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1

Heat Pipes to Reduce Engine Exhaust Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fuel combustor employing heat transfer devices for improving combustion efficiency and reducing engine exhaust emissions is described. The fuel combustor consists of an elongated casing with an air inlet conduit portion at one end. An elongated heat pip...

D. F. Schultz

1980-01-01

2

Assessing the potential of hybrid energy technology to reduce exhaust emissions from global shipping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of a prime mover and an energy storage device for reduction of fuel consumption has successfully been used in automotive industry. The shipping industry has utilised this for conventional submarines. The potential of a load levelling strategy through use of a hybrid battery–diesel–electric propulsion system is investigated. The goal is to reduce exhaust gas emissions by reducing fuel

Eleftherios K. Dedes; Dominic A. Hudson; Stephen R. Turnock

3

REDUCING DIESEL NOX AND SOOT EMISSIONS VIA PARTICLE-FREE EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel engines play an important role in the United States economy for power generation and transportation. However, NOx and soot emissions from both stationary and mobile diesel engines are a major contributor to air pollution. Many engine modifications and exhaust-after-t...

4

Diesel engine exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

According to the results of tests carried out on monorail diesel engines in the Federal Republic of Germany, nitrogen oxides, rather than carbon monoxide, are the most dangerous components of exhaust emissions, and require larger volumes of air to dilute them. The harmful gas concentrations which are measured and the maximum permissible concentrations of the gases exhausted by diesel engines determine the necessary amounts of air by which the fumes are diluted. Opinions on maximum permissible values, especially in the case of nitrogen oxides, and the methods used for determining the amount of air necessary for dilution, vary from country to country. In general, though, only diesel engines which produce extremely small amounts of harmful gases should be used underground. If a diesel engine draws in air containing methane, the concentration of harmful gases emitted in the exhaust fumes varies according to methane content, engine speed, and engine load.

Not Available

1980-01-01

5

Exhaust emission control apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

Eng, J.W.

1991-09-24

6

Avgassutslipp fra innenriks sjoetransport. Aktuelle utslippsreduserende tiltak. (Exhaust emissions from the coastal fleet in Norway. Possible measures to reduce emissions).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes possible technological measures to reduce emissions of NOx, HC, CO and particles from engines in use in the Norwegian coastal fleet. The costs and applicability of the most probable measures are discussed for various engine types. 45 ...

O. Melhus P. K. Bremnes

1989-01-01

7

MTW zeolites for reducing cold-start emissions of automotive exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly strict environmental legislations have led to the need for better control of vehicle cold-start emissions. In this research work, a series of one-dimensional channel molecular sieves with 12 oxygen ring apertures (12R) having MTW structure (MTW is the designation for ZSM-12 in the IZA nomenclature of zeolite structures), have been synthesized and characterized by different techniques such as: XRD,

Z. Sarshar; M. H. Zahedi-Niaki; Q. Huang; M. Ei?; S. Kaliaguine

2009-01-01

8

Vehicle's exhaust emissions under car-following model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we explore each vehicle's exhaust emissions under the full velocity difference (FVD) model and the car-following model with consideration of the traffic interruption probability during three typical traffic situations. Numerical results show that the vehicle's exhaust emissions of the second model are less than those of the first model under the three typical traffic situations, which shows that the second model can reduce each vehicle's exhaust emissions.

Tang, Tie-Qiao; Li, Jin-Gang; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Yun-Peng

2014-12-01

9

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DUAL CATALYST EQUIPPED VEHICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

A test program was initiated to characterize exhaust gas emissions from an automobile equipped with a dual catalyst system. The dual catalyst system was designed by Gould, Inc. to reduce emissions of engine exhaust hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. It basically ...

10

Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

1976-01-01

11

Reducing Soot in Diesel Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrically charged fuel improves oxidation. Fuel injection system reduces amount of soot formed in diesel engines. Spray injector electrically charges fuel droplets as they enter cylinder. Charged droplets repel each other, creating, dilute fuel mist easily penetrated by oxygen in cylinder.

Bellan, J.

1984-01-01

12

Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept

Martyn V. Twigg

2005-01-01

13

Characterization of nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out time-resolved experiments using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer to characterize nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust. We performed experiments under both cold-start and hot-start conditions, and determined the dependence of nitromethane emission on vehicle velocity and acceleration/deceleration as well as the effect of various types of exhaust-gas treatment system. We found that nitromethane emission was much lower from a gasoline car than from diesel trucks, probably due to the reduction function of the three-way catalyst of the gasoline car. Diesel trucks without a NOx reduction catalyst using hydrocarbons produced high emissions of nitromethane, with emission factors generally increasing with increasing acceleration at low vehicle velocities.

Sekimoto, Kanako; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Sato, Kei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

2013-12-01

14

Exhaust Emissions from a Passenger Car Equipped With a DuPont Exhaust Emission Control System Using 1975 Test Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The exhaust emission characteristics of a vehicle equipped with a DuPont exhaust emission control system were measured to provide a comparison with other low emission vehicles having the potential for meeting proposed 1975 Federal standards. The vehicle u...

J. C. Thomson

1970-01-01

15

Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in 2008 focusing carbonyls emissions (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2008). In this work four mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl mercaptans) were evaluated for a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were carried using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, during a real use across the city. The exhaust gases were diluted near 20 times and the mercaptans were sampled with glass fiber filters impregnated with mercuric acetate. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results indicated that the mercaptans emissions exhibit a reduction with the increase of biodiesel content, but this reduction is lower as the mercaptan molar mass increases. For B20 results the emission reduction was 18.4% for methyl mercaptan, 18.1% for ethyl mercaptan, 16.3% for n-propyl mercaptan, and 9.6% for n-butyl mercaptan.

Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

16

Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control.  

PubMed

The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H2, CH4, CO2, and NOx, were 60-115, 0.4-4.0, 1.1-10, 30-95, and 0-0.7mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500°C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300°C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400°C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al2O3, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70-80%. PMID:24239260

Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung

2014-01-15

17

Exhaust emission reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust emission of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or emissions. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.

Moffett, R. N.

1979-01-01

18

Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream  

DOEpatents

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ)

2010-07-20

19

Exhaust Emissions from Williams Research Corporation Gas Turbine Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The exhaust emissions of several different models of gas turbine engines under development or in production were measured. The emissions measured were carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and the oxides of nitrogen. The results are pres...

H. B. Moore J. A. Royer

1970-01-01

20

Catalytic control of mutagenic exhaust emissions from gasoline passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of exhaust emissions from passenger cars equipped with conventional and lean-burn gasoline engines were tested for PAHs, NPAHs and mutagenicity. When installed with an appropriate three-way or oxidation catalyst very large reductions in each of these measurements were observed. Engine exhaust emissions contain hydrocarbons which are potentially hazardous to human health. Although there is an extensive database on the

B. J. Cooper; P. R. Shore

1989-01-01

21

Carbonyl emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the use of biodiesel in clear growth, it is important to quantify any potential emission benefits or liabilities of this fuel. Several researches are available concerning the regulated emissions of biodiesel/diesel blends, but there is a lack of information about non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper [Corrêa, S.M., Arbilla, G., 2006. Emissões de formaldeído e acetaldeído de misturas biodiesel/diesel. Periódico Tchê Química, 3, 54-68], the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported. In this work, seven carbonyl emissions (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde) were evaluated by a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm. The exhaust gases were diluted nearly 20 times and the carbonyls were sampled with SiO 2-C18 cartridges, impregnated with acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The chemical analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography using UV detection. Using average values for the three modes of operation (1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm) benzaldehyde showed a reduction on the emission (-3.4% for B2, -5.3% for B5, -5.7% for B10, and -6.9% for B20) and all other carbonyls showed a significative increase: 2.6, 7.3, 17.6, and 35.5% for formaldehyde; 1.4, 2.5, 5.4, and 15.8% for acetaldehyde; 2.1, 5.4, 11.1, and 22.0% for acrolein+acetone; 0.8, 2.7, 4.6, and 10.0% for propionaldehyde; 3.3, 7.8, 16.0, and 26.0% for butyraldehyde.

Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Arbilla, Graciela

22

40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust...year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in...

2013-07-01

23

14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class...emission of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class...exhaust emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not...of this section refer to a composite gaseous emission...

2014-01-01

24

Diesel exhaust particulate and organic vapor emission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for controlling emissions of particulates and heavy organic vapors in the exhaust gases of diesel engines includes, in a preferred embodiment, a heat exchanger for cooling the engine exhaust gases below the condensation temperature of the organic vapors and their resultant adsorption onto the entrained particulates, and a particulate trap connected to receive the cooled gases from the

Mann

1982-01-01

25

DEVELOPMENT OF A PROPORTIONAL SAMPLER FOR AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of a device that is capable of sampling gaseous emissions from automobiles. The device samples exhaust gases at a mass rate that is proportional to the total exhaust gas mass flow rate, which is measured using an ultrasonic vortex flowmeter. T...

26

Exhaust system with emissions storage device and plasma reactor  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system for a combustion system, comprising a storage device for collecting NO.sub.x, hydrocarbon, or particulate emissions, or mixture of these emissions, and a plasma reactor for destroying the collected emissions is described. After the emission is collected in by the storage device for a period of time, the emission is then destroyed in a non-thermal plasma generated by the plasma reactor. With respect to the direction of flow of the exhaust stream, the storage device must be located before the terminus of the plasma reactor, and it may be located wholly before, overlap with, or be contained within the plasma reactor.

Hoard, John W. (Livonia, MI)

1998-01-01

27

40 CFR 1054.240 - How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards...ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Certifying Emission Families § 1054.240 How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission...

2013-07-01

28

Fuel and engine effects on diesel exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of engine operating conditions and fuel properties on diesel exhaust emissions and the effect of an additive on fuel-injector deposits were studied using four diesel engines. The test engines were swirl chamber type diesel engines for Japanese passenger cars: two with 1800cc displacement, one with 2400cc displacement, and one with 2800cc displacement. Diesel exhaust emissions were collected using

E. Yoshida; H. Nomura; M. Seikimoto

1986-01-01

29

Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator  

DOEpatents

A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle, which imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure to adjust flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

30

Biologic effects of auto emissions. I. Exhaust from engine with and without catalytic converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper relates to the efficacy of a catalytic converter in reducing the levels of certain pollutants emitted from an automobile engine and to the reduction and\\/or elimination of gross biologic damages in animals exposed to emissions from an exhaust system containing such catalysts. Groups of rats were exposed to diluted emissions from an automobile engine with and without catalyst.

S. D. Lee; Myron Malanchuk; Vincent N. Finelli

1976-01-01

31

Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

1982-01-01

32

Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in

Sérgio Machado Corrêa; Graciela Arbilla

2008-01-01

33

Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation  

DOEpatents

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver and a platinum group metal on a particulate alumina support, the atomic fraction of the platinum group metal being less than or equal to about 0.25. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which silver is impregnated on alumina particles.

Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI)

2011-05-17

34

Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation  

DOEpatents

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver on a particulate alumina support, the silver having a diameter of less than about 20 nm. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which ionic silver is impregnated on particulate hydroxylated alumina particles.

Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ)

2012-05-08

35

14 CFR 34.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. 34.82 Section...AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines...and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and...

2009-01-01

36

40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. 87.82 Section...AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines...and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and...

2009-07-01

37

40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. 87.82 Section...AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines...and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and...

2010-07-01

38

Urban air quality: the challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions.  

PubMed

About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exhausts, no actions are currently in place to reduce the non-exhaust part of emissions such as those from brake wear, road wear, tyre wear and road dust resuspension. These "non-exhaust" sources contribute easily as much and often more than the tailpipe exhaust to the ambient air PM concentrations in cities, and their relative contribution to ambient PM is destined to increase in the future, posing obvious research and policy challenges. This review highlights the major and more recent research findings in four complementary fields of research and seeks to identify the current gaps in research and policy with regard to non-exhaust emissions. The objective of this article is to encourage and direct future research towards an improved understanding on the relationship between emissions, concentrations, exposure and health impact and on the effectiveness of potential remediation measures in the urban environment. PMID:24837462

Amato, Fulvio; Cassee, Flemming R; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A C; Gehrig, Robert; Gustafsson, Mats; Hafner, Wolfgang; Harrison, Roy M; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Kelly, Frank J; Moreno, Teresa; Prevot, Andre S H; Schaap, Martijn; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier

2014-06-30

39

Exhaust emissions from ships at berth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission measurements have been carried out on board six ships at berth during normal real-world operation (hotelling, unloading and loading activities). The study included three passenger ferries, one transoceanic container/ro-ro, one transoceanic car/truck carrier, and one chemical tanker. Emissions were measured from 22 auxiliary engines (AEs, medium and high-speed marine diesels) covering seven engine models and ranging in size from 720 to 2675 kW maximum output. The fuels varied from low sulphur gasoils ( 2.91 cst viscosity) through to residual oils ( 411 cst viscosity). Both specific emission factors ( g kWh -1) at a given engine load and total emissions (kg) of nitrogen oxides (NO x), sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, particulate matter (PM) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons during actual harbour stops were determined. In addition, some preliminary measurements to investigate PM size distributions were undertaken. The specific emissions showed significant variations between the different engine models and also within the same engine model on board the same ship. For example NO x emissions varied between 9.6 and 20.2 g kWh corr-1 between all engines and 14.2- 18.6 g kWh corr-1 between engines of the same model and fuel. Other emissions from boiler use and possible main engine warm-up prior to departure were in general expected to be considerably less than those from the AEs. The results obtained for the three passenger ferries demonstrate that empirically derived, emission formulae using dead weight tonnage can prove to be a cost-effective and accurate tool for harbour emission inventories.

Cooper, D. A.

40

Catalytic control of mutagenic exhaust emissions from gasoline passenger cars  

SciTech Connect

Extracts of exhaust emissions from passenger cars equipped with conventional and lean-burn gasoline engines were tested for PAHs, NPAHs and mutagenicity. When installed with an appropriate three-way or oxidation catalyst very large reductions in each of these measurements were observed. Engine exhaust emissions contain hydrocarbons which are potentially hazardous to human health. Although there is an extensive database on the levels of mutagenic hydrocarbons in diesel particulate, much less data are available for modern gasoline engines. The study discussed in this paper addresses this with particular reference to the effect of exhaust catalysts on potentially harmful hydrocarbon species emitted by conventional and lean-burn gasoline engines. The effects over the European Extra-Urban Cycle are also addressed.

Cooper, B.J.; Shore, P.R.

1989-01-01

41

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

2013-07-01

42

Effect of Primary-Zone Equivalence Ratio and Hydrogen Addition on Exhaust Emission in a Hydrocarbon-Fueled Combustor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of reducing the primary-zone equivalence ratio on the exhaust emission levels of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons in experimental hydrocarbon-fueled combustor segments at simulated supersonic cruise and idle condi...

C. T. Norgren R. D. Ingebo

1974-01-01

43

Method and apparatus to selectively reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas feedstream  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are described to selectively reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. An exhaust aftertreatment system includes an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reductant upstream of a silver-alumina catalytic reactor device. A control system determines a NO.sub.x concentration and hydrocarbon/NOx ratio based upon selected parameters of the exhaust gas feedstream and dispenses hydrocarbon reductant during lean engine operation. Included is a method to control elements of the feedstream during lean operation. The hydrocarbon reductant may include engine fuel.

Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI); Den, Ling (Sterling Heights, MI); Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Lee, Jong-Hwan (Rochester Hills, MI)

2011-08-30

44

78 FR 34375 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty Vehicles in Metropolitan Detroit...request (ICR), ``Exhaust Emissions of Light-duty Vehicles in Metropolitan Detroit...population for the project will include light-duty cars and trucks certified to...

2013-06-07

45

40 CFR 1037.102 - Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exhaust emission standards for NOX, HC, PM, and CO. 1037.102 Section 1037...Exhaust emission standards for NOX , HC, PM, and CO. See 40 CFR part 86 for the exhaust emission standards for NOX , HC, PM, and CO that apply for heavy-duty...

2013-07-01

46

Influence of MTBE addition into gasoline on automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) addition into gasoline on the exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines was studied. A four-cylinder OPEL 1.6 l engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. Fuels containing 0.0-11.0% MTBE were used in a wide range of engine operations, and the exhaust gases were analyzed for CO, HC (total unburned hydrocarbons, methane, ethylene) and MTBE, before and after their catalytic treatment by a three-way catalytic converter. The addition of MTBE into gasoline resulted in a decrease in CO and HC emissions only at high engine loading. During cold-start up of the engine, MTBE, HC, CO emissions were significant and increased with MTBE addition into fuel. At the catalytic converter outlet MTBE was detected when its concentration in fuels was greater than 8% and only as long as the catalytic converter operates at low temperatures. Methane and ethylene emissions were comparable for all fuels tested at engine outlet, but methane emissions remained almost at the same level while ethylene emissions were significantly decreased by the catalytic converter.

Poulopoulos, S.; Philippopoulos, C.

47

Hydrocarbon emissions speciation in diesel and biodiesel exhausts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel engine emissions are composed of a long list of organic compounds, ranging from C 2 to C 12+, and coming from the hydrocarbons partially oxidized in combustion or produced by pyrolisis. Many of these are considered as ozone precursors in the atmosphere, since they can interact with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone under atmospheric conditions in the presence of sunlight. In addition to problematic ozone production, Brookes, P., and Duncan, M. [1971. Carcinogenic hydrocarbons and human cells in culture. Nature.] and Heywood, J. [1988. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Mc Graw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-1000499-8.] determined that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in exhaust gases are dangerous to human health, being highly carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to identify by means of gas chromatography the amount of each hydrocarbon species present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines operating with different biodiesel blends. The levels of reactive and non-reactive hydrocarbons present in diesel engine exhaust gases powered by different biodiesel fuel blends were also analyzed. Detailed speciation revealed a drastic change in the nature and quantity of semi-volatile compounds when biodiesel fuels are employed, the most affected being the aromatic compounds. Both aromatic and oxygenated aromatic compounds were found in biodiesel exhaust. Finally, the conservation of species for off-side analysis and the possible influence of engine operating conditions on the chemical characterization of the semi-volatile compound phase are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuel blends shows a reduction in the Engine-Out emissions of total hydrocarbons. But the potential of the hydrocarbon emissions is more dependent on the compositions of these hydrocarbons in the Engine-Out, to the quantity; a large percent of hydrocarbons existing in the exhaust, when biodiesel blends are used, are partially burned hydrocarbons, and are interesting as they have the maximum reactivity, but with the use of pure biodiesel and diesel, the most hydrocarbons are from unburned fuel and they have a less reactivity. The best composition in the fuel, for the control of the hydrocarbon emissions reactivity, needs to be a fuel with high-saturated fatty acid content.

Payri, Francisco; Bermúdez, Vicente R.; Tormos, Bernardo; Linares, Waldemar G.

48

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test...Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust...

2009-01-01

49

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test...Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust...

2010-07-01

50

Cermet Filters To Reduce Diesel Engine Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Pollution from diesel engines is a significant part of our nation's air-quality problem. Even under the more stringent standards for heavy-duty engines set to take effect in 2004, these engines will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, both of which affect public health. To address this problem, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) invented a self-cleaning, high temperature, cermet filter that reduces heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The main advantage of the INEEL cermet filter, compared to current technology, is its ability to destroy carbon particles and NOx in diesel engine exhaust. As a result, this technology is expected to improve our nation's environmental quality by meeting the need for heavy-duty diesel engine emissions control. This paper describes the cermet filter technology and the initial research and development effort.Diesel engines currently emit soot and NOx that pollute our air. It is expected that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will begin tightening the regulatory requirements to control these emissions. The INEEL's self-cleaning, high temperature cermet filter provides a technology to clean heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Under high engine exhaust temperatures, the cermet filter simultaneously removes carbon particles and NOx from the exhaust gas. The cermet filter is made from inexpensive starting materials, via net shape bulk forming and a single-step combustion synthesis process, and can be brazed to existing structures. It is self-cleaning, lightweight, mechanically strong, thermal shock resistant, and has a high melting temperature, high heat capacity, and controllable thermal expansion coefficient. The filter's porosity is controlled to provide high removal efficiency for carbon particulate. It can be made catalytic to oxidize CO, H2, and hydrocarbons, and reduce NOx. When activated by engine exhaust, the filter produces NH3 and light hydrocarbon gases that can effectively destroy the NOx in the exhaust. The following sections describe cermet filter technology and properties of the INEEL filter.

Kong, Peter

2001-08-05

51

40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...measuring gaseous exhaust emissions. (a) [Reserved...January 1, 2011, report CO2 values along with your emission levels of regulated NOX...January 1, 2011, report CO2 values along with your emission levels of regulated...

2013-07-01

52

Vehicle Evaporative and Exhaust Emissions as Influenced by Benzene Content of Gasoline. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To better define the effect of fuel composition on benzene emissions from current production vehicles, the evaporative and exhaust emissions from five current model vehicles equipped with representative emission control systems were studied. Fuels consist...

D. E. Seizinger W. F. Marshall F. W. Cox M. W. Boyd

1986-01-01

53

Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.  

PubMed

A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ? 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models. PMID:22894824

Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

2012-10-01

54

Remote sensing of motor vehicle exhaust emissions: the road ahead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade interest has focused on the remote analysis of emissions from motor vehicles using spectrometric techniques, driven by recognition of the fact that a very large proportion of the environmental damage done in this way originates with a small percentage of vehicles. Several instrumentation manufacturers now market such devices, and others are developing new technologies that will offer opportunities for enhanced performance and lower cost. In this paper we review the evolution of technologies and methodologies applied to motor vehicle exhaust emissions, ranging from simple broadband sources and band-pass filters to tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. In so doing we examine the compromises and sources of error inherent in each which have earned such devices a very variable reputation, at least in the early years of development. We also look at techniques that may have the potential to solve these problem, and critically examine the reasons why these have not (yet) been applied. In conclusion, we will present initial findings and results from a European consortium studying the problems of cost-effective emissions monitoring, and validation of emissions inventory data using complementary numerical modelling techniques.

Crookell, Andrew; Kansakoski, Markku; Brook, Richard A.

2001-02-01

55

Application of hybrid evolutionary algorithms to low exhaust emission diesel engine design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid evolutionary algorithm, consisting of a genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), is proposed. Generally, GAs maintain diverse solutions of good quality in multi-objective problems, while PSO shows fast convergence to the optimum solution. By coupling these algorithms, GA will compensate for the low diversity of PSO, while PSO will compensate for the high computational costs of GA. The hybrid algorithm was validated using standard test functions. The results showed that the hybrid algorithm has better performance than either a pure GA or pure PSO. The method was applied to an engineering design problem—the geometry of diesel engine combustion chamber reducing exhaust emissions such as NOx, soot and CO was optimized. The results demonstrated the usefulness of the present method to this engineering design problem. To identify the relation between exhaust emissions and combustion chamber geometry, data mining was performed with a self-organising map (SOM). The results indicate that the volume near the lower central part of the combustion chamber has a large effect on exhaust emissions and the optimum chamber geometry will vary depending on fuel injection angle.

Jeong, S.; Obayashi, S.; Minemura, Y.

2008-01-01

56

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26

57

TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS (RABBITS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the objective of evaluating the potential for diesel exhaust emissions to produce malformations in rabbit fetuses. The pregnant does were exposed by the inhalation route to a 10% concentration of diesel exhaust emissions in inhalation cham...

58

TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS (RATS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the objective of evaluating the potential for diesel exhaust emissions to produce malformations in rat fetuses. The dams were exposed by the inhalation route to a 10% concentration of diesel exhaust emissions in inhalation chambers on days...

59

Development of Baseline and Controlled Exhaust Emission Rates for Off-Highway Vehicle Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to develop baseline exhaust emission rates for California off-highway vehicle engines in order to provide reliable data for the development of exhaust emission standards and regulations for the off-highway vehicle categor...

J. J. White

1993-01-01

60

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. 1037.105...1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a) The...under § 1037.150(m). (b) The CO2 standards of this section are given...

2013-07-01

61

40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...group. (1) Each vehicle with an exhaust total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions rate which is less than or equal to twice the applicable...the normal emitter group. (2) Each vehicle with an exhaust THC emissions rate which is greater than two times the...

2013-07-01

62

Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC

Chiung-Yu Peng; Hsi-Hsien Yang; Cheng-Hang Lan; Shu-Mei Chien

2008-01-01

63

40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles. 86.1708-99 Section 86...Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1708-99 Exhaust...

2011-07-01

64

40 CFR 1048.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards...SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1048.240 How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission...

2013-07-01

65

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES  

SciTech Connect

Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus networks.

COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

2003-08-24

66

Effects of engine operating and design variables on exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the influence of engine variables on the composition of exhaust gas, engine dynamometer tests were conducted on single and multicylinder reciprocating engines. The following engine variables were investigated: air-fuel ratio, power output, engine speed, spark timing, exhaust back pressure, valve overlap, combustion chamber deposits, and intake manifold pressure. Hydrocarbon concentrations were found to be considerably affected by changes

D. F. Hagen; G. W. Holiday

1972-01-01

67

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile during the specified bag of the...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile over Bag Y at temperature X...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile over the âcityâ portion of...

2013-07-01

68

A method for reducing exhaust pressure of vehicle compressed air powered engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed air powered engine is a type of zero-pollution engine, but its conversion efficiency is very low for its high pressure exhaust which causes much exergy loss. In this study, a control system was developed to reduce the exhaust pressure of vehicle compressed air powered engine. The control system is made up of a controller, a pressure sensor, a photoelectric

Zhenggang Xu; Xiaopeng Xie

2009-01-01

69

Emission of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal from restaurant exhausts to the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooking exhausts may contribute significant organic compounds to the atmosphere. It has been shown that trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (tt-DDE) is an important toxic compound in cooking oil fumes (COF). In this study, the emissions of tt-DDE were quantified in both gaseous and particulate phases of three kinds of restaurant exhausts (Chinese, western and barbecue). Samples of exhausts were collected with a sampling

Hsi-Hsien Yang; Shu-Mei Chien; Hui-Ling Lee; Mu-Rong Chao; Hong-Wei Luo; Dennis P. H. Hsieh; Wen-Jhy Lee

2007-01-01

70

MTBE, methane, ethylene and regulated exhaust emissions from vehicles with deactivated catalytic converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the effect of the gradual deactivation of a three-way catalytic converter on the exhaust emissions was studied. The exhaust gases were analyzed for CO, HC (i.e. total unburned organic compounds), MTBE, methane and ethylene, before and after their catalytic treatment, in a wide range of engine operating conditions. The thermal aging of the catalytic converter resulted

S. G. Poulopoulos; C. J. Philippopoulos

2004-01-01

71

The effects of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel combustion and emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted with the aim of identifying and quantifying the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on diesel engine combustion and exhaust emissions. Five effects of EGR were identified and investigated experimentally: the reduction in oxygen supply to the engine, participation in the combustion process of carbon dioxide and water vapour present in the EGR, increase in the

N Ladommatos; S Abdelhalim; H Zhao

2000-01-01

72

Inhalation toxicology of automotive emissions as affected by an oxidation exhaust catalyst.  

PubMed Central

Preliminary data are given on the acute inhalation toxicology of automotive emissions as affected by an oxidation exhaust catalyst. The catalyst effectively reduced CO and HC in the exhause which apparently had an effect (at least in a closed exposure system) on oxidant and NO2 levels by altering the HC/NOx ratio. There was a resultant reduction in biological effects due to the exposure. The catalyst altered the type of particulate to one which probably contained sulfuric acid as a major component. No evidence was present in these acute exposures to suggest a toxic response due to the higher sulfate emissions or possible catalyst attrition products. The effects of long-term exposure have not yet been investigated.

Hysell, D K; Moore, W; Hinners, R; Malanchuk, M; Miller, R; Stara, J F

1975-01-01

73

Health Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions: A Comprehensive Literature Review, Evaluation and Research Gaps Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report was to provide a comprehensive literature review of the human health consequences of exposure to diesel exhaust emissions, especially as encountered in underground mines, and to define those gaps in current scientific knowledge w...

D. V. Lassiter T. H. Milby

1978-01-01

74

Exhaust Emissions Test Airesearch Aircraft Propulsion and Auxiliary Power Gas Turbine Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the test setup, procedure, and analysis of exhaust emissions measurement conducted on 32 commercial gas turbine engines comprised of both on-board aircraft auxiliary power and aircraft propulsion production, overhaul, and development ...

1971-01-01

75

Prediction of Exhaust Emissions from Prime Movers and Small Heating Plant Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the result of an investigation of the possibilities of predicting the exhaust emissions from various types of engines and small heating plant furnaces. The engines investigated include spark ignition engines, compression ignition engines, an...

J. J. Stukel S. C. Sorenson W. L. Hull

1972-01-01

76

Effect of ethanol–unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance and exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of using unleaded gasoline–ethanol blends on SI engine performance and exhaust emission. A four stroke, four cylinder SI engine (type TOYOTA, TERCEL-3A) was used for conducting this study.Performance tests were conducted for equivalence air–fuel ratio, fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, brake thermal efficiency, brake power, engine torque and brake specific fuel consumption, while exhaust emissions were

M. Al-Hasan

2003-01-01

77

Exhaust Emissions on an Uncontrolled Passenger Car Using Variable Cam Timing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The exhaust emission characteristics of an uncontrolled car using the varicam camshaft timing gear were measured to determine the effect of this device on emissions. To obtain emissions data, a 1962 Chevrolet Biscayne with a 283 cu. in. engine was used bo...

J. C. Thompson

1970-01-01

78

Biodegradable plastic reduces ammonia emission during composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia is the greatest nuisance odor compound among the exhaust gases that evolve during the composting process, in which raw materials with high concentrations of nitrogen, such as wastewater sludge, are decomposed. In the present study, a reduction of NH3 emission during composting of wastewater sludge was tried by mixing biodegradable plastic into composting raw material. Biodegradable plastic acts as

K Nakasaki; A Ohtaki; H Takano

2000-01-01

79

Comparison of the mutagenicity of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles using leaded and unleaded gasoline as fuel.  

PubMed

While unleaded gasoline has the advantage of eliminating lead from automobile exhaust, its potential to reduce the exhaust gas and particles, merits further examination. In the present studies, the concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon mono-oxides (CO) in emissions were analyzed on Santana engine Dynamometer under a standard test cycle, and total exhaust particles were collected from engines using leaded and unleaded gasoline. It was found that unleaded gasoline reduced the emissions of CO and HC, and decreased the quantity of vehicle exhaust particulate matters by 60%. With the unleaded gasoline, only 23 kinds of organic substances, adsorbed in the particles, were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) while 32 components were detected using the leaded gasoline. The results of in vitro Salmonella/microsomal test and micronucleus induction assay in CHL cells indicated that both types of gasoline increased the number of histidine-independent colonies and the frequencies of micronucleus induction; no significant difference was found in their mutagenicity. PMID:10560539

Yuan, D; Zhou, W; Ye, S H

1999-06-01

80

Burner retrofits reduce brewery emissions  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California (SCAQMD) tightened its grip on industrial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The new statute, Rule 1146, mandates a 75% reduction in NOx emissions over a five-year period ending this July. Anheuser-Busch Inc.'s second-largest brewery in Van Nuys fell under the new law's jurisdiction. Under the new law, the maximum allowable NOx emission must be reduced from 120 to 30 ppm for the two largest boilers. There were two alternatives: either prevent its formation inside the boiler, or remove it from the off-gases via selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Prevention was chosen, because the NOx-removal technologies are unproven in the US on natural-gas-fired boilers. In addition, it was not known whether SCR or SNCR could respond to the wide swings in boiler demand. At any given time, loads between 30 and 100% of capacity would be required from the boilers. The brewery retrofitted the 125,000-lb/h boilers with Variflame burners, based upon an earlier retrofit at Anheuser-Busch's Merrimack, N.H., brewery. The paper describes this burner and its performance.

Not Available

1993-04-01

81

Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

He, Xin (Denver, CO); Durrett, Russell P. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

2012-01-24

82

Regulated and Air Toxic Exhaust Emissions from Nonroad Diesel Engines and Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust emissions were measured from fifteen nonroad (NR) diesel engines and in-use pieces of NR diesel equipment in three separate engine emission test programs. The test engines derived from construction, utility and agricultural equipment applications, for the most part, and ranged from 7 horsepower (hp) up through 850 hp. The test fuels used varied by sulfur concentration: \\

Kent Helmer; Richard Cook; John Volckens; Richard Baldauf

83

In-vehicle Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Vehicular Exhaust: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-induced emissions constitute a major source of air pollutants, particularly in urban areas, where heavy traffic is common occurrence. Contaminated air can flow into enclosed micro-environments, including vehicle compartments. Among various exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) was the first indicator examined in passenger compartments. This paper presents a critical review of worldwide research work conducted to characterize CO exposure inside

M. El-Fadel; L. Abi-Esber

2009-01-01

84

Comparison of predicted and measured diesel exhaust emission levels during transient operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is verified for mapping the exhaust emission levels of a diesel engine during transient operation. Particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide emissions were sampled for discrete segment of various transient cycles. Each cycle consisted of four distinct segments. The discrete segments are described by average engine conditions, rate of change variables, and segment length. Regression

M. R. Swain; M. N. Swain; J. A. Blanco; R. R. Adt

1987-01-01

85

Mathematical modelling of catalytic exhaust systems for EURO3 and EURO4 emissions standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of computer simulation in the development of catalytic exhaust aftertreat- ment systems for cars is over thirty years old. However, ever-increasingly stringent exhaust emissions legislation requires an ever-increasing degree of accuracy and complexity in the mathematical models applied. Traditionally, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics were applied in the majority of the models available, with a small number of representative chemical

G Pontikakis; A Stamatelos

2001-01-01

86

Exhaust Emissions from 4-Stroke Lawnmowers: Reformulated Gasoline Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emissions were characterized from a group of four-stroke lawnmower engines. The engines were tested using two gasoline fuels: a 1990 national average blend and a reformulated fuel. Organic and carbon monoxide emission rates were lower with the reformulate...

P. Gabele

1997-01-01

87

A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF BIODIESEL IMPACTS ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Existing emissions data from heavy-duty diesel engines was assembled into a database. Statistical regression analysis was used to correlate biodiesel concentration with changes in emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants. The report concludes that biodiesel produces sm...

88

Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting t...

R. C. Yu A. S. Cole B. J. Stroia S. C. Huang K. Howden

2002-01-01

89

Carbonyl Emissions from Vehicular Exhausts Sources in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for airborne carbonyls in urban area. Six types of VE-dominated samples were collected at representative locations in Hong Kong where polluted by a particular fueled type of vehicles, including (i) a gas refilling taxis station (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] emission); (ii) a light duty passenger car park (gasoline emission); (iii)

Steven Sai Hang Ho; Kin Fai Ho; Shun Cheng Lee; Yan Cheng; Jian Zhen Yu; Ka Man Lam; Carrie Feng; Yu Huang

2011-01-01

90

Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.  

PubMed

An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

2014-01-01

91

Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption  

PubMed Central

An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well.

Su, Jye-Chau

2014-01-01

92

40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... emissions, use the appropriate CO2 grams/mile values instead of CREE values in...the carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile during bag Y of the FTP test conducted...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile over the city portion of the...

2013-07-01

93

ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF COTTONSEED OIL BIODIESEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between engine performance and emissions of cottonseed oil biodiesel used in a 14.2 kW diesel engine. When using cottonseed oil biodiesel blends, CO, total hydrocarbon (THC), NOx, and SO2 emissions decreased as compared to petroleum diesel. Carbon dioxide emissions had no definitive trend in relation to cottonseed oil biodiesel blends.

Sergio C. Capareda; Jacob Powell; Calvin Parnell

94

A GIS-BASED MODAL MODEL OF AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents progress toward the development of a computer tool called MEASURE, the Mobile Emission Assessment System for Urban and Regional Evaluation. The tool works toward a goal of providing researchers and planners with a way to assess new mobile emission mitigation s...

95

Visible light emission excited by interaction of Space Shuttle exhaust with the atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground-based video photography of firings of Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) engines show optical emissions extending nearly 4 km form the vehicle after steady state is reached. The total intensity and spatial distribution of these emissions depend on the angle between the spacecraft velocity vector and the engine exhaust axis. Candidate sources for this radiation are reviewed and the conclusion is reached that it is most likely due to vibrationally excited OH, formed by the reaction of fast ambient O atoms and H2O molecules in the exhaust.

Murad, E.; Knecht, D. J.; Viereck, R. A.; Pike, C. P.; Kofsky, I. L.; Trowbridge, C. A.; Rall, D. L. A.; Ashley, G.; Twist, L.; Blaha, J. E.

1990-01-01

96

Emission of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal from restaurant exhausts to the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooking exhausts may contribute significant organic compounds to the atmosphere. It has been shown that trans, trans-2,4-decadienal ( tt-DDE) is an important toxic compound in cooking oil fumes (COF). In this study, the emissions of tt-DDE were quantified in both gaseous and particulate phases of three kinds of restaurant exhausts (Chinese, western and barbecue). Samples of exhausts were collected with a sampling system meeting the criteria of US EPA Modified Method 5. The tt-DDE was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. The results indicate that the emission factors of tt-DDE in terms of ?g customer -1 were in sequence: barbecue (1990)>Chinese (570)>western (63.8). The average proportion of tt-DDE in the particulate phase of the exhausts was 83% for the 16 investigated restaurants. Evidently, the majority of tt-DDE in the exhausts was in the particulate phase. There was no evident correlation found between phase distribution of tt-DDE and exhaust temperature in the restaurants investigated. The efficiencies of removal of particulate tt-DDE by air pollution control devices (APCDs) were assessed. The removal efficiencies of electrostatic precipitator (ESP), ESP and activated carbon in series, and wet scrubber were 64.2%, 86.3% and 71.3%, respectively.

Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Lee, Hui-Ling; Chao, Mu-Rong; Luo, Hong-Wei; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Lee, Wen-Jhy

97

Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. Methods In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. Results The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Conclusion Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient conditions. On a per breath basis, however, the mass of particulate matter inhaled is large compared to the mass inhaled at ambient conditions. Finally, it was determined that children, infants, or people breathing at heights similar to that of a passing vehicle's tailpipe may be exposed to higher concentrations of particulate matter than those breathing at higher locations, such as adults standing up.

2009-01-01

98

Assessment of the capacity of vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust-induced symptoms in human volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution especially derived from traffic is associated with increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the ability of novel vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust (DE)-induced symptoms and markers of inflammation in human subjects. Methods Thirty healthy subjects participated in a randomized double-blind controlled crossover study where they were exposed to filtered air, unfiltered DE and DE filtered through two selected particle filters, one with and one without active charcoal. Exposures lasted for one hour. Symptoms were assessed before and during exposures and lung function was measured before and after each exposure, with inflammation assessed in peripheral blood five hours after exposures. In parallel, PM were collected from unfiltered and filtered DE and assessed for their capacity to drive damaging oxidation reactions in a cell-free model, or promote inflammation in A549 cells. Results The standard particle filter employed in this study reduced PM10 mass concentrations within the exposure chamber by 46%, further reduced to 74% by the inclusion of an active charcoal component. In addition use of the active charcoal filter was associated by a 75% and 50% reduction in NO2 and hydrocarbon concentrations, respectively. As expected, subjects reported more subjective symptoms after exposure to unfiltered DE compared to filtered air, which was significantly reduced by the filter with an active charcoal component. There were no significant changes in lung function after exposures. Similarly diesel exhaust did not elicit significant increases in any of the inflammatory markers examined in the peripheral blood samples 5 hour post-exposure. Whilst the filters reduced chamber particle concentrations, the oxidative activity of the particles themselves, did not change following filtration with either filter. In contrast, diesel exhaust PM passed through the active charcoal combination filter appeared less inflammatory to A549 cells. Conclusions A cabin air inlet particle filter including an active charcoal component was highly effective in reducing both DE particulate and gaseous components, with reduced exhaust-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of cabin filters to protect subjects travelling in vehicles from diesel exhaust emissions.

2014-01-01

99

Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than diesel does. Major difference in both fuels is formaldehyde emission which drops by 23% on the average. Lower aldehyde emissions found in B20 correspond to lower ozone formation potentials. As a result, use of biodiesel in diesel engines has the beneficial effect in terms of aldehyde emissions.

Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

100

A comprehensive inventory of the ship traffic exhaust emissions in the Baltic Sea from 2006 to 2009.  

PubMed

This study addresses the exhaust emissions of CO?, NO(x), SO(x), CO, and PM(2.5) originated from Baltic Sea shipping in 2006-2009. Numerical results have been computed using the Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model. This model is based on the messages of the automatic identification system (AIS), which enable the positioning of ships with a high spatial resolution. The NO(x) emissions in 2009 were approximately 7 % higher than in 2006, despite the economic recession. However, the SO(x) emissions in 2009 were approximately 14 % lower, when compared to those in 2006, mainly caused by the fuel requirements of the SO(x) emission control area (SECA) which became effective in May 2006, but affected also by changes in ship activity. Results are presented on the differential geographic distribution of shipping emissions before (Jan-April 2006) and after (Jan-April 2009) the SECA regulations. The predicted NO(x) emissions in 2009 substantially exceeded the emissions in 2006 along major ship routes and at numerous harbors, mostly due to the continuous increase in the number of small vessels that use AIS transmitters. Although the SO(x) emissions have been reduced in 2009 in most major ship routes, these have increased in the vicinity of some harbors and on some densely trafficked routes. A seasonal variation of emissions is also presented, as well as the distribution of emissions in terms of vessel flag state, type, and weight. PMID:23479266

Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Johansson, Lasse; Kukkonen, Jaakko

2014-04-01

101

Carbonyl emissions from vehicular exhausts sources in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for airborne carbonyls in urban area. Six types of VE-dominated samples were collected at representative locations in Hong Kong where polluted by a particular fueled type of vehicles, including (i) a gas refilling taxis station (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] emission); (ii) a light-duty passenger car park (gasoline emission); (iii) a minibus station (diesel emission); (iv) a single-deck-bus depot (diesel emission); (v) a double-deck-bus depot (diesel emission); and (vi) a whole-food market entrance for light- and heavy-duty vehicles (diesel emission). A total of 15 carbonyls in the samples were quantified. Formaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl among the VE-dominated samples, and its contribution to the total quantified amount on a molar basis ranged from 54.8% to 60.8%. Acetaldehyde and acetone were the next two abundant carbonyls. The carbonyls were quantified at three roadside locations in Hong Kong. The highest concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, 22.7 +/- 8.4 and 6.0 +/- 2.8 microg/m3, respectively, were determined in the samples collected at a main transportation gate for goods between Hong Kong and Mainland China. The total quantified carbonyl concentration, 37.9 +/- 9.3 microg/m3, was the highest at an entrance of a cross-harbor tunnel in downtown area. The theoretical carbonyls compositions of the three roadside locations were estimated according to the VE-dominated sample profiles and the statistics on vehicle numbers and types during the sampling period. The measured compositions of formaldehyde were much higher than the theoretical compositions in summer, demonstrating that photochemical reactions significantly contributed to the formaldehyde production in the roadsides. PMID:22442938

Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Cheng, Yan; Yu, Jian Zhen; Lam, Ka Man; Feng, Natale Sin Yau; Huang, Yu

2012-02-01

102

Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.  

PubMed

Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced mutagenic effects most effectively in the gas phase. Mutagenicity of particle extracts was less efficiently diminished. No significant differences of mutagenic effects were observed among the tested fuels. In conclusion, the benefits of the DOC concern regulated emissions except NO(X) as well as nonregulated emissions such as the mutagenicity of the exhaust. The reduction of mutagenicity was particularly observed in the condensates of the gas phase. This is probably due to better accessibility of gaseous mutagenic compounds during the passage of the DOC in contrast to the particle-bound mutagens. Concerning the particulate emissions DOC especially decreased ultrafine particles. PMID:22587467

Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

2012-06-01

103

Aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulated emissions of biodiesel blends are reasonably well documented in several works, non-regulated emissions, on the contrary, lack research. In this work, mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs, respectively) emission tests were performed with a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5) and 20% (B20%). The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the biodiesel addition on the emission profile of MAHs and PAHs. The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1500 rpm. The PAHs were sampled with Teflon filters and XAD-2 cartridges and were identified by gaseous chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and quantified by flame ionization detection (GC/FID). The MAHs were sampled with active charcoal cartridges and analyzed by GC/FID. Both MAHs and PAHs filters and cartridges were extracted with dichloromethane in an ultrasonic bath. Ten PAHs and eight MAHs were identified and the average reduction of MAHs was 4.2% (B5), 8.2% (B5), and 21.1% (B20). The average reduction for PAHs was 2.7% (B2), 6.3% (B5), and 17.2% (B20). However, some PAHs and MAHs emissions increased because of/due to the biodiesel blends like phenanthrene, ethyl benzene, and trimethyl benzenes.

Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

104

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on singleshell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists SSTs covered by this NOC. This GOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTs during salt well pumping is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms authorization basis (DESH 1997) that requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). Safety analyses indicate that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for release of flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTs to reduce the ''time at risk'' while salt well pumping. For this reason, portable exhausters will be installed as a precautionary measure and used when flammable gas concentrations exceed 25 percent of the LFL during salt well pumping.

HOMAN, N.A.

1999-07-14

105

78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...45 [Docket No.: FAA-2012-1333; Amendment No. 34-5A] RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages...

2013-11-01

106

SENSOR FOR MONITORING OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN DIESEL EXHAUST GASES - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Active Spectrum, Inc., proposes a novel, low-cost soot sensor for on-board measurement of soot emissions in diesel exhaust gases. The proposed technology is differentiated from existing methods by excellent sensitivity, high specificity to carbon particulates, and robustness ...

107

Improvement of NOx Reduction Efficiency in Diesel Emission Using Nonthermal Plasma - Exhaust Gas Recirculation Combined Aftertreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric-pressure nonequilibrium nonthermal plasma (NTP) hybrid exhaust gas aftertreatment systems have been developed by the authors without using precious metal catalysts and harmful ammonia, etc. Two types of new environmental protection systems (a dry system and a wet system), which enable to produce ultra low CO2, PM (Particulate Matter), NOx emissions, fuel consumption and low cost, are investigated for diesel

Masaaki OKUBO; Takuya KUWAHARA; Yohei KANNAKA; Tomoyuki KUROKI; Keiichiro YOSHIDA

2010-01-01

108

The Effects of Cottonseed Oil–Kerosene Blends on a Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, increasing crude oil prices and environmental pollution problems have lead to investigation of alternative fuel necessities, such as vegetable oils for internal combustion engines. This article presents the possibility of using cottonseed oil-kerosene blends in compression ignition engines. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were examined and diesel fuel was used as a basis for comparison. The influences of using

H. Bayindir

2010-01-01

109

Artificial neural network based line source models for vehicular exhaust emission predictions of an urban roadway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dispersion characteristics of vehicular exhaust emissions on urban roadways are highly non-linear and the presence of `traffic wake' adds complexities to the dispersion. Gaussian deterministic line source models may not then be able to explain variations in related meteorological and traffic characteristic variables. Artificial neural networks comprising of interconnected adaptive processing units have the capability to recognize the non-linearity

S. M. Shiva Nagendra; Mukesh Khare

2004-01-01

110

The effects of discrete transients in speed and load on diesel engine exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of diesel engine exhaust emissions to transients in speed and torque are examined. Particulate matter, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen were sampled for discrete segments of various transient cycles. Each cycle consisted of four distinct segments, two of which were steady state. In general, each segment was defined by choosing the beginning and ending values for

T. J. Callahan; T. W. Ryan; H. Dietzmann; R. Waytulores

1985-01-01

111

Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a Diesel Engine Using Soy Bean Oil Biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance and relate exhaust emissions of biodiesel fuels derived from soybean oil and Standard no. 2 ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel, in a 3- cylinder YANMAR diesel engine. Engine power tests were conducted in accordance with SAE Standard Engine Power Test Code for diesel engines (SAE J1349 Revised MAR2008). Test fuels included

Bjorn S. Santos; Sergio C. Capareda

112

Influence of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel CI engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (IC) engines. As an alternative, biodegradable, and renewable fuel, ethanol is receiving increasing attention. Therefore, in this study, influence of injection timing on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, naturally aspirated diesel engine has been

Cenk Sayin; Kadir Uslu; Mustafa Canakci

2008-01-01

113

Effects of particulate matter from gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust emissions on silicate stones sulfation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of particulate matter (PM) from diesel and leaded gasoline motor vehicles exhaust emissions on sulfation of granites, syenite and gabbro stones have been experimentally studied. Abundant gypsum crystals and corrosion features developed on stones covered with diesel PM (DPM) following 72h exposure to 100ppm SO2 at a relative humidity of 100%. In contrast, very small amounts of gypsum

J. Simão; E. Ruiz-Agudo; C. Rodriguez-Navarro

2006-01-01

114

40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks. 86.1709-99 Section 86.1709-99...the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks §...

2011-07-01

115

40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks. 86.1709-99 Section 86.1709-99...the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks §...

2012-07-01

116

Effects of Olefins Content on Exhaust Emissions. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding the impacts of fuels on emissions from modern gasoline-powered vehicles is important for EPA and CARB models that are used for reformulated gasolines. A number of more recent CRC and EPA programs have examined the impacts of fuel properties ...

G. Karavalakis J. W. Miller K. Bumiller K. H. Xu M. Hajbabaei M. Villela T. D. Durbin

2012-01-01

117

REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS IN TANNERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanning, in particular chrome leather production, is still characterised by an inefficient use of raw material and the production of highly polluted wastewater and solid wastes. A part of the emissions can be prevented by introducing clean tanning technologies, the remaining emissions can be treated. Clean production technologies and waste (water) treatment technologies should have a designed complimentarity. Anaerobic wastewater

J. W. van Groenestijn; J. S. A. Langerwerf; M. Lucas

2002-01-01

118

Study of low emission homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using combined internal and external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the effects of internal and cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the combustion and emission performance of diesel fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The use of fuel injection before the top center (TC) of an exhaust stroke and the negative valve overlap (NVO) to form the homogeneous mixture achieves low NOx and smoke emissions

Lei Shi; Yi Cui; Kangyao Deng; Haiyong Peng; Yuanyuan Chen

2006-01-01

119

Bioethanol – gasoline fuel blends: exhaust emissions and morphological characterization of particulate from a moped engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of gasoline-ethanol blends on the exhaust emissions in a catalyst equipped four-stroke moped engine. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in three percentages (10, 15 and 20% v\\/v). The regulated pollutants and the particulate matter emissions were evaluated over the European ECE R47 driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer bench. Particulate

Maurizia Seggiani; M. Vittoria Prati; M. Antonietta Costagliola; Monica Puccini; Sandra Vitolo

2012-01-01

120

Effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on small engine generator energy efficiency and exhaust emission.  

PubMed

This study was focused on fuel energy efficiency and pollution analysis of different ratios of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels (E0, E3, E6, and E9) under different loadings. In this research, the experimental system consisted of a small engine generator, a particulate matter measurement system, and an exhaust gas analyzer system. Different fuels, unleaded gasoline, and ethanol-gasoline blends (E0, E3, E6, and E9) were used to study their effects on the exhaust gas emission and were expressed as thermal efficiency of the small engine generator energy efficiency. The results suggested that particle number concentration increased as the engine loading increased; however, it decreased as the ethanol content in the blend increased. While using E6 as fuel, the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration was less than other fuels (E0, E3, and E9) for each engine loading. The average of CO concentration reduction by using E3, E6, and E9 is 42, 86, and 83%, respectively. Using an ethanol-gasoline blend led to a significant reduction in exhaust emissions by approximately 78.7, 97.5, and 89.46% of the mean average values of hydrocarbons (HCs) with E3, E6, and E9 fuels, respectively, for all engine loadings. Using an ethanol-gasoline blend led to a significant reduction in exhaust emissions by approximately 35, 86, and 77% of the mean average values of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with E3, E6, and E9 fuels, respectively, at each engine loading. The E6 fuel gave the best results of the exhaust emissions, and the E9 fuel gave the best results of the particle emissions and engine performance. The thermal efficiency of the small engine generator increased as the ethanol content in the blend increased and as the engine loading increased. PMID:20222526

Lin, Wen-Yinn; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Hsieh, You-Ru

2010-02-01

121

Emissions R&D at GE\\/CRD coal-fueled diesel: Technology development methods for SOâ and NOâ removal from coal diesel exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four processes were investigated at the GE Research and Development Center (GE-CRD) for the removal of gaseous pollutants from the exhaust of a coal-fired diesel locomotive engine. The minimum goal for emissions control was to reduce the pollutant levels at least to the levels of a conventional diesel engine. It should be noted, however, that some of the methods investigated

M. R. Cohen; G. L. Leonard; D. M. Slaughter

1993-01-01

122

Improvement of $\\\\hbox{NO}_{\\\\rm x}$ Reduction Efficiency in Diesel Emission Control Using Nonthermal Plasma Combined Exhaust Gas Recirculation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric-pressure nonequilibrium nonthermal plasma hybrid exhaust gas aftertreatment systems that do not utilize precious metal catalysts, harmful ammonia, etc., have been developed by the authors. Two types of new environmental pro- tection systems (a dry system and a wet system), which enable the production of ultralow CO2, particulate matter and NOx emissions as well as reduced fuel consumption and low

Takuya Kuwahara; Keiichiro Yoshida; Youhei Kannaka; Tomoyuki Kuroki; Masaaki Okubo

2011-01-01

123

Exhaust recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from internal combustion engine exhaust is described that is uncomplicated by moving parts, thus avoiding problems associated with prior-art recirculation systems. The system also results in preheating and improved mixing of the fuel-air mixture in the inlet header. A recycling duct receives the exhaust gases at a restricted

Waitzmann

1974-01-01

124

Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China's Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry.

Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

2012-01-01

125

Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.  

PubMed

In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

2012-01-01

126

Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust emission from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra reduction of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small reduction are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.

Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi

127

Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.; Arslan, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

1997-10-01

128

Effects of equivalence ratio and dwell time on exhaust emissions from an experimental premixing prevaporizing burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flame-tube study was performed to determine the effects of equivalence ratio and residence time on exhaust emissions with premixed, prevaporized propane fuel. Nitrogen oxides emissions as low as .3 g NO2/kg fuel were measured with greater than 99% combustion efficiency at 800 K inlet temperature and an equivalence ratio of .4. For a constant combustion efficiency, lower nitrogen oxides emissions were obtained by burning very lean with relatively long residence times than by using somewhat higher equivalence ratios with shorter times.

Anderson, D.

1974-01-01

129

Effects of equivalence ratio and dwell time on exhaust emissions from an experimental premixing prevaporizing burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flame-tube study was performed to determine the effects of equivalence ratio and residence time on exhaust emissions with premixed, prevaporized propane fuel. Nitrogen oxides emissions as low as 0.3 g NO2/kg fuel were measured with greater than 99 percent combustion efficiency at 800 K inlet temperature and an equivalence ratio of 0.4. For a constant combustion efficiency, lower nitrogen oxides emissions were obtained by burning very lean with relatively long residence times than by using somewhat higher equivalence ratios with shorter times.

Anderson, D.

1975-01-01

130

A fuel-based approach to estimating motor vehicle exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor vehicles contribute significantly to air pollution problems; accurate motor vehicle emission inventories are therefore essential to air quality planning. Current travel-based inventory models use emission factors measured from potentially biased vehicle samples and predict fleet-average emissions which are often inconsistent with on-road measurements. This thesis presents a fuel-based inventory approach which uses emission factors derived from remote sensing or tunnel-based measurements of on-road vehicles. Vehicle activity is quantified by statewide monthly fuel sales data resolved to the air basin level. Development of the fuel-based approach includes (1) a method for estimating cold start emission factors, (2) an analysis showing that fuel-normalized emission factors are consistent over a range of positive vehicle loads and that most fuel use occurs during loaded-mode driving, (3) scaling factors relating infrared hydrocarbon measurements to total exhaust volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, and (4) an analysis showing that economic factors should be considered when selecting on-road sampling sites. The fuel-based approach was applied to estimate carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from warmed-up vehicles in the Los Angeles area in 1991, and CO and VOC exhaust emissions for Los Angeles in 1997. The fuel-based CO estimate for 1991 was higher by a factor of 2.3 +/- 0.5 than emissions predicted by California's MVEI 7F model. Fuel-based inventory estimates for 1997 were higher than those of California's updated MVEI 7G model by factors of 2.4 +/- 0.2 for CO and 3.5 +/- 0.6 for VOC. Fuel-based estimates indicate a 20% decrease in the mass of CO emitted, despite an 8% increase in fuel use between 1991 and 1997; official inventory models predict a 50% decrease in CO mass emissions during the same period. Cold start CO and VOC emission factors derived from parking garage measurements were lower than those predicted by the MVEI 7G model. Current inventories in California appear to understate total exhaust CO and VOC emissions, while overstating the importance of cold start emissions. The fuel-based approach yields robust, independent, and accurate estimates of on-road vehicle emissions. Fuel-based estimates should be used to validate or adjust official vehicle emission inventories before society embarks on new, more costly air pollution control programs.

Singer, Brett Craig

131

Comparison of exhaust emissions resulting from cold- and hot-start motorcycle driving modes.  

PubMed

This study investigated the emissions of criteria air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbons [HCs], and oxides of nitrogen [NOx]) from motorcycle exhaust at cold- and hot-start driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. Seven four-stroke carburetors and two fuel-injection motorcycles were tested. As expected, the emission factors (g/km) of CO and HCs increased during cold-start driving. The ratio of emission factors (g/km) for cold- and hot-start driving cycles ranged from 1.1-1.5 (for CO) to 1.2-2.8 (for HCs). However, the difference of NOx emissions between the cold- and hot-start cycles was not pronounced. Further, the cold-/hot-start ratios of CO and HCs from 50-cm3 motorcycles were higher than those of 100- and 125-cm3 motorcycles; however, the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission was the lowest for the four-stroke motorcycles. High engine temperature and poor combustion efficiency of smaller cylinder-capacity motorcycles may contribute a significant amount of exhaust emission. Additionally, the fuel-base emission factor (g/L-fuel) ratios were low compared with the distance-base emission factor (g/km) in cold- and hot-start driving. This indicates that the effect of catalyst efficiency was greater than the effect of fuel combustion in the tested motorcycles. A comparison of emission ratios of motorcycles and passenger cars shows that the warm-up may be more important for cars, especially under low-temperature conditions. However, the motorcycle contributes a large proportion of CO and HC emissions in many Asian counties. The difference between cold- and hot-start emissions may affect inventory PMID:19947115

Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Ye, Hui-Fen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-11-01

132

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non-smoking

B. Rudell; U. Wass; P. Horstedt; J. O. Levin; R. Lindahl; U. Rannug; A. L. Sunesson; Y. Ostberg; T. Sandstrom

1999-01-01

133

Exhaust emissions estimation during transient turbocharged diesel engine operation using a two-zone combustion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive, two-zone, transient, diesel combustion model is used to study the performance and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged diesel engine during load transients. Analytical modelling of fuel spray and in-cylinder processes is included, while detailed equations concerning all engine sub-systems describe the phenomena, which diversify transient operation from the steady-state. Demonstrative diagrams are provided for the time histories of

C. D. Rakopoulos; A. M. Dimaratos; E. G. Giakoumis; D. C. Rakopoulos

2009-01-01

134

Effect of Some Turkish Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends on Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, com, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20\\/80 (v\\/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and

MET?N ERGENEMAN; TURGUT ÖZAKTA?; K. BARI? CI?IZO?LU; F?L?Z KARAOSMANO?LU; ERTU?RUL ARSLAN

1997-01-01

135

Characteristic fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in fully mechanized logging operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was done using eight different logging machines (harvesters and forwarders) in clear-felling operations to quantify\\u000a the associated fuel consumption, and to define the inherent relationship between engine output power and fuel consumption.\\u000a Exhaust emissions were also calculated on the basis of mean fuel consumption values, obtained by measurements, and from the\\u000a developed regression and correlation model for diesel

Radomir Klvac; Alois Skoupy

2009-01-01

136

Investigations on emission characteristics of the pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend fuelled twin cylinder compression ignition direct injection engine using exhaust gas recirculation methodology and dimethyl carbonate as additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out on a twin cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine using pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend as fuel with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as additive. The experimental results showed that pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend fuelled engine with EGR and DMC can simultaneously reduce smoke and nitric oxide (NOx) emission. The NOx emission was reduced by about

M. Pandian; S. P. Sivapirakasam; M. Udayakumar

2010-01-01

137

Reduced mite allergen levels in dwellings with mechanical exhaust and supply ventilation.  

PubMed

Seventy similar bungalows constructed between 1968 and 1970 in the same suburban area of Stockholm were investigated regarding the content of house dust mite allergen, absolute indoor humidity, type of ventilation and basement construction. Houses with mechanical exhaust and supply ventilation had an indoor humidity above 7 g/kg less often than houses without this type of ventilation (Odds ratio 0.1, 95% confidence interval 0.0-0.2). Furthermore, only five of the 24 houses with exhaust and supply ventilation contained mattress dust mite allergen concentrations exceeding the median value (98.5 ng/g) compared with 30 of 46 hours which did not have such ventilation (odds ratio = 0.1, C.I. 0.0-0.5). Houses with both natural ventilation and crawl space basement harboured significantly less mattress mite allergen than houses having the same type of ventilation, but with a concrete slab basement. In a cold temperature climate, type of building construction and ventilation seem to be important for the occurrence of house dust mite allergens in dwellings. Our results indicate that modern energy-efficient houses should be equipped with mechanical exhaust and supply ventilation to reduce indoor air humidity during the dry winter months and the risk of mite infestation. PMID:8187025

Wickman, M; Emenius, G; Egmar, A C; Axelsson, G; Pershagen, G

1994-02-01

138

Optical Emissions from the High Speed Rocket Exhaust Interaction with the Ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing number of space shuttle and rocket launches have inspired an investigation into the effects of vehicle exhaust on the earth's upper atmosphere. A controlled Charged Aerosol Release Experiment (CARE) will be carried out in September 2009 from Wallops Island, Virginia. The high speed exhaust from the Nihka motor on the rocket contains primarily Al2O3, H2O, CO, HCl, N2, CO2 and H2, would have an exit velocity of 2.8 km/s, and the exhaust would last for 18 seconds. The heavy particles are expected to form a charged dust layer in the lower thermosphere and the ionospheric E region. Sunlight scattered from the particulates will produce a bright optical display that can be observed with a ground spectrograph. In addition, the interactions of these molecular ions with the background ionospheric electrons are expected to also produce optical emissions in the range of 400-1000 nm. Observations from the CARE campaign were obtained using a ground based Visible/NIR spectrograph and the Millstone Hill ionospheric incoherent scatter radar located in Massachusetts. The chemical processes behind the expected emissions are compared with the observed optical emissions for both temporal and spatial scales. The spectral emissions observed with the spectrograph from the Wallops site are also compared to those observed at other ground based optical diagnostics sites. The temporal evolution of the emissions is correlated with that of the formation of the ionospheric layers as observed with the Millstone Hill radar. Finally, the significance of these results and future plans for more and enhanced observation techniques will be discussed.

Bhatt, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Erickson, P. J.; Lind, F. D.; Varney, R. H.; Kelley, M. C.

2009-12-01

139

Reducing pollutant emissions by fines removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for reducing pollutant emissions, and in particular, for reducing NO \\/SUB x\\/ and particulate emissions, from a spreader-stoker-fired furnace and from a fluidized bed combustor. A combustible material of various sized particles is obtained and those smaller particles which would normally combust during the suspension phase of the spreader-stoker-fired furnace or fluidized bed combustor are separated

D. W. Pershing; G. B. Martin; J. M. Munro

1984-01-01

140

The Effects of Ethanol and Propanol Additions Into Unleaded Gasoline on Exhaust and Noise Emissions of a Spark Ignition Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust and noise emissions of a four-stroke spark ignition engine were investigated by using ethanol–gasoline blends and propanol–gasoline blends. Ethanol and propanol were added to unleaded gasoline at volume percent levels of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20%. Higher octane number, lower sulphur content, and higher oxygen content were important advantageous of the blend fuels. In general, exhaust emission profile

A. Keskin; M. Gürü

2011-01-01

141

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine with Sunflower Oil Methyl Ester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterified fuels (biodiesel) from vegetable oils are alternative fuels for diesel engines. They are renewable and offer potential reduction in CO and HC emissions due to higher O2 contents in vegetable oil. Many research studies have reported that exhaust from biodiesel fuel has higher NOx emissions while HC and PM emissions are significantly lower than operated with diesel fuel. The

K. Rajan; K. R. Senthilkumar

142

Establishing a Calibration for a Microwave Plasma Continuous Emissions Monitor For Stack Exhaust Metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real-time continuous emissions monitor for hazardous metals in stack exhaust is in development to replace the regulatory standard, EPA Method 29. A microwave plasma is sustained in ambient stack exhaust flow for real-time atomic emission spectroscopy. A metals injection calibration subsystem using a pneumatic nebulizer and standard metals solution is attached to the exhaust flow for real-time span calibration of the monitored metals. A novel approach to determine the nebulizer injection efficiency during plasma operation was tested. A known metal mass on a tungsten filament attached to an alumina rod was introduced into a nitrogen plasma at different axial positions. These signals were then correlated to masses of metals aspirated into the plasma by the nebulizer. The metals injection efficiency as a function of rod insertion position was calculated by dividing the correlated mass by the total mass aspirated by the nebulizer, and extrapolated to the end of the sample line. The resulting efficiency was compared to samples collected directly by Gelman Science Type A/E glass fiber filters off line from the plasma. The results to date give the nebulizer metals injection efficiencies less than one percent.

Flores, G. J., III; Green, K. M.; Woskov, P. P.; Hadidi, K.; Thomas, P.

1998-11-01

143

Emission factor of exhaust gas constituents during the pyrolysis of zinc chloride immersed biosolid.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis enables ZnCl2 immersed biosolid to be reused, but some hazardous air pollutants are emitted during this process. Physical characteristics of biosolid adsorbents were investigated in this work. In addition, the constituents of pyrolytic exhaust were determined to evaluate the exhaust characteristics. Results indicated that the pyrolytic temperature was higher than 500 °C, the specific surface area was >900 m(2)/g, and the total pore volume was as much as 0.8 cm(3)/g at 600 °C. For non-ZnCl2 immersed biosolid pyrolytic exhaust, VOC emission factors increased from 0.677 to 3.170 mg-VOCs/g-biosolid with the pyrolytic temperature increase from 400 to 700 °C, and chlorinated VOCs and oxygenated VOCs were the dominant fraction of VOC groups. VOC emission factors increased about three to seven times, ranging from 1.813 to 21.448 mg/g for pyrolytic temperatures at 400-700 °C, corresponding to the mass ratio of ZnCl2 and biosolid ranging from 0.25-2.5. PMID:23471775

Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chiu, Hua-Hsien

2013-08-01

144

Combustor exhaust-emissions and blowout-limits with diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels utilizing air-atomizing and pressure-atomizing nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of fuel properties on exhaust emissions and blowout limits of a high-pressure combustor segment is evaluated using a splash-groove air-atomizing fuel injector and a pressure-atomizing simplex fuel nozzle to burn both diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels. Exhaust emissions and blowout data are obtained and compared on the basis of the aromatic content and volatility of the two fuels. Exhaust smoke number and emission indices for oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons are determined for comparison. As compared to the pressure-atomizing nozzle, the air-atomizing nozzle is found to reduce nitrogen oxides by 20%, smoke number by 30%, carbon monoxide by 70%, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50% when used with diesel number 2 fuel. The higher concentration of aromatics and lower volatility of diesel number 2 fuel as compared to Jet A fuel appears to have the most detrimental effect on exhaust emissions. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons are twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel.

Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

1975-01-01

145

Studies of diesel engine particle emissions during transient operations using an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer  

SciTech Connect

Diesel engine particle emissions during transient operations, including emissions during FTP transient cycles and during active regenerations of a NOx adsorber, were studied using a fast Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS). For both fuels tested, a No. 2 certification diesel and a low sulfur diesel (BP-15), high particle concentrations and emission rates were mainly associated with heavy engine acceleration, high speed, and high torque during transient cycles. Averaged over the FTP transient cycle, the particle number concentration during tests with the certification fuel was 1.2e8/cm3, about four times the particle number concentration observed during tests using the BP-15 fuel. The effect of each engine parameter on particle emissions was studied. During tests using BP-15, the particle number emission rate was mainly controlled by the engine speed and torque, whereas for Certification fuel, the engine acceleration also had a strong effect on number emission rates. The effects of active regenerations of a diesel NOx adsorber on particle emissions were also characterized for two catalyst regeneration strategies: Delayed Extended Main (DEM) and Post 80 injection (Post80). Particle volume concentrations observed during DEM regenerations were much higher than those during Post80 regenerations, and the minimum air to fuel ratio achieved during the regenerations had little effect on particle emission for both strategies. This study provides valuable information for developing strategies that minimize the particle formation during active regenerations of NOx adsorbers.

Wang, Jian [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Domingo, Norberto [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL

2006-01-01

146

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non- smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle cabin air filters may result in further diminishing the biomedical effects of diesel exhaust in subjects exposed in traffic and workplaces.  

Rudell, B.; Wass, U.; Horstedt, P.; Levin, J. O.; Lindahl, R.; Rannug, U.; Sunesson, A. L.; Ostberg, Y.; Sandstrom, T.

1999-01-01

147

40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations...samples representing US06 City and US06 Highway emissions, as provided for in this...collected in a second bag to represent US06 Highway emissions. If engine stalling...

2013-07-01

148

Exhaust emissions from uncontrolled vehicles and related equipment using internal combustion engines. Final report. Part 5. Heavy-duty farm, construction, and industrial engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test data, documentation, and discussion on detailed emissions characterization of eight diesel engines and four gasoline engines, as well as estimated emission factors and national emissions impact for farm, construction, and industrial applications are reported as part of a study of exhaust emissions from uncontrolled vehicles and related equipment using internal combustion engines. The exhaust products measured include total hydrocarbons,

C. T. Hare; K. J. Springer

1973-01-01

149

Impact of higher alcohols blended in gasoline on light-duty vehicle exhaust emissions.  

PubMed

Certification gasoline was splash blended with alcohols to produce four blends: ethanol (16 vol%), n-butanol (17 vol%), i-butanol (21 vol%), and an i-butanol (12 vol%)/ethanol (7 vol%) mixture; these fuels were tested in a 2009 Honda Odyssey (a Tier 2 Bin 5 vehicle) over triplicate LA92 cycles. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, non-methane organic gases (NMOG), unburned alcohols, carbonyls, and C1-C8 hydrocarbons (particularly 1,3-butadiene and benzene) were determined. Large, statistically significant fuel effects on regulated emissions were a 29% reduction in CO from E16 and a 60% increase in formaldehyde emissions from i-butanol, compared to certification gasoline. Ethanol produced the highest unburned alcohol emissions of 1.38 mg/mile ethanol, while butanols produced much lower unburned alcohol emissions (0.17 mg/mile n-butanol, and 0.30 mg/mile i-butanol); these reductions were offset by higher emissions of carbonyls. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and butyraldehyde were the most significant carbonyls from the n-butanol blend, while formaldehyde, acetone, and 2-methylpropanal were the most significant from the i-butanol blend. The 12% i-butanol/7% ethanol blend was designed to produce no increase in gasoline vapor pressure. This fuel's exhaust emissions contained the lowest total oxygenates among the alcohol blends and the lowest NMOG of all fuels tested. PMID:24180630

Ratcliff, Matthew A; Luecke, Jon; Williams, Aaron; Christensen, Earl; Yanowitz, Janet; Reek, Aaron; McCormick, Robert L

2013-12-01

150

Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.  

PubMed

Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine. PMID:24350455

Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

2013-01-01

151

Exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled by waste cooking oil biodiesel.  

PubMed

The exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator operating with waste cooking oil biodiesel blends have been studied. Fuel blends with 25%, 50% and 75% of biodiesel concentration in diesel oil were tested, varying engine load from 0 to 25 kW. The original engine settings for diesel oil operation were kept the same during the experiments with the biodiesel blends. The main physical-chemical characteristics of the fuel blends used were measured to help with the analysis of the emission results. The results show that the addition of biodiesel to the fuel increases oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and exhaust gas opacity were also increased with the use of biodiesel. Major increase of NO(X) was observed at low loads, while CO and HC were mainly increased at high loads. Using 50% of biodiesel in diesel oil, the average increase of CO(2), CO, HC and NO(X) throughout the load range investigated was 8.5%, 20.1%, 23.5% and 4.8%, respectively. PMID:22664538

Valente, Osmano Souza; Pasa, Vanya Márcia Duarte; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Sodré, José Ricardo

2012-08-01

152

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motor vehicle fuels and exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions. Improved understanding of the relationship between fuel composition and PAH emissions is needed to determine whether fuel reformulation is a viable approach for reducing PAH emissions. PAH concentrations were quantified in gasoline and diesel fuel samples collected in summer 1997 in northern California. Naphthalene was the predominant PAH

Linsey C. Marr; Thomas W. Kirchstetter; Robert A. Harley; S. K. Hammond; A. H. Miguel

1999-01-01

153

Estimation and validation of PM 2.5/PM 10 exhaust and non-exhaust emission factors for practical street pollution modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to carry out efficient traffic and air quality management, validated models and PM emission estimates are needed. This paper compares current available emission factor estimates for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from emission databases and different emission models, and validates these against eight high quality street pollution measurements in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Finland and Austria. The data sets show large variation of the PM concentration and emission factors with season and with location. Consistently at all roads the PM 10 and PM 2.5 emission factors are lower in the summer month than the rest of the year. For example, PM 10 emission factors are in average 5-45% lower during the month 6-10 compared to the annual average. The range of observed total emission factors (including non-exhaust emissions) for the different sites during summer conditions are 80-130 mg km -1 for PM 10, 30-60 mg km -1 for PM 2.5 and 20-50 mg km -1 for the exhaust emissions. We present two different strategies regarding modelling of PM emissions: (1) For Nordic conditions with strong seasonal variations due to studded tyres and the use of sand/salt as anti-skid treatment a time varying emission model is needed. An empirical model accounting for these Nordic conditions was previously developed in Sweden. (2) For other roads with a less pronounced seasonal variation (e.g. in Denmark, Germany, Austria) methods using a constant emission factor maybe appropriate. Two models are presented here. Further, we apply the different emission models to data sets outside the original countries. For example, we apply the "Swedish" model for two streets without studded tyre usage and the "German" model for Nordic data sets. The "Swedish" empirical model performs best for streets with studded tyre use, but was not able to improve the correlation versus measurements in comparison to using constant emission factors for the Danish side. The "German" method performed well for the streets without clear seasonal variation and reproduces the summer conditions for streets with pronounced seasonal variation. However, the seasonal variation of PM emission factors can be important even for countries not using studded tyres, e.g. in areas with cold weather and snow events using sand and de-icing materials. Here a constant emission factor probably will under-estimate the 90-percentiles and therefore a time varying emission model need to be used or developed for such areas. All emission factor models consistently indicate that a large part (about 50-85% depending on the location) of the total PM 10 emissions originates from non-exhaust emissions. This implies that reduction measures for the exhaust part of the vehicle emissions will only have a limited effect on ambient PM 10 levels.

Ketzel, Matthias; Omstedt, Gunnar; Johansson, Christer; Düring, Ingo; Pohjola, Mia; Oettl, Dietmar; Gidhagen, Lars; Wåhlin, Peter; Lohmeyer, Achim; Haakana, Mervi; Berkowicz, Ruwim

154

Opacity meter for monitoring exhaust emissions from non-stationary sources  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for determining the opacity of exhaust plumes from moving emissions sources. In operation, a light source is activated at a time prior to the arrival of a diesel locomotive at a measurement point, by means of a track trigger switch or the Automatic Equipment Identification system, such that the opacity measurement is synchronized with the passage of an exhaust plume past the measurement point. A beam of light from the light source passes through the exhaust plume of the locomotive and is detected by a suitable detector, preferably a high-rate photodiode. The light beam is well-collimated and is preferably monochromatic, permitting the use of a narrowband pass filter to discriminate against background light. In order to span a double railroad track and provide a beam which is substantially stronger than background, the light source, preferably a diode laser, must provide a locally intense beam. A high intensity light source is also desirable in order to increase accuracy at the high sampling rates required. Also included is a computer control system useful for data acquisition, manipulation, storage and transmission of opacity data and the identification of the associated diesel engine to a central data collection center.

Dec, John Edward (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

155

Exhaust emissions from engines of the Detroit Diesel Corporation in transit buses: a decade of trends.  

PubMed

In the U.S.A., exhaust emissions from city buses fueled by diesel are not characterized well because current emission standards require engine tests rather than tests of whole vehicles. Two transportable chassis dynamometer laboratories developed and operated by West Virginia University (WVU) have been used extensively to gather realistic emission data from heavy-duty vehicles, including buses, tested in simulated driving conditions. A subset of these data has been utilized for a comprehensive introspection into the trends of regulated emissions from transit buses over the last 7 years, which has been prompted by continuously tightening restrictions on one hand, along with remarkable technological progress, on the other hand. Two widely used models of diesel engines manufactured by the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) have been selected as a case-study for such an overview, based on full-scale, on-site testing of actual city buses, driven in accordance with the SAE J1376 standard of a Commercial Business District (CBD) cycle. The results provide solid, quantitative evidence that most regulated emissions from engines produced by DDC have declined over the years, especially with the transition from the 6V-92TA to the Series 50 models. This improvement is remarkable mainly for the emissions of particulate matter (PM), that are lower by over 70%, on average, for the Series 50 engines, though the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) exhibit a reversed trend, showing a degradation of about 6%, on average, with the transition from 6V-92TA to the Series 50 engines. The expected trend of decreasing emission levels with the model year of the engine is clear and consistent for particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx), starting with the 1990 models, although it is not conclusive for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. PMID:11355189

Prucz, J C; Clark, N N; Gautam, M; Lyons, D W

2001-05-01

156

Effect of operating conditions on the exhaust emissions from a gas turbine combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exhaust concentrations of total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide were measured from a single J-57 combustor liner installed in a 30 diameter test section. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet total pressures from 1 to 20 atmospheres, inlet total temperatures from 310 to 590 K, reference velocities from 8 to m/sec, and fuel-air ratios from 0.004 to 0.015. Most of the data were obtained using ASTM A-1 fuel; however, a limited number of tests was performed with natural gas fuel. Combustion efficiency and emission levels are correlated with operating conditions. Sampling error at operating conditions for which combustion efficiency was below about 90 percent resulted in abnormally low readings for hydrocarbon emissions.

Briehl, D.; Papathakos, L.; Strancar, R. J.

1972-01-01

157

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from different reformulated diesel fuels and engine operating conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of light-duty diesel engine exhaust emissions is important due to their impact on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. In this study, both the gas and the particulate phase of fuel exhaust were analyzed to investigate the effects of diesel reformulation and engine operating parameters. The research was focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds on particulate phase due to their high toxicity. These were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. Although PAH profiles changed for diesel fuels with low-sulfur content and different percentages of aromatic hydrocarbons (5-25%), no significant differences for total PAH concentrations were detected. However, rape oil methyl ester biodiesel showed a greater number of PAH compounds, but in lower concentrations (close to 50%) than the reformulated diesel fuels. In addition, four engine operating conditions were evaluated, and the results showed that, during cold start, higher concentrations were observed for high molecular weight PAHs than during idling cycle and that the acceleration cycles provided higher concentrations than the steady-state conditions. Correlations between particulate PAHs and gas phase products were also observed. The emission of PAH compounds from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel depended greatly on the source of the fuel and the driving patterns.

Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A.; Vázquez, Monica; Zielinska, Barbara

2009-12-01

158

Monitoring of heavy metal particle emission in the exhaust duct of a foundry using LIBS.  

PubMed

Heavy metals have long been known to be detrimental to human health and the environment. Their emission is mainly considered to occur via the atmospheric route. Most of airborne heavy metals are of anthropogenic origin and produced through combustion processes at industrial sites such as incinerators and foundries. Current regulations impose threshold limits on heavy metal emissions. The reference method currently implemented for quantitative measurements at exhaust stacks consists of on-site sampling of heavy metals on filters for the particulate phase (the most prominent and only fraction considered in this study) prior to subsequent laboratory analysis. Results are therefore known only a few days after sampling. Stiffer regulations require the development of adapted tools allowing automatic, on-site or even in-situ measurements with temporal resolutions. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was deemed as a potential candidate to meet these requirements. On site experiments were run by melting copper bars and monitoring emission of this element in an exhaust duct at a pilot-scale furnace in a French research center dedicated to metal casting. Two approaches designated as indirect and direct analysis were broached in these experiments. The former corresponds to filter enrichment prior to subsequent LIBS interrogation whereas the latter entails laser focusing right through the aerosol for detection. On-site calibration curves were built and compared with those obtained at laboratory scale in order to investigate possible matrix and analyte effects. Eventually, the obtained results in terms of detection limits and quantitative temporal monitoring of copper emission clearly emphasize the potentialities of the direct LIBS measurements. PMID:24913859

Dutouquet, C; Gallou, G; Le Bihan, O; Sirven, J B; Dermigny, A; Torralba, B; Frejafon, E

2014-09-01

159

Aluminum: Reducing chloride emissions from aluminum production  

SciTech Connect

Reynolds Metals Company (RMC), with assistance from a NICE{sup 3} grant, is developing for commercialization a closed-loop control process that greatly reduces chlorine emissions and increases plant efficiency while maintaining metal quality. The process still utilizes chlorine to remove impurities during aluminum processing, but is more effective than current methods. With the new technology chlorine in the stack is monitored and input chlorine is adjusted continuously. This optimization of chlorine use results in substantially less waste because less chlorine has to be bought or produced by aluminum manufacturers. This innovation is a significant improvement over conventional aluminum treatments, in which chlorine is injected in a more costly and wasteful manner. By the year 2010, the new technology has the potential to reduce the energy it takes to create chlorine by 8.4 billion Btu per year and to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 1,377 tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29

160

Increase of urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine in diesel exhaust emission inspector exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objectives of this study were to explore the factors influencing urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in\\u000a diesel engine exhaust emission inspectors (inspectors), the association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure\\u000a and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), and the PAHs exposure levels in diesel vehicle emission inspection stations (inspection\\u000a stations).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-eight inspectors and a control group

Mei-Wen Lee; Mei-Lien Chen; Shih-Chun Candice Lung; Chung-Jung Tsai; Chao-Feng Steven Lai; Shang-Chun Yang; I-Fang Mao

161

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists 18 SSTs covered by this NOC. This NOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping.

GRANDO, C.J.

1999-11-18

162

Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to review the potential of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the exhaust emissions, particularly NOX emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique. A detailed analysis of previous and current results of EGR effects on the emissions and performance of Diesel engines, spark ignition engines and duel fuel engines is introduced.

G. H. Abd-Alla

2002-01-01

163

Effects of prevaporized fuel on exhaust emissions of an experimental gas turbine combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of fuel vaporization on the exhaust emission levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, and smoke number were obtained in an experimental turbojet combustor segment. Two fuel injector types were used in which liquid ASTM A-1 jet fuel and vapor propane fuel were independently controlled to simulate varying degrees of vaporization. Tests were conducted over a range of inlet-air temperatures from 478 to 700 K (860 to 1260 R), pressures from 4 to 20 atmospheres, and combustor reference velocities from 15.3 to 27.4 m/sec (50 to 90 ft/sec). Converting from liquid to complete vapor fuel resulted in NOX reductions as much as 22 percent and smoke number reductions up to 51 percent.

Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

1973-01-01

164

Potential Dilemma: The Methods of Meeting Automotive Exhaust Emission Standards of the Clean Air Act of 1970  

PubMed Central

This review attempts to provide an overview of the interconnected industrial changes associated with compliance with the exhaust emission standards of the Clean Air Act of 1970. To understand the complex nature of air pollution problems, Federal legislation, and compliance with this legislation requires an understanding of automotive technology, petroleum refining, atmospheric chemistry and physics, economics, and public health. The endeavors of all of these different areas impinge to a greater or lesser extent on the final response to the Clean Air Act which is designed to safeguard public health. This overview begins by examining gasoline refinery practice and gasoline composition. Included in this discussion are average values for trace contaminants in gasoline, and an explanation of the function of the many gasoline additives. Next, exhaust emissions are characterized, average values of exhaust components given, and a summary of important atmospheric air pollution reactions presented. Emission control devices and sulfate emissions from these devices are described. This is followed by a complete discussion of methyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a substitute antiknock for tetraethyllead. In the event TEL is legally banned from gasoline, or removed because it poisons the catalytic muffler surface, this manganese antiknock is the most efficaous replacement. In this discussion, the adverse health effects caused by exposure to manganese oxide particulates, the possible exhaust emission products from this additive, are examined in detail. The review concludes with comments on automotive engine and gasoline composition redesign as an approach to automotive air pollution.

Piver, Warren T.

1974-01-01

165

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the unidentified infrared emission bands - Auto exhaust along the Milky Way  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unidentified infrared emission features (UIR bands) are attributed to a collection of partially hydrogenated, positively charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This assignment is based on a spectroscopic analysis of the UIR bands. Comparison of the observed interstellar 6.2 and 7.7-micron bands with the laboratory measured Raman spectrum of a collection of carbon-based particulates (auto exhaust) shows a very good agreement, supporting this identification. The infrared emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally and electronically excited states. The excitation is probably caused by UV photon absorption. The infrared fluorescence of one particular, highly vibrationally excited PAH (chrysene) is modeled. In this analysis the species is treated as a molecule rather than bulk material and the non-thermodynamic equilibrium nature of the emission is fully taken into account. From a comparison of the observed ratio of the 3.3 to 11.3-micron UIR bands with the model calculations, the average number of carbon atoms per molecule is estimated to be about 20. The abundance of interstellar PAHs is calculated to be about 2 x 10 to the -7th with respect to hydrogen.

Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.

1985-01-01

166

Comprehensive primary particulate organic characterization of vehicular exhaust emissions in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study to characterize primary particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) from the French vehicular fleet was conducted during winter 2008, in a tunnel in Marseille, France. The carbonaceous fraction represents 70% of the aerosol mass and elemental carbon fraction (EC) represent 60% of the carbonaceous fraction. The organic carbon OC was characterized in term of its water soluble fraction, functionalization rate and HULIS content. Seventy trace organic compounds including alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), petroleum biomarkers and carboxylic acids were also quantified, in order to determine an organic emission profile for chemical mass balance modeling studies. Such source profiles were still missing in Europe and particularly in France. The profile obtained in this study is consistent with profiles determined in tunnel or dynamometer studies performed in other countries during the last ten years. These results suggest that organic compounds profiles from vehicular exhaust emissions are not significantly influenced by the geographic area and are thus suitable for use in aerosol source apportionment modeling applied across extensive regions. The chemical profile determined here is very similar to those obtained for diesel emissions with high concentrations of EC relative to OC (EC/OC = 1.8) and low concentrations of the higher molecular weight PAH. These results are consistent with the high proportion of diesel vehicles in the French fleet (49%).

El Haddad, Imad; Marchand, Nicolas; Dron, Julien; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Quivet, Etienne; Wortham, Henri; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Baduel, Christine; Voisin, Didier; Besombes, Jean Luc; Gille, Gregory

2009-12-01

167

Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C). PMID:24758145

Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

2014-05-20

168

Nanoparticle emissions from 11 non-vehicle exhaust sources - A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle emissions from road vehicles have been studied extensively in the recent past due to their dominant contribution towards the total airborne particle number concentrations (PNCs) found in the urban atmospheric environment. In view of upcoming tighter vehicle emission standards and adoption of cleaner fuels in many parts of the world, the contribution to urban nanoparticles from non-vehicle exhaust sources (NES) may become more pronounced in future. As of now, only limited information exists on nanoparticle emissions from NES through the discretely published studies. This article presents critically synthesised information in a consolidated manner on 11 NES (i.e. road-tyre interaction, construction and demolition, aircraft, ships, municipal waste incineration, power plants, domestic biomass burning, forest fires, cigarette smoking, cooking, and secondary formation). Source characteristics and formation mechanisms of nanoparticles emitted from each NES are firstly discussed, followed by their emission strengths, airborne concentrations and physicochemical characteristics. Direct comparisons of the strengths of NES are not straightforward but an attempt has been made to discuss their importance relative to the most prominent source (i.e. road vehicles) of urban nanoparticles. Some interesting comparisons emerged such as 1 kg of fast and slow wood burning produces nearly the same number of particles as for each km driven by a heavy duty vehicle (HDV) and a light duty vehicle, respectively. About 1 min of cooking on gas can produce the similar particle numbers generated by ˜10 min of cigarette smoking or 1 m travel by a HDV. Apportioning the contribution of numerous sources from the bulk measured airborne PNCs is essential for determining their relative importance. Receptor modelling methods for estimation of source emission contributions are discussed. A further section evaluates the likely exposure risks, health and regulatory implications associated with each NES. It is concluded that much research is needed to provide adequate quantification of all nanoparticle sources, and to establish the relative toxicity of nanosize particles from each.

Kumar, Prashant; Pirjola, Liisa; Ketzel, Matthias; Harrison, Roy M.

2013-03-01

169

Assessing the impact of the forthcoming decrease in diesel exhaust particulate matter emissions on air quality: implications for black carbon concentrations in ambient air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forthcoming regulations (e.g. EURO 5 and EURO 6) are planned to reduce particulate matter emissions (PM) in the exhaust of forthcoming vehicles. In this study we assess the impact of such reduction in the diesel PM exhaust emissions on the urban ambient air PM concentrations. This has been done by studying the relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in urban ambient air and in the exhaust of current and forthcoming vehicles. The slope of the BC-vs-CO linear relationship is mainly affected by the percentage (%) of diesel automobiles in the urban vehicles fleet. This slope is a better indicator of the diesel PM emissions than bulk BC concentrations in urban ambient air. BC-vs-CO slopes within the range 1-3 and 7-14 ngBC/µgCO are typically observed in urban areas with low (<25%) and high (?50%) proportions of diesel-fuel consumption for on road transportation, respectively. The entry into force of forthcoming regulations will decrease the BC-vs-CO slope in urban ambient air from about 10 to 5 ngBC/µgCO in the next decade, according to calculations based on the current data on diesel vehicles in urban fleets in Spanish cities. However, this will not necessary prompt a significant decrease in the urban BC concentrations if road traffic volume follows the increasing trend of the last decade. The results of this study shows that the analysis of the BC-vs-CO slope trend in ambient air is an useful tool for understanding the involvement "of the changes in the vehicle exhaust emissions rates" and "of the changes in the road traffic volume" in the BC and PMx trends in urban ambient air.

González, Y.; Rodríguez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Ramos, R.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Baldasano, J. M.

2009-04-01

170

Carbonyl emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust in China and the contribution to ozone formation potential.  

PubMed

Fifteen heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested on chassis dynamometer by using typical heavy duty driving cycle and fuel economy cycle. The air from the exhaust was sampled by 2,4-dinitrophenyhydrazine cartridge and 23 carbonyl compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The average emission factor of carbonyls was 97.2 mg/km, higher than that of light-duty diesel vehicles and gasoline-powered vehicles. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and propionaldehyde were the species with the highest emission factors. Main influencing factors for carbonyl emissions were vehicle type, average speed and regulated emission standard, and the impact of vehicle loading was not evident in this study. National emission of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was calculated for China, 2011, based on both vehicle miles traveled and fuel consumption. Carbonyl emission of diesel vehicle was estimated to be 45.8 Gg, and was comparable to gasoline-powered vehicles (58.4 Gg). The emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were 12.6, 6.9, 3.8 Gg, respectively. The ozone formation potential of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was 537 mg O3/km, higher than 497 mg O3/km of none-methane hydrocarbons emitted from diesel vehicles. PMID:24649697

Dong, Dong; Shao, Min; Li, Yue; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Yanjun; Ji, Zhe; Tang, Dagang

2014-01-01

171

Trends in primary NO2 and exhaust PM emissions from road traffic for the period 2000-2020 and implications for air quality and health in the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of an oxidation catalyst mainly by diesel-fuelled passenger cars reduces harmful exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM). As a side effect, the primary NO2/NOx emission ratio by these vehicles increased from 10% in 2000 (before the introduction of the oxidation catalyst) to between 55% and 70% in 2010. The impact of this evolution in traffic emissions was studied from both a health and a regulatory perspective. Primary NO2 emissions from road traffic in the Netherlands is expected to increase from 8 kt in 2000 to 15 kt by 2015 and subsequently to decrease to 9 kt by 2020. Meanwhile, exhaust PM emissions from road traffic in the Netherlands will decrease from 7 kt in 2000 to 3 kt by 2020. The impact of exhaust PM on air quality and health was assessed according to the mass concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) in ambient air, as EC is a more sensitive indicator than PM. Monitoring data on the NO2/EC concentration ratios near road traffic between 2000 and 2010 indicate no significant change in ambient air quality. This indicates that health effects in epidemiological studies associated with long-term exposure to NO2 concentrations are still valid. The health impact from the introduction of the oxidation catalyst was assessed by comparing the relatively higher NO2 ("cost") and lower EC ("benefit") concentrations at street locations. "Relative" refers to traffic emissions in situations "with" and "without" the oxidation catalyst being introduced. The cost-benefit ratio in 2010 was in balance, but benefits are expected to outweigh costs by 2015 and 2020. It is concluded that the application of oxidation catalysts is beneficial from a health perspective, but from a regulatory perspective it complicates compliance with the average annual limit value of NO2. This indicates that additional local measures may be required in order to meet air quality standards at locations with high traffic intensities.

Keuken, M. P.; Roemer, M. G. M.; Zandveld, P.; Verbeek, R. P.; Velders, G. J. M.

2012-07-01

172

The impact of using biodiesel\\/marine gas oil blends on exhaust emissions from a stationary diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of marine gas oil (MGO)\\/biodiesel blends on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in a single cylinder, stationary, diesel engine. Three different origins of biodiesel were used as the blending feedstock with the reference MGO, at proportions of 5 and 10% by volume. Methyl esters were examined according to the

G. Karavalakis; E. Tzirakis; L. Mattheou; S. Stournas; F. Zannikos; D. Karonis

2008-01-01

173

Effect of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using diesel–methanol blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental concerns and limited resource of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (IC) engines. For diesel engines, alcohols are receiving increasing attention because they are oxygenated and renewable fuels. Therefore, in this study, the effect of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke, direct injection diesel

Cenk Sayin; Murat Ilhan; Mustafa Canakci; Metin Gumus

2009-01-01

174

Effects of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, influence of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder diesel engine has been experimentally investigated when using ethanol blended diesel fuel from 0% to 15% with an increment of 5%. The engine load was selected as 15 and 30Nm. The tests were conducted at five different injection timings (21°,

Cenk Sayin; Mustafa Canakci

2009-01-01

175

Influence of ethanol–diesel blended fuels on diesel exhaust emissions and mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of ethanol addition on diesel exhaust emissions and the toxicity of particulate extracts. The experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty diesel engine and five fuels were used, namely: E0 (base diesel fuel), E5 (5%), E10 (10%), E15 (15%) and E20 (20%), respectively. The regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, PM) and polycyclic aromatic

Chong-Lin Song; Ying-Chao Zhou; Rui-Jing Huang; Yu-Qiu Wang; Qi-Fei Huang; Gang Lü; Ke-Ming Liu

2007-01-01

176

Emission characteristics of exhaust gases and nanoparticles from a diesel engine with biodiesel-diesel blended fuel (BD20)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental study sought to investigate the characteristics of the exhaust emissions, and nanoparticle size distribution\\u000a of particulate matter (PM) emitted from diesel engines fueled with 20% biodiesel-diesel blended fuel (BD20). The study also\\u000a investigated the conversion efficiency of the warm-up catalytic converter (WCC). The emission characteristics of HC, CO, NOx\\u000a and nano-sized PM were also observed according to engine

Hwanam Kim; Byungchul Choi

2009-01-01

177

Increasing trend of primary NO(2) exhaust emission fraction in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Despite the successful reduction in roadside NO( x ) levels, no such decrease has been detected in roadside NO(2) concentration in Hong Kong. One underlying cause could be the rising primary NO(2) fraction of the total emission of NO( x ). Primary NO(2) can be particularly detrimental to Hong Kong because a large fraction of the population are exposed to the traffic-related primary pollutants in the street canyons formed by congested high-rise buildings. In this study, hourly mean concentration data for roadside nitrogen oxides (NO( x )), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and background ozone (O(3)) were used to estimate the mean primary NO(2) fraction from vehicle exhausts in Hong Kong. An overall increasing trend was observed for the primary NO(2) fraction (f-NO(2)) values in all the three roadside air monitoring sites. The primary NO(2) as a fraction of total NO( x ) (f-NO(2)) increased approximately from 2% in 1998 to 13% in 2008 in Hong Kong. The two particular periods of rising f-NO(2) coincided with the two implementation periods of the diesel retrofit programs for the light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles. Future vehicle emission control strategies should target not only total NO( x ) but also primary NO(2). Health benefit or disease burden estimates should be taken into account and updated in the process of policy planning and evaluation. PMID:21331790

Tian, Linwei; Hossain, Sarah R; Lin, Hualiang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Yu, Ignatius T S

2011-12-01

178

Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.

Poola, R.B.; Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baudino, J.H. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Colucci, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

179

Laboratory evaluation of a prototype photochemical chamber designed to investigate the health effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions  

PubMed Central

Laboratory experiments simulating atmospheric aging of motor vehicle exhaust emissions were conducted using a single vehicle and a photochemical chamber. A compact automobile was used as a source of emissions. The vehicle exhaust was diluted with ambient air to achieve carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations similar to those observed in an urban highway tunnel. With the car engine idling, it is expected that the CO concentration is a reasonable surrogate for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Varying the amount of dilution of the exhaust gas to produce different CO concentrations, allowed adjustment of the concentrations of VOCs in the chamber to optimize production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) needed for animal toxicological exposures. Photochemical reactions in the chamber resulted in nitric oxide (NO) depletion, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) formation, ozone (O3) accumulation, and SOA formation. A stable SOA concentration of approximately 40 µg m?3 at a chamber mean residence time of 30 min was achieved. This relatively short mean residence time provided adequate chamber flow output for both particle characterization and animal exposures. The chamber was operated as a continuous flow reactor for animal toxicological tests. SOA mass generated from the car exhaust diluted with ambient air was almost entirely in the ultrafine mode. Chamber performance was improved by using different types of seed aerosol to provide a surface for condensation of semivolatile reaction products, thus increasing the yield of SOA. Toxicological studies using Sprague-Dawley rats found significant increases of in vivo chemiluminescence in lungs following exposure to SOA.

Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy E.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Long, Mark S.; Godleski, John J.; Koutrakis, Petros

2013-01-01

180

Reducing Indoor Air Emissions from Dry-Process Photocopy Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses reducing indoor air emissions from dry-process photocopy machines. These emissions include: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone, and particles. By measuring emissions in a large test chamber, reviewing the literature, and interact...

K. W. Leovic C. M. Northeim J. A. Calcagni L. S. Sheldon D. A. Whitaker

1997-01-01

181

The impact of using biodiesel/marine gas oil blends on exhaust emissions from a stationary diesel engine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of marine gas oil (MGO)/biodiesel blends on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in a single cylinder, stationary, diesel engine. Three different origins of biodiesel were used as the blending feedstock with the reference MGO, at proportions of 5 and 10% by volume. Methyl esters were examined according to the automotive FAME standard EN 14214. The baseline MGO and biodiesel blends were examined according to ISO 8217:2005 specifications for the DMA category. Independently of the biodiesel used, a decrease of PM, HC, CO and CO(2) emissions was observed. Emissions of NO(x) were also lower with respect to MGO. This reduction in NO(x) may be attributed to some physicochemical properties of the fuels applied, such as the higher cetane number and the lower volatility of methyl esters. Reductions in PM for biodiesel blends were lower in the exhaust than those of the reference fuel which was attributed to the oxygen content and the near absence of sulphur and aromatics compounds in biodiesel. However, a slight increase in fuel consumption was observed for the biodiesel blends that may be tolerated due to the exhaust emissions benefits. Brake thermal efficiency was also determined. Unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction content of the particulate matter. PMID:18988104

Karavalakis, G; Tzirakis, E; Mattheou, L; Stournas, S; Zannikos, F; Karonis, D

2008-12-01

182

An Analysis of Exhaust Emissions on a Diesel Engine Operation by Biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils can be seen as a renewable fuel source for diesel engines. However, their viscosity is higher than that of diesel fuel. The higher viscosity of vegetable oil causes many combustion problems when directly used in diesel engines. In this study, a transesterification method was used to reduce the viscosity of the vegetable oil. Emission characteristics of both biodiesel

C. ?lkiliç

2010-01-01

183

Turbine exhaust diffuser flow path with region of reduced total flow area  

DOEpatents

An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary has a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub. The region can begin at a point that is substantially aligned with the downstream end of the hub or, alternatively, at a point that is proximately upstream of the downstream end of the hub. The region directs at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub. As a result, the exhaust diffuser system and method can achieve the performance of a long hub system while enjoying the costs of a short hub system.

Orosa, John A.

2012-12-25

184

Simulation and measurement of carbon dioxide exhaust emissions using an optical-fibre-based mid-infrared point sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel optical-fibre-based sensor for measurement of CO2 gas emission concentrations in exhaust systems of a motor vehicle is reported. The sensing principle is based on open-path direct absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared range. The sensor system comprises of low cost and compact mid-infrared components, which make it suitable for insertion into the exhaust system of automotive vehicles. The sensor utilizes a calcium fluoride CaF2 narrow band pass (NBP) filter for detection of CO2 gas without cross-sensitivity to other gases present in the exhaust system. Furthermore, it can be integrated into the mechanical and electronic interface systems of existing vehicles without any problems.

Muda, Razali; Dooly, Gerard; Clifford, John; Mulrooney, Jim; Flavia, Gili; Merlone-Borla, Edoardo; Chambers, Paul; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Lewis, Elfed

2009-05-01

185

Reducing flyover noise of propeller-driven aeroplanes by superposition of propeller- and exhaust-noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propeller farfield-noise attenuation is presently accomplished by means of a superimposition of piston-engine exhaust noise on the propeller-generated noise in order to produce destructive interference. This objective may be efficiently accomplished by adjusting the relative circumferential position of the propeller blades to the crankshaft. This concept has been theoretically and experimentally verified for an apparatus in which a flange was inserted between the propeller and the driveshaft; this flange can be rotated in steps to shift the sound-wave phase of the propeller relative to the engine exhaust.

Kallergis, M.

186

Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

2001-12-31

187

40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-12 Section 600.113-12...Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.113-12 Fuel economy...HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator will use...

2013-07-01

188

Influence of ethanol-diesel blended fuels on diesel exhaust emissions and mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate extracts.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of ethanol addition on diesel exhaust emissions and the toxicity of particulate extracts. The experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty diesel engine and five fuels were used, namely: E0 (base diesel fuel), E5 (5%), E10 (10%), E15 (15%) and E20 (20%), respectively. The regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were measured, and Ames test and Comet assay, respectively, were used to investigate the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of particulate extracts. From the point of exhaust emissions, the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel could result in higher brake specific THC (BSTHC) and CO (BSCO) emissions and lower smoke emissions, while the effects on the brake specific NOx (BSNOx) and particulate matters (BSPM) were not obvious. The PAH emissions showed an increasing trend with a growth of ethanol content in the ethanol-diesel blends. As to the biotoxicity, E20 always had the highest brake specific revertants (BSR) in both TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolizing enzymes (S9), while the lowest BSR were found in E5 except that of TA98-S9. DNA damage data showed a lower genotoxic potency of E10 and E15 as a whole. PMID:17513038

Song, Chong-Lin; Zhou, Ying-Chao; Huang, Rui-Jing; Wang, Yu-Qiu; Huang, Qi-Fei; Lü, Gang; Liu, Ke-Ming

2007-10-22

189

Trends in exhaust emissions from in-use Mexico City vehicles, 2000-2006. A remote sensing study.  

PubMed

A remote sensing study was conducted in year 2006 in four locations of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). Two of the sites were the same studied back by us in year 2000 and by others in year 1994. A database was compiled containing 11,289 valid measurements for the carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and nitric oxide (NO) exhaust vehicles emissions. Valid measurements were binned for each pollutant by the vehicle specific power (between -5 and 20 kW tonne(-1)) for the 2000 and 2006 databases. The mean average CO, THC, and NO emissions for year 2006 were determined to be 1.10 +/- 0.18 vol.%, 299 +/- 88.4 ppm, and 610 +/- 115.0 ppm, respectively. Matching the vehicle driving patterns of the fleet measured in year 2000 with the emissions factors obtained in this work, allows estimating the trends in the exhaust emissions of vehicles in the MAMC. The adjusted results of the remote sensing study performed in year 2006 shows that the fleet has decrease 22% in CO and 17% in NO emissions, with small change in total hydrocarbons emissions. The improvements could be related with the introduction in year 2001 of vehicles that met tighter emissions standards, particularly for nitrogen oxides. PMID:17503197

Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; Durán, J; Chávez, O

2008-02-01

190

Three-Dimensional Model of the Spectral Emissivity of Light Scattering Exhaust Plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional model of radiation of rocket exhaust plumes is given, which is based on the Monte Carlo simulation method. Two problems associated with the determination of spectral directional radiation of rocket exhaust plumes are treated, namely, the self-radiation of multiple plumes and the scattering of solar radiation incident on a single or multiple plume at an arbitrary angle by

S. T. Surzhikov

2004-01-01

191

Effects of ethanol–diesel fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ethanol with conventional diesel fuel, with 5% and 10% (by vol.) ethanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a fully instrumented, six-cylinder, turbocharged and after-cooled, heavy duty, direct injection (DI), Mercedes–Benz engine, installed at the authors’ laboratory, which is used to power the mini-bus diesel engines

D. C. Rakopoulos; C. D. Rakopoulos; E. C. Kakaras; E. G. Giakoumis

2008-01-01

192

Effects of premixed diethyl ether (DEE) on combustion and exhaust emissions in a HCCI-DI diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of premixed ratio of diethyl ether (DEE) on the combustion and exhaust emissions of a single-cylinder, HCCI-DI engine were investigated. The experiments were performed at the engine speed of 2200rpm and 19Nm operating conditions. The amount of the premixed DEE was controlled by a programmable electronic control unit (ECU) and the DEE injection was conducted

Özer Can; Fatih Sahin; H. Serdar Yucesu

2010-01-01

193

A new device for reducing diesel engine emissions: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

A new catalytic converter is compose by a alloy noble metal supported on inert wool and located downstream to combustion chamber appears able to markedly reduce the content of toxic organics, fine particulates and CO emitted by a diesel engine equipped truck. By contrast, emissions of NOx and particulate n-alkanes remain unaltered or increase, according to the driving and operating conditions of the vehicle. Although this tesrs are preliminary the results obtained, however, suggest that the adoption of this device significantly reduce the health risk associated to fine aerosols and carcinogenic PAH. Exhaust concentrations of some unregulated species, e.g. volatile aldehydes, were lowered by the oxidising catalyzer. PMID:12650577

Mabilia, Rosanna; Cecinato, Angelo; Possanzini, Massimiliano; Di Palo, Vincenzo

2003-01-01

194

Exhausting handgrip exercise reduces the blood flow in the active calf muscle exercising at low intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calf and forearm blood flows (Q\\u000acalf and Q\\u000aforearm respectively), blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen uptake of six men and women were studied during combined leg and handgrip exercise to determine whether a reduction of exercise-induced hyperaemia would occur in the active leg when exhausting rhythmic handgrip exercise at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was superimposed upon

Atsuko Kagaya; Mitsuru Saito; Futoshi Ogita; Minoru Shinohara

1994-01-01

195

A fuel-based inventory of motor vehicle exhaust emissions in the Los Angeles area during summer 1997  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fuel-based approach was used to estimate stabilized exhaust carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Fleet-average emission factors of 80±7 g l -1 CO and 9.3±1.5 g l -1 VOC were calculated from more than 60,000 infrared remote sensor measurements collected at 35 sites throughout the greater Los Angeles area during summer 1997. Fuel use by SoCAB cars and light/medium-duty trucks was estimated to be 5.9±0.3×10 7 l day -1 based on statewide gasoline sales during summer 1997. Fuel-based estimates of 4700±500 metric tons day -1 CO and 550±90 metric tons day -1 VOC are higher than stabilized exhaust emissions estimates of California's MVEI 7G model by factors of 2.4±0.2 for CO and 3.5±0.6 for VOC. According to fuel-based inventory estimates, stabilized CO emissions in 1997 were lower by 20% than emissions during summer 1991. Fuel use increased by 8% during this period while the CO emission factor decreased by 26%. The relationship between income level and vehicle emissions was examined using census data resolved to the zip code level. On average, CO and VOC emission factors of vehicles registered in the lowest income areas were double those of vehicles registered in the highest income areas. Differences in vehicle emissions between neighborhoods were due in part to differences in the prevalence of older vehicles, but also resulted because vehicles of the same age had higher emissions in lower-income areas.

Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

196

Combustor exhaust-emissions and blowout-limits with diesel number 2 and jet A fuels utilizing air-atomizing and pressure atomizing nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental tests with diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels were conducted in a combustor segment to obtain comparative data on exhaust emissions and blowout limits. An air-atomizing nozzle was used to inject the fuels. Tests were also made with diesel number 2 fuel using a pressure-atomizing nozzle to determine the effectiveness of the air-atomizing nozzle in reducing exhaust emissions. Test conditions included fuel-air ratios of 0.008 to 0.018, inlet-air total pressures and temperatures of 41 to 203 newtons per square centimeter and 477 to 811 K, respectively, and a reference velocity of 21.3 meters per second. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons were twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel. This was attributed to diesel number 2 having a higher concentration of aromatics and lower volatility than Jet A fuel. Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and blowout limits were approximately the same for the two fuels. The air-atomizing nozzle, as compared with the pressure-atomizing nozzle, reduced oxides-of-nitrogen by 20 percent, smoke number by 30 percent, carbon monoxide by 70 percent, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50 percent when used with diesel number 2 fuel.

Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

1975-01-01

197

Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and phenols from vehicles coming within different European classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EU emission standards for vehicles do not include many particulate (PM) and gaseous species, despite their considerable impact on air pollution and health. Emission factors (EFs) were measured for unregulated species, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes (ALKs) in the particle phase, and, for the first time, EFs for phenols in both particle and gas phases. Exhaust samples were collected under controlled operating conditions (chassis dynamometer tests) for in-service vehicles (private cars, PCs and light duty vehicles, LDVs) from different EURO classes. EFs of trace organics were highest for the old EURO 1 vehicles (the tested EURO 1 vehicles were without emission-control devices), and lowest for the more recent EURO 3 and 4 vehicles. ALKs (C20-C32) were the most abundant trace organic compounds found in PM vehicle exhaust, and their EF ranged between 2034 and 101 ?g km-1 (Euro 1-4 LDVs). PM-phased phenols EFs were in the range 0.42-2.50 ?g km-1, and 4-nitrophenol was the most abundant one. The highest EFs were measured for phenols in the gas phase (dominated by the presence of phenol) for gasoline EURO 1 (43.16 ± 9.99 ?g km-1). Emissions of PAHs changed depending on the fuel used. The PAH EFs of diesel-driven PCs were 4-5 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles, with PAHs diesel exhaust being mainly enriched in low 4-ring PAHs (85%), while 5-6 ring PAHs were prevalent (55%) in gasoline vehicles. Results of source profiles from chassis dynamometer tests were compared with ambient data, and the traffic PAH source profile derived from a tunnel study (Milan) agreed with the estimated emissions from a mix of diesel and gasoline vehicles circulating in the same area. Moreover, the impact of EURO regulatory changes on exhaust emissions was calculated, and this made it possible to estimate the downward trend of PAH emissions in the Province of Milan in the period 2005-2020.

Perrone, Maria Grazia; Carbone, Claudio; Faedo, Davide; Ferrero, Luca; Maggioni, Angela; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Bolzacchini, Ezio

2014-01-01

198

Current and future emission estimates of exhaust gases and particles from shipping at the largest port in Korea.  

PubMed

The emissions of exhaust gases (NO x , SO2, VOCs, and CO2) and particles (e.g., PM) from ships traversing Busan Port in Korea were estimated over three different years (the years 2006, 2008, and 2009). This analysis was performed according to the ship operational modes ("at sea," "maneuvering," and "in port") and ship types based on an activity-based method. The ship emissions for current (base year 2009) and future scenarios (years 2020 and 2050) were also compared. The annual emissions of SO2, VOCs, PM, and CO2 were highest (9.6?×?10(3), 374, 1.2?×?10(3), and 5.6?×?10(5) ton year(-1), respectively) in 2008. In contrast, the annual NO x emissions were highest (11.7?×?10(3) ton year(-1)) in 2006 due mainly to the high NO x emission factor. The emissions of air pollutants for each ship operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in "in port" mode. In addition, the largest fraction (approximately 45-67 %) of the emissions of all air pollutants during the study period was emitted from container ships. The future ship emissions of most pollutants (except for SO2 and PM) in 2020 and 2050 are estimated to be 1.4-1.8 and 4.7-6.1 times higher than those in 2009 (base year), respectively. PMID:24497306

Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

2014-05-01

199

40 CFR 86.1823-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and applied to the emission data vehicle (EDV) emission results or aged components are installed on the EDV prior to emission testing. (1) Deterioration...may elect to install aged components on an EDV prior to emission testing rather than...

2009-07-01

200

40 CFR 86.1823-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and applied to the emission data vehicle (EDV) emission results or aged components are installed on the EDV prior to emission testing. (1) Deterioration...may elect to install aged components on an EDV prior to emission testing rather than...

2010-07-01

201

Policy Planning to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preceded by the State Workbook: Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this document by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves to guide states in "identifying and evaluating options to mitigate emissions" affecting global climate change. Each of the report's three parts details climate change and policy options. Part one discusses the Initiation of Climate Change Programs. Part two describes sources of emissions and potential policy options. Part three completes the report by offering "guidance in preparing the State Action Plan." Appendices supply a glossary, references, state plans, and a specific example reduction plan.

Agency., United S.

1998-01-01

202

Role of average speed in N?O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?  

PubMed

Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. PMID:22245865

Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

2012-05-15

203

REDUCING STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM SPRAYED FILLED RESINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Styrene emissions are coming under increasing study as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops maximum achievable control technology standards. During the manufacture of fiber-reinforced plastics/composites products, styrene, a volatile organic compound and a haz...

204

FTIR analysis of supported catalyst systems related to the reduction of automotive exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used in tandem to investigate the surface chemistry and reactivity of three different catalyst systems. The three systems were related by their relevance to current issues in automotive exhaust catalysis and the fact that each system operated under non-steady state conditions. In the first system, isothermal kinetic rate oscillations in the oxidation

Paul Timothy Fanson

2002-01-01

205

Is acute static stretching able to reduce the time to exhaustion at power output corresponding to maximal oxygen uptake?  

PubMed

This study analyzed the effect of an acute static stretching bout on the time to exhaustion (Tlim) at power output corresponding to VO2max. Eleven physically active male subjects (age 22.3+/-2.8 years, VO2max 2.7+/-0.5 L.min) completed an incremental cycle ergometer test, 2 muscle strength tests, and 2 maximal tests to exhaustion at power output corresponding to VO2max with and without a previous static stretching bout. The Tlim was not significantly affected by the static stretching (164+/-28 vs. 150+/-26 seconds with and without stretching, respectively, p=0.09), but the time to reach VO2max (118+/-22 vs. 102+/-25 seconds), blood-lactate accumulation immediately after exercise (10.7+/-2.9 vs. 8.0+/-1.7 mmol.L), and oxygen deficit (2.4+/-0.9 vs. 2.1+/-0.7 L) were significantly reduced (preduce Tlim at power output corresponding to VO2max possibly by accelerating aerobic metabolism activation at the beginning of exercise. These results suggest that coaches and practitioners involved with aerobic dependent activities may use static stretching as part of their warm-up routines without fear of diminishing high-intensity aerobic exercise performance. PMID:20508470

Samogin Lopes, Felipe A; Menegon, Elton M; Franchini, Emerson; Tricoli, Valmor; de M Bertuzzi, Rômulo C

2010-06-01

206

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Using the Mole Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an application of quantitative chemistry concepts in the context of motor vehicle emissions. Shows how carbon dioxide emissions from cars may be reduced by up to 25% by reducing motorway speeds from 70-75 mph to 60 mph. (Author/MM)

Myers, Alan

2002-01-01

207

Emission of viable bacteria in the exhaust flue gases from a hospital incinerator.  

PubMed

The exhaust gases from an oil-fired hospital waste incinerator were examined during normal incinerator operation. The design-specified operating temperature was 800 degrees C in the primary combustion chamber and 1000 degrees C in the secondary chamber. Flue gas temperatures, measured from the sampling point at the base of the exhaust stack, varied over the range 186-305 degrees C, and bacteria were recovered from this position in numbers up to 400 cfu m-3 (mean 56 cfu m-3). No sampling was performed at the top of the stack where flue gases were discharged to the atmosphere. Isolates were predominantly gram positive, i.e. Bacillus spp., coagulase negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus, although low numbers of gram negative species (Pseudomonas fluorescens and other pseudomonads) were also recovered. Our results suggest that incineration may not constitute an absolute method of sterilization for clinical waste. PMID:2570106

Blenkharn, J I; Oakland, D

1989-07-01

208

Motor exhaust emissions as a primary source of dicarboxylic acids in Los Angeles ambient air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (Câ-Cââ) were analyzed in Los Angeles air and auto exhaust, as well as greenhouse air, soil, dust, and bog sediment samples, as dibutyl esters by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with fused silica capillary columns. In the Los Angeles ambient atmosphere, 19 dicarboxylic acids in the range Câ-Cââ were identified, including straight-chain, branched-chain, cis-

Kimitaka Kawamura; Isaac R. Kaplan

1987-01-01

209

Determination of naval medium speed diesel engine air exhaust emissions and validation of a proposed estimation model. Master`s thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady state marine diesel engine exhaust emissions are being reviewed by the Environmental Protection Agency for possible regulation. In anticipation of future regulation, the United States Navy is developing appropriate emissions models for naval vessels. A procedure for collecting this data from an U. S. Navy ship with medium speed main propulsion diesels is presented. It is based on similar

Mayeaux

1995-01-01

210

Effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions on breathing pattern and cellular responses--pilot single vehicle study.  

PubMed

The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O?, OH and other radicals. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 5 h to either filtered room air (sham) or one of two different atmospheres: (i) diluted car exhaust (P)+Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); (ii) P+MSHA+secondary organic aerosol (SOA, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a nonselective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 h after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363?±?66 ?g/m³ P+MSHA and 212?±?95 µg/m³ P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in total cells, macrophages and neutrophils in the BAL and in vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

Diaz, Edgar A; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

2012-04-01

211

Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

1999-01-01

212

78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...amended the emission standards for certain turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

213

78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...comments amending the emission standards for turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

214

40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from your engines may not exceed the numerical emission standards in paragraph (a...specified test fuel. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons...demonstration must include an engineering analysis of information equivalent to...

2013-07-01

215

PARKING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report defines the concept of parking management and explores how parking management can be used to improve air quality, support mass transit, reduce energy consumption and improve the amenities of life in urban areas. Specific aspects of this analysis were developments of a...

216

A fuel-based approach to estimating motor vehicle exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicles contribute significantly to air pollution problems; accurate motor vehicle emission inventories are therefore essential to air quality planning. Current travel-based inventory models use emission factors measured from potentially biased vehicle samples and predict fleet-average emissions which are often inconsistent with on-road measurements. This thesis presents a fuel-based inventory approach which uses emission factors derived from remote sensing or

Brett Craig Singer

1998-01-01

217

Exhaust emissions survey of a turbofan engine for flame holder swirl type augmentors at simulated altitude flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of carbon dioxide, total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide from an F100 afterburning two spool turbofan engine at simulated flight conditions are reported. Tests were run at Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 10.97 and 13.71 km (36,000 and 45,000 ft), and at Mach 1.2 at 13.71 km (45,000 ft). Emission measurements were made from intermediate power (nonafterburning) through maximum afterburning, using a single point gas sample probe traversed across the horizontal diameter of the exhaust nozzle. The data show that emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the nozzle. Carbon monoxide emissions were low for intermediate and partial afterburning power. Unburned hydrocarbons were near zero for most of the simulated flight conditions. At maximum afterburning, there were regions of NOx deficiency in regions of high CO. The results suggest that the low NOx levels observed in the tests are a result of interaction with high CO in the thermal converter. CO2 emissions were proportional to local fuel air ratio for all test conditions.

Moss, J. E., Jr.

1981-01-01

218

Effects of fuel ethanol content and volatility on regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions for the latest technology gasoline vehicles.  

PubMed

Oxygenate content and fuel volatility (distillation) variables are important parameters affecting vehicle exhaust emissions, and data on their effects on the latest technology vehicles are quite limited. For this study, 12 California-certified LEV to SULEV vehicles were tested on a matrix of 12 fuels with varying levels of ethanol concentration (0, 5.7, and 10 vol %), T50 (195, 215, and 235 degrees F), and T90 (295, 330, and 355 degrees F). There were statistically significant interactions between ethanol and T90 for NMHC, ethanol, and T50 for CO and ethanol and T50 for NO(x). NMHC emissions increased with increasing ethanol content at the midpoint and high level of T90 but were unaffected at the low T90 level. CO emissions decreased as the ethanol content increased from the low to the midpoint level for all levels of T50, but between the 5.7 and 10% ethanol levels, CO showed only an increase for the high level of T50. NO(x) emissions increased with ethanol content for some conditions. Non-methane organic gases (NMOG) and toxic emissions were examined for only a subset of fuels with the highest T90 level, with NMOG, acetaldehyde, benzene, and 1-,3-butadiene all found to increase with increasing ethanol content. PMID:17612190

Durbin, Thomas D; Miller, J Wayne; Younglove, Theodore; Huai, Tao; Cockert, Kathalena

2007-06-01

219

Effect on exhaust emissions by the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) fuel additive and other lead replacement gasolines.  

PubMed

This paper examines the potential effects on car exhaust emissions of a range of alternative lead replacement gasolines in the context of south European countries such as Greece. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects on emissions from non-catalyst passenger vehicles by the substitution of leaded ('super') gasoline with Euro95 unleaded enriched with the additive MMT or other alternative to leaded gasoline fuels. Regulated emissions, two non-regulated pollutants and vehicle performance were measured on two catalyst-equipped and two conventional, non-catalyst vehicles. It was found that there was no measurable effect on regulated emissions (CO, HC and NO(x)) and on fuel consumption by the introduction of the lead replacement fuels for both catalyst and non-catalyst cars. In the case of the non-catalyst car, the shift from leaded to unleaded gasoline was associated with an increase in benzene and formaldehyde emissions, a trend probably attributable to the increased aromatics content of the lead replacement fuels. PMID:12670763

Geivanidis, Savas; Pistikopoulos, Panayotis; Samaras, Zissis

2003-04-15

220

Real-World Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Monitoring: Review and Critical Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic-related emissions represent a major component of airborne pollution. Historically, dynamometer testing has been most widely used to estimate vehicle emission rates, and these emission rates, in turn, have been used as inputs when modeling traffic-related air quality impacts. However, such conventional drive cycle testing is not considered strictly representative of vehicles under real driving conditions. Therefore, in recent years,

Karl Ropkins; Joe Beebe; Hu Li; Basil Daham; James Tate; Margaret Bell; Gordon Andrews

2009-01-01

221

Performance and exhaust emissions in the use of biodiesel in outboard diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to compare the engine performance and emission results of biodiesel derived from used cooking oil when applied in different proportions in outboard engines. Results revealed that the use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of CO (up to 12%) with an increase in emissions of NOx (up to 20%, except in one case which

S. Murillo; J. L. Míguez; J. Porteiro; E. Granada; J. C. Morán

2007-01-01

222

Estimation of southern resident killer whale exposure to exhaust emissions from whale-watching vessels and potential adverse health effects and toxicity thresholds.  

PubMed

Southern resident killer whales in British Columbia and Washington are exposed to heavy vessel traffic. This study investigates their exposure to exhaust gases from whale-watching vessels by using a simple dispersion model incorporating data on whale and vessel behavior, atmospheric conditions, and output of airborne pollutants from the whale-watching fleet based on emissions data from regulatory agencies. Our findings suggest that current whale-watching guidelines are usually effective in limiting pollutant exposure to levels at or just below those at which measurable adverse health effects would be expected in killer whales. However, safe pollutant levels are exceeded under worst-case conditions and certain average-case conditions. To reduce killer whale exposure to exhaust we recommend: vessels position on the downwind side of whales, a maximum of 20 whale-watching vessels should be within 800 m at any given time, viewing periods should be limited, and current whale-watch guidelines and laws should be enforced. PMID:21276987

Lachmuth, Cara L; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G; Steyn, D Q; Milsom, William K

2011-04-01

223

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

224

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-11-10

225

Incentives for reducing emissions in Krakow  

SciTech Connect

This effort is identifying, specific incentives that may be used by Krakow city officials to encourage, residents to change the way they heat their homes and businesses in order to reduce pollution. This paper describes the incentives study for converting small coal or coke-fired boilers to gas in the Old Town area. A similar study looked at incentives for expanding the district heating system and future analyses will be performed for home stove options.

Uberman, R. [Polinvest Ltd., Krakow (Poland); Pierce, B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Lazecki, A. [Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa, Krakow (Poland)

1994-06-01

226

Detailed Characterization and Profiles of Crankcase and Diesel Particular Matter Exhaust Emissions Using Speciated Organics  

PubMed Central

A monitoring campaign was conducted in August-September 2005 to compare different experimental approaches quantifying school bus self-pollution. As part of this monitoring campaign, a detailed characterization of PM2.5 diesel engine emissions from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions from the road draft tubes was performed. To distinguish between tailpipe and crankcase vent emissions, a deuterated alkane, n-hexatriacontane-d74 (n-C36D74) was added to the engine oil to serve as intentional quantitative tracers for lubricating oil PM emissions. This paper focuses on the detailed chemical speciation of crankcase and tailpipe PM emissions from two school buses used in this study. We found that organic carbon emission rates were generally higher from the crankcase than from the tailpipe for these two school buses, while elemental carbon contributed significantly only in the tailpipe emissions. The n-C36D74 that was added to the engine oil was emitted at higher rates from the crankcase than the tailpipe. Tracers of engine oil (hopanes, and steranes) were present in much higher proportion in crankcase emissions. Particle-associated PAH emission rates were generally very low (< 1 ?g/km), but more PAH species were present in crankcase than in tailpipe emissions. The speciation of samples collected in the bus cabins was consistent with most of the bus self-pollution originating from crankcase emissions.

Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David; Lawson, Douglas R.; Ireson, Robert G.; Weaver, Christopher S.; Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Larson, Timothy; Davey, Mark; Liu, L.-J. Sally

2008-01-01

227

Detailed characterization and profiles of crankcase and diesel particulate matter exhaust emissions using speciated organics.  

PubMed

A monitoring campaign was conducted in August-September 2005 to compare different experimental approaches quantifying school bus self-pollution. As part of this monitoring campaign, a detailed characterization of PM2.5 diesel engine emissions from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions from the road draft tubes was performed. To distinguish between tailpipe and crankcase vent emissions, a deuterated alkane, n-hexatriacontane-d74 (n-C36D74) was added to the engine oil to serve as an intentional quantitative tracer for lubricating oil PM emissions. This paper focuses on the detailed chemical speciation of crankcase and tailpipe PM emissions from two school buses used in this study. We found that organic carbon emission rates were generally higher from the crankcase than from the tailpipe for these two school buses, while elemental carbon contributed significantly only in the tailpipe emissions. The n-C36D74 that was added to the engine oil was emitted at higher rates from the crankcase than the tailpipe. Tracers of engine oil (hopanes and steranes) were present in much higher proportion in crankcase emissions. Particle-associated PAH emission rates were generally very low (< 1 microg/km), but more PAH species were present in crankcase than in tailpipe emissions. The speciation of samples collected in the bus cabins was consistent with most of the bus self-pollution originating from crankcase emissions. PMID:18754490

Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David; Lawson, Douglas R; Ireson, Robert G; Weaver, Christopher S; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Larson, Timothy; Davey, Mark; Liu, L J Sally

2008-08-01

228

Detailed Characterization and Profiles of Crankcase and Diesel Particulate Matter Exhaust Emissions Using Speciated Organics  

SciTech Connect

A monitoring campaign was conducted in August-September 2005 to compare different experimental approaches quantifying school bus self-pollution. As part of this monitoring campaign, a detailed characterization of PM2.5 diesel engine emissions from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions from the road draft tubes was performed. To distinguish between tailpipe and crankcase vent emissions, a deuterated alkane, n-hexatriacontane-d74 (n-C36D74) was added to the engine oil to serve as an intentional quantitative tracer for lubricating oil PM emissions. This paper focuses on the detailed chemical speciation of crankcase and tailpipe PM emissions from two school buses used in this study. We found that organic carbon emission rates were generally higher from the crankcase than from the tailpipe for these two school buses, while elemental carbon contributed significantly only in the tailpipe emissions. The n-C36D74 that was added to the engine oil was emitted at higher rates from the crankcase than the tailpipe. Tracers of engine oil (hopanes and steranes) were present in much higher proportion in crankcase emissions. Particle-associated PAH emission rates were generally very low (<1 {micro}g/km), but more PAH species were present in crankcase than in tailpipe emissions. The speciation of samples collected in the bus cabins was consistent with most of the bus self-pollution originating from crankcase emissions.

Zielinska, B.; Campbell, D.; Lawson, D. R.; Ireson, R. G.; Weaver, C. S.; Hesterberg, T. W.; Larson, T.; Davey, M.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

2008-01-01

229

Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): II. Uncertainty analyses of on-road vehicle exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of future emissions are necessary for understanding the future health of the atmosphere, designing national and international strategies for air quality control, and evaluating mitigation policies. Emission inventories are uncertain and future projections even more so, thus it is important to quantify the uncertainty inherent in emission projections.

Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

2014-04-01

230

A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

1996-01-01

231

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction, use of a portable exhauster on 244-AR vault  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247- 060, and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, for the use of a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault during transfers or movement of radioactive waste as part of pumping of secondary containment, tank stabilization/pumping, and other activities (i.e., transfer or pumping of radioactive waste using established procedures, entries for maintenance and inspections) within the 244-AR Vault.

Allen, C.P., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-11

232

Motor vehicle emissions under reduced ambient temperature idle operating conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During winter months, motor vehicles are typically operated with extended preliminary idle periods. Total hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and formaldehyde emissions are examined under idle operation at 20,40 and 68°F with six gasoline fueled vehicles (including non-catalyst, early catalyst and late model catalyst) and a methanol-fueled prototype vehicle. The emissions were substantially reduced by the late model catalyst control technologies at all temperatures examined. Formaldehyde emissions were elevated with methanol fuel.

Baugh, James; Ray, William; Black, Frank; Snow, Richard

233

Mathematical study of methods to reduce emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate from a compression ignited, direct injection engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phenomenological model based on the multizone concept and a three-dimensional CFD model were used to predict the effect of engine modification on particulated and NOx emission from a compression ignited direct injection (CIDI) engine. The phenomenological model consisted of a spray model, an evaporation model, a heat release model, NOx formation, soot formation, and oxidation model, and can be used to predict the combustion process and pollutant emission in a CIDI diesel engine. The advantage of the multizone model over the 3-D CFD model is the small CPU and memory it requires for a simulation. In this study, the phenomenological model was used to investigate (1) the effect of increasing the intake-air O2 content on soot and NO x emission as a function of power level and wall temperature; and (2) the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and split fuel injection on pollutant emission, and compare their soot penalty at a given NOx emission. The results indicate that EGR with a relatively low temperature can reduce NOx emission with a minimum penalty of soot particle emission. The use of EGR is promising for significantly reducing NOx emission with small or no penalty of soot particle emission. The effect of auxiliary gas injection (AGI) on diesel engine combustion and emission was studied using KIVA 3V, a multidimensional computation fluid dynamics code. AGI enhances the diesel combustion via mixing to reduce the emission of pollutants. The simulation of a high-speed gas jet model with a relatively coarse computational grids was described. The choice of turbulent length scale for optimum simulation suitability is dependent of local mesh grid. The results demonstrate that AGI creates a second-way flow in the cylinder, which improves the mixing of charge in the cylinder. The effect of AGI on combustion and flow movement is significant. The use of exhaust gas on the AGI can reduce soot emission, while NOx emission also can be decreased to some degree. To reduce soot and NOx emission effectively, the combination effect of EGR and AGI on pollutant emission was analyzed. The results showed that soot and NOx emission were reduced more than 50%, respectively.

Gao, Zhiming

2001-11-01

234

OPTIONS FOR REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characteriz...

235

Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today.\\u000aIn order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof,\\u000athe emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane\\u000a(CH4 ) should be reduced.\\u000aMuch greenhouse gases are emitted due

Marko Peter Hekkert

2000-01-01

236

Effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) temperature for various EGR rates on heavy duty DI diesel engine performance and emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

DI diesel engines are well established today as the main powertrain solution for trucks and other relevant heavy duty vehicles. At the same time emission legislation (mainly for NOx and particulate matter) becomes stricter, reducing their limit to extremely low values. One efficient method to control NOx in order to achieve future emissions limits is the use of rather high

D. T. Hountalas; G. C. Mavropoulos; K. B. Binder

2008-01-01

237

Preface: Special Issue on Catalytic Control of Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Catalysis Today includes original research articles based on select presentations from the Mobile Emissions Control Symposium at the 22nd North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meeting held in Detroit in June 2011, with a particular focus on catalyzed diesel emissions control. The Symposium was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Haren Gandhi, a visionary technology leader and a passionate environmental advocate.

Yezerets, Aleksey; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill

2012-04-30

238

A GIS-BASED MODAL MODEL OF AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS (EPA/600/R-98/097)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents progress toward the development of a computer tool called MEASURE, the Mobile Emission Assessment System for Urban and Regional Evaluation. The tool works toward a goal of providing researchers and planners with a way to assess new mobile emission mitigation s...

239

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM LIGHT-DUTY GAS VEHICLES IN THE KANSAS CITY METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program on light duty vehicle emissions is being performed under an interagency agreement. It will provide current information on particulate matter emissions and distributions from light-duty vehicles, an area where more and better data are necessary to meet the n...

240

40 CFR 86.1823-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED...determined by averaging the city (FTP) and highway (HFET) CO2 values, weighted 0.55...emissions for both the FTP (city) and HFET (highway) test cycles. The manufacturer...

2013-07-01

241

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

242

40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons...demonstration must include an engineering analysis of information equivalent to such...consider all available information and analyses. Survey data is allowed but not...

2013-07-01

243

Diesel engine combustion and emissions from fuel to exhaust aftertreatment. SP-1113  

SciTech Connect

There are many dimensions involved in any study of Diesel Engine Emissions. These dimensions include: the fuel used, how the fuel is presented into the combustion chamber, how the air is presented into the combustion chamber, the actual process of combustion and emissions formation, the treatment of the emissions after combustion, and the test methods used to quantify the emissions. All of these dimensions are covered in this publication. The fuel topics include: plant oil based fuels and gas dissolved in fuel oil. The air delivery to the combustion chamber is effected by both port performance and geometry and ambient conditions and these topics are included. The thermodynamics of the combustion process and modeling are included in this publication. Aftertreatment is included with a paper on particulate filters. A correlation study using the ISO8178 testing method is also included. All nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

NONE

1995-12-31

244

Reducing CO 2 emissions by substituting biomass for fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing fossil fuels with sustainably-produced biomass will reduce the net flow of CO2 to the atmosphere. We express the efficiency of this substitution in reduced emissions per unit of used land or biomass and in costs of the substitution per tonne of C. The substitution costs are calculated as the cost difference between continued use of fossil fuels at current

Leif Gustavsson; Pål Börjesson; Bengt Johansson; Per Svenningsson

1995-01-01

245

Reducing Children's Exposure to School Bus Diesel Exhaust in One School District in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from…

Mazer, Mary E.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Lamanna, Beth F.; Davison, Jean

2014-01-01

246

Exposure assessment of PM2.5 and urinary 8-OHdG for diesel exhaust emission inspector.  

PubMed

Animal studies have shown exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) to induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) and increase levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyquanosine (8-OHdG). Controversial results have been obtained regarding the effects of workplace exposure on urinary 8-OHdG level. This study assessed concentrations of environmental PM(2.5) in DEP (DEP(2.5)), personal DEP(2.5) and urinary 8-OHdG of diesel engine exhaust emission inspector (inspector) at a diesel vehicle emission inspection station (inspection station). The analysis specifically focuses on the factors that influence inspector urinary 8-OHdG. Repeated-measures study design was used to sample for five consecutive days. A total of 25 environmental PM(2.5) measurements were analyzed at 5 different locations by using a dichotomous sampler, and a total of 55 personal PM(2.5) measurements were analyzed from inspectors by using PM(2.5) personal sampler. During the sampling period, a total of 110 pre- and post-work urine samples from inspectors, and 32 samples from the control group were collected. Following age and sex matching between the inspectors and the control group, levels of urinary 8-OHdG were analyzed. Environmental and personal concentrations of DEP(2.5) were 107.25+/-39.76 (mean+/-SD) and 155.96+/-75.70 microg/m(3), respectively. Also, the concentration of urinary 8-OHdG differed significantly between inspector and control non-smokers, averaging 14.05+/-12.71 and 6.58+/-4.39 microg/g creatinine, respectively. Additionally, urinary 8-OHdG concentrations were associated with diesel exposure after controlling for smoking and cooking at home. Compared with the control group, the inspector displayed significantly increased levels of urinary 8-OHdG. Diesel exhaust is the single pollutant involved in the exposure of DEP(2.5) at the inspection station, as confirmed by the final results. PMID:19896169

Lee, Mei-Wen; Chen, Mei-Lien; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Yin, Xin-Jie; Mao, I-Fang

2010-01-01

247

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

National Lab Directors, . .

2001-04-05

248

Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.  

PubMed

Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (<0.5-5 ?m) are abundant upstream of the DPF and are ash-free or contain notably little attached ash. Post-DPF soot agglomerates are very few, typically large (>1-5 ?m, exceptionally 13 ?m), rarely <0.5 ?m, and contain abundant ash carried mostly from inside the DPF. The ash that reaches the atmosphere also occurs as separate aggregates ca. 0.2-2 ?m in size consisting of sintered primary phases, ca. 20-400 nm large. Insoluble particles of these sizes may harm the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The DPF probably promotes breakout of large soot agglomerates (mostly ash-bearing) by favoring sintering. Noble metals detached from the DOC coating may reach the ambient air. Finally, very few agglomerates of Fe-oxide nanoparticles form newly from engine wear and escape into the atmosphere. PMID:24274188

Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

2013-12-17

249

Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987–2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen–Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions – temperatures of 25–100 °C and organic aerosol concentrations of <1–600 ?g m?3. The gas-particle partitioning of the POA emissions varied continuously over this entire range of conditions and essentially none of the POA should be considered non-volatile. Furthermore, for most vehicles, the low levels of dilution used in the constant volume sampler created particle mass concentrations that were greater than a factor of 10 or higher than typical ambient levels. This resulted in large and systematic partitioning biases in the POA emission factors compared to more dilute atmospheric conditions, as the POA emission rates may be over-estimated by nearly a factor of four due to gas-particle partitioning at higher particle mass concentrations. A volatility distribution was derived to quantitatively describe the measured gas-particle partitioning data using absorptive partitioning theory. Although the POA emission factors varied by more than two orders of magnitude across the test fleet, the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in gas-particle partitioning were modest. Therefore, a single volatility distribution can be used to quantitatively describe the gas-particle partitioning of the entire test fleet. This distribution is designed to be applied to quartz filter POA emission factors in order to update emissions inventories for use in chemical transport models.

May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

2013-10-01

250

Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from two three-way catalyst equipped gasoline fuelled vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation presents emission factors of both regulated (CO, HC, NO x and particulate) and unregulated pollutants (aldehydes, monocyclic aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic compounds) measured under three different driving conditions, i.e. cold transient, stabilised and hot transient. These three driving conditions were simulated using the US FTP-75 driving cycle. Two three-way catalyst equipped light duty passenger cars were investigated. As expected, a higher emission of both regulated and unregulated pollutants was observed in the cold start phase of the driving cycle.

Westerholm, Roger; Christensen, Anders; Rosén, Åke

251

Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

1994-07-01

252

Experimental investigation of the effects of diesel-like fuel obtained from waste lubrication oil on engine performance and exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, effects of diesel-like fuel (DLF) on engine performance and exhaust emission are investigated experimentally. The DLF is produced from waste engine lubrication oil purified from dust, heavy carbon soot, metal particles, gum-type materials and other impurities. A fuel production system mainly consisting of a waste oil storage tank, filters, a reactor, oil pump, a product storage tank,

Orhan Arpa; Recep Yumruta?; Zeki Argunhan

2010-01-01

253

An investigation of the effects of spray angle and injection strategy on dimethyl ether (DME) combustion and exhaust emission characteristics in a common-rail diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was performed on the effects of spray angle and injection strategies (single and multiple) on the combustion characteristics, concentrations of exhaust emissions, and the particle size distribution in a direct-injection (DI) compression ignition engine fueled with dimethyl ether (DME) fuel. In this study, two types of narrow spray angle injectors (?spray=70° and 60°) were examined and its

Seung Hyun Yoon; June Pyo Cha; Chang Sik Lee

2010-01-01

254

40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards at or above 100 g/kN). Where a smoke standard is specified by a formula...the specified standards for HC, CO, and smoke emissions apply independent of the changes...above 1,000 kilowatts must comply with a smoke standard of 187 · rOâ0.168 ....

2013-07-01

255

Particulate sizing and emission indices for a jet engine exhaust sampled at cruise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle size and emission indices measurements for jet engines, primarily the Rolls Royce RB211 engines on a NASA 757 aircraft are reported. These data were used to estimate the fraction of fuel sulfur that was converted to particulates. These measurements were made in-situ with the sampling aircraft several kilometers behind the source. Some complimentary ground measurements on the same source

D. Hagen; P. Whitefield; J. Paladino; M. Trueblood; H. Lilenfeld

1998-01-01

256

Biodiesel Impacts on Compression Ignition Engine (CIE): Analysis of Air Pollution Issues Relating to Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cities across the globe, the personal automobile is the single greatest polluter, as emissions from millions of vehicles on the road add up to a planet-wide problem. Vegetable oils have become more attractive recently because of their environmental benefits and the fact that they are made from renewable resources. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum

AYHAN DEM?RBA?

2005-01-01

257

40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...type on which they are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in this section based...engine family, we will consider all available information and analyses. Survey data is allowed but not required to make this...

2013-07-01

258

Development of a driving cycle for the measurement of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of automobiles in Bangkok during peak periods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rates of newly registered automobiles in Thailand are currently assessed using\\u000a the standard driving cycle of the Economic Commission of Europe (ECE). Because of the highly different driving conditions,\\u000a the assessment results may not reflect realistic amounts of emissions and fuel consumption for vehicles in Bangkok traffic,\\u000a which is well known for its congestion.

S. Tamsanya; S. Chungpaibulpatana; B. Limmeechokchai

2009-01-01

259

Experimental investigation on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of biogas–biodiesel dual-fuel combustion in a CI engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was performed to study the influence of dual-fuel combustion characteristics on the exhaust emissions and combustion performance in a diesel engine fueled with biogas–biodiesel dual-fuel. In this work, the combustion pressure and the rate of heat release were evaluated under various conditions in order to analyze the combustion and emission characteristics for single-fuel (diesel and biodiesel) and

Seung Hyun Yoon; Chang Sik Lee

2011-01-01

260

Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A  

SciTech Connect

Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

261

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in Borneo will also be discussed.

Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

2011-12-01

262

Non-exhaust emission measurement system of the mobile laboratory SNIFFER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe and quality assure the sampling system of a mobile research laboratory SNIFFER which was shown to be a useful tool for studying emission levels of respirable dust from street surfaces. The dust plume had bimodal structure; another mode rising to higher altitudes whereas the other mode remained at lower altitudes. The system was tested on a route in Helsinki, Finland, during spring 2005 and 2006. The PM 2.5 and PM 10 were positively correlated and the PM levels increased with the vehicle speed. SNIFFER was able to identify the characteristic emission levels on different streets. A clear downward trend in the concentrations was observed in all street locations between April and June. The composition of the street dust collected by SNIFFER was compared with springtime PM 10 aerosol samples from the air quality monitoring stations in Helsinki. The results showed similarities in the abundance and composition of the mineral fraction but contained significantly more salt particles.

Pirjola, L.; Kupiainen, K. J.; Perhoniemi, P.; Tervahattu, H.; Vesala, H.

263

Exhaust emissions from a premixing, prevaporizing flame tube using liquid jet A fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons were measured in a burner where liquid Jet A fuel was sprayed into the heated air stream and vaporized upstream of a perforated plate flameholder. The burner was tested at inlet air temperatures at 640, 800, and 833 K, an inlet pressure of 5.6 X 100,000 N/m squared, a reference velocity of 25 m/sec, and equivalence ratios from lean blowout to 0.7. Nitrogen oxide levels of below 1.0 g NO2/kg fuel were obtained at combustion efficiencies greater than 99 percent. The measured emission levels for the liquid fuel agreed well with previously reported premixed gaseous propane data and agreed with well stirred reactor predictions. Autoignition of the premixed fuel air mixture was a problem at inlet temperatures above 650 K with 104 msec premixing time.

Marek, C. J.; Papathakos, L. C.

1976-01-01

264

Formation of secondary inorganic aerosols by power plant emissions exhausted through cooling towers in Saxony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The fraction of ambient PM10 that is due to the formation of secondary inorganic particulate sulfate and nitrate from the emissions of two large, brown-coal-fired\\u000a power stations in Saxony (East Germany) is examined. The power stations are equipped with natural-draft cooling towers. The\\u000a flue gases are directly piped into the cooling towers, thereby receiving an additionally intensified

Detlef Hinneburg; Eberhard Renner; Ralf Wolke

2009-01-01

265

Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

2014-06-01

266

Reducing Gaseous Emissions from Beef Cattle Feedlot Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate soil amendments for reducing ammonia emissions from open-lot beef cattle feedyards. A mixture of 1550 g of soil, 133 g of feces, and 267 g of urine was placed into sealed plastic containers of dimensions 20 cm x 20 cm x 12 cm depth. Using a vacuum system, clean air at a rate

D. B. Parker; N. A. Cole; Y. Shi; B. W. Auvermann; J. E. Mehlhorn; L. W. Greene

267

Transient Suppression Packaging for Reduced Emissions from Rotary Kiln Incinerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on ground corncob sorbent. When containers of waste are batch charged into rotary kilns, the rupture of the container is often followed

PAUL M. LEMIEUX; WILLIAM P. LINAK; JOSEPH A. McSORLEY; JOST O. L. WENDT

1992-01-01

268

Method of reducing NOx emissions in gasoline vehicles  

SciTech Connect

An unleaded fuel composition is described comprising a major amount of a hydrocarbon base fuel of the gasoline boiling range containing an amount effective to reduce NO[sub x] emissions from electronic port fuel injected engines of an ammonium compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium formate, ammonium propionate, ammonium dicitrate, ammonium carbamate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, and admixtures thereof.

Gwyn, J.E.

1993-08-10

269

TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

270

Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia  

PubMed Central

We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

2012-01-01

271

Determination of naval medium speed diesel engine air exhaust emissions and validation of a proposed estimation model. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

Steady state marine diesel engine exhaust emissions are being reviewed by the Environmental Protection Agency for possible regulation. In anticipation of future regulation, the United States Navy is developing appropriate emissions models for naval vessels. A procedure for collecting this data from an U. S. Navy ship with medium speed main propulsion diesels is presented. It is based on similar testing conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard for measuring patrol boat diesel engine emissions and International Standards Organization methodology. The primary challenge of the experiment design was to minimize interference with the engineering plant as the assigned ship was concurrently tasked for other operations. Data gathered allowed calculation of engine rpm, engine load, exhaust gas flow rate, and determination of pollutant amounts. The tests were conducted at a series of predetermined speeds to reflect an 11-Mode duty cycle developed previously for the LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines.

Mayeaux, A.M.

1995-05-01

272

Measurement of plasma parameters in the exhaust of a magnetoplasma rocket by gridded energy analyzer and emissive Langmuir probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 10 kilowatt prototype of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) engine, abbreviated as VX-10, is designed to eject plasma at exhaust velocities of tens of kilometers per second. In this device, energy is imparted to the plasma ions by two mechanisms: ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH), and acceleration in an ambipolar electric field. Measurements from two different electrostatic probes are combined to determine how much each mechanism contributes to the total ion energy. The first probe is a gridded retarding potential analyzer (RPA) that incorporates a multi-channel collimator to obtain precise measurement of the ion and electron parallel energy distributions. The second is an emissive Langmuir probe that measures the DC and RF components of the plasma potential. The plasma potential obtained from the emitting probe allows calculation of the parallel velocity distribution once the parallel energy distribution is obtained from the energy analyzer data. Biasing the RPA housing is shown to minimize the plasma perturbation, as monitored by an auxiliary probe. When this minimization is done, the RPA measurements become compatible with the emissive probe's measurement of plasma potential. The collimated RPA and emissive probe have been used to examine the effects of a double dual half-turn (DDHT) antenna encircling the plasma. When power at the ion cyclotron frequency is applied, changes are seen in the saturation current and mean ion energy of the collimated RPA characteristic. The evolution of these changes as the RPA is moved downstream from the antenna is interpreted as firm evidence of ion cyclotron heating, albeit at absorbed energies of less than 1 electronvolt per ion. The emissive probe shows that, within experimental error, all of the increased ion energy is accounted for by an increase in the plasma potential that occurs when the ICRF power is applied. The combined RPA and emissive probe data also show that there is a jet of flowing plasma in the VX-10 when operated with the helicon source alone but that the signal from this jet is overwhelmed by a rapidly growing stationary plasma within the first second of the discharge.

Glover, Timothy Ward

2002-01-01

273

Fuel-Air Mixing Apparatus for Reducing Gas Turbine Combustor Exhaust Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located ...

F. J. Zupanc P. R. Yankowich

2004-01-01

274

The Reduction of Exhaust Emissions from a Diesel Engine by Using Biodiesel Blend  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel has a great potential to reduce environmental pollution as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. The most important environmental problem is global heating up or green house effect caused by energy consumption. In this study, biodiesel produced from cottonseed oil was blended with diesel fuel, 20% biodiesel and 80% commercial diesel fuel, called B20, and used as a fuel

C. ?lkiliç; R. Behçet

2010-01-01

275

Studies on exhaust emissions of mahua oil operated compression ignition engine.  

PubMed

The world is confronted with fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The energy demand and pollution problems lead to research for an alternative renewable energy sources. Vegetable oils and biodiesel present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel. In this work, an experimental work was carried out to study the feasibility of using raw mahua oil (MO) as a substitute for diesel in dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was used as primary fuel and mahua oil was used as pilot fuel. The results show that the performance of the dual fuel engine at the injector opening pressure of 220 bar and the advanced injection timing of 30 degrees bTDC results in performance close to diesel base line (DBL) operation and lower smoke and oxides of nitrogen emission. PMID:21117439

Kapilan, N; Reddy, R P

2009-07-01

276

Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands  

PubMed Central

The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO2 per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO2 per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N2O emissions compared to CO2 losses remains unclear.

Murdiyarso, D.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Verchot, L. V.

2010-01-01

277

Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.  

PubMed

The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear. PMID:21081702

Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

2010-11-16

278

Vehicle non-exhaust emissions from the tyre-road interface - effect of stud properties, traction sanding and resuspension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Northern cities respirable street dust emission levels (PM 10) are especially high during spring. The spring time dust has been observed to cause health effects as well as discomfort among citizens. Major sources of the dust are the abrasion products from the pavement and traction sand aggregates that are formed due to the motion of the tyre. We studied the formation of respirable abrasion particles in the tyre-road interface due to tyre studs and traction sanding by a mobile laboratory vehicle Sniffer. The measurements were preformed on a test track, where the influence of varying stud weight and stud number per tyre on PM 10 emissions was studied. Studded tyres resulted in higher emission levels than studless tyres especially with speeds 50 km h -1 and higher; however, by using light weight studs, which approximately halves the weight of studs, or by reducing the number of studs per tyre to half, the emission levels decreased by approximately half. Additionally measurements were done with and without traction sand coverage on the pavement of a public road. After traction sanding the emission levels were not affected by tyre type but by formation and suspension of traction sand related dust from the road surface. The emissions after traction sanding decreased as a function of time as passing vehicles' motion shifted the sand grains away from the areas with most tyre-road contact.

Kupiainen, Kaarle J.; Pirjola, Liisa

2011-08-01

279

Evaluation of concepts for controlling exhaust emissions from minimally processed petroleum and synthetic fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rich-lean combustor concepts designed to enhance rich combustion chemistry and increase combustor flexibility for NO(x) reduction with minimally processed fuels are examined. Processes such as rich product recirculation in the rich chamber, rich-lean annihilation, and graduated air addition or staged rich combustion to release bound nitrogen in steps of reduced equivalence ratio are discussed. Variations to the baseline rapid quench section are considered, and the effect of residence time in the rich zone is investigated. The feasibility of using uncooled non-metallic materials for the rich zone combustion construction is also addressed. The preliminary results indicate that rich primary zone staged combustion provides environmentally acceptable operation with residual and/or synthetic coal-derived liquid fuels

Russell, P. L.; Beal, G. W.; Sederquist, R. A.; Shultz, D.

1981-01-01

280

Duplex tab exhaust nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

2012-01-01

281

Selective ammonia exhaust gas sensor for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet future NOx emission standards for commercial vehicles, so called urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems will be introduced. In the SCR converter ammonia serves as a reducing agent for selective NOx reduction. An ammonia exhaust gas sensor is required to optimize the injected amount of urea and to assure that no ammonia emissions occur. This paper

Ralf Moos; Ralf Müller; Carsten Plog; Aleksandar Knezevic; Holger Leye; Eckard Irion; Tillmann Braun; Klaus-Jürgen Marquardt; Klaus Binder

2002-01-01

282

Non-Thermal Plasma System Development for CIDI Exhaust Aftertreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for an efficient, durable technology to reduce NOx emissions from oxidative exhaust streams such as those produced by compression-ignition, direct injection (CIDI) diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines. A partnership formed between the DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the USCAR Low Emission Technologies Research and Development Partnership

M. Lou Balmer; Russell Tonkyn; Gary Maupin; Steven Yoon; Ana Kolwaite; Stephen Barlow; Norberto Domingo; John M. Storey; John Wm. Hoard; Ken Howden

2000-01-01

283

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options  

SciTech Connect

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson [University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Ecosystem Science and Sustainability Initiative

2009-03-15

284

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

SciTech Connect

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (US)

2005-08-15

285

Certification of Pd and Pt single spikes and application to the quantification of Pt and Pd in automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous epidemiological studies show the effect of increased ambient pollution. Therefore measurement networks for air quality have been installed worldwide and legislation requires the monitoring of air pollution. Besides monitoring it is also important to be able to identify, to quantify and finally to regulate the emission of distinct sources in order to improve the quality of life. Automotive vehicles are a major source of environmental pollution especially through contaminants such as CO, NOX, SOX and hydrocarbons which derive from petrol combustion, while for example Platinum Group Elements (PGE) can be present from catalytic converters. The release of PGE into the environment, however, may be damaging in terms of public health, ecological and economic interests. In order to reliably assess the risks from PGEs, traceable and thus comparable data on the release rates of PGE from automotive catalysers are needed. As no Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are available for such samples the development of analytical procedures enabling SI-traceable results will be challenging. Therefore reference procedures for Pd and Pt in automotive exhaust emissions based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) have been developed and applied to specifically sampled automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the commonly known advantages, IDMS often is applied for quantification PGEs, as is the case within this work. The main reasons here are the required accuracy and the low PGE mass fractions in the sample. In order to perform IDMS analysis the analyte element must be available in an isotopically enriched form as so-called spike material or solution thereof, which is mixed with the sample. Unfortunately, no certified PGE spike solutions are available yet. To fill this gap two single PGE spikes, one 106Pd and one 194Pt spike, have been produced and characterized. The selection of the isotopes, the production of the solutions and the ampoulation will be described in this presentation. Details on the characterization of these spike solutions by reverse IDMS using a primary assay for Pd and Pt will be given. With measurement uncertainties < 0.1 % for the Pd and Pt mass fraction both spike solutions are well suited to become certified reference materials under the ERM® label. The newly developed IDMS reference procedures consist of a dissolution step by microwave assisted digestion or wet high pressure ashing, followed by a 2-step ion chromatographic Pd- and Pt-matrix separation. The total blank values for this analytical procedure are ? 5 pg for Pd and ? 75 pg for Pt. First results on filters obtained under harmonized driving cycles (e.g. Artemis, NEDC) show Pd and Pt masses below 1 ng down to 100 pg with some filters showing relatively high values of 4 - 6 ng, which of course depends on the driving cycle.

Vogl, Jochen; Meyer, Christian; Noordmann, Janine; Rienitz, Olaf; Geilert, Sonja

2014-05-01

286

Appraisal of policy instruments for reducing buildings' CO2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The building sector currently contributes approximately one-third of energy-related CO2 emissions worldwide. It is economically possible to achieve a 30% reduction. However, numerous barriers such as financial and behavioural issues, market failures, and misplaced incentives prevent the realization of the high economic potentials. Which policy instruments are the most appropriate and cost-effective for reducing these barriers? To address this question,

Diana ürge-Vorsatz; Sonja Koeppel; Sebastian Mirasgedis

2007-01-01

287

Remote microwave technology for chamber clean to reduce PFC emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applied Materials has developed a new chamber cleaning technology that has the potential to dramatically reduce PFC emissions from chamber cleaning on their D×ZTM platform. The prototype product, known as ?CleanTM, is a remote microwave clean using NF3 that can be retrofitted to a D×Z chamber. Recent tests of ?Clean technology conducted by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. at Applied

L. Mendicino; S. Filipiak; P. T. Brown; J. Langan; R. Ridgeway; A. Johnson; R. Pearce; P. Maroulis; A. Atherton

1998-01-01

288

Exhaust recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust is described that provides for the reduction of recirculation during engine idling without the prior-art complexities of moving parts. The system also achieves preheating and improved mixing and carburetion of the fuel-air mixture in the inlet header. Exhaust gases are recycled by means of a swirl

Sarto

1974-01-01

289

Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2013-01-01

290

An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Injection Pressure on the Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol-diesel Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of injection pressure on exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using methanol blended diesel fuel from 0 to 15% was investigated. A four-stroke, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection diesel engine was used for conducting this study. The original injection pressure of the engine is 200 bar. The tests were performed at three different injection pressures (180,

C. Sayin

2011-01-01

291

Exposure to volatile organic compounds for individuals with occupations associated with potential exposure to motor vehicle exhaust and\\/or gasoline vapor emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers who work near volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source(s), motor vehicle exhausts and\\/or gasoline vapor emissions, are suspected to be exposed to highly-elevated VOC levels during their work-time. This study confirmed this suspicion and evaluated the work-time exposure VOCs for traffic police officers, parking garage attendants, service station attendants, roadside storekeepers and underground storekeepers, by measuring the concentrations of six

Wan-Kuen Jo; Ki-Berm Song

2001-01-01

292

Experimental study of various effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions of an automotive direct injection diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a common way to control in-cylinder NOx production and is used on most modern high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engines. However EGR has different effects on combustion and emissions production that are difficult to distinguish (increase of intake temperature, delay of rate of heat release (ROHR), decrease of peak heat release, decrease in O2

Alain Maiboom; Xavier Tauzia; Jean-François Hétet

2008-01-01

293

Examination of charge dilution with EGR to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from a natural gas-fuelled 16 valve DOHC four-cylinder engine  

SciTech Connect

Charge dilution is commonly used to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from internal combustion engine exhaust gas. The question of whether to use air or exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a charge diluent for the natural gas-fuelled test engine is addressed first. The decision to use EGR is based on the potentially lower NO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbon emissions that could be achieved if a three-way catalyst were applied to the engine. The effect of EGR on the spark advance for maximum brake torque (MBT), NO{sub x}, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions is then examined in detail. The effect on fuel efficiency is discussed briefly. 37 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

Jaeaeskelaeinen, H.E.; Wallace, J.S.

1994-10-01

294

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction: Use of a portable exhauster on 241-A-101 tank during salt well pumping  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) for the use of a portable exhauster on 241-A-101 single-shell tank (SST) during salt well pumping and other routine activities at the tank. Approval for salt well pumping is not being requested as this is a routine activity performed to manage the waste within the SST Tank System. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to the 241-A-101 tank is to satisfy the requirements of a Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that requires postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Other routine activities also have the potential to release trapped gases by interrupting gas pockets within the waste. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the National Fire Protection Association guidelines, which mandate that flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limits. The LANL SAR indicates that the lower flammability limit may be exceeded during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potentials for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the increase in released flammable gases, active ventilation will be required to reduce the ``time at risk`` while performing routine operations at the tank.

Hays, C.B.

1996-04-17

295

A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80 km h -1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The total emission factors of the elements from the exhausts of ULP cars were higher than those of LPG cars at both engine speeds even though high variability in the exhaust emissions from different cars was noted. The effect of the operating conditions such as mileage of the cars, engine speed, fuel and lubricating oil compositions on the emissions was studied. To investigate the effects of these conditions, multivariate data analysis methods were employed including exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), and the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), for ranking the cars on the basis of the emission factors of the elements. PCA biplot of the complete data matrix showed a clear discrimination of the February, June and August emission test results. In addition, (i) platinum group elements (PGE) emissions were separated from each other in the three different clusters viz. Pt with February, Pd with June and Rh with August; (ii) the motor oil related elements, Zn and P, were particularly associated with the June and August tests (these vectors were also grouped with V, Al and Cu); and (iii) highest emissions of most major elements were associated with the August test after the cars have recorded their highest mileage. Extensive analysis with the aid of the MCDM ranking methods demonstrated clearly that cars powered by LPG outperform those powered by ULP. In general, cars tested in June perform better than those tested in August, which suggested that mileage was the key criterion of car performance on the basis of elemental emission factors.

Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan; Kokot, Serge

296

Sensor for directly determining the exhaust gas recirculation rate—EGR sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an effective means to reduce NOx emissions of internal combustion engines without increasing fuel consumption. Up to now, only complex procedures to determine the exhaust gas recirculation rate are available. Here, a novel sensor device is suggested that measures directly at one position and with only one single sensor device the concentration of a tracer

Ralf Moos; Burkhard Reetmeyer; Armin Hürland; Carsten Plog

2006-01-01

297

Influence of Density Variation on One-Dimensional Modeling of Exhaust Assisted Catalytic Fuel Reforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation has become commonplace within the automobile industry to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions because of its ability to lower the combustion temperature. However, it leads to an increase of particulate matter and degradation in fuel economy. One possible avenue for recovering this efficiency is to use exhaust assisted fuel reforming (EAFR) to generate hydrogen by catalytic means using

Christopher Depcik; Arkadiusz Kobiera; Dennis Assanis

2010-01-01

298

Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

M. Thornton; M. Tatur; D. Tomazic; P. Weber; C. Webb

2005-01-01

299

Novel coatings to reduce pesticide emissions from chemically treated timbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summaries  Aluminosilicate zeolite NaY (Si\\/Al=2.6, pore size 0.78nm) and novel mesoporous zeolite-likeNa-MCM-41 (Si\\/Al=2.4, pore size\\u000a 1.2nm) were evaluated as coatings on pesticide treated timber in an effort to reduce airborne emissions of pesticide. Lindane\\u000a (?-hexachlorocyclohexane) was applied as 10% (w\\/w) solution in toluene to blocks of Pinus Sylvestris at a coverage of 245cm3\\/m2. Coatings of activated Nay, non-activated (wet) NaY or

T. A. Morris; K. Huddersman

2001-01-01

300

40 CFR 1039.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...may base compliance on total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions. Indicate in your application...are using this option. If you do, measure THC emissions and calculate NMHC emissions as 98 percent of THC emissions, as shown in the following...

2013-07-01

301

Limestone injection reduces SO2 and NO /SUB x/ emissions  

SciTech Connect

The phases of Foster Wheeler's programs are presented by which the company developed a less complex low-NO /SUB x/ burner. Two phases involved assessing the potential of premixing limestone with coal to reduce SO2, and evaluating a new method of in-burner sorbent injection. Upper furnace injection of limestone was also evaluated by Conoco at the DuPont facility. The article reports that emission of SO2 was reduced by approximately 50% at a calcium: sulfur mole ratio of 2.5. However, the boiler had to be operated at 20% below full load to achieve the same level of sulfur capture achieved at maximum load with in-burner injection.

Vatsky, J.; Schindler, E.S.

1985-11-01

302

Combining regulatory T cell depletion and inhibitory receptor blockade improves reactivation of exhausted virus-specific CD8+ T cells and efficiently reduces chronic retroviral loads.  

PubMed

Chronic infections with human viruses, such as HIV and HCV, or mouse viruses, such as LCMV or Friend Virus (FV), result in functional exhaustion of CD8(+) T cells. Two main mechanisms have been described that mediate this exhaustion: expression of inhibitory receptors on CD8(+) T cells and expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress CD8(+) T cell activity. Several studies show that blockage of one of these pathways results in reactivation of CD8(+) T cells and partial reduction in chronic viral loads. Using blocking antibodies against PD-1 ligand and Tim-3 and transgenic mice in which Tregs can be selectively ablated, we compared these two treatment strategies and combined them for the first time in a model of chronic retrovirus infection. Blocking inhibitory receptors was more efficient than transient depletion of Tregs in reactivating exhausted CD8(+) T cells and reducing viral set points. However, a combination therapy was superior to any single treatment and further augmented CD8(+) T cell responses and resulted in a sustained reduction in chronic viral loads. These results demonstrate that Tregs and inhibitory receptors are non-overlapping factors in the maintenance of chronic viral infections and that immunotherapies targeting both pathways may be a promising strategy to treat chronic infectious diseases. PMID:24339778

Dietze, Kirsten K; Zelinskyy, Gennadiy; Liu, Jia; Kretzmer, Freya; Schimmer, Simone; Dittmer, Ulf

2013-12-01

303

Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector  

SciTech Connect

Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

2011-01-01

304

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

PubMed

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2011-01-01

305

Performance of additives in reducing ammonia emissions from cow slurry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ammonia emissions contribute substantially to environmental pollution and cause severe acidification. In Sweden, 20-25% of the total ammonia emission derives from manure in animal buildings. One technique to decrease ammonia emissions from animal building...

M. Andersson

1994-01-01

306

Investigation of the effects of fuel composition and injection and combustion system type on heavy-duty diesel exhaust emissions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Dynamometer tests on 3 heavy-duty diesel engines supplied by their manufacturers, using the EPA transient emission test cycle and smoke procedure, and under steady-state conditions differing in speed and load, were conducted. Exhaust pollutants measured with each fuel/engine/operating mode combination included total particulate, its solvent extractable portion, total hydrocarbon, NOx, CO, benzene, and sulfate emissions, along with fuel consumption. Visible smoke was measured during the Federal smoke test only. In addition, total particulate was measured on a modal basis, and low-humidity particulate emission determinations were made for selected fuels. EPA performed elemental and organic carbon analyses of selected particulate samples. The original set of several test fuels consisted of specially blended fuels having varying levels of aromaticity, sulfur content, and 90% distillation temperature. Two additional fuels (low-sulfur, low-aromatic and low-sulfur, high-aromatic) were made by reprocessing specific mixtures of the original fuel set.

Ullman, T.L.

1989-03-01

307

Turbocharged internal combustion engine having reduced high speed emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an exhaust driven supercharger assembly. : a turbine portion, having a housing with an inlet, an outlet, and an impeller rotatably supported therein, a compressor portion, having a housing with an inlet, an outlet, and an impeller rotatably supported therein, a rotor shaft extending between, and interconnecting the turbine and compressor impellers, and a turbine inlet pressure

1992-01-01

308

40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.109-94 Exhaust...percent of a temperature change (as measured in hot silicone oil). (3) The pressure measuring system shall have an...

2013-07-01

309

Comparison of exhaust emissions and their mutagenicity from the combustion of biodiesel, vegetable oil, gas-to-liquid and petrodiesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts are under way to reduce diesel engine emissions (DEE) and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Previously, we observed reduced PAH emissions and DEE mutagenicity caused by reformulated or newly developed fuels. The use of rapeseed oil as diesel engine fuel is growing in German transportation businesses and agriculture. We now compared the mutagenic effects

Jürgen Krahl; Gerhard Knothe; Axel Munack; Yvonne Ruschel; Olaf Schröder; Ernst Hallier; Götz Westphal; Jürgen Bünger

2009-01-01

310

Potpourri that is exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature of the subject contains much information about the individual reactive components of exhaust gas and ''total'' and ''average'' emissions. However, there is a notable lack of information concerning the myriad compositions and hydrocarbon distributions that accompany changes in engine mode and that define the variable character of an exhaust gas stream. Information pertinent to the latter is given

R. S. Hurn; C. L. Dozois; J. O. Chase; C. F. Ellis; P. E. Ferrin

1962-01-01

311

Study of Miller timing on exhaust emissions of a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled diesel engine.  

PubMed

The effect of intake valve closure (IVC) timing by utilizing Miller cycle and start of injection (SOI) on particulate matter (PM), particle number and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions was studied with a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled nonroad diesel engine. HVO-fueled engine emissions, including aldehyde and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, were also compared with those emitted with fossil EN590 diesel fuel. At the engine standard settings, particle number and NOx emissions decreased at all the studied load points (50%, 75%, and 100%) when the fuel was changed from EN590 to HVO. Adjusting IVC timing enabled a substantial decrease in NOx emission and combined with SOI timing adjustment somewhat smaller decrease in both NOx and particle emissions at IVC -50 and -70 degrees CA points. The HVO fuel decreased PAH emissions mainly due to the absence of aromatics. Aldehyde emissions were lower with the HVO fuel with medium (50%) load. At higher loads (75% and 100%), aldehyde emissions were slightly higher with the HVO fuel. However, the aldehyde emission levels were quite low, so no clear conclusions on the effect of fuel can be made. Overall, the study indicates that paraffinic HVO fuels are suitable for emission reduction with valve and injection timing adjustment and thus provide possibilities for engine manufacturers to meet the strictening emission limits. PMID:23210222

Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

2012-11-01

312

Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.  

PubMed

Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were 470, 375, and 389g of CH4/cow per day for cows fed the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, respectively. Methane yields were 26.1, 20.2, and 21.5g of CH4/kg of DMI for cows fed the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, respectively. The ruminal bacterial and archaeal communities were altered by dietary supplementation with grape marc, but ruminal fungal and protozoan communities were not. Decreases of approximately 20% in CH4 emissions and CH4 yield indicate that feeding DGM and EGM could play a role in CH4 abatement. PMID:24952778

Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

2014-08-01

313

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping and other activities  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping and other activities. The reference to `other activities` throughout this NOC means those activities described in Appendix A. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings feature because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTS as schedules for salt well pumping or other activities dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping or during performance of other activities. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTS is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Other activities also have the potential to release trapped gases by interrupting gas pockets within the waste. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms Safety Basis (OESH 1997) which requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) safety analysis indicates that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for released flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTS to reduce the `time at risk` while salt well pumping or performing other activities. Thirty tanks remain to be salt well pumped. Determination of which of the 30 tanks have the potential to exceed the 25 percent LFL is continuing as this NOC is submitted.

Hays, C.B.

1997-11-19

314

Emission factors for high-emitting vehicles based on on-road measurements of individual vehicle exhaust with a mobile measurement platform.  

PubMed

Fuel-based emission factors for 143 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) and 93 heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) were measured in Wilmington, CA using a zero-emission mobile measurement platform (MMP). The frequency distributions of emission factors of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particle mass with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 microm (PM2.5) varied widely, whereas the average of the individual vehicle emission factors were comparable to those reported in previous tunnel and remote sensing studies as well as the predictions by Emission Factors (EMFAC) 2007 mobile source emission model for Los Angeles County. Variation in emissions due to different driving modes (idle, low- and high-speed acceleration, low- and high-speed cruise) was found to be relatively small in comparison to intervehicle variability and did not appear to interfere with the identification of high emitters, defined as the vehicles whose emissions were more than 5 times the fleet-average values. Using this definition, approximately 5% of the LDGVs and HDDTs measured were high emitters. Among the 143 LDGVs, the average emission factors of NO(x), black carbon (BC), PM2.5, and ultrafine particle (UFP) would be reduced by 34%, 39%, 44%, and 31%, respectively, by removing the highest 5% of emitting vehicles, whereas CO emission factor would be reduced by 50%. The emission distributions of the 93 HDDTs measured were even more skewed: approximately half of the NO(x) and CO fleet-average emission factors and more than 60% of PM2.5, UFP, and BC fleet-average emission factors would be reduced by eliminating the highest-emitting 5% HDDTs. Furthermore, high emissions of BC, PM2.5, and NO(x) tended to cluster among the same vehicles. PMID:22070037

Park, Seong Suk; Kozawa, Kathleen; Fruin, Scott; Mara, Steve; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Jakober, Chris; Winer, Arthur; Herner, Jorn

2011-10-01

315

Opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from households in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to mitigate climate threats should not exclude the household as the household is a major driver of greenhouse gas\\u000a (GHG) emissions through its consumption patterns. This paper derives an emission index that could be used to estimate inventories\\u000a of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from kerosene combustion for lighting in Nigeria and also looks at the implications of solar pv

O. Adeoti; S. O. Osho

2012-01-01

316

University of Idaho's Clean Snowmobile Design Using a Direct Injection Two-Stroke with Exhaust Aftertreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Idaho's entry into the 2005 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge was a second-generation gasoline direct-injection (GDI) two-stroke powered snowmobile. A battery-less direct-injection system was used to decrease exhaust emissions and improve fuel economy without reducing the power output of the engine. Under-hood noise was reduced with sound absorbing materials and a sealed hood, while a spiral exhaust silencer

Russell Schiermeier; Tyler Harris; Nathan Bradbury; Karen R. DenBraven

317

Application of Pollution Prevention Techniques to Reduce Indoor Air Emissions from Engineered Wood Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood: oak-veneered particleboard coated and cur...

C. M. Brockmann L. S. Sheldon D. A. Whitaker J. N. Baskir

1998-01-01

318

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emissions will be calculated to the nearest one gram per mile for the categories of automobiles...emission value will be rounded to the nearest gram per mile; and (vi) At the manufacturer's...and roundedto the nearest tenth of a gram per mile: ER15OC12.068 Where:...

2013-07-01

319

Probabilistic Evaluation of Mobile Source Air Pollution: Volume 1. Probabilistic Modeling of Exhaust Emissions from Light Duty Gasoline Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emission factors for light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV) are typically developed based upon laboratory testing of vehicles for prescribed driving cycles. In this project, selected LDGV data sets and modeling assumptions used to develop Mobile5a were revis...

H. C. Frey M. D. Kini

1997-01-01

320

Treatment of power utilities exhaust  

DOEpatents

Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

Koermer, Gerald (Basking Ridge, NJ)

2012-05-15

321

Feasibility study: Fuel parameters and modifications for exhaust emission control of gas-fired prime movers. Final report, September 1991-March 1992  

SciTech Connect

The initial part of the report examines NOx emissions of gas turbine engines as a function of the gas composition. Natural gases of different non-methane hydrocarbon content are examined, as well as gases of different nitrogen and carbon dioxide contents. NOx emissions are predicted by using the EQLNOX computer code, and comparisons are shown to field data. The balance of the report examines the feasibility of nitrogen injection for the reduction of NOx emissions of gas turbine engines. Two engine sizes are considered: 3.3 and 10MW. Three methods of continuous production of the nitrogen, at the engine site, are considered: membranes, pressure swing adsorption, and the exhaust of a rich-burn piston engine. Seventy percent reduction of the NOx is found to be feasible. The cost in US dollars per ton of NOx removed is 1800 to 4800, depending on the engine size and method. For comparison, the cost of water injection, with the water transported to the site, is 3000 to 5300.

Steele, R.C.; Lai, J.Y.; Malte, P.C.

1992-06-01

322

Comparison of diesel exhaust emissions using JP-8 and low-sulfur diesel fuel. Interim report, March 1994March 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 wt% was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994

D. M. Yost; D. A. Montalvo

1995-01-01

323

Designing small gas turbine engines for low noise and clean exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results of design studies involving the use of small gas turbine engines to reduce noise and exhaust emissions from aircraft are reviewed. Comparisons of reciprocating engines with small turboprop engines indicate lower carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions for the latter engine type at all power settings. The piston engines show somewhat lower nitrogen oxide production above 20 percent power,

H. C. Eatock; J. C. Plucinsky; J. A. Saintsbury

1974-01-01

324

[Preparation of biodiesel from waste edible oils and performance and exhaust emissions of engines fueled with blends of the biodiesel].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of biodiesel on environment and to investigate the effect of the biodiesel made of waste edible oils on the performance and emissions of engines. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel and diesel was introduced and the results of the LCA of both the fuels were given. The technological process of biodiesel production from waste edible oils, which is called transesterification of waste oils and methanol catalyzed with NaOH, was presented. Two turbocharged DI engines fueled with different proportions of biodiesel and diesel, namely, B50 (50% biodiesel + 50% diesel) and B20 (20% biodiesel + 80% diesel), were chosen to conduct performance and emission tests on a dynamometer. The results of the study indicate that there was a slight increase in fuel consumption by 8% and a drop in power by 3% with the blends of biodiesel, compared with diesel, and that the best improvements in emissions of smoke, HC, CO and PM were 65%, 11%, 33% and 13% respectively, but NOx emission was increased. The study also shows that it is satisfied to fuel engines with the low proportion blends of the biodiesel, without modifying engines, in performance and emissions. PMID:16124461

Ge, Yun-shan; Lu, Xiao-ming; Gao, Li-ping; Han, Xiu-kun; Ji, Xing

2005-05-01

325

Tumor-specific T cells in human Merkel cell carcinomas: a possible role for Tregs and T cell exhaustion in reducing T cell responses  

PubMed Central

Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) are rare but highly malignant skin cancers associated with a novel polyomavirus. MCC tumors were infiltrated by T cells, including effector, central memory and regulatory T cells. Infiltrating T cells showed markedly reduced activation as evidenced by reduced expression of CD69 and CD25. Treatment of MCC tumors in vitro with IL-2 and IL-15 led to T cell activation, proliferation, enhanced cytokine production and loss of viable tumor cells from cultures. Expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes showed TCR repertoire skewing and upregulation of CD137. MCC tumors implanted into immunodeficient mice failed to grow unless human T cells in the tumor grafts were depleted with denileukin diftitox, suggesting tumor-specific T cells capable of controlling tumor growth were present in MCC. Both CD4+ and CD8+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells were frequent in MCC. 50% of non-activated T cells in MCC expressed PD-1, a marker of T-cell exhaustion, and PD-L1 and PD-L2 were expressed by a subset of tumor dendritic cells and macrophages. In summary, we observed tumor-specific T cells with suppressed activity in MCC tumors. Agents that stimulate T cell activity, block Treg function or inhibit PD-1 signaling may be effective in the treatment of this highly malignant skin cancer.

Dowlatshahi, Mitra; Huang, Victor; Gehad, Ahmed; Jiang, Ying; Calarese, Adam; Teague, Jessica E.; Dorosario, Andrew; Cheng, Jingwei; Nghiem, Paul; Schanbacher, Carl; Thakuria, Manisha; Schmults, Chrysalyne; Wang, Linda C.; Clark, Rachael A.

2013-01-01

326

Parameterized MPC to reduce dispersion of road traffic emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has two main contributions. First, it presents a simple area-wide emission (or dispersion) model for a freeway traffic networks. The model takes the variation of the wind speed and direction into account. Second, it presents a nonlinear parameterized MPC controller for freeway traffic systems. Next, the proposed model and control approach are illustrated with a simulation-based case study.

S. K. Zegeye; B. De Schutter; J. Hellendoorn; E. A. Breunesse

2011-01-01

327

Innovative Technology Reduces Power Plant Emissions-Commercialization Success  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overview of emission control system development: (1) Development of new oxidizer scrubber system to eliminate NOx waste and produce fertilizer (2) Technology licensed and a 1 to 3 MWatt-scale prototype installed on power plant (3) Development of method to oxidize NO to NO2 (4) Experience gained from licensing NASA technology.

Parrish, Clyde; Chung, Landy

2004-01-01

328

A Simple Evaluation Method for Annual CO2 Emissions Reduced by Distribution Loss Minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases is one of the serious environmental issues. Carbon dioxide is the biggest contributor to global warming. Many efforts to reduce emissions of CO2 are carrying out in various fields. In electrical power system field, various approaches to reduce CO2 emissions have been performed such as loss reduction, utilization of

Yasuhiro Hayashi; Hirotaka Takano; Junya Matsuki; Masao Yokoyama

2007-01-01

329

Performance and exhaust emissions of a gasoline engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels using artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the performance and the pollutant emissions of a four-stroke SI engine operating on ethanol–gasoline blends of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with the aid of artificial neural network (ANN). The properties of bioethanol were measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The experimental results revealed that

G. Najafi; B. Ghobadian; T. Tavakoli; D. R. Buttsworth; T. F. Yusaf; M. Faizollahnejad

2009-01-01

330

An experimental investigation of the performance and gaseous exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using blends of a vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance and gaseous emission characteristics of a diesel engine when fuelled with vegetable oil and its blends of 25%, 50%, and 75% of vegetable oil with ordinary diesel fuel separately. Tests on ordinary diesel fuel have also been carried out for comparison purposes.A series of tests are conducted and repeated six

Y. D. Wang; T. Al-Shemmeri; P. Eames; J. McMullan; N. Hewitt; Y. Huang; S. Rezvani

2006-01-01

331

Exhaust emissions and fuel properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil methyl esters blended with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important fuel properties and emission characteristics of blends (20 vol.%) of soybean oil methyl esters (SME) and partially hydrogenated SME (PHSME) in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) were determined and compared with neat ULSD. The following changes were observed for B20 blends of SME and PHSME versus neat ULSD: improved lubricity, higher kinematic viscosity and cetane number, lower sulfur content,

Bryan R. Moser; Aaron Williams; Michael J. Haas; Robert L. McCormick

2009-01-01

332

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on which they are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in this section based...engine family, we will consider all available information and analyses. Survey data is allowed but not required to make this...

2013-07-01

333

40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the engine family are designed to operate. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons in this section based...engine family, we will consider all available information and analyses. Survey data is allowed but not required to make this...

2013-07-01

334

Exhaust emissions of low level blend alcohol fuels from two-stroke and four-stroke marine engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard mandates that by 2022, 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be produced on a yearly basis. Ethanol production is capped at 15 billion gallons, meaning 21 billion gallons must come from different alternative fuel sources. A viable alternative to reach the remainder of this mandate is iso-butanol. Unlike ethanol, iso-butanol does not phase separate when mixed with water, meaning it can be transported using traditional pipeline methods. Iso-butanol also has a lower oxygen content by mass, meaning it can displace more petroleum while maintaining the same oxygen concentration in the fuel blend. This research focused on studying the effects of low level alcohol fuels on marine engine emissions to assess the possibility of using iso-butanol as a replacement for ethanol. Three marine engines were used in this study, representing a wide range of what is currently in service in the United States. Two four-stroke engine and one two-stroke engine powered boats were tested in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, near Annapolis, Maryland over the course of two rounds of weeklong testing in May and September. The engines were tested using a standard test cycle and emissions were sampled using constant volume sampling techniques. Specific emissions for two-stroke and four-stroke engines were compared to the baseline indolene tests. Because of the nature of the field testing, limited engine parameters were recorded. Therefore, the engine parameters analyzed aside from emissions were the operating relative air-to-fuel ratio and engine speed. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each alcohol fuel for the four-stroke engines were consistent, when analyzing a single round of testing. The same trends were not consistent when comparing separate rounds because of uncontrolled weather conditions and because the four-stroke engines operate without fuel control feedback during full load conditions. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each alcohol fuel for the two-stroke engine were consistent for all rounds of testing. This is due to the fact the engine operates open-loop, and does not provide fueling compensation when fuel composition changes. Changes in emissions with respect to the baseline for iso-butanol were consistent with changes for ethanol. It was determined iso-butanol would make a viable replacement for ethanol.

Sevik, James M., Jr.

335

Dispersion of traffic-related exhaust particles near the Berlin urban motorway: estimation of fleet emission factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particle number size distributions of airborne particles (diameter range 10 500 nm) were measured over ten weeks at three sites in the vicinity of the A100 urban motorway in Berlin, Germany. The A100 carries about 180 000 vehicles on a weekday, and roadside particle size distributions showed a number maximum between 20 and 60 nm clearly related to the motorway emissions. The average total number concentration at roadside was 28 000 cm-3 with a total range between 1200 and 168 000 cm-3. At distances of 80 and 400 m from the motorway the concentrations decreased to mean levels of 11 000 and 9 000 cm-3, respectively. An obstacle-resolving dispersion model was applied to simulate the 3-D flow field and traffic tracer transport in the urban environment around the motorway. By inverse modelling, vehicle emission factors were derived, representative of a relative share of 6% lorry-like vehicles, and a driving speed of about 80 km h-1. Three different calculation approaches were compared, which differ in the choice of the experimental winds driving the flow simulation. The average emission factor per vehicle was 2.1(±0.2) · 1014 km-1 for particle number and 0.077(±0.01) · 1014 cm3 km-1 for particle volume. Regression analysis suggested that lorry-like vehicles emit 116 (± 21) times more particulate number than passenger car-like vehicles, and that lorry-like vehicles account for about 91% of particulate number emissions on weekdays. Our work highlights the increasing applicability of 3-D flow models in urban microscale environments and their usefulness in determining traffic emission factors.

Birmili, W.; Alaviippola, B.; Hinneburg, D.; Knoth, O.; Tuch, T.; Kleefeld-Borken, J.; Schacht, A.

2008-08-01

336

Dispersion of traffic-related exhaust particles near the Berlin urban motorway - estimation of fleet emission factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particle number size distributions of airborne particles (diameter range 10-500 nm) were collected over ten weeks at three sites in the vicinity of the A100 urban motorway in Berlin, Germany. The A100 carries about 180 000 vehicles on a weekday. The roadside particle distributions showed a number maximum between 20 and 60 nm clearly related to the motorway emissions. The average total number concentration at roadside was 28 000 cm-3 with a total range of 1200-168 000 cm-3. At distances of 80 and 400 m from the motorway the concentrations decreased to mean levels of 11 000 and 9000 cm-3, respectively. An obstacle-resolving dispersion model was applied to simulate the 3-D flow field and traffic tracer transport in the urban environment around the motorway. By inverse modelling, vehicle emission factors were derived that are representative of a fleet with a relative share of 6% lorry-like vehicles, and driving at a speed of 80 km h-1. Three different calculation approaches were compared, which differ in the choice of the experimental winds driving the flow simulation. The average emission factor per vehicle was 2.1 (±0.2) · 1014 km-1 for particle number and 0.077 (±0.01) · 1014 cm3 km-1 for particle volume. Regression analysis suggested that lorry-like vehicles emit 123 (±28) times more particle number than passenger car-like vehicles, and lorry-like vehicles account for about 91% of particulate number emissions on weekdays. Our work highlights the increasing applicability of 3-D flow models in urban microscale environments and their usefulness for determining traffic emission factors.

Birmili, W.; Alaviippola, B.; Hinneburg, D.; Knoth, O.; Tuch, T.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schacht, A.

2009-04-01

337

Management options for reducing CO2 emissions from agricultural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop-based agriculture occupies 1.7 billion hectares, globally, with a soil C stock of about 170 Pg. Of the past anthropogenic CO2 additions to the atmosphere, about 50 Pg C came from the loss of soil organic matter (SOM) in cultivated soils. Improved management practices, however, can rebuild C stocks in agricultural soils and help mitigate CO2 emissions. Increasing soil C

K. PAUSTIAN; E. T. ELLIOTT; H. W. HUNT

2000-01-01

338

Reduced iron induced nitric oxide and nitrous oxide emission.  

PubMed

Formation of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide in water treatment systems is predominantly studied as a biological phenomenon. There are indications that also chemical processes contribute to these emissions. Here we studied the formation of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) due to chemical nitrite reduction by ferrous iron (Fe(II)). Reduction of nitrite and NO coupled to Fe(II) oxidation was studied in laboratory-scale chemical experiments at different pH, nitrite and iron concentrations. The continuous measurement of both NO and N(2)O emission showed that nitrite reduction and NO reduction have different kinetics. Nitrite reduction shows a linear dependency on the nitrite concentration, implying first order kinetics in nitrite. The nitrite reduction seems to be an equilibrium based reaction, leading to a constant NO concentration in the liquid. The NO reduction rate is suggested to be most dependent on reactive surface availability and the sorption of Fe(II) to the reactive surface. The importance of emission of NO and N(2)O coupled to iron oxidation is exemplified by iron reduction experiments and several examples of environments where this pathway can play a role. PMID:21940030

Kampschreur, Marlies J; Kleerebezem, Robbert; de Vet, Weren W J M; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

2011-11-15

339

Hydrogen/Air Fuel Nozzle Emissions Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of hydrogen combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines provides significant opportunities to reduce harmful exhaust emissions. Hydrogen has many advantages (no CO2 production, high reaction rates, high heating value, and future availability), alo...

T. D. Smith

2001-01-01

340

Determination of elemental and ionic compositions for diesel exhaust particles by particle induced X-ray emission and ion chromatography analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to clarify the chemical characterization of PM2.5 and PM10 in diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Sampling of PM2.5 and PM10 in DEP was carried out in November 1999 using an automobile exhaust testing system at the National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory, with a diesel truck (engine type: direct injection, displacement: 7,961 cc, carrying weight: 2,020 kg, equivalent inertia weight: 5,600 kg) placed on a chassis dynamometer. Sampling conditions included idling, constant speed of 40 km/h, M-15 test pattern and 60%-revolution/40%-load of maximum power. Samples were collected on a polycarbonate membrane filter (Nuclepore, pore size: 0.8 microm) using a MiniVol Portable Air Sampler (Airmetrics Co., Inc.). The concentrations of several elemental and ionic species in the PM2.5 and PM10 samples were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and ion chromatography analysis. PIXE analysis of the PM2.5 and PM10 samples revealed 15 elements, of which Na, Mg, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Fe and Zn were found to be the major components. Ionic species were Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO4(2-), Na+, NH4+, K+ and Ca2+. Concentrations of elements and ionic species under the sampling condition of 60%-revolution/40%-load were highest in comparison with those of the other sampling conditions. The elemental and ionic species data were compared for PM2.5 and PM10; PM2.5 concentrations were 70% or more of PM10 concentrations for the majority of elements, and concentrations of ionic species in PM2.5 and PM10 were almost identical. PMID:12725386

Saitoh, Katsumi; Sera, Koichiro; Shirai, Tadashi; Sato, Tatsuji; Odaka, Matsuo

2003-04-01

341

Method of making a washcoat mixture and catalyst for treatment of diesel exhaust  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A catalyst support is formed from powders of silica, titania and vanadia and optionally a silicate-based clay by applying a wet mixture of such powders to a support substrate and drying and calcining. When impregnated with platinum or palladium, the catalyst support reduces hydrocarbon and particulate emission in diesel exhaust and also prevents formation of mutagens in the exhaust. Advantageously, the catalyst support minimizes reaction with sulfur.

1993-12-21

342

Comparison of diesel exhaust emissions using JP-8 and low-sulfur diesel fuel. Interim report, March 1994-March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 wt% was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994 EPA certification low-sulfur diesel fuel (sulfur level equal to 0.035 wt%) in the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 1991 prototype Series 60 diesel engine and in the General Motors (GM) 6.2L diesel engine. Comparisons were made using the hot-start transient portion of the heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedure. Results from the Army study show that the gaseous emissions for the DDC Series 60 engine using kerosene-based JP-8 fuel are essentially equal to values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA certification diesel fuel, and that an approximate sulfur level of 0.21 wt% in kerosene-type JP-8 fuel would be equivalent to the 0.035 wt% sulfur reference fuel. Similarly, the regulated gaseous emissions for the GM 6.2L engine using JP-8 fuel are essentially equal to the values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA reference fuel. All sulfur levels of kerosene-type JP-8 fuel up to the 0.30 wt% MIL-T-83133 specification maximum would be equivalent to a 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA reference fuel.

Yost, D.M.; Montalvo, D.A.

1995-11-01

343

Control of diesel exhaust emissions in underground coal mines - single cylinder engine experiments with modified and non-conventional fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fuel properties and composition on emissions of particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were investigated in this study. Fuels and fuel blends evaluated included DF-1, DF-2, and JP-7; a solution and an emulsion of ethanol with DF-2; emulsions and fumigation of water with DF-2; and LPG with DF-2 pilot injection. All tests were

G. B. ONeal; J. O. Storment; R. W. Waytulonis

1981-01-01

344

ADVANCED DEHYDRATOR DESIGN SAVES GAS AND REDUCES HAP EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Glycol dehydrators remove water from gas pipe lines. An advanced dehydrator by Engineered Concepts, Farmington, NM, saves a significant amount of gas, while reducing hazardous air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and CO2 air pollutants...

345

Reducible emission probabilities and thermal scaling in multifragmentation  

SciTech Connect

Intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for a variety of reactions at intermediate energies are shown to be binomial and thus reducible at all measured transverse energies. From these distributions a single binary event probability can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. A strong thermal signature is also found in the charge distributions. The {eta}-fold charge distributions are reducible to the {eta}-fold charge distributions through a simple scaling that is dictated by fold number and charge conservation.

Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Tso, K. [and others

1995-08-01

346

Exhausting Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fume hood: You know what it is, but have you ever used it? And if a safety issue arose, would you know what to do? Unfortunately, fume hoods are frequently included in a science room just for show. Little thought is often given to how they should be used or maintained. It is important for science teachers to understand and regularly inspect fume hoods in their classrooms and laboratories. In this article, the author discusses a few considerations for design, inspection, use, and maintenance of fume hoods in a science lab and classroom. Read on for an "exhaustive" look at this safety device!

Mandt, Douglas

2009-01-01

347

The Effect of Fuel Type and Aftertreatment Method on Ultrafine Particle Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two potential strategies for reducing diesel emissions are exhaust aftertreatment and the use of reformulated or alternative fuels. Little is yet known about the impact on ultrafine particle emissions of combining exhaust aftertreatment with such increasingly common fuels. This paper reports ultrafine particle size distribution measurements for a study in which the impact of such fuels on emissions from a

Brian P. Frank; Shida Tang; Thomas Lanni; Jillian Grygas; Greg Rideout; Norman Meyer; Chris Beregszaszy

2007-01-01

348

UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL  

SciTech Connect

A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Swartz, Matthew M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2009-01-01

349

A Simple Evaluation Method for Annual CO2 Emissions Reduced by Distribution Loss Minimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases is one of the serious environmental issues. Carbon dioxide is the biggest contributor to global warming. Many efforts to reduce emissions of CO2 are carrying out in various fields. In electrical power system field, various approaches to reduce CO2 emissions have been performed such as loss reduction, utilization of renewable energy, recycling of resources and so on. Especially, distribution loss minimization is effective to reduce CO2 emissions because reduction of distribution loss leads to save the energy. For example, the largest distribution system in Japan consists of about 19,000 feeders. Much CO2 emissions can be reduced by minimizing distribution loss of the largest distribution system. However, CO2 emissions reduced by distribution loss minimization for the largest Japanese distribution system have not been estimated so far. In this paper, the authors try to calculate annual CO2 emissions reduced by distribution loss minimization for a distribution system model based on partial actual data, which is composed by 19,000 distribution feeders, 95,358 sectionalizing switches and 73,849 load sections. In the trial calculation, reduced CO2 emissions are estimated by sequentially proceeding four procedures: (1) classification of distribution system model into several load areas, (2) determination of loss minimum configuration in each load area, (3) calculation of reduced annual distribution loss for each area, and (4) calculation of reduced annual CO2 emissions. As the result of the trial calculation, reduced annual CO2 emissions of 40 × 106kg/year is estimated for the Japanese largest scaled 19,000 feeders distribution model.

Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Takano, Hirotaka; Matsuki, Junya; Yokoyama, Masao

350

A Systems Approach to Reducing Institutional GHG Emissions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish necessity and methods for considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies at a system-level. The research emphasizes connecting narrowly focused GHG mitigation objectives (e.g. reduce single occupancy vehicle travel) with broader institutional objectives (e.g. growth in student population) to…

Williamson, Sean R.

2012-01-01

351

PARTICLE TRAP EFFECTS ON HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The ceramic trap used in this study was highly effective in reducing particle emissions in the diesel exhaust; the weight of emitted particles and their associated chemicals in the filtered exhaust was reduced by over 90% under the two different work loads. As a consequence...

352

Challenges for Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from the Transport Sector in Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport sector is a large contributor of harmful gaseous and particulate emissions in many urban areas. Black carbon is a component of short-lived particulate matter emitted predominantly by freight, public transport, and heavy- duty trucks. Controlling the emissions of black carbon from the transport sector is important for mitigating its impacts on climate, ecosystems, and human health. However, reducing the emissions of black carbon from mobile sources may be a challenging task in many developing urban areas due to economic, social, and technical constrains. Several emissions control technologies offer a proven approach for reducing emissions of black carbon from diesel-powered mobile sources, but the accurate quantification of associated emissions benefits in developing urban areas is not well documented. We describe recent advances for the estimation of black carbon emissions from the transport sector in real world driving conditions and present examples of the potential benefits of implementing various emission control technologies in Mexico. The results can help in the identification of key factors that hinder the implementation of control emissions for reducing emissions of black carbon elsewhere.

Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.

2013-05-01

353

Engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine operating on diesel-RME (rapeseed methyl ester) blends with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester, RME) and different diesel\\/RME blends on the diesel engine NOx emissions, smoke, fuel consumption, engine efficiency, cylinder pressure and net heat release rate are analysed and presented. The combustion of RME as pure fuel or blended with diesel in an unmodified engine results in advanced combustion, reduced ignition delay and increased heat release

A. Tsolakis; A. Megaritis; M. L. Wyszynski; K. Theinnoi

2007-01-01

354

Limestone injection reduces SO2 and NO \\/SUB x\\/ emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phases of Foster Wheeler's programs are presented by which the company developed a less complex low-NO \\/SUB x\\/ burner. Two phases involved assessing the potential of premixing limestone with coal to reduce SO2, and evaluating a new method of in-burner sorbent injection. Upper furnace injection of limestone was also evaluated by Conoco at the DuPont facility. The article reports

J. Vatsky; E. S. Schindler

1985-01-01

355

Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-10-27

356

Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA) [Charlottesville, VA; Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM) [Jemez Springs, NM; Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA; Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Schecker, Jay A. (Santa Fe, NM) [Santa Fe, NM; Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

1998-01-01

357

Water-washable ink system reduces printers' hazardous emissions  

SciTech Connect

Printing industry solvents contain large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a major contributor to air pollution in that industry. Because most printing inks contain non-water-soluble petroleum, organic solvents have been necessary to clean presses using those inks. However, under proposed control technique guidelines for lithographic printers issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), printing-press wash solutions could contain no more than 30% VOCs. Deluxe Corp., a St. Paul, Minn.-based lithographic printer, recognized that stiffer emissions rules could mean harsh penalties for non-compliance and, in 1990, began developing a water-based press wash that would meet the guidelines. Deluxe last year introduced a 100% vegetable oil-based ink that becomes water-washable when exposed to the company's water-based press-wash solution. The solvent-free system eliminates VOCs and hazardous wastes associated with printing, contains no chemicals considered hazardous by EPA, uses no non-renewable resources, and works with existing printing equipment and processes. The system also eliminates water and soil contamination risks associated with laundering or landfilling solvent-saturated shop towels, saves money by eliminating the need to pay for hazardous waste disposal and provides relief to employees who complain about the strong odors of traditional press-wash solvents.

Kratch, K.

1994-08-01

358

Process for reducing SOx emissions from catalytic cracking units  

SciTech Connect

Reduction of SOx emissions from the regenerator associated with the fluidized catalytic cracking (Fcc) unit for converting hydrocarbon feedstocks into more valuable products is achieved by introducing into the fcc cycle one or more organic, aluminumcontaining compounds in dissolved form. In the catalytic cracking zone, the dissolved aluminum-containing compounds are converted to aluminum compounds that deposit relatively uniformly upon the catalyst particles. Also depositing upon the catalyst particles in the catalytic cracking zone are deactivating quantities of sulfur-containing coke. When such catalyst particles are introduced into the regenerator, wherein the sulfur-containing coke present on the catalyst surfaces is removed by combustion, thereby activating the catalyst particles, the SOx so produced reacts with the deposited aluminum compounds to form one or more stable, sulfur-aluminum oxidic compounds, thus desulfurizing the regenerator flue gas. Once deposited upon the catalyst particles, the aluminum compounds alternately react with the SOx compounds produced in the regenerator and then, by passage with the recycling catalyst particles through the catalytic cracking and steam stripping zones of the fcc unit, are converted to forms active for once again removing SOx compounds. Thus, just as the catalyst particles are alternately activated and deactivated for cracking hydrocarbons, the aluminum compounds dispersed on such catalyst particles undergo similar cyclical changes in activity with respect to SOx removal.

Mcarthur, D.P.

1981-03-31

359

Optimizing grain yields reduces CH4 emissions from rice paddy fields.  

PubMed

Microbial production in anoxic wetland rice soils is a major source of atmospheric CH4 the most important non-CO2 greenhouse gas. Much higher CH4 emissions from well managed irrigated rice fields in the wet than in the dry season could not be explained by seasonal differences in temperature. We hypothesized that high CH4 emissions in the wet season are caused by low grain to biomass ratios. In a screenhouse experiment, removing spikelets to reduce the plants' capacity to store photosynthetically fixed C in grains increased CH4 emissions, presumably via extra C inputs to the soil. Unfavorable conditions for spikelet formation in the wet season may similarly explain high methane emissions. The observed relationship between reduced grain filling and CH4 emission provides opportunities to mitigate CH4 emissions by optimizing rice productivity. PMID:12189212

Denier Van Der Gon, H A C; Kropff, M J; Van Breemen, N; Wassmann, R; Lantin, R S; Aduna, E; Corton, T M; Van Laar, H H

2002-09-17

360

The Economic Effectiveness of Mandatory Engine Maintenance for Reducing Vehicle Exhaust Emissions. Volume III. Inspection/Maintenance Procedures Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reported are experiments performed to develop, characterize, and rank automobile inspection and maintenance procedures. The experimental data were developed from the following sequence of investigations: An engine parameter field survey to characterize th...

1971-01-01

361

A performance standards approach to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from electric power plants  

SciTech Connect

The CO{sub 2} emission performance standard policies outlined in this paper could complement a cap-and-trade program that puts a price on carbon and serve to significantly reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from coal use for electricity generation. Emission performance standards have a long history in the United States and have been successfully used to control emissions of various air pollutants from electric generators. This paper explores the rationale for using emission performance standards and describes the various types of performance standard policies. Emission performance standards that address CO{sub 2} emissions could promote the deployment of carbon capture and storage technology coupled with new and existing coal-fueled electric power plants. 28 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Rubin, E.S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2009-06-15

362

Energy Taxation as a Policy Instrument to Reduce CO 2 Emissions: A Net Benefit Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the costs and benefits of energy taxation as a policy instrument to conserve energy and reduce CO2 emissions. The study combines economic cost estimates generated with a CGE model and monetary estimates of environmental damages in a comprehensive cost\\/benefit framework. We find that optimal CO2 emissions reductions range from 5 to 38%, depending on different assumptions about

Roy Boyd; Kerry Krutilla; W. Kip Viscusi

1995-01-01

363

Can fire regimes in savannas be managed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions: evidence from northern Australia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning of savannas and grasslands consumes more than one third of the total annual biomass burning globally while in Australia, savanna burning comprises 2% to 4% of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This national significance of this has led to efforts to reduce savanna burning emissions by better managing the extensive fires that burn across northern Australia each year. The

Garry Cook; Fabienne Reisen; Jeremy Russell-Smith; Stefan Maier; Adam Liedloff; Jon Schatz; Cameron Yates; Felicity Watt

2010-01-01

364

Options for reducing refrigerant emissions from supermarket systems. Final report, February-September 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characterizes the design of typical supermarket refrigeration systems and focuses on why these types of systems have high rates of refrigerant emissions. Three case studies are provided of

Troy

1997-01-01

365

Investigation of Technologies to Reduce Emissions of Methylene Chloride from Furniture Stripping Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the results of a project to investigate methods of reducing emissions of and the risk posed by methylene chloride (METH) emitted from furniture stripping facilities. METH is used in the stripping formulations used by these shops. T...

K. Wolf M. Morris

2001-01-01

366

Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit  

SciTech Connect

The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

2012-11-15

367

Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.  

PubMed

Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

2005-09-01

368

Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices. Modeling Exhaust Dispersion for Specifying Acceptable Exhaust/Intake Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide provides general information on specifying acceptable exhaust and intake designs. It also provides various quantitative approaches that can be used to determine expected concentration levels resulting from exhaust system emissions. In addition,...

2011-01-01

369

Reducing CO2-Emission by using Eco-Cements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 concentration in the air is rising constantly. Globally, cement companies are emitting nearly two billion tonnes/year of CO2 (or around 6 to 7 % of the planet's total CO2 emissions) by producing portland cement clinker. At this pace, by 2025 the cement industry will be emitting CO2 at a rate of 3.5 billion tones/year causing enormous environmental damage (Shi et al., 2011; Janotka et al., 2012). At the dawn of the industrial revolution in the mid-eighteenth century the concentration of CO2 was at a level of ca. 280 ppm. 200 years later at the time of World War II the CO2 level had risen to 310 ppm what results in a rate of increase of 0,15 ppm per year for that period (Shi et al., 2011). In November 2011 the CO2 concentration reached a value of 391 ppm (NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, 2011), a rise of ca. 81 ppm in 66 years and an increased rate of around 1,2 ppm/year respectively. In the same period cement production in tons of cement has multiplied by a factor of ca. 62 (Kelly & Oss, US Geological Survey, 2010). Thus new CO2-saving eco-cement types are gaining in importance. In these cement types the energy-consuming portland cement clinker is partially replaced by latent hydraulic additives such as blast furnace slag, fly ash or zeolite. These hydraulic additives do not need to be fired in the rotary furnace. They ony need to be pulverized to the required grain size and added to the ground portland cement clinker. Hence energy is saved by skipping the engery-consuming firing process, in addition there is no CO2-degassing as there is in the case of lime burning. Therefore a research project between Austria and Slovakia, funded by the EU (Project ENVIZEO), was initiated in 2010. The main goal of this project is to develop new CEM V eco-types of cements and certificate them for common usage. CEM V is a portland clinker saving cement kind that allows the reduction of clinker to a proportion of 40-64% for CEM V/A and 20-39% for CEM V/B respectively by the input of slag sands, puzzolanes and fly ash (according to standard EN 197-1). In this context four new CEM V kinds have been created, two Austrian types based on slag and fly ash, and two Slovak types, one based on slag and fly ash, the other on slag and natural pozzolana. The pozzolana consist of zeolite of clinoptilolite type that is gained from a Slovak deposit.

Voit, K.; Bergmeister, K.; Janotka, I.

2012-04-01

370

Options for reducing refrigerant emissions from supermarket systems. Final report, February-September 1994  

SciTech Connect

The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characterizes the design of typical supermarket refrigeration systems and focuses on why these types of systems have high rates of refrigerant emissions. Three case studies are provided of companies that have successfully implemented emission-reducing practices and technologies. The report discusses a variety of technical and procedural options that can be applied to existing systems and in new construction.

Troy, E.F.

1997-04-01

371

Status review of NASA programs for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programs initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate low emission advanced technology combustors for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine pollution are reviewed. Program goals are consistent with urban emission level requirements as specified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and with upper atmosphere cruise emission levels as recommended by the U. S. Climatic Impact Assessment Program and National Research Council. Preliminary tests of advanced technology combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft gas turbine engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Preliminary test results from fundamental studies indicate that extremely low emission combustion systems may be possible for future generation jet aircraft. The emission reduction techniques currently being evaluated in these programs are described along with the results and a qualitative assessment of development difficulty.

Rudey, R. A.

1976-01-01

372

Effect of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity at Various Fuel-Air Ratios on Exhaust Emissions on a Per-Mode Basis of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320 Diad Light Aircraft Engine: Volume 1: Results and Plotted Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions include carburetor lean out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity.

Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempe, E. E., Jr.

1978-01-01

373

Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

1976-01-01

374

Full Account of the Costs and Benefits of Reducing CO2 Emissions in Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among economists and policy makers more general, the fuel efficiency standard for cars and the fuel tax have been the subject of extensive debate. The major benefits of stricter fuel efficiency standards and higher fuel taxes are the reduction of Greenhouse gas emissions and the reduced oil dependence. The major costs are the increased production cost, the reduced comfort and

Stef Proost

2008-01-01

375

Oxidized and reduced biogenic nitrogen compound emissions into the rural troposphere: Characterization and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a dynamic flow-through chamber technique in conjunction with a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory, this research attempts to characterize and model oxidized and reduced biogenic nitrogen compound emissions into the rural troposphere. Nitrogen compound emissions are known to have profound effects on air quality. Consequences associated with increased emissions of oxidized and reduced nitrogen species are known to be increased tropospheric ozone production, fine particulate aerosol production, nitrate contamination of drinking water, eutrophication and acidification of soil and water bodies. It is well recognized that soil emissions can contribute a substantial percent of the total inventory for both the oxidized and reduced species, but great uncertainty still exists in this inventory. A controlled experiment involving the application of municipal waste biosolids to agricultural soils was shown to enhance NO emissions. A more detailed analysis throughout several seasons found the nitric oxide emissions from biosolid amended soils to have a strong temperature dependence and that their source strength is much larger relative to soils amended with chemically derived fertilizers. Emissions of nitric oxide from biosolid amended soils were modeled using the MultiScale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP). Results from this model indicated that ozone concentrations can decrease by approximately 12% (in the evening) and increase by approximately 2% (during the daylight hours) when these biosolid amended soils are taken into consideration in the land use database. Emissions of ammonia from soils amended with swine waste effluent were also measured and modeled. This study revealed that while the average source strength of ammonia from soils is significantly smaller than that of the lagoons, the much larger surface area of the soils causes them to also be an important emissions source. A fundamental mechanistic mass transfer model is presented and discussed in terms of its applicability for estimating NH3 flux and was found to be an effective predictor of the NH3 emissions for time periods immediately following slurry application.

Roelle, Paul Andrew

2001-12-01

376

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Lení?ek, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

2012-12-01

377

Erprobung emissionsgeminderter Zweiraeder. (Testing of low-emission motorcycles).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the project was the investigation of measures to reduce emissions of regulated and unregulated exhaust components of motorcycles. Five vehicles, belonging to different engine-power and weight categories, were selected for the research project o...

L. Hartung P. O. Kalis H. Appel

1991-01-01

378

Development of scavenger-free three-way automotive emission control catalysts with reduced hydrogen sulfide formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental research work was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of hydrogen sulfide formation on three-way automotive exhaust catalysts during the lean to rich engine operation sequence and to identify the role of the different catalyst components in this phenomenon. Based upon this knowledge, new catalysts were developed with reduced ability to form hydrogen sulfide by minimizing the storage of sulfur

E. S. Lox; B. H. Engler; E. Koberstein

1989-01-01

379

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...substituted for the exhaust measurement of CO2 . General...heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation...Alternative NOX measurement techniques outlined in § 86...permitted for NOX measurement in this subpart;...

2013-07-01

380

Investigation of NO(x) Removal from Small Engine Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of NO can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

1999-01-01

381

Investigation of NOx Removal from Small Engine Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

1999-01-01

382

Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

383

Method for treating combustion exhaust gases  

SciTech Connect

A method for treating exhaust gases generated by incinerating industrial wastes in a combustion chamber leading to a reaction chamber is described, comprising the steps of: (a) introducing the exhaust gases from the combustion chamber to the reaction chamber while keeping a high temperature; (b) spraying the exhaust gases flowing through the reaction chamber with water to vaporize the water with the heat of the exhaust gases, reducing the temperature of the exhaust gases while forming a saturated aqueous vapor of microparticles in intimate contact with noxious materials of the exhaust gases, thereby permitting the vapor microparticles to absorb and collect the noxious materials of the exhaust graft to form an acidic, saturated aqueous vapor; (c) spraying the acidic, saturated aqueous vapor with a neutralizing agent in a primary neutralization chamber to at least substantially denature the acidic, saturated aqueous vapor to a neutralized waste liquid; and (d) collecting and evacuating the neutralized waste liquid.

Sato, Inomatsu.

1993-05-25

384

Demonstration of oxygen-enriched combustion system on a light-duty vehicle to reduce cold-start emissions  

SciTech Connect

The oxygen content in the ambient air drawn by combustion engines can be increased by polymer membranes. The authors have previously demonstrated that 23 to 25% (concentration by volume) oxygen-enriched intake air can reduce hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), air toxics, and ozone-forming potential (OFP) from flexible-fueled vehicles (FFVs) that use gasoline or M85. When oxygen-enriched air was used only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods, the emission levels of all three regulated pollutants [CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and NO{sub x}] were lower than the U.S. EPA Tier II (year 2004) standards (without adjusting for catalyst deterioration factors). In the present work, an air separation membrane module was installed on the intake of a 2.5-L FFV and tested at idle and free acceleration to demonstrate the oxygen-enrichment concept for initial start-up and warm-up periods. A bench-scale, test set-up was developed to evaluate the air separation membrane characteristics for engine applications. On the basis of prototype bench tests and from vehicle tests, the additional power requirements and module size for operation of the membrane during the initial period of the cold-phase, FTP-75 cycle were evaluated. A prototype membrane module (27 in. long, 3 in. in diameter) supplying about 23% oxygen-enriched air in the engine intake only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods of a 2.5-L FFV requires additional power (blower) of less than one horsepower. With advances in air separation membranes to develop compact modules, oxygen enrichment of combustion air has the potential of becoming a more practical technique for controlling exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles.

Sekar, R.; Poola, R.B.

1997-08-01

385

Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector  

PubMed Central

Background Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies. Results The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Conclusion Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets.

Yoshida, Yukiko

2006-01-01

386

Removal of Sulfur from Natural Gas to Reduce Particulate Matter Emission from a Turbine Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work investigates the effect of natural gas fuel sulfur on particulate emissions from stationary gas turbine engines used for electricity generation. Fuel sulfur from standard line gas was scrubbed using a system of fluidized reactor beds containing a specially designed activated carbon purpose built for sulfur absorption. A sulfur injection system using sonic orifices was designed and constructed to inject methyl mercaptan into the scrubbed gas stream at varying concentrations. Using these systems, particulate emissions created by various fuel sulfur levels between 0 and 8.3 ppmv were investigated. Particulate samples were collected from a Capstone C65 microturbine generator system using a Horiba MDLT-1302TA micro dilution tunnel and analyzed using a Horiba MEXA-1370PM particulate analyzer. In addition, ambient air samples were collected to determine incoming particulate levels in the combustion air. The Capstone C65 engine air filter was also tested for particulate removal efficiency by sampling downstream of the filter. To further differentiate the particulate entering the engine in the combustion air from particulate being emitted from the exhaust stack, two high efficiency HEPA filters were installed to eliminate a large portion of incoming particulate. Variable fuel sulfur testing showed that there was a strong correlation between total particulate emission factor and fuel sulfur concentration. Using eleven variable sulfur tests, it was determined that an increase of 1 ppmv fuel sulfur will produce an increase of approximately 3.2 microg/m3 total particulate. Also, the correlation also predicted that, for this particular engine, the total particulate emission factor for zero fuel sulfur was approximately 19.1 microg/m3. With the EC and OC data removed, the correlation became 3.1 microg/m3 of sulfur particulate produced for each ppmv of fuel sulfur. The correlation also predicted that with no fuel sulfur present, 6.6 microg/m3 of particulate will be produced by sulfur passing through the engine air filter.

Spang, Brent Loren

387

Catalytic reduction of NO x in gasoline engine exhaust over copper- and nickel-exchanged X–zeolite catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic removal of NOx in engine exhaust gases can be accomplished by non-selective reduction, selective reduction and decomposition. Noble metals are extensively used for non-selective reduction of NOx and up to 90% of engine NOx emissions can be reduced in a stoichiometric exhaust. This requirement of having the stoichiometric fuel–air ratio acts against efficiency improvement of engines. Selective NOx reduction

Souvik Bhattacharyya; Randip K Das

2001-01-01

388

Regenerable diesel exhaust filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas filter assembly is described for removing particulates from the exhaust gas of an engine, comprising, in combination: a housing having an inlet pipe and an outlet pipe and defining an exhaust gas flow path between the inlet pipe and the outlet pipe, the inlet pipe being coupled to the engine to receive exhaust gas therefrom and the

Adiletta

1993-01-01

389

Elements for the expected mechanisms on 'reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, REDD' under UNFCCC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation account for about 20% of global anthropogenic emissions. Strategies and incentives for reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) have emerged as one of the most active areas in the international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). While the current negotiations focus on a REDD mechanism in developing countries, it should be recognized that risks of carbon losses from forests occur in all climate zones and also in industrialized countries. A future climate change agreement would be more effective if it included all carbon losses and gains from land use in all countries and climate zones. The REDD mechanism will be an important step towards reducing emissions from land use change in developing countries, but needs to be followed by steps in other land use systems and regions. A national approach to REDD and significant coverage globally are needed to deal with the risk that deforestation and degradation activities are displaced rather than avoided. Favourable institutional and governance conditions need to be established that guarantee in the long-term a stable incentive and control system for maintaining forest carbon stocks. Ambitious emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation need sustained financial incentives, which go beyond positive incentives for reduced emissions but also give incentives for sustainable forest management. Current data limitations need—and can be—overcome in the coming years to allow accurate accounting of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. A proper application of the conservativeness approach in the REDD context could allow a simplified reporting of emissions from deforestation in a first phase, consistent with the already agreed UNFCCC reporting principles.

Mollicone, D.; Freibauer, A.; Schulze, E. D.; Braatz, S.; Grassi, G.; Federici, S.

2007-10-01

390

The potential for Bus Rapid Transit to reduce transportation-related CO2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) as a near-term strategy for reducing CO2 emissions in a typical medium-sized U.S. city. The paper compares the expected CO2 emissions from three scenarios to meet the city’s growth in work trips by 2011: a no-build option that relies upon private automobiles and a diesel bus fleet; building a light rail (LRT) system;

Willam Vincent; Lisa Callaghan Jerram

2006-01-01

391

Increasing leaf temperature reduces the suppression of isoprene emission by elevated CO2 concentration.  

PubMed

Including algorithms to account for the suppression of isoprene emission by elevated CO2 concentration affects estimates of global isoprene emission for future climate change scenarios. In this study, leaf-level measurements of isoprene emission were made to determine the short-term interactive effect of leaf temperature and CO2 concentration. For both greenhouse plants and plants grown under field conditions, the suppression of isoprene emission was reduced by increasing leaf temperature. For each of the four different tree species investigated, aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), cottonwood (Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and tundra dwarf willow (Salix pulchra Cham.), the suppression of isoprene by elevated CO2 was eliminated at increased temperature, and the maximum temperature where suppression was observed ranged from 25 to 35°C. Hypotheses proposed to explain the short-term suppression of isoprene emission by increased CO2 concentration were tested against this observation. Hypotheses related to cofactors in the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway were consistent with reduced suppression at elevated leaf temperature. Also, reduced solubility of CO2 with increased temperature can explain the reduced suppression for the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase competition hypothesis. Some global models of isoprene emission include the short-term suppression effect, and should be modified to include the observed interaction. If these results are consistent at longer timescales, there are implications for predicting future global isoprene emission budgets and the reduced suppression at increased temperature could explain some of the variable responses observed in long-term CO2 exposure experiments. PMID:24614154

Potosnak, Mark J; Lestourgeon, Lauren; Nunez, Othon

2014-05-15

392

Energy Recovery from End-of-Life Tyres: Untapped Possibility to Reduce CO2 Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the possibility to reduce CO2 emissions by energy recovery from waste tyres is discussed. The objective of the study is to analyze the end-of-life tyre market in Latvia, to assess the amount of used tyres available and to calculate the potential reduction of CO2 emissions by energy recovery from tyres in mineral products industry. Calculation results show that an improved collection and combustion of end-of-life tyres in the cement industry can save up to 17% of the present CO2 emissions in the mineral products industry.

Dzene, Ilze; Rochas, Claudio; Blumberga, Dagnija; Rosa, Marika; Erdmanis, Andris

2010-01-01

393

Reducing nitrous oxide emissions to mitigate climate change and protect the ozone layer.  

PubMed

Reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions offers the combined benefits of mitigating climate change and protecting the ozone layer. This study estimates historical and future N2O emissions and explores the mitigation potential for China's chemical industry. The results show that (1) from 1990 to 2012, industrial N2O emissions in China grew by some 37-fold from 5.07 to 174 Gg (N2O), with total accumulated emissions of 1.26 Tg, and (2) from 2012 to 2020, the projected emissions are expected to continue growing rapidly from 174 to 561 Gg under current policies and assuming no additional mitigation measures. The total accumulated mitigation potential for this forecast period is about 1.54 Tg, the equivalent of reducing all the 2011 greenhouse gases from Australia or halocarbon ozone-depleting substances from China. Adipic acid production, the major industrial emission source, contributes nearly 80% of the industrial N2O emissions, and represents about 96.2% of the industrial mitigation potential. However, the mitigation will not happen without implementing effective policies and regulatory programs. PMID:24749524

Li, Li; Xu, Jianhua; Hu, Jianxin; Han, Jiarui

2014-05-01

394

Biofiltration of the Critical Minimum Ventilation Exhaust Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project investigated the gas and odor emission reduction potential from a deep-pit swine finisher using a strategy of partial biofiltration of a critical minimum amount of exhausted air (CMEA). The CMEA was defined as the amount of air exhausted to a stable hot-weather atmosphere, typical of summer night conditions. Ventilation air exhausted during the heat of summer days

S. J. Hoff; J. D. Harmon

395

40 CFR 600.112-78 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-78...ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy...Procedures § 600.112-78 Exhaust sample analysis. The...

2010-07-01

396

40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 600.112-08...ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy...Procedures § 600.112-08 Exhaust sample analysis. The...

2010-07-01

397

40 CFR 60.106a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for sulfur recovery plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses,â (incorporated...Method 6. (2) For sulfur recovery plants that...subject to the reduced sulfur compound and H2 S emission...concentration of reduced sulfur, H2 S, and O2...Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses,â...

2013-07-01

398

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOEpatents

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25

399

Microbial mechanisms to reduce the uncertainties in the CH4 emissions from global rice fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In terrestrial ecosystems, methane (CH4) uptake or emission represents the net balance between activities of different microbial organisms including anaerobic Methanogens that produce CH4 and Methanotrophs which oxidize CH4 in the aerobic environments. In this way, anaerobic soil environments such as rice fields are major source of terrestrial CH4 emissions. However, large uncertainties in the CH4 emission estimates have been reported from rice fields. The bottom-up and top-down methods showed a wide range of CH4 emissions estimations ranging from 25 to 300 Tg yr-1 from rice fields. The major reason for uncertainties in the CH4 emissions includes the water management that alters the balance of Methanogens and Methanotrophs in the rice fields. Two kinds of water management practices are followed including continuous flooding (CF) which refers to the continuous submergence as well as alternate wetting and drying (AWD) in which the rice fields are drained for several days during the growing season. The AWD provides aeration stress on Methanogens resulting in lower CH4 emissions than CF water management followed in the rice fields. A single aeration during growing season may significantly reduce the CH4 emission from the rice fields. Currently, most of the models structures assume that Methanogens become active once the soil moisture content is raised to saturation. However, several laboratory scale studies have indicated that following aeration the Methanogens don't become fully functional immediately even if the soil moisture content is raised to saturation. In this study, we integrated the aeration stress mechanisms on the Methanogens in the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). The improved version of DLEM was used to conduct uncertainty analysis on global CH4 emission estimation following CF and AWD water management in the rice fields. Results of this study have shown that inclusion of the aeration stress mechanism on Methanogens in the modeling framework has reduced the uncertainties in the CH4 emissions estimates from the rice fields.

Kamaljit, K.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.; Yang, J.

2013-12-01

400

Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

2011-12-22

401

Reducing health risk assigned to organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator.  

PubMed

Organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator have been characterized with an improved set of analytical methods to reduce the human health risk assigned to operations of the facility. A gas chromatography/mass selective detection method with substantially reduced detection limits has been used in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared microscopy to improve the speciation of semi-volatile and non-volatile organics emitted from the incinerator. The reduced detection limits have allowed a significant reduction in the assumed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aminobiphenyl (ABP) emission rates used as inputs to the human health risk assessment for the incinerator. A mean factor of 17 decrease in assigned human health risk is realized for six common local exposure scenarios as a result of the reduced PAH and ABP detection limits. PMID:22773143

Laman, David M; Weiler, B Douglas; Skeen, Rodney S

2013-03-01

402

Flexible field emission of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes/reduced graphene hybrid films.  

PubMed

The outstanding flexible field emission properties of carbon hybrid films made of vertically aligned N-doped carbon nanotubes grown on mechanically compliant reduced graphene films are demonstrated. The bottom-reduced graphene film substrate enables the conformal coating of the hybrid film on flexible device geometry and ensures robust mechanical and electrical contact even in a highly deformed state. The field emission properties are precisely examined in terms of the control of the bending radius, the N-doping level, and the length or wall-number of the carbon nanotubes and analyzed with electric field simulations. This high-performance flexible carbon field emitter is potentially useful for diverse, flexible field emission devices. PMID:21104826

Lee, Duck Hyun; Lee, Jin Ah; Lee, Won Jong; Kim, Sang Ouk

2011-01-01

403

Use of videoconferencing in Wales to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, travel costs and time.  

PubMed

In September 2005 a telemedicine service was started to assist multidisciplinary teams in Wales to improve cancer services. In October 2006 and October 2007 users of videoconferencing equipment at one site completed questionnaires. During October 2006 a total of 18,000 km of car travel were avoided, equivalent to 1696 kg of CO(2) emission. During October 2007 a total of 20,800 km of car travel were avoided, equivalent to 2590 kg of CO(2) emission. We estimate that 48 trees would take a year to absorb that quantity of CO(2). The results of the surveys show that exploiting telemedicine makes better use of staff time, reduces the time spent travelling and assists in reducing climate change by limiting the emissions of CO(2). PMID:19364897

Lewis, Delyth; Tranter, Glynis; Axford, Alan T

2009-01-01

404

Reconsidering California Transport Policies: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Uncertain Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past decade, the state of California has set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions targets across all sectors of the economy. The first major target occurs in 2020, when the state hopes to have reduced statewide greenhouse gas emission from their current levels to 1990 levels. This 320-page paper from RAND researcher Ryan Keefe takes a critical look at the policies adopted by California in its attempt to achieve these long-term goals. Visitors can look over the complete document if they are so inclined, but there is a brief summary available as well. The paper provides a history of climate policy in California, sections on policy options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles, and new methods for evaluating California's light-duty transportation policies. Finally, the paper also includes a wealth of graphs, charts, and technical appendices.

Keefe, Ryan

2012-02-24

405

Exhaust support system  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust support system is described for a midship engine rear wheel drive-type vehicle having a transversely mounted engine, which consists of: a first cylindrical exhaust device having an inlet opening at a first longitudinal end thereof and an outlet opening at a second longitudinal end thereof and a horizontal longitudinal centerline running therethrough; a first exhaust pipe having an inlet opening and an outlet opening, the inlet opening communicating with the engine and the outlet opening communicating with the first cylindrical exhaust device; a second cylindrical exhaust device having an inlet opening at a first longitudinal end thereof and an outlet opening at a second longitudinal end thereof, the second cylindrical exhaust device having a horizontal longitudinal centerline running therethrough and being provided in a substantially parallel relationship with the centerline of the first exhaust device, and the first cylindrical exhaust device is located alongside of the second exhaust device such that the longitudinal centerlines of the first and second exhaust devices are located in substantially adjacent horizontal planes; a second exhaust pipe communicating the outlet opening of the first exhaust device with the inlet opening of the second exhaust device; and a bracket means for securing the first exhaust pipe to the second exhaust device, the bracket means being made of at least one sheet of metal, the at least one sheet of metal being secured to an extending perpendicularly between an outer peripheral flange of the first exhaust pipe and an outer peripheral portion of the second exhaust device, the at least one sheet of metal having a substantially flat surface which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal longitudinal centerlines of the first and the second exhaust devices.

Teshima, H.

1986-06-24

406

A SECOND-BEST EVALUATION OF EIGHT POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS. (R825313)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract This paper uses a numerical general equilibrium model to compare the costs of alternative policies for reducing carbon emissions in a second-best setting with a distortionary tax on labor. We examine a carbon tax, two energy taxes, and both narrow-based and br...

407

Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Clean Cities Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

Not Available

2012-01-01

408

Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Drive Smarter, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Clean Cities' Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

Not Available

2011-06-01

409

Emission abatement versus development as strategies to reduce vulnerability to climate change: An application of FUND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poorer countries are generally believed to be more vulnerable to climate change than richer countries because poorer countries are more exposed and have less adaptive capacity. This suggests that, in principle, there are two ways of reducing vulnerability to climate change: economic growth and greenhouse gas emission reduction. Using a complex climate change impact model, in which development is an

RICHARD S.J. TOL

2005-01-01

410

Energy saving and emission reducing evaluation of industrial enterprises based on ANP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the necessity of energy saving and emission reducing (ESER) evaluation in industrial enterprises. First of all, using of objective methods this article builds the index system of ESER evaluation in industrial enterprises including three levels, six sub-set and 32 indicator variables. Second, we establish mathematical models of ESER evaluation. Third, this paper determines the weight of each

Wu Guo-hua; Chen Na; Zhang Chun-ling

2010-01-01

411

A real time traffic light control scheme for reducing vehicles CO2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is a very serious problem which is becoming ever worse as the growth in the number of vehicles. This paper presents a real time traffic lights control scheme for reducing vehicles CO2 emissions based on the Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) installed vehicles. Real time road conditions are obtained by wireless communication between the vehicles and the traffic lights

Chunxiao Li; Shigeru Shimamoto

2011-01-01

412

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF FUEL OIL ADDITIVES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS AND INCREASING EFFICIENCY OF BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of combustion-type fuel oil additives to reduce emissions and increase efficiency in a 50-bhp (500 kw) commercial oil-fired packaged boiler. Most additive evaluation runs were made during continuous firing, constant-l...

413

Nitrogen and phosphorous limitations significantly reduce future allowable CO2 emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth System Models (ESMs) can be used to diagnose the emissions of CO2 allowed in order to follow the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) that are consistent with different climate scenarios. By mass balance, the allowable emission is calculated as the sum of the changes in atmospheric CO2, land and ocean carbon pools. Only two ESMs used in the fifth assessment (AR5) of International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) include nitrogen (N) limitation, and none include phosphorous (P) limitation. In this study we quantified the effects of N and P limitations on the allowable emissions using an ESM simulating land and ocean CO2 exchanges to the atmosphere in RCPs used for IPCC AR5. The model can run with carbon cycle alone (C only), carbon and nitrogen (CN) or carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (CNP) cycles as its land configurations. We used the simulated land and ocean carbon accumulation rates from 1850 to 2100 to diagnose the allowable emissions for each of three simulations (C only, CN or CNP). These were then compared with the emissions estimated by the Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) used to generate RCP2.6 and RCP8.5. N and P limitations on land in our ESM led to systematically lower land carbon uptake, and thus reduced allowable emissions by 69 Pg C (21%) for RCP2.6, and by 250 Pg C (13%) for RCP8.5 from 2006 to 2100. Our results demonstrated that including N and P limitations requires a greater reduction in human CO2 emissions than assumed in the IAMs used to generate the RCPs. Reference: Zhang, Q., Y. P. Wang, R. J. Matear, A. J. Pitman, and Y. J. Dai (2014), Nitrogen and phosphorous limitations significantly reduce future allowable CO2 emissions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2013GL058352.

Zhang, Qian; Wang, Ying-Ping; Matear, Richard; Pitman, Andy; Dai, Yongjiu

2014-05-01

414

New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China.  

PubMed

Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world's population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st century. China's participation is essential to global efforts in reducing N-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because China is the largest producer and consumer of fertilizer N. To evaluate the impact of China's use of N fertilizer, we quantify the carbon footprint of China's N fertilizer production and consumption chain using life cycle analysis. For every ton of N fertilizer manufactured and used, 13.5 tons of CO2-equivalent (eq) (t CO2-eq) is emitted, compared with 9.7 t CO2-eq in Europe. Emissions in China tripled from 1980 [131 terrogram (Tg) of CO2-eq (Tg CO2-eq)] to 2010 (452 Tg CO2-eq). N fertilizer-related emissions constitute about 7% of GHG emissions from the entire Chinese economy and exceed soil carbon gain resulting from N fertilizer use by several-fold. We identified potential emission reductions by comparing prevailing technologies and management practices in China with more advanced options worldwide. Mitigation opportunities include improving methane recovery during coal mining, enhancing energy efficiency in fertilizer manufacture, and minimizing N overuse in field-level crop production. We find that use of advanced technologies could cut N fertilizer-related emissions by 20-63%, amounting to 102-357 Tg CO2-eq annually. Such reduction would decrease China's total GHG emissions by 2-6%, which is significant on a global scale. PMID:23671096

Zhang, Wei-Feng; Dou, Zheng-Xia; He, Pan; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Powlson, David; Chadwick, Dave; Norse, David; Lu, Yue-Lai; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Liang; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cassman, Kenneth G; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2013-05-21

415

Symbiotic relationships between soil fungi and plants reduce N2O emissions from soil.  

PubMed

N2O is a potent greenhouse gas involved in the destruction of the protective ozone layer in the stratosphere and contributing to global warming. The ecological processes regulating its emissions from soil are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a dominant group of soil fungi, which form symbiotic associations with the majority of land plants and which influence a range of important ecosystem functions, can induce a reduction in N2O emissions from soil. To test for a functional relationship between AMF and N2O emissions, we manipulated the abundance of AMF in two independent greenhouse experiments using two different approaches (sterilized and re-inoculated soil and non-mycorrhizal tomato mutants) and two different soils. N2O emissions were increased by 42 and 33% in microcosms with reduced AMF abundance compared to microcosms with a well-established AMF community, suggesting that AMF regulate N2O emissions. This could partly be explained by increased N immobilization into microbial or plant biomass, reduced concentrations of mineral soil N as a substrate for N2O emission and altered water relations. Moreover, the abundance of key genes responsible for N2O production (nirK) was negatively and for N2O consumption (nosZ) positively correlated to AMF abundance, indicating that the regulation of N2O emissions is transmitted by AMF-induced changes in the soil microbial community. Our results suggest that the disruption of the AMF symbiosis through intensification of agricultural practices may further contribute to increased N2O emissions. PMID:24351937

Bender, S Franz; Plantenga, Faline; Neftel, Albrecht; Jocher, Markus; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Köhl, Luise; Giles, Madeline; Daniell, Tim J; van der Heijden, Marcel Ga

2014-06-01

416

Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

2013-12-01

417

46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...per square inch gage. (3) Steam lines and registers in non-accommodation...minimized, the pressure in the steam line to that space must be reduced...exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests, turbine casings, exhaust piping...

2009-10-01

418

46 CFR 56.50-15 - Steam and exhaust piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...per square inch gage. (3) Steam lines and registers in non-accommodation...minimized, the pressure in the steam line to that space must be reduced...exhaust side, including engine steam cylinders and chests, turbine casings, exhaust piping...

2010-10-01

419

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhibit significant differences in fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and...other states, she will calculate fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and... (2) In order to highlight the fuel efficiency, CO2 emissions, and...

2013-07-01

420

Estimating the marginal cost of reducing global fossil fuel CO[sub 2] emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper estimates the marginal, total, and average cost and effectiveness of carbon taxes applied either by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members alone, or as part of a global cooperative strategy, to reduce potential future emissions and their direct implications for employment in the US coal industry. Two sets of cases are examined, one set in which OECD members acts alone, and another set in which the world acts in concert. In each case set taxes are examined which achieve four alternative levels of emissions reduction: halve the rate of emissions growth, no emissions growth, 20[percent] reduction from 1988 levels, and 50[percent] reduction from 1988 levels. For the global cooperation case, carbon tax rates of [dollar sign]32, [dollar sign]113, [dollar sign]161, and [dollar sign]517 per metric ton of carbon (mtC) were needed in the year 2025 to achieve the objectives. Total costs were respectively [dollar sign]40, [dollar sign]178, [dollar sign]253, and [dollar sign]848 billions of 1990 US dollars per year in the year 2025. Average costs were [dollar sign]32, [dollar sign]55, [dollar sign]59, and [dollar sign]135 per mtC. Costs were significantly higher in the cases in which the OECD members states acted alone. OECD member states, acting alone, could not reduce global emissions by 50[percent] or 20[percent] relative to 1988, given reference case assumptions regarding developing and recently planned nations economic growth.

Edmonds, J.; Barns, D.W.; McDonald, S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

421

SOCRATES Simulation of the Emission at Wavelength 6300 A Generated by the Interaction between the Atmosphere and the Space Shuttle Exhaust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions between the space shuttle exhaust and the atmosphere at an altitude of 320 km. The investigation carries out the simulations for regions extending to 15 km from spacecraft...

A. Setayesh M. F. Tautz

1993-01-01

422

Influence of physical and chemical properties of biodiesel fuels on injection, combustin and exhaust emission characteristics in a direct injection compression ignition engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two topics. One is a study of the effects of biodiesel fuel physical properties on injection characteristics and spray behaviour. The study was done via numerical simulation of the injection system and via laser-sheet imaging of the spray. The second topic is a study of the effects of the constituents of biodiesel fuel on combustion and exhaust

K Yamane; A Ueta; Y Shimamoto

2001-01-01

423

Biomass Burning Emissions - The Importance of Reducing Uncertainties for Improved Regulatory Decisions; an EPA Perspective (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning emissions from wildland and prescribed fires can have far reaching impacts in several of EPA’s regulatory programs under the Clean Air Act, ultimately affecting decisions on actions taken under State Implementation Plans (SIPs), and programs such as Visibility and Regional Haze, Interstate Transport and Conformity. In most instances the EPA’s National Emissions Inventory (NEI), which is developed in conjunction with other federal, state, local, and tribal agencies is a cornerstone used to support air quality decision making. Over the past several years estimated wildland and prescribed fire emissions in the NEI have evolved from a crude, state-based, climatology to fire-specific, daily-resolved estimates primarily through the use of satellite measurements. In addition to research within EPA, external research partners are providing improved knowledge in areas such as chemical composition of smoke, plume rise measurements via satellites, and the development of improved emission algorithms. Accurate inputs to characterize and model the daily and hourly biomass burning emissions across the US are necessary to reduce the uncertainty in characterizing the emissions, transport, and transformation of gases and particles from their source, with the end goal of categorizing biomass burning emissions within the EPA’s regulatory structure. Reducing the uncertainty will lead to improved decision making as this information is used to support the development and implementation of EPA’s air regulatory programs. This is especially true under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) where averaging times for particulate matter (PM), ozone, and the new proposed NO2 standard are at 24 hours or less, where accurate resolution of fire emissions is critical in understanding receptor impacts. This talk will highlight the impacts of wildland and prescribed fires within EPA’s regulatory program and importance of continued research to reduce the uncertainly in the areas of chemical speciation, emission factors, plume rise, fuel loading, and fire behavior modeling. Disclaimer: Although this work was reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

Szykman, J. J.; Kordzi, J.; Pouliot, G.; Pierce, T. E.; Pace, T.; Rao, T.

2009-12-01

424

On the Performance and Operability of GE’s Dry Low NO x Combustors utilizing Exhaust Gas Recirculation for PostCombustion Carbon Capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capture and sequestration of CO2 will be necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel (coal, oil, natural gas or biomass) power generation facilities in a carbon constrained world. Post combustion carbon capture is a viable technology alternative to reduce CO2 emissions from power plants in the short term. The CO2 concentration in the exhaust gases of natural fired

Andrei T. Evulet; Ahmed M. ELKady; Anthony R. Branda; Daniel Chinn

2009-01-01

425

Jet engine exhaust chemiion measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made mass spectrometric measurements of negative chemiions (CI) in the exhaust of a jet engine on the ground. The measurements took place at plume ages between 6.6 and 19ms at low- and high-fuel sulfur content (FSC). Total negative CI-number densities reached up to 1.4·107cm-3 corresponding to an emission index for negative CI of 3×1015 CI per kg fuel.

F. ARNOLD; Th. Stilp; R. Busen; U. Schumann

1998-01-01

426

Diesel particulate emission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the emission control of particulates from diesel exhaust gases. The efficiency and exhaust emissions of diesel engines will be compared with those of otto engines (petrol engines). The formation of particulates (or “soot”), one of the main nuisances of diesel exhaust gases, will be briefly outlined. The effects of various emission components on human health and the

John P. A. Neeft; Michiel Makkee; Jacob A. Moulijn

1996-01-01

427

Status review of NASA programs for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes and discusses the results from some of the research and development programs for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine emissions. Although the paper concentrates on NASA programs only, work supported by other U.S. government agencies and industry has provided considerable data on low emission advanced technology for aircraft gas turbine engine combustors. The results from the two major NASA technology development programs, the ECCP (Experimental Clean Combustor Program) and the PRTP (Pollution Reduction Technology Program), are presented and compared with the requirements of the 1979 U.S. EPA standards. Emission reduction techniques currently being evaluated in these programs are described along with the results and a qualitative assessment of development difficulty.

Rudey, R. A.

1976-01-01

428

Reducing ammonia emissions from laying-hen houses through dietary manipulation.  

PubMed

Feed additives can change the microbiological environment of the animal digestive track, nutrient composition of feces, and its gaseous emissions. This 2-yr field study involving commercial laying-hen houses in central Iowa was conducted to assess the effects of feeding diets containing EcoCal and corn-dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions. Three high-rise layer houses (256,600 W-36 hens per house) received standard industry diet (Control), a diet containing 7% EcoCal (EcoCal) or a diet containing 10% DDGS (DDGS). Gaseous emissions were continuously monitored during the period of December 2007 to December 2009, covering the full production cycle. The 24-month test results revealed that mean NH3 emission rates were 0.58 +/- 0.05, 0.82 +/- 0.04, and 0.96 +/- 0.05 g/hen/day for the EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diet, respectively. Namely, compared to the Control diet, the EcoCal and DDGS diets reduced NH3 emission by an average of 39.2% and 14.3%, respectively. The concurrent H2S emission rates were 5.39 +/- 0.46, 1.91 +/- 0.13, and 1.79 +/- 0.16 mg/ hen/day for the EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diet, respectively. CO2 emission rates were similar for the three diets, 87.3 +/- 1.37, 87.4 +/- 1.26, and 89.6 +/- 1.6 g/hen/day for EcoCal, DDGS, and Control, respectively (P = 0.45). The DDGS and EcoCal houses tended to emit less CH4 than the Control house (0.16 and 0.12 vs. 0.20 g/hen/day) during the monitored summer season. The efficacy of NH3 emission reduction by the EcoCal diet decreased with increasing outside temperature, varying from 72.2% in February 2009 to -7.10% in September 2008. Manure of the EcoCal diet contained 68% higher ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and 4.7 times higher sulfur content than that of the Control diet. Manure pH values were 8.0, 8.9, and 9.3 for EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diets, respectively. This extensive field study verifies that dietary manipulation provides a viable means to reduce NH3 emissions from modern laying-hen houses. PMID:22442932

Li, Hong; Xin, Hongwei; Burns, Robert T; Roberts, Stacey A; Li, Shuhai; Kliebenstein, James; Bregendahl, Kristjan

2012-02-01

429

At what cost do we reduce pollution Shadow prices of SO[sub 2] emissions  

SciTech Connect

The US EPA's infant market for SO[sub 2] emissions has the potential for improving the cost effectiveness of reducing acid rain pollutants. If the market works as planned, over time one should see the cost of reducing additional amounts of sulfur dioxide converge across plants. The results of the study described here demonstrate that before the market opened marginal abatement costs varied wildly across plants. This work provides estimates of the shadow price of SO[sub 2] abatement using the output distance function approach for Illinois, Minnesota and Wisconsin coal-burning electric plants. The results demonstrate that the coal-burning electric plants with the highest emissions rates are also the plants with the lowest marginal abatement costs, a fact that may explain lower-than-expected prices in the new market for allowances. The data include information about plants with installed scrubber capital allowing for an investigation of the effect of scrubber capital on marginal abatement costs.

Swinton, J.R. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States))

1998-01-01

430

Reducing carbonyl emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine at US transient cycle test by use of paraffinic/biodiesel blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are toxic carcinogens so their reductions in diesel-engine emissions are desirable. This study investigated emissions of carbonyl compounds (CBCs) from an HDDE (heavy-duty diesel engine) at US transient cycle test, using five test fuels: premium diesel fuel (D100), P100 (100% palm-biodiesel), P20 (20% palm-biodiesel + 80% premium diesel fuel), PF80P20 (80% paraffinic fuel + 20% palm-biodiesel), and PF95P05 (95% paraffinic fuel + 5% palm-biodiesel). Experimental results indicate that formaldehyde was the major carbonyl in the exhaust, accounting for 70.1-76.2% of total CBC concentrations for all test fuels. In comparison with D100 (172 mg BHP -1 h -1), the reductions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emission factor for P100, P20, PF80P20, and PF95P05 were (-16.8%, -61.8%), (-10.0%, -39.0%), (21.3%, 1.10%), and (31.1%, 19.5%), respectively. Using P100 and P20 instead of D100 in the HDDE increased CBC concentrations by 14.5% and 3.28%, respectively, but using PF80P20 and PF95P05 significantly reduced CBC concentrations by 30.3% and 23.7%, respectively. Using P100 and P20 instead of D100 (2867 ton yr -1) in the HDDE increased CBC emissions by 240 and 224 ton yr -1, respectively, but using PF80P20, and PF95P05 instead of D100 in the HDDE decreased CBC emissions by 711 and 899 ton yr -1, respectively. The above results indicate that the wide usage of paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends as alternative fuels could protect the environment.

Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Wu, Chia-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Sheng

2009-12-01

431

A model of plant isoprene emission based on available reducing power captures responses to atmospheric CO?.  

PubMed

We present a unifying model for isoprene emission by photosynthesizing leaves based on the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis depends on a balance between the supply of photosynthetic reducing power and the demands of carbon fixation. We compared the predictions from our model, as well as from two other widely used models, with measurements of isoprene emission from leaves of Populus nigra and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) in response to changes in leaf internal CO2 concentration (C(i)) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) under diverse ambient CO2 concentrations (C(a)). Our model reproduces the observed changes in isoprene emissions with C(i) and PPFD, and also reproduces the tendency for the fraction of fixed carbon allocated to isoprene to increase with increasing PPFD. It also provides a simple mechanism for the previously unexplained decrease in the quantum efficiency of isoprene emission with increasing C(a). Experimental and modelled results support our hypothesis. Our model can reproduce the key features of the observations and has the potential to improve process-based modelling of isoprene emissions by land vegetation at the ecosystem and global scales. PMID:24661143

Morfopoulos, Catherine; Sperlich, Dominik; Peñuelas, Josep; Filella, Iolanda; Llusià, Joan; Medlyn, Belinda E; Niinemets, Ülo; Possell, Malcolm; Sun, Zhihong; Prentice, Iain Colin

2014-07-01

432

Reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant using intelligent transport systems.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment. PMID:25032239

Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M A; Masum, B M

2014-01-01

433

Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Pollutant Using Intelligent Transport Systems  

PubMed Central

Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.

Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M. A.; Masum, B. M.

2014-01-01

434

Improved technologies to reduce emission of methyl bromide from fumigated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl bromide (MB) is the chemical most widely used for soil fumigation in intensive agriculture, and for commodity and postharvest\\u000a quarantine treatments. MB was listed by the Montreal Protocol in 1992 as a controlled ozone-depleting substance, and a phase-out\\u000a process has been initiated. Several technologies to reduce the fumigation dosage and subsequent emission of MB from the fumigated\\u000a soil were

A. Gamliel; A. Grinstein; J. Katan

1997-01-01

435

Potential of Miscanthus grasses to provide energy and hence reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using bio-fuels, such as bio-ethanol or bio-diesel in transportation, or biomass in power generation reduces CO2 emissions as the carbon is fixed by the plants from the atmosphere and saves the equivalent fossil fuel. The perennial rhizomatous\\u000a C4 grass Miscanthus has one of the highest energy intensities per hectare of land in Europe. Here we model the future potential of

Astley Hastings; John Clifton-Brown; Martin Wattenbach; Paul Stampfl; C. Paul Mitchell; Pete Smith

2008-01-01

436

Reducing pollutant emissions from a spreader-stoker-fired furnace by stoichiometric control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for reducing pollutant emissions in a spreader-stoker-fired furnace, the method comprising the steps of: obtaining particles of a combustible material; introducing the particles of combustible material into a spreader-stoker-fired furnace by a spreading means, the spreader-stoker-fired furnace having a bed region at the bottom thereof, an under-spreader region between the bed region and the spreading means,

D. W. Pershing; G. B. Martin; J. M. Munro

1986-01-01

437

Arctic Black Carbon Initiative: Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from Power & Industry in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of black carbon (BC) on snow and ice is widely considered to have a climate warming effect by reducing the surface albedo and promoting snowmelt. Such positive climate feedbacks in the Arctic are especially problematic because rising surface temperatures may trigger the release of large Arctic stores of terrestrial carbon, further amplifying current warming trends. Recognizing the Arctic as a vulnerable region, the U.S. government committed funds in Copenhagen in 2009 for international cooperation targeting Arctic BC emissions reductions. As a result, the U.S. Department of State has funded three research and demonstration projects with the goal to better understand and mitigate BC deposition in the Russian Arctic from a range of sources. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Arctic BC initiative presented here is focused on mitigating BC emissions resulting from heat and power generation as well as industrial applications. A detailed understanding of BC sources and its transport and fate is required to prioritize efforts to reduce BC emissions from sources that deposit in the Russian Arctic. Sources of BC include the combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, fuel oil, diesel) and the combustion of biomass (e.g. wildfires, agricultural burning, residential heating and cooking). Information on fuel use and associated emissions from the industrial and heat & power sectors in Russia is scarce and difficult to obtain from the open literature. Hence, our project includes a research component designed to locate Arctic BC emissions sources in Russia and determine associated BC transport patterns. We use results from the research phase to inform a subsequent assessment/demonstration phase. We use a back-trajectory modeling method (potential source contribution function - PSCF), which combines multi-year, high-frequency measurements with knowledge about atmospheric transport patterns. The PSCF modeling allows us to map the probability (by season and year) at course resolution (2.5° x 2.5° spatial resolution) that a particular region emits BC which deposits in the Russian Arctic. We utilize data from three Arctic measurement stations during the most recent decade: Alert, Northwest Territories, Canada; Barrow, Alaska; and Tiksi Bay, Russia. To understand more about individual Arctic BC sources, we conduct further research to improve inventory estimates of Russian industrial and energy sector BC emissions. By comparing inventory data on power plant locations and emissions from two publically-available databases (EDGAR-HTAP and CARMA databases) to each other and to additional observations from satellites and the AERONET observation network in Russia, we assess the accuracy of the Russian BC emission inventory in EDGAR-HTAP, a commonly used database for atmospheric transport modeling. We then use a global (GEOS-CHEM) atmospheric transport model to quantify the finer spatial distribution of BC within the Arctic. Lastly, we use data on Russian fuel use combined with published emissions factors to build a national-scale model of energy use and associated emissions from critical industrial and heat & power sources of BC. We use this model to estimate the technical potential of reducing BC emissions through proven mitigation efforts such as improvements in energy efficiency and in emission control technologies.

Cresko, J.; Hodson, E. L.; Cheng, M.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.; Storey, J.

2012-12-01

438

The jurisdictional framework for municipal action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions: Case studies from Canada, the USA and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses two questions: (1) Given a commitment at the national level to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, what tools are available to national?level governments to induce complimentary actions required at subnational levels? (2) In the absence of a serious commitment at national and regional levels to reduce GHG emissions, what is the scope for, and jurisdictional rights of,

Benjamin J. Deangelo; L. D. Danny Harvey

1998-01-01

439

Effect of Ambient Temperature on Vehicle Emissions and Performance Factors. Appendix A: Test Results for All Vehicles. Appendix B: Plots of Exhaust Gas Catalyst Out Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ambient temperatures have been reported to affect automotive emissions and fuel economies since 1966. Federal automobile emission standards and the measured fuel economies are currently based on results obtained using the 1975 Federal Test Procedure and t...

R. S. Spindt R. E. Dizak R. M. Stewart W. A. P. Meyer

1979-01-01

440

Emission Factors for High-Emitting Vehicles Based on On-Road Measurements of Individual Vehicle Exhaust with a Mobile Measurement Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel-based emission factors for 143 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) and 93 heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) were measured in Wilmington, CA using a zero-emission mobile measurement platform (MMP). The frequency distributions of emission factors of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particle mass with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) varied widely, whereas the average of the individual vehicle emission

Seong Suk Park; Kathleen Kozawa; Scott Fruin; Steve Mara; Ying-Kuang Hsu; Chris Jakober; Arthur Winer; Jorn Herner

2011-01-01

441

Growth promoting technologies reduce greenhouse gas, alcohol, and ammonia emissions from feedlot cattle.  

PubMed

Increased animal productivity has the potential to reduce the environmental impact per unit of consumable product and is believed to be the most promising and sustainable mitigation technique to meet increasing demand for high quality protein. The feedlot industry uses ionophores, antibiotics, growth implants, and ?2-adrenergic agonists to improve health and growth performance of cattle. These technologies not only increase productivity but also alter microbes in the rumen and increase nitrogen retention in the animal, which may lead to changes in greenhouse gas (GHG), volatile organic compound (VOC), and ammonia (NH3) emissions from feedlot cattle. The present study investigated GHG, VOC, and NH3 emissions from 160 Angus crossbred steers. Steers were blocked by weight in a randomized block design and assigned to 16 pens of 10 animals each. Treatments applied were 1) control (CON; no technology application), 2) monensin and tylosin phosphate (MON), 3) monensin, tylosin phosphate, and growth implant (IMP), and 4) monensin, tylosin phosphate, growth implant, and zilpaterol hydrochloride (fed during the last 20 d of the feeding period; BAA). Cattle were on feed for an average of 107 d. Performance variables (DMI, BW, ADG, and G:F) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percent, KPH, LM area, fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, and quality grade) were measured. Gaseous emissions were measured during the last 10 d of the feeding period when animals were housed in 4 totally enclosed identical cattle pen enclosures. To quantify gaseous emissions a 4×4 Latin square design (n=4) was used. Gaseous emissions were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS and reported in grams per kilogram HCW per day and grams per kilogram per animal per hour. Treatment with IMP and BAA increased (P<0.05) ADG, final BW, and HCW. Cattle on BAA had greater HCW and LM area (P<0.05) and had lower (P<0.05) CH4, methanol, and NH3 emissions per kilogram HCW than cattle on the remaining treatments. Methane emissions were similar for CON and IMP treated cattle. Nitrous oxide emissions were similar across CON, MON, and IMP treated cattle and were higher in BAA treated cattle (P<0.05). The present study provides a better understanding of how application of growth promoting technologies to feedlot steers affects GHG, VOC, and NH3 emissions per kilogram of product. PMID:24085413

Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Calvo, M S; Place, S E; Armitage, T L; Pan, Y; Zhao, Y; Mitloehner, F M

2013-11-01

442

Exhaust emissions from uncontrolled vehicles and related equipment using internal combustion engines. Part 6. Gas turbine electric utility power plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions data derived from laboratory and field test findings reported in the literature are sumarized for gas turbine electric utility power plants. The data are utilized together with information on the location and population of the plants to estimate national emissions impact, based on usage as reported to the Federal Power Commission. Expressing emissions from electric utility turbines as percentages

C. T. Hare; K. J. Springer

1974-01-01

443

Biochar application reduces N2O emission in intensively managed temperate grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is seen as an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce N2O emissions. Mainly used in highly weathered tropical soils, the interest of using biochar in intensively managed temperate soils is increasing. Our previous laboratory incubations have shown N2O reduction potentials of between 20 and 100% for temperate soils after biochar application (Felber et al., Biogeosciences Discuss, 2012). To assess the effect of biochar application under field conditions, a plot experiment (3 control vs. 3 biochar amended plots of 3x3 m size at a rate of 15 t ha-1) was set up in a temperate intensively managed grassland soil. N2O and CO2 emissions were quasi-continuously measured by static chambers under standard management practice over 8 months. In parallel soil samples were taken monthly from all plots and their N2O and CO2 productions were measured under controlled conditions in the lab. At the beginning of the field measurements (April 2011) cumulative N2O fluxes from biochar amended plots were above those of control plots, but the pattern reversed towards reduced fluxes from biochar plots after 3 months and the reduction reached about 15% by the end of 2011. The biochar effect on reducing N2O emissions in the laboratory was two times that of the field measurements, indicating that results from laboratory experiments are not directly transferable to field conditions. The experiments indicate a substantial N2O emission reduction potential of biochar in temperate grassland fields.

Felber, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

2012-04-01

444

Reducing emissions from the electricity sector: the costs and benefits nationwide and for the Empire State  

SciTech Connect

Using four models, this study looks at EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as originally proposed, which differs in only small ways from the final rule issued in March 2005, coupled with several approaches to reducing emissions of mercury including one that differs in only small ways from the final rule also issued in March 2005. This study analyzes what costs and benefits each would incur to New York State and to the nation at large. Benefits to the nation and to New York State significantly outweigh the costs associated with reductions in SO{sub 2}, NOx and mercury, and all policies show dramatic net benefits. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications for the cost of the regulation and for emission levels for SO{sub 2} and NOx and where those emissions are located. Contrary to EPA's findings, CAIR as originally proposed by itself would not keep summer emissions of NOx from electricity generators in the SIP region below the current SIP seasonal NOx cap. In the final CAIR, EPA added a seasonal NOx cap to address seasonal ozone problems. The CAIR with the seasonal NOx cap produces higher net benefits. The effect of the different policies on the mix of fuels used to supply electricity is fairly modest under scenarios similar to the EPA's final rules. A maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach, compared to a trading approach as the way to achieve tighter mercury targets (beyond EPA's proposal), would preserve the ro