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1

Attempts to Reduce NOx Exhaust Emissions by Using Reformulated Biodiesel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two routes were investigated for reformulating soy-based biodiesel in an effort to reduce its nitrogen oxide emissions. In the first approach, methyl soyate was modified by converting a proportion of the cis-bonds in the fatty acid chains of its methyl esters to their trans isomers. In the second ...

2

Introduction to NASA contracts. [on engine modifications to reduce exhaust emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center issued requests for proposal to Avco Lycoming and Teledyne Continental Motors for a contractual effort to establish and demonstrate engine modifications to reduce exhaust emissions safely with minimum adverse effects on cost, weight, and fuel economy. The secondary objective was reducing fuel consumption.

Kempke, E. E., Jr.

1976-01-01

3

Apparatus for reducing pollutants in engine exhaust gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination thermal reactor and turbocharger apparatus for achieving improved oxidation of internal combustion engine exhausts and thus reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions is described. A multistage exhaust manifold thermal reactor with a turbine component interposed between two of the reactor stages receives exhaust gases from the engine exhaust manifold. The turbocharger which air-charges the cylinders of the engine

Woollenweber

1974-01-01

4

Exhaust emissions from two intercity passenger locomotives  

SciTech Connect

To enhance the effectiveness of intercity passenger rail service in mitigating exhaust emissions in California, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) included limits on exhaust emissions in its intercity locomotive procurement specifications. Because there were no available exhaust emission test data on which emission reduction goals could be based, Caltrans funded a test program to acquire gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions data, along with smoke opacity data, from two state-of-the-art intercity passenger locomotives. The two passenger locomotives (an EMD F59PH and a GE DASH8-32BWH) were tested at the Association of American Railroads Chicago Technical Center. The EMD locomotive was equipped with a separate Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 8V-149 diesel engine used to provide 480 V AC power for the trailing passenger cars. This DDC engine was also emission tested. These data were used to quantify baseline exhaust emission levels as a challenge to locomotive manufacturers to offer new locomotives with reduced emissions. Data from the two locomotive engines were recorded at standard fuel injection timing and with the fuel injection timing retarded 4 deg in an effort to reduce NO[sub x] emissions. Results of this emissions testing were incorporated into the Caltrans locomotive procurement process by including emission performance requirements in the Caltrans intercity passenger locomotive specification, and therefore in the procurement decision. This paper contains steady-state exhaust emission test results for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]), and particulate matter (PM) from the two locomotives. Computed sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions are also given, and are based on diesel fuel consumption and sulfur content. Exhaust smoke opacity is also reported.

Fritz, S.G. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Emissions Research)

1994-10-01

5

Exhaust emissions from two intercity passenger locomotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance the effectiveness of intercity passenger rail service in mitigating exhaust emissions in California, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) included limits on exhaust emissions in its intercity locomotive procurement specifications. Because there were no available exhaust emission test data on which emission reduction goals could be based, Caltrans funded a test program to acquire gaseous and particulate exhaust

S. G. Fritz

1994-01-01

6

Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

1983-01-01

7

Quality assurance of exhaust emissions test data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tight requirements posed by the increasingly stringent legislation complicate the design procedure for exhaust aftertreatment devices and systems. Since design optimization relies heavily on experiments and tests, emissions test data acquisition should comply with strict quality standards. Time-varying exhaust emission measurements incorporate a wealth of information stemming from the engine type, its fuel injection and ignition management and valve timing

G Konstantas; A Stamatelos

2004-01-01

8

Reducing Soot in Diesel Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrically charged fuel improves oxidation. Fuel injection system reduces amount of soot formed in diesel engines. Spray injector electrically charges fuel droplets as they enter cylinder. Charged droplets repel each other, creating, dilute fuel mist easily penetrated by oxygen in cylinder.

Bellan, J.

1984-01-01

9

Characterization of nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out time-resolved experiments using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer to characterize nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust. We performed experiments under both cold-start and hot-start conditions, and determined the dependence of nitromethane emission on vehicle velocity and acceleration/deceleration as well as the effect of various types of exhaust-gas treatment system. We found that nitromethane emission was much lower from a gasoline car than from diesel trucks, probably due to the reduction function of the three-way catalyst of the gasoline car. Diesel trucks without a NOx reduction catalyst using hydrocarbons produced high emissions of nitromethane, with emission factors generally increasing with increasing acceleration at low vehicle velocities.

Sekimoto, Kanako; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Sato, Kei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

2013-12-01

10

AEROJET: nonintrusive measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environment impact of air traffic and economical aspects require aircraft engines to be developed which have reduced trace gas emissions and, at the same time, increased efficiency. Each new engine must be shown to meet the environmental requirements laid down by regulatory bodies, and exhaust gas measurements must be performed for the certification. The goal of the EC project

Klaus Schaefer; Joerg Heland; Roger Burrows; John D. Black; Marc Bernard; Gary Bishop; Volker Tank; Erwin Lindermeir; Dave H. Lister; Robert S. Falk; Peter Wiesen; Moira Hilton

1997-01-01

11

AEROJET: nonintrusive measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environment impact of air traffic and economical aspects require aircraft engines to be developed which have reduced trace gas emissions and, at the same time, increased efficiency. Each new engine must be shown to meet the environmental requirements laid down by regulatory bodies, and exhaust gas measurements must be performed for the certification. The goal of the EC project AEROJET is to demonstrate the equivalence of remote measurement techniques to conventional extractive methods for both gaseous and particulate measurements. The different remote measurement techniques will be compared and calibrated. A demonstrator measurement system for exhaust gases, temperature and particulates including data-analysis software will be regarded as result of this project.

Schaefer, Klaus; Heland, Joerg; Burrows, Roger; Black, John V.; Bernard, Marc; Bishop, Gary; Tank, Volker; Lindermeir, Erwin; Lister, Dave H.; Falk, Robert S.; Wiesen, Peter; Hilton, Moira

1997-05-01

12

Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO x abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines (marine diesels) for generating electric power on-board. Real-world emission factors of NOx, SO2, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, NH3, PM and PAH at steady-state engine loads and for complete voyages were determined together with an estimate of annual emissions. In general, Ship B using gas turbines showed favourable NO x, PM and PAH emissions but at the expense of higher fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Ship C with the SCR had the lowest NO x emissions but highest NH 3 emissions especially during harbour approaches and stops. The greatest PM and PAH specific emissions were measured from auxiliary engines operating at low engine loads during harbour stops. Since all ships used a low-sulphur gas oil, SO 2 emissions were relatively low in all cases.

Cooper, D. A.

13

Tumorigenesis of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and related emission extracts on SENCAR mouse skin  

SciTech Connect

The tumorigenicity of diesel exhaust particulate emissions was examined using a sensitive mouse skin tumorigenesis model (SENCAR). The tumorigenic potency of particulate emissions from diesel, gasoline, and related emission sources was compared.

Nesnow, S.; Triplett, L.L.; Slaga, T.J.

1980-01-01

14

Exhaust emissions of a double annular combustor: Parametric study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A full scale double-annular ram-induction combustor designed for Mach 3.0 cruise operation was tested. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and smoke were measured over a range of combustor operating variables including reference velocity, inlet air temperature and pressure, and exit average temperature. ASTM Jet-A fuel was used for these tests. An equation is provided relating oxides of nitrogen emissions as a function of the combustor, operating variables. A small effect of radial fuel staging on reducing exhaust emissions (which were originally quite low) is demonstrated.

Schultz, D. F.

1974-01-01

15

40 CFR 94.8 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for Compression-Ignition Marine Engines § 94.8 Exhaust...emissions from marine compression-ignition engines shall not exceed the...

2010-07-01

16

Exhaust emission reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust emission of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or emissions. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.

Moffett, R. N.

1979-01-01

17

Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream  

DOEpatents

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ)

2010-07-20

18

40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet? 1048.101 Section 1048.101...FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements...What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet? The exhaust emission...

2010-07-01

19

EVALUATION OF A PROPORTIONAL SAMPLER FOR AUTOMOTIVE EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A test program was conducted to evaluate a proportional sampler for use in automotive exhaust gas emissions research. Automobile emissions test results obtained using the proportional sampler were compared with results obtained using the conventional constant volume sampler. Meas...

20

Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

2014-08-01

21

40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust...year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in...

2010-07-01

22

40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?  

...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust...year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in...

2014-07-01

23

40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust...year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in...

2012-07-01

24

40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust...year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in...

2013-07-01

25

40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051...the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? (a) Apply the exhaust...year. Measure emissions with the off-highway motorcycle test procedures in...

2011-07-01

26

A Method for Reducing the Temperature of Exhaust Manifolds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory on an "air-inducting" exhaust manifold for aircraft engines. The exhaust gases from each cylinder port are discharged into the throat of an exhaust pipe which has a frontal bellmouth. Cooling air is drawn into the pipe, where it surrounds and mixes with the exhaust gases. Temperatures of the manifold shell and of the exhaust gases were obtained in flight for both a conventional manifold and the air-inducting manifold. The air-inducting manifold was installed on an engine which was placed on a test stand. Different fuels were sprayed on and into the manifold to determine whether the use of this manifold reduced the fire hazard. The flight tests showed reductions in manifold temperatures of several hundred degrees, to values below the ignition point of aviation gasoline. On the test stand when the engine was run at idling speeds fuels sprayed into the manifold ignited. It is believed that at low engine speeds the fuel remained in the manifold long enough to become thoroughly heated, and was then ignited by the exhaust gas which had not mixed with cooling air. The use of the air-inducting exhaust manifold must reduce the fire hazard by virtue of its lower operating temperature, but it is not a completely satisfactory solution of the problem.

Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

1931-01-01

27

Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

2003-03-01

28

Exhaust system with emissions storage device and plasma reactor  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system for a combustion system, comprising a storage device for collecting NO.sub.x, hydrocarbon, or particulate emissions, or mixture of these emissions, and a plasma reactor for destroying the collected emissions is described. After the emission is collected in by the storage device for a period of time, the emission is then destroyed in a non-thermal plasma generated by the plasma reactor. With respect to the direction of flow of the exhaust stream, the storage device must be located before the terminus of the plasma reactor, and it may be located wholly before, overlap with, or be contained within the plasma reactor.

Hoard, John W. (Livonia, MI)

1998-01-01

29

40 CFR 86.1342-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...H-10.71)]). (iii) For diesel engines: KH =...

2010-07-01

30

40 CFR 86.1342-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...H-10.71)]). (iii) For diesel engines: KH =...

2013-07-01

31

40 CFR 86.1342-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...H-10.71)]). (iii) For diesel engines: KH =...

2012-07-01

32

40 CFR 86.1342-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...H-10.71)]). (iii) For diesel engines: KH =...

2011-07-01

33

Effect of gasoline/methanol blends on motorcycle emissions: Exhaust and evaporative emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and M15 (consisting of 85% gasoline and 15% methanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions, including regulated and unregulated emissions, of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED), respectively. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions, including carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and methanol, were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dintrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), Tenax TA and silica gel, respectively. The experimental results showed that, for exhaust emission, compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, the concentration of total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 11%-34.5% and 63%-84% respectively, while the concentration of NOx increased by 76.9%-107.7%. Compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, BTEX from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 16%-60% while formaldehyde increased by 16.4%-52.5%. For evaporative emission, diurnal losses were more than hot soak losses and turned out to be dominated in evaporative emissions. In addition, compared with gasoline fueling motorcycles, the evaporative emissions of THC, carbonyls and VOCs from motorcycles fueled with M15 increased by 11.7%-37%, 38%-45% and 16%-42%, respectively. It should be noted that the growth rate of methanol was as high as 297%-1429%. It is important to reduce the evaporative emissions of methanol fueling motorcycles.

Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Li, Jiaqiang; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei

2015-02-01

34

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on performance, emissions, deposits and durability of a constant speed compression ignition engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet stringent vehicular exhaust emission norms worldwide, several exhaust pre-treatment and post-treatment techniques have been employed in modern engines. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is a pre-treatment technique, which is being used widely to reduce and control the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission from diesel engines. EGR controls the NOx because it lowers oxygen concentration and flame temperature of the

Deepak Agarwal; Shrawan Kumar Singh; Avinash Kumar Agarwal

2011-01-01

35

Active compressor engine silencer reduces exhaust noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

An active industrial silencer on a compressor engine at a Tenneco Gas station has reduced low-frequency rumbling' noise by 8 dB during trials while lowering backpressure about 90$. This 8 dB reduction of the piston firing frequency corresponds to a more than 80% decrease in emitted acoustic power. The silencing unit, installed on one of six engines at the station

J. N. Denenberg; S. K. Miller; M. A. Jay

1994-01-01

36

Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator  

DOEpatents

A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle and imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure thereby adjusting flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2003-04-22

37

Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator  

DOEpatents

A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle, which imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure to adjust flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

38

Active compressor engine silencer reduces exhaust noise  

SciTech Connect

An active industrial silencer on a compressor engine at a Tenneco Gas station has reduced low-frequency rumbling' noise by 8 dB during trials while lowering backpressure about 90$. This 8 dB reduction of the piston firing frequency corresponds to a more than 80% decrease in emitted acoustic power. The silencing unit, installed on one of six engines at the station near Eden, N.Y., continues in operation. Based on the results, the manufacturer is identifying additional compressor sites for further tests. This paper reviews this project.

Denenberg, J.N.; Miller, S.K. (Noise Cancellation Technologies, Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)); Jay, M.A. (Walker Noise Cancellation Technologies, Grass Lake, MI (United States))

1994-01-01

39

EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were performed using (1) Diesel particles collected from the undiluted exhaust of a single-cylinder engine, operated at constant speed and load, using a binary pure hydrocarbon fuel with air or gas mixture oxidizers, and (2) Diesel particles collected from the diluted exh...

40

Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a lower compression ratio LHR Diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of reducing the compression ratio on the performance and exhaust emissions in a low heat rejection (LHR) indirect injection Diesel engine have been experimentally compared to those obtained from a standard Diesel engine (SDE) with fixed compression ratio. Reducing the compression ratio in a SDE without making any modification in the combustion chamber geometry and

Adnan Parlak; Halit Yasar; Bahri Sahin

2003-01-01

41

Reducing the Toxicity of Diesel Exhausts with Electrical Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major way of reducing the toxicity of diesel exhausts is to optimize the combustion directly in the cylinders. Unfortunately, research on that line has not given any substantial results. No matter how optimal the fuel combustion, the concentration of toxic components at the discharge from the cylinders considerably exceeds the maximum permissible. Also, that approach to toxicity reduction cannot

M. A. Mutushev; Yu. I. Sanaev

2004-01-01

42

Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

1982-01-01

43

Influence of MTBE addition into gasoline on automotive exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) addition into gasoline on the exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines was studied. A four-cylinder OPEL 1.6l engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. Fuels containing 0.0–11.0% MTBE were used in a wide range of engine operations, and the exhaust gases were analyzed for CO, HC (total unburned

S. Poulopoulos; C. Philippopoulos

2000-01-01

44

Urban air quality: the challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions.  

PubMed

About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exhausts, no actions are currently in place to reduce the non-exhaust part of emissions such as those from brake wear, road wear, tyre wear and road dust resuspension. These "non-exhaust" sources contribute easily as much and often more than the tailpipe exhaust to the ambient air PM concentrations in cities, and their relative contribution to ambient PM is destined to increase in the future, posing obvious research and policy challenges. This review highlights the major and more recent research findings in four complementary fields of research and seeks to identify the current gaps in research and policy with regard to non-exhaust emissions. The objective of this article is to encourage and direct future research towards an improved understanding on the relationship between emissions, concentrations, exposure and health impact and on the effectiveness of potential remediation measures in the urban environment. PMID:24837462

Amato, Fulvio; Cassee, Flemming R; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A C; Gehrig, Robert; Gustafsson, Mats; Hafner, Wolfgang; Harrison, Roy M; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Kelly, Frank J; Moreno, Teresa; Prevot, Andre S H; Schaap, Martijn; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier

2014-06-30

45

Method and apparatus to selectively reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas feedstream  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are described to selectively reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. An exhaust aftertreatment system includes an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reductant upstream of a silver-alumina catalytic reactor device. A control system determines a NO.sub.x concentration and hydrocarbon/NOx ratio based upon selected parameters of the exhaust gas feedstream and dispenses hydrocarbon reductant during lean engine operation. Included is a method to control elements of the feedstream during lean operation. The hydrocarbon reductant may include engine fuel.

Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI); Den, Ling (Sterling Heights, MI); Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Lee, Jong-Hwan (Rochester Hills, MI)

2011-08-30

46

Exhaust emissions from ships at berth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission measurements have been carried out on board six ships at berth during normal real-world operation (hotelling, unloading and loading activities). The study included three passenger ferries, one transoceanic container/ro-ro, one transoceanic car/truck carrier, and one chemical tanker. Emissions were measured from 22 auxiliary engines (AEs, medium and high-speed marine diesels) covering seven engine models and ranging in size from 720 to 2675 kW maximum output. The fuels varied from low sulphur gasoils ( 2.91 cst viscosity) through to residual oils ( 411 cst viscosity). Both specific emission factors ( g kWh -1) at a given engine load and total emissions (kg) of nitrogen oxides (NO x), sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, particulate matter (PM) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons during actual harbour stops were determined. In addition, some preliminary measurements to investigate PM size distributions were undertaken. The specific emissions showed significant variations between the different engine models and also within the same engine model on board the same ship. For example NO x emissions varied between 9.6 and 20.2 g kWh corr-1 between all engines and 14.2- 18.6 g kWh corr-1 between engines of the same model and fuel. Other emissions from boiler use and possible main engine warm-up prior to departure were in general expected to be considerably less than those from the AEs. The results obtained for the three passenger ferries demonstrate that empirically derived, emission formulae using dead weight tonnage can prove to be a cost-effective and accurate tool for harbour emission inventories.

Cooper, D. A.

47

[Preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and exhausts emission characteristics in diesel engine].  

PubMed

The technology that diesel oil is partly substituted by ethanol can reduce diesel engine exhausts emission, especially fuel soot. This research is concentrated on preparation of ethanol-diesel blend fuel and exhausts emission characteristics using diesel engine bench. Absolute ethanol can dissolve into diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio. However, a trace of water (0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. Organic additive synthesized during this research can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The effects of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends on exhausts emission, were compared with that of diesel fuel in direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The optimum ethanol percentage for ethanol-diesel fuel blends was 20%. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with 2% additive of the total volume, bench diesel engine showed a large amount decrease of exhaust gas, e.g. 55% of Bosch smoke number, 70% of HC emission, and 45% of CO emission at 13 kW and 1540 r/min. Without the addition of additive, the blend of ethanol produced new organic compounds such as ethanol and acetaldehyde in tail gas. However, the addition of additive obviously reduced the emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde. PMID:14551948

Zhang, Runduo; He, Hong; Zhang, Changbin; Shi, Xiaoyan

2003-07-01

48

A Lagrangian Simulation of Subsonic Aircraft Exhaust Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To estimate the effect of subsonic and supersonic aircraft exhaust on the stratospheric concentration of NO(y), we employ a trajectory model initialized with air parcels based on the standard release scenarios. The supersonic exhaust simulations are in good agreement with 2D and 3D model results and show a perturbation of about 1-2 ppbv of NO(y) in the stratosphere. The subsonic simulations show that subsonic emissions are almost entirely trapped below the 380 K potential temperature surface. Our subsonic results contradict results from most other models, which show exhaust products penetrating above 380 K, as summarized. The disagreement can likely be attributed to an excessive vertical diffusion in most models of the strong vertical gradient in NO(y) that forms at the boundary between the emission zone and the stratosphere above 380 K. Our results suggest that previous assessments of the impact of subsonic exhaust emission on the stratospheric region above 380 K should be considered to be an upper bound.

Schoeberl, M. R.; Morris, G. A.

1999-01-01

49

40 CFR 89.111 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions.  

... 2013-07-01 true Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions...Provisions § 89.111 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions...regarding the availability of an averaging, banking, and trading program along with...

2014-07-01

50

40 CFR 89.111 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions...Provisions § 89.111 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions...regarding the availability of an averaging, banking, and trading program along with...

2013-07-01

51

40 CFR 89.111 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions...Provisions § 89.111 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions...regarding the availability of an averaging, banking, and trading program along with...

2011-07-01

52

40 CFR 91.103 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits...Provisions § 91.103 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits. Regulations regarding averaging, banking, and trading provisions along with...

2013-07-01

53

40 CFR 91.103 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits...Provisions § 91.103 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits. Regulations regarding averaging, banking, and trading provisions along with...

2010-07-01

54

40 CFR 91.103 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits...Provisions § 91.103 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits. Regulations regarding averaging, banking, and trading provisions along with...

2011-07-01

55

40 CFR 91.103 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits.  

... 2013-07-01 true Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits...Provisions § 91.103 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits. Regulations regarding averaging, banking, and trading provisions along with...

2014-07-01

56

40 CFR 91.103 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits...Provisions § 91.103 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emission credits. Regulations regarding averaging, banking, and trading provisions along with...

2012-07-01

57

40 CFR 89.111 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions...Provisions § 89.111 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions...regarding the availability of an averaging, banking, and trading program along with...

2012-07-01

58

40 CFR 89.111 - Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions...Provisions § 89.111 Averaging, banking, and trading of exhaust emissions...regarding the availability of an averaging, banking, and trading program along with...

2010-07-01

59

On-Road Measurement of Exhaust Emission Factors for Individual Diesel Trucks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel trucks are an important source of primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. More stringent exhaust emission standards for new engines, effective starting in 2007, considerably reduce allowable emissions and have led to use of after-treatment control devices such as diesel particle filters. The state of California is also implementing programs to accelerate replacement or retrofit of older trucks. In light of these changes, measurements of emissions from in-use heavy-duty diesel trucks are timely and needed to understand the impact of new control technologies on emissions. PM2.5, BC mass, particle light absorption, and particle light extinction emission factors for hundreds of individual diesel trucks were measured in this study. Emissions were measured in July 2010 from trucks driving through the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. Gas-phase emissions including nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (CO2) were also measured. Pollutants were measured using air sampling inlets located directly above the vertical exhaust stacks of heavy-duty trucks driving by on the roadway below. All of these measurements were made using fast time response (1 Hz) sensors. Particle optical properties were simultaneously characterized with direct measurements of absorption (babs) and extinction (bext) coefficients. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which emissions of PM2.5, BC, babs, and bext in each exhaust plume were normalized to emissions of CO2. Emission factor distributions and fleet-average values are quantified. Absorption and extinction emission factors are used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo and BC mass absorption efficiency for individual truck exhaust plumes.

Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Wood, E. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Herndon, S. C.

2011-12-01

60

Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Due to their excellent fuel efficiency, reliability, and durability, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engines have been used extensively to power almost all highway trucks, urban buses, off-road vehicles, marine carriers, and industrial equipment. CIDI engines burn 35 to 50% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, and they emit far less greenhouse gases (Carbon Dioxides), which have been implicated in global warming. Although the emissions of CIDI engines have been reduced significantly over the last decade, there remains concern with the Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM) emission levels. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting the Tier II standards requires NOX and PM emissions to be reduced dramatically. Achieving such low emissions while minimizing fuel economy penalty cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOX and PM aftertreatment control devices. A joint effort was made between Cummins Inc. and the Department of Energy to develop the generic aftertreatment subsystem technologies applicable for Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) and Light-Duty Truck (LDT) engines. This paper provides an update on the progress of this joint development program. Three NOX reduction technologies including plasmaassisted catalytic NOX reduction (PACR), active lean NOX catalyst (LNC), and adsorber catalyst (AC) technology using intermittent rich conditions for NOX reduction were investigated in parallel in an attempt to select the best NOX control approach for light-duty aftertreatment subsystem integration and development. Investigations included system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

2002-06-01

61

Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

Al-lwayzy, Saddam H.; Yusaf, Talal; Jensen, Troy

2012-09-01

62

Dynamic Control of Engine NOx Emissions: Characterization and Improvement of the Transient Response of an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method for reducing NOx emissions from automotive engines is to use exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to dilute the inducted air-fuel charge. Previous work has shown that degraded propagation delay and rise time characteristics of an EGR system can result in increases in NOx emissions for engine operation over dynamic rpm\\/torque versus time trajectories as exemplified by the Federal

M. J. Throop; D. R. Hamburg

1985-01-01

63

Automobile exhaust emission modal analysis model extension and refinement. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report on modal analysis of automobile emissions constitutes a refinement and extension of a modal analysis exhaust emission model previously developed. The modal analysis exhaust emission model makes it possible to calculate the amounts of emission products emitted by individual vehicles or groups of vehicles over an arbitrary driving sequence. Refinements to the model permit an improvement in computational

McAdams

1974-01-01

64

Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor vehicles are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Improved understanding of PAH emission profiles in mobile sources is the key to determining the viable approach for reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles. Very limited data is available on the levels of PAH emissions in the urban atmospheres in Syria and no data are currently available on the level of PAH emissions from different combustion sources in the country. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAH in exhaust emissions of light and heavy-duty vehicles running on the roads of Damascus city. Three different types of vehicles (passenger cars, minivans and buses) were selected along with different age groups. Vapor- and particulate-phase PAH were collected from the vehicular exhausts of six in-service vehicles (with/without catalytic converters). High-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with UV-Visible and fluorescence detectors, was used for the identification and quantification of PAH compounds in the cleaned extracts of the collected samples. The mean concentration of total PAH emissions (sum of 15 compounds) from all types of studied vehicles ranged between 69.28 ± 1.06 ?g/m3 for passenger cars equipped with catalytic converters and 2169.41 ± 5.17 ?g/m3 for old diesel buses without pollution controls. Values of total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (? B[a]Peq) ranged between 1.868 ?g/m3and 37.652 ?g/m3. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of catalytic converters resulted into cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained in the absence of catalytic converters.

Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

2013-02-01

65

40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year? 1039...IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements...What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model...

2010-07-01

66

40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...Requirements § 1054.107 What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...section describes an engine family's useful life, which is the period during which...

2010-07-01

67

40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...Requirements § 1054.107 What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...section describes an engine family's useful life, which is the period during which...

2013-07-01

68

40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...Requirements § 1054.107 What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...section describes an engine family's useful life, which is the period during which...

2012-07-01

69

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2013-07-01

70

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2011-07-01

71

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2012-07-01

72

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

...2014-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2014-07-01

73

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2010-07-01

74

TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS (RABBITS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the objective of evaluating the potential for diesel exhaust emissions to produce malformations in rabbit fetuses. The pregnant does were exposed by the inhalation route to a 10% concentration of diesel exhaust emissions in inhalation cham...

75

TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS (RATS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the objective of evaluating the potential for diesel exhaust emissions to produce malformations in rat fetuses. The dams were exposed by the inhalation route to a 10% concentration of diesel exhaust emissions in inhalation chambers on days...

76

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

...false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2014-07-01

77

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2013-07-01

78

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2012-07-01

79

Dilution Rates for Tailpipe Emissions: Effects of Vehicle Shape, Tailpipe Position, and Exhaust Velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate at which motor vehicle exhaust undergoes dilution with ambient air will greatly affect the size distribution characteristics of the particulate emissions. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of vehicle shape, tailpipe orientation, and exhaust exit velocity on the dilution profiles under steady driving conditions for three model vehicles: a light-duty truck, a passenger car, and

Victor W.-C. Chang; Lynn M. Hildemann; Cheng-hisn Chang; Prabhakar Sharma; Tjalfe Poulsen; Prasad Kalluri; Steven Hoff; Dwaine Bundy; Minda Nelson; Brian Zelle; Larry Jacobson; Albert Heber; Jiqin Ni; Yuanhui Zhang; Jacek Koziel; David Beasley; Robert Joumard; Juhani Laurikko; Tuan Han; Savas Geivanidis; Zissis Samaras; Tama´s tei; Philippe Devaux; Jean-Marc Andre´; Ste´phanie Lacour; Erwin Cornelis; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim Keener; Y. Yang; Sheng-Wei Wang; Xiaogang Tang; Zhi-Hua Fan; Xiangmei Wu; Paul Lioy; Panos Georgopoulos; Augustine Quek; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian; Yi-Chi Chen; Lu-Yen Chen; Fu-Tien Jeng

2009-01-01

80

Measuring Conventional and Alternative Exhaust Emissions from a Gas Turbine Engine  

E-print Network

by Sensors-Inc. was used for exhaust sampling of a PT6 turboprop engine on a test-stand located in an outdoor test cell. Exhaust emissions were collected for CO2, CO, NOx, and HC for three fuels (Jet A, HRJ, and FT) and analyzed for comparison in units...

Johnson, Jeremiah Andrew

2012-12-31

81

Inhalation toxicology of automotive emissions as affected by an oxidation exhaust catalyst.  

PubMed Central

Preliminary data are given on the acute inhalation toxicology of automotive emissions as affected by an oxidation exhaust catalyst. The catalyst effectively reduced CO and HC in the exhause which apparently had an effect (at least in a closed exposure system) on oxidant and NO2 levels by altering the HC/NOx ratio. There was a resultant reduction in biological effects due to the exposure. The catalyst altered the type of particulate to one which probably contained sulfuric acid as a major component. No evidence was present in these acute exposures to suggest a toxic response due to the higher sulfate emissions or possible catalyst attrition products. The effects of long-term exposure have not yet been investigated. PMID:50941

Hysell, D K; Moore, W; Hinners, R; Malanchuk, M; Miller, R; Stara, J F

1975-01-01

82

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

2013-07-01

83

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

2010-07-01

84

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

2011-07-01

85

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

2014-07-01

86

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

2012-07-01

87

Effect of ethanol–unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance and exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of using unleaded gasoline–ethanol blends on SI engine performance and exhaust emission. A four stroke, four cylinder SI engine (type TOYOTA, TERCEL-3A) was used for conducting this study.Performance tests were conducted for equivalence air–fuel ratio, fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, brake thermal efficiency, brake power, engine torque and brake specific fuel consumption, while exhaust emissions were

M. Al-Hasan

2003-01-01

88

40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

89

Development of naval diesel engine duty cycles for air exhaust emission environmental impact analysis. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

A strategy for testing naval diesel engines for exhaust emissions was developed. A survey of existing international and national standard diesel engine duty cycles was conducted. All were found to be inadequate for testing and certification of engine exhaust emissions from naval diesel powered ships. Naval ship data covering 11,500 hours of engine operation of four U.S. Navy LSD 41 Class amphibious ships was analyzed to develop a 27 point class operating profile. A procedure combining ship hull form characteristics, ship propulsion plant parameters, and ship operating profile was detailed to derive an 11-Mode duty cycle representative for testing LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines. A similar procedure was followed for ship service diesel engines. Comparisons with industry accepted duty cycles were conducted using exhaust emission contour plots for the Colt-Pielstick PC-4B diesel engines. Results showed the 11-Mode LSD 41 Class Duty Cycle best predicted ship propulsion engine emissions compared to the 27 point operating profile propeller curve. The procedure was applied to T-AO 187 Class with similar results. The application of civilian industry standards to measure naval diesel ship propulsion engine exhaust emissions was found to be inadequate. Engine exhaust flow chemistry post turbocharger was investigated using the SANDIA Lab computer tool CHEMKIN. Results showed oxidation and reduction reactions within exhaust gases are quenched in the exhaust stack. Since the exhaust stream in the stack is unreactive, emission sampling may be performed where most convenient. A proposed emission measurement scheme for LSD 41 Class ships was presented.

Markle, S.P.

1994-05-01

90

Bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends: exhaust emissions and morphological characterization of particulate from a moped engine.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of gasoline-ethanol blends on the exhaust emissions in a catalyst-equipped four-stroke moped engine. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in at percentages (10, 15, and 20% v/v). The regulated pollutants and the particulate matter emissions were evaluated over the European ECE R47 driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer bench. Particulate matter was characterized in terms of total mass collected on filters and total number ofparticles in the range 7 nm-10 microm measured by electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). In addition, particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions were evaluated to assess the health impact of the emitted particulate. Finally, an accurate morphological analysis was performed on the particulate by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with a digital image-processing/data-acquisition system. In general, CO emission reductions of 60-70% were obtained with 15 and 20% v/v ethanol blends, while the ethanol use did not reduce hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emissions. No evident effect of ethanol on the particulate mass emissions and associated PAHs emissions was observed. Twenty-one PAHs were quantified in the particulate phase with emissions ranging from 26 to 35 microg/km and benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors from 2.2 to 4.1 microg/km. Both particulate matter and associated PAHs with higher carcinogenic risk were mainly emitted in the submicrometer size range (<0.1 microm). On the basis of the TEM observations, no relevant effect of the ethanol use on the particulate morphology was evidenced, showing aggregates composed ofprimary particles with mean diameters in the range 17.5-32.5 nm. PMID:22916436

Seggiani, Maurizia; Prati, M Vittoria; Costagliola, M Antonietta; Puccini, Monica; Vitolo, Sandra

2012-08-01

91

Biological activity of particle exhaust emissions from light-duty diesel engines.  

PubMed

Whole diesel exhaust has been classified recently as a probable carcinogen, and several genotoxicity studies have found particulate exhaust to be clearly mutagenic. Moreover, genotoxicity of diesel particulate is greatly influenced by fuel nature and type of combustion. In order to obtain an effective environmental pollution control, combustion processes using alternative fuels are being analyzed presently. The goal of this study is to determine whether the installation of exhaust after treatment-devices on two light-duty, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve-equipped diesel engines (1930 cc and 2500 cc) can reduce the mutagenicity associated with particles collected during U.S.A. and European driving cycles. Another interesting object was to compare the ability of alternative biodiesel and conventional diesel fuels to reduce the mutagenic activity associated with collected particles from two light duty diesel engines (both 1930 cc) during the European driving cycle. SOF mutagenicity was assayed using the Salmonella/microsome test (TA 98 and TA 100 strains, +/- S9 fraction). In the first part of our study, the highest mutagenicity was revealed by TA98 strain without enzymatic activation, suggesting a direct-acting mutagenicity prevalence in diesel particulate. The 2500 cc engine revealed twofold mutagenic activity compared with the 1930 cc engine (both EGR valve equipped), whereas an opposite result was found in particulate matter amount. The use of a noncatalytic ceramic trap produced a decrease of particle mutagenic activity in the 2500 cc car, whereas an enhancement in the 1930 cc engine was found. The catalytic converter and the electrostatic filter installed on the 2500 cc engine yielded a light particle amount and an SOF mutagenicity decrease. A greater engine stress was obtained using European driving cycles, which caused the strongest mutagenicity/km compared with the U.S.A. cycles. In the second part of the investigation, even though a small number of assays were available, exhaust emission generation by biodiesel fuel seemed to yield a smaller environmental impact than that of the referenced diesel fuel. The results point out the usefulness of mutagenicity testing in the research of both newer, more efficient automotive aftertreatment devices and less polluting fuels. PMID:9275990

Carraro, E; Locatelli, A L; Ferrero, C; Fea, E; Gilli, G

1997-01-01

92

[Effect of ethanol gasoline and unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions of EFI vehicles with TWC].  

PubMed

The injectors' flow-rate of all test vehicles that each was fixed with a three-way catalytic converter (TWC) and Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI) was tested including before and after vehicles operated on unleaded and ethanol gasoline respectively running for a long time on real road. The three main engine-out exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) from vehicles operating on different fuels were also analyzed by exhaust testing procedure for the whole light-duty vehicle. Test results showed that comparing with unleaded gasoline and ethanol gasoline has a remarkable effect on decreasing engine-out exhaust emissions of CO and HC (both at about ten percent) and the exhaust emissions of CO, HC and NOx from vehicles with TWC respectively. When burning with unleaded gasoline the three main pollutants from vehicles with TWC have already or nearly reached Europe Exhaust First Standard, after changing to ethanol gasoline CO has drastically decreased at about thirty percent, while HC and NOx decreased at about eighteen and ten percent respectively, at this time which they were all above Europe Exhaust Standard First or nearly reached Europe Exhaust Second Standard; ethanol gasoline has also other better performance such as a slight cleaning function on injectors, a slower deteriorative trend of engine-out CO and HC and a longer operating life-span of TWC. PMID:15515949

Wang, Chun-jie; Wang, Wei; Tang, Da-gang; Cui, Ping

2004-07-01

93

40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust...that the humidity correction factor is not valid at colder temperatures. Light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks must...

2010-07-01

94

40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...gasoline-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines: KH = 1/[1 ? 0.0047...petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines: KH = 1/[1 ? 0.0026...

2013-07-01

95

40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...gasoline-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines: KH = 1/[1 ? 0.0047...petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines: KH = 1/[1 ? 0.0026...

2011-07-01

96

40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...gasoline-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines: KH = 1/[1 ? 0.0047...petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines: KH = 1/[1 ? 0.0026...

2010-07-01

97

40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...gasoline-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines: KH = 1/[1 ? 0.0047...petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines: KH = 1/[1 ? 0.0026...

2012-07-01

98

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

...exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility vehicles? 1051.107 Section 1051.107 Protection...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related...

2014-07-01

99

Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.  

PubMed

An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

2014-01-01

100

Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation  

SciTech Connect

A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

He, Xin (Denver, CO); Durrett, Russell P. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

2012-01-24

101

Assessment of the capacity of vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust-induced symptoms in human volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution especially derived from traffic is associated with increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the ability of novel vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust (DE)-induced symptoms and markers of inflammation in human subjects. Methods Thirty healthy subjects participated in a randomized double-blind controlled crossover study where they were exposed to filtered air, unfiltered DE and DE filtered through two selected particle filters, one with and one without active charcoal. Exposures lasted for one hour. Symptoms were assessed before and during exposures and lung function was measured before and after each exposure, with inflammation assessed in peripheral blood five hours after exposures. In parallel, PM were collected from unfiltered and filtered DE and assessed for their capacity to drive damaging oxidation reactions in a cell-free model, or promote inflammation in A549 cells. Results The standard particle filter employed in this study reduced PM10 mass concentrations within the exposure chamber by 46%, further reduced to 74% by the inclusion of an active charcoal component. In addition use of the active charcoal filter was associated by a 75% and 50% reduction in NO2 and hydrocarbon concentrations, respectively. As expected, subjects reported more subjective symptoms after exposure to unfiltered DE compared to filtered air, which was significantly reduced by the filter with an active charcoal component. There were no significant changes in lung function after exposures. Similarly diesel exhaust did not elicit significant increases in any of the inflammatory markers examined in the peripheral blood samples 5 hour post-exposure. Whilst the filters reduced chamber particle concentrations, the oxidative activity of the particles themselves, did not change following filtration with either filter. In contrast, diesel exhaust PM passed through the active charcoal combination filter appeared less inflammatory to A549 cells. Conclusions A cabin air inlet particle filter including an active charcoal component was highly effective in reducing both DE particulate and gaseous components, with reduced exhaust-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of cabin filters to protect subjects travelling in vehicles from diesel exhaust emissions. PMID:24621126

2014-01-01

102

EXHAUST EMISSION PATTERNS FROM TWO LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL AUTOMOBILES  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate and gaseous emissions from two light-duty diesel automobiles were examined over six operating cycles. Particulate characterizations included mass emission rate, soluble organic content, and trace element content determinations. The particulate matter was sampled using...

103

A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF BIODIESEL IMPACTS ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Existing emissions data from heavy-duty diesel engines was assembled into a database. Statistical regression analysis was used to correlate biodiesel concentration with changes in emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants. The report concludes that biodiesel produces sm...

104

Carbonyl emissions from vehicular exhausts sources in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for airborne carbonyls in urban area. Six types of VE-dominated samples were collected at representative locations in Hong Kong where polluted by a particular fueled type of vehicles, including (i) a gas refilling taxis station (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] emission); (ii) a light-duty passenger car park (gasoline emission); (iii) a

Steven Sai Hang Ho; Kin Fai Ho; Shun Cheng Lee; Yan Cheng; Jian Zhen Yu; Ka Man Lam; Natale Sin Yau Feng; Yu Huang

2012-01-01

105

Carbonyl Emissions from Vehicular Exhausts Sources in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for airborne carbonyls in urban area. Six types of VE-dominated samples were collected at representative locations in Hong Kong where polluted by a particular fueled type of vehicles, including (i) a gas refilling taxis station (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] emission); (ii) a light duty passenger car park (gasoline emission); (iii)

Steven Sai Hang Ho; Kin Fai Ho; Shun Cheng Lee; Yan Cheng; Jian Zhen Yu; Ka Man Lam; Carrie Feng; Yu Huang

2011-01-01

106

Exhaust emissions from a Diesel engine fueled with transesterified waste olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exhaust emissions of a Diesel direct injection Perkins engine fueled with waste olive oil methyl ester were studied at several steady-state operating conditions. Emissions were characterized with neat biodiesel from used olive oil and conventional Diesel fuel. Results revealed that the use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of CO (up to 58.9%), CO2 (up to 8.6%, excepting a

M. P Dorado; E Ballesteros; J. M Arnal; J Gómez; F. J López

2003-01-01

107

Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)

2002-01-01

108

Emission of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal from restaurant exhausts to the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooking exhausts may contribute significant organic compounds to the atmosphere. It has been shown that trans, trans-2,4-decadienal ( tt-DDE) is an important toxic compound in cooking oil fumes (COF). In this study, the emissions of tt-DDE were quantified in both gaseous and particulate phases of three kinds of restaurant exhausts (Chinese, western and barbecue). Samples of exhausts were collected with a sampling system meeting the criteria of US EPA Modified Method 5. The tt-DDE was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. The results indicate that the emission factors of tt-DDE in terms of ?g customer -1 were in sequence: barbecue (1990)>Chinese (570)>western (63.8). The average proportion of tt-DDE in the particulate phase of the exhausts was 83% for the 16 investigated restaurants. Evidently, the majority of tt-DDE in the exhausts was in the particulate phase. There was no evident correlation found between phase distribution of tt-DDE and exhaust temperature in the restaurants investigated. The efficiencies of removal of particulate tt-DDE by air pollution control devices (APCDs) were assessed. The removal efficiencies of electrostatic precipitator (ESP), ESP and activated carbon in series, and wet scrubber were 64.2%, 86.3% and 71.3%, respectively.

Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Lee, Hui-Ling; Chao, Mu-Rong; Luo, Hong-Wei; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Lee, Wen-Jhy

109

Exhaust Fine Particle and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks are a source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions as well as primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. Heavy-duty trucks contribute significantly to elevated levels of diesel particulate matter found near highways and in communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. To reduce the air quality impact of diesel engine emissions, the California Air Resources Board has adopted new rules requiring the retrofit or replacement of in-use HD trucks. These rules take effect during 2010 at ports and railyards, and apply to all trucks operating in California by 2014. This study involves on-road measurements of PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factor distributions from individual HD trucks driving into the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay area. Measurements of exhaust plumes from individual trucks were made using a mobile laboratory equipped with fast time response (1 Hz) PM2.5, BC, NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors. The mobile laboratory was stationed on an overpass above an arterial roadway that connects the Port to a nearby highway (I-880). The air sampling inlet was thereby located above the vertical exhaust pipes of HD diesel trucks passing by on the arterial roadway below. Fuel-specific PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which concentrations of these species in an exhaust plume are normalized to CO2 concentrations. Initial field sampling was conducted in November, 2009 prior to the implementation of new emission rules. Additional emission measurements were made at the same location during June 2010 and emission factor distributions and averages will be compared.

Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T.

2010-12-01

110

A comprehensive inventory of the ship traffic exhaust emissions in the Baltic Sea from 2006 to 2009.  

PubMed

This study addresses the exhaust emissions of CO?, NO(x), SO(x), CO, and PM(2.5) originated from Baltic Sea shipping in 2006-2009. Numerical results have been computed using the Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model. This model is based on the messages of the automatic identification system (AIS), which enable the positioning of ships with a high spatial resolution. The NO(x) emissions in 2009 were approximately 7 % higher than in 2006, despite the economic recession. However, the SO(x) emissions in 2009 were approximately 14 % lower, when compared to those in 2006, mainly caused by the fuel requirements of the SO(x) emission control area (SECA) which became effective in May 2006, but affected also by changes in ship activity. Results are presented on the differential geographic distribution of shipping emissions before (Jan-April 2006) and after (Jan-April 2009) the SECA regulations. The predicted NO(x) emissions in 2009 substantially exceeded the emissions in 2006 along major ship routes and at numerous harbors, mostly due to the continuous increase in the number of small vessels that use AIS transmitters. Although the SO(x) emissions have been reduced in 2009 in most major ship routes, these have increased in the vicinity of some harbors and on some densely trafficked routes. A seasonal variation of emissions is also presented, as well as the distribution of emissions in terms of vessel flag state, type, and weight. PMID:23479266

Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Johansson, Lasse; Kukkonen, Jaakko

2014-04-01

111

Jet engine exhaust emissions of high altitude commercial aircraft projected to 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high-altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on:(1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; and (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft fueled by either JP fuel, liquefied natural gas, or hydrogen. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of both an emission index (g constituent/kg fuel) and an emission rate (g constituent/hr).

Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

1974-01-01

112

A GIS-BASED MODAL MODEL OF AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents progress toward the development of a computer tool called MEASURE, the Mobile Emission Assessment System for Urban and Regional Evaluation. The tool works toward a goal of providing researchers and planners with a way to assess new mobile emission mitigation s...

113

ydrocarbon detector for the remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions  

E-print Network

from failure to attain air quality standards due to carbon monoxide (CO) pollution, many others fail to meet standards due to ozone pollution. Hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from motor vehicles are of concern consistently shown that half of the on-road light duty CO emissions are contributed by less than 10

Denver, University of

114

Examination of Acute Pulmonary Responses to Various Cookstove Exhaust Emissions  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollution is a global public heath problem, to which the emissions from rudimentary cooking devices has been estimated to contribute significantly through the burning of various types of biomass. Notably, exposure to cookstove emissions (CE) has been linked to increases in mo...

115

Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. Methods In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. Results The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Conclusion Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient conditions. On a per breath basis, however, the mass of particulate matter inhaled is large compared to the mass inhaled at ambient conditions. Finally, it was determined that children, infants, or people breathing at heights similar to that of a passing vehicle's tailpipe may be exposed to higher concentrations of particulate matter than those breathing at higher locations, such as adults standing up. PMID:19331669

2009-01-01

116

Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than diesel does. Major difference in both fuels is formaldehyde emission which drops by 23% on the average. Lower aldehyde emissions found in B20 correspond to lower ozone formation potentials. As a result, use of biodiesel in diesel engines has the beneficial effect in terms of aldehyde emissions.

Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

117

40 CFR 90.103 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...allow for the incremental weight of a four stroke engine or the incremental weight of a two stroke engine having enhanced emission...is a direct result of application of a four stroke or enhanced two stroke engine having...

2010-07-01

118

Engine performance and exhaust emissions: methanol versus isooctane  

SciTech Connect

Operating characteristics of a single-cylinder, spark-ignition engine fueled by both methanol and isooctane were determined. Engine output, indicated specific fuel consumption, and specific emissions of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and aldehydes were measured for both fuels and compared using the performance maps. The engine output comparisons showed that lean misfire limits occurred at leaner mixtures with methanol than with isooctane and that maximum engine output levels were nearly equal for both fuels. Comparison of the specific parameters of each fuel at equivalent power levels obtained with maximum power spark timing permits the following conclusions: use of methanol results in higher indicated specific fuel consumption, greater emission of aldehydes, but lower emissions of hydrocarbon and nitric oxide; the two fuels showed similar trends of carbon monoxide emission.

Ebersole, G.D.; Manning, F.S.

1980-01-01

119

40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

...2014-07-01 false How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards...OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine Families § 1045.240 How do I...

2014-07-01

120

40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards...OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine Families § 1045.240 How do I...

2012-07-01

121

40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards...OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine Families § 1045.240 How do I...

2013-07-01

122

40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards...OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine Families § 1045.240 How do I...

2011-07-01

123

SENSOR FOR MONITORING OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN DIESEL EXHAUST GASES - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Active Spectrum, Inc., proposes a novel, low-cost soot sensor for on-board measurement of soot emissions in diesel exhaust gases. The proposed technology is differentiated from existing methods by excellent sensitivity, high specificity to carbon particulates, and robustness ...

124

Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine Using Hybrid Fuel with an Artificial Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with artificial neural network modeling to predict the performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine using hybrid fuel. A single cylinder, four-stroke diesel engine was fueled with hybrid fuel and operated at different load conditions to acquire data for training and testing the proposed artificial neural network model. About 70% of the acquired experimental data were

P. Shanmugam; V. Sivakumar; A. Murugesan; M. Ilangkumaran

2011-01-01

125

On-Road Remote Sensing of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions in Auckland, New Zealand  

E-print Network

targeting high emitters may be more effective than simply getting old vehicles off the road, or of testingOn-Road Remote Sensing of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions in Auckland, New Zealand S. Xie, J. G. Bluett for the on-road vehicle fleet. The data have been used to investigate the important factors that determine

Denver, University of

126

Exhaust emissions characteristics for a general aviation light-aircraft Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C piston engine. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Teledyne Continental Motors TSI0-360-C engine (S\\/N 300244) was tested at the National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center (NAFEC) to develop an exhaust emissions data base. This data base consists of current production baseline emissions characteristics, lean-out emissions data, effects of leaning-out the fuel schedule on cylinder head temperatures, and data showing ambient effects on exhaust emissions and cylinder head temperatures.

1979-01-01

127

Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

2012-06-01

128

40 CFR 86.1544 - Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

2010-07-01

129

Engine performance and exhaust emissions: methanol versus isooctane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating characteristics of a single-cylinder, spark-ignition engine fueled by both methanol and isooctane were determined. Engine output, indicated specific fuel consumption, and specific emissions of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and aldehydes were measured for both fuels and compared using the performance maps. The engine output comparisons showed that lean misfire limits occurred at leaner mixtures with methanol than with

G. D. Ebersole; F. S. Manning

1980-01-01

130

Catalytic converters for exhaust emission control of commercial equipment powered by internal combustion engines.  

PubMed Central

The development of PTX, monolithic catalytic exhaust purifiers, is outlined, and their first use for exhaust emissions control of commercial equipment is described. The main use of PTX converters is on forklift trucks. The purification achievable with PTX-equipped fork-lift trucks under various operational conditions is discussed, and examples from the field are given. During more than ten years of operation, no adverse health effects have been reported, and PTX-equipped internal combustion engines appear safe for use in confined areas. PMID:50933

Cohn, J G

1975-01-01

131

40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

132

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

133

Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, ?15PAHs, ?11NPAHs, ?5Hopanes and ?6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83-99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitronaphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments.

Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

2015-02-01

134

Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China's Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

2012-01-01

135

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non-smoking

B. Rudell; U. Wass; P. Horstedt; J. O. Levin; R. Lindahl; U. Rannug; A. L. Sunesson; Y. Ostberg; T. Sandstrom

1999-01-01

136

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

137

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

138

Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel/biodiesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely studied in environmental matrices, such as air, water, soil and sediment, because of their toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of these properties, the environmental agencies of developed countries have listed sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants. Few countries have limits for these compounds for ambient air, but they only limit emissions from stationary and mobile sources and occupational areas. There are several studies to specifically address the 16 priority PAHs and very little for the alkyl PAHs. These compounds are more abundant, more persistent and frequently more toxic than the non-alkylated PAHs, and the toxicity increases with the number of alkyl substitutions on the aromatic ring. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of PAHs and alkyl PAHs by using a GC-MS and large injection volume injection coupled with program temperature vaporisation, which allows for limits of detection below 1.0 ng ?L-1. Several variables were tested, such as the injection volume, injection velocity, injector initial temperature, duration of the solvent split and others. This method was evaluated in samples from particulate matter from the emissions of engines employing standard diesel, commercial diesel and biodiesel B20. Samples were collected on a dynamometer bench for a diesel engine cycle and the results ranged from 0.5 to 96.9 ng mL-1, indicating that diesel/biodiesel makes a significant contribution to the formation of PAHs and alkyl PAHs.

Casal, Carina S.; Arbilla, Graciela; Corrêa, Sergio M.

2014-10-01

139

Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.; Arslan, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

1997-10-01

140

Emissions in the exhaust of fishing boats after adding viscous agents into fuel oils.  

PubMed

In order to avoid the illegal use of fishing boat fuel A (FBFA) by traveling diesel vehicles (TDVs) in Taiwan, alternatives that are easily distinguished from premium diesel fuel (PDF) were prepared to evaluate their suitability. Two new ingredients, pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) and residue of desulfurization unit (RDS), were added into FBFA and formed PFO0.5 and RDS0.5, respectively. Along with FBFA, these three fuels were analyzed for their chemical and physical properties. Furthermore, they were used by three fishing boats with different sizes, output powers, and weights. The engine performances and pollutant emissions were examined and monitored. Experimental results show that there are significant differences in appearance between PDF and the two new blended fuels (PFO0.5 and RDS0.5), and thus misuse or illegal use of FBFA could be substantially reduced. The fuel consumption, which is negatively related to the heating value of fuels, is in order of FBFAemissions, while the PM emission factors (g bhp(-1) h(-1) and g L(-1)-fuel) were reduced by approximately 36% and 33%, respectively. Owing to the higher total aromatic content in PFO0.5 and RDS0.5, total-PAH concentrations in the exhausts from the three fishing boats using PFO0.5 and RDS0.5 were slightly (1.2 and 1.1 times, respectively) higher than for those using FBFA. Nevertheless, the estimated total BaP(eq) from the three fishing boats using RDS0.5 was 27.5, 19.5, and 8.25% lower than those using FBFA. With using PFO0.5, they were totally different, at 23.5, 2.79, and 2.58% higher. With regard to looking different to PDF, RDS0.5 is superior to PFO0.5, and is thus recommended as a better alternative to FBFA, particularly because it can help lower more emissions of CO, NO(x), PM and BaP(eq). PMID:19846209

Hsieh, Lien-Te; Shih, Shun-I; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Yang, Tsun-Lirng; Wu, Tser-Son; Hung, Chung-Hsien

2009-12-20

141

Microwave plasma continuous emissions monitor for trace-metals in furnace exhaust  

SciTech Connect

A microwave plasma continuous emissions monitor has been successfully demonstrated for sensitive ({lt}1 ppb), real time measurements of trace metals in furnace exhaust. The instrument uses a robust, up to 1.5 kW, 2.45 GHz microwave plasma sustained in a portion of the undiluted furnace exhaust flow for atomic emission spectroscopy. The waveguide device is constructed of refractory materials compatible with high-temperature environments ({approx_gt}500{degree}C) and is flange mountable into the inside of the furnace exhaust duct. Fused quartz fiber optics in close proximity to the plasma flame transmit the UV through visible emission (190{endash}690 nm) to three spectrometers for simultaneous monitoring of several metals. This instrument has been used for continuous monitoring for a 49 h period with 0.5 s time resolution on a dc graphite electrode arc furnace during a soil vitrification test. Results are presented for chromium, manganese, and iron emissions during soil loading operations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Woskov, P.P.; Rhee, D.Y.; Thomas, P.; Cohn, D.R. [Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Surma, J.E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Titus, C.H. [T& R Associates, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087 (United States)] [T& R Associates, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087 (United States)

1996-10-01

142

New exposure system to evaluate the toxicity of (scooter) exhaust emissions in lung cells in vitro.  

PubMed

A constantly growing number of scooters produce an increasing amount of potentially harmful emissions. Due to their engine technology, two-stroke scooters emit huge amounts of adverse substances, which can induce adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular health effects. The aim of this study was to develop a system to expose a characterized triple cell coculture model of the human epithelial airway barrier, to freshly produced and characterized total scooter exhaust emissions. In exposure chambers, cell cultures were exposed for 1 and 2 h to 1:100 diluted exhaust emissions and in the reference chamber to filtered ambient air, both controlled at 5% CO(2), 85% relative humidity, and 37 degrees C. The postexposure time was 0-24 h. Cytotoxicity, used to validate the exposure system, was significantly increased in exposed cell cultures after 8 h postexposure time. (Pro-) inflammatory chemo- and cytokine concentrations in the medium of exposed cells were significantly higher at the 12 h postexposure time point. It was shown that the described exposure system (with 2 h exposure duration, 8 and 24 h postexposure time, dilution of 1:100, flow of 2 L/min as optimal exposure conditions) can be used to evaluate the toxic potential of total exhaust emissions. PMID:20230045

Müller, Loretta; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas C R; Gehr, Peter; Burtscher, Heinz; Morin, Jean-Paul; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

2010-04-01

143

Reducing cold-start emissions by catalytic converter thermal management  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m{sup 2}K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. Although exhaust temperatures during the preconditioning were not hot enough to melt the phase-change material, the vacuum insulation performed well, resulting in a converter temperature of 146{degrees}C after the 23-hour cold soak at 27{degrees}C. Compared to the same converter at ambient conditions, overall emissions of CO and HC were reduced by 52 % and 29 %, to 0.27 and 0.037 g/mile, respectively. The maximum converter temperature during the FTP cycle was 720{degrees}C. This limited testing was performed with a nearly-fresh palladium-only catalyst, but demonstrates the potential of this vacuum insulation approach for emissions reduction and thermal control. Further testing is ongoing. An initial assessment of several production issues is made, including high-volume fabrication challenges, durability, and cost.

Burch, S D; Potter, T F; Keyser, M A [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Brady, M J; Michaels, K F [Chrysler Corp. (United States)

1995-01-01

144

Reduced mite allergen levels in dwellings with mechanical exhaust and supply ventilation.  

PubMed

Seventy similar bungalows constructed between 1968 and 1970 in the same suburban area of Stockholm were investigated regarding the content of house dust mite allergen, absolute indoor humidity, type of ventilation and basement construction. Houses with mechanical exhaust and supply ventilation had an indoor humidity above 7 g/kg less often than houses without this type of ventilation (Odds ratio 0.1, 95% confidence interval 0.0-0.2). Furthermore, only five of the 24 houses with exhaust and supply ventilation contained mattress dust mite allergen concentrations exceeding the median value (98.5 ng/g) compared with 30 of 46 hours which did not have such ventilation (odds ratio = 0.1, C.I. 0.0-0.5). Houses with both natural ventilation and crawl space basement harboured significantly less mattress mite allergen than houses having the same type of ventilation, but with a concrete slab basement. In a cold temperature climate, type of building construction and ventilation seem to be important for the occurrence of house dust mite allergens in dwellings. Our results indicate that modern energy-efficient houses should be equipped with mechanical exhaust and supply ventilation to reduce indoor air humidity during the dry winter months and the risk of mite infestation. PMID:8187025

Wickman, M; Emenius, G; Egmar, A C; Axelsson, G; Pershagen, G

1994-02-01

145

Comparison of exhaust emissions resulting from cold- and hot-start motorcycle driving modes.  

PubMed

This study investigated the emissions of criteria air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbons [HCs], and oxides of nitrogen [NOx]) from motorcycle exhaust at cold- and hot-start driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. Seven four-stroke carburetors and two fuel-injection motorcycles were tested. As expected, the emission factors (g/km) of CO and HCs increased during cold-start driving. The ratio of emission factors (g/km) for cold- and hot-start driving cycles ranged from 1.1-1.5 (for CO) to 1.2-2.8 (for HCs). However, the difference of NOx emissions between the cold- and hot-start cycles was not pronounced. Further, the cold-/hot-start ratios of CO and HCs from 50-cm3 motorcycles were higher than those of 100- and 125-cm3 motorcycles; however, the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission was the lowest for the four-stroke motorcycles. High engine temperature and poor combustion efficiency of smaller cylinder-capacity motorcycles may contribute a significant amount of exhaust emission. Additionally, the fuel-base emission factor (g/L-fuel) ratios were low compared with the distance-base emission factor (g/km) in cold- and hot-start driving. This indicates that the effect of catalyst efficiency was greater than the effect of fuel combustion in the tested motorcycles. A comparison of emission ratios of motorcycles and passenger cars shows that the warm-up may be more important for cars, especially under low-temperature conditions. However, the motorcycle contributes a large proportion of CO and HC emissions in many Asian counties. The difference between cold- and hot-start emissions may affect inventory PMID:19947115

Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Ye, Hui-Fen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-11-01

146

A study on exhaust gas emissions from ships in Turkish Straits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Turkish Straits, i.e. Istanbul (Bosphorus) and Canakkale (Dardanellen), which connect Black Sea and Aegean Sea, have a continuously increasing maritime traffic. Especially, the maritime traffic on Bosphorus (Istanbul Strait) that connects the continents of Europe and Asia is too complex due to geographical conditions. The maritime traffic in the Turkish Straits includes the ships, which are in use in domestic transport, the transit passing ships with various aims and fishing, sport or strolling ships. In this paper, fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions NO x, CO, CO 2, VOC, PM exhausted from ships such as transit vessels, which are passing both Bosphorus and Dardanellen, and passenger ships used in domestic transport on the Bosphorus are calculated. In order to do this the general characteristics, the main engine systems, the fuel types, cruising times and speeds of all vessels are taken into consideration. The calculated NO x emissions on the Bosphorus are 2720 t from domestic passenger ships and 4357 t from transit ships. In this case it is clear that the transit ships cause more than half of the total amount of emissions from ships on the Bosphorus. The amount of nitrogen oxide emissions from domestic passenger ships used for public transport in Istanbul Strait is equal to approx. 4% of nitrogen oxide emissions from motor vehicles in Istanbul. Finally, the future emissions from ships in Turkish Straits are discussed.

Kesgin, Ugur; Vardar, Nurten

147

Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): II. Uncertainty analyses of on-road vehicle exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of future emissions are necessary for understanding the future health of the atmosphere, designing national and international strategies for air quality control, and evaluating mitigation policies. Emission inventories are uncertain and future projections even more so, thus it is important to quantify the uncertainty inherent in emission projections. This paper is the second in a series that seeks to establish a more mechanistic understanding of future air pollutant emissions based on changes in technology. The first paper in this series (Yan et al., 2011) described a model that projects emissions based on dynamic changes of vehicle fleet, Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard-Trend, or SPEW-Trend. In this paper, we explore the underlying uncertainties of global and regional exhaust PM emission projections from on-road vehicles in the coming decades using sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. This work examines the emission sensitivities due to uncertainties in retirement rate, timing of emission standards, transition rate of high-emitting vehicles called “superemitters”, and emission factor degradation rate. It is concluded that global emissions are most sensitive to parameters in the retirement rate function. Monte Carlo simulations show that emission uncertainty caused by lack of knowledge about technology composition is comparable to the uncertainty demonstrated by alternative economic scenarios, especially during the period 2010-2030.

Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

2014-04-01

148

GIS-based modal model of automobile exhaust emissions. Final report, January 1997--May 1998  

SciTech Connect

The report presents progress toward the development of a computer tool called MEASURE, the Mobile Emission Assessment System for Urban and Regional Evaluation. The tool works toward a goal of providing researchers and planners with a way to assess new mobile emission mitigation strategies. The model is based on a geographic information system (GIS) and uses modal operation (acceleration, deceleration, cruise, and idle). Estimates of spatially resolved fleet composition and activity are combined with situation-specific emission rates to predict engine start and running exhaust emissions. The estimates are provided at user-defined spatial scales. A demonstration of model operation is provided using a 100 sq km study area in Atlanta, Georgia. Future mobile emissions modeling research needs are developed from an analysis of the sources of model error.

Bachman, W.H.

1998-08-01

149

Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during the first minutes of the cycle, before the light-off of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Less ammonia has been emitted with ethanol fuel, in particular in low ambient condition (E75 versus E5). Ammonia is a harmful compound for human health and vegetation, and is a precursor of secondary aerosol. Even if agricultural activities are the main source of anthropogenic ammonia, the contribution from the transport sector increases significantly during the cold season. Consequently, using high concentrated ethanol as fuel may have a positive impact on ammonia emission in urban area. However, ethanol fuel had a negative impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The latter together with methane was notably emitted in low ambient temperature, in comparison with gasoline fuel (E5). Moreover, the OFP at -7°C was influenced by the amount of ethanol in gasoline, mainly because of the increase of ozone precursors linked to ethanol (ethylene, acetylene, and acetaldehyde). Even if ozone concentration levels are generally lower during the cold seasons these results show that the issue should be considered globally before promoting the use of high concentrated ethanol fuel in a large scale.

Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

2011-12-01

150

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non- smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle cabin air filters may result in further diminishing the biomedical effects of diesel exhaust in subjects exposed in traffic and workplaces.   PMID:10450238

Rudell, B.; Wass, U.; Horstedt, P.; Levin, J. O.; Lindahl, R.; Rannug, U.; Sunesson, A. L.; Ostberg, Y.; Sandstrom, T.

1999-01-01

151

Gaseous exhaust emissions from a J-58 engine at simulated supersonic flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from a J-58 engine at simulated flight conditions of Mach 2.0, 2.4, and 2.8 at 19.8 km altitude are reported. For each flight condition, measurements were made for four engine power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. These measurements were made 7 cm downstream of the engine primary nozzle using a single point traversing gas sample probe. Results show that emissions vary with flight speed, engine power level, and with radial position across the exhaust.

Holdeman, J. D.

1974-01-01

152

40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2011-07-01

153

40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2013-07-01

154

40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2014-07-01

155

40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2012-07-01

156

Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for the evaluation of the exhaust emissions of marine traffic, based on the messages provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which enable the positioning of ship emissions with a high spatial resolution (typically a few tens of metres). The model also takes into account the detailed technical data of each individual vessel. The previously developed model was applicable for evaluating the emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2. This paper addresses a substantial extension of the modelling system, to allow also for the mass-based emissions of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). The presented Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model (STEAM2) allows for the influences of accurate travel routes and ship speed, engine load, fuel sulphur content, multiengine setups, abatement methods and waves. We address in particular the modeling of the influence on the emissions of both engine load and the sulphur content of the fuel. The presented methodology can be used to evaluate the total PM emissions, and those of organic carbon, elemental carbon, ash and hydrated sulphate. We have evaluated the performance of the extended model against available experimental data on engine power, fuel consumption and the composition-resolved emissions of PM. We have also compared the annually averaged emission values with those of the corresponding EMEP inventory, As example results, the geographical distributions of the emissions of PM and CO are presented for the marine regions of the Baltic Sea surrounding the Danish Straits.

Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Kukkonen, J.; Brink, A.; Kalli, J.; Stipa, T.

2012-03-01

157

Exhaust emission calibration of two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude, supersonic flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, nitric oxide, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16.0 to 23.5 km. For each flight condition exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels, from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen emissions decreased with increasing altitude and increased with increasing flight speed. Oxides of nitrogen emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

Holdeman, J. D.

1976-01-01

158

Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for the evaluation of the exhaust emissions of marine traffic, based on the messages provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which enable the positioning of ship emissions with a high spatial resolution (typically a few metres). The model also takes into account the detailed technical data of each individual vessel. The previously developed model was applicable for evaluating the emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2. This paper addresses a substantial extension of the modelling system, to allow also for the mass-based emissions of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). The presented Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model (STEAM2) allows for the influences of accurate travel routes and ship speed, engine load, fuel sulphur content, multiengine setups, abatement methods and waves. We address in particular the modeling of the influence on the emissions of both engine load and the sulphur content of the fuel. The presented methodology can be used to evaluate the total PM emissions, and those of organic carbon, elemental carbon, ash and hydrated sulphate. We have evaluated the performance of the extended model against available experimental data on engine power, fuel consumption and the composition-resolved emissions of PM. As example results, the geographical distributions of the emissions of PM and CO are presented for the marine regions surrounding the Danish Straits.

Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Kukkonen, J.; Brink, A.; Kalli, J.; Stipa, T.

2011-08-01

159

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

160

40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

161

REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING  

E-print Network

REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: REVISITING Change Research Working Paper 115 #12;REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) under the United Nations Framework Convention

Watson, Andrew

162

Characteristics of volatile organic compounds from motorcycle exhaust emission during real-world driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of motorcycles has increased significantly in Asia, Africa, Latin American and Europe in recent years due to their reasonable price, high mobility and low fuel consumption. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics of motorcycles are an important consideration for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. Results of this study indicate that most volatile organic compound (VOC) emission factors were in the range of several decades mg/km during on-road driving. Toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were the most abundant VOCs in motorcycle exhaust, with emission factors of hundreds mg/km. Motorcycle exhaust was 15.4 mg/km for 15 carbonyl species. Acetaldehyde, acetone, formaldehyde and benzaldehyde were the major carbonyl species, and their emission factors ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/km 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, toluene, o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, propene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, m-diethylbenzene, and m-ethyltoluene were the main ozone formation potential (OFP) species, and their OFP was 200 mg-O3/km or higher.

Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2014-12-01

163

Control of variable geometry turbocharged diesel engines for reduced emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission control problem for an automotive direct injected compression ignition (diesel) engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) is considered. The objective is to operate the engine to meet driver's torque demand and minimize NOx emissions while at the same time avoiding visible smoke generation. It is demonstrated that the steady-state optimization of

Anna G. Stefanopoulou; Ilya Kolmanovsky; James S. Freudenberg

2000-01-01

164

40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...emissions may optionally be collected in two bag samples representing US06 City and US06...and seconds 495-596 are collected in one bag to represent US06 City emissions, and emissions...seconds 130-495 are collected in a second bag to represent US06 Highway emissions....

2010-07-01

165

40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...emissions may optionally be collected in two bag samples representing US06 City and US06...and seconds 495-596 are collected in one bag to represent US06 City emissions, and emissions...seconds 130-495 are collected in a second bag to represent US06 Highway emissions....

2012-07-01

166

40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emissions may optionally be collected in two bag samples representing US06 City and US06...and seconds 495-596 are collected in one bag to represent US06 City emissions, and emissions...seconds 130-495 are collected in a second bag to represent US06 Highway emissions....

2013-07-01

167

40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.  

...emissions may optionally be collected in two bag samples representing US06 City and US06...and seconds 495-596 are collected in one bag to represent US06 City emissions, and emissions...seconds 130-495 are collected in a second bag to represent US06 Highway emissions....

2014-07-01

168

40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...emissions may optionally be collected in two bag samples representing US06 City and US06...and seconds 495-596 are collected in one bag to represent US06 City emissions, and emissions...seconds 130-495 are collected in a second bag to represent US06 Highway emissions....

2011-07-01

169

Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities  

PubMed Central

Background: Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) blood levels of employees get affected in confined areas with relatively poor air circulation. Methods: Twenty male volunteers working in indoor parking car wash facilities were included in the study. Participants were informed about the aim of this study and their consent was obtained. Their pulse COHb levels were measured twice, at the beginning and at the end of the working day using Rad-57 pulse CO-oximeter device, allowing non-invasive measurement of COHb blood levels to compare the changes in their COHb levels before and after work. Results: The mean age of the male volunteers was 29.8 ± 11.9 (range 18-55). While the mean COHb levels measured at the start of the working day was 2.1 ± 2.0 (range 0-9), it was increased to 5.2 ± 3.3 (range 1-15) at the end of work shift (Wilcoxon test, p <0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in COHb levels between the beginning and the end of the work shift in smoker subjects, while the difference was not significant in the non-smoking group (Wilcoxon test, p=0.001, p=0.102, respectively). Conclusion: The COHb blood levels of indoor car wash facility employees is directly impacted and gets elevated by motor vechile exhaust emissions. For the health of the employees at indoor parking car wash facilities, stricter precautions are needed and the government should not give permit to such operations. PMID:25125950

Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A

2014-01-01

170

Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.  

PubMed

Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine. PMID:24350455

Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

2013-01-01

171

Opacity meter for monitoring exhaust emissions from non-stationary sources  

SciTech Connect

Method and apparatus for determining the opacity of exhaust plumes from moving emissions sources. In operation, a light source is activated at a time prior to the arrival of a diesel locomotive at a measurement point, by means of a track trigger switch or the Automatic Equipment Identification system, such that the opacity measurement is synchronized with the passage of an exhaust plume past the measurement point. A beam of light from the light source passes through the exhaust plume of the locomotive and is detected by a suitable detector, preferably a high-rate photodiode. The light beam is well-collimated and is preferably monochromatic, permitting the use of a narrowband pass filter to discriminate against background light. In order to span a double railroad track and provide a beam which is substantially stronger than background, the light source, preferably a diode laser, must provide a locally intense beam. A high intensity light source is also desirable in order to increase accuracy at the high sampling rates required. Also included is a computer control system useful for data acquisition, manipulation, storage and transmission of opacity data and the identification of the associated diesel engine to a central data collection center.

Dec, J.E.

2000-02-15

172

40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and...

2012-07-01

173

40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and...

2013-07-01

174

40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...  

...2014-07-01 false Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and...

2014-07-01

175

The effect of injection timing, enhanced aftercooling, and low-sulfur, low-aromatic diesel fuel on locomotive exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was performed to demonstrate the fuel economy and exhaust emissions implications of retarding fuel injection timing, enhancing charge air aftercooling, and using low-sulfur, low-aromatic diesel fuel for locomotive engines. Steady-state gaseous and particulate emission data are presented from two 12-cylinder diesel locomotive engines. The two laboratory engines, an EMD 645E3B and a GE 7FDL, are each rated at 1860 kW (2500 hp) and represent the majority of the locomotive fleet in North America. Each engine was tested for total hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]), and particulate. Emissions were measured at three steady-state operating conditions: rated speed and load, idle, and an intermediate speed and load. Test results on the EMD engine indicate that a 4 deg injection timing retard, along with a low-sulfur, low-aromatic fuel and enhanced aftercooling, was effective in reducing NO[sub x] from 10.5 g/hp-h to 7.2 g/hp-h; however, particulates increased from 0.15 g/hp-h to 0.19 g/hp-h, and fuel efficiency was 4.3 percent worse. Similar observations were made with the GE engine. This paper gives details on the test engines, the measurement procedures, and the emission results.

Markworth, V.O.; Fritz, S.G. (Dept. of Emissions Research, Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)); Cataldi, G.R. (Research and Test Dept., Association of American Railroad, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-07-01

176

Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

2014-10-01

177

Effect of gasoline composition on exhaust emissions from modern BMW vehicles  

SciTech Connect

In a cooperative program between BMW and Shell, the effects of gasoline properties and composition on regulated emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}), CO{sub 2}, fuel consumption and catalyst performance have been studied. The objective of the test program was to investigate the effect of different hydrocarbon groups from typical refinery streams on exhaust emissions with a detailed analysis not only of the tailpipe emissions but also engine out emissions and catalyst performance. In total thirteen fuels with widely varying physical properties and chemical composition were evaluated in a 1991 series production BMW 526i, and a subset of three of these fuels in two other BMW models to verify their sensitivity in fuel quality. The results for the BMW 525i showed that significant reductions in HC, CO, and NO{sub x} emissions were seen for fuels containing splashblended oxygenates and with aromatics replaced by isoparaffins. Similar reductions in HC and CO emissions were seen in the other two vehicles, although the BMW 525i was somewhat less sensitive to fuel changes. 12 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

Lange, W.W.; Mueller, A.; Schaefer, V.; McArragher, J.S.

1994-10-01

178

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from different reformulated diesel fuels and engine operating conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of light-duty diesel engine exhaust emissions is important due to their impact on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. In this study, both the gas and the particulate phase of fuel exhaust were analyzed to investigate the effects of diesel reformulation and engine operating parameters. The research was focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds on particulate phase due to their high toxicity. These were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. Although PAH profiles changed for diesel fuels with low-sulfur content and different percentages of aromatic hydrocarbons (5-25%), no significant differences for total PAH concentrations were detected. However, rape oil methyl ester biodiesel showed a greater number of PAH compounds, but in lower concentrations (close to 50%) than the reformulated diesel fuels. In addition, four engine operating conditions were evaluated, and the results showed that, during cold start, higher concentrations were observed for high molecular weight PAHs than during idling cycle and that the acceleration cycles provided higher concentrations than the steady-state conditions. Correlations between particulate PAHs and gas phase products were also observed. The emission of PAH compounds from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel depended greatly on the source of the fuel and the driving patterns.

Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A.; Vázquez, Monica; Zielinska, Barbara

2009-12-01

179

Monitoring of heavy metal particle emission in the exhaust duct of a foundry using LIBS.  

PubMed

Heavy metals have long been known to be detrimental to human health and the environment. Their emission is mainly considered to occur via the atmospheric route. Most of airborne heavy metals are of anthropogenic origin and produced through combustion processes at industrial sites such as incinerators and foundries. Current regulations impose threshold limits on heavy metal emissions. The reference method currently implemented for quantitative measurements at exhaust stacks consists of on-site sampling of heavy metals on filters for the particulate phase (the most prominent and only fraction considered in this study) prior to subsequent laboratory analysis. Results are therefore known only a few days after sampling. Stiffer regulations require the development of adapted tools allowing automatic, on-site or even in-situ measurements with temporal resolutions. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was deemed as a potential candidate to meet these requirements. On site experiments were run by melting copper bars and monitoring emission of this element in an exhaust duct at a pilot-scale furnace in a French research center dedicated to metal casting. Two approaches designated as indirect and direct analysis were broached in these experiments. The former corresponds to filter enrichment prior to subsequent LIBS interrogation whereas the latter entails laser focusing right through the aerosol for detection. On-site calibration curves were built and compared with those obtained at laboratory scale in order to investigate possible matrix and analyte effects. Eventually, the obtained results in terms of detection limits and quantitative temporal monitoring of copper emission clearly emphasize the potentialities of the direct LIBS measurements. PMID:24913859

Dutouquet, C; Gallou, G; Le Bihan, O; Sirven, J B; Dermigny, A; Torralba, B; Frejafon, E

2014-09-01

180

Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to review the potential of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the exhaust emissions, particularly NOX emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique. A detailed analysis of previous and current results of EGR effects on the emissions and performance of Diesel engines, spark ignition engines and duel fuel engines is introduced.

G. H. Abd-Alla

2002-01-01

181

Reduced Coronal Emission Above Large Isolated Sunspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed specific regions of reduced soft X-ray and microwave emission in five large isolated sunspots. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph 17 GHz observations reveal a local depression of microwave brightness in the peripheral area of the sunspots. The depression regions appear light (weak absorption) in the He 10830 Å line in areas with extended (open) field lines, as indicated by potential field source surface model (PFSS) extrapolations up to 1.5 R?. The observed depressions of 3 - 8 % in ordinary mode at 17 GHz are interpreted as resulting from free-free emission when the plasma density is lower by 5 - 10 %. Our model estimates show that the decrease in density in both the coronal and the lower layers above the depression region accounts for the depression. These depression regions lend themselves well to marking the location of outward plasma motions.

Ryabov, B. I.; Gary, D. E.; Peterova, N. G.; Shibasaki, K.; Topchilo, N. A.

2015-01-01

182

Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.

Poola, R.B.; Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baudino, J.H. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Colucci, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

183

AN ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICLE SIZER{trademark} SPECTROMETER FOR TRANSIENT EMISSION PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

There has been increased interest in obtaining size distribution data during transient engine operation where both particle size and total number concentrations can change dramatically. Traditionally, the measurement of particle emissions from vehicles has been a compromise based on choosing between the conflicting needs of high time resolution or high particle size resolution for a particular measurement. Currently the most common technique for measuring submicrometer particle sizes is the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPSTM) system. The SMPS system gives high size resolution but requires an aerosol to be stable over a long time period to make a particle size distribution measurement. A Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is commonly used for fast time response measurements but is limited to measuring total concentration only. This paper describes a new instrument, the Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM (EEPSTM) spectrometer, which has high time resolution and a reasonable size resolution. The EEPS was designed specifically for measuring engine exhaust and, like the SMPS system, uses a measurement based on electrical mobility. Particles entering the instrument are charged to a predictable level, then passed through an annular space where they are repelled outward by the voltage from a central column. When the particles reach electrodes on the outer cylindrical (a column of rings), they create a current that is measured by an electrometer on one or more of the rings. The electrometer currents are measured multiple times per second to give high time resolution. A sophisticated realtime inversion algorithm converts the currents to particle size and concentration for immediate display.

Johnson, T: Caldow, R; Pucher, A Mirme, A Kittelson, D

2003-08-24

184

AN ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICLE SIZERTM SPECTROMETER FOR TRANSIENT EMISSION PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

There has been increased interest in obtaining size distribution data during transient engine operation where both particle size and total number concentrations can change dramatically. Traditionally, the measurement of particle emissions from vehicles has been a compromise based on choosing between the conflicting needs of high time resolution or high particle size resolution for a particular measurement. Currently the most common technique for measuring submicrometer particle sizes is the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPSTM) system. The SMPS system gives high size resolution but requires an aerosol to be stable over a long time period to make a particle size distribution measurement. A Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is commonly used for fast time response measurements but is limited to measuring total concentration only. This paper describes a new instrument, the Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM (EEPSTM) spectrometer, which has high time resolution and a reasonable size resolution. The EEPS was designed specifically for measuring engine exhaust and, like the SMPS system, uses a measurement based on electrical mobility. Particles entering the instrument are charged to a predictable level, then passed through an annular space where they are repelled outward by the voltage from a central column. When the particles reach electrodes on the outer cylindrical (a column of rings), they create a current that is measured by an electrometer on one or more of the rings. The electrometer currents are measured multiple times per second to give high time resolution. A sophisticated realtime inversion algorithm converts the currents to particle size and concentration for immediate display.

Johnson, T; Caldow, R; Pucher, A; Mirme, A; Kittelson, D

2003-08-24

185

Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

2011-01-01

186

Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C). PMID:24758145

Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

2014-05-20

187

Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow  

DOEpatents

An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

Orosa, John

2014-03-11

188

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the unidentified infrared emission bands - Auto exhaust along the Milky Way  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unidentified infrared emission features (UIR bands) are attributed to a collection of partially hydrogenated, positively charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This assignment is based on a spectroscopic analysis of the UIR bands. Comparison of the observed interstellar 6.2 and 7.7-micron bands with the laboratory measured Raman spectrum of a collection of carbon-based particulates (auto exhaust) shows a very good agreement, supporting this identification. The infrared emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally and electronically excited states. The excitation is probably caused by UV photon absorption. The infrared fluorescence of one particular, highly vibrationally excited PAH (chrysene) is modeled. In this analysis the species is treated as a molecule rather than bulk material and the non-thermodynamic equilibrium nature of the emission is fully taken into account. From a comparison of the observed ratio of the 3.3 to 11.3-micron UIR bands with the model calculations, the average number of carbon atoms per molecule is estimated to be about 20. The abundance of interstellar PAHs is calculated to be about 2 x 10 to the -7th with respect to hydrogen.

Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.

1985-01-01

189

Evaluation of FTIR emission spectrometry for the determination of turbine exhaust composition in test beds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of taking non-intrusive species measurements in a jet plume of a modified mid-size low by-pass aero-engine running on a sea level test bed at several thrust levels was demonstrated. Also conventional intrusive measurements were performed with a spatially resolved method using a traversing single-point sampling probe which fulfills ICAO standards. The FTIR spectrometry measurements included both emission and absorption mode with a multi-path reflection compartment as well as the single emission mode. Due to the lack of a common/unique definition for the exhaust plume diameter it was found that the column density was the best measure to compare the different techniques. The FTIR engine measurement results for CO2, CO, and NO have been proven to be in agreement with the intrusive data within plus or minus 30%. Several error sources during the radiometric radiance calibration were identified which lead to uncertainties in the FTIR retrievals, namely (1) incomplete knowledge of the optical surface emissivities, (2) incomplete knowledge and inhomogeneities of the optical surface temperature, and (3) undefined instrumental drifts and non-linearities during the calibration.

Schaefer, Klaus; Heland, Joerg; Lister, Dave H.; Lindermeir, Erwin; Hilton, Moira; Bishop, Gary; Wiesen, Peter; Bernard, Marc

1999-09-01

190

40 CFR 1066.835 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.  

...cold (or 72 °F for automatic systems). Turn the control to the...testing so the air conditioning system is active whenever the engine...intended to account for sampling system transport. (3) Correct...emission measurements. (3) Solar heat load. Simulate...

2014-07-01

191

Carbonyl emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust in China and the contribution to ozone formation potential.  

PubMed

Fifteen heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested on chassis dynamometer by using typical heavy duty driving cycle and fuel economy cycle. The air from the exhaust was sampled by 2,4-dinitrophenyhydrazine cartridge and 23 carbonyl compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The average emission factor of carbonyls was 97.2 mg/km, higher than that of light-duty diesel vehicles and gasoline-powered vehicles. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and propionaldehyde were the species with the highest emission factors. Main influencing factors for carbonyl emissions were vehicle type, average speed and regulated emission standard, and the impact of vehicle loading was not evident in this study. National emission of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was calculated for China, 2011, based on both vehicle miles traveled and fuel consumption. Carbonyl emission of diesel vehicle was estimated to be 45.8 Gg, and was comparable to gasoline-powered vehicles (58.4 Gg). The emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were 12.6, 6.9, 3.8 Gg, respectively. The ozone formation potential of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was 537 mg O3/km, higher than 497 mg O3/km of none-methane hydrocarbons emitted from diesel vehicles. PMID:24649697

Dong, Dong; Shao, Min; Li, Yue; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Yanjun; Ji, Zhe; Tang, Dagang

2014-01-01

192

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

193

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

194

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...  

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2014-07-01

195

Effects of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, influence of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder diesel engine has been experimentally investigated when using ethanol blended diesel fuel from 0% to 15% with an increment of 5%. The engine load was selected as 15 and 30Nm. The tests were conducted at five different injection timings (21°,

Cenk Sayin; Mustafa Canakci

2009-01-01

196

Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using waste cooking biodiesel fuel with an artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of a diesel engine using waste cooking biodiesel fuel to predict the brake power, torque, specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of the engine. To acquire data for training and testing the proposed ANN, a two cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with waste vegetable cooking biodiesel and diesel fuel blends

B. Ghobadian; H. Rahimi; A. M. Nikbakht; G. Najafi; T. F. Yusaf

2009-01-01

197

Experimental investigation of Gasoline-Like Fuel obtained from waste lubrication oil on engine performance and exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigation on engine performance and exhaust emission of a gasoline engine fueled by Gasoline-Like Fuel (GLF) was performed in this study. The GLF was obtained from waste lubrication oil (WLO) using the pyrolitic distillation method. Firstly, the WLO collected in a tank was particulates removed by a refining process. The refined lubrication oil samples were taken into a reactor

Orhan Arpa; Recep Yumrutas

2010-01-01

198

Understanding the catalytic conversion of automobile exhaust emissions using model catalysts: CO+NO reaction on Pd(111)  

E-print Network

- ment of catalytic converters with higher performance and longer lasting stability. Pt/Rh (90/10) threeUnderstanding the catalytic conversion of automobile exhaust emissions using model catalysts: CO as well as the nature of the products that are formed during their reaction under realistic catalytic

Goodman, Wayne

199

Effect of compression ratio on exhaust emissions and performance of a methanol-fueled single-cylinder engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the reasons methanol is considered an attractive alternative fuel for automobiles is its high octane quality, which may allow the use of high compression ratio (CR) engines. To evaluate compromises between engine efficiency and exhaust emissions, a methanol-fueled single-cylinder engine was run at CR's from 8 to 18. At each CR, engine speed and airflow were constant at

Brinkman

1980-01-01

200

NO x emission and performance data for a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine at 1500 rpm using exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes six experiments conducted on a 2-liter, 4-cylinder Ford ZETEC internal combustion engine developed to operate on hydrogen fuel. The experiments were conducted to ascertain the effect exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a standard 3-way catalytic converter had on NOx emissions and engine performance. All the experiments were conducted at a constant engine speed of 1500rpm and each

James W Heffel

2003-01-01

201

NO x emission reduction in a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine at 3000 rpm using exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes five experiments conducted on a 2-l, 4-cylinder Ford ZETEC internal combustion engine (ICE) developed to operate on hydrogen fuel. The experiments were conducted to ascertain the effect exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a standard 3-way catalytic converter had on NOx emissions and engine performance. All the experiments were conducted at a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm

James W Heffel

2003-01-01

202

DEMA exhaust emission measurement procedure for low and medium speed internal combustion engines. [Diesel Engine Manufacturers Association (DEMA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diesel Engine Manufacturers Association (DEMA) is a group of manufacturers of large, low and medium speed, diesel, dual fuel, and spark ignited gaseous fueled internal combustion engines. The DEMA Exhaust Emission Measurement Procedure is described which was developed to meet the specific needs of the members of the association. The considerations in developing the procedure are set forth and

1974-01-01

203

NEW YORK CITY BUS TERMINAL DIESEL EMISSIONS STUDY: MEASUREMENT AND COLLECTION OF DIESEL EXHAUST FOR CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper is concerned with the impact of diesel emissions on the quality of the ambient air and the resulting effects on human health. The study was designed to chemically characterize and bioassay heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust as it exists in the ambient atmosphere. Diesel e...

204

Exhaust emissions characteristics for a general aviation light-aircraft Teledyne Continental Motors 6-285B (Tiara) piston engine. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Teledyne Continental Motors 6-285-B engine (S\\/N700106) was tested at the National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center (NAFEC) to develop an exhaust emissions data base. This data base consists of current production baseline emissions characteristics, lean-out emissions data, effects of leaning-out the fuel schedule on cylinder head temperature, and data showing ambient effects on exhaust emissions and cylinder head temperatures. The

1979-01-01

205

Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

2001-12-31

206

Increasing trend of primary NO(2) exhaust emission fraction in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Despite the successful reduction in roadside NO( x ) levels, no such decrease has been detected in roadside NO(2) concentration in Hong Kong. One underlying cause could be the rising primary NO(2) fraction of the total emission of NO( x ). Primary NO(2) can be particularly detrimental to Hong Kong because a large fraction of the population are exposed to the traffic-related primary pollutants in the street canyons formed by congested high-rise buildings. In this study, hourly mean concentration data for roadside nitrogen oxides (NO( x )), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and background ozone (O(3)) were used to estimate the mean primary NO(2) fraction from vehicle exhausts in Hong Kong. An overall increasing trend was observed for the primary NO(2) fraction (f-NO(2)) values in all the three roadside air monitoring sites. The primary NO(2) as a fraction of total NO( x ) (f-NO(2)) increased approximately from 2% in 1998 to 13% in 2008 in Hong Kong. The two particular periods of rising f-NO(2) coincided with the two implementation periods of the diesel retrofit programs for the light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles. Future vehicle emission control strategies should target not only total NO( x ) but also primary NO(2). Health benefit or disease burden estimates should be taken into account and updated in the process of policy planning and evaluation. PMID:21331790

Tian, Linwei; Hossain, Sarah R; Lin, Hualiang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Yu, Ignatius T S

2011-12-01

207

Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

2010-06-01

208

Turbine exhaust diffuser flow path with region of reduced total flow area  

DOEpatents

An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary has a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub. The region can begin at a point that is substantially aligned with the downstream end of the hub or, alternatively, at a point that is proximately upstream of the downstream end of the hub. The region directs at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub. As a result, the exhaust diffuser system and method can achieve the performance of a long hub system while enjoying the costs of a short hub system.

Orosa, John A.

2012-12-25

209

Laboratory evaluation of a prototype photochemical chamber designed to investigate the health effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions  

PubMed Central

Laboratory experiments simulating atmospheric aging of motor vehicle exhaust emissions were conducted using a single vehicle and a photochemical chamber. A compact automobile was used as a source of emissions. The vehicle exhaust was diluted with ambient air to achieve carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations similar to those observed in an urban highway tunnel. With the car engine idling, it is expected that the CO concentration is a reasonable surrogate for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Varying the amount of dilution of the exhaust gas to produce different CO concentrations, allowed adjustment of the concentrations of VOCs in the chamber to optimize production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) needed for animal toxicological exposures. Photochemical reactions in the chamber resulted in nitric oxide (NO) depletion, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) formation, ozone (O3) accumulation, and SOA formation. A stable SOA concentration of approximately 40 µg m?3 at a chamber mean residence time of 30 min was achieved. This relatively short mean residence time provided adequate chamber flow output for both particle characterization and animal exposures. The chamber was operated as a continuous flow reactor for animal toxicological tests. SOA mass generated from the car exhaust diluted with ambient air was almost entirely in the ultrafine mode. Chamber performance was improved by using different types of seed aerosol to provide a surface for condensation of semivolatile reaction products, thus increasing the yield of SOA. Toxicological studies using Sprague-Dawley rats found significant increases of in vivo chemiluminescence in lungs following exposure to SOA. PMID:21689011

Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy E.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Long, Mark S.; Godleski, John J.; Koutrakis, Petros

2013-01-01

210

The impact of using biodiesel/marine gas oil blends on exhaust emissions from a stationary diesel engine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of marine gas oil (MGO)/biodiesel blends on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in a single cylinder, stationary, diesel engine. Three different origins of biodiesel were used as the blending feedstock with the reference MGO, at proportions of 5 and 10% by volume. Methyl esters were examined according to the automotive FAME standard EN 14214. The baseline MGO and biodiesel blends were examined according to ISO 8217:2005 specifications for the DMA category. Independently of the biodiesel used, a decrease of PM, HC, CO and CO(2) emissions was observed. Emissions of NO(x) were also lower with respect to MGO. This reduction in NO(x) may be attributed to some physicochemical properties of the fuels applied, such as the higher cetane number and the lower volatility of methyl esters. Reductions in PM for biodiesel blends were lower in the exhaust than those of the reference fuel which was attributed to the oxygen content and the near absence of sulphur and aromatics compounds in biodiesel. However, a slight increase in fuel consumption was observed for the biodiesel blends that may be tolerated due to the exhaust emissions benefits. Brake thermal efficiency was also determined. Unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction content of the particulate matter. PMID:18988104

Karavalakis, G; Tzirakis, E; Mattheou, L; Stournas, S; Zannikos, F; Karonis, D

2008-12-01

211

A comparative study on the ultrafine particle episodes induced by vehicle exhaust: A crude oil refinery and ship emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the contribution of vehicle exhausts, ships and an oil refinery emission to the ambient air concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs) is presented. It is based on a data set of particle number coarser than 2.5 nm (N), black carbon (BC), gaseous pollutants (NOx, SO2, CO and O3), PM2.5 and PM10 measured from 2008 to 2010 in the ambient air of Santa Cruz de Tenerife City, where a previous study found an association between hospitalizations due to heart failure and exposure to UFPs in the ambient air. The observed relationship between N, BC and gaseous pollutants allowed segregating UFP concentrations in a set of components linked to each source. It was found that vehicle exhausts contribute to the background of UFPs, whereas high UFP episodes were due to the emissions of the refinery and ships. The concentration of UFP linked to vehicle exhaust emissions maximized in the morning (07:00-09:00 GMT, 5000-25,000 cm- 3 = 25th-75th percentile), whereas those linked to ship (15,000-45,000 cm- 3) and refinery (25,000-95,000 cm- 3) emissions maximized in the 10:00-17:00 GMT period due to the effects of meteorology and photochemistry. It was found that the UFP concentrations were more sensitive to the fresh emissions of the three sources than PM2.5, which was mostly linked to aged fine particles (0.1-1 ?m) of the urban background. BC was the better tracer of vehicle exhaust emissions. It was concluded that the simultaneous monitoring of UFP, BC and PM2.5 is a suitable strategy of tracing aerosol pollutants of different nature (fresh vs. aged) and from different sources.

González, Yenny; Rodríguez, Sergio

2013-02-01

212

A coupled road dust and surface moisture model to predict non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions (NORTRIP). Part 2: Surface moisture and salt impact modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-exhaust traffic induced emissions are a major source of airborne particulate matter in most European countries. This is particularly important in Nordic and Alpine countries where winter time road traction maintenance occurs, e.g. salting and sanding, and where studded tyres are used. Though the total mass generated by wear sources is a key factor in non-exhaust emissions, these emissions are also strongly controlled by surface moisture conditions. In this paper, Part 2, the road surface moisture sub-model of a coupled road dust and surface moisture model (NORTRIP) is described. We present a description of the road surface moisture part of the model and apply the coupled model to seven sites in Stockholm, Oslo, Helsinki and Copenhagen over 18 separate periods, ranging from 3.5 to 24 months. At two sites surface moisture measurements are available and the moisture sub-model is compared directly to these observations. The model predicts the frequency of wet roads well at both sites, with an average fractional bias of -2.6%. The model is found to correctly predict the hourly surface state, wet or dry, 85% of the time. From the 18 periods modelled using the coupled model an average absolute fractional bias of 15% for PM10 concentrations was found. Similarly the model predicts the 90'th daily mean percentiles of PM10 with an average absolute bias of 19% and an average correlation (R2) of 0.49. When surface moisture is not included in the modelling then this average correlation is reduced to 0.16, demonstrating the importance of the surface moisture conditions. Tests have been carried out to assess the sensitivity of the model to model parameters and input data. The model provides a useful tool for air quality management and for improving our understanding of non-exhaust traffic emissions.

Denby, B. R.; Sundvor, I.; Johansson, C.; Pirjola, L.; Ketzel, M.; Norman, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Kauhaniemi, M.; Omstedt, G.

2013-12-01

213

Two-stroke S.I. engine competitive to four-stroke engine in terms of the exhaust emission  

SciTech Connect

A model engine with disintegrated working cycle was built. Its operation is not autonomous; compression of the working air is performed separately outside the engine by the compressed-air line supply. Pre-compressed charge together with the injected fuel is introduced in the combustion chamber. The model engine makes possible to determine indicated performance characteristics and its emission capability. Effective measured engine characteristics are of course not comparable with those obtained by a practical engine. The model presented is a two-stroke cycle engine. Exhaust emission picture of the presented engine is comparable with the emission of a modern four-stroke engine. 2 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Pavletic, R.; Trenc, F.

1994-09-01

214

Analysis of aircraft exhausts with Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Because of the worldwide growth in air traffic and its increasing effects on the atmospheric environment, it is necessary to quantify the direct aircraft emissions at all altitudes. In this study Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy as a remote-sensing multi-component-analyzing technique for aircraft exhausts was investigated at ground level with a double pendulum interferometer and a line-by-line computer algorithm that was applied to a multilayer radiative transfer problem. Initial measurements were made to specify the spectral windows for traceable compounds, to test the sensitivity of the system, and to develop calibration and continuum handling procedures. To obtain information about the radial temperature and concentration profiles, we developed an algorithm for the analysis of an axial-symmetric multilayered plume by use of the CO(2) hot band at approximately 2400 cm(-1). Measurements were made with several in-service engines. Effects that were due to engine aging were detected but have to be analyzed systematically in the near future. Validation measurements were carried out with a conventional propane gas burner to compare the results with those obtained with standard measurement equipment. These measurements showed good agreement to within +/-20% for the CO and NO(x) results. The overall accuracy of the system was found to be +/-30%. The detection limits of the system for a typical engine plume (380 degrees C, ? = 50 cm) are below 0.1% for CO(2), ~0.7% for H(2)O, ~20 ppmv (parts per million by volume) for CO, and ~90 ppmv for NO. PMID:18259296

Heland, J; Schäfer, K

1997-07-20

215

Trends in exhaust emissions from in-use Mexico City vehicles, 2000-2006. A remote sensing study.  

PubMed

A remote sensing study was conducted in year 2006 in four locations of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). Two of the sites were the same studied back by us in year 2000 and by others in year 1994. A database was compiled containing 11,289 valid measurements for the carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and nitric oxide (NO) exhaust vehicles emissions. Valid measurements were binned for each pollutant by the vehicle specific power (between -5 and 20 kW tonne(-1)) for the 2000 and 2006 databases. The mean average CO, THC, and NO emissions for year 2006 were determined to be 1.10 +/- 0.18 vol.%, 299 +/- 88.4 ppm, and 610 +/- 115.0 ppm, respectively. Matching the vehicle driving patterns of the fleet measured in year 2000 with the emissions factors obtained in this work, allows estimating the trends in the exhaust emissions of vehicles in the MAMC. The adjusted results of the remote sensing study performed in year 2006 shows that the fleet has decrease 22% in CO and 17% in NO emissions, with small change in total hydrocarbons emissions. The improvements could be related with the introduction in year 2001 of vehicles that met tighter emissions standards, particularly for nitrogen oxides. PMID:17503197

Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; Durán, J; Chávez, O

2008-02-01

216

Temperature Measurement of Solid Rocket Motor Exhaust Plume by Absorption-Emission SPECTROSCOPY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method, which measures the temperature of solid rocket motor exhaust plume, was developed by employing an improved sodium line reversal process. The formula for calculating the temperature was improved and simplified. The temporal temperature-time distributions of the exhaust plume of double base propellant rocket motors were given by the established method. The maximum time resolution and accuracy for the

Dong Yang; Houqian Xu; Junde Wang; Baochang Zhao

2001-01-01

217

Investigations of multiple injection strategies for the improvement of combustion and exhaust emissions characteristics in a low compression ratio (CR) engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental analysis was conducted for a better understanding of the combustion stability and reduction of exhaust emission in low compression ratio (CR) engine. The combustion stability was analyzed in terms of combustion pressure, the rate of heat release (ROHR), the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), and coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure (COVIMEP), and formation of exhaust

Hyun Kyu Suh

2011-01-01

218

Real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions of light-duty diesel vehicles and their correlation with road conditions.  

PubMed

The real-world fuel efficiency and exhaust emission profiles of CO, HC and NOx for light-duty diesel vehicles were investigated. Using a portable emissions measurement system, 16 diesel taxies were tested on different roads in Macao and the data were normalized with the vehicle specific power bin method. The 11 Toyota Corolla diesel taxies have very good fuel economy of (5.9 +/- 0.6) L/100 km, while other five diesel taxies showed relatively high values at (8.5 +/- 1.7) L/100 km due to the variation in transmission systems and emission control strategies. Compared to similar Corolla gasoline models, the diesel cars confirmed an advantage of ca. 20% higher fuel efficiency. HC and CO emissions of all the 16 taxies are quite low, with the average at (0.05 +/- 0.02) g/km and (0.38 +/- 0.15) g/km, respectively. The average NOx emission factor of the 11 Corolla taxies is (0.56 +/- 0.17) g/km, about three times higher than their gasoline counterparts. Two of the three Hyundai Sonata taxies, configured with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) + diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) emission control strategies, indicated significantly higher NO2 emissions and NO2/NOx ratios than other diesel taxies and consequently trigger a concern of possibly adverse impacts on ozone pollution in urban areas with this technology combination. A clear and similar pattern for fuel consumption and for each of the three gaseous pollutant emissions with various road conditions was identified. To save energy and mitigate CO2 emissions as well as other gaseous pollutant emissions in urban area, traffic planning also needs improvement. PMID:22893964

Hu, Jingnan; Wu, Ye; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Haitao; Bao, Xiaofeng; Hao, Jiming

2012-01-01

219

Policy Planning to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preceded by the State Workbook: Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this document by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves to guide states in "identifying and evaluating options to mitigate emissions" affecting global climate change. Each of the report's three parts details climate change and policy options. Part one discusses the Initiation of Climate Change Programs. Part two describes sources of emissions and potential policy options. Part three completes the report by offering "guidance in preparing the State Action Plan." Appendices supply a glossary, references, state plans, and a specific example reduction plan.

Agency., United S.

1998-01-01

220

Online characterization of regulated and unregulated gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions from two-stroke mopeds: a chemometric approach.  

PubMed

Two-stroke mopeds are a popular and convenient mean of transport in particular in the highly populated cities. These vehicles can emit potentially toxic gaseous and aerosol pollutants due to their engine technology. The legislative measurements of moped emissions are based on offline methods; however, the online characterization of gas and particulate phases offers great possibilities to understand aerosol formation mechanism and to adapt future emission standards. The purpose of this work was to study the emission behavior of two mopeds complying with different European emission standards (EURO-1 and EURO-2). A sophisticated set of online analyzers was applied to simultaneously monitor the gas phase and particulate phase of exhaust on a real time basis. The gaseous emission was analyzed with a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR; nitrogen species) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-ToF-MS; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: PAH), whereas the particulate phase was chemically characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS; organic, nitrate and chloride aerosol) and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon). The physical characterization of the aerosol was carried out with a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number concentration) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS; size distribution in real time). In order to extract underlying correlation between gas and solid emissions, principal component analysis was applied to the comprehensive online dataset. Multivariate analysis highlighted the considerable effect of the exhaust temperature on the particles and heavy PAH emissions. The results showed that the after-treatment used to comply with the latest EURO-2 emission standard may be responsible for the production of more potentially harmful particles compared to the EURO-1 moped emissions. PMID:22304813

Clairotte, M; Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Giechaskiel, B; Manfredi, U; Elsasser, M; Sklorz, M; DeCarlo, P F; Heringa, M F; Zimmermann, R; Martini, G; Krasenbrink, A; Vicet, A; Tournié, E; Prévôt, A S H; Astorga, C

2012-03-01

221

75 FR 57191 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exhaust Systems AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...Association (TMA), the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...inspection requirements if commercial motor vehicle (CMV) engines are...Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. (4) Hand...

2010-09-20

222

The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions.  

PubMed

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with nonattainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs) detailing measures to reduce regional PM2.5 levels by reducing PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. These plans need to account for increases in emissions caused by operating control technologies. Potential PM2.5 emissions reductions realized by adding a second set of dust cyclones were estimated for the cotton ginning industry. Increases in energy consumption were calculated based on dust cyclone air pressure drop. Additional energy required was translated into increased emissions using published emission factors and state emissions inventories. Reductions in gin emissions were compared with increases in emissions at the power plant. Because of the electrical energy required, reducing one unit of agricultural PM2.5 emissions at a cotton gin results in emitting 0.11-2.67 units of direct PM2.5, 1.39-69.1 units of PM2.5 precursors, 1.70-76.8 units of criteria pollutants, and 692-15,400 units of greenhouse gases at the point where electricity is produced. If regulations designed to reduce rural PM2.5 emissions increase electrical power consumption, the unintended net effect may be more emissions, increased environmental damage, and a greater risk to public health. PMID:20564993

Funk, Paul A

2010-06-01

223

Reduced Turbine Emissions Using Hydrogen-Enriched Fuels  

E-print Network

-heating value fuels containing H2 can provide significant source of cost-effective fuels for gas turbines emissions Source: Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide-characterized boundary and flow conditions · Quantify effects of H2 addition on flame stability and emissions · Leverage

224

Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and phenols from vehicles coming within different European classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EU emission standards for vehicles do not include many particulate (PM) and gaseous species, despite their considerable impact on air pollution and health. Emission factors (EFs) were measured for unregulated species, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes (ALKs) in the particle phase, and, for the first time, EFs for phenols in both particle and gas phases. Exhaust samples were collected under controlled operating conditions (chassis dynamometer tests) for in-service vehicles (private cars, PCs and light duty vehicles, LDVs) from different EURO classes. EFs of trace organics were highest for the old EURO 1 vehicles (the tested EURO 1 vehicles were without emission-control devices), and lowest for the more recent EURO 3 and 4 vehicles. ALKs (C20-C32) were the most abundant trace organic compounds found in PM vehicle exhaust, and their EF ranged between 2034 and 101 ?g km-1 (Euro 1-4 LDVs). PM-phased phenols EFs were in the range 0.42-2.50 ?g km-1, and 4-nitrophenol was the most abundant one. The highest EFs were measured for phenols in the gas phase (dominated by the presence of phenol) for gasoline EURO 1 (43.16 ± 9.99 ?g km-1). Emissions of PAHs changed depending on the fuel used. The PAH EFs of diesel-driven PCs were 4-5 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles, with PAHs diesel exhaust being mainly enriched in low 4-ring PAHs (85%), while 5-6 ring PAHs were prevalent (55%) in gasoline vehicles. Results of source profiles from chassis dynamometer tests were compared with ambient data, and the traffic PAH source profile derived from a tunnel study (Milan) agreed with the estimated emissions from a mix of diesel and gasoline vehicles circulating in the same area. Moreover, the impact of EURO regulatory changes on exhaust emissions was calculated, and this made it possible to estimate the downward trend of PAH emissions in the Province of Milan in the period 2005-2020.

Perrone, Maria Grazia; Carbone, Claudio; Faedo, Davide; Ferrero, Luca; Maggioni, Angela; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Bolzacchini, Ezio

2014-01-01

225

Diesel exhaust particles impair endothelial progenitor cells, compromise endothelial integrity, reduce neoangiogenesis, and increase atherogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of the harmful cardiovascular effects of small particulate matter are incompletely understood. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) predict outcome of patients with vascular disease. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on EPC and on the associated vascular damage in mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to DEP. 2 ?g DEP/day was applicated intranasally for 3 weeks. Exposure to DEP reduced DiLDL/lectin positive EPC to 58.4 ± 5.6% (p < 0.005). Migratory capacity was reduced to 65.8 ± 3.9% (p < 0.0001). In ApoE(-/-) mice, DEP application reduced the number of EPC to 75.6 ± 6.4% (p < 0.005) and EPC migration to 58.5 ± 6.8% (p < 0.005). Neoangiogenesis was reduced to 39.5 ± 14.6% (p < 0.005). Atherogenesis was profoundly increased by DEP treatment (157.7 ± 18.1% vs. controls, p < 0.05). In cultured human EPC, DEP (0.1-100 ?g/mL) reduced migratory capacity to 25 ± 2.6% (p < 0.001). The number of colony-forming units was reduced to 8.8 ± 0.9% (p < 0.001) and production of reactive oxygen species was elevated by DEP treatment (p < 0.001). Furthermore, DEP treatment increased apoptosis of EPC (to 266 ± 62% of control, p < 0.05). In a blood-brain barrier model, DEP treatment impaired endothelial cell integrity during oxygen-glucose deprivation (p < 0.001). Diesel exhaust particles impair endothelial progenitor cell number and function in vivo and in vitro. The reduction in EPC was associated with impaired neoangiogenesis and a marked increase in atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:23584878

Pöss, Janine; Lorenz, Dominik; Werner, Christian; Pavlikova, Valerie; Gensch, Christoph; Speer, Thimoteus; Alessandrini, Francesca; Berezowski, Vincent; Kuntz, Mélanie; Mempel, Martin; Endres, Matthias; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

2013-09-01

226

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines  

E-print Network

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continued, but it can also result in reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot when used in diesel engines. ct & LOGISTICS SYMPOSIUM page 3 CIVIL ENGINEERING DIRECTIONS page 4 WORK-ZONE SAFETY page 5 PUBLIC AFFAIRS PH

Minnesota, University of

227

Plasma ignition system reduces NOx emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent revisions of the Clean Air Act have mandated increasingly stringent controls on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. It is of prime importance that any natural gas pipeline facility consider how to operate in compliance in any regulated area. Plasma ignition control technology has been installed on over 85 compressor engines to date. Using the Superior engine has a new application

1995-01-01

228

REFORMULATING BIODIESEL TO REDUCE NOX EMISSIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of biodiesel, a diesel engine fuel produced from agriculturally derived fats and oils, offers many advantages over petrodiesel, but has been shown in certain instances to increase emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a federally regulated pollutant. The work described here involved modifi...

229

Using advanced technologies to reduce motor vehicle greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the potential reduction in US greenhouse gas emissions that could be achieved by using advanced-technology motor vehicles and low-emission bio-fuels. These two approaches are compared to a variety of other approaches to reduce transportation sector emissions. It is concluded that only strong fiscal measures can produce emission reductions as large as are available from advanced-technology vehicles and

Carmen Difiglio

1997-01-01

230

Role of average speed in N?O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?  

PubMed

Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. PMID:22245865

Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

2012-05-15

231

Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

232

40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...emission standards for Category 3 engines. 1042.104 Section 1042...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...emission standards for Category 3 engines. (a) Duty-cycle...

2010-07-01

233

40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emission standards for Category 3 engines. 1042.104 Section 1042...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...emission standards for Category 3 engines. (a) Duty-cycle...

2013-07-01

234

40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...emission standards for Category 3 engines. 1042.104 Section 1042...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...emission standards for Category 3 engines. (a) Duty-cycle...

2012-07-01

235

40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...emission standards for Category 3 engines. 1042.104 Section 1042...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...emission standards for Category 3 engines. (a) Duty-cycle...

2011-07-01

236

Single Particle Source Profiles of Gasoline and Diesel Powered Vehicles, Biomass Burning and Coal Combustion Exhaust Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicular exhaust, biomass burning, and coal combustion are three significant aerosol sources that have local to global impacts on the earth's atmosphere. They may also contribute to health effects as they can emit carcinogenic species such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and trace metals including beryllium and vanadium. In these source characterization studies, combustion products were diluted to near ambient temperature and pressure using a two stage dilution source sampler. Diluted exhaust emissions were analyzed with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) obtaining real-time measurements of single particle size and chemical composition. In addition, samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), which was operated in a manner compatible with advanced chemical analysis techniques, for size segregated mass concentrations. Due to the importance of these particle sources to the atmosphere, differentiating these emissions from each other and other particle sources is essential. Since ATOFMS is a relatively new single particle analysis technique, source characterization experiments are needed to determine qualitative signatures of specific particulate sources for their ambient identification. ATOFMS single particle mass spectra will be discussed introducing chemically distinct single particle types emitted from these combustion sources. Numerous particle types are emitted from each source, as indicated by distinct chemical associations on the single particle level. Examples include, the chemical associations of vanadium with organic carbon (OC) in gasoline powered vehicle emissions, calcium with black carbon (BC) in diesel powered vehicle emissions, beryllium and boron with BC in coal combustion emissions, and potassium with OC from biomass burning emissions. Most importantly, the overall particle type distributions from each source differ significantly. Finally, complementary MOUDI mass distribution data will be used to determine the relative fractions of these particle types to the overall particulate mass emissions from these tests. These results will be presented in terms of single particle source profiles for these environmentally important combustion aerosol sources.

Suess, D. T.; Prather, K. A.; Schauer, J.; Cass, G. R.

2001-12-01

237

Estimation of road vehicle exhaust emissions from 1992 to 2010 and comparison with air quality measurements in Genoa, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation into road transport exhaust emissions in the Genoa urban area was performed by comparing the quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and particulate matter (PM) emitted by different vehicle categories with air quality measurements referred to the same pollutants. Exhaust emissions were evaluated by applying the PROGRESS (computer PROGramme for Road vehicle EmiSSions evaluation) code, developed by the Internal Combustion Engines Group of the University of Genoa, to eight different years (from 1992 to 2010), considering spark ignition and Diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles and buses, motorcycles and mopeds. Changes in terms of vehicles number, mileage and total emissions are presented together with relative distributions among the various vehicle categories. By comparing 1992 and 2010 data, calculated trends show a 7% increase in the number of vehicles, with total mileage growing at a faster rate (approx. 22%); total emissions decrease considerably, by approximately 50% for NO x and PM, 70% for HC and 80% for CO, due to improvements in engines and fuels forced by the stricter European legislation and the fleet renewal, while primary NO 2 emission will be very close to 1992 level, after a decrease of about 18% in 2000. Air quality was analysed by selecting traffic and background measuring stations from the monitoring network managed by the Environmental Department of the Province of Genoa: average annual concentrations of considered pollutants from 1994 to 2007 were calculated in order to obtain the relative historical trends and compare them with European public health limits and with road vehicle emissions. Though an important reduction in pollutant concentrations has been achieved as a consequence of cleaner vehicles, some difficulties in complying with present and/or future NO 2 and PM 10 limits are also apparent, thus requiring suitable measures to be taken by the local authorities.

Zamboni, Giorgio; Capobianco, Massimo; Daminelli, Enrico

238

Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

1999-01-01

239

Reduce VOC Emissions from Manufacturing Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides insight of many aspects of reducing VOC approaches geared towards assembly and test factories. With the management supports to take environment excellence to the next level, the Chemical management team working together with factory floor employees has embarked on a journey and impressive results shown passion for environmental effort and poised to set benchmark as future factory

Tan Lin Sheng; M. Z. bin Shamsudin; Loh Chin Ling

2006-01-01

240

PARKING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report defines the concept of parking management and explores how parking management can be used to improve air quality, support mass transit, reduce energy consumption and improve the amenities of life in urban areas. Specific aspects of this analysis were developments of a...

241

Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.  

PubMed

Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%. PMID:22870990

Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

2012-09-01

242

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia  

SciTech Connect

In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine.

Kostalova, M. (Office of International Economic Corp., Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Suk, J. (Inst. for Forecasting, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Kolar, S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-12-01

243

General Motors Corporation and Pacific Northwest Laboratory Staff Exchange: Instrumentation for rapid measurement of automotive exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

Information in this report on the staff exchange of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff with the AIGER Consortium (General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, Navistar, the environmental protection Agency, and the California Air Resources Board) includes the purpose and objectives, a summary of activities, significant accomplishments, significant problems, industry benefits realized, recommended follow-on work and potential benefits from that work, and two appendices. Appendix A is a brief description of the fast gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy chemometric technologies and their application to the rapid characterization of automobile exhaust emissions. Appendix B is a list of key contacts and the schedule of activities pertaining to the staff exchange.

Griffin, J.W.; Sharpe, S.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sloane, T.M. [General Motors Corp., Warren, MI (United States)

1995-07-01

244

Reduced stretch-reflex sensitivity after exhausting stretch-shortening cycle exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) is an effective and natural form of muscle function but, when repeated with sufficient intensity or duration, it may lead to muscle damage and functional defects. A reduced tolerance to impact has been reported, which may be partly attributed to a reduced stretch-reflex potentiation. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of

P. V. Komi; T. Horita; H. Kyröläinen; T. E. S. Takala; C. Nicol

1996-01-01

245

A quantitative estimation of the exhaust, abrasion and resuspension components of particulate traffic emissions using electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of the three traffic-related components exhaust, abrasion, and resuspension to kerbside and urban background PM10 and PM1 levels was quantified based on the analysis of individual particles by scanning electron microscopy. A total of 160 samples was collected on 38 days between February and September 2009 at a kerbside and an urban background station in the urban/industrial Ruhr area (Germany). Based on size, morphology, chemical composition and stability under electron bombardment, the 111,003 particles studied in detail were classified into the following 14 particle classes: traffic/exhaust, traffic/abrasion, traffic/resuspension, carbonaceous/organic, industry/metallurgy, industry/power plants, secondary particles, (aged) sea salt, silicates, Ca sulfates, carbonates, Fe oxides/hydroxides, biological particles, and other particles. The traffic/exhaust component consists predominantly of externally mixed soot particles and soot internally mixed with secondary particles. The traffic/abrasion component contains all particles with characteristic tracer elements (Fe, Cu, Ba, Sb, Zn) for brake and tire abrasion. The traffic/resuspension component is defined by the mixing state and comprises all internally mixed particles with a high proportion of silicates or Fe oxides/hydroxides which contain soot or abrasion particles as minor constituent. In addition, silicates and Fe oxides/hydroxides internally mixed with chlorine and sulphur containing particles were also assigned to the traffic/resuspension component. The total contribution of traffic to PM10 was found to be 27% at the urban background station and 48% at the kerbside station, the corresponding values for PM1 are 15% and 39%. These values lie within the range reported in previous literature. The relative share of the different traffic components for PM10 at the kerbside station was 27% exhaust, 15% abrasion, and 58% resuspension (38%, 8%, 54% for PM1). For the urban background, the following relative shares were obtained for PM10: 22% exhaust, 22% abrasion and 56% resuspension (40%, 27%, 33% for PM1). Compared to previous publications we have observed a significantly lower portion of exhaust particles and a significantly higher portion of resuspension particles. The high abundance of resuspension particles underlines their significance for the observed adverse health effects of traffic emissions and for mitigation measures.

Weinbruch, Stephan; Worringen, Annette; Ebert, Martin; Scheuvens, Dirk; Kandler, Konrad; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Bruckmann, Peter

2014-12-01

246

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

247

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-11-10

248

The 1977 emissions inventory for southeastern Virginia. [environment model of air quality based on exhaust emission from urban areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regional tropospheric air pollution modeling and data compilation to simulate the time variation of species concentrations in and around an urban area is discussed. The methods used to compile an emissions inventory are outlined. Emissions factors for vehicular travel in the urban area are presented along with an analysis of the emission gases. Emission sources other than vehicular including industrial wastes, residential solid waste disposal, aircraft emissions, and emissions from the railroads are investigated.

Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.; Quinn, L. C.

1979-01-01

249

Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today.\\u000aIn order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof,\\u000athe emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane\\u000a(CH4 ) should be reduced.\\u000aMuch greenhouse gases are emitted due

Marko Peter Hekkert

2000-01-01

250

Full-scale experiments with an ejector to reduce jet engine exhaust noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments with a modified J65 turbojet engine and ejector resulted in noise power reductions as large as 13 decibels in the low-frequency range. High-frequency noise power, which appeared to originate mainly from the mixing processes within the ejector, increased. Peak velocities at the ejector exit were reduced by one-half to two-thirds, although survey rakes showed that mixing was not complete. Acoustical lining inside the ejector would reduce the perceived noise level (in PNdB) by removing much of the high-frequency noise.

Clark, B. J.

1973-01-01

251

Effects of alkylate fuel on exhaust emissions and secondary aerosol formation of a 2-stroke and a 4-stroke scooter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulated and unregulated emissions from a 2-stroke and a 4-stroke scooter were characterized during a legislative driving cycle in a certified laboratory. Scooter exhaust was analyzed at the tailpipe, in a dilution tunnel, and partly collected in a mobile smog chamber for photochemical ageing. We present evidence that the photochemically aged exhaust from a 2-stroke and a 4-stroke scooter produces considerable amounts of secondary organic aerosol: from 1.5 to 22.0 mg/km, and from 5.5 to 6.6 mg/km, respectively. Tests were repeated after replacing the standard petrol and synthetic lube oil with an alkylate fuel (with low content of aromatic compounds) and ultra-clean lube oil (low ash forming potential). We observed emission reduction (with some exceptions) for several gaseous and particulate phase species, in particular for carbon monoxide (from 8% up to 38% and from 31% to 50%, for the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke scooters, respectively), particulate mass (from 32% up to 75% for the 2-stroke scooter), aromatic compounds (89% and 97% for the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke scooter, respectively), and secondary organic aerosol (from 87% to 100% and 99% for the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke scooters, respectively). We attribute the organic aerosol reduction to the low content of aromatics in the alkylate fuel.

Zardini, Alessandro A.; Platt, Stephen M.; Clairotte, Michael; El Haddad, Imad; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Ježek, Irena; Drinovec, Luka; Mo?nik, Griša; Slowik, Jay G.; Manfredi, Urbano; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; Astorga, Covadonga

2014-09-01

252

The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2011-12-31

253

Exhaust emissions survey of a turbofan engine for flame holder swirl type augmentors at simulated altitude flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of carbon dioxide, total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide from an F100 afterburning two spool turbofan engine at simulated flight conditions are reported. Tests were run at Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 10.97 and 13.71 km (36,000 and 45,000 ft), and at Mach 1.2 at 13.71 km (45,000 ft). Emission measurements were made from intermediate power (nonafterburning) through maximum afterburning, using a single point gas sample probe traversed across the horizontal diameter of the exhaust nozzle. The data show that emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the nozzle. Carbon monoxide emissions were low for intermediate and partial afterburning power. Unburned hydrocarbons were near zero for most of the simulated flight conditions. At maximum afterburning, there were regions of NOx deficiency in regions of high CO. The results suggest that the low NOx levels observed in the tests are a result of interaction with high CO in the thermal converter. CO2 emissions were proportional to local fuel air ratio for all test conditions.

Moss, J. E., Jr.

1981-01-01

254

RSM based optimization of chemical and enzymatic transesterification of palm oil: biodiesel production and assessment of exhaust emission levels.  

PubMed

Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 ± 1.5, 92.7 ± 2.5, and 95.4 ± 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 ± 3.1 and 62.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from -2.1 to -68.7% and -6.2 to -58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel. PMID:25162053

Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Mukhtar, Hamid; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

2014-01-01

255

RSM Based Optimization of Chemical and Enzymatic Transesterification of Palm Oil: Biodiesel Production and Assessment of Exhaust Emission Levels  

PubMed Central

Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 ± 1.5, 92.7 ± 2.5, and 95.4 ± 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 ± 3.1 and 62.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from ?2.1 to ?68.7% and ?6.2 to ?58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel. PMID:25162053

Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

2014-01-01

256

Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.  

PubMed

Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ? 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted. PMID:24095967

Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

2014-01-15

257

40 CFR 91.104 - Exhaust emission standards for outboard and personal watercraft engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and...outboard and personal watercraft engines. (a) New marine spark-ignition outboard and personal watercraft engines for use in the U.S....

2012-07-01

258

40 CFR 91.104 - Exhaust emission standards for outboard and personal watercraft engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and...outboard and personal watercraft engines. (a) New marine spark-ignition outboard and personal watercraft engines for use in the U.S....

2011-07-01

259

40 CFR 91.104 - Exhaust emission standards for outboard and personal watercraft engines.  

...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and...outboard and personal watercraft engines. (a) New marine spark-ignition outboard and personal watercraft engines for use in the U.S....

2014-07-01

260

40 CFR 91.104 - Exhaust emission standards for outboard and personal watercraft engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and...outboard and personal watercraft engines. (a) New marine spark-ignition outboard and personal watercraft engines for use in the U.S....

2013-07-01

261

40 CFR 91.104 - Exhaust emission standards for outboard and personal watercraft engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and...outboard and personal watercraft engines. (a) New marine spark-ignition outboard and personal watercraft engines for use in the U.S....

2010-07-01

262

40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...from your engines may not exceed the numerical emission standards in paragraph (a...specified test fuel. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons...demonstration must include an engineering analysis of information equivalent to...

2012-07-01

263

40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?  

...from your engines may not exceed the numerical emission standards in paragraph (a...specified test fuel. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons...demonstration must include an engineering analysis of information equivalent to...

2014-07-01

264

40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...from your engines may not exceed the numerical emission standards in paragraph (a...specified test fuel. You must meet the numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons...demonstration must include an engineering analysis of information equivalent to...

2011-07-01

265

75 FR 67634 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...Compliance with Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards...Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and...Compliance with Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission...

2010-11-03

266

40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

...Collect emission data using measurements with enough significant figures to calculate the cycle-weighted emission rate to...described in § 1033.245, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2014-07-01

267

40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Collect emission data using measurements with enough significant figures to calculate the cycle-weighted emission rate to...described in § 1033.245, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2010-07-01

268

40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Collect emission data using measurements with enough significant figures to calculate the cycle-weighted emission rate to...described in § 1033.245, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2012-07-01

269

40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Collect emission data using measurements with enough significant figures to calculate the cycle-weighted emission rate to...described in § 1033.245, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2011-07-01

270

40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Collect emission data using measurements with enough significant figures to calculate the cycle-weighted emission rate to...described in § 1033.245, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2013-07-01

271

Reducing CO 2 emissions by substituting biomass for fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing fossil fuels with sustainably-produced biomass will reduce the net flow of CO2 to the atmosphere. We express the efficiency of this substitution in reduced emissions per unit of used land or biomass and in costs of the substitution per tonne of C. The substitution costs are calculated as the cost difference between continued use of fossil fuels at current

Leif Gustavsson; Pål Börjesson; Bengt Johansson; Per Svenningsson

1995-01-01

272

OPTIMIZATION OF OPERATIONAL AIRCRAFT PARAMETERS REDUCING NOISE EMISSION  

E-print Network

algorithm has solved a complex optimal control problem, and generates flight paths minimizing aircraft noiseOPTIMIZATION OF OPERATIONAL AIRCRAFT PARAMETERS REDUCING NOISE EMISSION LINA ABDALLAH, MOUNIR method to provide flight path optimums reducing aircraft noise in the vicinity of airports. Optimization

d'Orléans, Université

273

Real-World Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Monitoring: Review and Critical Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic-related emissions represent a major component of airborne pollution. Historically, dynamometer testing has been most widely used to estimate vehicle emission rates, and these emission rates, in turn, have been used as inputs when modeling traffic-related air quality impacts. However, such conventional drive cycle testing is not considered strictly representative of vehicles under real driving conditions. Therefore, in recent years,

Karl Ropkins; Joe Beebe; Hu Li; Basil Daham; James Tate; Margaret Bell; Gordon Andrews

2009-01-01

274

Detailed characterization and profiles of crankcase and diesel particulate matter exhaust emissions using speciated organics.  

PubMed

A monitoring campaign was conducted in August-September 2005 to compare different experimental approaches quantifying school bus self-pollution. As part of this monitoring campaign, a detailed characterization of PM2.5 diesel engine emissions from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions from the road draft tubes was performed. To distinguish between tailpipe and crankcase vent emissions, a deuterated alkane, n-hexatriacontane-d74 (n-C36D74) was added to the engine oil to serve as an intentional quantitative tracer for lubricating oil PM emissions. This paper focuses on the detailed chemical speciation of crankcase and tailpipe PM emissions from two school buses used in this study. We found that organic carbon emission rates were generally higher from the crankcase than from the tailpipe for these two school buses, while elemental carbon contributed significantly only in the tailpipe emissions. The n-C36D74 that was added to the engine oil was emitted at higher rates from the crankcase than the tailpipe. Tracers of engine oil (hopanes and steranes) were present in much higher proportion in crankcase emissions. Particle-associated PAH emission rates were generally very low (< 1 microg/km), but more PAH species were present in crankcase than in tailpipe emissions. The speciation of samples collected in the bus cabins was consistent with most of the bus self-pollution originating from crankcase emissions. PMID:18754490

Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David; Lawson, Douglas R; Ireson, Robert G; Weaver, Christopher S; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Larson, Timothy; Davey, Mark; Liu, L J Sally

2008-08-01

275

A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

1996-01-01

276

Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.  

SciTech Connect

Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with the slotted baffle plates is recommended. Some particles will also deposit in the exhaust ducts

Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2008-06-30

277

Effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) temperature for various EGR rates on heavy duty DI diesel engine performance and emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

DI diesel engines are well established today as the main powertrain solution for trucks and other relevant heavy duty vehicles. At the same time emission legislation (mainly for NOx and particulate matter) becomes stricter, reducing their limit to extremely low values. One efficient method to control NOx in order to achieve future emissions limits is the use of rather high

D. T. Hountalas; G. C. Mavropoulos; K. B. Binder

2008-01-01

278

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

National Lab Directors, . .

2001-04-05

279

In Brief: Reducing black carbon emissions could immediately reduce global temperature increases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new assessment by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) shows that measures to reduce emissions of black carbon, or soot, which is produced through burning of wood and other biofuels as well as by some industrial processes, could improve public health and help to significantly reduce projected global temperature increases. The Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone highlights how specific measures targeting black carbon and other emissions from fossil fuel extraction, residential wood-burning cooking, diesel vehicles, waste management, agriculture, and small industries could affect climate. Full implementation of a variety of measures to reduce black carbon and methane emissions could reduce future global warming by about 0.5°C, the assessment found. Reducing black carbon could have substantial benefits in the Arctic, the Himalayas, and other snow-covered regions because black carbon that settles on top of snow absorbs heat, speeding melting of snow and ice. Black carbon emission reductions would affect global temperatures more quickly than carbon dioxide emission reductions. Furthermore, reducing black carbon emissions would improve public health in the regions that emit large amounts of the harmful air pollutant.

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-03-01

280

Reducing Children's Exposure to School Bus Diesel Exhaust in One School District in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from…

Mazer, Mary E.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Lamanna, Beth F.; Davison, Jean

2014-01-01

281

Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies relating to environmental emissions associated with the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) military jet and charter jet aircraft were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report includes engine emission results for baseline 1990 charter and military scenario and the projected jet engine emissions results for a 2015 scenario for a Mach 1.6 HSCT charter and military fleet. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

Landau, Z. Harry; Metwally, Munir; Vanalstyne, Richard; Ward, Clay A.

1994-01-01

282

Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from light-duty diesel vehicles exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standardised tests were performed on four light-duty diesel vehicles running in a chassis dynamometer at a vehicular emission laboratory, using the FTP-75 test cycle procedure. The aim was to characterise emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), substances that create health hazards and are, as yet, unregulated. The pollutants were analysed in both solid and gaseous phases using high-performance liquid chromatography. Total PAH values ranged from 1.133 to 5.801 mg km -1. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene were detected in all tests. In addition, PAH emission was observed to be inversely related to emission of CO 2.

de Abrantes, Rui; de Assunção, João V.; Pesquero, Célia R.

283

In Brief: Reducing ship emissions along U.S. coastline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States has called for reducing harmful ship emissions by asking the International Maritime Organization (IMO), a United Nations agency, to create a 370-kilometer-wide emissions control area (ECA) around the U.S. coastline, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on 30 March. IMO will begin reviewing the proposal in July, and approval could occur as early as next year. According to EPA, by 2020 the ECA would save up to 8300 American and Canadian lives every year by imposing stricter standards on oil tankers and other large ships. Under this program, large ships that operate in ECAs would face stricter emissions standards that would cut sulfur in fuel by 98%, particulate matter emissions by 85%, and nitrogen oxide emissions by 80% from the current global requirements.

Showstack, Randy

2009-04-01

284

Reducing Silica and Dust Exposures in Construction During Use of Powered Concrete-Cutting Hand Tools: Efficacy of Local Exhaust Ventilation on Hammer Drills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete cutting in construction is a major source of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. To reduce exposures, local exhaust ventilation (LEV) may be integrated into the hand tools used in concrete cutting. Volunteers from the New England Laborers Training Center participated in a field study focused on the use of LEV on concrete-cutting hammer drills. A randomized block design field

S. Shepherd; S. R. Woskie; C. Holcroft; M. Ellenbecker

2008-01-01

285

Mathematical modeling of catalytic converter lightoff; Part III: Prediction of vehicle exhaust emissions and parametric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The converter warmup model developed previously (Oh and Cavendish, 1985) has been used to simulate the performance of a packed-bed converter during the cold-start portion of vehicle emission tests. Despite the highly transient converter inlet conditions, the model successfully predicts tailpipe mass emissions as a function of time.

S. H. Oh; J. C. Cavendish

1985-01-01

286

A GIS-BASED MODAL MODEL OF AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS (EPA/600/R-98/097)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents progress toward the development of a computer tool called MEASURE, the Mobile Emission Assessment System for Urban and Regional Evaluation. The tool works toward a goal of providing researchers and planners with a way to assess new mobile emission mitigation s...

287

GIS-based modal model of automobile exhaust emissions. Final report, January 1997May 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents progress toward the development of a computer tool called MEASURE, the Mobile Emission Assessment System for Urban and Regional Evaluation. The tool works toward a goal of providing researchers and planners with a way to assess new mobile emission mitigation strategies. The model is based on a geographic information system (GIS) and uses modal operation (acceleration, deceleration,

Bachman

1998-01-01

288

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM LIGHT-DUTY GAS VEHICLES IN THE KANSAS CITY METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program on light duty vehicle emissions is being performed under an interagency agreement. It will provide current information on particulate matter emissions and distributions from light-duty vehicles, an area where more and better data are necessary to meet the n...

289

Preface: Special Issue on Catalytic Control of Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Catalysis Today includes original research articles based on select presentations from the Mobile Emissions Control Symposium at the 22nd North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meeting held in Detroit in June 2011, with a particular focus on catalyzed diesel emissions control. The Symposium was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Haren Gandhi, a visionary technology leader and a passionate environmental advocate.

Yezerets, Aleksey; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill

2012-04-30

290

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

291

Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A  

SciTech Connect

Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

292

Ammonia exhaust emissions from spark ignition vehicles over the New European Driving Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study aiming to measure ammonia emissions from light duty vehicles has been performed in the Vehicle Emission Laboratory at the European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. Ammonia, known for being toxic and dangerous for the environment, also contributes to the formation of particulate matter that has been related with adverse health and environmental effects. Nine modern light duty vehicles tested over the New European Driving Cycle showed that ammonia emissions are considerable for gasoline and ethanol flexi-fuel vehicles and also for one diesel vehicle equipped with a selective catalytic reduction system, ranging from 4 mg/km to 70 mg/km. Real-time ammonia emission profiles were monitored at the tailpipe by a High Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer during tests at 22 and/or -7 °C. Ammonia emissions are thoroughly discussed and compared to those of its precursors, CO and NO, and other regulated compounds.

Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

2014-11-01

293

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in Borneo will also be discussed.

Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

2011-12-01

294

40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...standards and requirements must my engines meet? (a) You must show...

2012-07-01

295

40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? (a) Duty-cycle...

2012-07-01

296

40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? (a) Duty-cycle...

2010-07-01

297

40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? (a) Duty-cycle...

2013-07-01

298

40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...standards and requirements must my engines meet? (a) You must show...

2011-07-01

299

40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?  

...standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...standards and requirements must my engines meet? (a) You must show...

2014-07-01

300

40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...standards and requirements must my engines meet? (a) You must show...

2010-07-01

301

40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...standards and requirements must my engines meet? (a) You must show...

2013-07-01

302

40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?  

...standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? (a) Duty-cycle...

2014-07-01

303

40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? (a) Duty-cycle...

2011-07-01

304

40 CFR 1054.705 - How do I generate and calculate exhaust emission credits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...kg) = (STD ? FEL) × (Volume) × (Power) × (UL) × (LF) × (10?3 ) Where: STD = the emission standard, in...kilowatts. UL = the useful life for the given family, in hours. LF = load factor. Use 0.47 for nonhandheld engines and...

2010-07-01

305

40 CFR 1045.705 - How do I generate and calculate exhaust emission credits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1045.705 How do I generate and...

2013-07-01

306

40 CFR 1045.705 - How do I generate and calculate exhaust emission credits?  

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1045.705 How do I generate and...

2014-07-01

307

40 CFR 1045.705 - How do I generate and calculate exhaust emission credits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1045.705 How do I generate and...

2010-07-01

308

40 CFR 1045.705 - How do I generate and calculate exhaust emission credits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1045.705 How do I generate and...

2011-07-01

309

40 CFR 1045.705 - How do I generate and calculate exhaust emission credits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1045.705 How do I generate and...

2012-07-01

310

40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.  

...emissions. (iii) Diesel-fueled and all other engines not described...use low-sulfur diesel fuel (without request) to certify an engine otherwise requiring...operated using diesel fuel. (e) Useful life. Your engines must meet...

2014-07-01

311

40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.  

...follows: (i) Alcohol-fueled engines must comply with HC standards... (ii) Natural gas-fueled engines must comply with HC standards...on NMHC emissions. (iii) Diesel-fueled and all other engines not described in...

2014-07-01

312

Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

2014-06-01

313

The impact of crankcase oil containing phosphorus on catalytic converters and engine exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two 10W30 mineral-base phosphorus containing (commercial) and phosphorus-free (P-Free) crankcase oils were tested in the engine dynamometer for the poisoning effects on a catalytic converter and emission-engine’s performance. The emission results of the two oils were compared with and without a catalytic converter, including the light-off temperature of the catalyst. Surface characterisation was used to determine accumulated catalyst poisoning from

Hakan Kaleli

2001-01-01

314

Detection of emission indices of aircraft exhaust compounds by open-path optical methods at airports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different thrust levels (Idle, approach, cruise and take-off). It is a common procedure to use this data base as a starting point to estimate aircraft emissions at airports and further on to calculate the contribution of airports on local air quality. The comparison of these indices to real in use measurements therefore is a vital task to test the quality of air quality models at airports. Here a method to determine emission indices is used, where concentration measurements of CO2 together with other pollutants in the aircraft plume are needed. During intensive measurement campaigns at Zurich (ZRH) and Paris Charles De Gaulle (CDG) airports, concentrations of CO2, NO, NO2 and CO were measured. The measurement techniques were Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). The big advantage of these methods is that no operations on the airport are influenced during measurement times. Together with detailed observations of taxiway movements, a comparison of emission indices with real in use emissions is possible.

Schürmann, Gregor; Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Hoffmann, Herbert; Utzig, Selina

2005-10-01

315

Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

PubMed Central

To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalized for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

2014-01-01

316

Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what 'wellbeing' is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

2014-12-01

317

Method of reducing NOx emissions in gasoline vehicles  

SciTech Connect

An unleaded fuel composition is described comprising a major amount of a hydrocarbon base fuel of the gasoline boiling range containing an amount effective to reduce NO[sub x] emissions from electronic port fuel injected engines of an ammonium compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium formate, ammonium propionate, ammonium dicitrate, ammonium carbamate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, and admixtures thereof.

Gwyn, J.E.

1993-08-10

318

TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

319

Electron field emission from reduced graphene oxide on polymer film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field emission of reduced graphene oxide coated on polystyrene film is studied in both parallel and perpendicular configurations. Low turn-on field of 0.6 V/?m and high emission current density of 200 mA/cm2 are observed in perpendicular configuration (along the cross section), whereas a turn-on field of 6 V/?m and current density of 20 ?A/cm2 are obtained in parallel configuration (top surface). The emission characteristics follow Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling and the values of enhancement factor estimated from FN plots are 5818 (perpendicular) and 741 (parallel). Furthermore, stability and repeatability of the field emission characteristics in perpendicular configuration are presented.

Sameera, I.; Bhatia, Ravi; Ouyang, Jianyong; Prasad, V.; Menon, R.

2013-01-01

320

Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia  

PubMed Central

We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

2012-01-01

321

Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.  

PubMed

We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

2012-01-24

322

40 CFR 86.1811-17 - Exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...  

...2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks,...

2014-07-01

323

40 CFR 1054.240 - How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...one. Specify the deterioration factor to one more significant figure than the emission standard. You may use assigned...the deterioration factor, then rounding the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2011-07-01

324

40 CFR 1054.240 - How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...one. Specify the deterioration factor to one more significant figure than the emission standard. You may use assigned...the deterioration factor, then rounding the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2012-07-01

325

40 CFR 1054.240 - How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...one. Specify the deterioration factor to one more significant figure than the emission standard. You may use assigned...the deterioration factor, then rounding the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2010-07-01

326

40 CFR 1054.240 - How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

...one. Specify the deterioration factor to one more significant figure than the emission standard. You may use assigned...the deterioration factor, then rounding the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2014-07-01

327

40 CFR 1054.240 - How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...one. Specify the deterioration factor to one more significant figure than the emission standard. You may use assigned...the deterioration factor, then rounding the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2013-07-01

328

Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.  

PubMed

Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (<0.5-5 ?m) are abundant upstream of the DPF and are ash-free or contain notably little attached ash. Post-DPF soot agglomerates are very few, typically large (>1-5 ?m, exceptionally 13 ?m), rarely <0.5 ?m, and contain abundant ash carried mostly from inside the DPF. The ash that reaches the atmosphere also occurs as separate aggregates ca. 0.2-2 ?m in size consisting of sintered primary phases, ca. 20-400 nm large. Insoluble particles of these sizes may harm the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The DPF probably promotes breakout of large soot agglomerates (mostly ash-bearing) by favoring sintering. Noble metals detached from the DOC coating may reach the ambient air. Finally, very few agglomerates of Fe-oxide nanoparticles form newly from engine wear and escape into the atmosphere. PMID:24274188

Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

2013-12-17

329

The cost-effectiveness of remote sensing and repair in reducing motor vehicle nitrogen oxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Ozone and carbon monoxide remain serious air quality problems in many urban areas throughout the US, and motor vehicles are significant contributors. In response to these problems, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required many areas of the country to implement motor vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs and adopt the use of reformulated gasoline. These programs have not been well received by the general public, and their effectiveness is currently a source of debate in the scientific community. On-road, remote sensing studies of vehicle emissions have shown that vehicle emissions tend to follow a gamma distribution with up to 50% of vehicle emissions coming from only 10% of the vehicle fleet. Instead of subjecting all vehicles to a control program such as I/M or reformulated gas, it has been suggested that remote sensors could be used to identify high-emitting vehicles and target them for repair. Such remote sensing and repair (RS and R) programs have been shown to be cost-effective methods for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. It is not clear, however, if such a program would be a cost-effective method for controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides. In this paper, the authors evaluate the potential for using a NO{sub x}-RS and R program as an urban ozone control strategy in a NO{sub x}-limited airshed, specifically Charlotte, NC. They estimate the cost-effectiveness of a potential NO{sub x}-RS and R program and compare it to other NO{sub X} control strategies for mobile and point sources which have been proposed for Charlotte. RS and R is shown to be relatively expensive, but within the range of the cost effectiveness estimates for the control measures proposed for Charlotte. In the future as inexpensive control measures are exhausted and remote sensing technology improves, RS and R promises to be an excellent alternative for controlling NO{sub x} emissions.

Keating, T.J. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering; Taylor, J.D. [Hicks and Associates, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

330

Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987-2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions - temperatures of 25-100 °C and organic aerosol concentrations of <1-600 ?g m-3. The gas-particle partitioning of the POA emissions varied continuously over this entire range of conditions and essentially none of the POA should be considered non-volatile. Furthermore, for most vehicles, the low levels of dilution used in the constant volume sampler created particle mass concentrations that were greater than a factor of 10 or higher than typical ambient levels. This resulted in large and systematic partitioning biases in the POA emission factors compared to more dilute atmospheric conditions, as the POA emission rates may be over-estimated by nearly a factor of four due to gas-particle partitioning at higher particle mass concentrations. A volatility distribution was derived to quantitatively describe the measured gas-particle partitioning data using absorptive partitioning theory. Although the POA emission factors varied by more than two orders of magnitude across the test fleet, the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in gas-particle partitioning were modest. Therefore, a single volatility distribution can be used to quantitatively describe the gas-particle partitioning of the entire test fleet. This distribution is designed to be applied to quartz filter POA emission factors in order to update emissions inventories for use in chemical transport models.

May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

2013-10-01

331

Approach to SSME health monitoring. III - Exhaust plume emission spectroscopy: Recent results and detailed analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral data for two recent A-1 test firings, 901-717 and 901-718, obtained from an Optical Multichannel Analyzer and an Optical Plume Anomaly Detector, are presented. The spectral data encompasses the database of SSME critical components and materials and the spectral database for the SSME related elements and materials. Relatively strong and continuous emissions from Cr and Fe atomic transitions were observed starting at engine start plus 494 s and persisting until the engine shut off at engine start plus 520 s. These emissions are considered to be emanated from the SSME material AISI 440C, which is traced to high pressure turbopump bearings.

Tejwani, Gopal D.; Van Dyke, David B.; Bircher, Felix E.

1993-01-01

332

40 CFR 1066.831 - Exhaust emission test procedures for aggressive driving.  

...schedule as a single test interval. If you do this, calculate a composite dilution factor based on city and highway emissions using Eq. 1066.610-4 to show that you meet the dilution factor requirements of § 1066.110(b)(2)(iii)(B)....

2014-07-01

333

40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...manufactured. Where a gaseous emission standard is specified by a formula, calculate and round the standard to three significant figures or to the nearest 0.1 g/kN (for standards at or above 100 g/kN). Where a smoke standard is...

2012-07-01

334

40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.  

...manufactured. Where a gaseous emission standard is specified by a formula, calculate and round the standard to three significant figures or to the nearest 0.1 g/kN (for standards at or above 100 g/kN). Where a smoke standard is...

2014-07-01

335

Effect of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions during diesel engine operation with matched combustion phasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work focuses on an experimental comparison of diesel emissions produced by three fuels: an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (BP15), a pure soybean methyl-ester biodiesel fuel (B100), and a synthetic Fischer–Tropsch fuel (FT), practically free of sulfur and aromatic compounds, and produced in a gas-to-liquid process. The study was carried out using a 2.5L direct injection common-rail turbodiesel

Octavio Armas; Kuen Yehliu; André L. Boehman

2010-01-01

336

Determination of exhaust composition in turbine test beds by FTIR emission spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified mid-size low by-pass aero-engine running on a sea level test bed was used for measurements with non-intrusive demonstrator systems and currently used gas sampling analysis techniques. A novel open-path White mirror system was developed and installed in the test bed to enhance the sensitivity of non-intrusive FTIR spectrometry. A comparison was made of the different measurement techniques at several engine thrust levels i.e. gas concentrations. This included the emission and absorption mode of the FTIR-spectrometers with the multi-path reflection compartment as well as the single emission mode. A new calibration procedure with a hot cell filled with CO (temperatures 300 to 750 K) was developed and used to calibrate the FTIR instruments. Retrieval results from FTIR measurements were obtained by using a rectangular and Gaussian distribution profile of temperature and gas concentrations in the plume. The FTIR measurement results for CO2, CO, and NO have been proven to be in agreement with the intrusive data. The deviations were generally in the order of plus or minus 30%, i.e. comparable to the day-to-day variations of the engine emissions. NO2 could be detected in the absorption mode only.

Schaefer, Klaus; Heland, Joerg; Lindermeir, Erwin; Hilton, Moira; Bishop, Gary; Vally, Johanna; Wiesen, Peter; Lister, Dave H.; Bernard, Marc

1999-09-01

337

Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

338

Determination of naval medium speed diesel engine air exhaust emissions and validation of a proposed estimation model. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

Steady state marine diesel engine exhaust emissions are being reviewed by the Environmental Protection Agency for possible regulation. In anticipation of future regulation, the United States Navy is developing appropriate emissions models for naval vessels. A procedure for collecting this data from an U. S. Navy ship with medium speed main propulsion diesels is presented. It is based on similar testing conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard for measuring patrol boat diesel engine emissions and International Standards Organization methodology. The primary challenge of the experiment design was to minimize interference with the engineering plant as the assigned ship was concurrently tasked for other operations. Data gathered allowed calculation of engine rpm, engine load, exhaust gas flow rate, and determination of pollutant amounts. The tests were conducted at a series of predetermined speeds to reflect an 11-Mode duty cycle developed previously for the LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines.

Mayeaux, A.M.

1995-05-01

339

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options  

SciTech Connect

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson [University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Ecosystem Science and Sustainability Initiative

2009-03-15

340

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

SciTech Connect

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (US)

2005-08-15

341

Rotary Cement Kiln Control for Reducing NOx Emissions to Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A logic procedure, including 12 alternatives within 32 activities and 13 decision nodes has been designed\\/developed\\/implemented for the rotary cement kiln control aiming at reducing NOx emissions to atmosphere. The hierarchy of alternatives was evaluated through simple and top-down Kendall's coefficients of concordance, proved to be of statistical significance. An implementation is presented in the case of fuel substitution including

Fragiskos A. Batzias

2006-01-01

342

Particulate sizing and emission indices for a jet engine exhaust sampled at cruise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle size and emission indices measurements for jet engines, primarily the Rolls Royce RB211 engines on a NASA 757 aircraft are reported. These data were used to estimate the fraction of fuel sulfur that was converted to particulates. These measurements were made in-situ with the sampling aircraft several kilometers behind the source. Some complimentary ground measurements on the same source aircraft and engines are also reported. Significant differences are seen between the ground observations and the in-situ observations, indicating that plume processes are changing the aerosol's characteristics.

Hagen, D.; Whitefield, P.; Paladino, J.; Trueblood, M.; Lilenfeld, H.

343

Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2013-01-01

344

Duplex tab exhaust nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

2012-01-01

345

The Reduction of Exhaust Emissions from a Diesel Engine by Using Biodiesel Blend  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel has a great potential to reduce environmental pollution as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. The most important environmental problem is global heating up or green house effect caused by energy consumption. In this study, biodiesel produced from cottonseed oil was blended with diesel fuel, 20% biodiesel and 80% commercial diesel fuel, called B20, and used as a fuel

C. ?lkiliç; R. Behçet

2010-01-01

346

Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions  

DOEpatents

Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

2002-01-01

347

Studies on exhaust emissions of mahua oil operated compression ignition engine.  

PubMed

The world is confronted with fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The energy demand and pollution problems lead to research for an alternative renewable energy sources. Vegetable oils and biodiesel present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel. In this work, an experimental work was carried out to study the feasibility of using raw mahua oil (MO) as a substitute for diesel in dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was used as primary fuel and mahua oil was used as pilot fuel. The results show that the performance of the dual fuel engine at the injector opening pressure of 220 bar and the advanced injection timing of 30 degrees bTDC results in performance close to diesel base line (DBL) operation and lower smoke and oxides of nitrogen emission. PMID:21117439

Kapilan, N; Reddy, R P

2009-07-01

348

Porous Cu/Ce-K-O nanocomposites for simultaneous removal of soot and NO(x) from diesel exhaust emission.  

PubMed

The porous xCu/(1 - x)Ce-K-O (x = 0.1-0.4) nanocomposites were prepared by the citrate-gel thermal decomposition and reduction process. The effect of nanosized metallic Cu on their microstructure and catalytic properties was investigated by XRD, SEM, BET, TG analysis. With Cu content increasing, the grain size of metallic Cu is increased from 40 nm to 62 nm, whilst the grain size of CeO2 decreases from 38 nm to 20 nm. While, their specific surface area (S(BET)) and average pore size (P(ave)) show an increasing trend with the Cu content increase in the nanocomposites. The catalytic activity for soot combustion is influenced by the Cu content, with a lowest T20 (216 degrees C) and T50 (357 degrees C) for xCu/(1 - x)Ce-K-O (x = 0.3) nanocomposite catalyst. The catalytic performance for the optimal xCu/(1 - x)Ce-K-O (x = 0.3) nanocomposite coated honeycomb ceramic device was evaluated under the practical diesel exhaust emissions at the temperature range of 200-400 degrees C. This 10 wt.% catalyst-loaded honeycomb ceramic device confirms a high catalytic activity and stability for simultaneous removal of soot and NO(x), largely,due to the porous structure and synergistic effect of nano Cu and nano ceria in the catalyst. PMID:23763146

He, Fenglin; Shen, Xiangqian; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Jing, Maoxiang; Dong, Mingdong; Xiang, Jun; Wang, Pan

2013-04-01

349

Effects of idle reduction technologies on real world fuel use and exhaust emissions of idling long-haul trucks.  

PubMed

Idling long-haul freight tucks may consume nearly one billion gallons of diesel fuel per year in the U.S. There is a need for real-world data by which to quantify avoided fuel use and emissions attributable to idle reduction techniques of auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Field data were obtained from 20 APU-equipped and SP-compatible trucks observed during 2.8 million miles of travel in 42 states. Base engine fuel use and emission rates varied depending on ambient temperature. APU and SP energy use and emission rates varied depending on electrical load. APUs reduced idling fuel use and CO2 emissions for single and team drivers by 22 and 5% annually, respectively. SP offers greater reductions in energy use of 48% for single drivers, as well as in emissions, except for SO2. APUs were cost-effective for single drivers with a large number of APU usage hours per year, but not for team drivers or for single drivers with low APU utilization rates. The findings support more accurate assessments of avoided fuel use and emissions, and recommendations to encourage greater APU utilization by single drivers and to further develop infrastructure for SP. PMID:19764263

Frey, H Christopher; Kuo, Po-Yao; Villa, Charles

2009-09-01

350

Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

Higgins, P. A.

2004-12-01

351

Correcting injection pressure maladjustments to reduce NO X emissions by marine diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from the exhausts of marine diesel engines comprises several different gases including NOX. These are currently regulated at the international level under Regulation 13 of ANNEX VI of MARPOL 73\\/78, but this regulation only applies to new engines and is based on bench tests, for only a single engine designated the “parent engine”. Here, the need to take measurements

C. Vanesa Durán Grados; Zigor Uriondo; Manuel Clemente; Francisco J. Jiménez Espadafor; Juan Moreno Gutiérrez

2009-01-01

352

Evaluation of concepts for controlling exhaust emissions from minimally processed petroleum and synthetic fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rich-lean combustor concepts designed to enhance rich combustion chemistry and increase combustor flexibility for NO(x) reduction with minimally processed fuels are examined. Processes such as rich product recirculation in the rich chamber, rich-lean annihilation, and graduated air addition or staged rich combustion to release bound nitrogen in steps of reduced equivalence ratio are discussed. Variations to the baseline rapid quench section are considered, and the effect of residence time in the rich zone is investigated. The feasibility of using uncooled non-metallic materials for the rich zone combustion construction is also addressed. The preliminary results indicate that rich primary zone staged combustion provides environmentally acceptable operation with residual and/or synthetic coal-derived liquid fuels

Russell, P. L.; Beal, G. W.; Sederquist, R. A.; Shultz, D.

1981-01-01

353

Certification of Pd and Pt single spikes and application to the quantification of Pt and Pd in automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous epidemiological studies show the effect of increased ambient pollution. Therefore measurement networks for air quality have been installed worldwide and legislation requires the monitoring of air pollution. Besides monitoring it is also important to be able to identify, to quantify and finally to regulate the emission of distinct sources in order to improve the quality of life. Automotive vehicles are a major source of environmental pollution especially through contaminants such as CO, NOX, SOX and hydrocarbons which derive from petrol combustion, while for example Platinum Group Elements (PGE) can be present from catalytic converters. The release of PGE into the environment, however, may be damaging in terms of public health, ecological and economic interests. In order to reliably assess the risks from PGEs, traceable and thus comparable data on the release rates of PGE from automotive catalysers are needed. As no Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are available for such samples the development of analytical procedures enabling SI-traceable results will be challenging. Therefore reference procedures for Pd and Pt in automotive exhaust emissions based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) have been developed and applied to specifically sampled automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the commonly known advantages, IDMS often is applied for quantification PGEs, as is the case within this work. The main reasons here are the required accuracy and the low PGE mass fractions in the sample. In order to perform IDMS analysis the analyte element must be available in an isotopically enriched form as so-called spike material or solution thereof, which is mixed with the sample. Unfortunately, no certified PGE spike solutions are available yet. To fill this gap two single PGE spikes, one 106Pd and one 194Pt spike, have been produced and characterized. The selection of the isotopes, the production of the solutions and the ampoulation will be described in this presentation. Details on the characterization of these spike solutions by reverse IDMS using a primary assay for Pd and Pt will be given. With measurement uncertainties < 0.1 % for the Pd and Pt mass fraction both spike solutions are well suited to become certified reference materials under the ERM® label. The newly developed IDMS reference procedures consist of a dissolution step by microwave assisted digestion or wet high pressure ashing, followed by a 2-step ion chromatographic Pd- and Pt-matrix separation. The total blank values for this analytical procedure are ? 5 pg for Pd and ? 75 pg for Pt. First results on filters obtained under harmonized driving cycles (e.g. Artemis, NEDC) show Pd and Pt masses below 1 ng down to 100 pg with some filters showing relatively high values of 4 - 6 ng, which of course depends on the driving cycle.

Vogl, Jochen; Meyer, Christian; Noordmann, Janine; Rienitz, Olaf; Geilert, Sonja

2014-05-01

354

Techniques to reduce the emissions from existing woodburning appliances  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years, it has become widely recognized that wood stoves can produce high levels of incomplete combustion products. In some areas, wood smoke is one of the most serious air pollution sources. Indeed, Whitehorse, in Canada's Yukon Territory, has one of the highest levels of air pollution due to wood stoves in North America. Most efforts to date, both from the technical and the regulatory side, have concentrated on developing new, cleaner burning appliances. While this approach is commendable and is resulting in a number of cleaner, more efficient appliances on the market today, the majority of wood stoves installed in homes in North America are of the older, inferior combustion type. To compound the problem, many people have bought stoves that were too large for their needs, following the adage that bigger is better. This often results in the homeowner reducing the firing rate by closing the air supply, to avoid overheating the house, making the combustion even worse. That most stoves have been installed in the past eight years or less makes the probability of their replacement in the near term unlikely. Unless retrofit technologies or use control strategies are applied in an effective manner, the emissions from wood stoves will be with us for a long time to come. This paper discusses some reduction in emission levels possible through consumer education in proper stove operating procedures. The paper also discusses changes to the hardware, which allow upgrading of existing equipment and means of reducing emissions from existing stoves, through general consumer acceptance. The specific retrofit technique examined in detail for this paper was the use of a retrofit add-on catalyst to react some of the incomplete combustion products, specifically hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, which would otherwise condense to form creosote in the flue or be released as undesirable pollutants to the atmosphere.

Hayden, A.C.S.; Braaten, R.W. (Canadian Combustion Research Lab., Ottawa (CA))

1988-01-01

355

Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector  

SciTech Connect

Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

2011-01-01

356

40 CFR 1036.610 - Innovative technology credits and adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.  

...in-use emissions without the technology. Adjust the emission results...judgment indicates that the actual benefit will be proportional to emissions...this part. For example, the benefits from technologies that reduce engine...

2014-07-01

357

Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

2005-08-25

358

Method for reducing emissions utilizing pre-atomized fuels  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for reducing particulate emissions during combustion of a hydrocarbon with API gravity of about 20/sup 0/ API or less, viscosity of about 40,000 centipoise at 122/sup 0/F, paraffin content of about 50% by weight or less, aromatic content of about 15% by weight or greater, and asphaltene content of about 50% by weight or greater. The method comprises: emulsifying such hydrocarbon to form a hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion having a hydrocarbon water ratio from about 60:40 to about 90:10 by volume and in which emulsion the hydrocarbon has a particle size predominantly of about 50 microns in diameter or less; preheating such hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion prior to combustion; and burning such hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion.

Hayes, M.E.; Hrebenar, K.R.; Deal, J.F. III; Bolden, P.L. Jr.

1987-05-19

359

Could reducing fossil-fuel emissions cause global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WHEN fossil fuel is burned, both carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide are added to the atmosphere. The former should cause warming of the lower atmosphere by enhancing the greenhouse effect, whereas the latter, by producing sulphate aerosols, may cause a cooling effect. The possibility that these two processes could offset each other was suggested many years ago (see, for example, ref. 1), but during most of the intervening period, attention has focused on the greenhouse effect. Interest in tropospheric aerosols has, however, recently been rekindled by the realization that they may influence climate, not only through clear-sky radiative effects2-5, but also by modifying cloud albedo6-8. Here I examine the sensitivity of the climate system to simultaneous changes in SO2 and CO2 emissions, as might occur if controls were imposed on fossil-fuel use. Over the next 10-30 years, it is conceivable that the increased radiative forcing due to SO2 concentration changes could more than offset reductions in radiative forcing due to reduced CO2 emissions.

Wigley, T. M. L.

1991-02-01

360

Traffic generated non-exhaust particulate emissions from concrete pavement: A mass and particle size study for two-wheelers and small cars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to understand the non-exhaust (NE) emission of particles from wear of summer tire and concrete pavement, especially for two wheelers and small cars. A fully enclosed laboratory-scale model was fabricated to simulate road tire interaction with a facility to collect particles in different sizes. A road was cast using the M-45 concrete mixture and the centrifugal casting method. It was observed that emission of large particle non exhaust emission (LPNE) as well as PM 10 and PM 2.5 increased with increasing load. The LPNE was 3.5 mg tire -1 km -1 for a two wheeler and 6.4 mg tire -1 km -1 for a small car. The LPNE can lead to water pollution through water run-off from the roads. The contribution of the PM 10 and PM 2.5 was smaller compared to the LPNE particles (less than 0.1%). About 32 percent of particle mass of PM 10 was present below 1 ?m. The number as well as mass size distribution for PM 10 was observed to be bi-modal with peaks at 0.3 ?m and 4-5 ?m. The NE emissions did not show any significant trend with change in tire pressure.

Aatmeeyata; Kaul, D. S.; Sharma, Mukesh

361

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

PubMed

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2011-01-01

362

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster at 244-AR vault. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault. The exhauster would be used during air jetting of accumulated liquids from the cell sumps into the tanks and to make transfers among the tanks within the vault when needed. The 244-AR Vault is considered to be a double-contained receiver tank (OCRT) based on its functional characteristics, although it is not listed as one of the five designated DCRTs in the 200 Area Tank Farm systems. Process operations at the vault have been inactive since 1978 and the vault`s two stacks have not operated since 1993. Since cessation of vault operations an extremely large amount of rain water and snow melt have accumulated in the cell sumps. The water level in the sumps is substantially above their respective operating levels and there is concern for leakage to the environment through containment failure due to corrosion from backed-up sump liquid. Active ventilation is required to provide contamination control during air jetting operations within the vault. It has been determined that it would not be cost effective to repair the existing exhaust systems to an operational condition; thus, a portable exhauster will be used to support the intermittent operations.

Carrell, D.J.

1997-12-17

363

Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves

Walter Knecht

2008-01-01

364

Emissions R&D at GE/CRD coal-fueled diesel: Technology development methods for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal from coal diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Four processes were investigated at the GE Research and Development Center (GE-CRD) for the removal of gaseous pollutants from the exhaust of a coal-fired diesel locomotive engine. The minimum goal for emissions control was to reduce the pollutant levels at least to the levels of a conventional diesel engine. It should be noted, however, that some of the methods investigated were capable of reducing emissions below these levels. Achieving the minimum goal requires a reduction of approximately 50% in SO{sub 2} emissions and a 90 to 95% reduction in particulate emissions, the actual percentages varying with the fuel. NO{sub x} emissions from the coal diesel are approximately 50% of the conventional diesel level. The space limitations on board the locomotive present the greatest obstacle to the design of an emissions control system. The cleanup system must be compact as well as multifunctional. The development of a particulate collection device was undertaken by GE Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI). Among the options they evaluated were high-temperature metal filters, cyclones, and a granular bed. The development of a cleanup method or SO{sub 2} and possibly NO{sub x} was undertaken at GE-CRD. A process was sought which could incorporate one of the particulate removal devices under consideration. Four processes utilizing three classes of sorbents -- copper oxide, calcium-based, and sodium bicarbonate --were investigated for SO{sub 2} capture: Two of these processes use copper oxide (CuO), a regenerable SO{sub 2} sorbent. The CuSO{sub 4} formed has the added property that it catalyzes the reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} in the presence of NH{sub 3}. This NO{sub x} removal capability was tested for both CuO processes.

Cohen, M.R.; Leonard, G.L.; Slaughter, D.M.

1993-10-01

365

Engine exhaust control system and method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust gas control apparatus for an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a rotary fan blade assembly having a hollow hub and plurality of hollow blades, each having a plurality of apertures in a trailing edge; drive means for driving the rotary fan blade assembly; feed means feeding exhaust gases from the engine into the hollow hub and hollow blades; air intake means for feeding intake air to the rotary fan blade assembly from a direction opposite to the direction of flow of the exhaust gases into the hollow hub of the rotary fan blade assembly; exhaust means for exhausting a mixture of air and the exhaust gases; whereby the flow of exhaust gases through the rotary fan blade assembly and out through the exhaust means reduces back-pressure, exhaust noise, exhaust temperature and exhaust pollutants.

Billington, W.G.

1990-04-03

366

The role of exhaust ventilation systems in reducing occupational exposure to organic solvents in a paint manufacturing factory  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the successful design and implementation of several exhaust ventilation systems in a paint manufacturing factory. The ventilation systems were designed based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendations. The duct works, fans, and other parts were made and mounted by local manufacturers. The concentrations of toluene and xylene as the common solvents used in paint mixing factories were measured to evaluate the role of ventilation systems in controlling the organic solvents. Occupational exposure to toluene and xylene as the major pollutants was assessed with and without applying ventilation systems. For this purpose, samples were taken from breathing zone of exposed workers using personal samples. The samples were analyzed using Occupational Safety and Health Administration analytical method No.12. The samples were quantified using gas chromatography. The results showed that the ventilation systems successfully controlled toluene and xylene vapors in workplace, air well below the recommended threshold limit value of Iran (44.49 and 97.73 ppm, respectively). It was also discovered that benzene concentration in workplace air was higher than its allowable concentrations. This could be from solvents impurities that require more investigations. PMID:20040984

Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Karimi, Ali; Azari, Mansoor Rezazadeh

2008-01-01

367

Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.  

PubMed

Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were 470, 375, and 389g of CH4/cow per day for cows fed the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, respectively. Methane yields were 26.1, 20.2, and 21.5g of CH4/kg of DMI for cows fed the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, respectively. The ruminal bacterial and archaeal communities were altered by dietary supplementation with grape marc, but ruminal fungal and protozoan communities were not. Decreases of approximately 20% in CH4 emissions and CH4 yield indicate that feeding DGM and EGM could play a role in CH4 abatement. PMID:24952778

Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

2014-08-01

368

A coupled road dust and surface moisture model to predict non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions (NORTRIP). Part 1: Road dust loading and suspension modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-exhaust traffic induced emissions are a major source of particle mass in most European countries. This is particularly important in Nordic and Alpine countries where winter time road traction maintenance occurs, e.g. salting and sanding, and where studded tyres are used. In this paper, Part 1, the road dust sub-model of a coupled road dust and surface moisture model (NORTRIP) is described. The model provides a generalised process based formulation of the non-exhaust emissions, with emphasis on the contribution of road wear, suspension, surface dust loading and the effect of road surface moisture (retention of wear particles and suspended emissions). The model is intended for use as a tool for air quality managers to help study the impact of mitigation measures and policies. We present a description of the road dust sub-model and apply the model to two sites in Stockholm and Copenhagen where seven years of data with surface moisture measurements are available. For the site in Stockholm, where studded tyres are in use, the model predicts the PM10 concentrations very well with correlations (R2) in the range of R2 = 0.76-0.91 for daily mean PM10. The model also reproduces well the impact of a reduction in studded tyres at this site. For the site in Copenhagen the correlation is lower, in the range 0.44-0.51. The addition of salt is described in the model and at both sites this leads to improved correlations due to additional salt emissions. For future use of the model a number of model parameters, e.g. wear factors and suspension rates, still need to be refined. The effect of sanding on PM10 emissions is also presented but more information will be required before this can be confidently applied for management applications.

Denby, B. R.; Sundvor, I.; Johansson, C.; Pirjola, L.; Ketzel, M.; Norman, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Omstedt, G.

2013-10-01

369

Wildlife conservation and reduced emissions from deforestation in a case study of Nantu National Park,  

E-print Network

Wildlife conservation and reduced emissions from deforestation in a case study of Nantu National Measures of success a b s t r a c t Discussions on how to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation of the role of protected area (PA) status in reducing tropical deforestation. This study employs a range

Malhi, Yadvinder

370

Effect of Gasoline Properties on Exhaust Emissions from Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicles -- Final Report: Phase 3; July 28, 2008 - July 27, 2013  

SciTech Connect

This report covers work the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Office of Automotive Engineering has conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) in support of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct). Section 1506 of EPAct requires EPA to produce an updated fuel effects model representing the 2007 light - duty gasoline fleet, including determination of the emissions impacts of increased renewable fuel use. This report covers the exhaust emissions testing of 15 light-duty vehicles with 27 E0 through E20 test fuels, and 4 light-duty flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on an E85 fuel, as part of the EPAct Gasoline Light-Duty Exhaust Fuel Effects Test Program. This program will also be referred to as the EPAct/V2/E-89 Program based on the designations used for it by the EPA, NREL, and CRC, respectively. It is expected that this report will be an attachment or a chapter in the overall EPAct/V2/E-89 Program report prepared by EPA and NREL.

Whitney, K.

2014-05-01

371

MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR REDUCING AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM POULTRY LITTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia emissions from poultry litter not only result in air pollution; high levels of ammonia in poultry houses cause poor bird performance, increase the susceptibility of birds to viral diseases, and negatively impact human health. Although ammonia emissions are a concern, few cost-effective best ...

372

Management Options for Reducing Ammonia Emissions from Poultry Litter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia emissions from poultry litter not only result in air pollution; high levels of ammonia in poultry houses cause poor bird performance, increase the susceptibility of birds to viral diseases, and negatively impact human health. Although ammonia emissions are a concern, few cost-effective best ...

373

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at  

E-print Network

on the biophysical environment in the following ways: · Reducing the amount of fossil fuels that are consumed. · Reducing the amount of pollution that is generated from fossil fuel consumption. · Reducing the amount of waste that is created when extracting and consuming fossil fuels. · Reducing Dartmouth College's demand

374

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping and other activities  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping and other activities. The reference to `other activities` throughout this NOC means those activities described in Appendix A. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings feature because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTS as schedules for salt well pumping or other activities dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping or during performance of other activities. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTS is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Other activities also have the potential to release trapped gases by interrupting gas pockets within the waste. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms Safety Basis (OESH 1997) which requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) safety analysis indicates that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for released flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTS to reduce the `time at risk` while salt well pumping or performing other activities. Thirty tanks remain to be salt well pumped. Determination of which of the 30 tanks have the potential to exceed the 25 percent LFL is continuing as this NOC is submitted.

Hays, C.B.

1997-11-19

375

40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.112-08...

2014-07-01

376

Study of Miller timing on exhaust emissions of a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled diesel engine.  

PubMed

The effect of intake valve closure (IVC) timing by utilizing Miller cycle and start of injection (SOI) on particulate matter (PM), particle number and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions was studied with a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled nonroad diesel engine. HVO-fueled engine emissions, including aldehyde and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, were also compared with those emitted with fossil EN590 diesel fuel. At the engine standard settings, particle number and NOx emissions decreased at all the studied load points (50%, 75%, and 100%) when the fuel was changed from EN590 to HVO. Adjusting IVC timing enabled a substantial decrease in NOx emission and combined with SOI timing adjustment somewhat smaller decrease in both NOx and particle emissions at IVC -50 and -70 degrees CA points. The HVO fuel decreased PAH emissions mainly due to the absence of aromatics. Aldehyde emissions were lower with the HVO fuel with medium (50%) load. At higher loads (75% and 100%), aldehyde emissions were slightly higher with the HVO fuel. However, the aldehyde emission levels were quite low, so no clear conclusions on the effect of fuel can be made. Overall, the study indicates that paraffinic HVO fuels are suitable for emission reduction with valve and injection timing adjustment and thus provide possibilities for engine manufacturers to meet the strictening emission limits. PMID:23210222

Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

2012-11-01

377

Multi-impact optimization to reduce aviation noise and emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a multi-indicator assessment and minimization problem focused on aviation “Community” noise. The model explores a combined noise and emission objective for airfreight movements at Luxembourg’s Findel Airport. Community noise is evaluated via four population impact indicators emissions are tabulated from in-flight segments in the proximity of the airport and from the contribution of taxiing. A set of

Daniel S. Zachary; Jessica Gervais; Ulrich Leopold

2010-01-01

378

Effects of Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and population growth will make it more challenging for California to attain health-based ambient air quality standards for ozone. This so-called climate change penalty will require even more stringent emission control measures on stationary and mobile sources of air pollution to offset the harmful effects of climate change on ozone air quality. California has set a target to decrease greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2020, and to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. We analyze the potential effects on air quality due to the first (2020) target for greenhouse gas emissions in central California. The anticipated control measures will also affect ozone precursor emissions. We develop a set of air pollution emission scenarios for central California as of 2020, and predict resulting ozone concentrations for each case. We take into account the Draft AB 32 Scoping Document and regional/state level air quality control plans, as well as the effects of population growth and technology change. This allows us to elucidate and quantify the interactions between California's air pollution and greenhouse gas control programs. An important opportunity for synergy between control programs is to place more emphasis on greenhouse gas reductions in the diesel sector, as these engines are now the dominant source of NOx and black carbon emissions in California, as well as contributing significantly to CO2.

Shearer, S. M.; Harley, R.

2008-12-01

379

Reducing emissions from deforestation--The ``combined incentives'' mechanism and empirical simulations  

E-print Network

Reducing emissions from deforestation--The ``combined incentives'' mechanism and empirical throughout a century of climate-change (Gullison et al., 2007). The financial rationale for deforestation be sufficient to greatly reduce deforestation (Stern, 2007). For political and methodological reasons

Vermont, University of

380

Task-specific tailored multiple-reflection mirror systems for sensitivity enhancement of spectroscopic measurements: application for aircraft engine exhaust emission measurements with FT-IR spectro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-path reflection mirror systems in White- or Herriott- type configuration have been widely used to enhance the absorption path-length and thus the sensitivity of laboratory spectroscopic systems, e.g. for smog chamber studies and molecular spectroscopy. Field studies, for instance using mobile tunable diode laser spectroscopy have widened the range of applications of these mirror systems for specific measurement tasks. In this paper a special designed White-type system mounted in two racks with 5 m base-length and adjustable optical path-length up to 74 passes is described. This system has been tested and successfully used to enhance the sensitivity of non-intrusive FT-IR measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions in the harsh environment of an engine test bed. The open cell around the engine plume including the transfer optics for the adaption of the spectrometers in a separate room allowed manual switching between passive FT-IR emission measurements, FT-IR absorption measurements with the cell, and, by covering the infrared source (globar) with a shutter, multi-path FT-IR emission measurements. Tests prior to the aircraft engine measurements were made to investigate the influence of different path- lengths, the position of the plume in the White cell, soot in the exhaust gas, and vibrations of the mirrors. The FT-IR spectra from all three measurement modes using the White cell during the engine measurements were found to be of good quality and the results of the analyses were comparable to the results from intrusive measurement systems.

Brockmann, Klaus; Kurtenbach, Ralf; Kriesche, Volker; Wiesen, Peter; Heland, Joerg; Schaefer, Klaus

1999-09-01

381

Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting ?-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination.

Peñuelas, Josep; Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Llusia, Joan; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Rico, Laura; Sardans, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume; Filella, Iolanda

2014-10-01

382

Treatment of power utilities exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

Koermer, Gerald (Basking Ridge, NJ)

2012-05-15

383

Effect of water/fuel emulsions and a cerium-based combustion improver additive on HD and LD diesel exhaust emissions.  

PubMed

One of the major technological challenges for the transport sector is to cut emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) simultaneously from diesel vehicles to meet future emission standards and to reduce their contribution to the pollution of ambient air. Installation of particle filters in all existing diesel vehicles (for new vehicles, the feasibility is proven) is an efficient but expensive and complicated solution; thus other short-term alternatives have been proposed. It is well known that water/diesel (W/ D) emulsions with up to 20% water can reduce PM and NOx emissions in heavy-duty (HD) engines. The amount of water that can be used in emulsions for the technically more susceptible light-duty (LD) vehicles is much lower, due to risks of impairing engine performance and durability. The present study investigates the potential emission reductions of an experimental 6% W/D emulsion with EURO-3 LD diesel vehicles in comparison to a commercial 12% W/D emulsion with a EURO-3 HD engine and to a Cerium-based combustion improver additive. For PM, the emulsions reduced the emissions with -32% for LD vehicles (mass/km) and -59% for the HD engine (mass/ kWh). However, NOx emissions remained unchanged, and emissions of other pollutants were actually increased forthe LD vehicles with +26% for hydrocarbons (HC), +18% for CO, and +25% for PM-associated benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalents (TEQ). In contrast, CO (-32%), TEQ (-14%), and NOx (-6%) were reduced by the emulsion for the HD engine, and only hydrocarbons were slightly increased (+16%). Whereas the Cerium-based additive was inefficient in the HD engine for all emissions except for TEQ (-39%), it markedly reduced all emissions for the LD vehicles (PM -13%, CO -18%, HC -26%, TEQ -25%) except for NOx, which remained unchanged. The presented data indicate a strong potential for reductions in PM emissions from current diesel engines by optimizing the fuel composition. PMID:16190241

Farfaletti, Arianna; Astorga, Covadonga; Martini, Giorgio; Manfredi, Urbano; Mueller, Anne; Rey, Maria; De Santi, Giovanni; Krasenbrink, Alois; Larsen, Bo R

2005-09-01

384

Estakhri and Saylak 1 Potential for Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Texas Through the Use of  

E-print Network

Estakhri and Saylak 1 Potential for Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Texas Through the Use with the challenge to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, policy makers have traditionally targeted the transportation of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). Besides other raw materials, each ton of portland cement requires

385

Superconducting Ducted Fan Design for Reduced Emissions Aeropropulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new conceptual design tool for an environmentally sustainable method of aeropropulsion: a ducted fan system driven by a fully superconducting electrical machine. Such a system could help mitigate aviation's contribution to global climate change by enabling the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft. An electro-thermal motor sizing model was coupled with cycle analysis and weight

Philippe J. Masson; Taewoo Nam; Taeyun P. Choi; Pascal Tixador; Mark Waters; David Hall; Cesar A. Luongo; Dimitri N. Mavris

2009-01-01

386

Innovative Technology Reduces Power Plant Emissions - Commercialization Success  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emission control system development includes: (1) Development of new oxidizer scrubber system to eliminate NOx waste and produce fertilizer (2) Technology licensed and a 1 to 3 MWatt-scale prototype installed on. power plant (3) Development of method to oxidize NO. to N02 (4) Experience gained from licensing NASA technology

Parrish, Clyde

2004-01-01

387

Innovative Technology Reduces Power Plant Emissions-Commercialization Success  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overview of emission control system development: (1) Development of new oxidizer scrubber system to eliminate NOx waste and produce fertilizer (2) Technology licensed and a 1 to 3 MWatt-scale prototype installed on power plant (3) Development of method to oxidize NO to NO2 (4) Experience gained from licensing NASA technology.

Parrish, Clyde; Chung, Landy

2004-01-01

388

Inductive pulsed phase thermography for reducing or enlarging the effect of surface emissivity variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissivity variation introduces illusory temperature inhomogeneity and results in false alarms in infrared thermography, thus, it is important to separate the influence of surface emissivity variation. This letter experimentally demonstrates the advantages of phase information to reduce or enlarge the effect of surface emissivity variation with inductive pulsed phase thermography, where inductive excitation is emissivity-independent and avoids the effect of emissivity variation in heating process. The directly heated area and the indirectly heated area are divided in the phasegrams. The emissivity variation is removed or enlarged perfectly at the specific frequency and defect detectability is improved remarkably.

Yang, Ruizhen; He, Yunze; Gao, Bin; Tian, Gui Yun

2014-11-01

389

Reducing silica and dust exposures in construction during use of powered concrete-cutting hand tools: efficacy of local exhaust ventilation on hammer drills.  

PubMed

Concrete cutting in construction is a major source of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. To reduce exposures, local exhaust ventilation (LEV) may be integrated into the hand tools used in concrete cutting. Volunteers from the New England Laborers Training Center participated in a field study focused on the use of LEV on concrete-cutting hammer drills. A randomized block design field experiment employing four workers measured the efficacy of four hood-vacuum source combinations compared with no LEV in reducing dust and silica exposures. Using four-stage personal cascade impactors (Marple 294) to measure dust exposure, a total of 18 personal samples were collected. Reductions of over 80% in all three biologically relevant size fractions of dust (inhalable, thoracic, and respirable) were obtained by using any combination of hood and vacuum source. This study found that respirable dust concentrations were reduced from 3.77 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.242 to 0.370 mg/m(3); thoracic dust concentrations from 12.5 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.774 to 1.23 mg/m(3); and inhalable dust concentration from 47.2 mg/m(3) to a range of 2.13 to 6.09 mg/m(3). Silica concentrations were reduced from 0.308 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.006 to 0.028 mg/m(3) in the respirable size fraction, from 0.821 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.043 to 0.090 mg/m(3) in the thoracic size fraction, and from 2.71 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.124 to 0.403 mg/m(3) in the inhalable size fraction. Reductions in dust concentrations while using the four LEV systems were not statistically significantly different from each other. PMID:19005968

Shepherd, S; Woskie, S R; Holcroft, C; Ellenbecker, M

2009-01-01

390

Brassica carinata as an alternative oil crop for the production of biodiesel in Italy: engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions.  

PubMed

A comparison of the performance of Brassica carinata oil-derived biodiesel with a commercial rapeseed oil-derived biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions. B. carinata is an oil crop that can be cultivated in coastal areas of central-southern Italy, where it is more difficult to achieve the productivity potentials of Brassica napus (by far the most common rapeseed cultivated in continental Europe). Experimental tests were carried out on a turbocharged direct injection passenger car diesel engine fueled with 100% biodiesel. The unregulated exhaust emissions were characterized by determining the SOOT and soluble organic fraction content in the particulate matter, together with analysis of the content and speciation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some of which are potentially carcinogenic, and of carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones) that act as ozone precursors. B. carinata and commercial biodiesel behaved similarly as far as engine performance and regulated and unregulated emissions were concerned. When compared with petroleum diesel fuel, the engine test bench analysis did not show any appreciable variation of output engine torque values, while there was a significant difference in specific fuel consumption data at the lowest loads for the biofuels and petroleum diesel fuel. The biofuels were observed to produce higher levels of NOx concentrations and lower levels of PM with respect to the diesel fuel. The engine heat release analysis conducted shows that there is a potential for increased thermal NOx generation when firing biodiesel with no prior modification to the injection timing. It seems that, for both the biofuels, this behavior is caused by an advanced combustion evolution, which is particularly apparent at the higher loads. When compared with petroleum diesel fuel, biodiesel emissions contain less SOOT, and a greater fraction of the particulate was soluble. The analysis and speciation of the soluble organic fraction of biodiesel particulate suggest that the carcinogenic potential of the biodiesel emissions is probably lower than that of petroleum diesel. Its better adaptivity and productivity in clay and sandy-type soils and in semiarid temperate climate and the fact that the performance of its derived biodiesel is quite similar to commercial biodiesel make B. carinata a promising oil crop that could offer the possibility of exploiting the Mediterranean marginal areas for energetic purposes. PMID:12433178

Cardone, Massimo; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Rocco, Vittorio; Seggiani, Maurizia; Senatore, Adolfo; Vitoloi, Sandra

2002-11-01

391

Influence of fuel properties, nitrogen oxides, and exhaust treatment by an oxidation catalytic converter on the mutagenicity of diesel engine emissions.  

PubMed

Particle emissions of diesel engines (DEP) content polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) these compounds cause a strong mutagenicity of solvent extracts of DEP. We investigated the influence of fuel properties, nitrogen oxides (NO( x )), and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on the mutagenic effects of DEP. The engine was fuelled with common diesel fuel (DF), low-sulphur diesel fuel (LSDF), rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), and soybean oil methyl ester (SME) and run at five different load modes in two series with and without installation of an OCC in the exhaust pipe. Particles from the cooled and diluted exhaust were sampled onto glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The mutagenicity of the extracts was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Without OCC the number of revertant colonies was lower in extracts of LSDF than in extracts of DF. The lowest numbers of revertant colonies were induced by the plant oil derived fuels. In three load modes, operation with the OCC led to a reduction of the mutagenicity. However, direct mutagenic effects under heavy duty conditions (load mode A) were significantly increased for RME (TA98, TA100) and SME (TA98). A consistent but not significant increase in direct mutagenicity was observed for DF and LSDF at load mode A, and for DF at idling (load mode E) when emissions were treated with the OCC. These results raise concern over the use of oxidation catalytic converters with diesel engines. We hypothesise that the OCC increases formation of direct acting mutagens under certain conditions by the reaction of NO( x ) with PAH resulting in the formation of nitrated-PAH. Most of these compounds are powerful direct acting mutagens. PMID:16555046

Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Weigel, Andreas; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz

2006-08-01

392

Effect of isothermal dilution on emission factors of organic carbon and n-alkanes in the particle and gas phases of diesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the effect of isothermal dilution (30 °C) on emission factors (EFs) of semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds of heavy-duty diesel exhaust, we measured EFs for particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle phase, and EFs for n-alkanes in both the particle phase and the gas phase of exhaust produced under high-idle engine operating conditions at dilution ratios (DRs) ranging from 8 to 1027. The EC EFs did not vary with DR, whereas the OC EFs in the particle phase determined at DR = 1027 were 13% of the EFs determined at DR = 8, owing to evaporation of organic compounds. Using partitioning theory and n-alkane EFs measured at DR = 14 and 238, we calculated the distributions of compounds between the particle and gas phases at DR = 1760, which corresponds to the DR for tailpipe emissions as they move from the tailpipe to the roadside atmosphere. The gas-phase EF of a compound with a vapor pressure of 10-7 Pa was 0.01 ?g kg-1-fuel at DR = 14, and this value is 1/330 the value derived at DR = 1760. Our results suggest that the EFs of high-volatility compounds in the particle phase will be overestimated and that the EFs of low-volatility compounds in the gas phase will be underestimated if the estimates are derived from data obtained at the low DRs and they are applied to the real world. Therefore, extrapolation from EFs derived at low DR values to EFs at atmospherically relevant DRs will be a source of error in predictions of the concentrations of particulate matter and gas-phase precursors to secondary organic aerosols in air quality models.

Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Hasegawa, Shuich; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shinji; Furuyama, Akiko; Hirano, Seishiro; Takami, Akinori

2012-11-01

393

Management options for reducing CO2 emissions from agricultural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop-based agriculture occupies 1.7 billion hectares, globally, with a soil C stock of about 170 Pg. Of the past anthropogenic CO2 additions to the atmosphere, about 50 Pg C came from the loss of soil organic matter (SOM) in cultivated soils. Improved management practices, however, can rebuild C stocks in agricultural soils and help mitigate CO2 emissions. Increasing soil C

K. PAUSTIAN; E. T. ELLIOTT; H. W. HUNT

2000-01-01

394

40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? 1045.103 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? (a) Duty-cycle...

2010-07-01

395

40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? 1045.103 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? (a) Duty-cycle...

2012-07-01

396

40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? 1045.103 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? (a) Duty-cycle...

2013-07-01

397

40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?  

...outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? 1045.103 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? (a) Duty-cycle...

2014-07-01

398

40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? 1045.103 Section 1045...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards...outboard and personal watercraft engines meet? (a) Duty-cycle...

2011-07-01

399

40 CFR 1039.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...measured emissions. If the factor is less than zero, use zero. Additive deterioration factors must be specified to one more decimal place than the applicable standard...deterioration factor. If the factor is less than one, use one. A multiplicative...

2010-07-01

400

40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...If the deterioration factor is less than zero, use zero. Additive deterioration factors must be specified to one more decimal place than the emission standard...If the deterioration factor is less than one, use one. Multiplicative...

2010-07-01

401

40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...factor. If the factor is less than one, use one. Multiplicative deterioration factors must...measured emissions. If the factor is less than zero, use zero. Additive deterioration factors must be specified to one more decimal place than the applicable...

2010-07-01

402

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2013-07-01

403

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2012-07-01

404

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2010-07-01

405

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2011-07-01

406

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

... true Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2014-07-01

407

40 CFR 1048.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...factors based on emission measurements using four significant figures, consistent with good engineering judgment. For...paragraph (c) of this section, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2013-07-01

408

40 CFR 1048.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...factors based on emission measurements using four significant figures, consistent with good engineering judgment. For...paragraph (c) of this section, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2011-07-01

409

40 CFR 1048.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...factors based on emission measurements using four significant figures, consistent with good engineering judgment. For...paragraph (c) of this section, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2012-07-01

410

40 CFR 1048.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

...factors based on emission measurements using four significant figures, consistent with good engineering judgment. For...paragraph (c) of this section, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2014-07-01

411

40 CFR 1048.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...factors based on emission measurements using four significant figures, consistent with good engineering judgment. For...paragraph (c) of this section, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2010-07-01

412

Reducing the uncertainties in carbon emissions fromReducing the uncertainties in carbon emissions from tropical deforestation -the BIOMASS mission  

E-print Network

from tropical deforestation - the BIOMASS mission Shaun Quegan University of Sheffield) Deforestation Fossil fuel release 6.4 Gt C yr-1 Deforestation 1.6 Gt C yr-1? Ocean uptake 2.2 Gt C yr-1 6.4 Gt C North of 30°; elsewhere, sources match sinks. #12;Calculating deforestation emissions 1Calculating

413

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

Not Available

1997-10-01

414

Extraction of antioxidants from olive mill wastewater and electro-coagulation of exhausted fraction to reduce its toxicity on anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Liquid-liquid extraction was used in order to recover phenolic compounds from centrifuged olive mill wastewater (OMW), a polluting by-product of olive oil production process, and to reduce their toxicity for a subsequent aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Phenolic compounds were identified in untreated and treated OMW by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental results of ethyl acetate extraction showed that the monomers recovery efficiency was over 90%. This pre-treatment resulted in the removal of the major LMM phenolic compounds and a small part of HMM polyphenols. The aerobic treatment of the exhausted OMW fraction removed 78.7% of the soluble COD. In the case of anaerobic digestion at OLR ranged from 1 to 3.5 gCOD l(-1)day(-1), methanisation process exhibited high methane yield as 0.3 l CH4 produced per g COD introduced and high COD removal (80%). However, a disruption of the process was observed when the OLR was increased to 4.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). A pre-treatment by electro-coagulation resulted in decreasing the toxicity and enhancing the performance of methanisation operated at higher OLR from 4 to 7.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). PMID:17629620

Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

2008-03-01

415

[Preparation of biodiesel from waste edible oils and performance and exhaust emissions of engines fueled with blends of the biodiesel].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of biodiesel on environment and to investigate the effect of the biodiesel made of waste edible oils on the performance and emissions of engines. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel and diesel was introduced and the results of the LCA of both the fuels were given. The technological process of biodiesel production from waste edible oils, which is called transesterification of waste oils and methanol catalyzed with NaOH, was presented. Two turbocharged DI engines fueled with different proportions of biodiesel and diesel, namely, B50 (50% biodiesel + 50% diesel) and B20 (20% biodiesel + 80% diesel), were chosen to conduct performance and emission tests on a dynamometer. The results of the study indicate that there was a slight increase in fuel consumption by 8% and a drop in power by 3% with the blends of biodiesel, compared with diesel, and that the best improvements in emissions of smoke, HC, CO and PM were 65%, 11%, 33% and 13% respectively, but NOx emission was increased. The study also shows that it is satisfied to fuel engines with the low proportion blends of the biodiesel, without modifying engines, in performance and emissions. PMID:16124461

Ge, Yun-shan; Lu, Xiao-ming; Gao, Li-ping; Han, Xiu-kun; Ji, Xing

2005-05-01

416

A Systems Approach to Reducing Institutional GHG Emissions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish necessity and methods for considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies at a system-level. The research emphasizes connecting narrowly focused GHG mitigation objectives (e.g. reduce single occupancy vehicle travel) with broader institutional objectives (e.g. growth in student population) to…

Williamson, Sean R.

2012-01-01

417

Optimization of operational aircraft parameters Reducing Noise Emission  

E-print Network

The objective of this paper is to develop a model and a minimization method to provide flight path optimums reducing aircraft noise in the vicinity of airports. Optimization algorithm has solved a complex optimal control problem, and generates flight paths minimizing aircraft noise levels. Operational and safety constraints have been considered and their limits satisfied. Results are here presented and discussed.

Abdallah, Lina; Khardi, Salah

2008-01-01

418

Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype fiat 131TC 2.4 liter automobile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Fiat 131 turbocharged diesel vehicle are presented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a United States number 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications results in small but substantial improvements in regulated emissions, fuel economy, and performance. Notably, particulate levels were reduced by 30 percent.

Quayle, S. S.

1982-01-01

419

Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Santa Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

420

Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-10-27

421

Two-stroke S.I. engine competitive to four-stroke engine in terms of the exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model engine with disintegrated working cycle was built. Its operation is not autonomous; compression of the working air is performed separately outside the engine by the compressed-air line supply. Pre-compressed charge together with the injected fuel is introduced in the combustion chamber. The model engine makes possible to determine indicated performance characteristics and its emission capability. Effective measured engine

R. Pavletic; F. Trenc

1994-01-01

422

14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...excepted. Where a gaseous emission standard is specified by a formula, calculate and round the standard to three significant figures or to the nearest 0.1 g/kN (for standards at or above 100 g/kN). Where a smoke standard is...

2013-01-01

423

Exhaust emissions of low level blend alcohol fuels from two-stroke and four-stroke marine engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard mandates that by 2022, 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be produced on a yearly basis. Ethanol production is capped at 15 billion gallons, meaning 21 billion gallons must come from different alternative fuel sources. A viable alternative to reach the remainder of this mandate is iso-butanol. Unlike ethanol, iso-butanol does not phase separate when mixed with water, meaning it can be transported using traditional pipeline methods. Iso-butanol also has a lower oxygen content by mass, meaning it can displace more petroleum while maintaining the same oxygen concentration in the fuel blend. This research focused on studying the effects of low level alcohol fuels on marine engine emissions to assess the possibility of using iso-butanol as a replacement for ethanol. Three marine engines were used in this study, representing a wide range of what is currently in service in the United States. Two four-stroke engine and one two-stroke engine powered boats were tested in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, near Annapolis, Maryland over the course of two rounds of weeklong testing in May and September. The engines were tested using a standard test cycle and emissions were sampled using constant volume sampling techniques. Specific emissions for two-stroke and four-stroke engines were compared to the baseline indolene tests. Because of the nature of the field testing, limited engine parameters were recorded. Therefore, the engine parameters analyzed aside from emissions were the operating relative air-to-fuel ratio and engine speed. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each alcohol fuel for the four-stroke engines were consistent, when analyzing a single round of testing. The same trends were not consistent when comparing separate rounds because of uncontrolled weather conditions and because the four-stroke engines operate without fuel control feedback during full load conditions. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each alcohol fuel for the two-stroke engine were consistent for all rounds of testing. This is due to the fact the engine operates open-loop, and does not provide fueling compensation when fuel composition changes. Changes in emissions with respect to the baseline for iso-butanol were consistent with changes for ethanol. It was determined iso-butanol would make a viable replacement for ethanol.

Sevik, James M., Jr.

424

Vehicle engines produce exhaust nanoparticles even when not fueled.  

PubMed

Vehicle engines produce submicrometer exhaust particles affecting air quality, especially in urban environments. In on-road exhaust studies with a heavy duty diesel vehicle and in laboratory studies with two gasoline-fueled passenger cars, we found that as much as 20-30% of the number of exhaust particles larger than 3 nm may be formed during engine braking conditions-that is, during decelerations and downhill driving while the engine is not fueled. Particles appeared at size ranges extending even below 7 nm and at high number concentrations. Their small size and nonvolatility, coupled with the observation that these particles contain lube-oil-derived metals zinc, phosphorus, and calcium, are suggestive of health risks at least similar to those of exhaust particles observed before. The particles' characteristics indicate that their emissions can be reduced using exhaust after-treatment devices, although these devices have not been mandated for all relevant vehicle types. Altogether, our findings enhance the understanding of the formation vehicle emissions and allow for improved protection of human health in proximity to traffic. PMID:24397401

Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Heikkilä, Juha; Karjalainen, Panu; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

2014-02-01

425

Using surface water application to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene emission from soil fumigation.  

PubMed

High emissions from soil fumigants increase the risk of detrimental impact on workers, bystanders, and the environment, and jeopardize future availability of fumigants. Efficient and cost-effective approaches to minimize emissions are needed. This study evaluated the potential of surface water application (or water seal) to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) emissions from soil (Hanford sandy loam) columns. Treatments included dry soil (control), initial water application (8 mm of water just before fumigant application), initial plus a second water application (2.6 mm) at 12 h, initial plus two water applications (2.6 mm each time) at 12 and 24 h, standard high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp, initial water application plus HDPE tarp, and virtually impermeable film (VIF) tarp. Emissions from the soil surface and distribution of 1,3-D in the soil-gas phase were monitored for 2 wk. Each water application abruptly reduced 1,3-D emission flux, which rebounded over a few hours. Peak emission rates were substantially reduced, but total emission reduction was small. Total fumigant emission was 51% of applied for the control, 46% for initial water application only, and 41% for the three intermittent water applications with the remaining water treatment intermediate. The HDPE tarp alone resulted in 45% emission, while initial water application plus HDPE tarp resulted in 38% emission. The most effective soil surface treatment was VIF tarp (10% emission). Surface water application can be as effective, and less expensive than, standard HDPE tarp. Frequent water application is required to substantially reduce emissions. PMID:16738389

Gao, Suduan; Trout, Thomas J

2006-01-01

426

Genetic parameters for predicted methane production and potential for reducing enteric emissions through genomic selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emission in ruminants has become an important area of research because accumulation of CH4 is linked to global warming. Nutritional and microbial opportunities to reduce CH4 emissions have been extensively researched, but little is known about using natural variation to breed animals with lower CH4 yield. Measuring CH4 emission rates directly from animals is difficult

Haas de Y; J. J. Windig; M. P. L. Calus; J. Dijkstra; Haan de M; A. Bannink; R. F. Veerkamp

2011-01-01

427

Methane oxidation associated with submerged brown mosses reduces methane emissions from Siberian  

E-print Network

Methane oxidation associated with submerged brown mosses reduces methane emissions from Siberian (methanotrophy) associated with submerged brown moss species occurs in polygonal tundra environments of the Siberian Arctic. Methanotrophic bacteria living in close association with mosses are thus not restricted

Wehrli, Bernhard

428

Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit  

SciTech Connect

The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

2012-11-15

429

APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM ENGINEERED WOOD PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood: oak-veneered particleboard coated and cured with a heat-curable, a...

430

On-site denitrification beds could reduce indirect greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural drainage waters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate (NO3-) laden agricultural drainage waters are non-point sources of indirect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which represent a significant fraction of total N2O emissions in the USA. On-site denitrification beds filled with woodchips were used to reduce NO3- under carbon rich anaerobic conditi...

431

A new method to thermally manage an electronic control unit while reducing radiated emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a methodology to thermally manage an electronic control unit while reducing its radiated emissions. Measurements of the radiated emission levels for a particular electronic control unit revealed excessive levels. Electronic control units utilize pulse width modulated signals to control an external load. The rise and fall times of the pulse width modulated signal impact both the radiated

Imad Sharaa; Daniel N. Aloi

2008-01-01

432

Methods for exploring management options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from tropical grazing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing atmospheric concentrations of ‘greenhouse gases’ are expected to result in global climatic changes over the next decades. Means of evaluating and reducing greenhouse gas emissions are being sought. In this study an existing simulation model of a tropical savanna woodland grazing system was adapted to account for greenhouse gas emissions. This approach may be able to be used in

S. Mark Howden; David H. White; Greg M. Mckeon; Joe C. Scanlan; John O. Carter

1994-01-01

433

Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome  

PubMed Central

Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification – F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called ‘Grounding’, a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients’ average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = ?3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = ?0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = ?.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = ?0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R2 = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. PMID:24134551

Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

2014-01-01

434

Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = -0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = -.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = -0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R(2) = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. PMID:24134551

Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

2014-12-01

435

Theoretical and experimental investigation of SI engine performance and exhaust emissions using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, potato waste bioethanol was evaluated as an alternative fuel for gasoline engines. The pollutant emissions and performance of a four stroke SI engine operating on ethanol-gasoline blends has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the theoretical study, a quasi-dimensional SI engine cycle model has been adapted for spark ignition engines running on gasoline-ethanol blends. A mathematical model

Talal Yusaf; David Buttsworth; G. Najafi

2009-01-01

436

Comparative carcinogenic potencies of particulates from diesel engine exhausts, coke oven emissions, roofing tar aerosols and cigarette smoke  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian cell mutagenesis, transformation and skin tumorigenesis assays show similar results in comparing the potencies of diesel, coke oven, roofing tar and cigarette smoke particulates. These assay results are reasonably consistent with the comparative carcinogenic potencies of coke oven and roofing tar emissions and determined by epidemiological studies. The bacterial mutagenesis assay tends to show disproportionately high potencies, particularly with with diesel particulates. (4 refs.)

Albert, R.E.

1983-01-01

437

An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Samo, Khalid; Faturachman, Danny

2012-09-01

438

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends  

SciTech Connect

Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportion of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.

Merritt, P. M.; Ulmet, V.; McCormick, R. L.; Mitchell, W. E.; Baumgard, K. J.

2005-11-01

439

Effect of water seal on reducing 1,3-dichloropropene emissions from different soil textures.  

PubMed

Soil physical conditions can affect diffusion, environmental fate, and efficacy of fumigants in soil disinfestation treatments. Water seals (applying water using sprinklers to soil following fumigation) can effectively reduce fumigant emissions from sandy loam soils. Soil column studies compared the effectiveness of water seals in reducing cis-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) emissions from three different textured soils (loamy sand, sandy loam, and loam). Treatments included an untreated control, an initial water seal (9 mm water applied immediately before fumigant injection), and intermittent water seals (initial 9 mm water seal followed by 3 mm at 12 and 24 h). For the loamy sand, instead of the initial water seal treatment, a reduced-amount intermittent water seal (initial 3 mm water followed by 1 mm at 12 and 24 h) treatment was tested. Overall emission loss of 1,3-D from the control over 2 wk was 56% for the loamy sand, 51% for the sandy loam, and 43% for the loam. The initial water seal reduced total 1,3-D emissions to 46% in the sandy loam and 31% in the loam. The intermittent water seals reduced emission loss to 26% for the loamy sand, 41% for the sandy loam, and 21% for the loam. The reduced-amount intermittent water seal for loamy sand had little effect. Low emission loss was associated with high surface soil water content. None of the water applications reduced gaseous fumigant concentrations. Results indicate that water seal techniques may be able to effectively reduce emissions for different soil textures without reducing fumigant concentration in the soil. PMID:19244492

McDonald, Jason A; Gao, Suduan; Qin, Ruijun; Hanson, Bradley D; Trout, Thomas J; Wang, Dong

2009-01-01

440

Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.  

PubMed

Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

2005-09-01

441

Surface seals reduce 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions in field tests.  

PubMed

Reducing emissions is essential for minimizing the impact of soil fumigation on the environment. Water application to the soil surface (or water seal) has been demonstrated to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) emissions in soil column tests. This study determined the effectiveness of water application to reduce emissions of 1,3-D and chloropicrin (CP) in comparison to other surface seals under field conditions. In a small-plot field trial on a Hanford sandy loam soil (coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Typic Xerorthents) in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Telone C35 (61% 1,3-D and 35% CP) was shank-applied at a depth of 46 cm at a rate of 610 kg ha-1. Soil surface seal treatments included control (no tarp and no water application), standard high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp over dry and pre-irrigated soil, virtually impermeable film (VIF) tarp, initial water application by sprinklers immediately following fumigation, and intermittent water applications after fumigation. The atmospheric emissions and gas-phase distribution of fumigants in soil profile were monitored for 9 d. Among the surface seals, VIF and HDPE tarp over dry soil resulted in the lowest and the highest total emission losses, respectively. Intermittent water applications reduced 1,3-D and CP emissions significantly more than HDPE tarp alone. The initial water application also reduced emission peak and delayed emission time. Pre-irrigated soil plus HDPE tarp reduced fumigant emissions similarly as the intermittent water applications and also yielded the highest surface soil temperature, which may improve overall soil pest control. PMID:17215218

Gao, Suduan; Trout, Thomas J

2007-01-01

442

Diesel engine performance and emission evaluation using emulsified fuels stabilized by conventional and gemini surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel engines exhausting gaseous emission and particulate matter have long been regarded as one of the major air pollution sources, particularly in metropolitan areas, and have been a source of serious public concern for a long time. The emulsification method is not only motivated by cost reduction but is also one of the potentially effective techniques to reduce exhaust emission

M. Nadeem; C. Rangkuti; K. Anuar; M. R. U. Haq; I. B. Tan; S. S. Shah

2006-01-01

443

Engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine operating on diesel-RME (rapeseed methyl ester) blends with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester, RME) and different diesel\\/RME blends on the diesel engine NOx emissions, smoke, fuel consumption, engine efficiency, cylinder pressure and net heat release rate are analysed and presented. The combustion of RME as pure fuel or blended with diesel in an unmodified engine results in advanced combustion, reduced ignition delay and increased heat release

A. Tsolakis; A. Megaritis; M. L. Wyszynski; K. Theinnoi

2007-01-01

444

Effect of injection pressure, exhaust gas recirculation and Swirl Ratio on autoignition, combustion and engine out emissions in a HSDI engine fueled by soybean biodiesel blend (B20)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce the dependency on fossil fuels, various alternate energy sources have been considered in order to meet our daily energy requirements. Such renewable energy sources that have been the center of attention in the automotive community include Bio-fuels such as Ethanol and Biodiesel.^ In the recent past, researchers have reported different emission levels of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) from

Vinay Nagaraju

2008-01-01

445

Process and apparatus for reducing pollutant emission in flue gases  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combustion process for reducing at least nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and hydrogen chloride in a furnace. It comprises introducing a combustible material into a drying zone within a combustion chamber; supplying air to the drying zone for preheating, drying, and partially combusting the combustible material; advancing the combustible material to a combustion zone within the combustion chamber; supplying air to the combustion zone for further combusting the combustible material; advancing the combustible material to a burnout zone within the combustion chamber; supplying air to the burnout zone for final burnout of uncombusted portions of the combustible material; injecting one of a sorbent and a calcined sorbent, and a fuel into the combustion chamber above the combustible material to create an oxygen deficient secondary combustion zone; ejecting vitiated air from the burnout zone; injecting at least one of overfire air and the vitiated air into the combustion chamber above the oxygen deficient secondary combustion zone forming an oxidizing tertiary combustion zone for thorough mixing and final burnout of combustibles in combustion products of the combustible material; and removing ash from the combustion chamber.

Khinkis, M.J.; Patel, J.G.; Rehmat, H.G.

1992-04-21

446

The role of nuclear energy in reducing U.S. and global greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a perspective on the role that nuclear energy is playing worldwide and in the US towards reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide. In playing a key part in the nation`s electrification over the past 20 years, nuclear energy has also been critical in reducing electric utility greenhouse gas and other atmospheric emissions. In the context of the administration`s Climate Change Action Plan, the improved performance of US nuclear power plants will be the single major contributor towards meeting the year 2000 goal of stabilizing the nation`s greenhouse gas emissions to their 1990 levels.

Fertel, M.S. [Nuclear Economics and Fuel Supply, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, S.M. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

447

40 CFR 600.112-08 - Exhaust sample analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.112-08 Exhaust sample...

2010-07-01

448

Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

Rudey, R. A.

1975-01-01

449

ESTABLISHING THE LINK BETWEEN AMMONIA EMISSION CONTROL AND MEASUREMENTS OF REDUCED NITROGEN  

E-print Network

ESTABLISHING THE LINK BETWEEN AMMONIA EMISSION CONTROL AND MEASUREMENTS OF REDUCED NITROGEN, Slovakia; 10 Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forest and Landscape (SAEFL), Air Pollution Control Division for some time that the atmospheric transport and deposition of reduced nitrogen (NHx), either as ammonia

Aneja, Viney P.

450

Costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the USA and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of possible policy responses can be adopted in order to address the prospect of increasing greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere. These include mitigation measures, that reduce greenhouse gas emissions or enhance the processes that remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, adaptation measures that reduce the consequences or damages from climate change, and information measures, including scientific research

W David Montgomery

1996-01-01

451

Apparatus and method to reduce automotive emissions using filter catalyst interactive with Uego  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for cleansing the gaseous emission stream generated by the combustion of an A/F mixture within cylinders of an internal combustion engine. It comprises a low mass, three-way filter catalyst stationed close to the source of the stream effective to affect substantially the entire emission stream by filtering out random combustion effects within the stream, the filter catalyst being limited in conversion efficiency to less than that of the main catalyst; a high mass, three-way main catalyst stationed downstream of the filter catalyst effective to convert the remainder of noxious emissions in the stream to desired levels; a continuous universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor stationed in the stream between the catalysts effective to symmetrically and accurately indicate the level of oxygen within the stream leaving the filter catalyst within a time response period of less than 60 milliseconds; and proportional control means for adjusting in closed loop the A/F ratio of the mixture in interactive response to a deviation of the sensed oxygen level from a target level.

Anderson, M.J.

1992-01-28

452

Effectiveness of US state policies in reducing CO2 emissions from power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

President Obama's landmark initiative to reduce the CO2 emissions of existing power plants, the nation's largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutants, depends heavily on states and their ability to devise policies that meet the goals set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan, states will be responsible for cutting power plants' carbon pollution 30% from 2005 levels by 2030. States have already adopted several policies to reduce the electricity sector's climate impact. Some of these policies focus on reducing power plants' CO2 emissions, and others address this outcome in a more roundabout fashion by encouraging energy efficiency and renewable energy. However, it remains unclear which, if any, of these direct and indirect strategies actually mitigate plants' emissions because scholars have yet to test their effects using plant-level emission data. Here we use a newly released data source to determine whether states' policies significantly shape individual power plants' CO2 emissions. Findings reveal that certain types of direct strategy (emission caps and GHG targets) and indirect ones (public benefit funds and electric decoupling) lower plants' emissions and thus are viable building blocks of a federal climate regime.

Grant, Don; Bergstrand, Kelly; Running, Katrina

2014-11-01

453

Monsanto: Taking the next environmental step; New technologies are key in reducing emissions  

SciTech Connect

In meeting a 1988 pledge to reduce its worldwide air emissions 90% by the end of 1992, Monsanto completed one of the industry`s most ambitious-and costly-voluntary pollution reduction programs. After $130 million in expenditures and the completion of 250 emission reduction projects, the company had cut its worldwide air emissions 92%, to 5 million lbs, and its U.S. emissions 85%, to 2.7 million lbs. Now Monsanto is looking to take the next step by slashing emission levels of all pollutants. Monsanto has scheduled another round of deadlines that go far beyound regulatory compliance. The company plans on making further reductions, including eliminating the release of waste to underground injection wells, which will likely involve fundamental changes in technology. The company`s goal is to reduce its worldwide toxic chemical releases and transfers to less that 100 million lbs/year by 1995, down 240 million lbs for 1990`s 337 million lbs. Many of Monsanto`s efforts since it made its 1988 pledge have focused on reducing air emissions, because those emissions were the highest. While Monsanto reports about half of its air reductions come from shutdowns of inefficient processes, the 1995 reduction efforts will require increased capital investment for new processes.

Lucas, A.

1994-08-03

454

Pilot study to reduce emissions, improve health, and offset BC emissions through the distribution of improved cook stoves in Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most developing countries, wood and other biomass fuels are still the primary source of energy for the majority of the people, particularly the poor. It is estimated that cook stoves account for approximately 20% of global black carbon emissions. In Nepal 87% of energy is supplied from traditional biomass and 75% of households still depend on biomass as a cooking fuel. The substitution of traditional cook stoves with improved cook stoves provides an important way to reduce black carbon emissions. In 2013 the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has commenced a pilot study that both examines ways to effectively disseminate improved cookstoves across remote rural mountain regions, and also quantifies the resulting changes in emissions, air quality and health. The selected study area is in Bajrabarahi Village in Makawanpur district, to the southwest of Kathmandu. The study area consists of around 1600 households, which are divided into control groups and groups where the cook stove intervention is taking place. The study complements the ';Clean Cooking energy solution for all by 2017' announced by the Government of Nepal recently, and will provide insights to the government on ways to effectively reduce black carbon emissions from cook stoves. To make the study robust and sustainable, local women's group and a local medical institution are involved in the project right from the conceptualization stage. The study region has been chosen in part because the medical school Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has already started a long term health assessment in the region, and has built up considerable local contacts. The local women's group is working on the modality of cook stove distribution through micro credit programmes in the village. We will distribute the best available manufactured, fan-assisted cook stoves that are expected to reduce BC emissions the most. Health assessments, emissions estimates, as well as measurements of indoor and outdoor air quality will be done before and after the stoves are disseminated. Having obtained funds for the purchase of improved cook stoves from Nepal's diesel automobile sector, we compare the emissions of black carbon from the sponsoring diesel vehicles with the reduction in black carbon emissions from the sponsored improved cook stoves, thereby pioneering methods to offset black carbon emissions.

Banmali Pradhan, B.; Panday, A. K.; Surapipith, V.

2013-12-01

455

Effects of reducing SO2 and NOx emission from ships on air quality in Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed simulations with the Alaska-adapted WRF/Chem using the same meteorological conditions of January 2000, but alternatively applying the emissions of 2000 (REF), emissions of 2000 with the ship-emission reductions for the planned North American Emission Contral Area (ECA) for SO2 only (ECA1) and SO2 and NOx (ECA2) that have been proposed by the International Maritime Organization for 2015. The analysis focused on the air quality along the international shipping lanes (ISL), in the ECA and over Alaska (AK). Our goal is to examine how the decreases in ship emissions in the ISL and ECA affect to air quality in Alaska. Our model results show that reducing SO2 and NOx ship-emissions reduces the concentration of sulfur and nitrogen compounds over Alaska despite of no changes in Alaska emissions. The reductions of pollutants over the ISL, ECA and AK stemming from concurrent SO2-NOx ship emission reductions are an order of magnitude of those stemming from SO2 reduction in ship emissions only. Reductions in sulfur compounds reach up to 14km while reductions of nitrogen compounds reach to only about 7km. Reductions of sulfate and nitrate in clouds are highest at the top of the boundary layer. Among the three regions of interest, strongest reductions occur over the ECA and ISL for sulfur and nitrogen compounds, respectively, since the ECA (ISL) has highest reductions of SO2 (NOx). The PM2.5 speciation partitioning over all three regions marginally changes when the ship emissions change. Sulfate is the major component of PM2.5 in all regions. Closer to the land, organic carbon (OC) partitioning is higher indicating the enhancing impacts of inland anthropogenic emissions to total PM2.5 concentrations over land.

Tran, T. T.; Mölders, N.

2011-12-01

456

Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Fiat 131 NA 2.4 liter automobile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a U.S. no. 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. The vehicle was tested with retarded timing and with and without an oxidation catalyst. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that while the catalyst was generally effective in reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels, it was also a factor in increasing particulate emissions. Increased particulate emission rates were particularly evident when the vehicle was operated on the European fuel which has a high sulfur content.

Quayle, S. S.; Davis, M. M.; Walter, R. A.

1981-01-01

457

Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector  

PubMed Central

Background Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies. Results The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Conclusion Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets. PMID:17062161

Yoshida, Yukiko

2006-01-01

458

Hydration of Gases to Reduce Major Greenhouse Gases Emission into the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technology on replacement methane (CH4) from natural gas hydrate (NGH) with carbon dioxide (CO2) is described. And the technology is demonstrated in theoretics and experiment, respectively. Moreover, combined with the main emission channel of CH4 in coal industry, the reducing emission technology of coalbed methane(CBM) based on hydration is narrated. The formation and dissociation technique of CH4 hydrates are

Xu Feng; Zhu Lihua; Wu Qiang

2009-01-01

459

Removal of Sulfur from Natural Gas to Reduce Particulate Matter Emission from a Turbine Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work investigates the effect of natural gas fuel sulfur on particulate emissions from stationary gas turbine engines used for electricity generation. Fuel sulfur from standard line gas was scrubbed using a system of fluidized reactor beds containing a specially designed activated carbon purpose built for sulfur absorption. A sulfur injection system using sonic orifices was designed and constructed to inject methyl mercaptan into the scrubbed gas stream at varying concentrations. Using these systems, particulate emissions created by various fuel sulfur levels between 0 and 8.3 ppmv were investigated. Particulate samples were collected from a Capstone C65 microturbine generator system using a Horiba MDLT-1302TA micro dilution tunnel and analyzed using a Horiba MEXA-1370PM particulate analyzer. In addition, ambient air samples were collected to determine incoming particulate levels in the combustion air. The Capstone C65 engine air filter was also tested for particulate removal efficiency by sampling downstream of the filter. To further differentiate the particulate entering the engine in the combustion air from particulate being emitted from the exhaust stack, two high efficiency HEPA filters were installed to eliminate a large portion of incoming particulate. Variable fuel sulfur testing showed that there was a strong correlation between total particulate emission factor and fuel sulfur concentration. Using eleven variable sulfur tests, it was determined that an increase of 1 ppmv fuel sulfur will produce an increase of approximately 3.2 microg/m3 total particulate. Also, the correlation also predicted that, for this particular engine, the total particulate emission factor for zero fuel sulfur was approximately 19.1 microg/m3. With the EC and OC data removed, the correlation became 3.1 microg/m3 of sulfur particulate produced for each ppmv of fuel sulfur. The correlation also predicted that with no fuel sulfur present, 6.6 microg/m3 of particulate will be produced by sulfur passing through the engine air filter.

Spang, Brent Loren

460

Increasing leaf temperature reduces the suppression of isoprene emission by elevated CO? concentration.  

PubMed

Including algorithms to account for the suppression of isoprene emission by elevated CO2 concentration affects estimates of global isoprene emission for future climate change scenarios. In this study, leaf-level measurements of isoprene emission were made to determine the short-term interactive effect of leaf temperature and CO2 concentration. For both greenhouse plants and plants grown under field conditions, the suppression of isoprene emission was reduced by increasing leaf temperature. For each of the four different tree species investigated, aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), cottonwood (Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and tundra dwarf willow (Salix pulchra Cham.), the suppression of isoprene by elevated CO2 was eliminated at increased temperature, and the maximum temperature where suppression was observed ranged from 25 to 35°C. Hypotheses proposed to explain the short-term suppression of isoprene emission by increased CO2 concentration were tested against this observation. Hypotheses related to cofactors in the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway were consistent with reduced suppression at elevated leaf temperature. Also, reduced solubility of CO2 with increased temperature can explain the reduced suppression for the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase competition hypothesis. Some global models of isoprene emission include the short-term suppression effect, and should be modified to include the observed interaction. If these results are consistent at longer timescales, there are implications for predicting future global isoprene emission budgets and the reduced suppression at increased temperature could explain some of the variable responses observed in long-term CO2 exposure experiments. PMID:24614154

Potosnak, Mark J; Lestourgeon, Lauren; Nunez, Othon

2014-05-15

461

Investigation of NOx Removal from Small Engine Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

1999-01-01

462

Investigation of NO(x) Removal from Small Engine Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of NO can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

1999-01-01

463

Global disparity in the ecological benefits of reducing carbon emissions for coral reefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even if carbon emissions are reduced drastically in the next decade the amount of carbon already stored in the atmosphere would lead to the occurrence of extreme thermal events every three to four years between 2040 and 2080. This time lag on the effect of reducing emissions suggests that the benefits of carbon emission reduction on the health of coral reefs will be noticeable only in the long term. Here, we use a spatially explicit ecosystem model to compare the potential ecosystem benefits that Caribbean and Pacific reefs could gain from reductions in carbon emissions, and the timescale of these benefits. We found that whereas the effect of a reduction in emissions on Caribbean reefs will be modest and realized only in the long term (more than 60 years), Pacific reefs would start to show benefits within the first half of this century. Moreover, it seems that Pacific reefs have the potential to maintain their ecological integrity and ecosystem state in the mid- to long term if carbon emissions are reduced, but only if plate-like corals are present.

Ortiz, Juan Carlos; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Wolff, Nicholas H.; Doropoulos, Christopher; Mumby, Peter J.

2014-12-01

464

Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

1976-01-01

465

Reducing 1,3-dichloropropene emissions from soil columns amended with thiourea.  

PubMed

Soil fumigants are becoming an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, especially in some agricultural areas. In this study, we used thiourea to construct a reactive surface barrier (RSB) at the soil surface for reducing 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) volatilization. The agrochemical thiourea could rapidly transform volatile 1,3-D to nonvolatile products via an SN2 nucleophilic substitution reaction. A catalytic mechanism in thiourea-amended soil facilitated the conversion process. A packed soil column system was employed to investigate the emissions and distribution of 1,3-D and optimize the original fumigant emission-reduction strategy. Volatilization of 1,3-D from the soil surface was significantly reduced in columns amended with a thiourea RSB compared with that of bare soil. Volatilization flux and cumulative emissions decreased with increasing thiourea application rate and increasing fumigation depth in packed soil columns. Surface amendment with the RSB did not affect the subsurface distribution of 1,3-D in the soil profile. Combined application of a thiourea RSB and plastic tarps had a synergetic effect in emission control and could eliminate the relatively high fumigant flux that occurs upon tarp disruption. Therefore, this reduced-risk practice was very effective in reducing atmospheric emissions of VOCs from soil treatment with halogenated fumigants. PMID:16646481

Zheng, Wei; Yates, Scott R; Papiernik, Sharon K; Wang, Qiquan

2006-04-01

466

Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

2011-12-22

467

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

SciTech Connect

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25

468

Emission control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved emission control apparatus for use with an internal combustion engine. It comprises: the apparatus having an enclosed cylindrical housing with an inlet at one end thereof for connection with the exhaust of the engine and an outlet at the opposite end thereof; converter means being mounted in the housing for reducing noxious gases emitted from

1991-01-01

469

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of hig