions  

SciTech Connect

As a severe ozone nonattainment area, the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area faces the difficult challange of reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the primary precursors of ground-level ozone. An ambitious, $2.4 billion undertaking, known as the Mt. Hope project, may help the metropolitan area - and the entire Mid-Atlantic Ozone Transport Region (OTR) - attain ozone compliance. The project includes a new 2,000-MW electricity storage facility, which would allow thermal power plants in the region to run more efficiently and reduce NO{sub x} and VOC emissions, especially at times of critical ozone levels. The Mt. Hope project is the subject of a recent study that analyzed, potential reductions in ozone precursors from project implementation. According to the study, NO{sub x} emissions could be reduced by up to 50 tons per day and $91 million per year could potentially be saved if the project is implemented. Advanced pumped storage (APS) improves significantly on the conventional method. The Mt. Hope project, for example, is expected to consume only 22% more electricity than it generates. APS facilities are designed to switch from power-receiving to power-generating modes frequently in response to demand - up to 20 times a day in the Mt. Hope design. 1 ref., 1 fig.

NONE

1995-05-01

380

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature of...subpart D need only be heated to prevent water condensation, the minimum component...

2012-07-01

381

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature of...subpart D need only be heated to prevent water condensation, the minimum component...

2010-07-01

382

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature of...subpart D need only be heated to prevent water condensation, the minimum component...

2011-07-01

383

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust...insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature of...subpart D need only be heated to prevent water condensation, the minimum component...

2013-07-01

384

Genetic parameters for predicted methane production and potential for reducing enteric emissions through genomic selection.  

PubMed

Mitigation of enteric methane (CH?) emission in ruminants has become an important area of research because accumulation of CH? is linked to global warming. Nutritional and microbial opportunities to reduce CH? emissions have been extensively researched, but little is known about using natural variation to breed animals with lower CH? yield. Measuring CH? emission rates directly from animals is difficult and hinders direct selection on reduced CH? emission. However, improvements can be made through selection on associated traits (e.g., residual feed intake, RFI) or through selection on CH? predicted from feed intake and diet composition. The objective was to establish phenotypic and genetic variation in predicted CH? output, and to determine the potential of genetics to reduce methane emissions in dairy cattle. Experimental data were used and records on daily feed intake, weekly body weights, and weekly milk production were available from 548 heifers. Residual feed intake (MJ/d) is the difference between net energy intake and calculated net energy requirements for maintenance as a function of body weight and for fat- and protein-corrected milk production. Predicted methane emission (PME; g/d) is 6% of gross energy intake (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology) corrected for energy content of methane (55.65 kJ/g). The estimated heritabilities for PME and RFI were 0.35 and 0.40, respectively. The positive genetic correlation between RFI and PME indicated that cows with lower RFI have lower PME (estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.84). Hence, it is possible to decrease the methane production of a cow by selecting more-efficient cows, and the genetic variation suggests that reductions in the order of 11 to 26% in 10 yr are theoretically possible, and could be even higher in a genomic selection program. However, several uncertainties are discussed; for example, the lack of true methane measurements (and the key assumption that methane produced per unit feed is not affected by RFI level), as well as the limitations of predicting the biological consequences of selection. To overcome these limitations, an international effort is required to bring together data on feed intake and methane emissions of dairy cows. PMID:22118100

Haas, Y de; Windig, J J; Calus, M P L; Dijkstra, J; Haan, M de; Bannink, A; Veerkamp, R F

2011-12-01

385

Exhaust gas recirculation control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) control valve is described. The valve is provided with an extension which is inserted into a restriction, formed in the EGR passageway upstream of the EGR control valve, to reduce the effective cross sectional area of the restriction and therefore the EGR ratio when the pressure in the EGR passageway between the restriction and the

Aoyama

1978-01-01

386

Urease and nitrification inhibitors to reduce emissions of CH 4 and N 2 O in rice production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies used to reduce emissions of N2O and CH4 in rice production normally include irrigation management and fertilization. To date, little information has been published on the measures that can simultaneously reduce both emissions. Effects of application of a urease inhibitor, hydroquinone (HQ), and a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD) together with urea (U) on N2O and CH4 emission from rice

Xingkai Xu; Pascal Boeckx; Oswald Van Cleemput; Likai Zhou

2002-01-01

387

Biochar application reduces N2O emission in intensively managed temperate grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is seen as an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce N2O emissions. Mainly used in highly weathered tropical soils, the interest of using biochar in intensively managed temperate soils is increasing. Our previous laboratory incubations have shown N2O reduction potentials of between 20 and 100% for temperate soils after biochar application (Felber et al., Biogeosciences Discuss, 2012). To assess the effect of biochar application under field conditions, a plot experiment (3 control vs. 3 biochar amended plots of 3x3 m size at a rate of 15 t ha-1) was set up in a temperate intensively managed grassland soil. N2O and CO2 emissions were quasi-continuously measured by static chambers under standard management practice over 8 months. In parallel soil samples were taken monthly from all plots and their N2O and CO2 productions were measured under controlled conditions in the lab. At the beginning of the field measurements (April 2011) cumulative N2O fluxes from biochar amended plots were above those of control plots, but the pattern reversed towards reduced fluxes from biochar plots after 3 months and the reduction reached about 15% by the end of 2011. The biochar effect on reducing N2O emissions in the laboratory was two times that of the field measurements, indicating that results from laboratory experiments are not directly transferable to field conditions. The experiments indicate a substantial N2O emission reduction potential of biochar in temperate grassland fields.

Felber, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

2012-04-01

388

Reducing emissions from the electricity sector: the costs and benefits nationwide and for the Empire State  

SciTech Connect

Using four models, this study looks at EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as originally proposed, which differs in only small ways from the final rule issued in March 2005, coupled with several approaches to reducing emissions of mercury including one that differs in only small ways from the final rule also issued in March 2005. This study analyzes what costs and benefits each would incur to New York State and to the nation at large. Benefits to the nation and to New York State significantly outweigh the costs associated with reductions in SO{sub 2}, NOx and mercury, and all policies show dramatic net benefits. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications for the cost of the regulation and for emission levels for SO{sub 2} and NOx and where those emissions are located. Contrary to EPA's findings, CAIR as originally proposed by itself would not keep summer emissions of NOx from electricity generators in the SIP region below the current SIP seasonal NOx cap. In the final CAIR, EPA added a seasonal NOx cap to address seasonal ozone problems. The CAIR with the seasonal NOx cap produces higher net benefits. The effect of the different policies on the mix of fuels used to supply electricity is fairly modest under scenarios similar to the EPA's final rules. A maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach, compared to a trading approach as the way to achieve tighter mercury targets (beyond EPA's proposal), would preserve the role of coal in electricity generation. The evaluation of scenarios with tighter mercury emission controls shows that the net benefits of a maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach exceed the net benefits of a cap and trade approach. 39 refs., 10 figs., 30 figs., 5 apps.

Karen Palmer; Dallas Butraw; Jhih-Shyang Shih

2005-06-15

389

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is disclosed which includes a control valve inserted in an exhaust gas recirculation passageway for controlling the flow rate of the exhaust gases to be recirculated, a constant pressure chamber defined in the recirculation passageway upstream of the control valve, and a modulator valve with a diaphragm chamber in communication with the constant pressure chamber

S. Nakamura; H. Nohira; H. Tokuda

1980-01-01

390

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a diesel engine having a turbocharger for feeding supercharged air to the engine, an exhaust gas recirculation passage communicates between the exhaust passage from the engine and the intake passage to a compressor of the turbocharger. A first control valve closes the exhaust gas recirculation passage when the output pressure of the air leading from the compressor is lower

Yoshiba

1982-01-01

391

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine including at least one combustion chamber; an intake mechanism for delivering a combustible fluid mixture to the combustion chamber; an ignition system for igniting the combustible mixture; and an exhaust system for carrying exhaust fluid produced by the combustion of the combustible fluid mixture away from

Freesh

1982-01-01

392

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the operation of an internal combustion engine, an input signal pressure is developed which differs from the atmospheric pressure by more than a first predetermined amount when exhaust gas recirculation is desirable. A recirculation valve then opens to permit the recirculation of exhaust gases from the exhaust passage to the intake passage of the engine. In response

1975-01-01

393

Reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant using intelligent transport systems.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment. PMID:25032239

Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M A; Masum, B M

2014-01-01

394

Reducing NOx emissions from a biodiesel-fueled engine by use of low-temperature combustion.  

PubMed

Biodiesel is popularly discussed in many countries due to increased environmental awareness and the limited supply of petroleum. One of the main factors impacting general replacement of diesel by biodiesel is NOx (nitrogen oxides) emissions. Previous studies have shown higher NOx emissions relative to petroleum diesel in traditional direct-injection (DI) diesel engines. In this study, effects of injection timing and different biodiesel blends are studied for low load [2 bar IMEP (indicated mean effective pressure)] conditions. The results show that maximum heat release rate can be reduced by retarding fuel injection. Ignition and peak heat release rate are both delayed for fuels containing more biodiesel. Retarding the injection to post-TDC (top dead center) lowers the peak heat release and flattens the heat release curve. It is observed that low-temperature combustion effectively reduces NOx emissions because less thermal NOx is formed. Although biodiesel combustion produces more NOx for both conventional and late-injection strategies, with the latter leading to a low-temperature combustion mode, the levels of NOx of B20 (20 vol % soy biodiesel and 80 vol % European low-sulfur diesel), B50, and B100 all with post-TDC injection are 68.1%, 66.7%, and 64.4%, respectively, lower than pure European low-sulfur diesel in the conventional injection scenario. PMID:19192810

Fang, Tiegang; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Foong, Tien Mun; Lee, Chia-Fon

2008-12-01

395

Jet exhaust noise suppressor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noise suppression for a jet engine exhaust is provided by an annular divergent body attached to an exhaust nozzle. The smallest diameter of the divergent body is larger than the diameter of the exhaust nozzle exit to form an annular step which produces a shock wave in the exhaust as it passes the step. An annular shroud is disposed around the divergent body and causes outside air to pass through voids in the divergent body to mix with the jet exhaust gas. The divergent body includes a plurality of channels with separators between the channels.

Huff, R. G. (inventor)

1974-01-01

396

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

Huffman, Gerald P.

2012-11-13

397

Fabrication of patterned reduced graphene oxide nanosheet field-emission cathodic film at room-temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well defined patterns of SU-8 photoresist were fabricated using typical photolithographic process on high conductive silicon substrate. Electrophoretic deposition of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGOS) on patterned SU-8 photoresist was conducted at room-temperature. The thin SU-8 photoresist could prevent the transverse deposition of RGOS over the photoresist areas to some extent. A little amount of RGOS at SU-8 photoresist areas were removed by rinsing treatment due to the hydrophobic nature of SU-8 and result in the formation of patterned RGOS films. The field-emission properties of patterned RGOS films show low turn-on electrical field and high current density. The low-cost and scale-up fabrication method can be easily utilized for assembly and integration of RGOS into patterned RGOS film for the field emission display applications at room-temperature.

Peng, Yitian; Huang, Di

2013-10-01

398

Measurement of exhaust emissions from diesel-powered forklifts during operations in ammunition-storage magazines. Final report, 23 July 1984-15 March 1985 on Phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor air quality and worker exposures were monitored in Stradley and Igloo-type ammunition magazines during the use of diesel-powered forklifts. Test results indicate that the impact of diesel exhaust on breathing zone exposures and magazine air quality depends largely on the type of operation being performed and the type of magazine being used. Of the two operating scenarios investigated (i.e.,

Ungers

1985-01-01

399

Declining ozone exposure of European vegetation under climate change and reduced precursor emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of changes in ozone precursor emissions as well as climate change on the future ozone exposure of the vegetation in Europe were investigated. The ozone exposure is expressed as AOT40 (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb O3) as well as PODY (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above a threshold Y). A new method is suggested to express how the length of the period during the year when coniferous and evergreen trees are sensitive to ozone might be affected by climate change. Ozone precursor emission changes from the RCP4.5 scenario were combined with climate simulations based on the IPCC SRES A1B scenario and used as input to the Eulerian Chemistry Transport Model MATCH from which projections of ozone concentrations were derived. The ozone exposure of vegetation over Europe expressed as AOT40 was projected to be substantially reduced between the periods 1990-2009 and 2040-2059 to levels which are well below critical levels used for vegetation in the EU directive 2008/50/EC as well as for crops and forests used in the LRTAP convention, despite that the future climate resulted in prolonged yearly ozone sensitive periods. The reduction in AOT40 was mainly driven by the emission reductions, not changes in the climate. For the toxicologically more relevant POD1 index the projected reductions were smaller, but still significant. The values for POD1 for the time period 2040-2059 were not projected to decrease to levels which are below critical levels for forest trees, represented by Norway spruce. This study shows that substantial reductions of ozone precursor emissions have the potential to strongly reduce the future risk for ozone effects on the European vegetation, even if concurrent climate change promotes ozone formation.

Klingberg, J.; Engardt, M.; Karlsson, P. E.; Langner, J.; Pleijel, H.

2014-10-01

400

Lightweight polymeric exhaust components  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed is a muffler assembly including: a) polymeric housing having an interior surface and at least one opening for at least one inlet and one outlet exhaust pipe; b) at least one metal inlet exhaust pipe and at least one metal outlet exhaust pipe positioned within the openings to provide housing-exhaust pipe interfaces; c) a thermal insulating material coating the interior surface of the polymeric housing and extending through the housing-exhaust pipe interfaces; wherein the thermal insulating material seals the muffler assembly at the housing-exhaust pipe interfaces; and wherein the muffler assembly has a leak rate of 105 Liters/minute or less at 4.5 psig pressure. An optional muffler assembly has body mounting adapters attached to the inlet and outlet exhaust pipes and positioned within the openings to provide housing-body mounting adapter interfaces. Also disclosed are processes for manufacturing the muffler assemblies.

2013-08-13

401

Exhaust emissions characteristics and variability for Pratt and Whitney JT8D-7A gas turbine engines subjected to major overhaul and repair. Final report Nov 1978-Feb 1979  

SciTech Connect

Seven Pratt and Whitney Aircraft (PWA) JT8D-7A turbofan engines were tested at Kennedy International Airport, New York, to evaluate exhaust emissions characteristics and data variability after overhaul. The measured data show that the engines tested did not meet the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. A comparison of the measured data, obtained from the seven overhauled engines evaluated under this program, with new engine data obtained from PWA show that there is a great deal of similarity between the two sets of data. Differences shown in this report between new engine and overhauled engine data are due to the quantity of the engines sampled; the new engine data represent a larger sample size. Satisfactory data can be measured by using the test procedures, instrumentation, and equipment defined in this report.

Becker, E.E.; Frings, G.; Cavage, W.C.

1980-09-01

402

Drops of energy: conserving urban water to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

Water and energy are two essential resources of modern civilization and are inherently linked. Indeed, the optimization of the water supply system would reduce energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions in the municipal water sector. This research measured the climatic cobenefit of water conservation based on a water flow analysis. The results showed that the estimated energy consumption of the total water system in Changzhou, China, reached approximately 10% of the city's total energy consumption, whereas the industrial sector was found to be more energy intensive than other sectors within the entire water system, accounting for nearly 70% of the total energy use of the water system. In addition, four sustainable water management scenarios would bring the cobenefit of reducing the total energy use of the water system by 13.9%, and 77% of the energy savings through water conservation was indirect. To promote sustainable water management and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China would require its water price system, both for freshwater and recycled water, to be reformed. PMID:23750633

Zhou, Yuanchun; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Haikun; Bi, Jun

2013-10-01

403

New Hampshire Carbon Challenge: Reducing Residential Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Hampshire Carbon Challenge is an initiative of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire. Our goal is to educate New Hampshire residents about climate change and also encourage them to reduce their household greenhouse gas emissions by 10,000 pounds. The Northeast region is undergoing climate changes consistent with those expected due to increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, while also contributing to climate change as the world's seventh largest source of CO2 emissions. In the USA, approximately 40 percent of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion come from residential energy consumption for space heating, electricity usage, and transportation. Homeowners typically are not aware that modest energy reductions can result in significant carbon savings. Most campaigns that raise awareness of climate change and residential energy usage disseminate information to consumers through newspaper articles, brochures, websites, or other traditional means of communication. These information-only campaigns have not been very effective in changing residential energy consumption. Bombarded with information in their daily lives, the public has become quite adept at tuning most of it out. When much of the information they receive about climate change is confusing and contradictory, residents have even less incentive to change their behavior. The Challenge is unique in that it couples accurate information about climate change with concrete actions homeowners can take to reduce their carbon emissions. Our strategy is to utilize the tools of Community Based Social Marketing, which has been shown to be effective in changing behavior, and also to leverage existing networks including the NH Department of Environmental Services, UNH Cooperative Extension, faith-based communities, municipal energy committees and Climate Project volunteers, to effectively reach residents throughout the state. The response to our program has been very positive. We gave 74 presentations to 4000 NH residents since the program was launched in October 2006. We are currently developing web-based tools tailored to New Hampshire residents that will enable them to track reductions in their energy usage and connect those reductions to reduced emissions, and will provide us feedback as to which actions households are willing to take. This type of information exchange is essential in creating and sustaining an effective and scientifically accurate public outreach campaign.

Schloss, A. L.; Bartlett, D.; Blaha, D.; Skoglund, C.; Dundorf, J.; Froburg, E.; Pasinella, B.

2007-12-01

404

Emission Factors for High-Emitting Vehicles Based on On-Road Measurements of Individual Vehicle Exhaust with a Mobile Measurement Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel-based emission factors for 143 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) and 93 heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) were measured in Wilmington, CA using a zero-emission mobile measurement platform (MMP). The frequency distributions of emission factors of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particle mass with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) varied widely, whereas the average of the individual vehicle emission

Seong Suk Park; Kathleen Kozawa; Scott Fruin; Steve Mara; Ying-Kuang Hsu; Chris Jakober; Arthur Winer; Jorn Herner

2011-01-01

405

Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.  

PubMed

Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance-enhancing technologies, and facility design to increase feed efficiency and life-time productivity of individual animals and herds. Many of the approaches discussed are only partially additive, and all approaches to reducing enteric CH4 emissions should consider the economic impacts on farm profitability and the relationships between enteric CH4 and other GHG. PMID:24746124

Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

2014-06-01

406

The particulate-related health benefits of reducing power plant emissions  

SciTech Connect

The report estimates the adverse human health effects due to exposure to particulate matter from power plants. Power plants are significant emitters of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In many parts of the U.S., especially the Midwest, power plants are the largest contributors. These gases are harmful themselves, and they contribute to the formation of acid rain and particulate matter. Particulate matter reduces visibility, often producing a milky haze that blankets wide regions, and it is a serious public health problem. Over the past decade and more, numerous studies have linked particulate matter to a wide range of adverse health effects in people of all ages. Epidemiologists have consistently linked particulate matter with effects ranging from premature death, hospital admissions and asthma attacks to chronic bronchitis. This study documents the health impacts from power plant air pollution emissions. Using the best available emissions and air quality modeling programs, the stud y forecasts ambient air quality for a business-as-usual baseline scenario for 2007, assuming full implementation of the Acid Rain program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Summer Smog rule (the 1999 NO{sub x} SIP Call). The study then estimates the attributable health impacts from all power plant emissions. Finally, the study estimates air quality for a specific policy alternative: reducing total power plant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} 75 percent form the levels emitted in 1997. The difference between this '75 percent reduction scenario' and the baseline provides an estimate of the health effects that would be avoided by this reduction in power plant emissions. In addition to the policy scenario, the work involved performing sensitivity analyses to examine alternative emission reductions and forecast ambient air quality using a second air quality model. EPA uses both air quality models extensively, and both suggest that power plants make a large contribution to ambient particulate matter levels in the Eastern U.S. To put the power plant results in context, air pollution from all on-road and off-road diesel engine emissions was also examined. The results suggest that both power plants and diesel engines make a large contribution to ambient particulate matter levels and the associated health effects. Chapter 2 describes the development of the emissions inventory. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to estimate changes in particulate matter concentrations. Chapter 4 describes general issues arising in estimating and valuing changes in adverse health effects associated with changes in particulate matter. Chapter 5 describes in some detail the methods used for estimating and valuing adverse health effects, and in Chapter 6, the results of the various analyses are presented. The study includes 6 appendices. Appendix A provides results of this analysis for all metropolitan areas in the U.S. and a list of the counties in each metropolitan area. Appendices B, C and D present a detailed examination of how the pollution emission estimates were derived and then translated into forecasts of ambient particulate matter levels.

Schneider, C.

2000-10-01

407

Exhaust gas recirculation system for a diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system is provided for reducing the content of oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust of a diesel engine. The system is effective in recirculating variable amounts of exhaust gas back through the engine in relation to engine load by being operatively controlled in response to predetermined settings of the engine's fuel supply system.

R. A. Kern; C. L. McClung; J. R. Turner

1977-01-01

408

Method and apparatus for reducing automotive pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for reduction of pollutant emissions by internal combustion engines includes a tapered, coaxial multiconical structure used as a gas separator. The gas separator is used to provide oxygen enriched air to an engine, thus providing a reduction in the amount of nitrogen provided thereto. The resulting exhaust gas includes fewer oxides of nitrogen, reduced quantities of hydrocarbons, and decreased

Brettler

1982-01-01

409

Exhaust system combustor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combustor for use in an exhaust gas system which combustor is tolerant to thermal gradients so as not to degrade the atomization of fuel therein. It comprises an exhaust duct for conveying exhaust gas therethrough having a side wall, an inlet end through which exhaust gas enters the exhaust duct, and an outlet end through which the exhaust gas exits the exhaust duct; a combustion chamber having an atomizer end and a combustion end fixedly mounted in the exhaust duct facing the outlet end of the exhaust duct; an atomizer mounted in the atomizer end of the combustion chamber for spraying atomized fuel into the combustion chamber; an air duct for conveying combustion air to the combustion chamber and extending through the side wall of the exhaust duct to the atomizer end of the combustion chamber; and a fuel conduit fixedly joined to the atomizer for conveying fuel to the atomizer, the fuel conduit having at least a portion thereof extending in the air duct, the portion also including a longitudinal compliance portion for allowing thermal expansion and contraction of the air duct and the combustion chamber relative to the fuel conduit while maintaining a constant position and alignment of the atomizer with respect to the combustion chamber.

Simmons, H.C.; Jones, R.V.

1992-04-21

410

Using infrastructure optimization to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands extraction and processing.  

PubMed

The Alberta oil sands are a significant source of oil production and greenhouse gas emissions, and their importance will grow as the region is poised for decades of growth. We present an integrated framework that simultaneously considers economic and engineering decisions for the capture, transport, and storage of oil sands CO(2) emissions. The model optimizes CO(2) management infrastructure at a variety of carbon prices for the oil sands industry. Our study reveals several key findings. We find that the oil sands industry lends itself well to development of CO(2) trunk lines due to geographic coincidence of sources and sinks. This reduces the relative importance of transport costs compared to nonintegrated transport systems. Also, the amount of managed oil sands CO(2) emissions, and therefore the CCS infrastructure, is very sensitive to the carbon price; significant capture and storage occurs only above 110$/tonne CO(2) in our simulations. Deployment of infrastructure is also sensitive to CO(2) capture decisions and technology, particularly the fraction of capturable CO(2) from oil sands upgrading and steam generation facilities. The framework will help stakeholders and policy makers understand how CCS infrastructure, including an extensive pipeline system, can be safely and cost-effectively deployed. PMID:23276202

Middleton, Richard S; Brandt, Adam R

2013-02-01

411

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through strategic management of highway pavement roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-road vehicle use is responsible for about a quarter of US annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Changes in vehicles, travel behavior and fuel are likely required to meet long-term climate change mitigation goals, but may require a long time horizon to deploy. This research examines a near-term opportunity: management of pavement network roughness. Maintenance and rehabilitation treatments can make pavements smoother and reduce vehicle rolling resistance. However, these treatments require material production and equipment operation, thus requiring a life cycle perspective for benefits analysis. They must also be considered in terms of their cost-effectiveness in comparison with other alternatives for affecting climate change. This letter describes a life cycle approach to assess changes in total GHG (measured in CO2-e) emissions from strategic management of highway pavement roughness. Roughness values for triggering treatments are developed to minimize GHG considering both treatment and use phase vehicle emission. With optimal triggering for GHG minimization, annualized reductions on the California state highway network over a 10-year analysis period are calculated to be 0.82, 0.57 and 1.38 million metric tons compared with historical trigger values, recently implemented values and no strategic intervention (reactive maintenance), respectively. Abatement costs calculated using /metric-ton CO2-e are higher than those reported for other transportation sector abatement measures, however, without considering all benefits associated with pavement smoothness, such as vehicle life and maintenance, or the time needed for deployment.

Wang, Ting; Harvey, John; Kendall, Alissa

2014-03-01

412

Reduced Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Tomato Cropping Systems under Drip Irrigation and Fertigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In California, agriculture and forestry account for 8% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of which 50% is accounted for by nitrous oxide (N2O). Furrow irrigation and high temperatures in the Central Valley, together with conventional fertilization, are ideal for the production of food, but also N2O. These conditions lead to high N2O fluxes, but also mean there is great potential to reduce N2O emissions by optimizing fertilizer use and irrigation practices. Improving fertilizer use by better synchronizing nitrogen (N) availability and crop demand can reduce N losses and fertilizer costs. Smaller, more frequent fertilizer applications can increase the synchrony between available soil N and crop N uptake. Fertigation allows for more control over how much N is being added and can therefore allow for better synchrony throughout the growing season. In our study, we determined how management practices, such as fertilization, irrigation, tillage and harvest, affect direct N2O emissions in typical tomato cropping systems. We evaluated two contrasting irrigation managements and their associated fertilizer application method, i.e. furrow irrigation and knife injection versus drip irrigation and fertigation. Across two tomato-growing seasons, we found that shifts in fertilizer and irrigation water management directly affect GHG emissions. Seasonal N2O fluxes were 3.4 times lower under drip versus furrow irrigation. In 2010, estimated losses of fertilizer N as N2O were 0.60 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in the drip system versus 2.06 ± 0.11 N2O-N kg ha-1 yr-1 in the furrow system, which was equivalent to 0.29% and 0.87% of the added fertilizer, respectively. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were also lower in the drip system (2.21 ± 0.16 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) than the furrow system (4.65 ± 0.23 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1). Soil mineral N, dissolved organic carbon and soil moisture also varied between the two systems and correlated positively with N2O and CO2 emissions, depending on the management event and sampling position. Soil ammonium and nitrate exposure, used as indexes of substrate availability, were significantly lower in the drip system (1.43 ± 0.06 mg NH4-N yr-1 and 10.75 ± 0.08 mg NO3-N yr-1) compared to the furrow system (2.93 ± 0.09 mg NH4-N yr-1 and 18.06 ± 0.44 mg NO3-N yr-1). These changes in irrigation water and fertilizer management also increased crop yield in the drip system, highlighting the potential for concomitant increased yields and reduced GHG emissions through the use of fertigation techniques.

Kennedy, T.; Suddick, E. C.; Six, J. W.

2011-12-01

413

SOCRATES simulation of the emission at wavelength 6300 A generated by the interaction between the atmosphere and the Space Shuttle exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions between the space shuttle exhaust and the atmosphere at an altitude of 320 km. The investigation carries out the simulations for regions extending to 15 km from spacecraft. These simulations calculate the radiation from O(D1) - O(P3) photons as function of time for orientations of engine firing into the ram, perpendicular, and into the wake of the shuttle motion. The IRMA plotting program has been used to depict in color the time development of the shuttle plume.

Setayesh, A.; Tautz, M. F.

1993-08-01

414

APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM OFFICE EQUIPMENT AND FROM COMPOSITE WOOD MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the application of pollution prevention to reduce indoor air emissions from office equipment and from composite wood materials. (NOTE: The literature indicates that emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates result from office equipment and/or composite wo...

415

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were

Ian Cooper Rumsey

2010-01-01

416

EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC OPEN MOLDING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce styrene emissions, such as new materials, and application equipment, are commercially available to the operators of open molding processes. However, information is lacking on the emissions reduction that these options can achieve. To me...

417

EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM OPEN CONTACT MOLDING PROCESSES - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to evaluate several pollution prevention techniques that could be used to reduce styrene emissions from open molding processes in the fiberglass-reinforced plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building industries. Styrene emissions u...

418

Reducing cold start hydrocarbon emissions from port fuel injected spark ignition engines with improved management of hardware & controls  

E-print Network

An experimental study was performed to investigate strategies for reducing cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from port fuel injected (PFI) spark ignition (SI) engines with better use of existing hardware and control ...

Lang, Kevin R., 1980-

2006-01-01

419

Avoiding deforestation in Panamanian protected areas: An analysis of protection effectiveness and implications for reducing emissions from deforestation and  

E-print Network

Avoiding deforestation in Panamanian protected areas: An analysis of protection effectiveness and implications for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation Jordan S. Oestreicher a deforestation and protected areas In the last decade, climate change mitigation has received much international

Bermingham, Eldredge

420

Measurement of exhaust emissions from diesel-powered forklifts during operations in ammunition-storage magazines. Final report, 23 July 1984-15 March 1985 on Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Indoor air quality and worker exposures were monitored in Stradley and Igloo-type ammunition magazines during the use of diesel-powered forklifts. Test results indicate that the impact of diesel exhaust on breathing zone exposures and magazine air quality depends largely on the type of operation being performed and the type of magazine being used. Of the two operating scenarios investigated (i.e., loading/unloading and warehousing), warehousing presents the greater potential risk to the health and safety of Army personnel. Of the two magazines investigated, Igloo-type structures of the size encountered in this study are likely to contribute to a hazardous situation. Breathing zone exposures and magazine air quality data were compared with the OSHA permissible exposure levels and ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) threshold limit values. Under the operating conditions, ventilation, and temperatures experienced during the test, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide may pose a health risk to Army personnel in small structures similar in size and design to the Igloo-type magazines. A performance hierarchy can be suggested from the results of the air monitoring data. The Still-Deutz and Hyster-Isuzu vehicles appear to have out performed the Hyster-Perkins and Baker-Deutz forklifts. Under the conditions tested the Still-Deutz and Hyster-Isuzu did not exceed any of the OSHA permissible exposure limits for the exhaust components measured.

Ungers, L.J.

1985-02-01

421

Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 3; Exhaust Nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/Inlet Acoustic Team.

2005-01-01

422

Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

2011-05-01

423

Will Euro 6 reduce the NOx emissions of new diesel cars? - Insights from on-road tests with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution in urban areas of Europe can be partially attributed to the increasing market penetration of diesel cars that show higher distance-specific nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions than gasoline cars. The on-road NOx emissions of diesel cars, furthermore, appear to exceed substantially applicable emissions standards. This observation raises concerns that the introduction of more stringent Euro 6 emissions standards in 2014 may not adequately reduce the distance-specific on-road NOx emissions of new diesel cars. We address the existing concerns by analyzing the gaseous emissions of one novel Euro 6 diesel car and six Euro 4-5 diesel cars with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS). We find that the average on-road NOx emissions of the Euro 6 car (0.21 ± 0.09 g per kilometer [g km-1]) are considerably lower than those of the Euro 4 cars (0.76 ± 0.12 g km-1) and the Euro 5 cars (0.71 ± 0.30 g km-1). The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system of the Euro 6 diesel car is suitable to limit NOx emissions during real-world on-road driving. Still, all tested cars, including the Euro 6 diesel car, exceed their NOx emissions standards on the road by 260 ± 130%. This finding suggests that the current type-approval procedure does not adequately capture the on-road NOx emissions of diesel cars. By introducing a complementary emissions test procedure that covers a wide range of normal operating conditions, the European legislative authorities can address this problem and ensure that Euro 6 will indeed deliver an adequate reduction in the NOx emissions of new diesel cars.

Weiss, Martin; Bonnel, Pierre; Kühlwein, Jörg; Provenza, Alessio; Lambrecht, Udo; Alessandrini, Stefano; Carriero, Massimo; Colombo, Rinaldo; Forni, Fausto; Lanappe, Gaston; Le Lijour, Philippe; Manfredi, Urbano; Montigny, Francois; Sculati, Mirco

2012-12-01

424

Sources and properties of non-exhaust particulate matter from road traffic: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

While emissions control regulation has led to a substantial reduction in exhaust emissions from road traffic, currently non-exhaust emissions from road vehicles are unabated. These include particles from brake wear, tyre wear, road surface abrasion and resuspension in the wake of passing traffic. Quantification of the magnitude of such emissions is problematic both in the laboratory and the field and

Alistair Thorpe; Roy M. Harrison

2008-01-01

425

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+): game changer or just another quick fix?  

PubMed

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) provides financial compensation to land owners who avoid converting standing forests to other land uses. In this paper, we review the main opportunities and challenges for REDD+ implementation, including expectations for REDD+ to deliver on multiple environmental and societal cobenefits. We also highlight a recent case study, the Norway-Indonesia REDD+ agreement and discuss how it might be a harbinger of outcomes in other forest-rich nations seeking REDD+ funds. Looking forward, we critically examine the fundamental assumptions of REDD+ as a solution for the atmospheric buildup of greenhouse gas emissions and tropical deforestation. We conclude that REDD+ is currently the most promising mechanism driving the conservation of tropical forests. Yet, to emerge as a true game changer, REDD+ must still demonstrate that it can access low transaction cost and high-volume carbon markets or funds, while also providing or complimenting a suite of nonmonetary incentives to encourage a developing nation's transition from forest losing to forest gaining, and align with, not undermine, a globally cohesive attempt to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. PMID:22168380

Venter, Oscar; Koh, Lian Pin

2012-02-01

426

Remote passive detection of aircraft exhausts at airports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from vented sources are often important inputs for the development of emission inventories and contribute to local air pollution and global enhancement of greenhouse gases. Aircraft engines are part of these emission sources. A passive measurement technique such as FTIR emission spectrometry is more cost effective and faster in operation for the determination of the composition of hot exhausts

Klaus P. Schaefer; Carsten Jahn; Roland Harig; Christian Aleyt; Peter Rusch

2004-01-01

427

A process concept for utilizing fossil fuel resources with reduced CO sub 2 emission  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing evidence of the probability of a global carbon dioxide greenhouse warming effect. The concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere at the turn of the century was 280 ppM; presently it is 345 ppM, an increase of 23%. This increase has resulted mainly from human activity in burning increasing amounts of fossil fuel -- coal, oil, gas and from deforestation, the cutting down of forested areas. This paper discusses studies that have been made dealing with reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from coal burning power plants. Included are: CO{sub 2} can be removed, recovered and stored in the deep oceans; recover and utilize CO{sub 2} as a commodity; large acreages of trees can be planted to photosynthetically absorb the CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel plants; and improve energy technology efficiency of existing and future power plants. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1989-04-01

428

Cost of reducing carbon emissions in developing countries: Evidence from Columbia. Staff working paper No. 9  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the issue of the cost of reducing CO2 emissions related to the energy sector and the implications for the structure of the energy sector in Colombia. While there have been a number of attempts to estimate the costs of CO2 reduction in various developed countries such as the United States, there appears to be a lack of similar studies for developing countries. The analysis is based on optimizations using a comprehensive mathematical programming model of Colombia's energy sector in conjunction with an econometric model of the sector. Section one outlines the empirical methods used to analyze the energy/environmental linkages in Colombia. Section two summarizes the simulated results.

Linden, G.

1993-06-01

429

Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal  

E-print Network

The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

Paltsev, Sergey.

430

Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants.  

PubMed

Urban shade trees offer significant benefits in reducing building air-conditioning demand and improving urban air quality by reducing smog. The savings associated with these benefits vary by climate region and can be up to $200 per tree. The cost of planting trees and maintaining them can vary from $10 to $500 per tree. Tree-planting programs can be designed to have lower costs so that they offer potential savings to communities that plant trees. Our calculations suggest that urban trees play a major role in sequestering CO2 and thereby delay global warming. We estimate that a tree planted in Los Angeles avoids the combustion of 18 kg of carbon annually, even though it sequesters only 4.5-11 kg (as it would if growing in a forest). In this sense, one shade tree in Los Angeles is equivalent to three to five forest trees. In a recent analysis for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City, we estimated that planting an average of four shade trees per house (each with a top view cross section of 50 m2) would lead to an annual reduction in carbon emissions from power plants of 16,000, 41,000, and 9000 t, respectively (the per-tree reduction in carbon emissions is about 10-11 kg per year). These reductions only account for the direct reduction in the net cooling- and heating-energy use of buildings. Once the impact of the community cooling is included, these savings are increased by at least 25%. PMID:11833899

Akbari, H

2002-01-01

431

Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants  

SciTech Connect

Urban shade trees offer significant benefits in reducing building air-conditioning demand and improving urban air quality by reducing smog. The savings associated with these benefits vary by climate region and can be up to $200 per tree. The cost of planting trees and maintaining them can vary from $10 to $500 per tree. Tree-planting programs can be designed to have lower costs so that they offer potential savings to communities that plant trees. Our calculations suggest that urban trees play a major role in sequestering C02 and thereby delay global warming. We estimate that a tree planted in Los Angeles avoids the combustion of 18 kg of carbon annually, even though it sequesters only 4.5-11 kg (as it would if growing in a forest). In this sense, one shade tree in Los Angeles is equivalent to three to five forest trees. In a recent analysis for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City, we estimated that planting an average of four shade trees per house (each with a top view cross section of 50 m2) would lead to an annual reduction in carbon emissions from power plants of 16,000, 41,000, and 9000 t, respectively (the per-tree reduction in carbon emissions is about 10-11 kg per year). These reductions only account for the direct reduction in the net cooling- and heating-energy use of buildings. Once the impact of the community cooling is included, these savings are increased by at least 25 percent.

Akbari, H.

2001-11-01

432

Synergistic effect of Br?nsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases  

PubMed Central

The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

2013-01-01

433

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An auxiliary flow control valve is disposed in an exhaust gas recirculation passageway at a location upstream of a main flow control valve controlling the flow rate of exhaust gases recirculated into an intake system. Two conduits communicating with an intake manifold communicate with a vacuum chamber of a servo motor controlling the main flow control valve. One of the

Y. Fujikawa; Y. Nakajima; Y. Hayashi; K. Sugihara; Y. Hase

1976-01-01

434

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for controlling exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine employs a first control valve in an exhaust gas recirculation passageway, a second control valve in an air conduit connecting the intake passage to atmosphere through selective restriction means, and a regulating valve responsive to differential vacuum intensities for actuating the control valves. The restriction means comprise a plurality

Y. Itoh; A. Totsune; H. Yamabe

1982-01-01

435

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system comprises a valve assembly for controlling the recirculation of exhaust gases in such a manner as to maintain a difference between a first and second pressure at a predetermined value. The first pressure is a pressure in a zone in an air induction passage between a throttle valve therein and a flow restrictor disposed therein

Aoyama

1980-01-01

436

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed in which an exhaust gas control valve and a pressure regulating valve is constructed as one body to facilitate the mounting of the system on the engine and to improve the response characteristic of the system. Also, the chamber of the pressure regulating valve opposite to the chamber

S. Hayashi; N. Shibata; Y. Takahara; S. Yamada

1981-01-01

437

Exhaust gas recirculating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an exhaust gas recirculating system for an internal combustion engine having an intake passage, a main throttle valve located in the intake passage, and an exhaust passage. The engine is installed in an automotive vehicle provided with a traction control system including means for sensing slippage of a drive wheel of the vehicle during acceleration, a second

H. Takahashi; T. Naganawa

1988-01-01

438

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for cleaning exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is provided in which a variable constriction is provided between an intake pipe and a pressure control valve in operative connection to a throttle valve in the carburetor and the pressure differential across said variable constriction is maintained constant to keep off any influence of the

M. Minoura; K. Yorioka

1980-01-01

439

Diesel engine exhaust oxidizer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a diesel engine exhaust oxidizing device. It comprises: an enclosure having an inlet for receiving diesel engine exhaust, a main flow path through the enclosure to an outlet of the enclosure, a by-ass through the enclosure, and a microprocessor control means.

Kammel, R.A.

1992-06-16

440

Exhaust gas recirculating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine equipped with an exhaust gas recirculating system is described. The exhaust gas recirculating system comprises an EGR valve normally closing an EGR duct to prevent recirculation and movable by a signal vacuum applied thereto to an open position and control means operable to provide a signal vacuum. The control means includes a vacuum line connecting a

Harada

1978-01-01

441

Electric exhaust gas recirculation valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrically actuated EGR valve is described for controlling EGR gases in response to electric signals from a computer, the EGR valve comprising: a valve housing having an exhaust gas inlet port for passage of exhaust gases; an exhaust gas outlet port; an exhaust gas passage extending between; poppet valve means for selectively opening and closing exhaust gas passage, the

Akagi

1987-01-01

442

Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

Walter, R. A.

1982-01-01

443

Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of a Diesel Vehicle: Results of the Prototype Volkswagen 1.5-Liter Turbocharged Rabbit Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were performed on a prototype Volkswagen (VW) Turbocharged (TC) Rabbit diesel vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle was tested for fuel economy and emissions on the Urban Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), Conges...

R. A. Walter, S. S. Quayle, J. C. Sturm

1981-01-01

444

Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation.  

PubMed

This study examines whether policies to encourage cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sparing land from deforestation. We use an economic model of global land use to investigate, from 2010 to 2030, the global agricultural outcomes, land use changes, and GHG abatement resulting from two potential Brazilian policies: a tax on cattle from conventional pasture and a subsidy for cattle from semi-intensive pasture. We find that under either policy, Brazil could achieve considerable sparing of forests and abatement of GHGs, in line with its national policy targets. The land spared, particularly under the tax, is far less than proportional to the productivity increased. However, the tax, despite prompting less adoption of semi-intensive ranching, delivers slightly more forest sparing and GHG abatement than the subsidy. This difference is explained by increased deforestation associated with increased beef consumption under the subsidy and reduced deforestation associated with reduced beef consumption under the tax. Complementary policies to directly limit deforestation could help limit these effects. GHG abatement from either the tax or subsidy appears inexpensive but, over time, the tax would become cheaper than the subsidy. A revenue-neutral combination of the policies could be an element of a sustainable development strategy for Brazil and other emerging economies seeking to balance agricultural development and forest protection. PMID:24778243

Cohn, Avery S; Mosnier, Aline; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Schmid, Erwin; O'Hare, Michael; Obersteiner, Michael

2014-05-20

445

Monitoring Engine Vibrations And Spectrum Of Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Real-time computation of intensities of peaks in visible-light emission spectrum of exhaust combined with real-time spectrum analysis of vibrations into developmental monitoring technique providing up-to-the-second information on conditions of critical bearings in engine. Conceived to monitor conditions of bearings in turbopump suppling oxygen to Space Shuttle main engine, based on observations that both vibrations in bearings and intensities of visible light emitted at specific wavelengths by exhaust plume of engine indicate wear and incipient failure of bearings. Applicable to monitoring "health" of other machinery via spectra of vibrations and electromagnetic emissions from exhausts. Concept related to one described in "Monitoring Bearing Vibrations For Signs Of Damage", (MFS-29734).

Martinez, Carol L.; Randall, Michael R.; Reinert, John W.

1991-01-01

446

Exhaust-gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system for an internal-combustion engine comprises an EGR valve for controlling the amount of exhaust-gas recirculation installed midway in an EGR passage that establishes communication between the intake and exhaust pipes of the engine, and an exhaust-gas transducer valve for opening and closing by the exhaust pressure of the exhaust gas an atmospheric-releasing orifice formed midway

K. Yamada; C. Niida; T. Takayama

1979-01-01

447