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1

Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

Mikkonen, Seppo

2

The Economic Effectiveness of Mandatory Engine Maintenance for Reducing Vehicle Exhaust Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made of the feasibility of controlling exhaust emissions through a program of mandatory vehicle inspection and maintenance. Exhaust emission quantities, i.e., levels and reductions, were estimated based on a constant volume sampling (...

1972-01-01

3

Exhaust Emission Catalyst Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies, incorporating the platinum group metals, are available to meet the exhaust emission regulations for cars, light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles and motorcycles being adopted by the European Union for implementation during the new century. These technologies include low light-off catalysts, more themlly-durable catalysts, impmved substrate technology, hydrocarbon adsorbers, electrically heated catalysts, DeNOx catalysts and adsorbers, selective catalytic reduction and

Dirk Bosteels; Robert A. Searles

4

Plasma Technologies for Reducing CO2 Emissions From Combustion Exhaust with Toxic Admixtures to Utilisable Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method reported here provides a contribution to CO2 and combustion exhaust utilisation. A multifunctional system for gas removal was tested on various sources of exhaust (internal\\u000a combustion engine, brown coal boiler, bituminous pulverised coal boiler, gas boiler, glass oven, VOC sources) in full-scale\\u000a or by-pass gas flow volumes.\\u000a \\u000a A spontaneously-pulsing, direct-current electric discharge operating in a corona geometry was

M. Morvová; F. Hanic; I. Morva

2000-01-01

5

MTW zeolites for reducing cold-start emissions of automotive exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly strict environmental legislations have led to the need for better control of vehicle cold-start emissions. In this research work, a series of one-dimensional channel molecular sieves with 12 oxygen ring apertures (12R) having MTW structure (MTW is the designation for ZSM-12 in the IZA nomenclature of zeolite structures), have been synthesized and characterized by different techniques such as: XRD,

Z. Sarshar; M. H. Zahedi-Niaki; Q. Huang; M. Ei?; S. Kaliaguine

2009-01-01

6

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Automobile Engine Adjustments to Reduce Exhaust Emissions and An Evaluation of the Training Required to Develop Personnel Competent to Make the Adjustments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to explore two approaches for the control of exhaust emissions from used motor vehicles. The first approach involved the upgrading of Class A stations with exhaust analyzers and the training of Class A mechanics to perform low-emissi...

J. L. Cockel

1973-01-01

7

Algal biodiesel production from power plant exhaust and its potential to replace petrodiesel and reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of biofuels and other products from algae is a technology that is rapidly developing. This paper presents an overview of algae, its benefits over other biofuel sources and the technology involved in producing algal biofuel. The case study in this report looks at the potential of algal biodiesel, produced using power plant exhaust, to replace our current petrodiesel

K. Hundt; B. V. Reddy

2011-01-01

8

14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

2013-01-01

9

Using electrostatic precipitation to control diesel exhaust particulate emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thousands of miners, construction workers, and truck drivers are exposed to diesel exhaust particles. Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) is a probable human carcinogen and stringent occupational and environmental standards have been established or are planned worldwide. Modifications in fuels and diesel engine designs have reduced emissions, but may not be enough to comply with the tightest standards. Post-combustion aftertreatment devices

A. Farnoud; C. Huang; A. J. Armendariz

2008-01-01

10

14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

2013-01-01

11

Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NOx abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines

D. A Cooper

2001-01-01

12

A diesel engine's performance and exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper determines, using artificial neural-networks (ANNs), the performance of and exhaust emissions from a diesel engine with respect to injection pressure, engine speed and throttle position. The design injection-pressure of the diesel engine, for the turbocharger and pre-combustion chamber used, is 150 bar. Experiments have been performed for four pressures, namely 100, 150, 200 and 250 bar with throttle

Erol Arcaklio?lu; ?smet Çel?kten

2005-01-01

13

The effect of adding dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethanol to unleaded gasoline on exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen containing additives are usually used to improve gasoline’s performance and reduce exhaust emissions. In this study, the effect of oxygen containing additives on gasoline blended fuels on exhaust emissions was investigated for different engine speeds in a single cylinder, four-stroke, spark-ignition engine. The results indicate that CO and HC exhaust emissions are lower with the use of ethanol–gasoline and

Lan-bin Wen; Chen-Ying Xin; Shyue-Cheng Yang

2010-01-01

14

Tumorigenesis of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and related emission extracts on SENCAR mouse skin  

SciTech Connect

The tumorigenicity of diesel exhaust particulate emissions was examined using a sensitive mouse skin tumorigenesis model (SENCAR). The tumorigenic potency of particulate emissions from diesel, gasoline, and related emission sources was compared.

Nesnow, S.; Triplett, L.L.; Slaga, T.J.

1980-01-01

15

40 CFR 86.544-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.544-90 Section... Omass = Nitrous oxide emissions, in grams per test phase. (ii) Density N2O = Density of nitrous oxide...Sample calculation of mass emission values for...

2013-07-01

16

PLT 27 Gas Turbine Engine Exhaust Emission and Noise Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PLT 27 gas turbine engine exhaust gas and noise were measured and analyzed. The results of the exhaust gas emission analysis show that the exhaust gases have a low content of unburned combustion products, i.e., hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, down to id...

P. M. Rubins E. Auerbach J. A. Deman

1974-01-01

17

40 CFR 91.104 - Exhaust emission standards for outboard and personal watercraft engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following exhaust emission standards for HC+NOX . The exhaust emission standard for...compliance with the corporate average HC+NOX exhaust emission standard. Hydrocarbon...kilowatt-hour] Model year P NOX emission standard by model year...

2012-07-01

18

Exhaust emission control through a hydrogen peroxide fuel augmentation system  

SciTech Connect

A system for improving efficiency and reducing harmful emissions in an internal combustion engine and for allowing the engine to run in oxygen poor environments. An oxidant, such as hydrogen peroxide, is introduced into the induction air stream of the engine. A controller senses the temperature and oxygen level in the exhaust stream of the engine and operates a valve to vary the amount of oxidant introduced to maintain maximum efficiency and minimum emissions. The oxidant provides for near stoichiometric combustion to reduce combustion products and reduce the engine`s air requirements. The reduced air requirements allow for operation of the engine in oxygen poor environments, such as operation at high altitudes. Water is added to the oxidant to cool the stoichiometric combustion temperature to prevent excessive engine wear and to further block the formation of oxides of nitrogen.

Duva, A.W.

1996-06-24

19

Catalytic control of mutagenic exhaust emissions from gasoline passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of exhaust emissions from passenger cars equipped with conventional and lean-burn gasoline engines were tested for PAHs, NPAHs and mutagenicity. When installed with an appropriate three-way or oxidation catalyst very large reductions in each of these measurements were observed. Engine exhaust emissions contain hydrocarbons which are potentially hazardous to human health. Although there is an extensive database on the

B. J. Cooper; P. R. Shore

1989-01-01

20

Reduced Radar Cross Section Exhaust Nozzle Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exhaust nozzle assembly includes a plurality of interfitting flap assemblies that are moveable between a maximum area ratio and a minimum area ratio. Each of the pluralities of flap assemblies includes a slot and a wing. The wing fits within an adjacen...

J. Allore J. A. Arbona M. Harris S. Laporte

2005-01-01

21

Progress and future challenges in controlling automotive exhaust gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the early 1970s increased use of cars in some major cities had resulted in serious concerns about urban air quality caused by engine exhaust gas emissions themselves, and by the more harmful species derived from them via photochemical reactions. The three main exhaust gas pollutants are hydrocarbons (including partially oxidised organic compounds), carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Engine modifications

Martyn V. Twigg

2007-01-01

22

DEVELOPMENT OF A PROPORTIONAL SAMPLER FOR AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of a device that is capable of sampling gaseous emissions from automobiles. The device samples exhaust gases at a mass rate that is proportional to the total exhaust gas mass flow rate, which is measured using an ultrasonic vortex flowmeter. T...

23

Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

2003-03-01

24

40 CFR 1054.240 - How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards...ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Certifying Emission Families § 1054.240 How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission...

2013-07-01

25

Exhaust system with emissions storage device and plasma reactor  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system for a combustion system, comprising a storage device for collecting NO.sub.x, hydrocarbon, or particulate emissions, or mixture of these emissions, and a plasma reactor for destroying the collected emissions is described. After the emission is collected in by the storage device for a period of time, the emission is then destroyed in a non-thermal plasma generated by the plasma reactor. With respect to the direction of flow of the exhaust stream, the storage device must be located before the terminus of the plasma reactor, and it may be located wholly before, overlap with, or be contained within the plasma reactor.

Hoard, John W. (Livonia, MI)

1998-01-01

26

Exhaust Emissions From In-Use Alternative Fuel Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines exhaust emissions from 11 vehicles tested on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline fuels (22 vehicle\\/ fuel combinations). The paper highlights ozone precursor and toxic emissions. Emission rates from some of the presumably well-maintained, low-mileage test vehicles were higher than expected, but fuel effects were consistent with findings of similar studies. Aggregate

Peter Gabele

1995-01-01

27

40 CFR 87.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

2012-07-01

28

40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. 86.160-00...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. (a)...

2013-07-01

29

Measurement of automobile exhaust emissions under realistic road conditions  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas measurement system for on-board use has been developed, which enables the direct and continuous determination of the exhaust mass emissions in vehicles on the road. Such measurements under realistic traffic conditions are a valuable supplement to measurements taken on test benches, the latter, however, still being necessary. In the last two years numerous test runs were undertaken. The reliability of the on-board system could be demonstrated and a very informative view of the exhaust emissions behavior of a vehicle on the road was obtained from the test results.

Staab, J.; Schurmann, D.

1987-01-01

30

Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator  

DOEpatents

A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle, which imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure to adjust flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

31

Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator  

DOEpatents

A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle and imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure thereby adjusting flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2003-04-22

32

Comparative exhaust emission study of diesel and CNG fuel buses of Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the exhaust emissions emitted by the Diesel buses of Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation and suggestions to reduce the emission levels by the use of an alternative clean fuel CNG. The pollution loads have been calculated and compared by considering usage of the Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in place of conventional diesel buses. In this study,

Shivaji Bhandarkar

2011-01-01

33

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-01-01

34

Effects of fuel type, driving cycle, and emission status on in-use vehicle exhaust reactivity.  

PubMed

The introduction of reformulated gasolines significantly reduced exhaust hydrocarbon (HC) mass emissions, but few data are available concerning how these new fuels affect exhaust reactivity. Similarly, while it is well established that high-emitting vehicles contribute a significant portion of total mobile source HC mass emissions, it is also important to evaluate the exhaust reactivity from these vehicles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative influence on in-use vehicle exhaust reactivity of three critical factors: fuel, driving cycle, and vehicle emission status. Nineteen in-use vehicles were tested with seven randomly assigned fuel types and two driving cycles: the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Unified Cycle (UC). Total exhaust reactivity was not statistically different between the FTP and UC cycles but was significantly affected by fuel type. On average, the exhaust reactivity for California Phase 2 fuel was the lowest (16% below the highest fuel type) among the seven fuels tested for cold start emissions. The average exhaust reactivity for high-emitting vehicles was significantly higher for hot stabilized (11%) and hot start (15%) emissions than for low-emitting vehicles. The exhaust reactivities for the FTP and UC cycles for light-end HCs and carbonyls were significantly different for the hot stabilized mode. There was a significant fuel effect on the mean specific reactivity (SR) for the mid-range HCs, but not for light-end HCs or carbonyls, while vehicle emission status affected the mean SR for all three HC compound classes. PMID:9706039

Ho, J; Winer, A M

1998-07-01

35

Exhaust emissions from ships at berth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission measurements have been carried out on board six ships at berth during normal real-world operation (hotelling, unloading and loading activities). The study included three passenger ferries, one transoceanic container/ro-ro, one transoceanic car/truck carrier, and one chemical tanker. Emissions were measured from 22 auxiliary engines (AEs, medium and high-speed marine diesels) covering seven engine models and ranging in size from 720 to 2675 kW maximum output. The fuels varied from low sulphur gasoils ( 2.91 cst viscosity) through to residual oils ( 411 cst viscosity). Both specific emission factors ( g kWh -1) at a given engine load and total emissions (kg) of nitrogen oxides (NO x), sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, particulate matter (PM) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons during actual harbour stops were determined. In addition, some preliminary measurements to investigate PM size distributions were undertaken. The specific emissions showed significant variations between the different engine models and also within the same engine model on board the same ship. For example NO x emissions varied between 9.6 and 20.2 g kWh corr-1 between all engines and 14.2- 18.6 g kWh corr-1 between engines of the same model and fuel. Other emissions from boiler use and possible main engine warm-up prior to departure were in general expected to be considerably less than those from the AEs. The results obtained for the three passenger ferries demonstrate that empirically derived, emission formulae using dead weight tonnage can prove to be a cost-effective and accurate tool for harbour emission inventories.

Cooper, D. A.

36

Non-exhaust emissions of PM and the efficiency of emission reduction by road sweeping and washing in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

From research on PM(2.5) and PM(10) in 2007/2008 in the Netherlands, it was concluded that the coarse fraction (PM(2.5-10)) attributed 60% and 50% respectively, to the urban-regional and street-urban increments of PM(10). Contrary to Scandinavian and Mediterranean countries which exhibit significant seasonal variation in the coarse fraction of particulate matter (PM), in the Netherlands the coarse fraction in PM at a street location is rather constant during the year. Non-exhaust emissions by road traffic are identified as the main source for coarse PM in urban areas. Non-exhaust emissions mainly originate from re-suspension of accumulated deposited PM and road wear related particles, while primary tire and brake wear hardly contribute to the mass of non-exhaust emissions. However, tire and brake wear can clearly be identified in the total mass through the presence of the heavy metals: zinc, a tracer for tire wear and copper, a tracer for brake wear. The efficiency of road sweeping and washing to reduce non-exhaust emissions in a street-canyon in Amsterdam was investigated. The increments of the coarse fraction at a kerbside location and a housing façade location versus the urban background were measured at days with and without sweeping and washing. It was concluded that this measure did not significantly reduce non-exhaust emissions. PMID:20627203

Keuken, Menno; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; van der Valk, Karin

2010-07-11

37

14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission...emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1)...

2013-01-01

38

Exhaust emissions from ships at berth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission measurements have been carried out on board six ships at berth during normal real-world operation (hotelling, unloading and loading activities). The study included three passenger ferries, one transoceanic container\\/ro-ro, one transoceanic car\\/truck carrier, and one chemical tanker. Emissions were measured from 22 auxiliary engines (AEs, medium and high-speed marine diesels) covering seven engine models and ranging in size from

D. A. Cooper

2003-01-01

39

Catalytic control of mutagenic exhaust emissions from gasoline passenger cars  

SciTech Connect

Extracts of exhaust emissions from passenger cars equipped with conventional and lean-burn gasoline engines were tested for PAHs, NPAHs and mutagenicity. When installed with an appropriate three-way or oxidation catalyst very large reductions in each of these measurements were observed. Engine exhaust emissions contain hydrocarbons which are potentially hazardous to human health. Although there is an extensive database on the levels of mutagenic hydrocarbons in diesel particulate, much less data are available for modern gasoline engines. The study discussed in this paper addresses this with particular reference to the effect of exhaust catalysts on potentially harmful hydrocarbon species emitted by conventional and lean-burn gasoline engines. The effects over the European Extra-Urban Cycle are also addressed.

Cooper, B.J.; Shore, P.R.

1989-01-01

40

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks...exhaust formaldehyde sample, ml. (viii)(A) Q = Ratio of molecular weights of formaldehyde to its DNPH derivative. (B)...

2009-07-01

41

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks...exhaust formaldehyde sample, ml. (viii)(A) Q = Ratio of molecular weights of formaldehyde to its DNPH derivative. (B)...

2010-07-01

42

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

2012-07-01

43

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

2013-07-01

44

Reduce claus sulfur emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating efficiency of the world's more than 400 sulfur recovery plants must be increased to reduce sulfur emission. Unusually strict controls are being proclaimed by many governmental bodies which require careful design of new plants and improved operation of all plants to minimize side reactions and develop maximum recoveries. The Claus Process must be augmented with more reactors or other

1972-01-01

45

40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.23 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. This section describes...

2012-07-01

46

40 CFR 1037.241 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. 1037.241 Section 1037.241 Protection...Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards for greenhouse gas pollutants. (a) For purposes of...

2013-07-01

47

Reduced emissions and fuel consumption in automobile engines  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the underlying processes which cause pollutant emissions and explores possibilities for their reduction. Topics include: causes of pollutants and their toxicity; design features which influence pollutant emissions and fuel consumption; engine-related measures which reduce pollutant emissions; exhaust after treatment methods; the influence of fuel and lubricants on emissions and fuel consumption; problems with CO{sub 2} emissions; and laws regulating the emissions of pollutants and maximum fuel consumption of combustion engines (United States, Europe, and Japan).

Schaefer, F.S.; Basshuysen, R. van

1995-12-31

48

Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M. (Center for Environmental Research and Technology College of Engineering, University of California - Riverside, California)

1998-11-19

49

Generic methods for aero-engine exhaust emission prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the thesis, generic methods have been developed for aero-engine combustor performance, combustion chemistry, as well as airplane aerodynamics, airplane and engine performance. These methods specifically aim to support\\u000adiverse emission prediction studies coupled with airplane and engine simulation. Models for the engine exhaust composition can be either selected from existing methods or composed from the algorithms for combustor performance

S. A. Shakariyants

2008-01-01

50

Hydrocarbon emissions speciation in diesel and biodiesel exhausts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel engine emissions are composed of a long list of organic compounds, ranging from C 2 to C 12+, and coming from the hydrocarbons partially oxidized in combustion or produced by pyrolisis. Many of these are considered as ozone precursors in the atmosphere, since they can interact with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone under atmospheric conditions in the presence of sunlight. In addition to problematic ozone production, Brookes, P., and Duncan, M. [1971. Carcinogenic hydrocarbons and human cells in culture. Nature.] and Heywood, J. [1988. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Mc Graw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-1000499-8.] determined that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in exhaust gases are dangerous to human health, being highly carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to identify by means of gas chromatography the amount of each hydrocarbon species present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines operating with different biodiesel blends. The levels of reactive and non-reactive hydrocarbons present in diesel engine exhaust gases powered by different biodiesel fuel blends were also analyzed. Detailed speciation revealed a drastic change in the nature and quantity of semi-volatile compounds when biodiesel fuels are employed, the most affected being the aromatic compounds. Both aromatic and oxygenated aromatic compounds were found in biodiesel exhaust. Finally, the conservation of species for off-side analysis and the possible influence of engine operating conditions on the chemical characterization of the semi-volatile compound phase are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuel blends shows a reduction in the Engine-Out emissions of total hydrocarbons. But the potential of the hydrocarbon emissions is more dependent on the compositions of these hydrocarbons in the Engine-Out, to the quantity; a large percent of hydrocarbons existing in the exhaust, when biodiesel blends are used, are partially burned hydrocarbons, and are interesting as they have the maximum reactivity, but with the use of pure biodiesel and diesel, the most hydrocarbons are from unburned fuel and they have a less reactivity. The best composition in the fuel, for the control of the hydrocarbon emissions reactivity, needs to be a fuel with high-saturated fatty acid content.

Payri, Francisco; Bermúdez, Vicente R.; Tormos, Bernardo; Linares, Waldemar G.

51

Hot exhaust gases with passive FTIR emission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive FTIR emission spectroscopy using a commercial medium resolution instrument with a telescope has been applied to analyze the hot exhaust gases of various combustion sources, such as industrial and building smoke stacks, aircraft engines, flares, and forest fires. To interpret the remotely measured spectra a multi-layer, line-by-line spectra retrieval software using the molecular spectral databases HITRAN and HITEMP has been developed, validated and successfully used to determine the exhaust gas temperatures and the concentrations of CO2, H2O, CO, N2O, CH4, NO, NO2, SO2, and HCl for different combustion conditions of the sources. In this paper the feasibility and the setup of passive IR measurements, the basic theory of radiative transfer and special features of the commercially available spectra analysis code are described. In addition, the results of the different measurement applications are summarized.

Heland, Joerg; Schaefer, Klaus; Haus, Rainer

1998-12-01

52

Parametric modeling of exhaust gas emission from natural gas fired gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

Increased focus on air pollution from gas turbines in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea has resulted in taxes on CO{sub 2}. Statements made by the Norwegian authorities imply regulations and/or taxes on NO{sub x} emissions in the near future. The existing CO{sub 2} tax of NOK 0.82/Sm{sup 3} (US Dollars 0.12/Sm{sup 3}) and possible future tax on NO{sub x} are analyzed mainly with respect to operating and maintenance costs for the gas turbine. Depending on actual tax levels, the machine should be operated on full load/optimum thermal efficiency or part load to reduce specific exhaust emissions. Based on field measurements, exhaust emissions (CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, UHC, etc.) are established with respect to load and gas turbine performance, including performance degradation. Different NO{sub x} emission correlations are analyzed based on test results, and a proposed prediction model presented. The impact of machinery performance degradation on emission levels is particularly analyzed. Good agreement is achieved between measured and predicted NO{sub x} emissions from the proposed correlation. To achieve continuous exhaust emission control, the proposed NO{sub x} model is implemented to the on-line condition monitoring system on the Sleipner A platform, rather than introducing sensitive emission sensors in the exhaust gas stack. The on-line condition monitoring system forms an important tool in detecting machinery condition/degradation and air pollution, and achieving optimum energy conservation.

Bakken, L.E.; Skogly, L.

1996-07-01

53

40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

2013-07-01

54

Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions

Liesbeth Schrooten; Ina De Vlieger; Filip Lefebre; Rudi Torfs

2006-01-01

55

Marine Technologies for Reduced Emissions1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The exhaust emissions from ships are best controlled through optimisation of ship design and operation, in other words by consideration of the ship as part of a whole transportation system. This paper reviews several aspects of ship design and operation which influence the level of exhaust emissions from ships. The paper also outlines the various technologies available, being developed

Heinrich Schmid; German Weisser

56

40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines. 1042.104 Section 1042.104 ...IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related...Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines. (a) Duty-cycle standards....

2010-07-01

57

40 CFR 1066.610 - Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission...PROCEDURES Calculations § 1066.610 Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations. (a) Calculate your total mass of emissions over a test cycle as...

2013-07-01

58

Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.  

PubMed

A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ? 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models. PMID:22894824

Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

2012-09-12

59

Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in

Nidal H. Abu-Hamdeh

2003-01-01

60

Application of hybrid evolutionary algorithms to low exhaust emission diesel engine design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid evolutionary algorithm, consisting of a genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), is proposed. Generally, GAs maintain diverse solutions of good quality in multi-objective problems, while PSO shows fast convergence to the optimum solution. By coupling these algorithms, GA will compensate for the low diversity of PSO, while PSO will compensate for the high computational costs of GA. The hybrid algorithm was validated using standard test functions. The results showed that the hybrid algorithm has better performance than either a pure GA or pure PSO. The method was applied to an engineering design problem—the geometry of diesel engine combustion chamber reducing exhaust emissions such as NOx, soot and CO was optimized. The results demonstrated the usefulness of the present method to this engineering design problem. To identify the relation between exhaust emissions and combustion chamber geometry, data mining was performed with a self-organising map (SOM). The results indicate that the volume near the lower central part of the combustion chamber has a large effect on exhaust emissions and the optimum chamber geometry will vary depending on fuel injection angle.

Jeong, S.; Obayashi, S.; Minemura, Y.

2008-01-01

61

Studies on exhaust emissions of catalytic coated spark ignition engine with adulterated gasoline.  

PubMed

Adulteration of automotive fuels, especially, gasoline with cheaper fuels is widespread throughout south Asia. Some adulterants decrease the performance and life of the engine and increase the emission of harmful pollutants causing environmental and health problems. The present investigation is carried out to study the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine with kerosene blended gasoline with different versions of the engine, such as conventional engine and catalytic coated engine with different proportions of the kerosene ranging from 0% to 40% by volume in steps of 10% in the kerosene-gasoline blend. The catalytic coated engine used in the study has copper coating of thickness 400 microns on piston and inner surface of the cylinder head. The pollutants in the exhaust, carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC) are measured with Netel Chromatograph CO and HC analyzer at peak load operation of the engine. The engine is provided with catalytic converter with sponge iron as a catalyst to control the pollutants from the exhaust of the engine. An air injection is also provided to the catalytic converter to further reduce the pollutants. The pollutants found to increase drastically with adulterated gasoline. Copper-coated engine with catalytic converter significantly reduced pollutants, when compared to conventional engine. PMID:17913184

Muralikrishna, M V S; Kishor, K; Venkata Ramana Reddy, Ch

2006-04-01

62

40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and...

2012-07-01

63

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26

64

Innovative Metallic Substrates for Exhaust Emission Challenges for Gasoline and Diesel Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly stricter emission standards for gasoline and diesel engines accelerated the exhaust aftertreatment industry to develop high efficiency catalysts with innovative substrates. Engineers face thermodynamic and thermal management challenges to achieve system emission, noise and back pressure targets at minimum costs. This paper describes advanced substrate technology for exhaust after treatment systems for gasoline and diesel engines. The first part

Klaus Müller-Haas; Mike Rice

65

TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS (RATS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the objective of evaluating the potential for diesel exhaust emissions to produce malformations in rat fetuses. The dams were exposed by the inhalation route to a 10% concentration of diesel exhaust emissions in inhalation chambers on days...

66

TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS (RABBITS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the objective of evaluating the potential for diesel exhaust emissions to produce malformations in rabbit fetuses. The pregnant does were exposed by the inhalation route to a 10% concentration of diesel exhaust emissions in inhalation cham...

67

40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing...of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing...Starting with the 2012 model year for carbon-related exhaust emissions and with...

2013-07-01

68

Effects of ethanol and/or methanol in alcohol-gasoline blends on exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss the effect on exhaust gas emissions (carbon monoxide, CO, hydrocarbons, HC, and aldehydes, CHO) resulting from mixing methanol and/or ethanol with gasoline for automotive fuels studied experimentally. Tests were conducted on an OEM four-cylinder engine running at different conditions of equivalence ratio and spark timing. Fuel blends with different percentages of alcohol content and different ratios of methanol to ethanol in the alcohol mixture were tested. Results of this investigation indicate that the presence of either or both of the alcohols in fuel blends significantly reduced the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust emissions (up to 40-50 percent compared to pure gasoline only), with methanol slightly more effective than ethanol. Hydrocarbon emissions were also decreased by increasing the alcohol content of the fuel, with minimum hydrocarbon production occurring at percent alcohol-gasoline blends in conjunction with near-stoichiometric air-fuel ratios. However, aldehyde emissions were found to be markedly higher with alcohol-gasoline blends. The 10 percent alcohol-gasoline blends were found to produce about 50 percent more aldehyde emissions than pure gasoline.

Beta, R.M. (College of Engineering, Clemson Univ. Clemson, S.C. (US)); Roan, V.P. (College of Engineering, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (US))

1989-07-01

69

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations...EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures...Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

2013-07-01

70

40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles. 86.1708-99 Section 86...Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1708-99 Exhaust...

2010-07-01

71

40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles. 86.1708-99 Section 86...Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1708-99 Exhaust...

2009-07-01

72

40 CFR 1048.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards...SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1048.240 How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission...

2013-07-01

73

40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards...ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine Families § 1045.240 How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission...

2013-07-01

74

40 CFR 1039.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1039.240 How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission...

2013-07-01

75

Toxicological Assessment of Particulate Emissions from the Exhaust of Old and New Model Heavy- and Light-Duty Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this project is to develop an improved understanding of the factors affecting the toxicology of particulate exhaust emissions. Diesel particulate matter is a known carcinogen, and particulate exhaust emissions from both light-duty...

A. Polidori C. Sioutas K. Moore

2011-01-01

76

Effectiveness of mandated oxygenated fuel usage to reduce carbon monoxide exhaust levels in Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of Colorado Automobile Inspection and Readjustment (A.I.R.) two-speed exhaust emissions testing results was undertaken to evaluate changes in carbon monoxide exhaust levels due to the use of oxygenated fuels. Vehicles utilized within the study were separated according to their various emission control technologies: precatalyst (1938 to 1974), catalyst (1975 to 1980), and closed-loop (1981 to 1988). It was

Cagle

1989-01-01

77

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES  

SciTech Connect

Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus networks.

COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

2003-08-24

78

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhaust sample or, for diesel-cycle (or methanol-fueled...sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction...exhaust volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction...the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, in...

2011-07-01

79

Exhaust emission testing of two ethanol variable fueled 1992 Chevrolet Luminas. Test results - 1993. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the exhaust emission testing results for two 1992 low-mileage Chevrolet Lumina ethanol variable fuel vehicles. The vehicles were tested on both Indolene and E85 fuel using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for exhaust emissions. In the future, the EPA will retest the Luminas at future mileage accumulations of 20,000, 50,000 and possibly 100,000. At these future mileage accumulations, the vehicles will also be tested using intermediate fuel blends for both exhaust and evaporative emissions.

Samulski, M.

1994-01-01

80

Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): I. Exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present global emission projections of primary particulate matter (PM) from exhaust of on-road vehicles under four commonly-used global fuel use scenarios from 2010 to 2050. The projections are based on a dynamic model of vehicle population linked to emission characteristics, SPEW-Trend. Unlike previous models of global emissions, this model incorporates more details on the technology stock, including the vehicle type and age, and the number of emitters with very high emissions ("superemitters"). However, our estimates of vehicle growth are driven by changes in predicted fuel consumption from macroeconomic scenarios, ensuring that PM projections are consistent with these scenarios. Total emissions are then obtained by integrating emissions of heterogeneous vehicle groups of all ages and types. Changes in types of vehicles in use are governed by retirement rates, timing of emission standards and the rate at which superemitters develop from normal vehicles. Retirement rates are modeled as a function of vehicle age and income level with a relationship based on empirical data, capturing the fact that people with lower income tend to keep vehicles longer. Adoption dates of emission standards are either estimated from planned implementation or from income levels.We project that global PM emissions range from 1100 Gg to 1360 Gg in 2030, depending on the scenario. An emission decrease is estimated until 2035 because emission standards are implemented and older engines built to lower standards are phased out. From 2010 to 2050, fuel consumption increases in all regions except North America, Europe and Pacific, according to all scenarios. Global emission intensities decrease continuously under all scenarios for the first 30 years due to the introduction of more advanced and cleaner emission standards. This leads to decreasing emissions from most regions. Emissions are expected to increase significantly in only Africa (1.2-3.1% per year). Because we have tied emission standards to income levels, Africa introduces those standards 30-40 years later than other regions and thus makes a remarkable contribution to the global emissions in 2050 (almost half). All Asian regions (South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia) have a decreasing fractional contribution to global totals, from 32% in 2030 to around 22% in 2050. Total emissions from normal vehicles can decrease 1.3-2% per year. However, superemitters have a large effect on emission totals. They can potentially contribute more than 50% of global emissions around 2020, which suggests that they should be specifically addressed in modeling and mitigation policies. As new vehicles become cleaner, the majority of on-road emissions will come from the legacy fleet. This work establishes a modeling framework to explore policies targeted at that fleet.

Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Jung, Soonkyu; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

2011-09-01

81

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motor vehicle fuels and exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions. Improved understanding of the relationship between fuel composition and PAH emissions is needed to determine whether fuel reformulation is a viable approach for reducing PAH emissions. PAH concentrations were quantified in gasoline and diesel fuel samples collected in summer 1997 in northern California. Naphthalene was the predominant PAH in both fuels, with concentrations of up to 2,600 mg L{sup {minus}1} in gasoline and 1,600 mg L{sup {minus}1} in diesel fuel. Particle-phase PAH size distributions and exhaust emission factors were measured in two bores of a roadway tunnel. Emission factors were determined separately for light-duty vehicles and for heavy-duty diesel trucks, based on measurements of PAHs, CO, and CO{sub 2}. Particle-phase emission factors, expressed per unit mass of fuel burned, ranged up to 21 {micro}g kg{sup {minus}1} for benzo[ghi]perylene for light-duty vehicles and up to {approximately} 1,000 {micro}g kg{sup {minus}1} for pyrene for heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Light-duty vehicles were found to be a significant source of heavier (four- and five-ring) PAHs, whereas heavy-duty diesel engines were the dominant source of three-ring PAHs, such as fluoranthene and pyrene. While no correlation between heavy-duty diesel truck PAH emission factors and PAH concentrations in diesel fuel was found, light-duty vehicle PAH emission factors were found to be correlated with PAH concentrations in gasoline, suggesting that gasoline reformulation may be effective in reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles.

Marr, L.C.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Harley, R.A.; Hammond, S.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Miguel, A.H. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Hering, S.V. [Aerosol Dynamics Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1999-09-15

82

72 FR 20730 - Extension of Temporary Exhaust Emission Test Procedure Option for All Terrain Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exhaust Emission Test Procedure Option for All Terrain Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental...vehicles/engines commonly referred to as all-terrain vehicles. In that rulemaking...included allowing manufacturers to test all- terrain vehicles over a...

2007-04-26

83

72 FR 20806 - Exhaust Emission Test Procedures for All-Terrain Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2060-A035 Exhaust Emission Test Procedures for All-Terrain Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental...vehicles/engines commonly referred to as all-terrain vehicles. In that rulemaking...included allowing manufacturers to certify all- terrain vehicles over a...

2007-04-26

84

40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous...

2010-07-01

85

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

2013-07-01

86

Unregulated Exhaust Emissions from Non-Catalyst Baseline Cars Under Malfunction Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the laboratory effort to characterize regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from 1970 model non-catalyst gasoline automobiles operating under malfunction conditions. Four automobiles were evaluated over three driving schedules ...

C. Urban

1981-01-01

87

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions from Malfunctioning Three-Way Catalyst Gasoline Automobiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the laboratory effort to characterize regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from three-way catalyst-equipped gasoline automobiles operating under malfunction conditions. Three automobiles were evaluated over three driving sched...

C. M. Urban

1980-01-01

88

Inhalation toxicology of automotive emissions as affected by an oxidation exhaust catalyst.  

PubMed Central

Preliminary data are given on the acute inhalation toxicology of automotive emissions as affected by an oxidation exhaust catalyst. The catalyst effectively reduced CO and HC in the exhause which apparently had an effect (at least in a closed exposure system) on oxidant and NO2 levels by altering the HC/NOx ratio. There was a resultant reduction in biological effects due to the exposure. The catalyst altered the type of particulate to one which probably contained sulfuric acid as a major component. No evidence was present in these acute exposures to suggest a toxic response due to the higher sulfate emissions or possible catalyst attrition products. The effects of long-term exposure have not yet been investigated.

Hysell, D K; Moore, W; Hinners, R; Malanchuk, M; Miller, R; Stara, J F

1975-01-01

89

Reduction of hydrocarbon emission from engine exhaust using zeolitic adsorbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a study on the adsorption properties of MFI-, FAU-, BEA- and FER-type zeolites towards hydrocarbons present at engine exhaust during the cold start phase.Adsorption measurement under equilibrium and dynamic conditions were carried out with several hydrocarbons (ethylene, isobutene, toluene, C4–C5 paraffins), considered as representative of the most common compounds present at engine exhaust. FAU-type

D. Caputo; C. Colella; F. Iucolano; P. Corbo; F. Migliardini; R. Aiello; F. Crea

2004-01-01

90

Maintaining low exhaust emissions with new fuel/air ratio control  

SciTech Connect

Restrictive exhaust emission requirements have motivated Palomar Medical Center to install new-technology fuel/air ratio controls and a new catalytic converter system on the engine exhaust stream. The new AccuNo{sub X} fuel/air ratio control has been in operation and its performance has been discussed. It is said that the AccuNo{sub X} system has the ability to react very quickly to variations in the energy content of the exhaust gas thereby maintaining conditions necessarily for consistent, low No{sub X} emissions as well as providing protection for the converter catalyst. 2 figs.

NONE

1994-07-01

91

Bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends: exhaust emissions and morphological characterization of particulate from a moped engine.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of gasoline-ethanol blends on the exhaust emissions in a catalyst-equipped four-stroke moped engine. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in at percentages (10, 15, and 20% v/v). The regulated pollutants and the particulate matter emissions were evaluated over the European ECE R47 driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer bench. Particulate matter was characterized in terms of total mass collected on filters and total number ofparticles in the range 7 nm-10 microm measured by electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). In addition, particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions were evaluated to assess the health impact of the emitted particulate. Finally, an accurate morphological analysis was performed on the particulate by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with a digital image-processing/data-acquisition system. In general, CO emission reductions of 60-70% were obtained with 15 and 20% v/v ethanol blends, while the ethanol use did not reduce hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emissions. No evident effect of ethanol on the particulate mass emissions and associated PAHs emissions was observed. Twenty-one PAHs were quantified in the particulate phase with emissions ranging from 26 to 35 microg/km and benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors from 2.2 to 4.1 microg/km. Both particulate matter and associated PAHs with higher carcinogenic risk were mainly emitted in the submicrometer size range (<0.1 microm). On the basis of the TEM observations, no relevant effect of the ethanol use on the particulate morphology was evidenced, showing aggregates composed ofprimary particles with mean diameters in the range 17.5-32.5 nm. PMID:22916436

Seggiani, Maurizia; Prati, M Vittoria; Costagliola, M Antonietta; Puccini, Monica; Vitolo, Sandra

2012-08-01

92

Determination of the Effects of Speed, Temperature, and Fuel Factors on Exhaust Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provided a comprehensive approach to examining the relative significance and possible synergistic effects of speed, temperature, and fuel on mobile source emissions modeling. Eleven passenger vehicles from three fuel delivery system control groups were tested, namely, three from carburetor (CARBU), three from throttle body injection (TBI), and five from multi-port fuel injection (MPFI) group. A minimum of 90 tests were conducted on each vehicle with a random combination of three fuel types (Phase 1, Phase 2, and Indolene), three temperatures (50 F, 75 F, and 100 F), and ten speed cycles. Each vehicle was repeated for ten speed cycles (75 F and Indolene). In general, exhaust emissions descended in the order of CARBU, TBI, and MPFI. All vehicles in the CARBU group contained a "dead" catalyst, which probably explained why vehicles in CARBU were "high emitters.". Results from the paired t-test indicated that exhaust emissions difference between Phase 1 and Phase 2 fuels for all vehicles was significant. The net exhaust emissions reduction of Phase 2 over Phase 1 fuel for HC and NOx was 21% and 12%, respectively; which is in good agreements with the CARB projected 17% HC (including evaporative and exhaust emissions) and 11% CO emissions reduction based on 1996 calendar year when Phase 2 fuel is introduced. Temperature had minimal effects on exhaust emissions especially the test cycles were in hot-stabilized mode. Nevertheless, exhaust emissions from cold-start mode were higher than hot-start mode because the catalyst had not reached to optimal operating temperature during the cold-start mode. The relative contributions of speed, temperature, and fuel to exhaust emissions were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and it was found interaction terms among fuel, speed, and temperature were statistically insignificant. Individually, the temperature and fuel factor played a minor role in exhaust emission modeling. Speed and vehicle type were the two dominant factors determining exhaust emissions. These results suggested that more resources should be allocated to cycle related research. Future studies will investigate the second-by-second data including: vehicle speed, engine rpm, exhaust oxygen content, catalyst temperature, HC, CO, NOx, and CO_2 collected from the present study.

Chou, Chia-Yang David

93

[Effect of ethanol gasoline and unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions of EFI vehicles with TWC].  

PubMed

The injectors' flow-rate of all test vehicles that each was fixed with a three-way catalytic converter (TWC) and Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI) was tested including before and after vehicles operated on unleaded and ethanol gasoline respectively running for a long time on real road. The three main engine-out exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) from vehicles operating on different fuels were also analyzed by exhaust testing procedure for the whole light-duty vehicle. Test results showed that comparing with unleaded gasoline and ethanol gasoline has a remarkable effect on decreasing engine-out exhaust emissions of CO and HC (both at about ten percent) and the exhaust emissions of CO, HC and NOx from vehicles with TWC respectively. When burning with unleaded gasoline the three main pollutants from vehicles with TWC have already or nearly reached Europe Exhaust First Standard, after changing to ethanol gasoline CO has drastically decreased at about thirty percent, while HC and NOx decreased at about eighteen and ten percent respectively, at this time which they were all above Europe Exhaust Standard First or nearly reached Europe Exhaust Second Standard; ethanol gasoline has also other better performance such as a slight cleaning function on injectors, a slower deteriorative trend of engine-out CO and HC and a longer operating life-span of TWC. PMID:15515949

Wang, Chun-jie; Wang, Wei; Tang, Da-gang; Cui, Ping

2004-07-01

94

Ether oxygenate additives in gasoline reduce toxicity of exhausts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel additives can improve combustion and knock resistance of gasoline engines. Common additives in commercial fuels are “short-chain, oxygen containing hydrocarbons” such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Since these additives change the combustion characteristics, this may as well influence toxic effects of the resulting emissions. Therefore we compared toxicity and BTEX emissions of gasoline engine

G. A. Westphal; J. Krahl; T. Brüning; E. Hallier; J. Bünger

2010-01-01

95

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility vehicles? 1051.107 Section 1051.107 Protection...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related...

2013-07-01

96

In-vehicle Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Vehicular Exhaust: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-induced emissions constitute a major source of air pollutants, particularly in urban areas, where heavy traffic is common occurrence. Contaminated air can flow into enclosed micro-environments, including vehicle compartments. Among various exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) was the first indicator examined in passenger compartments. This paper presents a critical review of worldwide research work conducted to characterize CO exposure inside

M. El-Fadel; L. Abi-Esber

2009-01-01

97

On-Road Measurement of Ammonia and Other Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia is the primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere and contributes to fine particle mass, visibility problems, and dry and wet deposition. The objective of this research was to measure ammonia and other exhaust emissions from a large sample of on-road vehicles using California phase 2 reformulated gasoline with low sulfur content (~10 ppm by weight). Vehicle emissions of ammonia,

Andrew J. Kean; Robert A Harley; David Littleton; Gary R. Kendall

2001-01-01

98

Infrared tunable diode laser diagnostics for aircraft exhaust emissions characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft component of the NASA High Speed Research Program will require measurements of trace gas concentrations in the exhausts of high speed civil transport engines. In parallel with the development of these engines by NASA and its industrial partners, a portable infrared tunable diode laser apparatus has been assembled and tested which is capable of both in situ and extractive sampling of combustion gas flows. Infrared diode laser absorption is sensitive, quantitative, and applicable to a wide range of molecular species. In the present apparatus, sensitive detection is achieved by rapid frequency scanning and real-time nonlinear least squares fitting and background subtraction. Sensitivity is further increased for extractive sampling by an advanced design multiple pass cell which gives longer path lengths in smaller volumes. Observations of a laboratory flat flame burner are reported. These observations and spectroscopic models are used to predict detection sensitivities in exhausts and other combustion systems.

Wormhoudt, Jody C.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Nelson, David D.; McManus, J. B.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, Charles E.

1994-03-01

99

Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting t...

R. C. Yu A. S. Cole B. J. Stroia S. C. Huang K. Howden

2002-01-01

100

EXHAUST EMISSION PATTERNS FROM TWO LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL AUTOMOBILES  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate and gaseous emissions from two light-duty diesel automobiles were examined over six operating cycles. Particulate characterizations included mass emission rate, soluble organic content, and trace element content determinations. The particulate matter was sampled using...

101

Exhaust emission and fuel consumption of CNG\\/diesel fueled city buses calculated using a sample driving cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the reduction of pollutant emissions from city buses converted to dual fuel operation was investigated. Exhaust emission and fuel consumption maps were obtained under laboratory conditions for an engine converted to CNG\\/diesel fuel operation. These values are then used in the simulation model to predict the total exhaust emission and fuel consumption on a driving cycle evaluated

M. Ergeneman; C. Sorusbay; A. G. Goektan

1999-01-01

102

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emissions for a model...Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values ...HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emissions for a...

2013-07-01

103

Combination of Methods for Characterization Diesel Engine Exhaust Particulate Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a study of the exhaust aerosols produced by a diesel engine. A combination of techniques for collecting and measure particulate matter in a diluted exhaust gases are presented. Three techniques have been used: a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI), a Low Pressure Impactor (LPI) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). A direct injection naturally aspirated diesel engine was used in the study at three different equivalance ratios: 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 at an engine speed of 1400 rpm which is rated torque speed. Mass concentration measurements made with the MOUDI were in qualitative, but not quantitative, agreement with those calculated from the aerosol volume concentrations measured by the SMPS. The particulate matter obtained from the LPI was analyzed using transmission electron microscope and was found to be comprised of individual spherical particles ranging from 10 nm to 50 nm with a mean size of approximately 25 nm. Some conclusions about the size distribution measurement possibilities can be drawn.

Abu-Qudais, Moh'D.; Matson, Andreas; Kittelson, David

104

Fuel economy and exhaust emissions of a methanol-fueled Chevette  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a series of tests conducted over a period of several months on a 1979 Chevrolet Chevette powered by anhydrous methanol. Baseline tests with gasoline were also conducted about three months before the methanol test series began. The exhaust emissions from this car were greatly affected by air-fuel ratio and state of tune. Driveability was not good during most tests when CO met Federal standards. The best optimized adjustments gave a 10 percent better energy efficiency on pure methanol than on gasoline with approximately similar exhaust emission levels.

Ashby, H.A.

1981-05-01

105

Emission of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal from restaurant exhausts to the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooking exhausts may contribute significant organic compounds to the atmosphere. It has been shown that trans, trans-2,4-decadienal ( tt-DDE) is an important toxic compound in cooking oil fumes (COF). In this study, the emissions of tt-DDE were quantified in both gaseous and particulate phases of three kinds of restaurant exhausts (Chinese, western and barbecue). Samples of exhausts were collected with a sampling system meeting the criteria of US EPA Modified Method 5. The tt-DDE was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. The results indicate that the emission factors of tt-DDE in terms of ?g customer -1 were in sequence: barbecue (1990)>Chinese (570)>western (63.8). The average proportion of tt-DDE in the particulate phase of the exhausts was 83% for the 16 investigated restaurants. Evidently, the majority of tt-DDE in the exhausts was in the particulate phase. There was no evident correlation found between phase distribution of tt-DDE and exhaust temperature in the restaurants investigated. The efficiencies of removal of particulate tt-DDE by air pollution control devices (APCDs) were assessed. The removal efficiencies of electrostatic precipitator (ESP), ESP and activated carbon in series, and wet scrubber were 64.2%, 86.3% and 71.3%, respectively.

Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Lee, Hui-Ling; Chao, Mu-Rong; Luo, Hong-Wei; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Lee, Wen-Jhy

106

A Comprehensive Inventory of the Ship Traffic Exhaust Emissions in the Baltic Sea from 2006 to 2009.  

PubMed

This study addresses the exhaust emissions of CO2, NO x , SO x , CO, and PM2.5 originated from Baltic Sea shipping in 2006-2009. Numerical results have been computed using the Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model. This model is based on the messages of the automatic identification system (AIS), which enable the positioning of ships with a high spatial resolution. The NO x emissions in 2009 were approximately 7 % higher than in 2006, despite the economic recession. However, the SO x emissions in 2009 were approximately 14 % lower, when compared to those in 2006, mainly caused by the fuel requirements of the SO x emission control area (SECA) which became effective in May 2006, but affected also by changes in ship activity. Results are presented on the differential geographic distribution of shipping emissions before (Jan-April 2006) and after (Jan-April 2009) the SECA regulations. The predicted NO x emissions in 2009 substantially exceeded the emissions in 2006 along major ship routes and at numerous harbors, mostly due to the continuous increase in the number of small vessels that use AIS transmitters. Although the SO x emissions have been reduced in 2009 in most major ship routes, these have increased in the vicinity of some harbors and on some densely trafficked routes. A seasonal variation of emissions is also presented, as well as the distribution of emissions in terms of vessel flag state, type, and weight. PMID:23479266

Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Johansson, Lasse; Kukkonen, Jaakko

2013-03-12

107

Exhaust Fine Particle and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks are a source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions as well as primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. Heavy-duty trucks contribute significantly to elevated levels of diesel particulate matter found near highways and in communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. To reduce the air quality impact of diesel engine emissions, the California Air Resources Board has adopted new rules requiring the retrofit or replacement of in-use HD trucks. These rules take effect during 2010 at ports and railyards, and apply to all trucks operating in California by 2014. This study involves on-road measurements of PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factor distributions from individual HD trucks driving into the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay area. Measurements of exhaust plumes from individual trucks were made using a mobile laboratory equipped with fast time response (1 Hz) PM2.5, BC, NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors. The mobile laboratory was stationed on an overpass above an arterial roadway that connects the Port to a nearby highway (I-880). The air sampling inlet was thereby located above the vertical exhaust pipes of HD diesel trucks passing by on the arterial roadway below. Fuel-specific PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which concentrations of these species in an exhaust plume are normalized to CO2 concentrations. Initial field sampling was conducted in November, 2009 prior to the implementation of new emission rules. Additional emission measurements were made at the same location during June 2010 and emission factor distributions and averages will be compared.

Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T.

2010-12-01

108

Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions  

PubMed Central

Background Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. Methods In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. Results The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Conclusion Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient conditions. On a per breath basis, however, the mass of particulate matter inhaled is large compared to the mass inhaled at ambient conditions. Finally, it was determined that children, infants, or people breathing at heights similar to that of a passing vehicle's tailpipe may be exposed to higher concentrations of particulate matter than those breathing at higher locations, such as adults standing up.

2009-01-01

109

Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than diesel does. Major difference in both fuels is formaldehyde emission which drops by 23% on the average. Lower aldehyde emissions found in B20 correspond to lower ozone formation potentials. As a result, use of biodiesel in diesel engines has the beneficial effect in terms of aldehyde emissions.

Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

110

40 CFR 86.1777-99 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...factor for any existing engine family previously certified...new durability-data vehicle is tested for that engine family. (5) Manufacturers...adjustment factor for a specific vehicle emission control technology category and fuel....

2013-07-01

111

Carbonyl emissions from vehicular exhausts sources in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for airborne carbonyls in urban area. Six types of VE-dominated samples were collected at representative locations in Hong Kong where polluted by a particular fueled type of vehicles, including (i) a gas refilling taxis station (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] emission); (ii) a light-duty passenger car park (gasoline emission); (iii) a minibus station (diesel emission); (iv) a single-deck-bus depot (diesel emission); (v) a double-deck-bus depot (diesel emission); and (vi) a whole-food market entrance for light- and heavy-duty vehicles (diesel emission). A total of 15 carbonyls in the samples were quantified. Formaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl among the VE-dominated samples, and its contribution to the total quantified amount on a molar basis ranged from 54.8% to 60.8%. Acetaldehyde and acetone were the next two abundant carbonyls. The carbonyls were quantified at three roadside locations in Hong Kong. The highest concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, 22.7 +/- 8.4 and 6.0 +/- 2.8 microg/m3, respectively, were determined in the samples collected at a main transportation gate for goods between Hong Kong and Mainland China. The total quantified carbonyl concentration, 37.9 +/- 9.3 microg/m3, was the highest at an entrance of a cross-harbor tunnel in downtown area. The theoretical carbonyls compositions of the three roadside locations were estimated according to the VE-dominated sample profiles and the statistics on vehicle numbers and types during the sampling period. The measured compositions of formaldehyde were much higher than the theoretical compositions in summer, demonstrating that photochemical reactions significantly contributed to the formaldehyde production in the roadsides. PMID:22442938

Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Cheng, Yan; Yu, Jian Zhen; Lam, Ka Man; Feng, Natale Sin Yau; Huang, Yu

2012-02-01

112

40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks. 86.1709-99 Section 86.1709-99...the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks §...

2009-07-01

113

40 CFR 86.1709-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks. 86.1709-99 Section 86.1709-99...the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks §...

2010-07-01

114

Effect of gasoline composition on stoichiometry and exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

Six full range gasolines were tested in two engines (one with a catalyst) operated at 4 steady states. Engine-out regulated emissions responded to equivalence ratio, {Phi}, in the accepted manner. For both CO and NO{sub x}, there was a characteristic, single emissions response to changes in {Phi}. Changing fuel composition will primarily alter the production of these emissions by modifying the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio, projecting engine operation onto another part of the {Phi} response curve. These {Phi} effects, which are independent of engine design, also determine how operating conditions affect engine-out CO and NO{sub x}. Speciated hydrocarbon measurements at engine-out and tail-pipe confirm results seen in previous test-cycle based programmes. 24 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

McDonald, C.R.; Lee, G.R.; Otter, G.J. den; Shore, P.R.; Humphries, D.T.

1994-10-01

115

40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR...1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR. (a) The CO2 standards of this section apply for...

2013-07-01

116

40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and...GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...Emission Test Procedures § 600.114-12 Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy...

2013-07-01

117

CNG-diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis with the aid of artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the use of artificial neural network (ANN) modelling to predict brake power, torque, break specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine modified to operate with a combination of both compressed natural gas CNG and diesel fuels. A single cylinder, four-stroke diesel engine was modified for the present work and was operated at different

Talal F. Yusaf; D. R. Buttsworth; Khalid H. Saleh; B. F. Yousif

2010-01-01

118

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about

P COROLLER; G PLASSAT

2003-01-01

119

78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...45 [Docket No.: FAA-2012-1333; Amendment No. 34-5A] RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages...

2013-11-01

120

Effects of ethanol and\\/or methanol in alcohol-gasoline blends on exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the effect on exhaust gas emissions (carbon monoxide, CO, hydrocarbons, HC, and aldehydes, CHO) resulting from mixing methanol and\\/or ethanol with gasoline for automotive fuels studied experimentally. Tests were conducted on an OEM four-cylinder engine running at different conditions of equivalence ratio and spark timing. Fuel blends with different percentages of alcohol content and different ratios of

R. M. Beta; V. P. Roan

1989-01-01

121

Energy consumption and exhaust emissions in mechanized timber harvesting operations in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents an estimation of the energy input and the amount of emissions to air due to fuel, chainsaw and hydraulic oil consumption by heavy duty diesel engine vehicles operating in forest logging operations in Sweden. Exhaust concentrations are given for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and particulate matter. Three fuel types (rapeseed methyl ester, environmental class

Dimitris Athanassiadis

2000-01-01

122

Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from a heavy-duty hybrid bus. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of prototype heavy-duty hybrid vehicles introduces a number of challenges in assessing emissions performance compared to conventionally powered diesel or gasoline-fueled, heavy-duty vehicles. Difficulty is encountered because the engine may be operated on an intermittent basis (as a function of load or state of charge of the energy storage system) and in a narrow speed/load range. Therefore, in this project, heavy-duty chassis dynamometer emission measurements were used to benchmark the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty hybrid vehicle against a conventionally powered vehicle. The hybrid bus was powered with a CNG-fueled, VW 2.0L engine. Exhaust emissions from the hybrid bus were compared to a 1996 model year diesel-powered bus operated over the same driving cycles, and using the same inertia weight and road load as the hybrid bus. SwRI noted that the aftermarket CNG fuel system installed on the 2.0L VW engine did not function adequately; therefore, the exhaust emissions from the hybrid bus could have been much better if detailed optimization had been performed. In fact, NO{sub x} emissions were 25 to 30 percent higher than for the diesel bus. However, even with the non-optimum CNG fuel system, the exhaust emissions of NMHC and CO were significantly lower than observed for a comparable diesel bus. Although not directly measured, PM emissions from the hybrid bus were assumed to be essentially zero. Another significant finding was that the fuel consumption of the hybrid bus was 13 to 30 percent better than the diesel bus over the CBD-14 cycle, and 38 to 45 percent better than the diesel bus over the HDCC.

Fritz, S.G.; Bass, E.A.; Steiber, J.; Tobin, A.

1999-07-01

123

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for...assuming an average carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:1.85, at 68...atom), where H/C is the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the hydrocarbon...COem for petroleum fuel with hydrogen to carbon ratio of...

2013-07-01

124

40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994...Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold...Light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks must calculate and report...

2013-07-01

125

Effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on small engine generator energy efficiency and exhaust emission.  

PubMed

This study was focused on fuel energy efficiency and pollution analysis of different ratios of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels (E0, E3, E6, and E9) under different loadings. In this research, the experimental system consisted of a small engine generator, a particulate matter measurement system, and an exhaust gas analyzer system. Different fuels, unleaded gasoline, and ethanol-gasoline blends (E0, E3, E6, and E9) were used to study their effects on the exhaust gas emission and were expressed as thermal efficiency of the small engine generator energy efficiency. The results suggested that particle number concentration increased as the engine loading increased; however, it decreased as the ethanol content in the blend increased. While using E6 as fuel, the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration was less than other fuels (E0, E3, and E9) for each engine loading. The average of CO concentration reduction by using E3, E6, and E9 is 42, 86, and 83%, respectively. Using an ethanol-gasoline blend led to a significant reduction in exhaust emissions by approximately 78.7, 97.5, and 89.46% of the mean average values of hydrocarbons (HCs) with E3, E6, and E9 fuels, respectively, for all engine loadings. Using an ethanol-gasoline blend led to a significant reduction in exhaust emissions by approximately 35, 86, and 77% of the mean average values of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with E3, E6, and E9 fuels, respectively, at each engine loading. The E6 fuel gave the best results of the exhaust emissions, and the E9 fuel gave the best results of the particle emissions and engine performance. The thermal efficiency of the small engine generator increased as the ethanol content in the blend increased and as the engine loading increased. PMID:20222526

Lin, Wen-Yinn; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Hsieh, You-Ru

2010-02-01

126

REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS IN TANNERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanning, in particular chrome leather production, is still characterised by an inefficient use of raw material and the production of highly polluted wastewater and solid wastes. A part of the emissions can be prevented by introducing clean tanning technologies, the remaining emissions can be treated. Clean production technologies and waste (water) treatment technologies should have a designed complimentarity. Anaerobic wastewater

J. W. van Groenestijn; J. S. A. Langerwerf; M. Lucas

2002-01-01

127

Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.  

PubMed

In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

2012-12-05

128

Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust emission from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra reduction of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small reduction are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.

Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi

129

New exposure system to evaluate the toxicity of (scooter) exhaust emissions in lung cells in vitro.  

PubMed

A constantly growing number of scooters produce an increasing amount of potentially harmful emissions. Due to their engine technology, two-stroke scooters emit huge amounts of adverse substances, which can induce adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular health effects. The aim of this study was to develop a system to expose a characterized triple cell coculture model of the human epithelial airway barrier, to freshly produced and characterized total scooter exhaust emissions. In exposure chambers, cell cultures were exposed for 1 and 2 h to 1:100 diluted exhaust emissions and in the reference chamber to filtered ambient air, both controlled at 5% CO(2), 85% relative humidity, and 37 degrees C. The postexposure time was 0-24 h. Cytotoxicity, used to validate the exposure system, was significantly increased in exposed cell cultures after 8 h postexposure time. (Pro-) inflammatory chemo- and cytokine concentrations in the medium of exposed cells were significantly higher at the 12 h postexposure time point. It was shown that the described exposure system (with 2 h exposure duration, 8 and 24 h postexposure time, dilution of 1:100, flow of 2 L/min as optimal exposure conditions) can be used to evaluate the toxic potential of total exhaust emissions. PMID:20230045

Müller, Loretta; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas C R; Gehr, Peter; Burtscher, Heinz; Morin, Jean-Paul; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

2010-04-01

130

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zammit, M.G. (Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Bruetsch, R.I. (US Environmental Protection Agency (United States))

1992-01-01

131

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge `92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zammit, M.G. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Bruetsch, R.I. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1992-11-01

132

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

133

40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES...FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

2010-07-01

134

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES...FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

2010-07-01

135

US Coast Guard/US Maritime Administration Cooperative Research on marine engine exhaust emissions. Marine exhaust emissions measurement of the M/V Kings Pointer. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of emissions testing conducted on board the M/V KINGS POINTER in May 1995. The objective of this testing was to conduct baseline instrumentation, monitoring, and evaluation of the engine exhaust emissions as part of joint U.S. Coast Guard/Maritime Administration cooperative research on controlling air pollution from ships. The U.S. Coast Guard`s interest in emissions testing arises from both its desire to meet all federal and state air quality regulations and the fact that in the future it may be called upon to enforce regulations in the marine environment. The U.S. Maritime Administration`s interest in this and related research is based on its efforts to assure that its vessels and those of the privately-owned U.S. Flag Merchant Marine can comply with future air pollution control requirements. Underway tests were conducted of the 224-foot M/V KINGS POINTER in which two of its four diesel-electric generators were sampled for NO, NO2, CO, and SO2 in the exhaust. Additional data on fuel flow and power output were collected at five speeds over the full range of vessel operating ranges. NOx values were calculated and compared with standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Results showed that average NOx values were 9.4 g/kWh which is slightly below the 10.9 g/kWh upper limit or cap that is being proposed by the IMO for a diesel engine with a rated speed of 1200 RPM. Additional conclusions and recommendations on the technique of portable emissions monitoring instrumentation are made.

Allen, S.J.; Bentz, A.P.

1996-07-01

136

Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during the first minutes of the cycle, before the light-off of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Less ammonia has been emitted with ethanol fuel, in particular in low ambient condition (E75 versus E5). Ammonia is a harmful compound for human health and vegetation, and is a precursor of secondary aerosol. Even if agricultural activities are the main source of anthropogenic ammonia, the contribution from the transport sector increases significantly during the cold season. Consequently, using high concentrated ethanol as fuel may have a positive impact on ammonia emission in urban area. However, ethanol fuel had a negative impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The latter together with methane was notably emitted in low ambient temperature, in comparison with gasoline fuel (E5). Moreover, the OFP at -7°C was influenced by the amount of ethanol in gasoline, mainly because of the increase of ozone precursors linked to ethanol (ethylene, acetylene, and acetaldehyde). Even if ozone concentration levels are generally lower during the cold seasons these results show that the issue should be considered globally before promoting the use of high concentrated ethanol fuel in a large scale.

Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

2011-12-01

137

On board measurement of carbon dioxide exhaust car emissions using a mid-infrared optical based fibre  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the investigation of an optical sensor system for the online measurement of carbon dioxide emissions in the exhaust system of a motor vehicle. Current anti-pollution technology installed in motor vehicles fail to meet monitoring requirements as specified by the European Commission. A robust sensor design and construction have made it suitable for installation on the exhaust of

J. Clifford; J. Mulrooney; G. Dooly; C. Fitzpatrick; E. Lewis; E. Merlone-Borla; G. Flavia

2008-01-01

138

Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for the evaluation of the exhaust emissions of marine traffic, based on the messages provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which enable the positioning of ship emissions with a high spatial resolution (typically a few tens of metres). The model also takes into account the detailed technical data of each individual vessel. The previously developed model was applicable for evaluating the emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2. This paper addresses a substantial extension of the modelling system, to allow also for the mass-based emissions of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). The presented Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model (STEAM2) allows for the influences of accurate travel routes and ship speed, engine load, fuel sulphur content, multiengine setups, abatement methods and waves. We address in particular the modeling of the influence on the emissions of both engine load and the sulphur content of the fuel. The presented methodology can be used to evaluate the total PM emissions, and those of organic carbon, elemental carbon, ash and hydrated sulphate. We have evaluated the performance of the extended model against available experimental data on engine power, fuel consumption and the composition-resolved emissions of PM. We have also compared the annually averaged emission values with those of the corresponding EMEP inventory, As example results, the geographical distributions of the emissions of PM and CO are presented for the marine regions of the Baltic Sea surrounding the Danish Straits.

Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Kukkonen, J.; Brink, A.; Kalli, J.; Stipa, T.

2012-03-01

139

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate...Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate...Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...

2013-07-01

140

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

141

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

142

Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for the evaluation of the exhaust emissions of marine traffic, based on the messages provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which enable the positioning of ship emissions with a high spatial resolution (typically a few metres). The model also takes into account the detailed technical data of each individual vessel. The previously developed model was applicable for evaluating the emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2. This paper addresses a substantial extension of the modelling system, to allow also for the mass-based emissions of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). The presented Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model (STEAM2) allows for the influences of accurate travel routes and ship speed, engine load, fuel sulphur content, multiengine setups, abatement methods and waves. We address in particular the modeling of the influence on the emissions of both engine load and the sulphur content of the fuel. The presented methodology can be used to evaluate the total PM emissions, and those of organic carbon, elemental carbon, ash and hydrated sulphate. We have evaluated the performance of the extended model against available experimental data on engine power, fuel consumption and the composition-resolved emissions of PM. As example results, the geographical distributions of the emissions of PM and CO are presented for the marine regions surrounding the Danish Straits.

Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Kukkonen, J.; Brink, A.; Kalli, J.; Stipa, T.

2011-08-01

143

40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

2013-07-01

144

Studies of diesel engine particle emissions during transient operations using an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer  

SciTech Connect

Diesel engine particle emissions during transient operations, including emissions during FTP transient cycles and during active regenerations of a NOx adsorber, were studied using a fast Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS). For both fuels tested, a No. 2 certification diesel and a low sulfur diesel (BP-15), high particle concentrations and emission rates were mainly associated with heavy engine acceleration, high speed, and high torque during transient cycles. Averaged over the FTP transient cycle, the particle number concentration during tests with the certification fuel was 1.2e8/cm3, about four times the particle number concentration observed during tests using the BP-15 fuel. The effect of each engine parameter on particle emissions was studied. During tests using BP-15, the particle number emission rate was mainly controlled by the engine speed and torque, whereas for Certification fuel, the engine acceleration also had a strong effect on number emission rates. The effects of active regenerations of a diesel NOx adsorber on particle emissions were also characterized for two catalyst regeneration strategies: Delayed Extended Main (DEM) and Post 80 injection (Post80). Particle volume concentrations observed during DEM regenerations were much higher than those during Post80 regenerations, and the minimum air to fuel ratio achieved during the regenerations had little effect on particle emission for both strategies. This study provides valuable information for developing strategies that minimize the particle formation during active regenerations of NOx adsorbers.

Wang, Jian [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Domingo, Norberto [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL

2006-01-01

145

Reducing pollutant emissions by fines removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for reducing pollutant emissions, and in particular, for reducing NO \\/SUB x\\/ and particulate emissions, from a spreader-stoker-fired furnace and from a fluidized bed combustor. A combustible material of various sized particles is obtained and those smaller particles which would normally combust during the suspension phase of the spreader-stoker-fired furnace or fluidized bed combustor are separated

D. W. Pershing; G. B. Martin; J. M. Munro

1984-01-01

146

Estimation and validation of PM 2.5/PM 10 exhaust and non-exhaust emission factors for practical street pollution modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to carry out efficient traffic and air quality management, validated models and PM emission estimates are needed. This paper compares current available emission factor estimates for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from emission databases and different emission models, and validates these against eight high quality street pollution measurements in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Finland and Austria. The data sets show large variation of the PM concentration and emission factors with season and with location. Consistently at all roads the PM 10 and PM 2.5 emission factors are lower in the summer month than the rest of the year. For example, PM 10 emission factors are in average 5-45% lower during the month 6-10 compared to the annual average. The range of observed total emission factors (including non-exhaust emissions) for the different sites during summer conditions are 80-130 mg km -1 for PM 10, 30-60 mg km -1 for PM 2.5 and 20-50 mg km -1 for the exhaust emissions. We present two different strategies regarding modelling of PM emissions: (1) For Nordic conditions with strong seasonal variations due to studded tyres and the use of sand/salt as anti-skid treatment a time varying emission model is needed. An empirical model accounting for these Nordic conditions was previously developed in Sweden. (2) For other roads with a less pronounced seasonal variation (e.g. in Denmark, Germany, Austria) methods using a constant emission factor maybe appropriate. Two models are presented here. Further, we apply the different emission models to data sets outside the original countries. For example, we apply the "Swedish" model for two streets without studded tyre usage and the "German" model for Nordic data sets. The "Swedish" empirical model performs best for streets with studded tyre use, but was not able to improve the correlation versus measurements in comparison to using constant emission factors for the Danish side. The "German" method performed well for the streets without clear seasonal variation and reproduces the summer conditions for streets with pronounced seasonal variation. However, the seasonal variation of PM emission factors can be important even for countries not using studded tyres, e.g. in areas with cold weather and snow events using sand and de-icing materials. Here a constant emission factor probably will under-estimate the 90-percentiles and therefore a time varying emission model need to be used or developed for such areas. All emission factor models consistently indicate that a large part (about 50-85% depending on the location) of the total PM 10 emissions originates from non-exhaust emissions. This implies that reduction measures for the exhaust part of the vehicle emissions will only have a limited effect on ambient PM 10 levels.

Ketzel, Matthias; Omstedt, Gunnar; Johansson, Christer; Düring, Ingo; Pohjola, Mia; Oettl, Dietmar; Gidhagen, Lars; Wåhlin, Peter; Lohmeyer, Achim; Haakana, Mervi; Berkowicz, Ruwim

147

Method and apparatus for reducing nitrous oxides and CO emissions in a gas-fired recuperated radiant tube burner  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A radiant tube burner assembly and method is provided to reduce nitrous oxides and carbon monoxide emissions in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The burner assembly comprises a burner section, exhaust section, radiant tube, plenum and a jet pump assembly. A volume of exhaust gas drawn from the stream of exhaust gases into the jet pump assembly by way of a motive gas is flowed into a stream of combustion air so as to vitiate the oxygen content of the combustion mixture. When the combustion mixture is combusted with fuel in the burner section, the production of nitrous oxides and other harmful emission is mitigated.

2001-02-20

148

Application of short-term bioassays to the assessment of engine exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

Extracts of particulate emissions from light duty diesel, conventional gasoline and lean-burn gasoline engines have been analysed using a range of short-term bioassays. The intention of the analyses was to identify tests which could be routinely applied to exhaust assessment in order to study the effects of engine operating conditions and design on biological activity. In this respect the most promising assays were the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test for mutagenicity, the detection of chromosome damage in rat liver cells, and the assessment of growth and development defects in the Hydra Regeneration Assay.

Shore, P.R.; Tesh, J.M.; Bootman, J.

1987-01-01

149

Opacity meter for monitoring exhaust emissions from non-stationary sources  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for determining the opacity of exhaust plumes from moving emissions sources. In operation, a light source is activated at a time prior to the arrival of a diesel locomotive at a measurement point, by means of a track trigger switch or the Automatic Equipment Identification system, such that the opacity measurement is synchronized with the passage of an exhaust plume past the measurement point. A beam of light from the light source passes through the exhaust plume of the locomotive and is detected by a suitable detector, preferably a high-rate photodiode. The light beam is well-collimated and is preferably monochromatic, permitting the use of a narrowband pass filter to discriminate against background light. In order to span a double railroad track and provide a beam which is substantially stronger than background, the light source, preferably a diode laser, must provide a locally intense beam. A high intensity light source is also desirable in order to increase accuracy at the high sampling rates required. Also included is a computer control system useful for data acquisition, manipulation, storage and transmission of opacity data and the identification of the associated diesel engine to a central data collection center.

Dec, John Edward (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

150

Emission projection and uncertainty analysis of exhaust emissions from global and Asian on-road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the most notable impacts from emissions of air pollutants are climate change and hemispheric or intercontinental transport. Global emission projections are identified as critical elements in understanding these large-scale impacts. Such projections are required to understand the net response of climate to combined emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols, and other trace species in the next 30 to 50

F. Yan; E. Winijkul; T. Bond; D. G. Streets

2009-01-01

151

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non- smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle cabin air filters may result in further diminishing the biomedical effects of diesel exhaust in subjects exposed in traffic and workplaces.  

Rudell, B.; Wass, U.; Horstedt, P.; Levin, J. O.; Lindahl, R.; Rannug, U.; Sunesson, A. L.; Ostberg, Y.; Sandstrom, T.

1999-01-01

152

The History of Improving Automobile Emissions: Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Tailpipe Exhaust over a Several-Decade-Model-Year Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many urban areas, automobile transportation accounts for the majority of smog-forming emissions, and air pollution control legislation continues to spur the research and development of lower-emission automobiles. We describe here a laboratory project, suitable for the general chemistry or physical chemistry laboratory, which uses Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the analysis of automobile exhaust. Using this method, products

Jane A. Ganske

153

Particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motorcycle exhaust emissions.  

PubMed

The size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in emission of a two-stroke carburetor motorcycle was studied. The exhaust gas from the test motorcycle was passed to a dilution tunnel and collected using a 10 cascade micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) of 0.056-10 microm aerodynamic diameter fitted with aluminum substrates. All MOUDI substrates were analyzed for particulate mass and for PAHs by GC/MS. Most of the 21 analyzed PAHs have two significant modes that peak at <0.1 and 0.18-0.32 microm. For some PAHs, a third peak appears around 1.8 microm. MOUDI impactor samples show that 88.9% particulate and 89.6% PAH mass distributed smaller than 2.5 microm. Mass median diameters of PAHs are about 0.2 microm. Total benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalency emission factor was 440+/-13.8 ng/km for the test motorcycle. An average of 90.3% of carcinogenicity is observed in particulate smaller than 1.0 microm. The results suggest that submicron particulates predominate in the exhaust from motorcycle and exhibit high carcinogenic potency for these particulate. PMID:15979788

Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Chao, Mu-Rong; Lin, Chi-Chwen

2005-10-17

154

Non-exhaust PM emission measurements of a light duty vehicle with a mobile trailer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A trailer-based mobile measurement approach for analyzing non-exhaust emissions of a light duty vehicle is presented. Based on a tracer gas experiment which allowed a mapping of the particle dispersion within the wake of the vehicle, emission factors were estimated. A combination of the results from tracer gas experiment, wind tunnel tests and local airflow measurements was taken into account to characterize the vehicle wake and optimize the position of the measurement devices in the wake of the vehicle. Diffuser type inlet devices were employed to correct for anisokinetic sampling. Measurements on unpaved and dust loaded agricultural paved roads as well as more than 800 km of real world driving were conducted with estimated PM10 emission factors varying over several orders of magnitude (10-42,000 mg vehicle-1 km-1 (mg vkm-1)). Emission factors were found to increase with increasing vehicle velocity. The lowest emission factors were measured on motorways. The coefficient of variation for the measurements varied from 10% to 30%.

Mathissen, Marcel; Scheer, Volker; Kirchner, Ulf; Vogt, Rainer; Benter, Thorsten

2012-11-01

155

Exhaust emission and fuel consumption of CNG/diesel fueled city buses calculated using a sample driving cycle  

SciTech Connect

In this study the reduction of pollutant emissions from city buses converted to dual fuel operation was investigated. Exhaust emission and fuel consumption maps were obtained under laboratory conditions for an engine converted to CNG/diesel fuel operation. These values are then used in the simulation model to predict the total exhaust emission and fuel consumption on a driving cycle evaluated from actual recordings. Calculations showed a significant decrease in particulate matter (PM) emissions as expected, while the total CO emissions minor changes have been observed. For dual fuel operation NO{sub x} emissions were kept at the same level as in pure diesel operation with retarded pilot injection. Fuel cost calculations showed a decrease up to 30% with current prices of diesel fuel and CNG.

Ergeneman, M.; Sorusbay, C.; Goektan, A.G. [Technical Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1999-04-01

156

Reducing fumigant emissions after soil application.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Volatilization and soil transformation are major pathways by which pesticides dissipate from treated agricultural soil. Volatilization is a primary source of unwanted agricultural chemicals in the atmosphere and can significantly affect fumigant efficacy. Volatile pesticides may cause other unique problems; for example, the soil fumigant methyl bromide has been shown to damage stratospheric ozone and will soon be phased out. There is also great concern about the health consequences of inhalation of fumigants by people living in proximity to treated fields. Because replacement fumigants will likely face increased scrutiny in years ahead, there is a great need to understand the mechanisms that control their emission into the atmosphere so these losses can be minimized without loss of efficacy. Recent research has shown that combinations of vapor barriers and soil amendments can be effective in reducing emissions. In this paper, some potential approaches for reducing fumigant emissions to the atmosphere are described. PMID:18943891

Yates, S R; Gan, J; Papiernik, S K; Dungan, R; Wang, D

2002-12-01

157

Ten Recommendations for Reducing Carbon Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former U.S. Vice President Al Gore testified about possible solutions to mitigate anthropogenic climate change at two 21 March hearings held before committees of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. His 10 recommendations to reduce U.S. carbon emissions:

2007-04-01

158

Energy consumption and exhaust emissions in mechanized timber harvesting operations in Sweden.  

PubMed

The study presents an estimation of the energy input and the amount of emissions to air due to fuel, chainsaw and hydraulic oil consumption by heavy duty diesel engine vehicles operating in forest logging operations in Sweden. Exhaust concentrations are given for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and particulate matter. Three fuel types (rapeseed methyl ester, environmental class 1 and environmental class 3 diesel fuels) and two types of lubricating base oil (mineral- and vegetable-based) were examined. Energy input per unit of timber production (m3ub) was 82 MJ, 11% of which was due to energy consumption during the production phase of the fuel. Emissions during the whole life cycle of the fuels and the base oils are included in the study. The highest CO2 and NOx emissions occurred when rapeseed methyl ester was used as fuel together with rapeseed as base oil for chainsaw and hydraulic oil. The highest HC and CO emissions occurred when environmental class 3 diesel fuel was used. PMID:10898401

Athanassiadis, D

2000-06-01

159

Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to review the potential of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the exhaust emissions, particularly NOX emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique. A detailed analysis of previous and current results of EGR effects on the emissions and performance of Diesel engines, spark ignition engines and duel fuel engines is introduced.

G. H. Abd-Alla

2002-01-01

160

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists 18 SSTs covered by this NOC. This NOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping.

GRANDO, C.J.

1999-11-18

161

AN ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICLE SIZER{trademark} SPECTROMETER FOR TRANSIENT EMISSION PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

There has been increased interest in obtaining size distribution data during transient engine operation where both particle size and total number concentrations can change dramatically. Traditionally, the measurement of particle emissions from vehicles has been a compromise based on choosing between the conflicting needs of high time resolution or high particle size resolution for a particular measurement. Currently the most common technique for measuring submicrometer particle sizes is the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPSTM) system. The SMPS system gives high size resolution but requires an aerosol to be stable over a long time period to make a particle size distribution measurement. A Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is commonly used for fast time response measurements but is limited to measuring total concentration only. This paper describes a new instrument, the Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM (EEPSTM) spectrometer, which has high time resolution and a reasonable size resolution. The EEPS was designed specifically for measuring engine exhaust and, like the SMPS system, uses a measurement based on electrical mobility. Particles entering the instrument are charged to a predictable level, then passed through an annular space where they are repelled outward by the voltage from a central column. When the particles reach electrodes on the outer cylindrical (a column of rings), they create a current that is measured by an electrometer on one or more of the rings. The electrometer currents are measured multiple times per second to give high time resolution. A sophisticated realtime inversion algorithm converts the currents to particle size and concentration for immediate display.

Johnson, T: Caldow, R; Pucher, A Mirme, A Kittelson, D

2003-08-24

162

AN ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICLE SIZERTM SPECTROMETER FOR TRANSIENT EMISSION PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

There has been increased interest in obtaining size distribution data during transient engine operation where both particle size and total number concentrations can change dramatically. Traditionally, the measurement of particle emissions from vehicles has been a compromise based on choosing between the conflicting needs of high time resolution or high particle size resolution for a particular measurement. Currently the most common technique for measuring submicrometer particle sizes is the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPSTM) system. The SMPS system gives high size resolution but requires an aerosol to be stable over a long time period to make a particle size distribution measurement. A Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is commonly used for fast time response measurements but is limited to measuring total concentration only. This paper describes a new instrument, the Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM (EEPSTM) spectrometer, which has high time resolution and a reasonable size resolution. The EEPS was designed specifically for measuring engine exhaust and, like the SMPS system, uses a measurement based on electrical mobility. Particles entering the instrument are charged to a predictable level, then passed through an annular space where they are repelled outward by the voltage from a central column. When the particles reach electrodes on the outer cylindrical (a column of rings), they create a current that is measured by an electrometer on one or more of the rings. The electrometer currents are measured multiple times per second to give high time resolution. A sophisticated realtime inversion algorithm converts the currents to particle size and concentration for immediate display.

Johnson, T; Caldow, R; Pucher, A; Mirme, A; Kittelson, D

2003-08-24

163

The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FFV exhaust emissions using M85  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of emission tests of a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) powered by an SI engine, fueled by M85 (methanol), and supplied with oxygen-enriched intake air containing 21, 23, and 25 vol% O2. Engine-out total hydrocarbons (THCs) and unburned methanol were considerably reduced in the entire FTP cycle when the O2 content of the intake air was either 23 or 25%. However, CO emissions did not vary much, and NOx emissions were higher. HCHO emissions were reduced by 53% in bag 1, 84% in bag 2, and 59% in bag 3 of the FTP cycle with 25% oxygen-enriched intake air. During cold-phase FTP,reductions of 42% in THCs, 40% in unburned methanol, 60% in nonmethane hydrocarbons, and 45% in nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs) were observed with 25% enriched air; NO{sub x} emissions increased by 78%. Converter-out emissions were also reduced with enriched air but to a lesser degree. FFVs operating on M85 that use 25% enriched air during only the initial 127 s of cold-phase FTP or that use 23 or 25% enriched air during only cold-phase FTP can meet the reactivity-adjusted NMOG, CO, NO{sub x}, and HCHO emission standards of the transitional low-emission vehicle.

Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Ng, H.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baudino, J.H. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Colucci, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1996-05-01

164

Aluminum: Reducing chloride emissions from aluminum production  

SciTech Connect

Reynolds Metals Company (RMC), with assistance from a NICE{sup 3} grant, is developing for commercialization a closed-loop control process that greatly reduces chlorine emissions and increases plant efficiency while maintaining metal quality. The process still utilizes chlorine to remove impurities during aluminum processing, but is more effective than current methods. With the new technology chlorine in the stack is monitored and input chlorine is adjusted continuously. This optimization of chlorine use results in substantially less waste because less chlorine has to be bought or produced by aluminum manufacturers. This innovation is a significant improvement over conventional aluminum treatments, in which chlorine is injected in a more costly and wasteful manner. By the year 2010, the new technology has the potential to reduce the energy it takes to create chlorine by 8.4 billion Btu per year and to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 1,377 tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29

165

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

Ruether, J.A.

1998-02-01

166

Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

1991-08-01

167

Advanced technologies for reduced CO2 emissions  

SciTech Connect

It appears that there has been an increase in concentration of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere over the past 125 years. This has been generally attributed to the exponential growth in the use of fossil fuel resulting in the release of fossil carbon as CO2 and the deforestation or the leveling of forests around the earth which reduced the photosynthetic utilization of atmospheric CO2. This paper presents studies conducted for the Carbon Dioxide Research Division (CDRD) of the U.S. Department of Energy relating to possible mitigation technologies which would tend to reduce CO2 emissions in the future.

Steinberg, M.; Cheng, H.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1988-01-01

168

ROLE OF NEPRILYSIN IN AIRWAY INFLAMMATION INDUCED BY DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The investigators intend to evaluate airway inflammatory responses and expression of the enzyme neprilysin in response to diesel exhaust particle exposure. Dr. Wong and colleagues anticipate that their research will reveal that components of diesel exhaust decrease neprilys...

169

40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...my engines meet after the 2014 model year? 1039.101 Section...engines meet after the 2014 model year? The exhaust emission...in-use data, such as data from research engines or similar engine models that are already in...

2010-07-01

170

40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...my engines meet after the 2014 model year? 1039.101 Section...engines meet after the 2014 model year? The exhaust emission...in-use data, such as data from research engines or similar engine models that are already in...

2013-07-01

171

40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...my engines meet after the 2014 model year? 1039.101 Section...engines meet after the 2014 model year? The exhaust emission...in-use data, such as data from research engines or similar engine models that are already in...

2009-07-01

172

Effects of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, influence of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder diesel engine has been experimentally investigated when using ethanol blended diesel fuel from 0% to 15% with an increment of 5%. The engine load was selected as 15 and 30Nm. The tests were conducted at five different injection timings (21°,

Cenk Sayin; Mustafa Canakci

2009-01-01

173

NEW YORK CITY BUS TERMINAL DIESEL EMISSIONS STUDY: MEASUREMENT AND COLLECTION OF DIESEL EXHAUST FOR CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper is concerned with the impact of diesel emissions on the quality of the ambient air and the resulting effects on human health. The study was designed to chemically characterize and bioassay heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust as it exists in the ambient atmosphere. Diesel e...

174

The effects of preheated cottonseed oil methyl ester on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel fuel and a biodiesel, namely cottonseed oil methyl ester (COME), subjected to preheating at different temperatures in order to lower its viscosity have been investigated. COME was prepared using cottonseed oil, methyl alcohol and potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. Tests were carried out at full load conditions in

Murat Karabektas; Gokhan Ergen; Murat Hosoz

2008-01-01

175

Investigation of PCDD/F emissions from mobile source diesel engines: impact of copper zeolite SCR catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations.  

PubMed

This study investigated the impact of copper zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from mobile source diesel engines. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, reported as the weighted sum of 17 congeners called the toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ), were measured using a modified EPA Method 0023A in the absence and presence of exhaust aftertreatment. Engine-out emissions were measured as a reference, while aftertreatment configurations included various combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), Cu-zeolite SCR, Fe-zeolite SCR, ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOX), and aqueous urea dosing. In addition, different chlorine concentrations were evaluated. Results showed that all aftertreatment configurations reduced PCDD/F emissions in comparison to the engine-out reference, consistent with reduction mechanisms such as thermal decomposition or combined trapping and hydrogenolysis reported in the literature. Similarly low PCDD/F emissions from the DOC-DPF and the DOC-DPF-SCR configurations indicated that PCDD/F reduction primarily occurred in the DOC-DPF with no noticeable contribution from either the Cu- or Fe-zeolite SCR systems. Furthermore, experiments performed with high chlorine concentration provided no evidence that chlorine content has an impact on the catalytic synthesis of PCDD/Fs for the chlorine levels investigated in this study. PMID:21446770

Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Barge, Patrick; Dettmann, Melissa E; Ottinger, Nathan A

2011-02-28

176

Influence of ethanol–diesel blended fuels on diesel exhaust emissions and mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of ethanol addition on diesel exhaust emissions and the toxicity of particulate extracts. The experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty diesel engine and five fuels were used, namely: E0 (base diesel fuel), E5 (5%), E10 (10%), E15 (15%) and E20 (20%), respectively. The regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, PM) and polycyclic aromatic

Chong-Lin Song; Ying-Chao Zhou; Rui-Jing Huang; Yu-Qiu Wang; Qi-Fei Huang; Gang Lü; Ke-Ming Liu

2007-01-01

177

Increasing trend of primary NO(2) exhaust emission fraction in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Despite the successful reduction in roadside NO( x ) levels, no such decrease has been detected in roadside NO(2) concentration in Hong Kong. One underlying cause could be the rising primary NO(2) fraction of the total emission of NO( x ). Primary NO(2) can be particularly detrimental to Hong Kong because a large fraction of the population are exposed to the traffic-related primary pollutants in the street canyons formed by congested high-rise buildings. In this study, hourly mean concentration data for roadside nitrogen oxides (NO( x )), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and background ozone (O(3)) were used to estimate the mean primary NO(2) fraction from vehicle exhausts in Hong Kong. An overall increasing trend was observed for the primary NO(2) fraction (f-NO(2)) values in all the three roadside air monitoring sites. The primary NO(2) as a fraction of total NO( x ) (f-NO(2)) increased approximately from 2% in 1998 to 13% in 2008 in Hong Kong. The two particular periods of rising f-NO(2) coincided with the two implementation periods of the diesel retrofit programs for the light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles. Future vehicle emission control strategies should target not only total NO( x ) but also primary NO(2). Health benefit or disease burden estimates should be taken into account and updated in the process of policy planning and evaluation. PMID:21331790

Tian, Linwei; Hossain, Sarah R; Lin, Hualiang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Yu, Ignatius T S

2011-02-18

178

Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.

Poola, R.B.; Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baudino, J.H. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Colucci, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

179

Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust.  

PubMed

An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 +/- 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m(3) of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 +/- 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 +/- 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m(-3) (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust. PMID:18264702

Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

2008-02-09

180

Exhaust Emissions Measured Under Real Traffic Conditions from Vehicles Fitted with Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tests performed under real traffic conditions provide invaluable information on the relations between the engine parameters, vehicle parameters and traffic conditions (traffic congestion) on one side and the exhaust emissions on the other. The paper presents the result of road tests obtained in an urban and extra-urban cycles for vehicles fitted with different engines, spark ignition engine and compression ignition engine. For the tests a portable emission analyzer SEMTECH DS. by SENSORS was used. This analyzer provides online measurement of the concentrations of exhaust emission components on a vehicle in motion under real traffic conditions. The tests were performed in city traffic. A comparative analysis has been presented of the obtained results for vehicles with individual powertrains.

Merkisz, Jerzy; Lijewski, Piotr; Fu?, Pawe?

2011-06-01

181

The impact of using biodiesel/marine gas oil blends on exhaust emissions from a stationary diesel engine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of marine gas oil (MGO)/biodiesel blends on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in a single cylinder, stationary, diesel engine. Three different origins of biodiesel were used as the blending feedstock with the reference MGO, at proportions of 5 and 10% by volume. Methyl esters were examined according to the automotive FAME standard EN 14214. The baseline MGO and biodiesel blends were examined according to ISO 8217:2005 specifications for the DMA category. Independently of the biodiesel used, a decrease of PM, HC, CO and CO(2) emissions was observed. Emissions of NO(x) were also lower with respect to MGO. This reduction in NO(x) may be attributed to some physicochemical properties of the fuels applied, such as the higher cetane number and the lower volatility of methyl esters. Reductions in PM for biodiesel blends were lower in the exhaust than those of the reference fuel which was attributed to the oxygen content and the near absence of sulphur and aromatics compounds in biodiesel. However, a slight increase in fuel consumption was observed for the biodiesel blends that may be tolerated due to the exhaust emissions benefits. Brake thermal efficiency was also determined. Unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction content of the particulate matter. PMID:18988104

Karavalakis, G; Tzirakis, E; Mattheou, L; Stournas, S; Zannikos, F; Karonis, D

2008-12-01

182

Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction use on a portable exhauster on 241-A-101 tank during salt well pumping  

SciTech Connect

The 241-A-101 tank, a 22.9 meter 3,785,400 liter capacity SST, was constructed from the fourth generation of tank designs, which were capable of holding boiling or self-concentrating waste. Construction features a reinforced concrete shell, dome, and base with a mild steel liner covering the bottom and sidewalls. The tank has a flat bottom with a usable waste depth of approximately 9.4 meters. The tank was put into service in 1956 to store plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) high-level waste and organic wash waste. The waste was allowed to self-concentrate up until 1968. Tank sluicing was performed in 1969 and again in 1976 to reduce the amount of strontium and cesium, the two isotopes found to be the main heat generating sources in the tank. In 1978, the tank was reassigned for saltcake storage. The tank was taken out of service in November 1980 and partially isolated in 1982. Salt well pumping is a method used to interim stabilize SSTS. Interim stabilization is commenced once all the liquid above the solids has been removed (primary stabilization). Interim stabilization removes the gravity drainable liquid and the interstitial liquid between the solids from the SST and transfers the liquid to a double-shell tank (DST) or to a staging double-contained receiver tank (DCRT), which is subsequently transferred to a DST. Pumping is accomplished at very low flow rates, 15.1 liters per minute or less. Normally, salt well pumping is performed without the need of an exhauster. However, recent safety evaluations concluded that a minimum exhaust flow rate of 7.1 cubic meters per minute would be required to enhance the safety of the tank. Therefore, active ventilation will be part of this process for the 241-A-101 tank. This document details the Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the use of a portable exhauster on Tank 241-A-101 during salt well pumping and other routine activities.

Hays, C.B.

1996-04-17

183

40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-12 Section 600.113-12...Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.113-12 Fuel economy...HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator will use...

2013-07-01

184

Use of an Air-Assisted Fuel Nozzle to Reduce Idle Emissions of a Jt8d Engine Combustor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were performed at typical engine idle conditions on a single-can JT8D combustor installed in a 24 centimeter (9.45 in.) housing to evaluate the effect of an air-assist nozzle on reducing exhaust emissions. By injecting high-pressure air through the ...

L. C. Papathakos R. E. Jones

1973-01-01

185

Temperature Measurement of Solid Rocket Motor Exhaust Plume by Absorption-Emission SPECTROSCOPY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method, which measures the temperature of solid rocket motor exhaust plume, was developed by employing an improved sodium line reversal process. The formula for calculating the temperature was improved and simplified. The temporal temperature-time distributions of the exhaust plume of double base propellant rocket motors were given by the established method. The maximum time resolution and accuracy for the

Dong Yang; Houqian Xu; Junde Wang; Baochang Zhao

2001-01-01

186

Catalytic process for minimizing the H sub 2 S emissions from automotive exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of minimizing the formation of hydrogen sulfide when automotive exhaust is contacted with a catalytic composite comprising contacting the exhaust with a catalytic composite. It comprises a primary refractory inorganic oxide support having dispersed thereon at least one of a first active component selected from the group consisting of rare-earth oxides and a secondary refractory

G. C. Joy; G. R. Lester; R. E. Marinangeli

1991-01-01

187

Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

2001-12-31

188

Effects of ethanol–diesel fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ethanol with conventional diesel fuel, with 5% and 10% (by vol.) ethanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a fully instrumented, six-cylinder, turbocharged and after-cooled, heavy duty, direct injection (DI), Mercedes–Benz engine, installed at the authors’ laboratory, which is used to power the mini-bus diesel engines

D. C. Rakopoulos; C. D. Rakopoulos; E. C. Kakaras; E. G. Giakoumis

2008-01-01

189

Application of artificial neural networks for the prediction of performance and exhaust emissions in SI engine using ethanol- gasoline blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of a spark ignition engine to predict the engine brake power, output torque and exhaust emissions (CO, CO2, NOx and HC) of the engine. To acquire data for training and testing of the proposed ANN, a four-cylinder, four-stroke test engine was fuelled with ethanol-gasoline blended fuels with various percentages of ethanol

M. Kiani Deh Kiani; B. Ghobadian; T. Tavakoli; A. M. Nikbakht; G. Najafi

2010-01-01

190

The effects of ethanol–unleaded gasoline blends and ignition timing on engine performance and exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of using unleaded gasoline (E0) and unleaded gasoline–ethanol blends (E10, E20 E40 and E60) on engine performance and exhaust emissions have been experimentally investigated. The investigation was conducted on a Hydra single-cylinder, four-stroke, spark ignition engine. The experiments were performed by varying the compression ratio (8:1, 9:1 and 10:1) and ignition timing at a constant

Tolga Topgül; Hüseyin Serdar Yücesu; Atilla Koca

2006-01-01

191

Turbine exhaust diffuser flow path with region of reduced total flow area  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary has a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub. The region can begin at a point that is substantially aligned with the downstream end of the hub or, alternatively, at a point that is proximately upstream of the downstream end of the hub. The region directs at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub. As a result, the exhaust diffuser system and method can achieve the performance of a long hub system while enjoying the costs of a short hub system.

Orosa, John A.

2012-12-25

192

A fuel-based inventory of motor vehicle exhaust emissions in the Los Angeles area during summer 1997  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fuel-based approach was used to estimate stabilized exhaust carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Fleet-average emission factors of 80±7 g l -1 CO and 9.3±1.5 g l -1 VOC were calculated from more than 60,000 infrared remote sensor measurements collected at 35 sites throughout the greater Los Angeles area during summer 1997. Fuel use by SoCAB cars and light/medium-duty trucks was estimated to be 5.9±0.3×10 7 l day -1 based on statewide gasoline sales during summer 1997. Fuel-based estimates of 4700±500 metric tons day -1 CO and 550±90 metric tons day -1 VOC are higher than stabilized exhaust emissions estimates of California's MVEI 7G model by factors of 2.4±0.2 for CO and 3.5±0.6 for VOC. According to fuel-based inventory estimates, stabilized CO emissions in 1997 were lower by 20% than emissions during summer 1991. Fuel use increased by 8% during this period while the CO emission factor decreased by 26%. The relationship between income level and vehicle emissions was examined using census data resolved to the zip code level. On average, CO and VOC emission factors of vehicles registered in the lowest income areas were double those of vehicles registered in the highest income areas. Differences in vehicle emissions between neighborhoods were due in part to differences in the prevalence of older vehicles, but also resulted because vehicles of the same age had higher emissions in lower-income areas.

Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

193

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of parti...

K. J. Nikula G. L. Finch R. A. Westhouse J. C. Seagrove J. L. Mauderly

1999-01-01

194

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles...

2013-07-01

195

40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS...results and deteriorated emission levels at or below these standards...or a deteriorated emission level for any pollutant that is...determine the deteriorated emission level for the test...

2013-07-01

196

40 CFR 1042.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS...results and deteriorated emission levels at or below these standards...or a deteriorated emission level for any pollutant that is...results showing any emission level above the applicable...

2013-07-01

197

Instrumental and bio-monitoring of heavy metal and nanoparticle emissions from diesel engine exhaust in controlled environment.  

PubMed

In the present article we characterized the emissions at the exhaust of a Common Rail (CR) diesel engine, representative of light-duty class, equipped with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) in controlled environment. The downstream exhausts were directly analyzed (for PM, CO, CO2, 02, HCs, NOx) by infrared and electrochemical sensors, and SEM-EDS microscope; heavy metals were chemically analyzed using mosses and lichens in bags, and glass-fibre filters all exposed at the engine exhausts. The highest particle emission value was in the 7-54 nm size range; the peak concentration rose until one order of magnitude for the highest load and speed. Particle composition was mainly carbonaceous, associated to noticeable amounts of Fe and silica fibres. Moreover, the content of Cu, Fe, Na, Ni and Zn in both moss and lichen, and of Al and Cr in moss, was significantly increased. Glass-fibre filters were significantly enriched in Al, B, Ba, Cu, Fe, Na, and Zn. The role of diesel engines as source of carbonaceous nanoparticles has been confirmed, while further investigations in controlled environment are needed to test the catalytic muffler as a possible source of silica fibres considered very hazardous for human health. PMID:21174966

Giordano, Simonetta; Adamo, Paola; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Vaglieco, Bianca Maria

2010-01-01

198

Exhausting handgrip exercise reduces the blood flow in the active calf muscle exercising at low intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calf and forearm blood flows (Q\\u000acalf and Q\\u000aforearm respectively), blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen uptake of six men and women were studied during combined leg and handgrip exercise to determine whether a reduction of exercise-induced hyperaemia would occur in the active leg when exhausting rhythmic handgrip exercise at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was superimposed upon

Atsuko Kagaya; Mitsuru Saito; Futoshi Ogita; Minoru Shinohara

1994-01-01

199

Estimation of road vehicle exhaust emissions from 1992 to 2010 and comparison with air quality measurements in Genoa, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation into road transport exhaust emissions in the Genoa urban area was performed by comparing the quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and particulate matter (PM) emitted by different vehicle categories with air quality measurements referred to the same pollutants. Exhaust emissions were evaluated by applying the PROGRESS (computer PROGramme for Road vehicle EmiSSions evaluation) code, developed by the Internal Combustion Engines Group of the University of Genoa, to eight different years (from 1992 to 2010), considering spark ignition and Diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles and buses, motorcycles and mopeds. Changes in terms of vehicles number, mileage and total emissions are presented together with relative distributions among the various vehicle categories. By comparing 1992 and 2010 data, calculated trends show a 7% increase in the number of vehicles, with total mileage growing at a faster rate (approx. 22%); total emissions decrease considerably, by approximately 50% for NO x and PM, 70% for HC and 80% for CO, due to improvements in engines and fuels forced by the stricter European legislation and the fleet renewal, while primary NO 2 emission will be very close to 1992 level, after a decrease of about 18% in 2000. Air quality was analysed by selecting traffic and background measuring stations from the monitoring network managed by the Environmental Department of the Province of Genoa: average annual concentrations of considered pollutants from 1994 to 2007 were calculated in order to obtain the relative historical trends and compare them with European public health limits and with road vehicle emissions. Though an important reduction in pollutant concentrations has been achieved as a consequence of cleaner vehicles, some difficulties in complying with present and/or future NO 2 and PM 10 limits are also apparent, thus requiring suitable measures to be taken by the local authorities.

Zamboni, Giorgio; Capobianco, Massimo; Daminelli, Enrico

200

Single Particle Source Profiles of Gasoline and Diesel Powered Vehicles, Biomass Burning and Coal Combustion Exhaust Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicular exhaust, biomass burning, and coal combustion are three significant aerosol sources that have local to global impacts on the earth's atmosphere. They may also contribute to health effects as they can emit carcinogenic species such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and trace metals including beryllium and vanadium. In these source characterization studies, combustion products were diluted to near ambient temperature and pressure using a two stage dilution source sampler. Diluted exhaust emissions were analyzed with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) obtaining real-time measurements of single particle size and chemical composition. In addition, samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), which was operated in a manner compatible with advanced chemical analysis techniques, for size segregated mass concentrations. Due to the importance of these particle sources to the atmosphere, differentiating these emissions from each other and other particle sources is essential. Since ATOFMS is a relatively new single particle analysis technique, source characterization experiments are needed to determine qualitative signatures of specific particulate sources for their ambient identification. ATOFMS single particle mass spectra will be discussed introducing chemically distinct single particle types emitted from these combustion sources. Numerous particle types are emitted from each source, as indicated by distinct chemical associations on the single particle level. Examples include, the chemical associations of vanadium with organic carbon (OC) in gasoline powered vehicle emissions, calcium with black carbon (BC) in diesel powered vehicle emissions, beryllium and boron with BC in coal combustion emissions, and potassium with OC from biomass burning emissions. Most importantly, the overall particle type distributions from each source differ significantly. Finally, complementary MOUDI mass distribution data will be used to determine the relative fractions of these particle types to the overall particulate mass emissions from these tests. These results will be presented in terms of single particle source profiles for these environmentally important combustion aerosol sources.

Suess, D. T.; Prather, K. A.; Schauer, J.; Cass, G. R.

2001-12-01

201

Role of average speed in N?O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?  

PubMed

Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. PMID:22245865

Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

2012-01-13

202

Policy Planning to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preceded by the State Workbook: Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this document by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves to guide states in "identifying and evaluating options to mitigate emissions" affecting global climate change. Each of the report's three parts details climate change and policy options. Part one discusses the Initiation of Climate Change Programs. Part two describes sources of emissions and potential policy options. Part three completes the report by offering "guidance in preparing the State Action Plan." Appendices supply a glossary, references, state plans, and a specific example reduction plan.

Agency., United S.

1998-01-01

203

Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.  

PubMed

Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%. PMID:22870990

Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

2012-08-24

204

General Motors Corporation and Pacific Northwest Laboratory Staff Exchange: Instrumentation for rapid measurement of automotive exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

Information in this report on the staff exchange of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff with the AIGER Consortium (General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, Navistar, the environmental protection Agency, and the California Air Resources Board) includes the purpose and objectives, a summary of activities, significant accomplishments, significant problems, industry benefits realized, recommended follow-on work and potential benefits from that work, and two appendices. Appendix A is a brief description of the fast gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy chemometric technologies and their application to the rapid characterization of automobile exhaust emissions. Appendix B is a list of key contacts and the schedule of activities pertaining to the staff exchange.

Griffin, J.W.; Sharpe, S.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sloane, T.M. [General Motors Corp., Warren, MI (United States)

1995-07-01

205

40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...engines from 2004 through 2006 model years: Table 2 of § 1048... (3) Starting in the 2007 model year, steady-state exhaust...in-use data, such as data from research engines or similar engine models that are already in...

2013-07-01

206

Turbine engine exhaust gas measurements using in-situ FT-IR emission\\/transmission spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

12 An advanced multiple gas analyzer based on in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to successfully measure the exhaust plume composition and temperature of an operating gas turbine engine at a jet engine test stand. The sensor, which was optically coupled to the test cell using novel broadband hollow glass waveguides, performed well in this harsh environment (high

David F. Marran; Joseph E. Cosgrove; Jorge Neira; James R. Markham; Ronald Rutka; Richard R. Strange

2001-01-01

207

FTIR analysis of supported catalyst systems related to the reduction of automotive exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used in tandem to investigate the surface chemistry and reactivity of three different catalyst systems. The three systems were related by their relevance to current issues in automotive exhaust catalysis and the fact that each system operated under non-steady state conditions. In the first system, isothermal kinetic rate oscillations in the oxidation

Paul Timothy Fanson

2002-01-01

208

A laboratory comparison of two methods of characterizing exhaust stack emissions. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern for the environment and public health, and compliance with DOE and EPA regulations require that representative sampling be conducted on exhaust stacks that emit radioactive materials. In order to design and install particulate samplers, EPA Regulation 40CFR61, Subpart H (NESHAP) specifies that particle concentration profiles be determined, in addition to velocity profiles, at the sampling cross section of all

C. Fairchild; J. LaBauve; R. Kissane; C. Ortiz

1995-01-01

209

40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emission standards using emission credits, and the engines within the family meet the family emission limit. The following FEL caps are the maximum values you may specify for family emission limits: (1) 40.0 g/kW-hr for Class I engines...

2013-07-01

210

40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emission standards using emission credits and the engines within the family meet the family emission limit. The following FEL caps are the maximum values you may specify for family emission limits: (1) 336 g/kW-hr for Class III...

2013-07-01

211

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. 1037.105 Section 1037.105...EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements...emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a) The standards of this...

2013-07-01

212

Using advanced technologies to reduce motor vehicle greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the potential reduction in US greenhouse gas emissions that could be achieved by using advanced-technology motor vehicles and low-emission bio-fuels. These two approaches are compared to a variety of other approaches to reduce transportation sector emissions. It is concluded that only strong fiscal measures can produce emission reductions as large as are available from advanced-technology vehicles and

Carmen Difiglio

1997-01-01

213

Motorola's strategy for reducing PFC emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

PFCs are used in the semiconductor industry for plasma etching and chamber cleaning. The Kyoto Protocol, the DuPont policy, and the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that many semiconductor manufacturers signed with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are driving forces behind the reduction of PFC emissions. The Kyoto Protocol includes perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the

Laurie Beu; Paul Thomas Brown

1998-01-01

214

Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more “clean” natural gas may drive out “dirty” coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both

Finn Roar Aune; Rolf Golombek; Sverre A. C. Kittelsen

2004-01-01

215

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Using the Mole Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an application of quantitative chemistry concepts in the context of motor vehicle emissions. Shows how carbon dioxide emissions from cars may be reduced by up to 25% by reducing motorway speeds from 70-75 mph to 60 mph. (Author/MM)|

Myers, Alan

2002-01-01

216

Effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions on breathing pattern and cellular responses--pilot single vehicle study.  

PubMed

The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O?, OH and other radicals. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 5 h to either filtered room air (sham) or one of two different atmospheres: (i) diluted car exhaust (P)+Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); (ii) P+MSHA+secondary organic aerosol (SOA, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a nonselective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 h after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363?±?66 ?g/m³ P+MSHA and 212?±?95 µg/m³ P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in total cells, macrophages and neutrophils in the BAL and in vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

Diaz, Edgar A; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

2012-04-01

217

Effects of Fresh and Aged Vehicular Exhaust Emissions on Breathing Pattern and Cellular Responses - Pilot Single Vehicle Study  

PubMed Central

The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O3, OH and other radicals. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for five hours to either filtered room air (Sham) or one of two different atmospheres: 1. Diluted Car Exhaust (P) + Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); 2. P+MSHA+SOA (Secondary Organic Aerosol, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a non-selective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 hours after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363±66 ?g/m3 P+MSHA and 212±95 ?g/m3 P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in Total Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils in the BAL and in-vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions.

Diaz, Edgar A.; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S.; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J.

2013-01-01

218

Diesel exhaust particles impair endothelial progenitor cells, compromise endothelial integrity, reduce neoangiogenesis, and increase atherogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of the harmful cardiovascular effects of small particulate matter are incompletely understood. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) predict outcome of patients with vascular disease. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on EPC and on the associated vascular damage in mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to DEP. 2 ?g DEP/day was applicated intranasally for 3 weeks. Exposure to DEP reduced DiLDL/lectin positive EPC to 58.4 ± 5.6% (p < 0.005). Migratory capacity was reduced to 65.8 ± 3.9% (p < 0.0001). In ApoE(-/-) mice, DEP application reduced the number of EPC to 75.6 ± 6.4% (p < 0.005) and EPC migration to 58.5 ± 6.8% (p < 0.005). Neoangiogenesis was reduced to 39.5 ± 14.6% (p < 0.005). Atherogenesis was profoundly increased by DEP treatment (157.7 ± 18.1% vs. controls, p < 0.05). In cultured human EPC, DEP (0.1-100 ?g/mL) reduced migratory capacity to 25 ± 2.6% (p < 0.001). The number of colony-forming units was reduced to 8.8 ± 0.9% (p < 0.001) and production of reactive oxygen species was elevated by DEP treatment (p < 0.001). Furthermore, DEP treatment increased apoptosis of EPC (to 266 ± 62% of control, p < 0.05). In a blood-brain barrier model, DEP treatment impaired endothelial cell integrity during oxygen-glucose deprivation (p < 0.001). Diesel exhaust particles impair endothelial progenitor cell number and function in vivo and in vitro. The reduction in EPC was associated with impaired neoangiogenesis and a marked increase in atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:23584878

Pöss, Janine; Lorenz, Dominik; Werner, Christian; Pavlikova, Valerie; Gensch, Christoph; Speer, Thimoteus; Alessandrini, Francesca; Berezowski, Vincent; Kuntz, Mélanie; Mempel, Martin; Endres, Matthias; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

2013-09-01

219

Motor exhaust emissions as a primary source of dicarboxylic acids in Los Angeles ambient air  

SciTech Connect

Low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) were analyzed in Los Angeles air and auto exhaust, as well as greenhouse air, soil, dust, and bog sediment samples, as dibutyl esters by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with fused silica capillary columns. In the Los Angeles ambient atmosphere, 19 dicarboxylic acids in the range C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/ were identified, including straight-chain, branched-chain, cis- and transunsaturated, and aromatic acids. Oxalic acid is the dominant species, followed by succinic, malonic, maleic, glutaric, adipic, and phthalic acids. Total concentration of C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/ diacids detected in the ambient atmosphere ranged from 5.5 to 21.2 nmol/m/sup 3/ (average 12.2 +/- 6.1 nmol/m/sub 3/). By contrast, gasoline and diesel exhaust samples, collected under idling conditions, showed that distributions of the diacids are similar to those of air samples, but their concentrations are 28 (gasoline) and 144 (diesel) times higher than the average concentration of atmospheric diacids. These results indicate that engine exhaust is an important source of diaids in the urban atmosphere. 13 references, 3 figures. 1 table.

Kawamura, K.; Kaplan, I.R.

1987-01-01

220

40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Natural gas-fueled snowmobiles: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled snowmobiles: THCE emissions. (3) Other snowmobiles...the following: (i) Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the...

2013-07-01

221

40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gas-fueled off-highway motorcycles: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled off-highway motorcycles: THCE emissions. ...the following: (i) Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the...

2013-07-01

222

40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emissions for engines powered by the following fuels: (1) Alcohol-fueled engines: THCE emissions. (2) Natural gas-fueled...the following: (A) Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any engines in the...

2013-07-01

223

78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...comments amending the emission standards for turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

224

78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...amended the emission standards for certain turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

225

Reducing Crude Protein in Beef Cattle Diet Reduces Ammonia Emissions from Artificial Feedyard Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated animal feeding operations are major sources of ammonia to the atmosphere. Control methods to reduce emissions include acidifying amendments, urease inhibitors, and absorbents. For beef cattle, decreasing crude protein (CP) in diets may be the most practical and cost-effective method to reduce ammonia emissions. Our objective was to quantify the effect of reducing CP in beef cattle diet on

Richard W. Todd; N. Andy Cole; R. Nolan Clark

2006-01-01

226

Effect on exhaust emissions by the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) fuel additive and other lead replacement gasolines.  

PubMed

This paper examines the potential effects on car exhaust emissions of a range of alternative lead replacement gasolines in the context of south European countries such as Greece. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects on emissions from non-catalyst passenger vehicles by the substitution of leaded ('super') gasoline with Euro95 unleaded enriched with the additive MMT or other alternative to leaded gasoline fuels. Regulated emissions, two non-regulated pollutants and vehicle performance were measured on two catalyst-equipped and two conventional, non-catalyst vehicles. It was found that there was no measurable effect on regulated emissions (CO, HC and NO(x)) and on fuel consumption by the introduction of the lead replacement fuels for both catalyst and non-catalyst cars. In the case of the non-catalyst car, the shift from leaded to unleaded gasoline was associated with an increase in benzene and formaldehyde emissions, a trend probably attributable to the increased aromatics content of the lead replacement fuels. PMID:12670763

Geivanidis, Savas; Pistikopoulos, Panayotis; Samaras, Zissis

2003-04-15

227

Control of benzene emissions from light-duty motor vehicles. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strategies to reduce the total amount of exhaust and evaporative benzene emissions from light-duty gasoline-fueled vehicles have been investigated. A literature search was performed to determine automotive benzene emission levels and technologies for benzene emission control. Laboratory vehicle emission tests were performed to demonstrate benzene control technologies. Exhaust benzene emission control was addressed by reducing total hydrocarbon emissions (including

Heimrich

1991-01-01

228

Detection of emission indices of aircraft exhaust compounds by open-path optical methods at airports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different Air pollutant emission rates

Gregor Schürmann; Klaus Schäfer; Carsten Jahn; Herbert Hoffmann; Selina Utzig

2005-01-01

229

Real-World Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Monitoring: Review and Critical Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic-related emissions represent a major component of airborne pollution. Historically, dynamometer testing has been most widely used to estimate vehicle emission rates, and these emission rates, in turn, have been used as inputs when modeling traffic-related air quality impacts. However, such conventional drive cycle testing is not considered strictly representative of vehicles under real driving conditions. Therefore, in recent years,

Karl Ropkins; Joe Beebe; Hu Li; Basil Daham; James Tate; Margaret Bell; Gordon Andrews

2009-01-01

230

Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

231

Estimation of southern resident killer whale exposure to exhaust emissions from whale-watching vessels and potential adverse health effects and toxicity thresholds.  

PubMed

Southern resident killer whales in British Columbia and Washington are exposed to heavy vessel traffic. This study investigates their exposure to exhaust gases from whale-watching vessels by using a simple dispersion model incorporating data on whale and vessel behavior, atmospheric conditions, and output of airborne pollutants from the whale-watching fleet based on emissions data from regulatory agencies. Our findings suggest that current whale-watching guidelines are usually effective in limiting pollutant exposure to levels at or just below those at which measurable adverse health effects would be expected in killer whales. However, safe pollutant levels are exceeded under worst-case conditions and certain average-case conditions. To reduce killer whale exposure to exhaust we recommend: vessels position on the downwind side of whales, a maximum of 20 whale-watching vessels should be within 800 m at any given time, viewing periods should be limited, and current whale-watch guidelines and laws should be enforced. PMID:21276987

Lachmuth, Cara L; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G; Steyn, D Q; Milsom, William K

2011-01-28

232

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction, use of a portable exhauster on 244-AR vault  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247- 060, and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, for the use of a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault during transfers or movement of radioactive waste as part of pumping of secondary containment, tank stabilization/pumping, and other activities (i.e., transfer or pumping of radioactive waste using established procedures, entries for maintenance and inspections) within the 244-AR Vault.

Allen, C.P., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-11

233

Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment  

SciTech Connect

On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

Davis, W.E.

1995-12-01

234

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia  

SciTech Connect

In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine.

Kostalova, M. [Office of International Economic Corp., Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Suk, J. [Inst. for Forecasting, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Kolar, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-12-01

235

40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, last aftertreatment...pressure downstream of any turbocharger. If the manufacturer...exhaust system for emission measurement. If the engine is not already...crankcase emissions for emission measurement, route open crankcase...

2009-07-01

236

Reduced stretch-reflex sensitivity after exhausting stretch-shortening cycle exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) is an effective and natural form of muscle function but, when repeated with sufficient intensity or duration, it may lead to muscle damage and functional defects. A reduced tolerance to impact has been reported, which may be partly attributed to a reduced stretch-reflex potentiation. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of

P. V. Komi; T. Horita; H. Kyröläinen; T. E. S. Takala; C. Nicol

1996-01-01

237

Exhaust Emissions from A 25 - Passenger Internal Combustion Engine Powered Gasoline Fueled Bus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plans were made to install a Rankine cycle power system in a 25 - passenger city bus. Tests were conducted on a conventionally powered bus to establish baseline emissions with which the Rankine system emissions could be compared. The test vehicle was a Tw...

H. A. Ashby

1971-01-01

238

Mathematical modeling of catalytic converter lightoff; Part III: Prediction of vehicle exhaust emissions and parametric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The converter warmup model developed previously (Oh and Cavendish, 1985) has been used to simulate the performance of a packed-bed converter during the cold-start portion of vehicle emission tests. Despite the highly transient converter inlet conditions, the model successfully predicts tailpipe mass emissions as a function of time.

S. H. Oh; J. C. Cavendish

1985-01-01

239

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM LIGHT-DUTY GAS VEHICLES IN THE KANSAS CITY METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program on light duty vehicle emissions is being performed under an interagency agreement. It will provide current information on particulate matter emissions and distributions from light-duty vehicles, an area where more and better data are necessary to meet the n...

240

Preface: Special Issue on Catalytic Control of Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Catalysis Today includes original research articles based on select presentations from the Mobile Emissions Control Symposium at the 22nd North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meeting held in Detroit in June 2011, with a particular focus on catalyzed diesel emissions control. The Symposium was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Haren Gandhi, a visionary technology leader and a passionate environmental advocate.

Yezerets, Aleksey; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill

2012-04-30

241

Exhaust gas emissions of butanol, ethanol, and methanol-gasoline blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on emissions levels for CO, NOâ, and unburned fuel (UBF) from a stationary four-cylinder Chrysler engine measured under a variety of operating conditions for gasoline and three different 20 vol percent alcohol-gasoline blends. In tests of separate isobutanol, ethanol, and methanol blends, lower CO and COâ emissions were observed for the alcohol blends relative to gasoline, particularly

R. W. Rice; A. K. Sanyal; A. C. Elrod; R. M. Bata

1991-01-01

242

MOBILE4 exhaust emission factors and inspection\\/maintenance benefits for passenger cars. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MOBILE4 Tech IV Credit Model is used to estimate the emission factor equations, the effects of Inspection and Maintenance (I\\/M) programs, and the bag fraction equations for 1981 and later passenger cars. The model's results are then stored in the EPA MOBILE4 emission factor model data base. The report describes the development, use, and results of the Tech IV

E. L. Glover; D. J. Brzezinski

1989-01-01

243

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

244

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-11-10

245

REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM THE WOOD FURNITURE INDUSTRY WITH WATERBORNE COATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

This program was initiated to develop meaningful, defensible, and reliable data on emission reduction benefits from the use of reduced hydrocarbon finishes. The program also included assessing add-on emission control options and considering installation aspects such as costs. Thi...

246

Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brazilian government has announced volunteer targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the 2009 COP meeting in Copenhagen. In this paper we estimate the economic impacts from alternative policies to achieve such targets, including actions to cut emissions from deforestation and agricultural production. We employ a dynamic-recursive general equilibrium model of the world economy. The main results show

Angelo Costa Gurgel

2012-01-01

247

Technologies to reduce or capture and store carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report focuses on a broad suite of technologies to reduce, capture and store COâ emissions, primarily as they relate to direct coal combustion and also coal gasification and liquefaction. The report surveys and summarizes existing research, discusses relevant federal programs, makes recommendations regarding additional research opportunities and public policy objectives, and recommends a technology-based framework for mitigating COâ emissions

G. Nelson; M. Mueller; M. McCall; R. Knipp

2007-01-01

248

OPTIONS FOR REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characteriz...

249

PM10 emission factors for non-exhaust particles generated by road traffic in an urban street canyon and along a freeway in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown clear contributions of non-exhaust emissions to the traffic related PM10 load of the ambient air. These emissions consist of particles produced by abrasion from brakes, road wear, tire wear, as well as vehicle induced resuspension of deposited road dust. The main scope of the presented work was to identify and quantify the non-exhaust fraction of traffic related PM10 for two roadside locations in Switzerland with different traffic regimes. The two investigated locations, an urban street canyon with heavily congested traffic and an interurban freeway, are considered as being typical for Central Europe. Mass-relevant contributions from abrasion particles and resuspended road dust mainly originated from particles in the size range 1-10 ?m. The results showed a major influence of vehicle induced resuspension of road dust. In the street canyon, the traffic related PM10 emissions (LDV: 24 ± 8 mg km -1 vehicle -1, HDV: 498 ± 86 mg km -1 vehicle -1) were assigned to 21% brake wear, 38% resuspended road dust and 41% exhaust emissions. Along the freeway (LDV: 50 ± 13 mg km -1 vehicle -1, HDV: 288 ± 72 mg km -1 vehicle -1), respective contributions were 3% brake wear, 56% resuspended road dust and 41% exhaust emissions. There was no indication for relevant contributions from tire wear and abrasion from undamaged pavements.

Bukowiecki, N.; Lienemann, P.; Hill, M.; Furger, M.; Richard, A.; Amato, F.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Buchmann, B.; Gehrig, R.

2010-06-01

250

High-fidelity phenomenology modeling of infrared emissions from missile and aircraft exhaust plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of high-fidelity imagery of infrared radiation from missile and aircraft exhaust plumes is a CPU intensive task. These calculations must include details associated with the generation of the plume flowfield and transport of emitted, scattered, and absorbed radiation. Additionally, spatial and temporal features such as mach discs, intrinsic cores, and shear layers must be consistently resolved regardless of plume orientation to eliminate nonphysical artifacts. This paper presents computational techniques to compute plume infrared radiation imagery for high frame rate applications at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-loop Simulator facility located at Eglin AFB. Details concerning the underlying phenomenologies are also presented to provide an understanding of the computational rationale. Finally, several example calculations are presented to illustrate the level of fidelity that can be achieved using these methods.

Crow, Dennis R.; Coker, Charles F.

1996-05-01

251

Simultaneous removals of NOx, HC and PM from diesel exhaust emissions by dielectric barrier discharges.  

PubMed

The main target of this work is to characterize the abatements of particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) from an actual diesel exhaust using dielectric barrier discharge technology (DBD). The effects of several parameters, such as peak voltage, frequency and engine load, on the contaminant removals have been investigated intensively. The present study shows that for a given frequency, the removals of PM and HC are enhanced with the increase of peak voltage and level off at higher voltage, while in the range of higher voltages a decline of NO(x) removal efficiency is observed. For a given voltage, the maximums of specific energy density (SED) and removal efficiency are attained at resonance point. The increase of peak voltage will result in a significant decrease of energy utilization efficiency of DBD at most engine loads. Alkanes in soluble organic fraction (SOF) are more readily subjected to removals than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PMID:19128874

Song, Chong-Lin; Bin, Feng; Tao, Ze-Min; Li, Fang-Cheng; Huang, Qi-Fei

2008-11-28

252

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standards. Either a deterioration factor (DF) is calculated and applied to the emission...employed to identify and remove from the DF calculation those test results determined...useful life periods as applicable. Separate DF's are calculated for each durability...

2009-07-01

253

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standards. Either a deterioration factor (DF) is calculated and applied to the emission...employed to identify and remove from the DF calculation those test results determined...useful life periods as applicable. Separate DF's are calculated for each durability...

2010-07-01

254

Exhaust Emissions from a Ford Pinto Equipped with the General Dynamics Electrosonic Control System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EPA receives information about many systems which appear to offer potential for emission reduction or fuel economy improvement compared to conventional engines and vehicles. One such system has been developed jointly by General Dynamics and Autotronic...

1976-01-01

255

Detection of emission indices of aircraft exhaust compounds by open-path optical methods at airports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different thrust levels (Idle, approach, cruise and take-off). It is a common procedure to use this data base as a starting point to estimate aircraft emissions at airports and further on to calculate the contribution of airports on local air quality. The comparison of these indices to real in use measurements therefore is a vital task to test the quality of air quality models at airports. Here a method to determine emission indices is used, where concentration measurements of CO2 together with other pollutants in the aircraft plume are needed. During intensive measurement campaigns at Zurich (ZRH) and Paris Charles De Gaulle (CDG) airports, concentrations of CO2, NO, NO2 and CO were measured. The measurement techniques were Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). The big advantage of these methods is that no operations on the airport are influenced during measurement times. Together with detailed observations of taxiway movements, a comparison of emission indices with real in use emissions is possible.

Schürmann, Gregor; Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Hoffmann, Herbert; Utzig, Selina

2005-10-01

256

Field emission from atomically thin edges of reduced graphene oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Point sources show the best electron emission properties due to local field enhancement at the tip. A drawback of tip emitters is that they must be positioned sufficiently apart to achieve field enhancement, limiting the number of emission sites and therefore the overall current. In contrast, we report ultra-low threshold voltage emission of multiple electron beams from atomically thin edges of individual reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The emission sites observed by field emission (FEM) and field ion (FIM) microscopies are atomically spaced along the edge. FEM measurements indicate evidence for interference, suggesting that the emitted electron beams are coherent. Based on our spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and theory results, field emission is attributed to the aggregation of oxygen groups in the form of cyclic edge ethers. Such closely spaced electron beams from rGO offer prospects for novel applications and understanding the physics of linear electron sources.

Yamaguchi, Hisato; Murakami, Katsuhisa; Eda, Goki; Fujita, Takeshi; Boisse, Julien; Guan, Pengfei; Wakaya, Fujio; Cho, Kyeongjae; Chabal, Yves; Chen, Mingwei; Takai, Mikio; Chhowalla, Manish

2011-03-01

257

NO2Assisted Soot Regeneration Behavior in a Diesel Particulate Filter with Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major concern in operating a diesel engine is how to reduce the soot emission from the exhaust gases, as soot has a negative effect on both human health and the environment. More stringent emission regulations make the diesel particulate filter (DPF) an indispensable after-treatment component to reduce diesel soot from exhaust gases. The most important issue in developing an

Jong Hun Kim; Man Young Kim; Hyong Gon Kim

2010-01-01

258

Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987-2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions - temperatures of 25-100 °C and organic aerosol concentrations of <1-600 ?g m-3. The gas-particle partitioning of the POA emissions varied continuously over this entire range of conditions and essentially none of the POA should be considered non-volatile. Furthermore, for most vehicles, the low levels of dilution used in the constant volume sampler created particle mass concentrations that were greater than a factor of 10 or higher than typical ambient levels. This resulted in large and systematic partitioning biases in the POA emission factors compared to more dilute atmospheric conditions, as the POA emission rates may be over-estimated by nearly a factor of four due to gas-particle partitioning at higher particle mass concentrations. A volatility distribution was derived to quantitatively describe the measured gas-particle partitioning data using absorptive partitioning theory. Although the POA emission factors varied by more than two orders of magnitude across the test fleet, the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in gas-particle partitioning were modest. Therefore, a single volatility distribution can be used to quantitatively describe the gas-particle partitioning of the entire test fleet. This distribution is designed to be applied to quartz filter POA emission factors in order to update emissions inventories for use in chemical transport models.

May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

2013-10-01

259

40 CFR 1039.102 - What exhaust emission standards and phase-in allowances apply for my engines in model year 2014...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following engines: (i) Engines below 37 kW for model years before 2013. (ii...Constant-speed engines. (v) Engines above 560 kW. (2) The transient standards in...Tier 4 Exhaust Emission Standards (g/kW-hr): kW

2010-07-01

260

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86.1710-99 Section 86.1710-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

2009-07-01

261

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86.1710-99 Section 86.1710-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

2010-07-01

262

An investigation of the effects of spray angle and injection strategy on dimethyl ether (DME) combustion and exhaust emission characteristics in a common-rail diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was performed on the effects of spray angle and injection strategies (single and multiple) on the combustion characteristics, concentrations of exhaust emissions, and the particle size distribution in a direct-injection (DI) compression ignition engine fueled with dimethyl ether (DME) fuel. In this study, two types of narrow spray angle injectors (?spray=70° and 60°) were examined and its

Seung Hyun Yoon; June Pyo Cha; Chang Sik Lee

2010-01-01

263

Reducing CO 2 emissions by substituting biomass for fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing fossil fuels with sustainably-produced biomass will reduce the net flow of CO2 to the atmosphere. We express the efficiency of this substitution in reduced emissions per unit of used land or biomass and in costs of the substitution per tonne of C. The substitution costs are calculated as the cost difference between continued use of fossil fuels at current

Leif Gustavsson; Pål Börjesson; Bengt Johansson; Per Svenningsson

1995-01-01

264

Experimental investigation on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of biogas–biodiesel dual-fuel combustion in a CI engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was performed to study the influence of dual-fuel combustion characteristics on the exhaust emissions and combustion performance in a diesel engine fueled with biogas–biodiesel dual-fuel. In this work, the combustion pressure and the rate of heat release were evaluated under various conditions in order to analyze the combustion and emission characteristics for single-fuel (diesel and biodiesel) and

Seung Hyun Yoon; Chang Sik Lee

2011-01-01

265

Characterization of exhaust emissions from diesel-powered passenger cars with particular reference to unregulated components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides regulated components VW's research program in the field of characterization of diesel emissions comprises a detailed analysis of the particulates and a comprehensive study of a number of unregulated gaseous compounds. The following chemical compounds and classes of compounds are measured: particulates, traces of metals, major elements, sulfates, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, ammonia, phenols, individual hydrocarbons,

K. H. Lies; A. Postulka; H. Gring

1984-01-01

266

Exhaust emissions from the engine running on multi-component fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible alternative raw materials for producing biodiesel fuel are as follows: Camelina sativa oil, fibre linseed oil and waste animal fat. The aim of this work was to analyse the emissions of the engine running on multi-component fuels containing fossil diesel fuel (D), linseed or Camelina sativa oil fatty acid methyl esters (LSME and CME respectively) and beef tallow (TME)

Egl? Sendžikien?; Violeta Makarevi?ien?; Svitlana Kalenska

2012-01-01

267

Time Degradation Factors for Turbine Engine Exhaust Emissions. Volume 1. Program Description and Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first volume of an eight-volume interim report which documents the test data obtained in a study of turbine emission degradation. This volume contains an introduction to the program, a description of the test schedule, equipment, procedures, a...

M. Platt E. R. Norster

1978-01-01

268

The effects of fuel additives on alcohol exhaust and evaporative emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the past decade of evaluation, the technical feasibility of alcohols as extenders and substitutes for gasoline in spark ignited engines has been generally established both with regards to performance and emissions. One of the problem areas is cold starting and warm-up driveability. High heats of vaporation and low vapor pressures at low temperatures of the alcohols

S. A. Espinola; J. F. Nebolon; R. K. Pepley; A. T. Tamura

1982-01-01

269

MOBILE4 Exhaust Emission Factors and Inspection/Maintenance Benefits for Passenger Cars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MOBILE4 Tech IV Credit Model is used to estimate the emission factor equations, the effects of Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) programs, and the bag fraction equations for 1981 and later passenger cars. The model's results are then stored in the EPA ...

E. L. Glover D. J. Brzezinski

1989-01-01

270

Recommended practice for determining exhaust emissions from heavy-duty vehicles under transient conditions. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This recommended practice represents the completion of one phase of EPA's transient cycle development effort. The finalized chassis procedures detailed here parallel the engine test procedures recently published as subpart N of the Heavy-Duty Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM). The engine test will remain for EPA the primary means of determining transient heavy-duty emissions; however, the chassis test will be

C. J. France; W. Clemmens; T. Wysor

1979-01-01

271

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

National Lab Directors, . .

2001-04-05

272

Evaluation of the Dekati mass monitor for the measurement of exhaust particle mass emissions.  

PubMed

The Dekati mass monitor (OMM) is an instrument which measures the mass concentration of airborne particles in real time by combining aerodynamic and mobility size particle classification. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the DMM by sampling exhaust from five engines and vehicles of different technologies in both steady-state and transient tests. DMM results are found higher than the filter-based particulate matter (PM) by 39 +/- 24% (range stands for +/- one standard deviation) for 62 diesel tests conducted in total and 3% and 14% higher, respectively, in two gasoline tests. To explore whether the difference occurs because of the different measurement principles of DMM and filter-based PM, the DMM operation is replicated over steady-state tests by combining an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The correlation of ELPI and SMPS derived mass and filter-based PM is satisfactory (R2 = 0.95) with a mean deviation of 5 +/- 15%. For the same tests, the correlation of DMM with PM was also high (R2 = 0.95), but DMM exceeded PM by 44 +/- 23% on average. The comparison of ELPI and SMPS and DMM results reveals that the latter overestimates both the geometric mean diameter and especially the width of the particle mass-weighted size distribution. These findings demonstrate thatthe statistically significant difference between the DMM and the filter-based PM cannot just originate from the different measurement principles but also from the actual implementation of the combined aerodynamic-mobility measurement in the DMM. Optimizing the DMM will require changes in its design and/or the calculation algorithm to improve the resolution and width of the aerodynamic size distribution recorded. PMID:16913132

Mamakos, Athanasios; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Samaras, Zissis

2006-08-01

273

Non-exhaust emission measurement system of the mobile laboratory SNIFFER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe and quality assure the sampling system of a mobile research laboratory SNIFFER which was shown to be a useful tool for studying emission levels of respirable dust from street surfaces. The dust plume had bimodal structure; another mode rising to higher altitudes whereas the other mode remained at lower altitudes. The system was tested on a route in Helsinki, Finland, during spring 2005 and 2006. The PM 2.5 and PM 10 were positively correlated and the PM levels increased with the vehicle speed. SNIFFER was able to identify the characteristic emission levels on different streets. A clear downward trend in the concentrations was observed in all street locations between April and June. The composition of the street dust collected by SNIFFER was compared with springtime PM 10 aerosol samples from the air quality monitoring stations in Helsinki. The results showed similarities in the abundance and composition of the mineral fraction but contained significantly more salt particles.

Pirjola, L.; Kupiainen, K. J.; Perhoniemi, P.; Tervahattu, H.; Vesala, H.

274

Composting as a Strategy to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composting animal manure has the potential to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from agriculture. Agriculture has been recognized as a major contributor of greenhouse gases, releasing an estimated 81% and 70% of the anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), respectively. A significant amount of methane is emitted during the storage of liquid manure,

John W. Paul; Claudia Wagner-Riddle; Andrew Thompson; Ron Fleming; Malcolm MacAlpine

275

Effect of various LPG supply systems on exhaust particle emission in spark-ignited combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particle size distribution and particle number (PN) concentration emitted by internal combustion engine are a subject\\u000a of significant environmental concern because of their adverse health effects and environmental impact. This subject has recently\\u000a attracted the attention of the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP). In 2007, the UN-ECE GRPE PMP proposed a new method to\\u000a measure particle emissions in the diluted

J. W. Lee; H. S. Do; S. I. Kweon; K. K. Park; J. H. Hong

2010-01-01

276

Exhaust Emissions from Diesel, LPG, and Gasoline Low-power Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a way similar to the automotive industry, outboard emissions limits are being constantly revised, which strongly effects the development of the new engines and their compliance. During the last ten years, conventional two-stroke outboard engines, which are used for fishing and recreational boats, have thus been replaced by four-stroke engines or direct-injection two-stroke engines. The objective of this article

S. Murillo; J. L. Míguez; J. Porteiro; L. M. López-González; E. Granada; J. C. Morán; C. Paz

2008-01-01

277

Remote sensing data and a potential model of vehicle exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 1991, General Motors Research and Development Center (GMR&D) participated in a remote sensing study conducted by the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. During this study, the GMR&D remote sensor was used to measure the carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from approximately 15,000 vehicles. The vehicle type (passenger car, light-duty truck, or

Stephens

1994-01-01

278

Effect of natural compounds on reducing formaldehyde emission from plywood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of natural compounds on reducing formaldehyde emission from plywood were investigated. Urea, catechin and vanillin were examined as the natural formaldehyde reducers. The microemission cell, with an internal volume of 35 ml, the maximum exposed test surface area of 177 cm 2 and an air purge flow rate of 50 ml min -1, was used to measure specific emission rate (SER). In the case of no reducer treatment, formaldehyde emission from plywood was fast and SERs were 4.4 mg m -2 h -1 at 30 °C and 15 mg m -2 h -1 at 60 °C. When this plywood was treated with the natural compounds, the SERs of formaldehyde were decreased at all temperatures. In the case of urea treatment, the SERs of formaldehyde decreased to 0.30 mg m -2 h -1 at 30 °C and 0.65 mg m -2 h -1 at 60 °C. When the urea treatment was applied to the inside of kitchen cabinet (made from plywood; 270 cm wide, 60 cm deep, 250 cm high), the concentration of formaldehyde was reduced substantially from 1600 to 130 ?g m -3. The reducing effect of formaldehyde continued during the observation period (6 months), with a mean concentration of 100 ?g m -3. Reducers in the plywood would react with released formaldehyde. Application of natural compounds such as urea, catechin and vanillin could provide a simple and effective approach for suppressing formaldehyde emission from plywood.

Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Matsushima, Erica; Kitao, Nahoko; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Ando, Masanori; Otsubo, Yasufumi

279

Prescribed Burning as a Means of Reducing Emissions From Fires?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial ecosystems, particularly forest ecosystems, have been identified for their carbon sequestration potential. However, many of the world's terrestrial systems experience periodic fire events, which emit a significant amount of carbon to the atmosphere, in the form of carbon dioxide, particles, and other trace gases. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of fire emissions throughout North America and demonstrated how these emissions impact regional climate and air quality. For example, emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides from fires can have a detrimental impact on air quality in seasons not typically prone to photochemical smog. Fire emissions are also a critical component of the carbon cycle and need to be considered when evaluating regional sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Although the increasing extent and severity of wildfires can potentially result in different, and larger, emissions than those from prescribed burns, there has not been a continental-scale examination of the benefit of prescribed fire as compared to wildfire emissions of carbon dioxide, particles, and trace gases to the atmosphere. Here we use a continental-scale fire emissions model to investigate the potential changes in fire emissions when prescribed burns are applied more widely, and wildfires are assumed to be prevented. We will evaluate the impact of fire management practices on the overall emissions of carbon dioxide, particles, and other trace gases and how these emissions compare to those from anthropogenic sources. Quantifying the emissions of wildfire versus prescribed fire will aid in identifying the potential climate and air quality implications, allowing for further refinement of carbon accounting policy aimed at reducing atmospheric carbon concentrations.

Wiedinmyer, C.; Hurteau, M.

2008-12-01

280

In Brief: Reducing black carbon emissions could immediately reduce global temperature increases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new assessment by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) shows that measures to reduce emissions of black carbon, or soot, which is produced through burning of wood and other biofuels as well as by some industrial processes, could improve public health and help to significantly reduce projected global temperature increases. The Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone highlights how specific measures targeting black carbon and other emissions from fossil fuel extraction, residential wood-burning cooking, diesel vehicles, waste management, agriculture, and small industries could affect climate. Full implementation of a variety of measures to reduce black carbon and methane emissions could reduce future global warming by about 0.5°C, the assessment found. Reducing black carbon could have substantial benefits in the Arctic, the Himalayas, and other snow-covered regions because black carbon that settles on top of snow absorbs heat, speeding melting of snow and ice. Black carbon emission reductions would affect global temperatures more quickly than carbon dioxide emission reductions. Furthermore, reducing black carbon emissions would improve public health in the regions that emit large amounts of the harmful air pollutant.

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-03-01

281

Measurement of plasma parameters in the exhaust of a magnetoplasma rocket by gridded energy analyzer and emissive Langmuir probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 10 kilowatt prototype of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) engine, abbreviated as VX-10, is designed to eject plasma at exhaust velocities of tens of kilometers per second. In this device, energy is imparted to the plasma ions by two mechanisms: ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH), and acceleration in an ambipolar electric field. Measurements from two different electrostatic probes are combined to determine how much each mechanism contributes to the total ion energy. The first probe is a gridded retarding potential analyzer (RPA) that incorporates a multi-channel collimator to obtain precise measurement of the ion and electron parallel energy distributions. The second is an emissive Langmuir probe that measures the DC and RF components of the plasma potential. The plasma potential obtained from the emitting probe allows calculation of the parallel velocity distribution once the parallel energy distribution is obtained from the energy analyzer data. Biasing the RPA housing is shown to minimize the plasma perturbation, as monitored by an auxiliary probe. When this minimization is done, the RPA measurements become compatible with the emissive probe's measurement of plasma potential. The collimated RPA and emissive probe have been used to examine the effects of a double dual half-turn (DDHT) antenna encircling the plasma. When power at the ion cyclotron frequency is applied, changes are seen in the saturation current and mean ion energy of the collimated RPA characteristic. The evolution of these changes as the RPA is moved downstream from the antenna is interpreted as firm evidence of ion cyclotron heating, albeit at absorbed energies of less than 1 electronvolt per ion. The emissive probe shows that, within experimental error, all of the increased ion energy is accounted for by an increase in the plasma potential that occurs when the ICRF power is applied. The combined RPA and emissive probe data also show that there is a jet of flowing plasma in the VX-10 when operated with the helicon source alone but that the signal from this jet is overwhelmed by a rapidly growing stationary plasma within the first second of the discharge.

Glover, Timothy Ward

2002-01-01

282

Electron field emission from reduced graphene oxide on polymer film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field emission of reduced graphene oxide coated on polystyrene film is studied in both parallel and perpendicular configurations. Low turn-on field of 0.6 V/?m and high emission current density of 200 mA/cm2 are observed in perpendicular configuration (along the cross section), whereas a turn-on field of 6 V/?m and current density of 20 ?A/cm2 are obtained in parallel configuration (top surface). The emission characteristics follow Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling and the values of enhancement factor estimated from FN plots are 5818 (perpendicular) and 741 (parallel). Furthermore, stability and repeatability of the field emission characteristics in perpendicular configuration are presented.

Sameera, I.; Bhatia, Ravi; Ouyang, Jianyong; Prasad, V.; Menon, R.

2013-01-01

283

Particle Emissions from a Small Two-Stroke Engine: Effects of Fuel, Lubricating Oil, and Exhaust Aftertreatment on Particle Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fuel and lubricating oil formulation and exhaust catalytic aftertreatment on physical and chemical characteristics of two-stroke engine exhaust particles were studied. The exhaust particles were produced with a professional chainsaw engine. The employed fuels were a 98-octane oxygenated, low-sulfur, low-aromatic reformulated gasoline, which served as a reference, and a 95-octane nonoxygenated alkylate gasoline that had no aromatics

Timo Ålander; Eero Antikainen; Taisto Raunemaa; Esa Elonen; Aimo Rautiola; Keijo Torkkell

2005-01-01

284

Reducing Dust and Gas Emissions using an Aerodynamic Deduster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust and ammonia are two major air pollutants that are emitted from confinement animal feeding operations (CAFO) as well as odor. Many air-cleaning technologies are available, but most of them are not applicable for CAFO pollutant control not only because they are out of typical CAFO owners' budget, but also because few of them are able to reduce the emission

Yuanhui Zhang

285

Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets

David Andress; T. Dean Nguyen; Sujit Das

2011-01-01

286

Catalytic cracking with reduced emission of noxious gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention is a cyclic, fluidized catalytic cracking process providing reduced emissions of carbon monoxide and sulfur oxides in the regeneration zone flue gases. Substantially complete combustion of carbon monoxide takes place in the regeneration zone, and the heat evolved is absorbed by solid particles which are circulated to the reaction zone and stripping zone before returning to the regeneration

I. A. Vasalos; W. D. Ford; C. K. R. Hsieh

1979-01-01

287

Reducing terrestrial greenhouse gas emissions: a human dimensions contribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes achievements from the human dimensions research within New Zealand's 'Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Terrestrial Biosphere' programme, in three parts: (i) regional responses to climate change policy development, (ii) indigenous groups, land use and climate change, and (iii) participation in the Land Use in Rural New Zealand (LURNZ) model development. We then critically review our work,

Fiona E. Carswell; Alison J. Greenaway; Garth R. Harmsworth; Nigel Jollands; W. Troy Baisden

2007-01-01

288

Reducing future CO 2 emissions — The role of nuclear energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made to analyze the potential of reducing CO2 emissions and to identify important energy and technology options in future energy systems of Japan. The energy market optimum allocation model MARKAL was used for the analysis with a time horizon from 1990 to 2050.The analytical procedures were as follows. First, a reference energy system was established by incorporating

O. Sato; K. Tatematsu; T. Hasegawa

1998-01-01

289

REDUCING FUMIGANT EMISSIONS USING SURFACE TARPS: FIELD AND LABORATORY ASSESSMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasingly stringent regulations require that emissions of fumigants to the atmosphere be reduced to protect human and environmental health. Plastic tarps used to cover the soil surface during soil fumigation vary in their effectiveness as diffusion barriers. Virtually impermeable films (VIFs) hav...

290

Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.  

PubMed

We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

2012-01-09

291

Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia  

PubMed Central

We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

2012-01-01

292

Effects of idle reduction technologies on real world fuel use and exhaust emissions of idling long-haul trucks.  

PubMed

Idling long-haul freight tucks may consume nearly one billion gallons of diesel fuel per year in the U.S. There is a need for real-world data by which to quantify avoided fuel use and emissions attributable to idle reduction techniques of auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Field data were obtained from 20 APU-equipped and SP-compatible trucks observed during 2.8 million miles of travel in 42 states. Base engine fuel use and emission rates varied depending on ambient temperature. APU and SP energy use and emission rates varied depending on electrical load. APUs reduced idling fuel use and CO2 emissions for single and team drivers by 22 and 5% annually, respectively. SP offers greater reductions in energy use of 48% for single drivers, as well as in emissions, except for SO2. APUs were cost-effective for single drivers with a large number of APU usage hours per year, but not for team drivers or for single drivers with low APU utilization rates. The findings support more accurate assessments of avoided fuel use and emissions, and recommendations to encourage greater APU utilization by single drivers and to further develop infrastructure for SP. PMID:19764263

Frey, H Christopher; Kuo, Po-Yao; Villa, Charles

2009-09-01

293

The New York City bus terminal diesel emissions study measurement and collection of diesel exhaust for chemical characterization and mutagenic activity  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the impact of emission from heavy-duty diesel engines on the mutagenicity of ambient air, this study was designed to compare the mutagenic activity of size-fractionated airborne particles collected inside and outside a large bus terminal. Most diesel exhaust studies have been performed in a laboratory setting. The NYC Port Authority Bus Terminal Study, on the other hand, was designed to collect, measure, chemically characterize, and bioassay diesel exhaust as it exists after becoming resident in the surrounding air. Chamber studies have demonstrated that some of the organic compounds associated with diesel exhaust undergo atmospheric transformation when subjected to ultraviolet light in combination with other pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and reactive hydrocarbons. These studies have also shown that the mutagenic response changes with the transformations. A high ambient loading of the emissions aerosol was chosen for the study in order to maximize the amount of information which could be acquired on the character, ambient exposure level, and potential health effects associated with diesel exhaust.

Burton, R.M.; Suggs, J.C.; Jungers, R.H.; Lewtas, J. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (US))

1987-01-01

294

Indian oil company joins efforts to reduce methane emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oil and Natural Gas Corp, Ltd. (ONGC), headquartered in Dehradun, India, has joined seven U.S. and Canadian oil and natural gas companies as a partner in a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. EPA's Natural Gas STAR International Program aims to reduce methane emissions from the oil and natural gas sector while delivering more gas to markets around the world. With this partnership, ONGC agrees to implement emissions reduction practices and to submit annual reports on progress achieved; EPA agrees to assist ONGC with training technicians in new cost-effective technologies that will help achieve target emissions. The Natural Gas STAR International Program is administered under the Methane to Markets Partnership, a group of 20 countries and 600 companies across the globe that since 2004 has volunteered to cut methane emissions. More information on EPA's agreement with ONGC can be found at http://www.epa.gov/gasstar/index.htm; information about the Methane to Markets Partnership can be found at http://www.methanetomarkets.org.

Kumar, Mohi

295

Evaluation of Methanol for Reduced Exhaust Emissions in a Single-Cylinder Research Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation examines the influence of different operating parameters on the formation of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, unburned fuel and the aldehydes when fueled by methanol and methanol-water mixtures. Also, the effect of adding small quant...

B. S. Samaga K. V. Gopala Krishnan B. S. Murthy R. K. Pefley R. L. Bechtold

1979-01-01

296

Use of natural gas to reduce emissions in waste combustors  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), together with industrial partners, is developing a technology that utilizes natural gas to reduce air pollutant emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs). This natural gas injection technology is termed METHANE de-NOX[sup sm]. The results of field evaluation tests carried out at a 90 tonne/day MWC in 1991 show simultaneous reductions of 60% in nitrogen oxides and 50% in carbon monoxide with natural gas injection equal to 15% of total waste heat input. Excess air requirements were also reduced by 40% thus increasing the overall waste-to-energy plant efficiency. This approach is now being combined with injection of sorbents to also reduce the emissions of hydrochloric acid, sulfur oxides, dioxins, and furans. This paper describes the overall system design, the results of field evaluations to date and the schedule for sorbent injection trials.

Abbasi, H.A.; Khinkis, M.J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Dunnette, R. (Olmsted County Waste-to-Energy, Rochester, MN (United States)); Nakazato, Kunihiro (Takuma Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

1992-01-01

297

Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.  

PubMed

The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear. PMID:21081702

Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

2010-11-16

298

New chemical reduces coke dust emissions at Mississippi refinery  

SciTech Connect

A new chemical dust-suppression system designed specifically for use with petroleum coke is reducing emissions and maintenance requirements at Chevron U.S.A. Inc.'s Pascagoula, Miss., refinery. Dust levels have been reduced 90--95% and workers no longer are required to wear personal respirators inside the conveyor galleries. Routine cleanup requirements for the coke conveyors have been reduced, as have maintenance needs within the coke-handling facilities. The paper discusses fugitive dusts, the Chevron system, the new chemical, the original system, a demonstration trial, monitoring, results, and system adjustments.

Bennett, R.P. (Benetech Inc., Aurora, IL (United States)); Blevins, H.J.; Cuevas, H.J. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Pascagoula, MS (United States))

1994-12-26

299

Evaluation of Vertical Exhaust Stacks and Aged Production Emission Control Devices to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisonings from Houseboat Generator Exhaust, October 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On September 30 through October 3, 2002, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers evaluated control of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and exposures at Callville Bay Marina on Lake Mead, Nevada. Evaluations involved 3 house...

G. S. Earnest R. M. Hall K. H. Dunn D. Hammond R. Valladares

2003-01-01

300

Effect of Two-Stage Injection on Unburned Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Smokeless Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion with UltraHigh Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from smokeless low-temperature diesel combustion (LTC) with ultra-high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be attributed to lowered combustion temperatures as well as to under-mixing of fuel-rich mixture along the combustion chamber walls, overly mixed fuel-lean mixture at the spray tails, and fuel missing the piston bowl and entering the squish zones.

T Li; M Suzuki; H Ogawa

2010-01-01

301

40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...over the course of the durability demonstration. (c) To compare emission levels from the emission-data vehicle with...the same number of decimal places as the emission standard. Compare the rounded emission levels to the emission standard for...

2013-07-01

302

The effect of two ammonia-emission-reducing pig housing systems on odour emission.  

PubMed

Odour nuisance from agricultural activities is increasing in densely populated countries like the Netherlands. To develop adequate regulations, a large-scale, government-financed monitoring programme was started in the mid-1990s to establish odour emission levels for both conventional and low ammonia emission housing systems for cattle, pigs and poultry. The results indicate that high- and low-odour emission housing are difficult to distinguish because of the large variation within housing systems. Measurements on different farm locations within the same housing system show both a large variation between locations and within one location (in time). The latter, however, is significantly smaller, which suggests that farm management is an important determinant in odour emission that interferes with the effects of housing systems. The current research was aimed at determining the effect of two common ammonia-reducing pig-housing systems on odour emissions compared to conventional housing systems under similar management conditions. The respective reduction principles of these systems are reducing the emitting surface of the manure pit and cooling of manure in the manure pit (both pits beneath slatted floor). Five farms that combined conventional housing with one low-ammonia system (three reduced emitting surface and two manure cooling) were selected for a direct, pair-wise comparison of (olfactometric) odour emission measurements. The results show a highly significant effect (p < 0.01) for two of the three reduced emitting surface systems and for one of the two manure cooling system. The average odour reduction percentages of these systems are 35% (from 24.9 to 16.0 OUE/s per animal) and 23% (from 30.1 to 24.0 OUE/s per animal) respectively. Although odour emission reduction through the type of housing system is possible, management factors interact with the system and thereby determine whether the system reduces odour emission or not. PMID:15484778

Mol, G; Ogink, N W M

2004-01-01

303

Computer modeling studies of the impact of vehicle exhaust emission controls on photochemical air pollution formation in the United Kingdom  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulation techniques are applied to the formation of photochemical air pollutants in the London region for numerous emissions. A realistic simulation is achieved for the production of ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxyproprionyl nitrate, and sulfate aerosol during photochemical episodes. Hydrocarbon control appears to have greater potential than nitrogen oxide control in reducing secondary pollution formation in the London region. The results of this study require further investigation over a larger geographical area in England. (1 graph, 50 references, 5 tables)

Derwent, R.G.; Hov, O.

1980-11-01

304

Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2013-01-01

305

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.  

PubMed

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. PMID:19368159

Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

2009-03-15

306

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

SciTech Connect

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (US)

2005-08-15

307

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options  

SciTech Connect

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson [University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Ecosystem Science and Sustainability Initiative

2009-03-15

308

Exhaust recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust gas recirculation system for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust is described that provides for the reduction of recirculation during engine idling without the prior-art complexities of moving parts. The system also achieves preheating and improved mixing and carburetion of the fuel-air mixture in the inlet header. Exhaust gases are recycled by means of a swirl

Sarto

1974-01-01

309

and reduce emissions in gas turbines by helping to reduce creep in combustion liners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-emissions combustion liner is a critical system component for gas turbines. The combustion air in a gas turbine enters through holes in the combustion chamber liner and flows along the liner to keep it cool. Liners are designed to improve durability and cooling while minimizing the flow variation from liner to liner within the same engine. Reducing variation can

Hany Rizkalla

310

Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

2005-08-25

311

Secondary effects of catalytic diesel particulate filters: reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of the exhaust.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust contains numerous toxic substances that show different modes of action such as triggering aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated pathways. We investigated AhR-mediated activity of exhaust generated by a heavy-duty diesel engine operated with or without iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs). AhR agonists were quantified using the DR-CALUX reporter gene assay (exposure of cells for 24 h). We found 54-60 ng 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin CALUX equivalents (TCDD-CEQs) per m3 of exhaust in unfiltered samples and 6-16 ng TCDD-CEQ m3 in DPF-treated samples. DPF applications decreased TCDD-CEQ concentrations by almost 90%. Concentrations of known AhR agonists were determined with GC/HRMS and converted to TCDD-CEQ concentrations using compound-specific relative potency values. The analyzed nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the 172,3,7,8-chlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (23,7,8-PCDD/Fs) contributed only marginally (0.6-1.6%) to the total agonist concentration. However, both DPFs also decreased concentrations of individual PAHs by 7(0-80%. Variation of the assay exposure time (8, 24, 48,72, and 96 h) revealed that AhR-mediated activity decreased over time and reached a plateau after 72 h, which was most likely due to biotransformation of AhR agonists by the exposed H4IIE cells. At the plateau, we measured 1-2 ng TCDD-CEQ m(-3) in both an unfiltered and a filtered exhaust sample. Our findings show that DPFs are a promising technology to detoxify diesel exhaust regarding compounds with AhR-mediated activity. PMID:18497156

Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Zennegg, Markus; Kohler, Martin; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

2008-04-15

312

Diesel emissions and ventilation exhaust sampling in the North Ramp of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility  

SciTech Connect

A series of ventilation experiments have been performed to assess the potential retention of diesel exhaust constituents in the North Ramp of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Measurements were taken to help evaluate the potential impact of retained diesel exhaust constituents on future in-situ experiments and long-term waste isolation. Assessment of the diesel exhaust retention in the ESF North Ramp required the measurement of air velocities, meteorological measurements, quantification of exhaust constituents within the ventilation air stream, multiple gas sample collections, and on-line diesel exhaust measurements. In order to assess variability within specific measurements, the experiment was divided into three separate sampling events. Although somewhat variable from event to event, collected data appear to support pre-test assumptions of high retention rates for exhaust constituents within the tunnel. The results also show that complete air exchange in the ESF does not occur within the estimated 16 to 20 minutes derived from the ventilation flowrate measurements. Because the scope of work for these activities covered only measurement and acquisition of data, no judgment is offered by the author as to the implications of this work. Final analyses and decisions based upon the entire compendium of data associated with this investigation is being undertaken by the Repository and ESF Ventilation Design Groups of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

George, J.T.

1995-11-01

313

Correcting injection pressure maladjustments to reduce NO X emissions by marine diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from the exhausts of marine diesel engines comprises several different gases including NOX. These are currently regulated at the international level under Regulation 13 of ANNEX VI of MARPOL 73\\/78, but this regulation only applies to new engines and is based on bench tests, for only a single engine designated the “parent engine”. Here, the need to take measurements

C. Vanesa Durán Grados; Zigor Uriondo; Manuel Clemente; Francisco J. Jiménez Espadafor; Juan Moreno Gutiérrez

2009-01-01

314

Differential Responses upon Inhalation Exposure to Biodiesel versus Diesel Exhaust on Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Immune Outcomes  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodiesel (BD) exhaust may have reduced adverse health effects due to lower mass emissions and reduced production of hazardous compounds compared to diesel exhaust. To investigate this possibility, we compared adverse effects in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation ex...

315

Technologies to reduce or capture and store carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

The report focuses on a broad suite of technologies to reduce, capture and store CO{sub 2} emissions, primarily as they relate to direct coal combustion and also coal gasification and liquefaction. The report surveys and summarizes existing research, discusses relevant federal programs, makes recommendations regarding additional research opportunities and public policy objectives, and recommends a technology-based framework for mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-based electricity generation plants. The US Department of Energy is already at work to foster the development of these technologies. The report recognizes the scope of that work and in essence, concludes that much work still remains. A summary of the report is published in hard copy and on the CD-ROM. The full 160 page report is on the CD-ROM.

Nelson, G.; Mueller, M.; McCall, M.; Knipp, R. [PTI Resources Inc. (United States)

2007-06-15

316

Latest coker designs increase liquid yields, reduce emissions  

SciTech Connect

Modern coker designs incorporate features that maximize liquid yields, enhance safety, and reduce emissions. Careful engineering of delayed cokers can as much as eliminate liquid effluents. The delayed coking process will play an increasingly important role in the modern refinery, because of its ability to convert heavy vacuum residues to distillates and petroleum coke. The flexibility inherent in delayed coking permits refiners to process a wide variety of crude oils, including those containing heavy, high-sulfur resides. These crudes frequently are bought at a discount, and if economically convertible to light distillates, can be a substantial factor in the refiner's cash flow development. The paper discusses specialty coke products, fuel-grade cokers, design trends, fractionators, coke-handling systems, and environmental impacts, including fugitive coke dust, vapor recovery, heater emissions, wastewater reuse, and waste oil disposal.

Not Available

1993-11-08

317

Traffic generated non-exhaust particulate emissions from concrete pavement: A mass and particle size study for two-wheelers and small cars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to understand the non-exhaust (NE) emission of particles from wear of summer tire and concrete pavement, especially for two wheelers and small cars. A fully enclosed laboratory-scale model was fabricated to simulate road tire interaction with a facility to collect particles in different sizes. A road was cast using the M-45 concrete mixture and the centrifugal casting method. It was observed that emission of large particle non exhaust emission (LPNE) as well as PM 10 and PM 2.5 increased with increasing load. The LPNE was 3.5 mg tire -1 km -1 for a two wheeler and 6.4 mg tire -1 km -1 for a small car. The LPNE can lead to water pollution through water run-off from the roads. The contribution of the PM 10 and PM 2.5 was smaller compared to the LPNE particles (less than 0.1%). About 32 percent of particle mass of PM 10 was present below 1 ?m. The number as well as mass size distribution for PM 10 was observed to be bi-modal with peaks at 0.3 ?m and 4-5 ?m. The NE emissions did not show any significant trend with change in tire pressure.

Aatmeeyata; Kaul, D. S.; Sharma, Mukesh

318

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

PubMed

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2010-12-02

319

Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants  

SciTech Connect

The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

1999-03-01

320

Identification and Evaluation of Pollution Prevention Techniques to Reduce Indoor Emissions from Engineered Wood Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of...

C. Brockmann D. Whitaker L. Sheldon J. Baskir K. Leovic B. Howard

1997-01-01

321

Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector  

SciTech Connect

Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

2011-01-01

322

Aerosol number size distributions within the exhaust plume of a diesel and a gasoline passenger car under on-road conditions and determination of emission factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new setup has been developed and built to measure number size distributions of exhaust particles and thermodynamic parameters under real traffic conditions. Measurements have been performed using a diesel and a gasoline passenger car driving with different speeds and engine conditions. Significant number of nucleation mode particles was found only during high load conditions, i.e. high car and engine speeds behind the diesel car. The number concentration of soot mode particles varied within a factor of two for different engine conditions while the concentration of nucleation mode particles varied up to two orders of magnitude. The results show that roadside measurements are still quite different from those behind the tailpipe. Beside dilution transformation processes within the first meter behind the tailpipe also play an important role, such as nucleation and growth. Emission factors were calculated and compared with those obtained by other studies. Emission factors for particles larger than 25 nm (primary emissions) varied within 1.1 × 10 14 km -1 and 2.7 × 10 14 km -1 for the diesel car and between 0.6 × 10 12 km -1 and 3.5 × 10 12 km -1 for the gasoline car. The advantage of these measurements is the exhaust dilution under atmospheric conditions and the size-resolved measurement technique to divide into primary emitted and secondary formed particles.

Wehner, B.; Uhrner, U.; von Löwis, S.; Zallinger, M.; Wiedensohler, A.

323

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster at 244-AR vault. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault. The exhauster would be used during air jetting of accumulated liquids from the cell sumps into the tanks and to make transfers among the tanks within the vault when needed. The 244-AR Vault is considered to be a double-contained receiver tank (OCRT) based on its functional characteristics, although it is not listed as one of the five designated DCRTs in the 200 Area Tank Farm systems. Process operations at the vault have been inactive since 1978 and the vault`s two stacks have not operated since 1993. Since cessation of vault operations an extremely large amount of rain water and snow melt have accumulated in the cell sumps. The water level in the sumps is substantially above their respective operating levels and there is concern for leakage to the environment through containment failure due to corrosion from backed-up sump liquid. Active ventilation is required to provide contamination control during air jetting operations within the vault. It has been determined that it would not be cost effective to repair the existing exhaust systems to an operational condition; thus, a portable exhauster will be used to support the intermittent operations.

Carrell, D.J.

1997-12-17

324

Analysis of benzene emissions from vehicles and vehicle refueling  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, several investigators have characterized and measured hydrocarbon components, including benzene, in vehicle exhaust. An analysis is presented of benzene exhaust emission data reported from approximately 100 light-duty vehicles. Results indicate that on average, benzene exhaust emissions from catalyst-equipped vehicles are significantly less than those from non-catalyst vehicles. In addition, benzene exhaust emissions from 3-way catalyst vehicles appear to be significantly less than those from oxidation catalyst vehicles, on average. These observations parallel analogous average reductions in total hydrocarbons, indicating that modern catalyst-based exhaust emission controls reduce benzene emissions to approximately the same degree as they reduce total hydrocarbons. Also, benzene evaporative emissions from 3-way catalyst vehicles appear to be substantially less than those from oxidation catalyst vehicles. Finally, a benzene refueling emission rate was calculated. Its contribution to total benzene emissions appears to be very small.

Raley, D.L.; McCallum, P.W.; Shadis, W.J.

1984-01-01

325

A coupled road dust and surface moisture model to predict non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions (NORTRIP). Part 1: Road dust loading and suspension modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-exhaust traffic induced emissions are a major source of particle mass in most European countries. This is particularly important in Nordic and Alpine countries where winter time road traction maintenance occurs, e.g. salting and sanding, and where studded tyres are used. In this paper, Part 1, the road dust sub-model of a coupled road dust and surface moisture model (NORTRIP) is described. The model provides a generalised process based formulation of the non-exhaust emissions, with emphasis on the contribution of road wear, suspension, surface dust loading and the effect of road surface moisture (retention of wear particles and suspended emissions). The model is intended for use as a tool for air quality managers to help study the impact of mitigation measures and policies. We present a description of the road dust sub-model and apply the model to two sites in Stockholm and Copenhagen where seven years of data with surface moisture measurements are available. For the site in Stockholm, where studded tyres are in use, the model predicts the PM10 concentrations very well with correlations (R2) in the range of R2 = 0.76–0.91 for daily mean PM10. The model also reproduces well the impact of a reduction in studded tyres at this site. For the site in Copenhagen the correlation is lower, in the range 0.44–0.51. The addition of salt is described in the model and at both sites this leads to improved correlations due to additional salt emissions. For future use of the model a number of model parameters, e.g. wear factors and suspension rates, still need to be refined. The effect of sanding on PM10 emissions is also presented but more information will be required before this can be confidently applied for management applications.

Denby, B. R.; Sundvor, I.; Johansson, C.; Pirjola, L.; Ketzel, M.; Norman, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Omstedt, G.

2013-10-01

326

Emissions R&D at GE/CRD coal-fueled diesel: Technology development methods for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal from coal diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Four processes were investigated at the GE Research and Development Center (GE-CRD) for the removal of gaseous pollutants from the exhaust of a coal-fired diesel locomotive engine. The minimum goal for emissions control was to reduce the pollutant levels at least to the levels of a conventional diesel engine. It should be noted, however, that some of the methods investigated were capable of reducing emissions below these levels. Achieving the minimum goal requires a reduction of approximately 50% in SO{sub 2} emissions and a 90 to 95% reduction in particulate emissions, the actual percentages varying with the fuel. NO{sub x} emissions from the coal diesel are approximately 50% of the conventional diesel level. The space limitations on board the locomotive present the greatest obstacle to the design of an emissions control system. The cleanup system must be compact as well as multifunctional. The development of a particulate collection device was undertaken by GE Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI). Among the options they evaluated were high-temperature metal filters, cyclones, and a granular bed. The development of a cleanup method or SO{sub 2} and possibly NO{sub x} was undertaken at GE-CRD. A process was sought which could incorporate one of the particulate removal devices under consideration. Four processes utilizing three classes of sorbents -- copper oxide, calcium-based, and sodium bicarbonate --were investigated for SO{sub 2} capture: Two of these processes use copper oxide (CuO), a regenerable SO{sub 2} sorbent. The CuSO{sub 4} formed has the added property that it catalyzes the reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} in the presence of NH{sub 3}. This NO{sub x} removal capability was tested for both CuO processes.

Cohen, M.R.; Leonard, G.L.; Slaughter, D.M.

1993-10-01

327

Emergence of exhausted B cells in asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients naïve for HAART is related to reduced immune surveillance.  

PubMed

Alterations of B cell subpopulations have been described up to date as characterizing advanced stage of HIV-1 infection. However, whether such defects are relevant in subjects with a preserved number of CD4? T cells (>350 cells/?L) is unclear. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated if signs of B cells exhaustion and impaired viral immune surveillance are present in a cohort of 43 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients with preserved CD4? T cell counts (>350 cells/?L) and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) untreated. A dramatic expansion of exhausted tissue-like memory B cells (CD10?CD21(low)CD27?) was observed. B cells alteration was related to an increase in Torque teno virus (TTV) load, used as surrogate marker of immune function. Successfully HAART-treated patients showed normalization of B cell subpopulations frequency and TTV load. These results provide new insights on B cell in HIV-1 infection and show that development of B cell abnormalities precedes CD4? T cell decline. PMID:22474482

Fogli, Manuela; Torti, Carlo; Malacarne, Fabio; Fiorentini, Simona; Albani, Melania; Izzo, Ilaria; Giagulli, Cinzia; Maggi, Fabrizio; Carosi, Giampiero; Caruso, Arnaldo

2012-03-05

328

40 CFR 89.412 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust sampling and analytical system description...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test...exhaust sampling and analytical system description...example of a sampling and analytical system which may be...transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to...

2013-07-01

329

40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emissions for engines powered by the following fuels: (1) Alcohol-fueled engines: THCE emissions. (2) Natural gas-fueled...the following: (A) Your projected operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any engines in the...

2013-07-01

330

Control of Benzene Emissions from Light-Duty Motor Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several strategies to reduce the total amount of exhaust and evaporative benzene emissions from light-duty gasoline-fueled vehicles have been investigated. A literature search was performed to determine automotive benzene emission levels and technologies ...

M. J. Heimrich

1991-01-01

331

Study of Miller timing on exhaust emissions of a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled diesel engine.  

PubMed

The effect of intake valve closure (IVC) timing by utilizing Miller cycle and start of injection (SOI) on particulate matter (PM), particle number and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions was studied with a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled nonroad diesel engine. HVO-fueled engine emissions, including aldehyde and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, were also compared with those emitted with fossil EN590 diesel fuel. At the engine standard settings, particle number and NOx emissions decreased at all the studied load points (50%, 75%, and 100%) when the fuel was changed from EN590 to HVO. Adjusting IVC timing enabled a substantial decrease in NOx emission and combined with SOI timing adjustment somewhat smaller decrease in both NOx and particle emissions at IVC -50 and -70 degrees CA points. The HVO fuel decreased PAH emissions mainly due to the absence of aromatics. Aldehyde emissions were lower with the HVO fuel with medium (50%) load. At higher loads (75% and 100%), aldehyde emissions were slightly higher with the HVO fuel. However, the aldehyde emission levels were quite low, so no clear conclusions on the effect of fuel can be made. Overall, the study indicates that paraffinic HVO fuels are suitable for emission reduction with valve and injection timing adjustment and thus provide possibilities for engine manufacturers to meet the strictening emission limits. PMID:23210222

Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

2012-11-01

332

Control of a turbocharged Diesel engine fitted with high pressure and low pressure exhaust gas recirculation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust gas recirculation is an effective way for reducing nitric oxides emissions in Diesel engine achieving low temperature combustion (LTC). Two strategies can be applied to recirculate burnt gas in a turbocharged Diesel engine using the high pressure loop or the low pressure loop. This paper describes a generic model based control structure for Diesel engines with dual-loop exhaust gas

Olivier Grondin; Philippe Moulin; Jonathan Chauvin

2009-01-01

333

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by

Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson

2009-01-01

334

Integrating livestock production with crops and saline fish ponds to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive grazing systems in the tropics have large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here an integrated cropping, livestock farming and saline pond aquaculture system is described which also reduces GHG emissions in tropical farming. The system was developed in the 1980s in the central Philippines and is re-evaluated in terms of its potential to reduce emissions from livestock production, particularly in

Damian M. Ogburn; Ian White

2011-01-01

335

Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with Pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport vehicles greatly pollute the environment through emissions such as CO, CO2, NOx, SOx, unburnt or partially burnt HC and particulate emissions. Fossil fuels are the chief contributors to urban air pollution and major source of green house gases (GHGs) and considered to be the prime cause behind the global climate change. Biofuels are renewable, can supplement fossil fuels, reduce

K. Sureshkumar; R. Velraj; R. Ganesan

2008-01-01

336

40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles. 86.1708-99 Section 86.1708-99...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles...

2013-07-01

337

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year...Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature...

2013-07-01

338

Opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from households in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to mitigate climate threats should not exclude the household as the household is a major driver of greenhouse gas\\u000a (GHG) emissions through its consumption patterns. This paper derives an emission index that could be used to estimate inventories\\u000a of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from kerosene combustion for lighting in Nigeria and also looks at the implications of solar pv

O. Adeoti; S. O. Osho

2012-01-01

339

Application of Pollution Prevention Techniques to Reduce Indoor Air Emissions from Engineered Wood Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood: oak-veneered particleboard coated and cur...

C. M. Brockmann L. S. Sheldon D. A. Whitaker J. N. Baskir

1998-01-01

340

MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR REDUCING AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM POULTRY LITTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia emissions from poultry litter not only result in air pollution; high levels of ammonia in poultry houses cause poor bird performance, increase the susceptibility of birds to viral diseases, and negatively impact human health. Although ammonia emissions are a concern, few cost-effective best ...

341

DEVELOPING METHODS TO REDUCE EMISSIONS FROM SOIL FUMIGATION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Regulations on uses of soil fumigants are primarily based on their toxicity and air emissions. In addition to maintaining practical use of alternative fumigants for production of high value crops, minimizing emissions is also critical to protecting workers, bystanders, and the environment. The obje...

342

Wall quench and flammability limit effects on exhaust hydrocarbon emission. Final technical report, Phase 8, March 1, 1983-February 28, 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the concluding efforts at the Engineering Sciences Laboratory of TRW on two specific areas of current research activity within the more general context of proposed lean-burn operation of Otto-cycle-type automotive engines. These areas are: (1) achievement of knock-free performance, both under available fuels and current compression ratios and also under higher-octane fuels (e.g., alcohols) and higher-compression-ratio design (for greater thermal efficiency); and (2) identification of counterstrategies for two-wall (crevice-type) quenching of flame propagation, a phenomenon now widely acknowledged to be the major source of unburned-hydrocarbon emissions exhausted from homogeneous-charge cyclinders. There are certainly other highly active areas of research in Otto-cycle engines, such as turbocharging, ignition devices, and valve design, but the two above-cited topics were the topics of this project.

Quinn, C.; Smith, K.

1984-01-01

343

Effect of isothermal dilution on emission factors of organic carbon and n-alkanes in the particle and gas phases of diesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the effect of isothermal dilution (30 °C) on emission factors (EFs) of semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds of heavy-duty diesel exhaust, we measured EFs for particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle phase, and EFs for n-alkanes in both the particle phase and the gas phase of exhaust produced under high-idle engine operating conditions at dilution ratios (DRs) ranging from 8 to 1027. The EC EFs did not vary with DR, whereas the OC EFs in the particle phase determined at DR = 1027 were 13% of the EFs determined at DR = 8, owing to evaporation of organic compounds. Using partitioning theory and n-alkane EFs measured at DR = 14 and 238, we calculated the distributions of compounds between the particle and gas phases at DR = 1760, which corresponds to the DR for tailpipe emissions as they move from the tailpipe to the roadside atmosphere. The gas-phase EF of a compound with a vapor pressure of 10-7 Pa was 0.01 ?g kg-1-fuel at DR = 14, and this value is 1/330 the value derived at DR = 1760. Our results suggest that the EFs of high-volatility compounds in the particle phase will be overestimated and that the EFs of low-volatility compounds in the gas phase will be underestimated if the estimates are derived from data obtained at the low DRs and they are applied to the real world. Therefore, extrapolation from EFs derived at low DR values to EFs at atmospherically relevant DRs will be a source of error in predictions of the concentrations of particulate matter and gas-phase precursors to secondary organic aerosols in air quality models.

Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Hasegawa, Shuich; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shinji; Furuyama, Akiko; Hirano, Seishiro; Takami, Akinori

2012-11-01

344

Emission from Pulsating Combustion of Silane at a Reduced Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulsating combustion was found to continue successively, after a mixture of flowing SiH4/He and O2 was ignitied by appropriate means in a Pyrex vessel at a total pressure of ca. 400 Pa. Light emission in the UV and visible region was spectroscopically resolved to be composed of band emissions of SiO(\\Tilde{A}-\\Tilde{X}) and OH(\\Tilde{A}-\\Tilde{X}), as well as a broad emission in the visible region. These findings were discussed from the mechanistic viewpoints of silane combustion and chemical vapor deposition of SiO2 films.

Suga, Shinsuke; Koda, Seiichiro

1988-10-01

345

Effects of Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and population growth will make it more challenging for California to attain health-based ambient air quality standards for ozone. This so-called climate change penalty will require even more stringent emission control measures on stationary and mobile sources of air pollution to offset the harmful effects of climate change on ozone air quality. California has set a target to decrease greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2020, and to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. We analyze the potential effects on air quality due to the first (2020) target for greenhouse gas emissions in central California. The anticipated control measures will also affect ozone precursor emissions. We develop a set of air pollution emission scenarios for central California as of 2020, and predict resulting ozone concentrations for each case. We take into account the Draft AB 32 Scoping Document and regional/state level air quality control plans, as well as the effects of population growth and technology change. This allows us to elucidate and quantify the interactions between California's air pollution and greenhouse gas control programs. An important opportunity for synergy between control programs is to place more emphasis on greenhouse gas reductions in the diesel sector, as these engines are now the dominant source of NOx and black carbon emissions in California, as well as contributing significantly to CO2.

Shearer, S. M.; Harley, R.

2008-12-01

346

EVALUATION OF SIMPLIFIED COVERING SYSTEMS TO REDUCE GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM LIVESTOCK MANURE STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia, methane, and carbon dioxide are the primary atmospheric emissions from cattle and pig farms. A significant part of these emissions is produced by the decomposition of slurry organic matter during manure storage and treatment phases. Present solutions to contain emissions from storage lagoons generally involve reducing the free surface of the slurry by covering it either with permanent fixed

M. Guarino; C. Fabbri; M. Brambilla; L. Valli; P. Navarotto

347

The potential impact of conservation, alternative energy sources, and reduced nonenergy emissions on global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we examine two global energy consumption scenarios and corresponding nonenergy scenarios to determine how each will contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. A steady emissions trend scenario assumes only modest energy conservation and little change in the world's energy consumption patterns and nonenergy emissions. A reduced emissions trend scenario assumes significant conservation, switching from a

E. A. Aronson; M. W. Edenburn

1989-01-01

348

Field Measurements of Particulate Matter Emissions, Carbon Monoxide, and Exhaust Opacity from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel particulate matter (PM) is a significant contributor to ambient air PM10 and PM2.5 particulate levels. In addition, recent literature argues that submicron diesel PM is a pulmonary health hazard. There is difficulty in attributing PM emissions to specific operating modes of a diesel engine, although it is acknowledged that PM production rises dramatically with load and that high PM

Nigel N. Clark; Ronald P. Jarrett; Christopher M. Atkinson

1999-01-01

349

Performance and exhaust emissions of a gasoline engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels using artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the performance and the pollutant emissions of a four-stroke SI engine operating on ethanol–gasoline blends of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with the aid of artificial neural network (ANN). The properties of bioethanol were measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The experimental results revealed that

G. Najafi; B. Ghobadian; T. Tavakoli; D. R. Buttsworth; T. F. Yusaf; M. Faizollahnejad

2009-01-01

350

40 CFR 1054.235 - What exhaust emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...We may decide to do the testing at your plant or any other facility. If we do this...engine block. If we do the testing at your plant, you must schedule it as soon as...

2013-07-01

351

Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Properties of Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Methyl Esters Blended with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Important fuel properties and emissions characteristics of blends (20 vol%) of soybean oil methyl esters (SME) and partially hydrogenated SME (PHSME) in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) were determined and compared with neat ULSD. The following changes in physical properties were noticed for B20...

352

Exhaust emissions of low level blend alcohol fuels from two-stroke and four-stroke marine engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard mandates that by 2022, 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be produced on a yearly basis. Ethanol production is capped at 15 billion gallons, meaning 21 billion gallons must come from different alternative fuel sources. A viable alternative to reach the remainder of this mandate is iso-butanol. Unlike ethanol, iso-butanol does not phase separate when mixed with water, meaning it can be transported using traditional pipeline methods. Iso-butanol also has a lower oxygen content by mass, meaning it can displace more petroleum while maintaining the same oxygen concentration in the fuel blend. This research focused on studying the effects of low level alcohol fuels on marine engine emissions to assess the possibility of using iso-butanol as a replacement for ethanol. Three marine engines were used in this study, representing a wide range of what is currently in service in the United States. Two four-stroke engine and one two-stroke engine powered boats were tested in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, near Annapolis, Maryland over the course of two rounds of weeklong testing in May and September. The engines were tested using a standard test cycle and emissions were sampled using constant volume sampling techniques. Specific emissions for two-stroke and four-stroke engines were compared to the baseline indolene tests. Because of the nature of the field testing, limited engine parameters were recorded. Therefore, the engine parameters analyzed aside from emissions were the operating relative air-to-fuel ratio and engine speed. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each alcohol fuel for the four-stroke engines were consistent, when analyzing a single round of testing. The same trends were not consistent when comparing separate rounds because of uncontrolled weather conditions and because the four-stroke engines operate without fuel control feedback during full load conditions. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each alcohol fuel for the two-stroke engine were consistent for all rounds of testing. This is due to the fact the engine operates open-loop, and does not provide fueling compensation when fuel composition changes. Changes in emissions with respect to the baseline for iso-butanol were consistent with changes for ethanol. It was determined iso-butanol would make a viable replacement for ethanol.

Sevik, James M., Jr.

353

Evaluating Transportation Controls to Reduce Motor Vehicle Emissions in Major Metropolitan Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report evaluates transportation controls to reduce motor vehicle emissions in major metropolitan areas. It brings together in a preliminary form, a description and evaluation of those transportation controls which could conceivably reduce motor vehicl...

J. W. Hoicka D. Infeld A. Karavengelos S. Myers G. Nelson

1972-01-01

354

How Should Transport Emissions Be Reduced?: Potential for Emission Trading Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developed countries, transport generates approximately 25 to 30 per cent of emissions of CO2, the main greenhouse gas (GHG) and these emissions are increasing sharply. There are two explanations for the increase in emissions from transport: the first is dependency on the internal combustion engine for transport with no wide-scale economically viable alternative available in the medium term; the

Charles Raux

2008-01-01

355

POTENTIAL OF USING SURFACE WATER APPLICATIONS TO REDUCE FUMIGATION EMISSIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High emission rates of fumigants from soil increase the risk of detrimental impact on workers, bystanders and the environment, and jeopardize future availability of fumigants. Efficient and cost-effective approaches to minimize fumigant use are needed. This study evaluated the potential of surface w...

356

Strategies to reduce gaseous emissions of nitrogen from irrigated agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilizer nitrogen (N) is not used efficiently in irrigation agriculture because much of the N applied is lost from the plant-soil system by emission of gaseous compounds to the atmosphere. Nitrogen may be emitted by ammonia volatilization, and as nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and dinitrogen during nitrification, biological denitrification and chemodenitrification. Nitrogen emitted to the atmosphere as ammonia may be

J. R. Freney

1997-01-01

357

Superconducting Ducted Fan Design for Reduced Emissions Aeropropulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new conceptual design tool for an environmentally sustainable method of aeropropulsion: a ducted fan system driven by a fully superconducting electrical machine. Such a system could help mitigate aviation's contribution to global climate change by enabling the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft. An electro-thermal motor sizing model was coupled with cycle analysis and weight

Philippe J. Masson; Taewoo Nam; Taeyun P. Choi; Pascal Tixador; Mark Waters; David Hall; Cesar A. Luongo; Dimitri N. Mavris

2009-01-01

358

MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO REDUCE AMMONIA EMISSIONS AND PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two of the biggest environmental challenges facing the poultry industry are atmospheric ammonia emissions and non-point source phosphorus runoff from fields fertilized with litter. High ammonia levels in poultry houses result in an unhealthy working environment for producers and cause negative impa...

359

Costs of Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to identify the reduction techniques of nitrogen oxide emissions and their costs in power plants. The target group studied consisted of both over 200 MW retrofit plants and over 50 MW new plants. Primary means applicable for ...

Y. Riionheimo M. Kosonen G. Hellen M. Jaervinen V. Yrjoelae

1989-01-01

360

Optimal Learning on Climate Change: Why Climate Skeptics should reduce Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate skeptics argue that the possibility that global warming is exogenous implies that we should not take additional action towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions until we know more. However this paper shows that even climate skeptics have an incentive to reduce emissions: such a change of direction facilitates their learning process on the causes of global warming. Since the optimal

Sweder van Wijnbergen; Tim Willems

2012-01-01

361

A Simple Evaluation Method for Annual CO2 Emissions Reduced by Distribution Loss Minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases is one of the serious environmental issues. Carbon dioxide is the biggest contributor to global warming. Many efforts to reduce emissions of CO2 are carrying out in various fields. In electrical power system field, various approaches to reduce CO2 emissions have been performed such as loss reduction, utilization of

Yasuhiro Hayashi; Hirotaka Takano; Junya Matsuki; Masao Yokoyama

2007-01-01

362

Application of the Miller cycle to reduce NO x emissions from petrol engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual analysis of the mechanism of the Miller cycle for reducing NOx emissions is presented. Two versions of selected Miller cycle (1 and 2) were designed and realized on a Rover “K” series 16-valve twin-camshaft petrol engine. The test results showed that the application of the Miller cycle could reduce the NOx emissions from the petrol engine. For Miller

Yaodong Wang; Lin Lin; Shengchuo Zeng; Jincheng Huang; Anthony P. Roskilly; Yunxin He; Xiaodong Huang; Shanping Li

2008-01-01

363

Comparison of diesel exhaust emissions using JP-8 and low-sulfur diesel fuel. Interim report, March 1994-March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 wt% was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994 EPA certification low-sulfur diesel fuel (sulfur level equal to 0.035 wt%) in the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 1991 prototype Series 60 diesel engine and in the General Motors (GM) 6.2L diesel engine. Comparisons were made using the hot-start transient portion of the heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedure. Results from the Army study show that the gaseous emissions for the DDC Series 60 engine using kerosene-based JP-8 fuel are essentially equal to values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA certification diesel fuel, and that an approximate sulfur level of 0.21 wt% in kerosene-type JP-8 fuel would be equivalent to the 0.035 wt% sulfur reference fuel. Similarly, the regulated gaseous emissions for the GM 6.2L engine using JP-8 fuel are essentially equal to the values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA reference fuel. All sulfur levels of kerosene-type JP-8 fuel up to the 0.30 wt% MIL-T-83133 specification maximum would be equivalent to a 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA reference fuel.

Yost, D.M.; Montalvo, D.A.

1995-11-01

364

An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Samo, Khalid; Faturachman, Danny

2012-09-01

365

Method of making a washcoat mixture and catalyst for treatment of diesel exhaust  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A catalyst support is formed from powders of silica, titania and vanadia and optionally a silicate-based clay by applying a wet mixture of such powders to a support substrate and drying and calcining. When impregnated with platinum or palladium, the catalyst support reduces hydrocarbon and particulate emission in diesel exhaust and also prevents formation of mutagens in the exhaust. Advantageously, the catalyst support minimizes reaction with sulfur.

1993-12-21

366

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends  

SciTech Connect

Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportion of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.

Merritt, P. M.; Ulmet, V.; McCormick, R. L.; Mitchell, W. E.; Baumgard, K. J.

2005-11-01

367

PARTICLE TRAP EFFECTS ON HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The ceramic trap used in this study was highly effective in reducing particle emissions in the diesel exhaust; the weight of emitted particles and their associated chemicals in the filtered exhaust was reduced by over 90% under the two different work loads. As a consequence...

368

The effect of two ammonia-emission-reducing pig housing systems on odour emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odour nuisance from agricultural activities is increasing in densely populated countries like the Netherlands. To develop adequate regulations, a large-scale, government-financed monitoring programme was started in the mid-1990s to establish odour emission levels for both conventional and low ammonia emission housing systems for cattle, pigs and poultry. The results indicate that high- and low-odour emission housing are difficult to distinguish

G. Mol; N. W. M. Ogink

2004-01-01

369

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions and Their Mutagenicity from the Combustion of Biodiesel, Vegetable Oil, Gas-to-Liquid and Petrodiesel Fuels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort has been made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutanegnic polycycluc aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In several studies conducted since 1995, we observed an appreciable red...

370

Wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from dairy manure storage  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the use of a wheat straw cover for reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from liquid manure was conducted in both a laboratory and a pilot system. Two straw covers with different thicknesses (5 cm and 10 cm) were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing odorous gas emissions. The rates of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from the treatments were monitored; concentrations of ammonia, dissolved sulfide, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH of the liquid manure were measured. Additionally, the overall mass transfer coefficients of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were calculated for the conditions of the experiment. The results demonstrated that both the 5-cm and 10-cm straw covers were effective in reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from manure storage. In the laboratory tests, when a crust formed on the manure surface within three to four weeks after the straw application, ammonia emissions were reduced by up to 95%. A similar trend was observed in the pilot experiments in the field. Hydrogen sulfide emissions were suppressed by 95% with the wheat straw cover. The mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen sulfide with the straw covers were significantly lower than those of the control, which indicated the effectiveness of a straw cover as a physical barrier for reducing hydrogen sulfide emissions. Reduced pH and decreased ammonia that biological reactions might also be a factor contributing to the emission reductions.

Xue, S.K.; Hermanson, R.E.

1999-08-01

371

Reducing greenhouse gases through conditional trading of emission entitlements  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the wheels of the industrialized world turn on fossil fuels, which are subject to international trade and transport across oceans and continents. Keep in mind that the per capita use of energy in the developing counties is a small fraction of what is used in North America, in Europe (including Russia), and in Japan. Yearly, we burn fossil fuels amounting to more than 8 cubic kilometers or 2 cubic miles of oil equivalent. (In 1987, approximately 4,600 megatonnes of coal, 3,080 megatonnes of oil and LNG, 27 megatonnes of oil shale and bitumen, and 1,923 gigacubic meters of natural gas). The combustion products poured into the air from burning fossil fuels affect the atmosphere and the global climate in a way that causes concern. Countermeasures are called for, which is why this year saw the world's largest international governmental meeting ever in Rio de Janeiro. There, all 153 countries present signed a legally binding treaty to stabilize atmospheric emissions at 1990 levels and all, except the United States, within various target dates. It means that energy producers all over the world must put the control of emissions on their agenda. So far, scientists, bureaucrats and politicians have been the main actors on this issue.

Vinjar, A. (Norwegian Energy Administration (Norway))

1992-10-01

372

HITEMP derived spectral database for the prediction of jet engine exhaust infrared emission using a statistical band model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopic database HITEMP 2010 is used to upgrade the parameters of the statistical molecular band model which is part of the infrared signature prediction code NIRATAM (NATO InfraRed Air TArget Model). This band model was recommended by NASA and is applied in several codes that determine the infrared emission of combustion gases. The upgrade regards spectral absorption coefficients and line densities of the gases H2O, CO2, and CO in the spectral region 400-5000 cm-1 (2-25?m) with a spectral resolution of 5 cm-1. The temperature range 100-3000 K is covered. Two methods to update the database are presented: the usually applied method as provided in the literature and an alternative, more laborious procedure that employs least squares fitting. The achieved improvements resulting from both methods are demonstrated by comparisons of radiance spectra obtained from the band model to line-by-line results. The performance in a realistic scenario is investigated on the basis of measured and predicted spectra of a jet aircraft plume in afterburner mode.

Lindermeir, E.; Beier, K.

2012-08-01

373

Reduction in (pro-)inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust treated with a non-catalyzed diesel particle filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly stringent regulation of particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles has led to the widespread use of diesel particle filters (DPFs), the effect of which on exhaust toxicity is so far poorly understood. We exposed a cellular model of the human respiratory epithelium at the air-liquid interface to non-catalyzed wall-flow DPF-filtered diesel exhaust and compared the resulting biological responses to the ones observed upon exposure to unfiltered exhaust. Filtered diesel exhaust acted highly oxidative, even though to a lesser extent than unfiltered exhaust (quantification of total reduced glutathione), and both exhaust types triggered comparable responses to oxidative stress (measurement of heme-oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD1) gene expression). Further, diesel exhaust filtration significantly reduced pro-inflammatory responses (measurement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression and quantification of the secretion of their gene products TNF-? and IL-8). Because inflammatory processes are central to the onset of adverse respiratory health effects caused by diesel exhaust inhalation, our results imply that DPFs may make a valuable contribution to the detoxification of diesel vehicle emissions. The induction of significant oxidative stress by filtered diesel exhaust however, also implies that the non-particulate exhaust components also need to be considered for lung cell risk assessment.

Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Müller, Loretta L.; Heeb, Norbert V.; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

374

A Systems Approach to Reducing Institutional GHG Emissions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish necessity and methods for considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies at a system-level. The research emphasizes connecting narrowly focused GHG mitigation objectives (e.g. reduce single occupancy vehicle travel) with broader institutional objectives (e.g. growth in student population)…

Williamson, Sean R.

2012-01-01

375

Using Surface Water Application to Reduce 1,3-Dichloropropene Emission from Soil Fumigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High emissions from soil fumigants increase the risk of detrimental impact on workers, bystanders, and the environment, and jeopar- dize future availability of fumigants. Efficient and cost-effective ap- proaches to minimize emissions are needed. This study evaluated the potential of surface water application (or water seal) to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) emissions from soil (Hanford sandy loam) columns. Treatments included dry

Suduan Gao; Thomas J. Trout

2006-01-01

376

40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust...exhaust sampling and analytical system description...mass emissions of engine exhaust. This...The dilute HC analytical system for marine spark-ignition engines does not...

2009-07-01

377

40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust...exhaust sampling and analytical system description...mass emissions of engine exhaust. This...The dilute HC analytical system for marine spark-ignition engines does not...

2010-07-01

378

40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exhaust sampling and analytical system description...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test...exhaust sampling and analytical system description...system. (2) The HC analytical system for petroleum-fueled...compression-ignition engines requires a heated...

2009-07-01

379

Climate effects of reducing black carbon emissions: Dependence on location of emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role played by emissions of black carbon aerosols (BC) on the Earth's climate is diverse and the overall effect is still quite uncertain: Black carbon not only absorbs sunlight (direct effect), but it also has a semi- direct effect on clouds, and when deposited on snow and ice it changes the reflectivity (albedo) of the ground surface. These mechanisms generally have a warming effect on the climate. This poster presents a Norwegian project that focus on the net effect of current BC emissions and future possible reductions in emissions of BC aerosols, taking into account scientific, economic, and political perspectives on the inclusion of BC in climate policies. Thus, the scope of the project is interdisciplinary and includes observations in the Arctic, model simulations of dispersion of BC aerosols, its radiative forcing and climate effects. Some initial results from measurements of BC content in snow from the Norwegian Arctic and corresponding measurements for surface reflectance will be presented. The radiative forcing of BC emissions from different geographical regions differs due to differences in the removal processes (i.e. the lifetime) and the amount of solar radiation available for absorption (depends on latitude, clouds, and surface albedo). The atmospheric burdens and RF (of the direct effect) of regional BC emissions from fossil fuel sources have been calculated by the global chemical transport model Oslo-CTM2 and a radiative transfer model, and first results of time-integrated RF per unit of emission (equivalent to absolute GWPs) are presented. Future plans including i) analysis of cost effective emission reduction strategies, taking into account regional differences the forcing efficiencies, but also cost estimates for BC reductions in the different regions, and ii) an evaluation of the climate effects of the emission reductions through model simulations, including climatic, economic and political perspectives exploring obstacles and opportunities will also be presented.

Fuglestvedt, J.; Berntsen, T.; Myhre, G.; Rive, N. A.; Rypdal, K.; Gerland, S.; Pedersen, C.; Strøm, J.

2006-12-01

380

Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-10-27

381

ECOISLAND: A System for Persuading Users to Reduce CO2 Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant portion of the carbon dioxide emissions that have been shown to cause global warming are due to household energy consumption and traffic. EcoIsland is a computer system aimed at persuading and assisting individual families in changing their lifestyle patterns in a way that reduces CO2 emissions. The system builds on our earlier work on persuasive ubiquitous computing applications

Chihiro Takayama; Vili Lehdonvirta; M. Shiraishi; Y. Washio; H. Kimura; T. Nakajima

2009-01-01

382

On-site denitrification beds could reduce indirect greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural drainage waters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate (NO3-) laden agricultural drainage waters are non-point sources of indirect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which represent a significant fraction of total N2O emissions in the USA. On-site denitrification beds filled with woodchips were used to reduce NO3- under carbon rich anaerobic conditi...

383

APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM ENGINEERED WOOD PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood: oak-veneered particleboard coated and cured with a heat-curable, a...

384

Utilizing hydrogen energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Canada's residential sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the residential sector by using hydrogen energy is reported. The residential sectors in provinces across Canada are considered. Greenhouse gas emissions are determined from the consumption of fossil fuels associated with the energy requirements in the residential sector. The use of hydrogen technologies in the residential sector is compared

Luthfi I. Lubis; Ibrahim Dincer; Greg F. Naterer; Marc A. Rosen

2009-01-01

385

A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80kmh?1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled

McKenzie C. H. Lim; Godwin A. Ayoko; Lidia Morawska; Zoran D. Ristovski; E. Rohan Jayaratne; Serge Kokot

2006-01-01

386

High Efficiency - Reduced Emissions Boiler Systems for Steam, Heat, and Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The demonstration of a cost effective solution to the problem of improving boiler efficiency and reducing emissions by means of a novel combustion control system and a sensor package was the main objective of the Environmental Security Technology Certific...

D. Liscinsky H. Hollick J. Mantese M. Colket R. Garvey

2012-01-01

387

High Efficiency - Reduced Emissions Boiler Systems for Steam, Heat, and Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The demonstration of a cost effective solution to the problem of improving boiler efficiency and reducing emissions by means of a novel combustion control system and a sensor package was the main objective of this project. United Technologies Research Cen...

D. Liscinsky H. Hollick J. Mantese M. Colket R. Garvey

2012-01-01

388

China's 11th Five-Year Plan and the Environment: Reducing SO2 Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's rapid economic growth has been accompanied by a high level of environmental degradation. One of the major sources of health and ecosystem damages is sulfur dioxide (SO2). Reducing SO2 emissions is a priority of China's environmental authorities, and the 11th Five-Year Plan (2006–2010) includes the target of reducing total SO2 emissions by 10 percent from the 2005 level. Given

Jing Cao; Richard Garbaccio; Mun S. Ho

2009-01-01

389

Factors that may influence responses of the US transportation sector to policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation vehicle operations in the US contribute 32% of the nation's emissions of carbon dioxide, and 7% of the world's emissions from energy use. Technical options exist to reduce emissions rates, but policies to reduce emissions must recognize the fragmentation of responsibility for key transportation activities among diverse groups of decision makers, and the need to coordinate their decisionmaking. Policies

E. L. Hillsman; F. Southworth

1990-01-01

390

Comparison of SMR, PMR, and PCMR in a cohort of union members potentially exposed to diesel exhaust emissions.  

PubMed Central

A comparison of cause specific standarised mortality ratios (SMRs) and proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) or proportionate cancer mortality ratios (PCMRs) was made based on the mortality experience of a cohort of 34 156 members of a heavy equipment operators union. Two types of PMRs or PCMRs were used in the comparison: those based on all deaths and those based on deaths known to the union only. The comparison indicated that, for the entire cohort, both types of PMRs were poor indicators for cancer risk and produced a large number of false positives. On the other hand, PCMRs appeared to be better than PMRs for assessing the direction of site specific cancer risk, but they tended to overstate the magnitude of risk. Analysis by duration of union membership or latency indicated that PMRs or PCMRs based on deaths known to the union tended to overestimate the risk of lung cancer by disproportionately larger amounts in groups with shorter time than in groups with longer time. This differential bias had the net effect of reducing the gradient of any trend or eliminating the trend entirely. In conclusion, PMR or PCMR, based on reasonably sufficient death ascertainment, has a certain usefulness in generating hypotheses, but they are not useful or reliable in measuring the magnitude of risk or in detecting trends in dose response analysis. No conclusion should be drawn from either PMR or PCMR.

Wong, O; Morgan, R W; Kheifets, L; Larson, S R

1985-01-01

391

Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit  

SciTech Connect

The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

2012-11-15

392

Surface seals reduce 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions in field tests.  

PubMed

Reducing emissions is essential for minimizing the impact of soil fumigation on the environment. Water application to the soil surface (or water seal) has been demonstrated to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) emissions in soil column tests. This study determined the effectiveness of water application to reduce emissions of 1,3-D and chloropicrin (CP) in comparison to other surface seals under field conditions. In a small-plot field trial on a Hanford sandy loam soil (coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Typic Xerorthents) in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Telone C35 (61% 1,3-D and 35% CP) was shank-applied at a depth of 46 cm at a rate of 610 kg ha-1. Soil surface seal treatments included control (no tarp and no water application), standard high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp over dry and pre-irrigated soil, virtually impermeable film (VIF) tarp, initial water application by sprinklers immediately following fumigation, and intermittent water applications after fumigation. The atmospheric emissions and gas-phase distribution of fumigants in soil profile were monitored for 9 d. Among the surface seals, VIF and HDPE tarp over dry soil resulted in the lowest and the highest total emission losses, respectively. Intermittent water applications reduced 1,3-D and CP emissions significantly more than HDPE tarp alone. The initial water application also reduced emission peak and delayed emission time. Pre-irrigated soil plus HDPE tarp reduced fumigant emissions similarly as the intermittent water applications and also yielded the highest surface soil temperature, which may improve overall soil pest control. PMID:17215218

Gao, Suduan; Trout, Thomas J

2007-01-09

393

Direct Impairment of Vascular Function by Diesel Exhaust Particulate through Reduced Bioavailability of Endothelium-Derived Nitric Oxide Induced by Superoxide Free Radicals  

PubMed Central

Background Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) is a key arbiter of the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Objectives We assessed the in vitro effects of DEP on vascular function, nitric oxide (NO) availability, and the generation of oxygen-centered free radicals. Methods We assessed the direct vascular effects of DEP (10–100 ?g/mL) in isolated rat aortic rings using myography. We investigated NO scavenging and oxygen-centered free radical generation using an NO electrode and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with the Tempone-H (1-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxo-piperidine) spin trap, respectively. Results Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was attenuated by DEP (maximum relaxation reduced from 91 ± 4% to 49 ± 6% with 100 ?g/mL DEP; p < 0.001) but was restored by superoxide dismutase (SOD; maximum relaxation, 73 ± 6%; p < 0.001). DEP caused a modest inhibition of relaxation to NO donor drugs, an effect that could be reversed by SOD (p < 0.01). At 10 ?g/mL, DEP did not affect verapamil-induced relaxation (p = 0.73), but at 100 ?g/mL DEP inhibited relaxation (p < 0.001) by a mechanism independent of SOD. NO concentrations generated by 2-(N,N-diethylamino)-diazenolate-2-oxide (DEA/NO; 10 ?M) were reduced by DEP (100 ?g/mL; from 5.2 ± 0.4 to 3.3 ± 0.4 ?M; p = 0.002). Free radical generation was increased by DEP (10 ?g/mL; 9-fold increase in EPR spectra; p = 0.004) in a manner that could be attenuated by SOD (p = 0.015). Conclusions DEP caused oxidative stress through the generation of oxygen-centered free radicals that reduced the bioavailability of endothelium-derived NO without prior interaction with the lung or vascular tissue. These findings provide a mechanism for the adverse cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution.

Miller, Mark R.; Borthwick, Stephen J.; Shaw, Catherine A.; McLean, Steven G.; McClure, Daniel; Mills, Nicholas L.; Duffin, Rodger; Donaldson, Ken; Megson, Ian L.; Hadoke, Patrick W.F.; Newby, David E.

2009-01-01

394

Process and apparatus for reducing pollutant emission in flue gases  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combustion process for reducing at least nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and hydrogen chloride in a furnace. It comprises introducing a combustible material into a drying zone within a combustion chamber; supplying air to the drying zone for preheating, drying, and partially combusting the combustible material; advancing the combustible material to a combustion zone within the combustion chamber; supplying air to the combustion zone for further combusting the combustible material; advancing the combustible material to a burnout zone within the combustion chamber; supplying air to the burnout zone for final burnout of uncombusted portions of the combustible material; injecting one of a sorbent and a calcined sorbent, and a fuel into the combustion chamber above the combustible material to create an oxygen deficient secondary combustion zone; ejecting vitiated air from the burnout zone; injecting at least one of overfire air and the vitiated air into the combustion chamber above the oxygen deficient secondary combustion zone forming an oxidizing tertiary combustion zone for thorough mixing and final burnout of combustibles in combustion products of the combustible material; and removing ash from the combustion chamber.

Khinkis, M.J.; Patel, J.G.; Rehmat, H.G.

1992-04-21

395

Climate effects of reducing black carbon emissions: Dependence on location of emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role played by emissions of black carbon aerosols (BC) on the Earth's climate is diverse and the overall effect is still quite uncertain: Black carbon not only absorbs sunlight (direct effect), but it also has a semi- direct effect on clouds, and when deposited on snow and ice it changes the reflectivity (albedo) of the ground surface. These mechanisms

J. Fuglestvedt; T. Berntsen; G. Myhre; N. A. Rive; K. Rypdal; S. Gerland; C. Pedersen; J. Strøm

2006-01-01

396

Analysis of motorcycle exhaust regular testing data--a case study of Taipei City.  

PubMed

In Taiwan, a continuous increase in the number of motorcycles has made exhaust pollution one of the major emission sources of air pollutants. The regular testing program carried out by the Republic of China Environmental Protection Agency was designed to reduce air pollutant emissions by enhancing maintenance and repair. During the execution period, abundant testing results were accumulated to discuss pollutant emissions from motorcycles. Exhaust testing data of motorcycles in Taipei City from 1996 to 2005 were chosen as the basic data to survey changes in motorcycle exhaust. Effects of motorcycle age and mileage on exhaust pollution were studied. The introduction of advanced emission standards enhances the elimination of high-emitting motorcycles. The testing data indicate that the testing rate rose from approximately 50 to 70% and the failure rate changed from approximately 15 to 10%. The operation cycles of two-stroke motorcycles make them high-emitting vehicles. Concentrations of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are higher in two-stroke motorcycle exhaust than that in four-stroke motorcycles. In contrast, the concentration of carbon dioxide produced from complete oxidation processes is lower in exhaust from two-stroke motorcycles. Therefore, failure rates of two-stroke motorcycles are higher than those of four-stroke motorcycles and were also observed to deactivate more easily. On the basis of analytical results of testing data, we found that failure rates show a gradually increasing trend for motorcycles older than 3 yr or used for mileages greater than 10,000 km, and failure rates are highly correlated to the age/mileage of motorcycles. We reason that the accumulation of age or mileage means accumulating usage time of engines and emission control systems. Concentrations of pollutant emissions would increase because of engine wear and emission control system deactivation. After discussing changes of failure rates and pollutant emissions, some suggestions are proposed to improve the testing rate and effectiveness of regular testing. PMID:19603743

Chen, Yi-Chi; Chen, Lu-Yen; Jeng, Fu-Tien

2009-06-01

397

Self-reported exhaustion: a possible indicator of reduced work ability and increased risk of sickness absence among human service workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of this study was to assess the construct and predictive validity of a new instrument for self-rating of stress-related\\u000a Exhaustion Disorder (s-ED).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Public healthcare workers and social insurance officers, 85% females, were included (N = 2,683) in a longitudinal study. The s-ED instrument, based on clinical criteria for Exhaustion Disorder, was used at baseline\\u000a to classify participants into three categories:

K. Glise; E. Hadzibajramovic; I. H. Jonsdottir; G. Ahlborg

2010-01-01

398

Diesel exhaust particles and airway inflammation  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose of review. Epidemiologic investigation has associated traffic-related air pollution with adverse human health outcomes. The capacity ofdiesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major emission source air pollution particle, to initiate an airway inflammation has subsequently been ...

399

Monsanto: Taking the next environmental step; New technologies are key in reducing emissions  

SciTech Connect

In meeting a 1988 pledge to reduce its worldwide air emissions 90% by the end of 1992, Monsanto completed one of the industry`s most ambitious-and costly-voluntary pollution reduction programs. After $130 million in expenditures and the completion of 250 emission reduction projects, the company had cut its worldwide air emissions 92%, to 5 million lbs, and its U.S. emissions 85%, to 2.7 million lbs. Now Monsanto is looking to take the next step by slashing emission levels of all pollutants. Monsanto has scheduled another round of deadlines that go far beyound regulatory compliance. The company plans on making further reductions, including eliminating the release of waste to underground injection wells, which will likely involve fundamental changes in technology. The company`s goal is to reduce its worldwide toxic chemical releases and transfers to less that 100 million lbs/year by 1995, down 240 million lbs for 1990`s 337 million lbs. Many of Monsanto`s efforts since it made its 1988 pledge have focused on reducing air emissions, because those emissions were the highest. While Monsanto reports about half of its air reductions come from shutdowns of inefficient processes, the 1995 reduction efforts will require increased capital investment for new processes.

Lucas, A.

1994-08-03

400

At What Cost dO We Reduce Pollution? Shadow Prices of SO? Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. EPA's infant market for SO? emissions has the potential for improving the cost effectiveness of reducing acid rain pollutants. If the market works as planned, over time one should see the cost of reducing additional amounts of sulfur dioxide converge across plants. The results of the study described here demonstrate that before the market opened marginal abatement costs

John R. Swinton

1998-01-01

401

At what cost do we reduce pollution Shadow prices of SO[sub 2] emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US EPA's infant market for SO[sub 2] emissions has the potential for improving the cost effectiveness of reducing acid rain pollutants. If the market works as planned, over time one should see the cost of reducing additional amounts of sulfur dioxide converge across plants. The results of the study described here demonstrate that before the market opened marginal abatement

Swinton

1998-01-01

402

Relation of biofuel to bioelectricity and agriculture: Food security, fuel security, and reducing greenhouse emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuels are being developed in the context of three broad economic and policy drivers: reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing energy security, and supporting agriculture. Projections of the land and feedstock potentially available for bioenergy indicate that bioenergy development could be resource limited, and food crops may be partially displaced by biofuel feedstocks. One motivation for biofuel development is to reduce

V. M. Thomas; D. G. Choi; D. Luo; A. Okwo; J. H. Wang

2009-01-01

403

Wildlife conservation and reduced emissions from deforestation in a case study of Nantu National Park, Sulawesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions on how to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation have prompted scrutiny of methods for measuring rates of forest loss, as well as discussion of the role of protected area (PA) status in reducing tropical deforestation. This study employs a range of techniques including GIS analyses and local stakeholder interviews to examine the effectiveness of three comparable PAs

Ewan A. Macdonald; Murray Collins; Paul J. Johnson; Lynn M. Clayton; Yadvinder Malhi; Joshua B. Fisher; E. J. Milner-Gulland; David W. Macdonald

2011-01-01

404

Economic analysis of feebates to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from light vehicles for California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing majority of climate scientists are convinced that unless emissions are reduced, global warming would cause a number of adverse effects throughout the United States. In California, rising temperatures would reduce the snow pack in the Sierra-the state's primary source of water-and lead to less water for irrigating farms in the Central Valley. Global warming would increase the number

Walter McManus

2007-01-01

405

Oxidized and reduced biogenic nitrogen compound emissions into the rural troposphere: Characterization and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a dynamic flow-through chamber technique in conjunction with a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory, this research attempts to characterize and model oxidized and reduced biogenic nitrogen compound emissions into the rural troposphere. Nitrogen compound emissions are known to have profound effects on air quality. Consequences associated with increased emissions of oxidized and reduced nitrogen species are known to be increased tropospheric ozone production, fine particulate aerosol production, nitrate contamination of drinking water, eutrophication and acidification of soil and water bodies. It is well recognized that soil emissions can contribute a substantial percent of the total inventory for both the oxidized and reduced species, but great uncertainty still exists in this inventory. A controlled experiment involving the application of municipal waste biosolids to agricultural soils was shown to enhance NO emissions. A more detailed analysis throughout several seasons found the nitric oxide emissions from biosolid amended soils to have a strong temperature dependence and that their source strength is much larger relative to soils amended with chemically derived fertilizers. Emissions of nitric oxide from biosolid amended soils were modeled using the MultiScale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP). Results from this model indicated that ozone concentrations can decrease by approximately 12% (in the evening) and increase by approximately 2% (during the daylight hours) when these biosolid amended soils are taken into consideration in the land use database. Emissions of ammonia from soils amended with swine waste effluent were also measured and modeled. This study revealed that while the average source strength of ammonia from soils is significantly smaller than that of the lagoons, the much larger surface area of the soils causes them to also be an important emissions source. A fundamental mechanistic mass transfer model is presented and discussed in terms of its applicability for estimating NH3 flux and was found to be an effective predictor of the NH3 emissions for time periods immediately following slurry application.

Roelle, Paul Andrew

2001-12-01

406

Federal, state and utility roles in reducing new building greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper will explore the role of implementation of building energy codes and standards in reducing US greenhouse gas emissions. It will discuss the role of utilities in supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency in improving the efficiency of new buildings. The paper will summarize Federal policies and programs that improve code compliance and increase overall greenhouse gas emission reductions. Finally, the paper will discuss the role of code compliance and the energy and greenhouse gas emission reductions that have been realized from various Federal, State and utility programs that enhance compliance.

Johnson, J.A.; Shankle, D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Boulin, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-03-01

407

40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection of...Emission Test Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods...

2012-07-01

408

Relationship between Vehicle Emissions Laws and Incidence of Suicide by Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas in Australia, 2001-06: An Ecological Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG). Although MVEG remains the second most common method of suicide in Australia, its incidence decreased by nearly 70% in the decade to 2006. The extent to which this phenomenon has been driven by national laws in 1986 and 1999 that lowered permissible levels of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is unknown. The objective of this ecological study was to test the relationship by investigating whether areas of Australia with fewer noxious vehicles per capita experienced lower rates of MVEG suicide. Methods and Findings We merged data on MVEG suicides in Australia (2001–06) with data on the number and age of vehicles in the national fleet, as well as socio-demographic data from the national census. Poisson regression was used to analyse the relationship between the incidence of suicide within two levels of geographical area—postcodes and statistical subdivisions (SSDs)—and the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 passenger vehicles in those areas. (There was a mean population of 8,302 persons per postcode in the study dataset and 87,413 persons per SSD.) The annual incidence of MVEG suicides nationwide decreased by 57% (from 2.6 per 100,000 in 2001 to 1.1 in 2006) during the study period; the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 vehicles decreased by 55% (from 14.2 per 100 persons in 2001 to 6.4 in 2006) and 26% (from 44.5 per 100 persons in 2001 to 32.9 in 2006), respectively. Area-level regression analysis showed that the suicide rates were significantly and positively correlated with the presence of older vehicles. A percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1986 vehicles was associated with a 6% decrease (rate ratio [RR]?=?1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.08) in the incidence of MVEG suicide within postcode areas; a percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1999 vehicles was associated with a 3% decrease (RR?=?1.03; 95% CI 1.02–1.04) in the incidence of MVEG suicide. Conclusions Areas of Australia with fewer vehicles predating stringent CO emission laws experience lower rates of MVEG suicide. Although those emission laws were introduced primarily for environmental reasons, countries that lack them may miss the benefits of a serendipitous suicide prevention strategy. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Studdert, David M.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Jatkar, Uma; Pirkis, Jane

2010-01-01

409

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOEpatents

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25

410

MINIMISATION OF NOx EMISSION BY FLAME TEMPERATURE CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission control technology has advanced to an extent whereby pollutant levels are now controlled by legislation. Techniques for controlling emissions vary and include improved fuel mixture preparation, multi stage combustion, exhaust gas recirculation, inhibitors such as ammonia and other techniques which reduce the intensity of combustion and hence flame temperature.This paper examines ways in which ultra low NOx, emission combustors

S. A. MACGREGOR; N. SYRED; T. C. CLAYPOLE

1987-01-01

411

40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...emissions for electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric...emissions for electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, and plug-in hybrid...mile to represent the emissions of fuel cell vehicles and the...

2010-07-01

412

Review of cost estimates for reducing CO2 emissions. Final report, Task 9  

SciTech Connect

Since the ground breaking work of William Nordhaus in 1977, cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions have been developed by numerous groups. The various studies have reported sometimes widely divergent cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Some recent analyses have indicated that large reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved at zero or negative costs (e.g. Rocky Mountain Institute 1989). In contrast, a recent study by Alan Manne of Stanford and Richard Richels of the Electric Power Research Institute (Manne-Richels 1989) concluded that in the US the total discounted costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 20 percent below the 1990 level could be as much as 3.6 trillion dollars over the period from 1990 to 2100. Costs of this order of magnitude would represent about 5 percent of US GNP. The purpose of this briefing paper is to summarize the different cost estimates for CO{sub 2} emission reduction and to identify the key issues and assumptions that underlie these cost estimates.

Not Available

1990-10-01

413

Conceptual Approach For Estimating Potential Air Toxics And Radionuclide Airborne Emissions From A Temporary Exhaust System For The 216-Z-9 Crib Removal Action  

SciTech Connect

The 216-Z-9 Crib, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in southeastern Washington State, was the site of a successful mining effort to recover plutonium from the contaminated soils at the disposal site. A CERCLA Action Memorandum (AM) issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires the removal of the buildings associated with this mining effort to facilitate a remedial action planned for the near future. The decontamination and demolition of the 216 Z-9 Crib facilities is required under a consent order between the DOE, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Removal of the buildings located on and near the concrete cover slab over the 216-Z-9 Crib will require removal of the large soil-packaging glovebox located inside the 216-Z- 9A Building. Prior to cleaning out the glovebox, it will be necessary to provide active filtered ventilation capability to ensure a negative pressure exists between the glovebox and the adjacent airspace while hands-on work proceeds within. The glovebox floor is open to the Z-9 crib cavern environment below. For this reason the crib and glovebox currently share a common airspace. The functional requirements for safely conducting work within the glovebox include provision of a negative pressure in the box of about 0.5 inches of water gage (nominal) less than the interior of the building. In addition, the building surrounding the glovebox will be maintained at a slight negative pressure with respect to outdoor ambient pressure. In order to assess the relevant and appropriate clean air requirements for the new temporary ventilation system and associated emissions monitoring, it was necessary to reliably predict the nature of the exhaust air stream. Factors used to predict the presence and concentrations of certain radionuclide particulates and certain gases considered to be air toxics, included reliability parameters, flow rates, radionuclide content, and off-gas compositions. Radionuclide content includes transuranic isotopes, primarily of plutonium and americium. Air toxics include carbon tetrachloride, butane, methanol, acetone and toluene. Flow rate prediction was based on available design and test data and considered equipment sizes, glovebox negative pressure requirements, and filter flow characteristics. The approach used to predict the off-gas composition from the crib required experience-based predictive analysis combined with crib head space analytical results. Input information for emission estimates included: (1) gas composition sample data obtained from recent samples taken within the crib head space during static conditions, and (2) air in-leakage/dilution estimates based on physical characteristics of both the crib and the new temporary ventilation system. The conceptual approach combined measurement-based data with conservative assumptions, and provides the estimates necessary to determine relevance and appropriateness of substantive requirements under federal and state laws and regulations. (authors)

Hopkins, A.; Sutter, C.; O'Brien, P.; Bates, J.; Klos, B. [Fluor Hanford Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Teal, J. [Fluor Federal Services, Richland, WA (United States); Oates, L. [Environmental Quality Management, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01

414

New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China  

PubMed Central

Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world’s population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st century. China’s participation is essential to global efforts in reducing N-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because China is the largest producer and consumer of fertilizer N. To evaluate the impact of China’s use of N fertilizer, we quantify the carbon footprint of China’s N fertilizer production and consumption chain using life cycle analysis. For every ton of N fertilizer manufactured and used, 13.5 tons of CO2-equivalent (eq) (t CO2-eq) is emitted, compared with 9.7 t CO2-eq in Europe. Emissions in China tripled from 1980 [131 terrogram (Tg) of CO2-eq (Tg CO2-eq)] to 2010 (452 Tg CO2-eq). N fertilizer-related emissions constitute about 7% of GHG emissions from the entire Chinese economy and exceed soil carbon gain resulting from N fertilizer use by several-fold. We identified potential emission reductions by comparing prevailing technologies and management practices in China with more advanced options worldwide. Mitigation opportunities include improving methane recovery during coal mining, enhancing energy efficiency in fertilizer manufacture, and minimizing N overuse in field-level crop production. We find that use of advanced technologies could cut N fertilizer-related emissions by 20–63%, amounting to 102–357 Tg CO2-eq annually. Such reduction would decrease China’s total GHG emissions by 2–6%, which is significant on a global scale.

Dou, Zheng-xia; He, Pan; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Powlson, David; Chadwick, Dave; Norse, David; Lu, Yue-Lai; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Liang; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cassman, Kenneth G.; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2013-01-01

415

Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

2011-12-22

416

Global Climate Control: Is There a Better Strategy Than Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many environmentalists and some developed nations appear to have concluded that there is one Many environmentalists and some developed nations appear to have concluded that there is one climate change problem, global warming, and that there is only one solution to it, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, usually through the Kyoto Protocol. This paper argues instead that there are actually four

Alan Carlin

2006-01-01

417

The benefits and costs of reducing emissions from the electricity sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent federal policy proposals to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and mercury from the US electricity sector promise important improvements in air quality and reductions in acid deposition. The cost of achieving these reductions depends on the form and stringency of the regulation. In this research, we analyze the economic benefits and costs of the US

Karen Palmer; Dallas Burtraw; Jhih-Shyang Shih

2007-01-01

418

Investigation of approaches to reduce truncation of attenuation maps with simultaneous transmission and emission SPECT imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited field of view (FOV) associated with fan beam collimators can lead to truncation of reconstructed attenuation maps in transmission imaging. The authors investigated through simulations, a few simple approaches for reducing the truncation of attenuation maps with simultaneous transmission-emission SPECT imaging. These include: (1) the use of longer focal length collimators (65 vs. 104 cm); (2) using a

Manoj V. Narayanan; Michael A. King; Tin-Su Pan; Seth T. Dalberg

1997-01-01

419

Investigation of approaches to reduce truncation of attenuation maps with simultaneous transmission and emission SPECT imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited field of view (FOV) associated with fan beam collimators can lead to truncation of the reconstructed attenuation maps in transmission imaging. The authors investigated through simulations, 5 approaches for reducing the truncation of attenuation maps with simultaneous transmission and emission SPECT imaging. These include: 1) the use of longer focal length collimators (65 vs. 104 cm); 2) using

Manoj V. Narayanan; Michael A. King; Tin-Su Pan; Seth T. Dahlberg

1998-01-01

420

A real time traffic light control scheme for reducing vehicles CO2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is a very serious problem which is becoming ever worse as the growth in the number of vehicles. This paper presents a real time traffic lights control scheme for reducing vehicles CO2 emissions based on the Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) installed vehicles. Real time road conditions are obtained by wireless communication between the vehicles and the traffic lights

Chunxiao Li; Shigeru Shimamoto

2011-01-01

421

Designing A Carbon Tax to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a revenue and distributionally neutral approach to reducing U.S. greenhouse gas emissions that uses a carbon tax. The revenue from the carbon tax is used to finance an environmental earned income tax credit designed to be distributionally neutral. The credit is linked to earned income and helps offset the regressivity of the carbon tax. The carbon tax

Gilbert E. Metcalf

2008-01-01

422

USING SURFACE WATER APPLICATIONS TO REDUCE 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE EMISSION FROM SOIL FUMIGATION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reducing emissions is critical to minimize the risk of detrimental impact of fumigation on workers, bystanders, and the environment and to continue availability of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of using water applied to the soil s...

423

A SECOND-BEST EVALUATION OF EIGHT POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS. (R825313)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract This paper uses a numerical general equilibrium model to compare the costs of alternative policies for reducing carbon emissions in a second-best setting with a distortionary tax on labor. We examine a carbon tax, two energy taxes, and both narrow-based and br...

424

Tillage tool modifications for reducing the emission of windblown dust from agricultural soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternative tillage and cropping systems are sought for reducing dust emissions and improving air quality in the Pacific Northwest dryland cropping region. The purpose of this study was to modify the conventional rodweeder that would facilitate armoring of the soil surface with straw and large aggre...

425

Options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the Chinese industrial sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) was established in 1992 to provide assistance to developing countries in addressing global environmental issues. One of the first projects initiated under the GEF was a study of options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in China. This article provides an overview of the options considered for the Chinese industrial sector which along with power generation

Dai Yande; Liu Jingru; William A Ward; Gary J Wells

1998-01-01

426

Reducing the fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of the US vehicle fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unrelenting increase in the consumption of oil in the US light-duty vehicle fleet (cars and light trucks) presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. Even so, achieving a noticeable reduction on both fronts in the near term

Anup Bandivadekar; Lynette Cheah; Christopher Evans; Tiffany Groode; John Heywood; Emmanuel Kasseris; Matthew Kromer; Malcolm Weiss

2008-01-01

427

Effects of Water Seal on Reducing 1,3-Dichloropropene Emissions from Different Textured Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil physical conditions can affect diffusion, environmental fate, and pest-control efficacy of fumigants in soil disinfestation treatments. Water seal (applying water using sprinklers to soil following fumigation) has shown effectiveness to reduce fumigant emissions from sandy loam soils. Soil colu...

428

An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NO x emission from petrol engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytic investigation of applying Miller cycle to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from a petrol engine is carried out. The Miller cycle used in the investigation is a late intake valve closing version. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the cycle is presented. A comparison of the characters of Miller cycle with Otto cycle is presented. From the results of

Yaodong Wang; Lin Lin; Anthony P. Roskilly; Shengchuo Zeng; Jincheng Huang; Yunxin He; Xiaodong Huang; Huilan Huang; Haiyan Wei; Shangping Li; Jing Yang

2007-01-01

429

New Hampshire Carbon Challenge: Reducing Residential Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Hampshire Carbon Challenge is an initiative of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire. Our goal is to educate New Hampshire residents about climate change and also encourage them to reduce their household greenhouse gas emissions by 10,000 pounds. The Northeast region is undergoing climate changes consistent with those

A. L. Schloss; D. Bartlett; D. Blaha; C. Skoglund; J. Dundorf; E. Froburg; B. Pasinella

2007-01-01

430

Aerosol number size distributions within the exhaust plume of a diesel and a gasoline passenger car under on-road conditions and determination of emission factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new setup has been developed and built to measure number size distributions of exhaust particles and thermodynamic parameters under real traffic conditions. Measurements have been performed using a diesel and a gasoline passenger car driving with different speeds and engine conditions. Significant number of nucleation mode particles was found only during high load conditions, i.e. high car and engine

B. Wehner; U. Uhrner; S. von Löwis; M. Zallinger; A. Wiedensohler

2009-01-01

431

Biomass Burning Emissions - The Importance of Reducing Uncertainties for Improved Regulatory Decisions; an EPA Perspective (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning emissions from wildland and prescribed fires can have far reaching impacts in several of EPA’s regulatory programs under the Clean Air Act, ultimately affecting decisions on actions taken under State Implementation Plans (SIPs), and programs such as Visibility and Regional Haze, Interstate Transport and Conformity. In most instances the EPA’s National Emissions Inventory (NEI), which is developed in conjunction with other federal, state, local, and tribal agencies is a cornerstone used to support air quality decision making. Over the past several years estimated wildland and prescribed fire emissions in the NEI have evolved from a crude, state-based, climatology to fire-specific, daily-resolved estimates primarily through the use of satellite measurements. In addition to research within EPA, external research partners are providing improved knowledge in areas such as chemical composition of smoke, plume rise measurements via satellites, and the development of improved emission algorithms. Accurate inputs to characterize and model the daily and hourly biomass burning emissions across the US are necessary to reduce the uncertainty in characterizing the emissions, transport, and transformation of gases and particles from their source, with the end goal of categorizing biomass burning emissions within the EPA’s regulatory structure. Reducing the uncertainty will lead to improved decision making as this information is used to support the development and implementation of EPA’s air regulatory programs. This is especially true under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) where averaging times for particulate matter (PM), ozone, and the new proposed NO2 standard are at 24 hours or less, where accurate resolution of fire emissions is critical in understanding receptor impacts. This talk will highlight the impacts of wildland and prescribed fires within EPA’s regulatory program and importance of continued research to reduce the uncertainly in the areas of chemical speciation, emission factors, plume rise, fuel loading, and fire behavior modeling. Disclaimer: Although this work was reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

Szykman, J. J.; Kordzi, J.; Pouliot, G.; Pierce, T. E.; Pace, T.; Rao, T.

2009-12-01

432

Emergence of Exhausted B Cells in Asymptomatic HIV-1-Infected Patients Na?ve for HAART is Related to Reduced Immune Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Alterations of B cell subpopulations have been described up to date as characterizing advanced stage of HIV-1 infection. However, whether such defects are relevant in subjects with a preserved number of CD4+ T cells (>350 cells/?L) is unclear. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated if signs of B cells exhaustion and impaired viral immune surveillance are present in a cohort of 43 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients with preserved CD4+ T cell counts (>350 cells/?L) and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) untreated. A dramatic expansion of exhausted tissue-like memory B cells (CD10?CD21lowCD27?) was observed. B cells alteration was related to an increase in Torque teno virus (TTV) load, used as surrogate marker of immune function. Successfully HAART-treated patients showed normalization of B cell subpopulations frequency and TTV load. These results provide new insights on B cell in HIV-1 infection and show that development of B cell abnormalities precedes CD4+ T cell decline.

Fogli, Manuela; Torti, Carlo; Malacarne, Fabio; Fiorentini, Simona; Albani, Melania; Izzo, Ilaria; Giagulli, Cinzia; Maggi, Fabrizio; Carosi, Giampiero; Caruso, Arnaldo

2012-01-01

433

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO\\/sub x\\/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in

R. A. Egnell; B. L. Hansson

1981-01-01

434

Exhaust emissions characteristics and variability for Pratt and Whitney JT8D-7A gas turbine engines subjected to major overhaul and repair. Final report Nov 1978-Feb 1979  

SciTech Connect

Seven Pratt and Whitney Aircraft (PWA) JT8D-7A turbofan engines were tested at Kennedy International Airport, New York, to evaluate exhaust emissions characteristics and data variability after overhaul. The measured data show that the engines tested did not meet the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. A comparison of the measured data, obtained from the seven overhauled engines evaluated under this program, with new engine data obtained from PWA show that there is a great deal of similarity between the two sets of data. Differences shown in this report between new engine and overhauled engine data are due to the quantity of the engines sampled; the new engine data represent a larger sample size. Satisfactory data can be measured by using the test procedures, instrumentation, and equipment defined in this report.

Becker, E.E.; Frings, G.; Cavage, W.C.

1980-09-01

435

Cold start emissions at +22, ?7 and ?20°C ambient temperatures from a three-way catalyst (TWC) car: regulated and unregulated exhaust components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project initiated by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) concerning cold start driving conditions is partially reported in the present paper. A three-way catalyst car was run in accordance with the European driving cycle (EDC) at 22°C, ?7°C and ?20°C ambient temperatures. The diluted exhaust was analyzed for: Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned fuel hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx),

D. Ludykar; R. Westerholm; J. Almén

1999-01-01

436

Reducing odorous VOC emissions from swine manure using soybean peroxidase and peroxides.  

PubMed

The objective of the research was to determine the optimum application rates of soybean peroxidase (SBP) plus peroxide (SBPP) for reducing odorous VOC emissions from swine manure. Industrial-grade SBP was applied in combination with liquid hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or powdered calcium peroxide (CaO(2)) to standard phenolic solutions and swine manure, and emissions were measured in a wind tunnel. The primary odorant in the untreated manure was 4-methylphenol, which accounted for 68-81% of the odor activity value. At the optimum application rate of SBPP (50 g L(-1)), 4-methylphenol emissions were reduced from the swine manure by 62% (H(2)O(2)) and 98% (CaO(2)) after 24h (P<0.0001). The CaO(2) had a longer residence time, remaining effective for 48 h with 92% reduction in emission rates (P<0.0001), while H(2)O(2) was similar to the control at 48 h (P=0.28). PMID:22985851

Parker, David B; Cai, Lingshuang; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Hales, Kristin E; Spiehs, Mindy J; Woodbury, Bryan L; Atkin, Audrey L; Nickerson, Kenneth W; Patefield, Krista D

2012-08-17

437

The power to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions: the full portfolio  

SciTech Connect

This Discussion Paper provides stakeholders with a framework for developing a research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) Action Plan that will enable sustainable and substantial electricity sector CO{sub 2} emissions reductions over the coming decades. The paper provides a basis for a detailed Action Plan to be published later in 2007. The analyses summarized in this paper address the technical feasibility for the sector to achieve large-scale CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, the technology development pathways and associated RD&D funding needed to achieve this potential, and the economic impact of realizing emissions reduction targets. The assessment involves three related EPRI studies: the PRISM analysis; a technology development pathways analysis; and the MERGE analysis. Technology development pathways addressed were: distribution enabled technologies; transmission enabled technologies (renewable energy); nuclear technology development and deployment; advanced coal with cO{sub 2} capture and storage; and estimated funding needs for technology pathways. Four major conclusions emerge from these studies: the strategy for reducing sector emissions will be technology-based; a diverse portfolio of advanced technologies will be required; significant RD&D is needed over a sustained period, and technology development lead times require starting now; and near- and long-term RD&D activities will be needed to enable significant emissions reductions. 11 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Revis James; Richard Richels; Geoff Blanford; Steve Gehl

2007-07-01

438

Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss.  

PubMed

Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5' grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO(2). Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435

Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N; Jardine, Sunny L

2012-07-30

439

At what cost do we reduce pollution Shadow prices of SO[sub 2] emissions  

SciTech Connect

The US EPA's infant market for SO[sub 2] emissions has the potential for improving the cost effectiveness of reducing acid rain pollutants. If the market works as planned, over time one should see the cost of reducing additional amounts of sulfur dioxide converge across plants. The results of the study described here demonstrate that before the market opened marginal abatement costs varied wildly across plants. This work provides estimates of the shadow price of SO[sub 2] abatement using the output distance function approach for Illinois, Minnesota and Wisconsin coal-burning electric plants. The results demonstrate that the coal-burning electric plants with the highest emissions rates are also the plants with the lowest marginal abatement costs, a fact that may explain lower-than-expected prices in the new market for allowances. The data include information about plants with installed scrubber capital allowing for an investigation of the effect of scrubber capital on marginal abatement costs.

Swinton, J.R. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States))

1998-01-01

440

Using individual, social and economic persuasion techniques to reduce CO2 emissions in a family setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents EcoIsland, which is a system persuading individuals and families to change their lifestyle patterns to reduce CO2 emissions. EcoIsland visualizes the user's current eco-friendly behavior as an island shared by his\\/her family members. Several persuasive techniques developed in behaviorism, social psychology, and economy are used to offer incentives to him\\/her to encourage eco-friendly behavior. We examine and

Miyuki Shiraishi; Yasuyuki Washio; Chihiro Takayama; Vili Lehdonvirta; Hiroaki Kimura; Tatsuo Nakajima

2009-01-01

441

Castor oil-based lubricant reduces smoke emission in two-stroke engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoky emissions from two-stroke gasoline engines (2T) are a problem for the environment. Use of vegetable oil (oxygenate) is one solution. A biodegradable 2T-oil was developed from castor oil, which consisted of tolyl monoesters and performance additives but no miscibility-solvent. Evaluation revealed that on one hand it reduced smoke by 50–70% at 1% oil fuel ratio and on the other

A. K. Singh

2011-01-01

442

ENGINEERING-ECONOMIC STUDIES OF ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper compares the results of four recent engineering-economic studies of the potential for energy technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The review includes a sector-by-sector assessment of specific technology opportunities and their costs, as estimated by (a) five National Laboratories, (b) the Tellus Institute, (c) the National Academy of Sciences, and (d) the Office of Technology Assessment. These

Marilyn A. Brown; Mark D. Levine; Joseph P. Romm; Arthur H. Rosenfeld; Jonathan G. Koomey

1998-01-01

443

REDUCED KINETICS AND COUPLING FUNCTIONS FOR CALCULATING CO AND NO EMISSIONS IN GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reduced chemical-kinetic mechanism consisting of two global steps for fuel oxidation and an additional step for NO production is proposed as the minimal chemistry description for calculating CO and NO emissions in gas-turbine combustion. Carbon monoxide is seen to emerge as the main intermediate during the fuel-oxidation process, which takes place in two steps: fast partial hydrocarbon oxidation to

ALAIN LÉPINETTE; AMABLE LIÑÁN; BENIGNO LÁZARO; ANTONIO L. SÁNCHEZ

2005-01-01

444

Potential of Miscanthus grasses to provide energy and hence reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using bio-fuels, such as bio-ethanol or bio-diesel in transportation, or biomass in power generation reduces CO2 emissions as the carbon is fixed by the plants from the atmosphere and saves the equivalent fossil fuel. The perennial rhizomatous\\u000a C4 grass Miscanthus has one of the highest energy intensities per hectare of land in Europe. Here we model the future potential of

Astley Hastings; John Clifton-Brown; Martin Wattenbach; Paul Stampfl; C. Paul Mitchell; Pete Smith

2008-01-01

445

Genetic parameters for predicted methane production and potential for reducing enteric emissions through genomic selection.  

PubMed

Mitigation of enteric methane (CH?) emission in ruminants has become an important area of research because accumulation of CH? is linked to global warming. Nutritional and microbial opportunities to reduce CH? emissions have been extensively researched, but little is known about using natural variation to breed animals with lower CH? yield. Measuring CH? emission rates directly from animals is difficult and hinders direct selection on reduced CH? emission. However, improvements can be made through selection on associated traits (e.g., residual feed intake, RFI) or through selection on CH? predicted from feed intake and diet composition. The objective was to establish phenotypic and genetic variation in predicted CH? output, and to determine the potential of genetics to reduce methane emissions in dairy cattle. Experimental data were used and records on daily feed intake, weekly body weights, and weekly milk production were available from 548 heifers. Residual feed intake (MJ/d) is the difference between net energy intake and calculated net energy requirements for maintenance as a function of body weight and for fat- and protein-corrected milk production. Predicted methane emission (PME; g/d) is 6% of gross energy intake (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology) corrected for energy content of methane (55.65 kJ/g). The estimated heritabilities for PME and RFI were 0.35 and 0.40, respectively. The positive genetic correlation between RFI and PME indicated that cows with lower RFI have lower PME (estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.84). Hence, it is possible to decrease the methane production of a cow by selecting more-efficient cows, and the genetic variation suggests that reductions in the order of 11 to 26% in 10 yr are theoretically possible, and could be even higher in a genomic selection program. However, several uncertainties are discussed; for example, the lack of true methane measurements (and the key assumption that methane produced per unit feed is not affected by RFI level), as well as the limitations of predicting the biological consequences of selection. To overcome these limitations, an international effort is required to bring together data on feed intake and methane emissions of dairy cows. PMID:22118100

Haas, Y de; Windig, J J; Calus, M P L; Dijkstra, J; Haan, M de; Bannink, A; Veerkamp, R F

2011-12-01

446

BRAZILIAN EFFORTS TOWARDS REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR AND IN THE ENERGY INTENSIVE INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Brazil, as a developing country, does not have commitments to reduce or limit its anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, there are many programmes in the country that result in a considerable reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC. This work aims at focusing on some successful initiatives undertaken in Brazil to reduce

Haroldo Machado Filho

447

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no specific Hg controls) ranged from 5.7 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest to 2 x 10{sup -5} in the Southeast. Reducing emissions from coal plants by 90% reduced the estimated range in risk to 5 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest and 1.5 x 10{sup -5} in Southeast, respectively. The population risk for the subsistence fisher using the Southeast regional fish Hg levels was 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, a factor of 200 greater than the general population risk. For the subsistence fishers and the Savannah River Hg levels, the population risk was 4.3 x 10{sup -5}, a factor of 2 greater than for the general population. The estimated risk reductions from a 90% reduction in coal plant Hg emissions ranged from 25%-68%, which is greater than the assumed reduction in Hg levels in fish, (15.5%). To place this risk in perspective, there are approximately 4 x 10{sup 6} births/year in the U.S (National Vital Statistics Report, 2000). Assuming that the Southeast risk level (the highest of the regions) is appropriate for the entire U.S., an estimate of 80 newborn children per year have a 5% chance of realizing any of the 16 adverse effects used to generate the DRF. If Hg emissions from power plants are reduced 90%, the number of children at risk is reduced to 60.

SULLIVAN,T.M.LIPFERT,F.W.MORRIS,S.C.MOSKOWITZ,P.D.

2001-09-01

448

Marine exhaust manifold and elbow  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a marine propulsion system having an internal combustion engine exhausted through a water jacketed exhaust assembly. This patent describes improvement in a manifold portion having intake exhaust passages receiving engine exhaust; an elbow portion extending upwardly from the manifold portion and having transfer exhaust passages extending from the intake exhaust passages and communicating through a bend with a discharge exhaust passage, wherein exhaust flows upwardly from the manifold portion into the elbow portion and around the bend to the discharge exhaust passage; water jacket means around the intake exhaust passages and the transfer exhaust passages and directing water along the exterior of the intake exhaust passages and the transfer exhaust passages, wherein water flows upwardly along the manifold portion to the elbow portion and then upwardly and around the bend and then to the end of the discharge exhaust passage to mix with exhaust thereat; wall supports between the water jacket means and the elbow portion.

Lindstedt, D.H.

1992-05-05

449

The Clean Air Act and volatile organic compounds: Did plants reduce their health-indexed air emissions or shift their emissions into other media?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do plants respond to medium-specific regulation of pollutants by reducing their emissions into that medium or by shifting their emissions into other media? I examine the impact of the U.S. Clean Air Act's ground-level ozone regulations (CAA) on the chemical manufacturing sector's health-indexed emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are reportable to the Toxic Release Inventory. I construct a

Shanti Gamper-Rabindran

2009-01-01

450

Atmospheric Photochemical Modeling of Turbine Engine Fuels and Exhaust. Phase 2. Computer Model Development, Volume 1 of 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer model capable of predicting photochemical reactivity of turbine engine fuel emissions and exhaust emissions from routine AF operations is developed. This Phase II report describes experimental work on engine exhaust components conducted in envi...

A. M. Winer M. P. Poe R. Atkinson S. E. Heffron W. O. Carter

1988-01-01

451

Measurement of exhaust emissions from diesel-powered forklifts during operations in ammunition-storage magazines. Final report, 23 July 1984-15 March 1985 on Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Indoor air quality and worker exposures were monitored in Stradley and Igloo-type ammunition magazines during the use of diesel-powered forklifts. Test results indicate that the impact of diesel exhaust on breathing zone exposures and magazine air quality depends largely on the type of operation being performed and the type of magazine being used. Of the two operating scenarios investigated (i.e., loading/unloading and warehousing), warehousing presents the greater potential risk to the health and safety of Army personnel. Of the two magazines investigated, Igloo-type structures of the size encountered in this study are likely to contribute to a hazardous situation. Breathing zone exposures and magazine air quality data were compared with the OSHA permissible exposure levels and ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) threshold limit values. Under the operating conditions, ventilation, and temperatures experienced during the test, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide may pose a health risk to Army personnel in small structures similar in size and design to the Igloo-type magazines. A performance hierarchy can be suggested from the results of the air monitoring data. The Still-Deutz and Hyster-Isuzu vehicles appear to have out performed the Hyster-Perkins and Baker-Deutz forklifts. Under the conditions tested the Still-Deutz and Hyster-Isuzu did not exceed any of the OSHA permissible exposure limits for the exhaust components measured.

Ungers, L.J.

1985-02-01

452

Exhaust gas purification device  

SciTech Connect

The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

1980-02-19

453

Internal combustion engine exhaust gas monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

To detect substantial deviation of operation of the engine with fuel-air mixtures from stoichiometric relationships, particularly extended operation under very lean or enriched supply mixtures, the exhaust gases are conducted past a first sensor which provides a clearly defined voltage jump upon change of the exhaust gases between reducing and oxidizing state; and, additionally, to a second exhaust gas sensor and preferably to a third sensor, the second and third sensors being, respectively, responsive to the oxygen level in the exhaust gases and to the CO (or hydrocarbon) level in the exhaust gases, respectively, and additionally modifying the relative proportion of fuel and air of the mixture being fed to the engine.

Baresel, D.

1980-03-25

454

An experimental study for the effects of boost pressure on the performance and exhaust emissions of a DI-HCCI gasoline engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an alternative combustion mode, the HCCI combustion has some benefits compared to conventional SI and CI engines, such as low NOx emission and high thermal efficiency. However, this combustion mode can produce higher UHC and CO emissions than those of conventional engines. In the naturally aspirated HCCI engines, the low engine output power limits its use in the current

Mustafa Canakci

2008-01-01

455

Fabrication of patterned reduced graphene oxide nanosheet field-emission cathodic film at room-temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well defined patterns of SU-8 photoresist were fabricated using typical photolithographic process on high conductive silicon substrate. Electrophoretic deposition of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGOS) on patterned SU-8 photoresist was conducted at room-temperature. The thin SU-8 photoresist could prevent the transverse deposition of RGOS over the photoresist areas to some extent. A little amount of RGOS at SU-8 photoresist areas were removed by rinsing treatment due to the hydrophobic nature of SU-8 and result in the formation of patterned RGOS films. The field-emission properties of patterned RGOS films show low turn-on electrical field and high current density. The low-cost and scale-up fabrication method can be easily utilized for assembly and integration of RGOS into patterned RGOS film for the field emission display applications at room-temperature.

Peng, Yitian; Huang, Di

2013-10-01

456

Cryopump with exhaust filter  

SciTech Connect

A cryopump is described comprising cryopanels within a vacuum vessel cooled to cryogenic temperatures to condense gases from the volume within the vacuum vessel, the vacuum vessel having an exhaust port closed by a valve during operation of the cryopump. The cryopump further comprises a filter conduit extending from the exhaust port into the volume within the vacuum vessel away from the wall of the vacuum vessel. The filter conduit is formed of porous filter material for retaining solid debris within the vacuum vessel while passing liquid and gas therethrough, the filter conduit being open away from the exhaust port to permit substantially unrestricted flow of gas to the exhaust port.

Eacobacci, M.J.; Planchard, D.C.

1987-04-07

457

Drops of energy: conserving urban water to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

Water and energy are two essential resources of modern civilization and are inherently linked. Indeed, the optimization of the water supply system would reduce energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions in the municipal water sector. This research measured the climatic cobenefit of water conservation based on a water flow analysis. The results showed that the estimated energy consumption of the total water system in Changzhou, China, reached approximately 10% of the city's total energy consumption, whereas the industrial sector was found to be more energy intensive than other sectors within the entire water system, accounting for nearly 70% of the total energy use of the water system. In addition, four sustainable water management scenarios would bring the cobenefit of reducing the total energy use of the water system by 13.9%, and 77% of the energy savings through water conservation was indirect. To promote sustainable water management and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China would require its water price system, both for freshwater and recycled water, to be reformed. PMID:23750633

Zhou, Yuanchun; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Haikun; Bi, Jun

2013-07-12