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1

Gasoline containing exhaust emission reducing additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhaust hydrocarbon emissions from an internal combustion engine being operated on gasoline containing a cyclopentadienyl manganese antiknock are reduced by the addition of an exhaust emission reducing amount of a polyester of a polymerized carboxylic acid to the gasoline.

Niebylski

1981-01-01

2

Attempts to Reduce NOx Exhaust Emissions by Using Reformulated Biodiesel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two routes were investigated for reformulating soy-based biodiesel in an effort to reduce its nitrogen oxide emissions. In the first approach, methyl soyate was modified by converting a proportion of the cis-bonds in the fatty acid chains of its methyl esters to their trans isomers. In the second ...

3

Introduction to NASA contracts. [on engine modifications to reduce exhaust emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center issued requests for proposal to Avco Lycoming and Teledyne Continental Motors for a contractual effort to establish and demonstrate engine modifications to reduce exhaust emissions safely with minimum adverse effects on cost, weight, and fuel economy. The secondary objective was reducing fuel consumption.

Kempke, E. E., Jr.

1976-01-01

4

REDUCING DIESEL NOX AND SOOT EMISSIONS VIA PARTICLE-FREE EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel engines play an important role in the United States economy for power generation and transportation. However, NOx and soot emissions from both stationary and mobile diesel engines are a major contributor to air pollution. Many engine modifications and exhaust-after-t...

5

Exhaust emission control and diagnostics  

DOEpatents

A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

2006-11-14

6

Exhaust emissions from two intercity passenger locomotives  

SciTech Connect

To enhance the effectiveness of intercity passenger rail service in mitigating exhaust emissions in California, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) included limits on exhaust emissions in its intercity locomotive procurement specifications. Because there were no available exhaust emission test data on which emission reduction goals could be based, Caltrans funded a test program to acquire gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions data, along with smoke opacity data, from two state-of-the-art intercity passenger locomotives. The two passenger locomotives (an EMD F59PH and a GE DASH8-32BWH) were tested at the Association of American Railroads Chicago Technical Center. The EMD locomotive was equipped with a separate Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 8V-149 diesel engine used to provide 480 V AC power for the trailing passenger cars. This DDC engine was also emission tested. These data were used to quantify baseline exhaust emission levels as a challenge to locomotive manufacturers to offer new locomotives with reduced emissions. Data from the two locomotive engines were recorded at standard fuel injection timing and with the fuel injection timing retarded 4 deg in an effort to reduce NO[sub x] emissions. Results of this emissions testing were incorporated into the Caltrans locomotive procurement process by including emission performance requirements in the Caltrans intercity passenger locomotive specification, and therefore in the procurement decision. This paper contains steady-state exhaust emission test results for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]), and particulate matter (PM) from the two locomotives. Computed sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions are also given, and are based on diesel fuel consumption and sulfur content. Exhaust smoke opacity is also reported.

Fritz, S.G. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Emissions Research)

1994-10-01

7

MTW zeolites for reducing cold-start emissions of automotive exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly strict environmental legislations have led to the need for better control of vehicle cold-start emissions. In this research work, a series of one-dimensional channel molecular sieves with 12 oxygen ring apertures (12R) having MTW structure (MTW is the designation for ZSM-12 in the IZA nomenclature of zeolite structures), have been synthesized and characterized by different techniques such as: XRD,

Z. Sarshar; M. H. Zahedi-Niaki; Q. Huang; M. Ei?; S. Kaliaguine

2009-01-01

8

Vehicle's exhaust emissions under car-following model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we explore each vehicle's exhaust emissions under the full velocity difference (FVD) model and the car-following model with consideration of the traffic interruption probability during three typical traffic situations. Numerical results show that the vehicle's exhaust emissions of the second model are less than those of the first model under the three typical traffic situations, which shows that the second model can reduce each vehicle's exhaust emissions.

Tang, Tie-Qiao; Li, Jin-Gang; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Yun-Peng

2014-12-01

9

Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

1983-01-01

10

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DUAL CATALYST EQUIPPED VEHICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

A test program was initiated to characterize exhaust gas emissions from an automobile equipped with a dual catalyst system. The dual catalyst system was designed by Gould, Inc. to reduce emissions of engine exhaust hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. It basically ...

11

Effectiveness of mitigation measures in reducing future primary particulate matter emissions from on-road vehicle exhaust.  

PubMed

This work evaluates the effectiveness of on-road primary particulate matter emission reductions that can be achieved by long-term vehicle scrappage and retrofit measures on regional and global levels. Scenario analysis shows that scrappage can provide significant emission reductions as soon as the measures begin, whereas retrofit provides greater emission reductions in later years, when more advanced technologies become available in most regions. Reductions are compared with a baseline that already accounts for implementation of clean vehicle standards. The greatest global emission reductions from a scrappage program occur 5 to 10 years after its introduction and can reach as much as 70%. The greatest reductions with retrofit occur around 2030 and range from 16-31%. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate how uncertainties in the composition of the vehicle fleet affect predicted reductions. Scrappage and retrofit reduce global emissions by 22-60% and 15-31%, respectively, within 95% confidence intervals, under a midrange scenario in the year 2030. The simulations provide guidance about which strategies are most effective for specific regions. Retrofit is preferable for high-income regions. For regions where early emission standards are in place, scrappage is suggested, followed by retrofit after more advanced emission standards are introduced. The early implementation of advanced emission standards is recommended for Western and Eastern Africa. PMID:25393452

Yan, Fang; Bond, Tami C; Streets, David G

2014-12-16

12

Emission of carcinogenic components with automobile exhausts.  

PubMed Central

Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used. PMID:6186483

Stenberg, U; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R

1983-01-01

13

Reducing Soot in Diesel Exhaust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrically charged fuel improves oxidation. Fuel injection system reduces amount of soot formed in diesel engines. Spray injector electrically charges fuel droplets as they enter cylinder. Charged droplets repel each other, creating, dilute fuel mist easily penetrated by oxygen in cylinder.

Bellan, J.

1984-01-01

14

Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

1976-01-01

15

14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

2012-01-01

16

14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

2014-01-01

17

14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...

2013-01-01

18

Characterization of nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out time-resolved experiments using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer to characterize nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust. We performed experiments under both cold-start and hot-start conditions, and determined the dependence of nitromethane emission on vehicle velocity and acceleration/deceleration as well as the effect of various types of exhaust-gas treatment system. We found that nitromethane emission was much lower from a gasoline car than from diesel trucks, probably due to the reduction function of the three-way catalyst of the gasoline car. Diesel trucks without a NOx reduction catalyst using hydrocarbons produced high emissions of nitromethane, with emission factors generally increasing with increasing acceleration at low vehicle velocities.

Sekimoto, Kanako; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Sato, Kei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

2013-12-01

19

40 CFR 90.103 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Phase 1 Exhaust Emission Standards [Grams...displacement class Hydrocarbons+oxides of nitrogen (HC+NOX ) Hydrocarbons Carbon monoxide...Engine Exhaust Emission Standards ...limitation is a direct result of...

2010-07-01

20

14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

2010-01-01

21

14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

2011-01-01

22

14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

2012-01-01

23

14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for...smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...

2013-01-01

24

The effect of adding dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethanol to unleaded gasoline on exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen containing additives are usually used to improve gasoline’s performance and reduce exhaust emissions. In this study, the effect of oxygen containing additives on gasoline blended fuels on exhaust emissions was investigated for different engine speeds in a single cylinder, four-stroke, spark-ignition engine. The results indicate that CO and HC exhaust emissions are lower with the use of ethanol–gasoline and

Lan-bin Wen; Chen-Ying Xin; Shyue-Cheng Yang

2010-01-01

25

Tumorigenesis of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and related emission extracts on SENCAR mouse skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumorigenicity of diesel exhaust particulate emissions was examined using a sensitive mouse skin tumorigenesis model (SENCAR). The tumorigenic potency of particulate emissions from diesel, gasoline, and related emission sources was compared.

S. Nesnow; L. L. Triplett; T. J. Slaga

1980-01-01

26

40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions. 86.159-08...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions. (a)...

2010-07-01

27

40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. 86.160-00...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. (a)...

2010-07-01

28

40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions. 86.159-08...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.159-08 Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions. (a)...

2011-07-01

29

40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. 86.160-00...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions. (a)...

2011-07-01

30

Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control.  

PubMed

The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H2, CH4, CO2, and NOx, were 60-115, 0.4-4.0, 1.1-10, 30-95, and 0-0.7mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500°C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300°C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400°C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al2O3, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70-80%. PMID:24239260

Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung

2014-01-15

31

40 CFR 94.8 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for Compression-Ignition Marine Engines § 94...Exhaust emissions from marine compression-ignition engines shall...

2011-07-01

32

40 CFR 94.8 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for Compression-Ignition Marine Engines § 94...Exhaust emissions from marine compression-ignition engines shall...

2010-07-01

33

40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty... Calculations; exhaust emissions. The provisions...

2012-07-01

34

40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty... Calculations; exhaust emissions. The provisions...

2011-07-01

35

40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty... Calculations; exhaust emissions. The provisions...

2013-07-01

36

40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty... Calculations; exhaust emissions. The provisions...

2010-07-01

37

Exhaust emission reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust emission of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or emissions. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.

Moffett, R. N.

1979-01-01

38

Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream  

DOEpatents

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ)

2010-07-20

39

Internal combustion engine with exhaust emission control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four cylinder spark ignition internal combustion engine has an exhaust emission control system including means for admitting fresh air into the exhaust system in order to promote a further combustion of partly burnt components in the gases coming from the combustion chambers, this means include a ''reed'' valve connected to the exhaust ports leading from the first and fourth

M. Allione; F. Cavallino; P. Martinez; R. Schiavuzzi

1981-01-01

40

40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet? 1048.101 Section 1048.101...FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements...What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet? The exhaust emission...

2010-07-01

41

INFLUENCE OF OXYGENETAED COMPOUNDS IN GASOLINE ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethanol addition in unleaded gasoline, on exhaust gases emissions from an OPEL 1.61 motor of General Motors equipped with a catalytic converter and a power absorption unit, was studied. It was observed that with oxygenated fuels, HC and CO emissions were significantly lower. Similar differences were confirmed at the exhaust gases

K. KATSIKARIS; A. VRACHNOS; S. POULOPOULOS

42

Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

2014-08-01

43

Exhaust gas sensors for automotive emission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report gives an overview on ZrO2 automotive exhaust gas sensors, the development steps of thimble-type oxygen sensors and the technology and design of planar-type oxygen sensors. Furthermore, advanced exhaust gas sensor systems, catalyst monitoring sensors and future developments are described.

J Riegel; H Neumann; H.-M Wiedenmann

2002-01-01

44

Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

2003-03-01

45

Exhaust system with emissions storage device and plasma reactor  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system for a combustion system, comprising a storage device for collecting NO.sub.x, hydrocarbon, or particulate emissions, or mixture of these emissions, and a plasma reactor for destroying the collected emissions is described. After the emission is collected in by the storage device for a period of time, the emission is then destroyed in a non-thermal plasma generated by the plasma reactor. With respect to the direction of flow of the exhaust stream, the storage device must be located before the terminus of the plasma reactor, and it may be located wholly before, overlap with, or be contained within the plasma reactor.

Hoard, John W. (Livonia, MI)

1998-01-01

46

Monitoring and Assessment of Exhaust Emission in Bangkok Street Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the exhaust emission from gasoline-powered motor vehicles in Bangkok were performed on chassis dynamometer. A fleet of 10 vehicles of different model, years and manufacturers were selected to measure the air pollutants in the exhaust effluent. The study revealed that the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions averaged 32.3–64.2 and 1.82–2.98 g km-1, respectively, for 1990–1992 cars and decreased

S. Muttamara; Shing Tet Leong

2000-01-01

47

40 CFR 87.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Standards for...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or...emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

2010-07-01

48

Effect of gasoline/methanol blends on motorcycle emissions: Exhaust and evaporative emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and M15 (consisting of 85% gasoline and 15% methanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions, including regulated and unregulated emissions, of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED), respectively. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions, including carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and methanol, were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dintrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), Tenax TA and silica gel, respectively. The experimental results showed that, for exhaust emission, compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, the concentration of total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 11%-34.5% and 63%-84% respectively, while the concentration of NOx increased by 76.9%-107.7%. Compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, BTEX from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 16%-60% while formaldehyde increased by 16.4%-52.5%. For evaporative emission, diurnal losses were more than hot soak losses and turned out to be dominated in evaporative emissions. In addition, compared with gasoline fueling motorcycles, the evaporative emissions of THC, carbonyls and VOCs from motorcycles fueled with M15 increased by 11.7%-37%, 38%-45% and 16%-42%, respectively. It should be noted that the growth rate of methanol was as high as 297%-1429%. It is important to reduce the evaporative emissions of methanol fueling motorcycles.

Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Li, Jiaqiang; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei

2015-02-01

49

Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator  

DOEpatents

A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle and imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure thereby adjusting flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2003-04-22

50

Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator  

DOEpatents

A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle, which imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure to adjust flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

51

EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were performed using (1) Diesel particles collected from the undiluted exhaust of a single-cylinder engine, operated at constant speed and load, using a binary pure hydrocarbon fuel with air or gas mixture oxidizers, and (2) Diesel particles collected from the diluted exh...

52

Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a lower compression ratio LHR Diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of reducing the compression ratio on the performance and exhaust emissions in a low heat rejection (LHR) indirect injection Diesel engine have been experimentally compared to those obtained from a standard Diesel engine (SDE) with fixed compression ratio. Reducing the compression ratio in a SDE without making any modification in the combustion chamber geometry and

Adnan Parlak; Halit Yasar; Bahri Sahin

2003-01-01

53

Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation  

DOEpatents

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver and a platinum group metal on a particulate alumina support, the atomic fraction of the platinum group metal being less than or equal to about 0.25. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which silver is impregnated on alumina particles.

Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI)

2011-05-17

54

Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation  

DOEpatents

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver on a particulate alumina support, the silver having a diameter of less than about 20 nm. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which ionic silver is impregnated on particulate hydroxylated alumina particles.

Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ)

2012-05-08

55

Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

1982-01-01

56

Influence of MTBE addition into gasoline on automotive exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) addition into gasoline on the exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines was studied. A four-cylinder OPEL 1.6l engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. Fuels containing 0.0–11.0% MTBE were used in a wide range of engine operations, and the exhaust gases were analyzed for CO, HC (total unburned

S. Poulopoulos; C. Philippopoulos

2000-01-01

57

EFFECTS OF BIODIESEL BLENDING ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

E-print Network

oxides (NOX) emissions. Since the composition of this biodiesel may vary depending on the specific feedstock used, it is important to determine the relationship between fuel composition and the resulting emissions of regulated and particle-bound air...

Guo, Jing

2011-08-31

58

40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet? 1048.101...SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet? The...

2013-07-01

59

40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet...SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1054.105 What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines...

2010-07-01

60

40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet...SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1054.105 What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines...

2014-07-01

61

40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet? 1048.101...SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet? The...

2014-07-01

62

40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. ...HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational...

2013-07-01

63

40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles? 1051.103...ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.103 What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles? (a)...

2012-07-01

64

40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet? 1048.101...SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet? The...

2012-07-01

65

40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet? 1048.101...SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet? The...

2011-07-01

66

Method and apparatus to selectively reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas feedstream  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus are described to selectively reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. An exhaust aftertreatment system includes an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reductant upstream of a silver-alumina catalytic reactor device. A control system determines a NO.sub.x concentration and hydrocarbon/NOx ratio based upon selected parameters of the exhaust gas feedstream and dispenses hydrocarbon reductant during lean engine operation. Included is a method to control elements of the feedstream during lean operation. The hydrocarbon reductant may include engine fuel.

Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI); Den, Ling (Sterling Heights, MI); Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Lee, Jong-Hwan (Rochester Hills, MI)

2011-08-30

67

14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission...emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1)...

2014-01-01

68

Utilization of LPG and gasoline engine exhaust emissions by microalgae.  

PubMed

The effect of engine exhaust emissions on air pollution is one of the greatest problems that the world is facing today. The study focused on the effects of realistic levels of engine exhaust emissions of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline (GSN) on Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. Multi parameters including pH, different medial compositions, fuel types, flow rates and biomass concentrations were described in detail. Effects of some growth factors such as triacontanol (TRIA) and salicylic acid (SA) have also been tested. The maximum biomass concentration of Phormidium sp. reached after 15 days at 0.36 and 0.15 g/L initial biomass concentrations were found as 1.160 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.331 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures, respectively. The corresponding figures were 1.478 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.636 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures at 0.65 and 0.36 g/L initial Chlorella sp. biomass concentrations. This study highlights the significance of using Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. for utilization of LPG and GSN engine exhaust emissions by the help of growth factors. PMID:23298742

Ta?tan, Burcu Ertit; Duygu, Ergin; Ilba?, Mustafa; Dönmez, Gönül

2013-02-15

69

The influence of fuel additives SO2E on diesel engine exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the methods that allows substantially to reduce exhaust smoke of diesel engines and avoid possible damage of the environment by harmful emissions is the usage of multipurpose fuel additives. The efficiency of new Estonian made fuel additives SO-2E, that have been introduced recently for the experts attention, was investigated in small heating boilers and low-powered ships. The purpose

Gvidonas Labeckas; Stasys Slavinskas

2003-01-01

70

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February...of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated...

2010-07-01

71

Particulate exhaust emissions from an experimental combustor. [gas turbine engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concentration of dry particulates (carbon) in the exhaust of an experimental gas turbine combustor was measured at simulated takeoff operating conditions and correlated with the standard smoke-number measurement. Carbon was determined quantitatively from a sample collected on a fiberglass filter by converting the carbon in the smoke sample to carbon dioxide and then measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed by gas chromatography. At a smoke of 25 (threshold of visibility of the smoke plume for large turbojets) the carbon concentration was 2.8 mg carbon/cu m exhaust gas, which is equivalent to an emission index of 0.17 g carbon/kg fuel.

Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

1975-01-01

72

40 CFR 1066.610 - Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations. 1066.610 Section...PROCEDURES Calculations § 1066.610 Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations. (a)...

2012-07-01

73

40 CFR 1066.610 - Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations. 1066.610 Section...PROCEDURES Calculations § 1066.610 Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations. (a)...

2013-07-01

74

78 FR 34375 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty Vehicles in Metropolitan Detroit...request (ICR), ``Exhaust Emissions of Light-duty Vehicles in Metropolitan Detroit...population for the project will include light-duty cars and trucks certified to...

2013-06-07

75

14 CFR 34.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.64 Sampling and analytical...

2010-01-01

76

14 CFR 34.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.64 Sampling and analytical...

2012-01-01

77

14 CFR 34.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.64 Sampling and analytical...

2011-01-01

78

Exhaust gas emissions of a vortex breakdown stabilized combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exhaust gas emission data are described for a swirl stabilized continuous combustor. The combustor consists of confined concentric jets with premixed fuel and air in the inner jet and air in the outer jet. Swirl may be induced in both inner and outer jets with the sense of rotation in the same or opposite directions (co-swirl and counter-swirl). The combustor limits NO emissions by lean operation without sacrificing CO and unburned hydrocarbon emission performance, when commercial-grade methane and air fired at one atmosphere without preheat are used. Relative swirl direction and magnitude are found to have significant effects on exhaust gas concentrations, exit temperatures, and combustor efficiencies. Counter-swirl gives a large recirculation zone, a short luminous combustion zone, and large slip velocities in the interjet shear layer. For maximum counter-swirl conditions, the efficiency is low.

Yetter, R. A.; Gouldin, F. C.

1976-01-01

79

On-Road Measurement of Exhaust Emission Factors for Individual Diesel Trucks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel trucks are an important source of primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. More stringent exhaust emission standards for new engines, effective starting in 2007, considerably reduce allowable emissions and have led to use of after-treatment control devices such as diesel particle filters. The state of California is also implementing programs to accelerate replacement or retrofit of older trucks. In light of these changes, measurements of emissions from in-use heavy-duty diesel trucks are timely and needed to understand the impact of new control technologies on emissions. PM2.5, BC mass, particle light absorption, and particle light extinction emission factors for hundreds of individual diesel trucks were measured in this study. Emissions were measured in July 2010 from trucks driving through the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. Gas-phase emissions including nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (CO2) were also measured. Pollutants were measured using air sampling inlets located directly above the vertical exhaust stacks of heavy-duty trucks driving by on the roadway below. All of these measurements were made using fast time response (1 Hz) sensors. Particle optical properties were simultaneously characterized with direct measurements of absorption (babs) and extinction (bext) coefficients. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which emissions of PM2.5, BC, babs, and bext in each exhaust plume were normalized to emissions of CO2. Emission factor distributions and fleet-average values are quantified. Absorption and extinction emission factors are used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo and BC mass absorption efficiency for individual truck exhaust plumes.

Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Wood, E. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Herndon, S. C.

2011-12-01

80

Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Due to their excellent fuel efficiency, reliability, and durability, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engines have been used extensively to power almost all highway trucks, urban buses, off-road vehicles, marine carriers, and industrial equipment. CIDI engines burn 35 to 50% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, and they emit far less greenhouse gases (Carbon Dioxides), which have been implicated in global warming. Although the emissions of CIDI engines have been reduced significantly over the last decade, there remains concern with the Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM) emission levels. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting the Tier II standards requires NOX and PM emissions to be reduced dramatically. Achieving such low emissions while minimizing fuel economy penalty cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOX and PM aftertreatment control devices. A joint effort was made between Cummins Inc. and the Department of Energy to develop the generic aftertreatment subsystem technologies applicable for Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) and Light-Duty Truck (LDT) engines. This paper provides an update on the progress of this joint development program. Three NOX reduction technologies including plasmaassisted catalytic NOX reduction (PACR), active lean NOX catalyst (LNC), and adsorber catalyst (AC) technology using intermittent rich conditions for NOX reduction were investigated in parallel in an attempt to select the best NOX control approach for light-duty aftertreatment subsystem integration and development. Investigations included system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

2002-06-01

81

Comparative effects of MTBE and ethanol additions into gasoline on exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the additives of ethanol (EA) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in various blend ratios into the gasoline fuel on the exhaust emissions and the catalytic conversion efficiencies were investigated in an EFI gasoline engine. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, THC and NOX) and the unregulated exhaust emissions (benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, unburned EA and MTBE) before and after

Chong-Lin Song; Wen-Mei Zhang; Yi-Qiang Pei; Guo-Liang Fan; Guan-Peng Xu

2006-01-01

82

Effect of primary-zone equivalence ratio and hydrogen addition on exhaust emission in a hydrocarbon-fueled combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of reducing the primary-zone equivalence ratio on the exhaust emission levels of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons in experimental hydrocarbon-fueled combustor segments at simulated supersonic cruise and idle conditions were investigated. In addition, the effects of the injection of hydrogen fuel (up to 4 percent of the total weight of fuel) on the stability of the hydrocarbon flame and exhaust emissions were studied and compared with results obtained without hydrogen addition.

Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

1974-01-01

83

40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. For engines that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2010-07-01

84

40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. For engines that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2011-07-01

85

40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. For engines that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2014-07-01

86

40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. For engines that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2012-07-01

87

40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. For engines that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2013-07-01

88

Methanol fuel vehicle demonstration: Exhaust emission testing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Ford Motor Company converted four stock 1986 Ford Crown Victoria sedans to methanol flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). During 143,108 operational miles from 1987 to 1990, the FFVs underwent more than 300 dynamometer driving tests to measure exhaust emissions, catalytic activity, fuel economy, acceleration, and driveability with gasoline and methanol blend fuels. Dynamometer driving tests included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test, and the New York City Cycle. Exhaust emission measurements included carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non- oxygenated hydrocarbons, organic material hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE), formaldehyde, and methanol. Catalytic activity was based on exhaust emissions data from active and inactive catalysts. OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} were usually lower with M85 (85% methanol, 15% gasoline) than with gasoline for both active and inactive catalysts when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near normal operating temperatures. CO was higher with M85 than with gasoline when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near ambient temperature. Formaldehyde and methanol were higher with M85. Active catalyst FTP OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} increased as vehicle mileage increased, but increased less with M85 than with gasoline. Energy based fuel economy remained almost constant with changes in fuel composition and vehicle mileage.

Hyde, J.D. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (US). Automotive Emissions Lab.

1993-07-01

89

Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

Al-lwayzy, Saddam H.; Yusaf, Talal; Jensen, Troy

2012-09-01

90

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

91

40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

92

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

93

40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

94

40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

95

40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2014-07-01

96

40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines...exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines...credits, you must specify a family emission limit for each pollutant...the ABT program for each engine family. These family emission...

2011-07-01

97

40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines...exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines...credits, you must specify a family emission limit for each pollutant...the ABT program for each engine family. These family emission...

2014-07-01

98

40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines...exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines...credits, you must specify a family emission limit for each pollutant...the ABT program for each engine family. These family emission...

2013-07-01

99

40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.101 What exhaust emission...

2010-07-01

100

40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.101 What exhaust emission...

2013-07-01

101

40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.101 What exhaust emission...

2012-07-01

102

40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.101 What exhaust emission...

2014-07-01

103

40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.105 What exhaust emission...

2012-07-01

104

40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1042.104 Exhaust emission...

2011-07-01

105

40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines. 1042.104 Section 1042.104 ...IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related...Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines. (a) Duty-cycle standards....

2010-07-01

106

40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year? 1039...IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements...What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model...

2010-07-01

107

40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1039.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the...

2014-07-01

108

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs...ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.107 What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles...

2013-07-01

109

40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1039.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the...

2013-07-01

110

40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs...ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.107 What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles...

2014-07-01

111

40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000...HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above...

2014-07-01

112

40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1039.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the...

2012-07-01

113

Characterization, concentrations and emission rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions from in-service vehicles in Damascus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor vehicles are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Improved understanding of PAH emission profiles in mobile sources is the key to determining the viable approach for reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles. Very limited data is available on the levels of PAH emissions in the urban atmospheres in Syria and no data are currently available on the level of PAH emissions from different combustion sources in the country. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAH in exhaust emissions of light and heavy-duty vehicles running on the roads of Damascus city. Three different types of vehicles (passenger cars, minivans and buses) were selected along with different age groups. Vapor- and particulate-phase PAH were collected from the vehicular exhausts of six in-service vehicles (with/without catalytic converters). High-performance liquid chromatography system, equipped with UV-Visible and fluorescence detectors, was used for the identification and quantification of PAH compounds in the cleaned extracts of the collected samples. The mean concentration of total PAH emissions (sum of 15 compounds) from all types of studied vehicles ranged between 69.28 ± 1.06 ?g/m3 for passenger cars equipped with catalytic converters and 2169.41 ± 5.17 ?g/m3 for old diesel buses without pollution controls. Values of total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (? B[a]Peq) ranged between 1.868 ?g/m3and 37.652 ?g/m3. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of catalytic converters resulted into cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained in the absence of catalytic converters.

Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

2013-02-01

114

Nitrogen dioxide in exhaust emissions from motor vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NO 2/NO x (v/v) fractions and NO 2 exhaust emission rates were determined for diesel- and gasoline-powered passenger cars and a diesel truck, at several conditions of constant engine load and speed. Vehicles with various kinds of emission control equipment were investigated. Also, integrations of NO 2/NO x percentages during Federal Test Procedure driving cycles were made for six types of passenger car. High (> 30 %) NO 2 fractions were measured for gasoline cars with air injection, and for diesel vehicles. A gasoline car with a 3-way catalyst had low NO x totals with small (< 1 %) NO 2 fractions. A passenger diesel with particle trap yielded surprisingly small (0-2%) NO 2 fractions at moderate speeds. The results have implications for NO 2 concentration in the atmosphere of northern cities during wintertime inversions, in view of the increasing use of air injection systems for passenger cars to meet legal restrictions on vehicle emissions of hydrocarbons and CO.

Lenner, Magnus

115

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26

116

40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...Requirements § 1054.107 What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...section describes an engine family's useful life, which is the period during which...

2013-07-01

117

40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...Requirements § 1054.107 What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards...section describes an engine family's useful life, which is the period during which...

2012-07-01

118

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2014-07-01

119

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2012-07-01

120

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2013-07-01

121

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2011-07-01

122

40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. 610.31 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and... § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a)...

2010-07-01

123

40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...group. (1) Each vehicle with an exhaust total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions rate which is less than or equal to twice the applicable...the normal emitter group. (2) Each vehicle with an exhaust THC emissions rate which is greater than two times the...

2010-07-01

124

Evaluation of the effects of engine deterioration on gasoline exhaust emissions. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment to determine the relationship between gasoline exhaust emissions and engine deterioration is discussed. The experimental design is specifically aimed at exhaust emission trends throughout engine life. The engines used for this experiment are four 4 1\\/2 hp Wisconsin, Model MBKND, air cooled, reciprocating gasoline engines. The experimental techniques presented provide a good foundation for further research. (GRA)

1975-01-01

125

40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines. 1042.101 Section 1042.101 Protection...FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related...

2010-07-01

126

14 CFR 34.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for...

2010-01-01

127

14 CFR 34.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for...

2012-01-01

128

14 CFR 34.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for...

2011-01-01

129

40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on mixtures of gasoline and methanol...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per...on mixtures of gasoline and ethanol...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per...greenhouse gas emissions per gallon of gasoline. 8887 is...

2013-07-01

130

40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...on mixtures of gasoline and methanol...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per...on mixtures of gasoline and ethanol...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per...greenhouse gas emissions per gallon of gasoline. 8887 is...

2014-07-01

131

A method for reducing exhaust pressure of vehicle compressed air powered engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed air powered engine is a type of zero-pollution engine, but its conversion efficiency is very low for its high pressure exhaust which causes much exergy loss. In this study, a control system was developed to reduce the exhaust pressure of vehicle compressed air powered engine. The control system is made up of a controller, a pressure sensor, a photoelectric

Zhenggang Xu; Xiaopeng Xie

2009-01-01

132

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2013-07-01

133

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average...

2012-07-01

134

Exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty vehicles: chemical composition, impact of exhaust after treatment, and fuel parameters.  

PubMed Central

This paper presents results from the characterization of vehicle exhaust that were obtained primarily within the Swedish Urban Air Project, "Tätortsprojektet." Exhaust emissions from both gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles have been investigated with respect to regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbon [HC], nitrogen oxides [NOx], and particulate), unregulated pollutants, and in bioassay tests (Ames test, TCDD receptor affinity tests). Unregulated pollutants present in both the particle- and the semi-volatile phases were characterized. Special interest was focused on the impact of fuel composition on heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions. It was confirmed that there exists a quantifiable relationship between diesel-fuel variables of the fuel blends, the chemical composition of the emissions, and their biological effects. According to the results from the multivariate analysis, the most important fuel parameters are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content, 90% distillation point, final boiling point, specific heat, aromatic content, density, and sulfur content. PMID:7529699

Westerholm, R; Egebäck, K E

1994-01-01

135

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES  

SciTech Connect

Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus networks.

COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

2003-08-24

136

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...carbon-related exhaust emissions value for operation on gasoline or diesel fuel as...carbon-related exhaust emissions value for operation on gasoline or diesel as determined...carbon-related exhaust emissions value for operation on gasoline or diesel fuel...

2014-07-01

137

ydrocarbon detector for the remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions  

E-print Network

1994) A new remote sensor for measuring on-road carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbon the capability for measuring exhaust hydrocarbons and eliminates the need for liquid-nitrogen-cooled detectors important to the measurement of exhaust hydrocarbons are reported. The water vapor present in all auto

Denver, University of

138

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...exhaust sample or, for diesel-cycle (or methanol-fueled...sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction...exhaust volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction...the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, in...

2014-07-01

139

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust sample or, for diesel-cycle (or methanol-fueled...sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction...exhaust volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction...the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, in...

2013-07-01

140

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exhaust sample or, for diesel-cycle (or methanol-fueled...sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction...exhaust volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction...the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, in...

2012-07-01

141

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exhaust sample or, for diesel-cycle (or methanol-fueled...sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction...exhaust volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction...the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, in...

2010-07-01

142

40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhaust sample or, for diesel-cycle (or methanol-fueled...sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction...exhaust volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction...the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, in...

2011-07-01

143

Dilution Rates for Tailpipe Emissions: Effects of Vehicle Shape, Tailpipe Position, and Exhaust Velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate at which motor vehicle exhaust undergoes dilution with ambient air will greatly affect the size distribution characteristics of the particulate emissions. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of vehicle shape, tailpipe orientation, and exhaust exit velocity on the dilution profiles under steady driving conditions for three model vehicles: a light-duty truck, a passenger car, and

Victor W.-C. Chang; Lynn M. Hildemann; Cheng-hisn Chang; Prabhakar Sharma; Tjalfe Poulsen; Prasad Kalluri; Steven Hoff; Dwaine Bundy; Minda Nelson; Brian Zelle; Larry Jacobson; Albert Heber; Jiqin Ni; Yuanhui Zhang; Jacek Koziel; David Beasley; Robert Joumard; Juhani Laurikko; Tuan Han; Savas Geivanidis; Zissis Samaras; Tama´s tei; Philippe Devaux; Jean-Marc Andre´; Ste´phanie Lacour; Erwin Cornelis; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim Keener; Y. Yang; Sheng-Wei Wang; Xiaogang Tang; Zhi-Hua Fan; Xiangmei Wu; Paul Lioy; Panos Georgopoulos; Augustine Quek; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian; Yi-Chi Chen; Lu-Yen Chen; Fu-Tien Jeng

2009-01-01

144

40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

145

Combustor exhaust emissions with air-atomizing splash-groove fuel injectors burning Jet A and Diesel number 2 fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air-atomizing, splash-groove injectors were shown to improve primary-zone fuel spreading and reduce combustor exhaust emissions for Jet A and diesel number 2 fuels. With Jet A fuel large-orifice, splash-groove injectors the oxides-of-nitrogen emission index was reduced, but emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, or smoke were unaffected. Small-orifice, splash-groove injectors did not reduce oxides of nitrogen, but reduced the smoke number and carbon monoxide and unburned-hydrocarbon emission indices. With diesel number 2 fuel, the small-orifice, splash-groove injectors reduced oxides of nitrogen by 19 percent, smoke number by 28 percent, carbon monoxide by 75 percent, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50 percent. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons were twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel. Combustor blowout limits were similar for diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels.

Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

1975-01-01

146

Inhalation toxicology of automotive emissions as affected by an oxidation exhaust catalyst.  

PubMed Central

Preliminary data are given on the acute inhalation toxicology of automotive emissions as affected by an oxidation exhaust catalyst. The catalyst effectively reduced CO and HC in the exhause which apparently had an effect (at least in a closed exposure system) on oxidant and NO2 levels by altering the HC/NOx ratio. There was a resultant reduction in biological effects due to the exposure. The catalyst altered the type of particulate to one which probably contained sulfuric acid as a major component. No evidence was present in these acute exposures to suggest a toxic response due to the higher sulfate emissions or possible catalyst attrition products. The effects of long-term exposure have not yet been investigated. PMID:50941

Hysell, D K; Moore, W; Hinners, R; Malanchuk, M; Miller, R; Stara, J F

1975-01-01

147

The Effect of the Diesel Cetane Number on Exhaust Emissions Characteristics by Various Additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper described the effect of the diesel cetane number on exhaust emissions characteristics according to various additives. In addition, the emission characteristics of test fuels blended with three additives (GTL, biodiesel and additive for improving CN) were analyzed and the potential for uses of these additives were evaluated in this study. To achieve this purpose, the test diesel vehicle with a two-thousand cubic centimeter displacement was used to analyze the emission characteristics according to the CN. Also, the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) was applied as the test mode which is widely used as the test method for environmental certification of diesel vehicles. To analyze the characteristics of HAPs, the VOCs and PAHs were analyzed from the BTEX and the particulate matter, respectively. The analysis results revealed that the CO emissions show the largest reduction rate while the NOx+THC emissions are reduced at a low as the CN got higher. In the NEDC mode, the PM emissions in the EUDC mode were found to be at a lower level than those in the UDC mode. As for the VOCs and PAHs characteristics, the VOCs of the CN 58 show the lowest amounts. Also, the PAHs of diesel blended with GTL show the highest level, followed by those of diesel blended with biodiesel and diesel blended with cetane additive.

Lim, Yunsung; Seo, Choongyeol; Lee, Jongtae; Kang, Daeil; Kim, Jeong Soo; Kim, Hyung Jun

148

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

2012-07-01

149

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

2011-07-01

150

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

2014-07-01

151

40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle...exhaust emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

2013-07-01

152

40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES...Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.64 Sampling and...

2011-07-01

153

40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND...Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust...smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8...

2013-07-01

154

40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES...Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.64 Sampling and...

2010-07-01

155

40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND...Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust...smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8...

2014-07-01

156

40 CFR 86.544-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...concentration of the dilute exhaust sample, pct. (vii) R = Relative humidity of the dilution air, pct (see § 86.542(n)). (viii)(A... = Relative humidity of the ambient air, pct. (xii) Pd = Saturated vapor...

2013-07-01

157

Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): I. Exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present global emission projections of primary particulate matter (PM) from exhaust of on-road vehicles under four commonly-used global fuel use scenarios from 2010 to 2050. The projections are based on a dynamic model of vehicle population linked to emission characteristics, SPEW-Trend. Unlike previous models of global emissions, this model incorporates more details on the technology stock, including the vehicle type and age, and the number of emitters with very high emissions ("superemitters"). However, our estimates of vehicle growth are driven by changes in predicted fuel consumption from macroeconomic scenarios, ensuring that PM projections are consistent with these scenarios. Total emissions are then obtained by integrating emissions of heterogeneous vehicle groups of all ages and types. Changes in types of vehicles in use are governed by retirement rates, timing of emission standards and the rate at which superemitters develop from normal vehicles. Retirement rates are modeled as a function of vehicle age and income level with a relationship based on empirical data, capturing the fact that people with lower income tend to keep vehicles longer. Adoption dates of emission standards are either estimated from planned implementation or from income levels. We project that global PM emissions range from 1100 Gg to 1360 Gg in 2030, depending on the scenario. An emission decrease is estimated until 2035 because emission standards are implemented and older engines built to lower standards are phased out. From 2010 to 2050, fuel consumption increases in all regions except North America, Europe and Pacific, according to all scenarios. Global emission intensities decrease continuously under all scenarios for the first 30 years due to the introduction of more advanced and cleaner emission standards. This leads to decreasing emissions from most regions. Emissions are expected to increase significantly in only Africa (1.2-3.1% per year). Because we have tied emission standards to income levels, Africa introduces those standards 30-40 years later than other regions and thus makes a remarkable contribution to the global emissions in 2050 (almost half). All Asian regions (South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia) have a decreasing fractional contribution to global totals, from 32% in 2030 to around 22% in 2050. Total emissions from normal vehicles can decrease 1.3-2% per year. However, superemitters have a large effect on emission totals. They can potentially contribute more than 50% of global emissions around 2020, which suggests that they should be specifically addressed in modeling and mitigation policies. As new vehicles become cleaner, the majority of on-road emissions will come from the legacy fleet. This work establishes a modeling framework to explore policies targeted at that fleet.

Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Jung, Soonkyu; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

2011-09-01

158

Effect of ethanol–unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance and exhaust emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of using unleaded gasoline–ethanol blends on SI engine performance and exhaust emission. A four stroke, four cylinder SI engine (type TOYOTA, TERCEL-3A) was used for conducting this study.Performance tests were conducted for equivalence air–fuel ratio, fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, brake thermal efficiency, brake power, engine torque and brake specific fuel consumption, while exhaust emissions were

M. Al-Hasan

2003-01-01

159

Effects of gasoline volatility on the hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a 1984 Oldsmobile Cutlass. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of a gasoline volatility\\/exhaust emission test program done under EPA contract by ATL Laboratories in Columbus, Ohio. The program was developed to help explain why hydrocarbon exhaust emissions frequently increase when using fuels with high volatility. The testing involved a 1984 3.8L Olds Cutlass with multi-point fuel injection. Two different fuels (9.0 and 11.5 psi

Schuler

1987-01-01

160

Assessment of Benzene and Toluene Emissions from Automobile Exhaust in Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of unleaded gasoline, together with an increase in the number of vehicles in Bangkok, has significantly influenced benzene and toluene concentrations in vehicular emissions and contributes to the air pollution problem. As a matter of practical necessity, a quick test program is done for the measurement of emission concentrations\\/rates for vehicles driven on the road. Exhaust emission measurement

S. Muttamara; Shing Tet Leong; I. Lertvisansak

1999-01-01

161

40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

162

Development of naval diesel engine duty cycles for air exhaust emission environmental impact analysis. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

A strategy for testing naval diesel engines for exhaust emissions was developed. A survey of existing international and national standard diesel engine duty cycles was conducted. All were found to be inadequate for testing and certification of engine exhaust emissions from naval diesel powered ships. Naval ship data covering 11,500 hours of engine operation of four U.S. Navy LSD 41 Class amphibious ships was analyzed to develop a 27 point class operating profile. A procedure combining ship hull form characteristics, ship propulsion plant parameters, and ship operating profile was detailed to derive an 11-Mode duty cycle representative for testing LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines. A similar procedure was followed for ship service diesel engines. Comparisons with industry accepted duty cycles were conducted using exhaust emission contour plots for the Colt-Pielstick PC-4B diesel engines. Results showed the 11-Mode LSD 41 Class Duty Cycle best predicted ship propulsion engine emissions compared to the 27 point operating profile propeller curve. The procedure was applied to T-AO 187 Class with similar results. The application of civilian industry standards to measure naval diesel ship propulsion engine exhaust emissions was found to be inadequate. Engine exhaust flow chemistry post turbocharger was investigated using the SANDIA Lab computer tool CHEMKIN. Results showed oxidation and reduction reactions within exhaust gases are quenched in the exhaust stack. Since the exhaust stream in the stack is unreactive, emission sampling may be performed where most convenient. A proposed emission measurement scheme for LSD 41 Class ships was presented.

Markle, S.P.

1994-05-01

163

Biodegradable plastic reduces ammonia emission during composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia is the greatest nuisance odor compound among the exhaust gases that evolve during the composting process, in which raw materials with high concentrations of nitrogen, such as wastewater sludge, are decomposed. In the present study, a reduction of NH3 emission during composting of wastewater sludge was tried by mixing biodegradable plastic into composting raw material. Biodegradable plastic acts as

K Nakasaki; A Ohtaki; H Takano

2000-01-01

164

Bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends: exhaust emissions and morphological characterization of particulate from a moped engine.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of gasoline-ethanol blends on the exhaust emissions in a catalyst-equipped four-stroke moped engine. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in at percentages (10, 15, and 20% v/v). The regulated pollutants and the particulate matter emissions were evaluated over the European ECE R47 driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer bench. Particulate matter was characterized in terms of total mass collected on filters and total number ofparticles in the range 7 nm-10 microm measured by electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). In addition, particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions were evaluated to assess the health impact of the emitted particulate. Finally, an accurate morphological analysis was performed on the particulate by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with a digital image-processing/data-acquisition system. In general, CO emission reductions of 60-70% were obtained with 15 and 20% v/v ethanol blends, while the ethanol use did not reduce hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emissions. No evident effect of ethanol on the particulate mass emissions and associated PAHs emissions was observed. Twenty-one PAHs were quantified in the particulate phase with emissions ranging from 26 to 35 microg/km and benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors from 2.2 to 4.1 microg/km. Both particulate matter and associated PAHs with higher carcinogenic risk were mainly emitted in the submicrometer size range (<0.1 microm). On the basis of the TEM observations, no relevant effect of the ethanol use on the particulate morphology was evidenced, showing aggregates composed ofprimary particles with mean diameters in the range 17.5-32.5 nm. PMID:22916436

Seggiani, Maurizia; Prati, M Vittoria; Costagliola, M Antonietta; Puccini, Monica; Vitolo, Sandra

2012-08-01

165

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2010-07-01

166

40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978...

2011-07-01

167

Burner retrofits reduce brewery emissions  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California (SCAQMD) tightened its grip on industrial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The new statute, Rule 1146, mandates a 75% reduction in NOx emissions over a five-year period ending this July. Anheuser-Busch Inc.'s second-largest brewery in Van Nuys fell under the new law's jurisdiction. Under the new law, the maximum allowable NOx emission must be reduced from 120 to 30 ppm for the two largest boilers. There were two alternatives: either prevent its formation inside the boiler, or remove it from the off-gases via selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Prevention was chosen, because the NOx-removal technologies are unproven in the US on natural-gas-fired boilers. In addition, it was not known whether SCR or SNCR could respond to the wide swings in boiler demand. At any given time, loads between 30 and 100% of capacity would be required from the boilers. The brewery retrofitted the 125,000-lb/h boilers with Variflame burners, based upon an earlier retrofit at Anheuser-Busch's Merrimack, N.H., brewery. The paper describes this burner and its performance.

Not Available

1993-04-01

168

Vehicle performance and exhaust emission, carburetion versus timed fuel injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle performance and engine efficiency are evaluated from the point of view of carburetion versus gasoline injection. The measurement of combustion efficiency, maldistribution and fuel precipitation effects, how to determine maldistribution, heat rejection mixture strength and timing effects, exhaust gas composition and vehicle performance in road service, and octane requirement effects are discussed.

J. H. Jr. Freeman; Stahnan

2009-01-01

169

40 CFR 90.103 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to or comply with standards regulating emissions of HC, NOX ...option to certify to standards regulating such emissions, such...to the applicable standard regulating emissions of HC, NOX ...for Phase 2 Class II side valve engine families...

2012-07-01

170

40 CFR 90.103 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to or comply with standards regulating emissions of HC, NOX ...option to certify to standards regulating such emissions, such...to the applicable standard regulating emissions of HC, NOX ...for Phase 2 Class II side valve engine families...

2013-07-01

171

40 CFR 90.103 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to or comply with standards regulating emissions of HC, NOX ...option to certify to standards regulating such emissions, such...to the applicable standard regulating emissions of HC, NOX ...for Phase 2 Class II side valve engine families...

2014-07-01

172

40 CFR 90.103 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to or comply with standards regulating emissions of HC, NOX ...option to certify to standards regulating such emissions, such...to the applicable standard regulating emissions of HC, NOX ...for Phase 2 Class II side valve engine families...

2011-07-01

173

40 CFR 86.544-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... = Hydrocarbon emissions, in grams per... (A) For gasoline-fuel; DensityHC...Carbon monoxide emissions, in grams per...000323R)COem for gasoline-fueled vehicles...calculation of mass emission values for gasoline-fueled...

2011-07-01

174

40 CFR 86.1777-99 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mass of NMOG emissions from a vehicle...conventional gasoline, including...conventional gasoline-fueled vehicle...for the vehicle emission control technology...conventional gasoline-fueled vehicle emission control...

2013-07-01

175

40 CFR 86.544-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... = Hydrocarbon emissions, in grams per... (A) For gasoline-fuel; DensityHC...Carbon monoxide emissions, in grams per...000323R)COem for gasoline-fueled vehicles...calculation of mass emission values for gasoline-fueled...

2014-07-01

176

40 CFR 86.1777-99 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...mass of NMOG emissions from a vehicle...conventional gasoline, including...conventional gasoline-fueled vehicle...for the vehicle emission control technology...conventional gasoline-fueled vehicle emission control...

2012-07-01

177

40 CFR 86.1777-99 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...mass of NMOG emissions from a vehicle...conventional gasoline, including...conventional gasoline-fueled vehicle...for the vehicle emission control technology...conventional gasoline-fueled vehicle emission control...

2011-07-01

178

40 CFR 86.1777-99 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mass of NMOG emissions from a vehicle...conventional gasoline, including...conventional gasoline-fueled vehicle...for the vehicle emission control technology...conventional gasoline-fueled vehicle emission control...

2010-07-01

179

40 CFR 86.544-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... = Hydrocarbon emissions, in grams per... (A) For gasoline-fuel; DensityHC...Carbon monoxide emissions, in grams per...000323R)COem for gasoline-fueled vehicles...calculation of mass emission values for gasoline-fueled...

2010-07-01

180

In-vehicle Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Vehicular Exhaust: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-induced emissions constitute a major source of air pollutants, particularly in urban areas, where heavy traffic is common occurrence. Contaminated air can flow into enclosed micro-environments, including vehicle compartments. Among various exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) was the first indicator examined in passenger compartments. This paper presents a critical review of worldwide research work conducted to characterize CO exposure inside

M. El-Fadel; L. Abi-Esber

2009-01-01

181

Comparative effects of MTBE and ethanol additions into gasoline on exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the additives of ethanol (EA) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in various blend ratios into the gasoline fuel on the exhaust emissions and the catalytic conversion efficiencies were investigated in an EFI gasoline engine. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, THC and NO X) and the unregulated exhaust emissions (benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, unburned EA and MTBE) before and after the three-way catalytic converter were measured. The experimental results showed that EA brought about generally lower regulated engine-out emissions than MTBE did. But, the comparison of the unregulated engine-out emissions between both additives was different. Concretely, the effect of EA on benzene emission was worse than that of MTBE on the whole, which was a contrast with formaldehyde emission. The difference in the acetaldehyde comparison depended much on the engine operating conditions, especially the engine speed. Both EA and MTBE were identified in the engine exhaust gases only when they were added to the fuel, and their volume fraction increased with blend ratios. The catalytic conversion efficiencies of the regulated emissions for the EA blends were in general lower than those for MTBE blends, especially at the low and high engine speeds. There was little difference in the catalytic conversion efficiencies for both benzene and formaldehyde, while distinct difference for acetaldehyde.

Song, Chong-Lin; Zhang, Wen-Mei; Pei, Yi-Qiang; Fan, Guo-Liang; Xu, Guan-Peng

182

EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL-GASOLINE BLENDS ON EXHAUST AND NOISE EMISSIONS IN SMALL SCALED GENERATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of methanol or butanol addition to gasoline on exhaust emissions and noise level has been experimentally investigated. Results showed that the concentrations of CO and NOx emissions were de- creased depending on the higher alcohol contents and the carbon monoxide concentration of gasoline was hi- gher than that of methanol or butanol-gasoline blends for all

A. YASAR

2010-01-01

183

40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.103 What exhaust emission...

2013-07-01

184

Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption  

PubMed Central

An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

Su, Jye-Chau

2014-01-01

185

Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.  

PubMed

An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

2014-01-01

186

Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

He, Xin (Denver, CO); Durrett, Russell P. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

2012-01-24

187

Assessment of the capacity of vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust-induced symptoms in human volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution especially derived from traffic is associated with increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the ability of novel vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust (DE)-induced symptoms and markers of inflammation in human subjects. Methods Thirty healthy subjects participated in a randomized double-blind controlled crossover study where they were exposed to filtered air, unfiltered DE and DE filtered through two selected particle filters, one with and one without active charcoal. Exposures lasted for one hour. Symptoms were assessed before and during exposures and lung function was measured before and after each exposure, with inflammation assessed in peripheral blood five hours after exposures. In parallel, PM were collected from unfiltered and filtered DE and assessed for their capacity to drive damaging oxidation reactions in a cell-free model, or promote inflammation in A549 cells. Results The standard particle filter employed in this study reduced PM10 mass concentrations within the exposure chamber by 46%, further reduced to 74% by the inclusion of an active charcoal component. In addition use of the active charcoal filter was associated by a 75% and 50% reduction in NO2 and hydrocarbon concentrations, respectively. As expected, subjects reported more subjective symptoms after exposure to unfiltered DE compared to filtered air, which was significantly reduced by the filter with an active charcoal component. There were no significant changes in lung function after exposures. Similarly diesel exhaust did not elicit significant increases in any of the inflammatory markers examined in the peripheral blood samples 5 hour post-exposure. Whilst the filters reduced chamber particle concentrations, the oxidative activity of the particles themselves, did not change following filtration with either filter. In contrast, diesel exhaust PM passed through the active charcoal combination filter appeared less inflammatory to A549 cells. Conclusions A cabin air inlet particle filter including an active charcoal component was highly effective in reducing both DE particulate and gaseous components, with reduced exhaust-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of cabin filters to protect subjects travelling in vehicles from diesel exhaust emissions. PMID:24621126

2014-01-01

188

40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model...exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model...This requires that you specify a family emission limit (FEL) for each...the ABT program for each engine family. These FELs serve as the...

2011-07-01

189

A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF BIODIESEL IMPACTS ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Existing emissions data from heavy-duty diesel engines was assembled into a database. Statistical regression analysis was used to correlate biodiesel concentration with changes in emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants. The report concludes that biodiesel produces sm...

190

EXHAUST EMISSION PATTERNS FROM TWO LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL AUTOMOBILES  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate and gaseous emissions from two light-duty diesel automobiles were examined over six operating cycles. Particulate characterizations included mass emission rate, soluble organic content, and trace element content determinations. The particulate matter was sampled using...

191

Carbonyl emissions from vehicular exhausts sources in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for airborne carbonyls in urban area. Six types of VE-dominated samples were collected at representative locations in Hong Kong where polluted by a particular fueled type of vehicles, including (i) a gas refilling taxis station (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] emission); (ii) a light-duty passenger car park (gasoline emission); (iii) a

Steven Sai Hang Ho; Kin Fai Ho; Shun Cheng Lee; Yan Cheng; Jian Zhen Yu; Ka Man Lam; Natale Sin Yau Feng; Yu Huang

2012-01-01

192

Carbonyl Emissions from Vehicular Exhausts Sources in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for airborne carbonyls in urban area. Six types of VE-dominated samples were collected at representative locations in Hong Kong where polluted by a particular fueled type of vehicles, including (i) a gas refilling taxis station (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] emission); (ii) a light duty passenger car park (gasoline emission); (iii)

Steven Sai Hang Ho; Kin Fai Ho; Shun Cheng Lee; Yan Cheng; Jian Zhen Yu; Ka Man Lam; Carrie Feng; Yu Huang

2011-01-01

193

Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.  

PubMed

Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced mutagenic effects most effectively in the gas phase. Mutagenicity of particle extracts was less efficiently diminished. No significant differences of mutagenic effects were observed among the tested fuels. In conclusion, the benefits of the DOC concern regulated emissions except NO(X) as well as nonregulated emissions such as the mutagenicity of the exhaust. The reduction of mutagenicity was particularly observed in the condensates of the gas phase. This is probably due to better accessibility of gaseous mutagenic compounds during the passage of the DOC in contrast to the particle-bound mutagens. Concerning the particulate emissions DOC especially decreased ultrafine particles. PMID:22587467

Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

2012-06-01

194

Exhaust emissions from a Diesel engine fueled with transesterified waste olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exhaust emissions of a Diesel direct injection Perkins engine fueled with waste olive oil methyl ester were studied at several steady-state operating conditions. Emissions were characterized with neat biodiesel from used olive oil and conventional Diesel fuel. Results revealed that the use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of CO (up to 58.9%), CO2 (up to 8.6%, excepting a

M. P Dorado; E Ballesteros; J. M Arnal; J Gómez; F. J López

2003-01-01

195

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emissions from the tests performed using gasoline or diesel test fuel...carbon-related exhaust emission values from the tests performed using gasoline or diesel test...

2014-07-01

196

Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)

2002-01-01

197

Exhaust Fine Particle and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks are a source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions as well as primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. Heavy-duty trucks contribute significantly to elevated levels of diesel particulate matter found near highways and in communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. To reduce the air quality impact of diesel engine emissions, the California Air Resources Board has adopted new rules requiring the retrofit or replacement of in-use HD trucks. These rules take effect during 2010 at ports and railyards, and apply to all trucks operating in California by 2014. This study involves on-road measurements of PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factor distributions from individual HD trucks driving into the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay area. Measurements of exhaust plumes from individual trucks were made using a mobile laboratory equipped with fast time response (1 Hz) PM2.5, BC, NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors. The mobile laboratory was stationed on an overpass above an arterial roadway that connects the Port to a nearby highway (I-880). The air sampling inlet was thereby located above the vertical exhaust pipes of HD diesel trucks passing by on the arterial roadway below. Fuel-specific PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which concentrations of these species in an exhaust plume are normalized to CO2 concentrations. Initial field sampling was conducted in November, 2009 prior to the implementation of new emission rules. Additional emission measurements were made at the same location during June 2010 and emission factor distributions and averages will be compared.

Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T.

2010-12-01

198

Multicomponent remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions by dispersive IR and UV spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions under real-world driving conditions is desirable for a number of reasons, including: identifying high emitters, investigating the chemical composition of the exhaust, and probing fast reactions in the plume. A remote sensor, incorporating IR and UV spectrometers, was developed. The IR spectrometer consists of a grating system mounted on a synchronous motor, optically interfaced to a room temperature PbSe detector. UV-vis measurements are made with a CCD array spectrometer. Eight optical passes through the exhaust plume allow rapid and sensitive monitoring of the exhaust stream emitted by moving vehicles on a car-by-car basis. The combination of these two techniques resulted in unprecedented, direct measurement capability of over 25 pollutants in the exhaust plume. Emissions from a fleet of vehicles powered by a range of fuels (gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and methanol) were tested. The exhaust from hot gasoline- and methanol-powered cars contained high levels of NH3, up to 1500 ppm. These emissions were up to 14 times higher than the corresponding NOx emissions. Unlike most previous work, NOx was measured as the sum of NO and NO2; N2O was also measured. Field testing at a southern California freeway on-ramp was conducted over a one week period, totaling >4,500 measurements. It was found that 66.4% of the emitted NH3 was produced by 10% of the fleet, following the (gamma) - distribution that has been reported for criteria pollutants. Mean NH3 emission rates were calculated at 138 mg km-1, nearly twice as high was previous estimates.

Baum, Marc M.; Kiyomiya, Eileen S.; Kumar, Sasi; Lappas, Anastasios M.; Lord, Harry C., III

2000-12-01

199

Jet engine exhaust emissions of high altitude commercial aircraft projected to 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high-altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on:(1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; and (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft fueled by either JP fuel, liquefied natural gas, or hydrogen. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of both an emission index (g constituent/kg fuel) and an emission rate (g constituent/hr).

Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

1974-01-01

200

A GIS-BASED MODAL MODEL OF AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents progress toward the development of a computer tool called MEASURE, the Mobile Emission Assessment System for Urban and Regional Evaluation. The tool works toward a goal of providing researchers and planners with a way to assess new mobile emission mitigation s...

201

Examination of Acute Pulmonary Responses to Various Cookstove Exhaust Emissions  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollution is a global public heath problem, to which the emissions from rudimentary cooking devices has been estimated to contribute significantly through the burning of various types of biomass. Notably, exposure to cookstove emissions (CE) has been linked to increases in mo...

202

Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than diesel does. Major difference in both fuels is formaldehyde emission which drops by 23% on the average. Lower aldehyde emissions found in B20 correspond to lower ozone formation potentials. As a result, use of biodiesel in diesel engines has the beneficial effect in terms of aldehyde emissions.

Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

203

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on singleshell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists SSTs covered by this NOC. This GOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTs during salt well pumping is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms authorization basis (DESH 1997) that requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). Safety analyses indicate that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for release of flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTs to reduce the ''time at risk'' while salt well pumping. For this reason, portable exhausters will be installed as a precautionary measure and used when flammable gas concentrations exceed 25 percent of the LFL during salt well pumping.

HOMAN, N.A.

1999-07-14

204

40 CFR 87.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND...Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Standards...smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8...

2011-07-01

205

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND...Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards...from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8,...

2011-07-01

206

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND...Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards...from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8,...

2014-07-01

207

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND...Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards...from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8,...

2013-07-01

208

40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft...exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft...maximum engine power for the engine family, in kilowatts (kW). ...maximum engine power for the engine family as described in §...

2012-07-01

209

40 CFR 1045.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft...exhaust emission standards must my outboard and personal watercraft...maximum engine power for the engine family, in kilowatts (kW). ...maximum engine power for the engine family as described in §...

2011-07-01

210

Carbonyl emissions from vehicular exhausts sources in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for airborne carbonyls in urban area. Six types of VE-dominated samples were collected at representative locations in Hong Kong where polluted by a particular fueled type of vehicles, including (i) a gas refilling taxis station (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] emission); (ii) a light-duty passenger car park (gasoline emission); (iii) a minibus station (diesel emission); (iv) a single-deck-bus depot (diesel emission); (v) a double-deck-bus depot (diesel emission); and (vi) a whole-food market entrance for light- and heavy-duty vehicles (diesel emission). A total of 15 carbonyls in the samples were quantified. Formaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl among the VE-dominated samples, and its contribution to the total quantified amount on a molar basis ranged from 54.8% to 60.8%. Acetaldehyde and acetone were the next two abundant carbonyls. The carbonyls were quantified at three roadside locations in Hong Kong. The highest concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, 22.7 +/- 8.4 and 6.0 +/- 2.8 microg/m3, respectively, were determined in the samples collected at a main transportation gate for goods between Hong Kong and Mainland China. The total quantified carbonyl concentration, 37.9 +/- 9.3 microg/m3, was the highest at an entrance of a cross-harbor tunnel in downtown area. The theoretical carbonyls compositions of the three roadside locations were estimated according to the VE-dominated sample profiles and the statistics on vehicle numbers and types during the sampling period. The measured compositions of formaldehyde were much higher than the theoretical compositions in summer, demonstrating that photochemical reactions significantly contributed to the formaldehyde production in the roadsides. PMID:22442938

Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Cheng, Yan; Yu, Jian Zhen; Lam, Ka Man; Feng, Natale Sin Yau; Huang, Yu

2012-02-01

211

SENSOR FOR MONITORING OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN DIESEL EXHAUST GASES - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Active Spectrum, Inc., proposes a novel, low-cost soot sensor for on-board measurement of soot emissions in diesel exhaust gases. The proposed technology is differentiated from existing methods by excellent sensitivity, high specificity to carbon particulates, and robustness ...

212

Electronic carburetion system for low exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic carburetion system for internal combustion engines is described that, unlike prior-art devices of similar nature, permits comparison between the actual fuel flow rate and the measured mass air flow rate, thus achieving constant control of the air\\/fuel ratio and reductions in exhaust emissions. The air flow rate to the engine is converted into a proportional electrical signal which

Priegel

1974-01-01

213

78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...45 [Docket No.: FAA-2012-1333; Amendment No. 34-5A] RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages...

2013-11-01

214

Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from a heavy-duty hybrid bus. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of prototype heavy-duty hybrid vehicles introduces a number of challenges in assessing emissions performance compared to conventionally powered diesel or gasoline-fueled, heavy-duty vehicles. Difficulty is encountered because the engine may be operated on an intermittent basis (as a function of load or state of charge of the energy storage system) and in a narrow speed/load range. Therefore, in this project, heavy-duty chassis dynamometer emission measurements were used to benchmark the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty hybrid vehicle against a conventionally powered vehicle. The hybrid bus was powered with a CNG-fueled, VW 2.0L engine. Exhaust emissions from the hybrid bus were compared to a 1996 model year diesel-powered bus operated over the same driving cycles, and using the same inertia weight and road load as the hybrid bus. SwRI noted that the aftermarket CNG fuel system installed on the 2.0L VW engine did not function adequately; therefore, the exhaust emissions from the hybrid bus could have been much better if detailed optimization had been performed. In fact, NO{sub x} emissions were 25 to 30 percent higher than for the diesel bus. However, even with the non-optimum CNG fuel system, the exhaust emissions of NMHC and CO were significantly lower than observed for a comparable diesel bus. Although not directly measured, PM emissions from the hybrid bus were assumed to be essentially zero. Another significant finding was that the fuel consumption of the hybrid bus was 13 to 30 percent better than the diesel bus over the CBD-14 cycle, and 38 to 45 percent better than the diesel bus over the HDCC.

Fritz, S.G.; Bass, E.A.; Steiber, J.; Tobin, A.

1999-07-01

215

Characterization of exhaust emissions from trap-equipped light-duty diesels. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the project was to thoroughly characterize and quantify the criteria and toxic-pollutant emissions from two different types of trap-equipped light-duty diesel vehicles. These vehicles included a 1986 Mercedes-Benz 300 SDL, which utilizes a catalyzed trap system, and a prototype Volkswagen, which utilizes an additive trap system (organometallic iron additive). Exhaust emissions from the two vehicles were evaluated

1989-01-01

216

Exhaust and evaporative emissions from motorcycles fueled with ethanol gasoline blends.  

PubMed

The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and E10 (90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED) including regulated and unregulated emissions. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions including carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and Tenax TA, respectively. The experimental results showed that the emission factors of total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) from E10 fueling motorcycles decreased by 26%-45% and 63%-73%, while the emission factor of NOx increased by 36%-54% compared with those from gasoline fueling motorcycles. For unregulated emissions, the emission amount of VOCs from motorcycles fueled with E10 decreased by 18%-31% while total carbonyls were 2.6-4.5 times higher than those for gasoline. For evaporative emissions of THC and VOCs, for gasoline or E10, the diurnal breathing loss (DBL) was higher than hot soak loss (HSL). Using E10 as a fuel does not make much difference in the amount of evaporative THC, while resulted in a slightly growth of 14%-17% for evaporative BETX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene). PMID:25302450

Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei; Yuan, Wanli

2015-01-01

217

40 CFR 86.544-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to the number of places to the right of the decimal point indicated by expressing the applicable standard to three significant figures.) ER06OC93.109 Where: (1) Ywm = Weighted mass emissions of CO2 Or of each pollutant...

2012-07-01

218

40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions...Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards...from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning...from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and...

2012-07-01

219

40 CFR 87.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions...Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Standards...smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured...smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and...

2012-07-01

220

40 CFR 94.8 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...manufacturers may elect to include engine families in the averaging, banking...manufacturer shall then set a family emission limit (FEL) which...the standard for that engine family. The ABT provisions of subpart...requirements for low-emitting Blue Sky Series engines:...

2013-07-01

221

40 CFR 94.8 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...manufacturers may elect to include engine families in the averaging, banking...manufacturer shall then set a family emission limit (FEL) which...the standard for that engine family. The ABT provisions of subpart...requirements for low-emitting Blue Sky Series engines:...

2014-07-01

222

40 CFR 94.8 - Exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...manufacturers may elect to include engine families in the averaging, banking...manufacturer shall then set a family emission limit (FEL) which...the standard for that engine family. The ABT provisions of subpart...requirements for low-emitting Blue Sky Series engines:...

2012-07-01

223

Catalytic converters for exhaust emission control of commercial equipment powered by internal combustion engines.  

PubMed Central

The development of PTX, monolithic catalytic exhaust purifiers, is outlined, and their first use for exhaust emissions control of commercial equipment is described. The main use of PTX converters is on forklift trucks. The purification achievable with PTX-equipped fork-lift trucks under various operational conditions is discussed, and examples from the field are given. During more than ten years of operation, no adverse health effects have been reported, and PTX-equipped internal combustion engines appear safe for use in confined areas. PMID:50933

Cohn, J G

1975-01-01

224

Costs and benefits of an enhanced reduction policy of particulate matter exhaust emissions from road traffic in Flanders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra reduction measures (baseline scenario). The PM emissions from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust emission from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra reduction of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small reduction are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.

Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi

225

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

226

40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

2010-07-01

227

Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China's Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

2012-01-01

228

Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.  

PubMed

In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

2012-01-01

229

Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, ?15PAHs, ?11NPAHs, ?5Hopanes and ?6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83-99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitronaphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments.

Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

2015-02-01

230

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non-smoking

B. Rudell; U. Wass; P. Horstedt; J. O. Levin; R. Lindahl; U. Rannug; A. L. Sunesson; Y. Ostberg; T. Sandstrom

1999-01-01

231

Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel/biodiesel exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely studied in environmental matrices, such as air, water, soil and sediment, because of their toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of these properties, the environmental agencies of developed countries have listed sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants. Few countries have limits for these compounds for ambient air, but they only limit emissions from stationary and mobile sources and occupational areas. There are several studies to specifically address the 16 priority PAHs and very little for the alkyl PAHs. These compounds are more abundant, more persistent and frequently more toxic than the non-alkylated PAHs, and the toxicity increases with the number of alkyl substitutions on the aromatic ring. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of PAHs and alkyl PAHs by using a GC-MS and large injection volume injection coupled with program temperature vaporisation, which allows for limits of detection below 1.0 ng ?L-1. Several variables were tested, such as the injection volume, injection velocity, injector initial temperature, duration of the solvent split and others. This method was evaluated in samples from particulate matter from the emissions of engines employing standard diesel, commercial diesel and biodiesel B20. Samples were collected on a dynamometer bench for a diesel engine cycle and the results ranged from 0.5 to 96.9 ng mL-1, indicating that diesel/biodiesel makes a significant contribution to the formation of PAHs and alkyl PAHs.

Casal, Carina S.; Arbilla, Graciela; Corrêa, Sergio M.

2014-10-01

232

Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.; Arslan, E. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

1997-10-01

233

Effects of equivalence ratio and dwell time on exhaust emissions from an experimental premixing prevaporizing burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flame-tube study was performed to determine the effects of equivalence ratio and residence time on exhaust emissions with premixed, prevaporized propane fuel. Nitrogen oxides emissions as low as .3 g NO2/kg fuel were measured with greater than 99% combustion efficiency at 800 K inlet temperature and an equivalence ratio of .4. For a constant combustion efficiency, lower nitrogen oxides emissions were obtained by burning very lean with relatively long residence times than by using somewhat higher equivalence ratios with shorter times.

Anderson, D.

1974-01-01

234

40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile...later model year gasoline-fueled automobiles...operate on mixtures of gasoline and methanol, the...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile...operate on mixtures of gasoline and ethanol, the...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per...

2010-07-01

235

40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile...later model year gasoline-fueled automobiles...operate on mixtures of gasoline and methanol, the...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per mile...operate on mixtures of gasoline and ethanol, the...carbon-related exhaust emissions in grams per...

2011-07-01

236

Particle-Bound PAH Emission from the Exhaust of Combustion Chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are harmful, semi-volatile organic compounds which are generated due to the incomplete combustion of organic substances. PAHs are of concern as a pollutant because some of these compounds are carcinogenic and mutagenic even at low levels. Most of the PAHs are recalcitrant and persistent in the environment. The PAHs carcinogenic potential can be increased by the adsorption onto small size particles (< 1?m) which can easily get into the bronchioles and alveoli of the lungs. PAHs associated with sub-micron particles are mostly generated from high temperature sources like combustion chambers. In this current study, the presence of 16 priority PAHs (listed by United States Environmental Protection Agency) which are attached to the particulates emitted from the exhaust of the jet engine are evaluated. The engine was operated at different swirl numbers (S; the ratio of tangential air flow to axial air flow) to investigate the effect of this parameter on the effluent of combustion chamber. The samples were collected using two instruments simultaneously: a particle analyzer and a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposited Impactor (MOUDI). Particle analyzer was used to count the number of particles in different sizes and MOUDI was used to collect particles with respect to their size as they were emitted from the exhaust. The MOUDI's aluminum substrates were weighed before and after the experiment in order to measure the mass of particles that were collected during the sampling period. The concentration of PAHs associated with the particles was measured by extracting the particles with dichloromethane followed by analysis via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In general, lower molecular weight PAHs emitted from the exhaust of combustion chamber are mostly in gas phase while PAHs of higher molecular weight are adsorbed onto particles. Preliminary results from GC/MS confirm the presence of higher molecular weight PAHs like Benzo[a]pyrene in most of the samples. Better recirculation between air and fuel in higher swirl numbers results in better combustion. In higher swirl numbers, the temperature of the combustion process increases which leads to a more complete combustion. Another result of higher swirl number is a longer residence time which allows the organic substances in the fuel to remain in the reaction longer and also leads to a more complete combustion. The preliminary results from particle analyzer show that the abundance ratio of smaller particles to larger particles increases at higher swirl numbers. For example, at swirl 86, the abundance ratio of 0.3 micron particles to 0.7 micron particles was 400 while at swirl 0, this ratio was 35. Smaller particles have higher specific surface area which allows for more PAH adsorption. The preliminary results show that operating the jet engine at higher swirl numbers can have positive or negative effects on particle-bound PAH emissions. Higher temperature and residence time as well as better mixture of fuel and air can reduce PAH emission while generating more small size particles can increase surface available for PAH adsorption and, as a result, increases PAH emission. In future experiments, particle-bound PAHs of different swirl numbers will be compared in order to find a swirl number range which generates fewer Particle-bound PAHs.

Asgari Lamjiri, M.; Medrano, Y. S.; Guillaume, D. W.; Khachikian, C. S.

2013-12-01

237

Characterization of exhaust emissions from trap-equipped light-duty diesels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project was to thoroughly characterize and quantify the criteria and toxic-pollutant emissions from two different types of trap-equipped light-duty diesel vehicles. These vehicles included a 1986 Mercedes-Benz 300 SDL, which utilizes a catalyzed trap system, and a prototype Volkswagen, which utilizes an additive trap system (organometallic iron additive). Exhaust emissions from the two vehicles were evaluated as to driving cycle, presence of traps, engine condition, trap condition and fuel aromatic content. In addition to the currently regulated emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter), a number of unregulated emissions were measured, including aldehydes, benzene, PAHs, metals and trace elements, and 1,3-butadiene. Particulate samples were also analyzed for mutagenic activity using the Ames test. In general, the vehicles produced lower hydrocarbon emissions, higher carbon monoxide emissions, and lower fuel economy when the traps were installed in the vehicles.

Smith, L.R.

1989-01-01

238

Assessment of benzene and toluene emissions from automobile exhaust in Bangkok.  

PubMed

The use of unleaded gasoline, together with an increase in the number of vehicles in Bangkok, has significantly influenced benzene and toluene concentrations in vehicular emissions and contributes to the air pollution problem. As a matter of practical necessity, a quick test program is done for the measurement of emission concentrations/rates for vehicles driven on the road. Exhaust emission measurement at idle mode was conducted in a fleet of 12 vehicles of different model years and manufacturers. The study revealed that the benzene and toluene concentrations in the exhaust effluent averaged 4.4-22.02 and 12.24-44.75 mg/m3, respectively for 1990-1992 cars and decreased to 0.76-4.14 and 0.89-6.26 mg/m3, respectively for 1994-1995 cars. In another study, exhaust emission measurement on a chassis dynamometer was carried out in a fleet of nine selected, in-use cars. It was observed that benzene and toluene emission rates were considerably higher-in the range of 70.84-85.82 and 354.15- 429.00 mg/km, respectively, for 1990-1991 model year cars. Lower benzene and toluene emission rates of 0.43-95.07 and 2. 15-475.35 mg/km, respectively, were represented by newer cars with model years 1994-1995. These results indicated that there was a significant increase in benzene and toluene emission concentrations and rates with increasing car mileage and model year. The finding also revealed that only 28% of the tested vehicles complied to the approved emission standard. PMID:10361023

Muttamara, S; Leong, S T; Lertvisansak, I

1999-07-01

239

40 CFR 1054.235 - What exhaust emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate...EQUIPMENT Certifying Emission Families § 1054.235 What exhaust...emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate...emission-data engine from each engine family for testing as described...

2014-07-01

240

40 CFR 1054.235 - What exhaust emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate...EQUIPMENT Certifying Emission Families § 1054.235 What exhaust...emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate...emission-data engine from each engine family for testing as described...

2011-07-01

241

40 CFR 1054.235 - What exhaust emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate...EQUIPMENT Certifying Emission Families § 1054.235 What exhaust...emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate...emission-data engine from each engine family for testing as described...

2012-07-01

242

40 CFR 1054.235 - What exhaust emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate...EQUIPMENT Certifying Emission Families § 1054.235 What exhaust...emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate...emission-data engine from each engine family for testing as described...

2013-07-01

243

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

244

Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

1992-10-01

245

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zammit, M.G. (Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Bruetsch, R.I. (US Environmental Protection Agency (United States))

1992-01-01

246

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge `92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zammit, M.G. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Bruetsch, R.I. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1992-11-01

247

Diesel emission control system using combined process of nonthermal plasma and exhaust gas components' recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NOx aftertreatment system, using nonthermal plasma (NTP) reduction and exhaust gas components' recirculation, is investigated. A pilot-scale system is applied to a stationary diesel engine. In this system, NOx is first removed by adsorption, and subsequently, the adsorbent is regenerated by thermal desorption. NOx desorbed is reduced by using nitrogen NTP. Moreover, NOx, CO2, and water vapor recirculated into

Keiichiro Yoshida; Tomoyuki Kuroki; Masaaki Okubo

2009-01-01

248

Comparison of exhaust emissions resulting from cold- and hot-start motorcycle driving modes.  

PubMed

This study investigated the emissions of criteria air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbons [HCs], and oxides of nitrogen [NOx]) from motorcycle exhaust at cold- and hot-start driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. Seven four-stroke carburetors and two fuel-injection motorcycles were tested. As expected, the emission factors (g/km) of CO and HCs increased during cold-start driving. The ratio of emission factors (g/km) for cold- and hot-start driving cycles ranged from 1.1-1.5 (for CO) to 1.2-2.8 (for HCs). However, the difference of NOx emissions between the cold- and hot-start cycles was not pronounced. Further, the cold-/hot-start ratios of CO and HCs from 50-cm3 motorcycles were higher than those of 100- and 125-cm3 motorcycles; however, the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission was the lowest for the four-stroke motorcycles. High engine temperature and poor combustion efficiency of smaller cylinder-capacity motorcycles may contribute a significant amount of exhaust emission. Additionally, the fuel-base emission factor (g/L-fuel) ratios were low compared with the distance-base emission factor (g/km) in cold- and hot-start driving. This indicates that the effect of catalyst efficiency was greater than the effect of fuel combustion in the tested motorcycles. A comparison of emission ratios of motorcycles and passenger cars shows that the warm-up may be more important for cars, especially under low-temperature conditions. However, the motorcycle contributes a large proportion of CO and HC emissions in many Asian counties. The difference between cold- and hot-start emissions may affect inventory PMID:19947115

Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Ye, Hui-Fen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-11-01

249

The role of sulfur emission in volatile particle formation in jet aircraft exhaust plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent in-situ emission measurements of the Concorde in the lower stratosphere point to a surprisingly efficient conversion of fuel sulfur to H2SO4 in the exhaust plume. By means of a comprehensive model, the formation and evolution of aerosol particles and precursors are calculated in the diluting aircraft wake. The results provide strong evidence that high levels of SO3 present in

B. Kärcher; D. W. Fahey

1997-01-01

250

Flame modifier to reduce NOx emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for modifying the flow pattern of post ignition combustion products of a flame, preferably an oil fueled and air sustained flame, are disclosed which substantially reduces the concentration of NOx emissions.

T. S. Chao; J. E. Sheets; B. C. Vitchus; M. F. Zygowicz

1981-01-01

251

Apparatus for improving the efficiency and reducing the hydrocarbon emissions of carbureted engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for improving the efficiency and reducing the hydrocarbon exhaust emissions of combustion engines having a circulating water cooling system and a carburetor having a vacuum inlet port and a fuel inlet port and a fuel pump connected between the fuel inlet port and a fuel tank. In addition, a heat exchanger having a first tank is

O. T. Davis; N. R. Jones; E. C. Eddy

1978-01-01

252

Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during the first minutes of the cycle, before the light-off of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Less ammonia has been emitted with ethanol fuel, in particular in low ambient condition (E75 versus E5). Ammonia is a harmful compound for human health and vegetation, and is a precursor of secondary aerosol. Even if agricultural activities are the main source of anthropogenic ammonia, the contribution from the transport sector increases significantly during the cold season. Consequently, using high concentrated ethanol as fuel may have a positive impact on ammonia emission in urban area. However, ethanol fuel had a negative impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The latter together with methane was notably emitted in low ambient temperature, in comparison with gasoline fuel (E5). Moreover, the OFP at -7°C was influenced by the amount of ethanol in gasoline, mainly because of the increase of ozone precursors linked to ethanol (ethylene, acetylene, and acetaldehyde). Even if ozone concentration levels are generally lower during the cold seasons these results show that the issue should be considered globally before promoting the use of high concentrated ethanol fuel in a large scale.

Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

2011-12-01

253

Gaseous exhaust emissions from a J-58 engine at simulated supersonic flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from a J-58 engine at simulated flight conditions of Mach 2.0, 2.4, and 2.8 at 19.8 km altitude are reported. For each flight condition, measurements were made for four engine power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. These measurements were made 7 cm downstream of the engine primary nozzle using a single point traversing gas sample probe. Results show that emissions vary with flight speed, engine power level, and with radial position across the exhaust.

Holdeman, J. D.

1974-01-01

254

Recent technology to improve engine combustion noise and exhaust emission by optimizing fuel injection system  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, lower noise has been in high demand in small diesel engines for agricultural and industrial uses as well as automotive engines. Furthermore, emission regulations become more severe due to environmental concerns. In order to satisfy these objects, diesel engine combustion needs to be improved. Especially fuel injection system is the key element to control engine combustion and should be improved dramatically. This research is to pursue the ideal fuel injection system to realize optimized diesel engine combustion which creates low combustion noise and clean exhaust emission. Recent progress will be reported in fuel injection technology including injection pressure pattern, injection rate pattern, injection timing and spray pattern, etc.

Tabuchi, Tetsuya; Fujitani, Nobuyuki; Makino, Niro

1995-12-31

255

Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non- smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle cabin air filters may result in further diminishing the biomedical effects of diesel exhaust in subjects exposed in traffic and workplaces.   PMID:10450238

Rudell, B.; Wass, U.; Horstedt, P.; Levin, J. O.; Lindahl, R.; Rannug, U.; Sunesson, A. L.; Ostberg, Y.; Sandstrom, T.

1999-01-01

256

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

2011-07-01

257

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

2012-07-01

258

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

2013-07-01

259

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

2010-07-01

260

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

2014-07-01

261

40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2011-07-01

262

40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2010-07-01

263

40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2012-07-01

264

40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2013-07-01

265

40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...establish. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) For vehicles that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative deterioration factor...

2014-07-01

266

Emission factor of exhaust gas constituents during the pyrolysis of zinc chloride immersed biosolid.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis enables ZnCl2 immersed biosolid to be reused, but some hazardous air pollutants are emitted during this process. Physical characteristics of biosolid adsorbents were investigated in this work. In addition, the constituents of pyrolytic exhaust were determined to evaluate the exhaust characteristics. Results indicated that the pyrolytic temperature was higher than 500 °C, the specific surface area was >900 m(2)/g, and the total pore volume was as much as 0.8 cm(3)/g at 600 °C. For non-ZnCl2 immersed biosolid pyrolytic exhaust, VOC emission factors increased from 0.677 to 3.170 mg-VOCs/g-biosolid with the pyrolytic temperature increase from 400 to 700 °C, and chlorinated VOCs and oxygenated VOCs were the dominant fraction of VOC groups. VOC emission factors increased about three to seven times, ranging from 1.813 to 21.448 mg/g for pyrolytic temperatures at 400-700 °C, corresponding to the mass ratio of ZnCl2 and biosolid ranging from 0.25-2.5. PMID:23471775

Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chiu, Hua-Hsien

2013-08-01

267

Exhaust emission calibration of two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude, supersonic flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, nitric oxide, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16.0 to 23.5 km. For each flight condition exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels, from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen emissions decreased with increasing altitude and increased with increasing flight speed. Oxides of nitrogen emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

Holdeman, J. D.

1976-01-01

268

40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

269

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2011-07-01

270

Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.  

PubMed

The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods. PMID:20108661

Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

2009-01-01

271

Characteristics of volatile organic compounds from motorcycle exhaust emission during real-world driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of motorcycles has increased significantly in Asia, Africa, Latin American and Europe in recent years due to their reasonable price, high mobility and low fuel consumption. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics of motorcycles are an important consideration for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. Results of this study indicate that most volatile organic compound (VOC) emission factors were in the range of several decades mg/km during on-road driving. Toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were the most abundant VOCs in motorcycle exhaust, with emission factors of hundreds mg/km. Motorcycle exhaust was 15.4 mg/km for 15 carbonyl species. Acetaldehyde, acetone, formaldehyde and benzaldehyde were the major carbonyl species, and their emission factors ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/km 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, toluene, o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, propene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, m-diethylbenzene, and m-ethyltoluene were the main ozone formation potential (OFP) species, and their OFP was 200 mg-O3/km or higher.

Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2014-12-01

272

Effect of operating condition on particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emissions from a heavy-duty direct injection natural gas engine using cooled exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods for reducing nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from direct injection, compression ignition, heavy-duty engines are exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and the high-pressure direct injection of natural gas. Tests combining these two techniques were carried out on a single-cylinder research engine (SCRE) based on a modified heavy-duty automotive engine. No attempt was made to optimize the engine's combustion chamber or

G P McTaggart-Cowan; S N Rogak; P G Hill; W K Bushe; S R Munshi

2004-01-01

273

Control of variable geometry turbocharged diesel engines for reduced emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission control problem for an automotive direct injected compression ignition (diesel) engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) is considered. The objective is to operate the engine to meet driver's torque demand and minimize NOx emissions while at the same time avoiding visible smoke generation. It is demonstrated that the steady-state optimization of

Anna G. Stefanopoulou; Ilya Kolmanovsky; James S. Freudenberg

2000-01-01

274

CONTRIBUTION OF ENGINE OIL TO DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSION AND FRICTION REDUCTON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing pollutants and CO2 emissions of cars and trucks is a major challenge for the automotive industry. One way to decrease emissions is to improve the fuel economy and reduction oil consumption. The use of low friction engine oil minimizing the energy lost by friction, can improve engine fuel efficiency and lad to significant reduction of gaseous emissions. Therefore, engine

Radimko Gligorijevic; Jeremija Jevti; Goran Jaksic

275

Opacity meter for monitoring exhaust emissions from non-stationary sources  

SciTech Connect

Method and apparatus for determining the opacity of exhaust plumes from moving emissions sources. In operation, a light source is activated at a time prior to the arrival of a diesel locomotive at a measurement point, by means of a track trigger switch or the Automatic Equipment Identification system, such that the opacity measurement is synchronized with the passage of an exhaust plume past the measurement point. A beam of light from the light source passes through the exhaust plume of the locomotive and is detected by a suitable detector, preferably a high-rate photodiode. The light beam is well-collimated and is preferably monochromatic, permitting the use of a narrowband pass filter to discriminate against background light. In order to span a double railroad track and provide a beam which is substantially stronger than background, the light source, preferably a diode laser, must provide a locally intense beam. A high intensity light source is also desirable in order to increase accuracy at the high sampling rates required. Also included is a computer control system useful for data acquisition, manipulation, storage and transmission of opacity data and the identification of the associated diesel engine to a central data collection center.

Dec, John Edward (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

276

Opacity meter for monitoring exhaust emissions from non-stationary sources  

SciTech Connect

Method and apparatus for determining the opacity of exhaust plumes from moving emissions sources. In operation, a light source is activated at a time prior to the arrival of a diesel locomotive at a measurement point, by means of a track trigger switch or the Automatic Equipment Identification system, such that the opacity measurement is synchronized with the passage of an exhaust plume past the measurement point. A beam of light from the light source passes through the exhaust plume of the locomotive and is detected by a suitable detector, preferably a high-rate photodiode. The light beam is well-collimated and is preferably monochromatic, permitting the use of a narrowband pass filter to discriminate against background light. In order to span a double railroad track and provide a beam which is substantially stronger than background, the light source, preferably a diode laser, must provide a locally intense beam. A high intensity light source is also desirable in order to increase accuracy at the high sampling rates required. Also included is a computer control system useful for data acquisition, manipulation, storage and transmission of opacity data and the identification of the associated diesel engine to a central data collection center.

Dec, J.E.

2000-02-15

277

Application of short-term bioassays to the assessment of engine exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

Extracts of particulate emissions from light duty diesel, conventional gasoline and lean-burn gasoline engines have been analysed using a range of short-term bioassays. The intention of the analyses was to identify tests which could be routinely applied to exhaust assessment in order to study the effects of engine operating conditions and design on biological activity. In this respect the most promising assays were the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test for mutagenicity, the detection of chromosome damage in rat liver cells, and the assessment of growth and development defects in the Hydra Regeneration Assay.

Shore, P.R.; Tesh, J.M.; Bootman, J.

1987-01-01

278

Thermally stable metal ruthenate based soot oxidation catalyst for diesel exhaust emission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lanthanum ruthenate materials with perovskite type structure can be easily synthesized with ruthenium in 4+ oxidation state.\\u000a La3.5Ru4.0O13 type perovskite has been synthesized in unsupported and supported forms by using various methods. This perovskite type La3.5Ru4.0O13 phase shows high thermal stability and can therefore be used as a catalyst for high temperature applications, including those\\u000a for auto-exhaust emission control. The

Nitin K. Labhsetwar; M. Dhakad; S. S. Rayalu; Rakesh Kumar; J. Subrt; H. Haneda; Sukumar Devotta; T. Mitsuhashi

2007-01-01

279

40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and...

2012-07-01

280

40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and...

2014-07-01

281

40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and...

2013-07-01

282

Aluminum: Reducing chloride emissions from aluminum production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reynolds Metals Company (RMC), with assistance from a NICE³ grant, is developing for commercialization a closed-loop control process that greatly reduces chlorine emissions and increases plant efficiency while maintaining metal quality. The process still utilizes chlorine to remove impurities during aluminum processing, but is more effective than current methods. With the new technology chlorine in the stack is monitored and

Simon

1999-01-01

283

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide,

John A. Ruether

1998-01-01

284

Ten Recommendations for Reducing Carbon Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former U.S. Vice President Al Gore testified about possible solutions to mitigate anthropogenic climate change at two 21 March hearings held before committees of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. His 10 recommendations to reduce U.S. carbon emissions:

2007-04-01

285

The effect of injection timing, enhanced aftercooling, and low-sulfur, low-aromatic diesel fuel on locomotive exhaust emissions  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was performed to demonstrate the fuel economy and exhaust emissions implications of retarding fuel injection timing, enhancing charge air aftercooling, and using low-sulfur, low-aromatic diesel fuel for locomotive engines. Steady-state gaseous and particulate emission data are presented from two 12-cylinder diesel locomotive engines. The two laboratory engines, an EMD 645E3B and a GE 7FDL, are each rated at 1860 kW (2500 hp) and represent the majority of the locomotive fleet in North America. Each engine was tested for total hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]), and particulate. Emissions were measured at three steady-state operating conditions: rated speed and load, idle, and an intermediate speed and load. Test results on the EMD engine indicate that a 4 deg injection timing retard, along with a low-sulfur, low-aromatic fuel and enhanced aftercooling, was effective in reducing NO[sub x] from 10.5 g/hp-h to 7.2 g/hp-h; however, particulates increased from 0.15 g/hp-h to 0.19 g/hp-h, and fuel efficiency was 4.3 percent worse. Similar observations were made with the GE engine. This paper gives details on the test engines, the measurement procedures, and the emission results.

Markworth, V.O.; Fritz, S.G. (Dept. of Emissions Research, Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)); Cataldi, G.R. (Research and Test Dept., Association of American Railroad, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-07-01

286

Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

2014-10-01

287

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from different reformulated diesel fuels and engine operating conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of light-duty diesel engine exhaust emissions is important due to their impact on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. In this study, both the gas and the particulate phase of fuel exhaust were analyzed to investigate the effects of diesel reformulation and engine operating parameters. The research was focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds on particulate phase due to their high toxicity. These were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. Although PAH profiles changed for diesel fuels with low-sulfur content and different percentages of aromatic hydrocarbons (5-25%), no significant differences for total PAH concentrations were detected. However, rape oil methyl ester biodiesel showed a greater number of PAH compounds, but in lower concentrations (close to 50%) than the reformulated diesel fuels. In addition, four engine operating conditions were evaluated, and the results showed that, during cold start, higher concentrations were observed for high molecular weight PAHs than during idling cycle and that the acceleration cycles provided higher concentrations than the steady-state conditions. Correlations between particulate PAHs and gas phase products were also observed. The emission of PAH compounds from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel depended greatly on the source of the fuel and the driving patterns.

Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A.; Vázquez, Monica; Zielinska, Barbara

2009-12-01

288

Construction of fuzzy membership functions for urban vehicular exhaust emissions modeling.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method for constructing a membership function (MF) for the fuzzy sets that expert systems deal with. This paper introduces a Bezier curve-based mechanism for constructing MFs of convex normal fuzzy sets. The mechanism can fit any given data set with a minimum level of discrepancy. In the absence of data, the mechanism can be intuitively manipulated by the user to construct MFs with the desired shape. MFs have been developed using the proposed mechanism for urban vehicular exhaust emission modeling. It has been observed that all meteorological and vehicular parameters have either S-shaped MFs or Z-shaped MFs. Gaussian MF has been mostly applied for modeling air quality. The present study explored the application of fuzzy MF to analyze air pollution data from vehicular emission. The study reveals that S-shaped and Z-shaped MF can be used in addition to Gaussian MF. PMID:19603277

Jain, Suresh; Khare, Mukesh

2010-08-01

289

Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to review the potential of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the exhaust emissions, particularly NOX emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique. A detailed analysis of previous and current results of EGR effects on the emissions and performance of Diesel engines, spark ignition engines and duel fuel engines is introduced.

G. H. Abd-Alla

2002-01-01

290

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

Ruether, J.A.

1998-02-01

291

Control of diesel exhaust emissions in underground coal mines: Fuel modifications. Open file report, September 1978-December 1988 (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The use of various alternative and modified fuels in diesel engines was investigated as a method for controlling particulate and oxides of nitrogen emissions. The effect of these fuels on the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions was also documented. The test fuels were screened using a Caterpillar 3304 diesel engine converted to single-cylinder operation. Selected fuels were subsequently evaluated using full-scale engine tests. Engine modifications were made to optimize the performance of the alternative fuel. Transient and steady-state emissions data are reported for the optimized and baseline engine. The effects of the transient operation of the engine on the exhaust emissions was investigated. A method was developed for predicting transient-cycle exhaust emission based upon the cycle speed and torque profile and steady-state emissions data.

Callahan, T.J.; Ryan, T.W.; Dietzmann, H.E.; O'Neal, G.B.

1988-12-01

292

Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

1991-08-01

293

A study on characteristics and control strategies of cold start operation for improvement of harmful exhaust emissions in SI engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission regulations for automobiles have become more stringent and the improvement of emission during cold start has been\\u000a a major key issue to meet these regulations. Among many kinds of factors that affect cold start operation, ignition timing\\u000a is crucial to improve emission characteristics due to the influence on exhaust gas temperature. Recent progress in variable\\u000a valve timing allows optimized

Duk-Sang Kim; Young-Joon Park; Seang-Wock Lee; Yong-Seok Cho

2008-01-01

294

Nondispersive infrared monitoring of NO emissions in exhaust gases of vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road traffic is one of the most important contributors to air pollution, being that a small fraction of the running vehicles is responsible for more than a half of the emissions. Roadside emission monitoring of individual cars appears to be an efficient way to identify these gross polluters. In this sense, nondispersive infrared (NDIR) systems have been developed to monitor the gas emissions of individual vehicles. However, these systems do not include NOx detection because of the strong interference of NO and NO2 absorption bands with the water band. This work is focused on the roadside monitoring of NO emissions by NDIR techniques. A theoretical study of the interference between NO and H2O absorption bands in the 1800-1950 cm-1 spectral region has been performed. Two absorption lines, centered at 1876 and 1900 cm-1 have been selected due to the very low water interference. The development of a new application based on the buildup of a high order interference filter, the solid state Fabry-Pérot filter, is presented. Design of the filter system has been done, optimizing the transmittance at these two absorption lines. Finally, the ability of such a filter to discriminate NO absorption has been tested by using experimental absorption spectra measured by a commercial Fourier transform infrared spectroradiometer working in the active mode. The buildup of such a filter would permit us to increase the capabilities of on road exhaust monitoring systems using the NDIR technique, extending the range of analyzed gases to the nitrogen oxides.

de Castro, A. J.; Meneses, J.; Briz, S.; López, F.

1999-07-01

295

Energy consumption and exhaust emissions in mechanized timber harvesting operations in Sweden.  

PubMed

The study presents an estimation of the energy input and the amount of emissions to air due to fuel, chainsaw and hydraulic oil consumption by heavy duty diesel engine vehicles operating in forest logging operations in Sweden. Exhaust concentrations are given for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and particulate matter. Three fuel types (rapeseed methyl ester, environmental class 1 and environmental class 3 diesel fuels) and two types of lubricating base oil (mineral- and vegetable-based) were examined. Energy input per unit of timber production (m3ub) was 82 MJ, 11% of which was due to energy consumption during the production phase of the fuel. Emissions during the whole life cycle of the fuels and the base oils are included in the study. The highest CO2 and NOx emissions occurred when rapeseed methyl ester was used as fuel together with rapeseed as base oil for chainsaw and hydraulic oil. The highest HC and CO emissions occurred when environmental class 3 diesel fuel was used. PMID:10898401

Athanassiadis, D

2000-06-01

296

Approach to SSME health monitoring. II - Exhaust plume emission spectroscopy at the DTF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diagnostics Testbed Facility (DTF) located at the Stennis Space Center (SSC) is used for obtaining extensive sets of H2O2 exhaust plume emission spectral data for the SSME critical components related elements and materials. The SSME related elements and materials are simulated by mixing appropriate amounts of compounds of their respective constituent elements in an aqueous solution which is injected into the combustion chamber of the DTFT. Five of the most critical components of the SSME which have experienced very severe wear and tear problems in the past are analyzed. These are high pressure turbopump (HPTP) turbine blades, HPTP turbine disks, HPTP bearing, main injector LOX posts, and the main combustion chamber structural shell. The alloys used in the manufacturing of these components are MAR-M 246 + Hf, Waspaloy X, AISI 440C, Haynes 188, and Inconel 718, respectively. The experimental setup and procedures at the DTF are described; stratospheric data for the five alloys are presented; and strategies for the material identification in the SSME exhaust plume are discussed.

Tejwani, Gopal D.; Loboda, John A.; Wheatley, Joseph S.; Chenevert, Donald J.

1990-01-01

297

Reducing Methyl Halide Emissions from Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatilization and soil transformation are major pathways by which pesticides dissipate from treated agricultural soil. Methyl bromide (MeBr) emissions from agricultural fumigation can lead to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. This has led to a gradual phase-out of MeBr and replacement by other halogenated chemicals. However, MeBr continues to be widely used under Critical Use Exemptions and development of emission-reduction strategies remains important. Several methods to reduce emissions of MeBr, and other halogenated soil fumigants, have been developed and are currently being tested under field conditions. In this paper, several approaches for reducing fumigant emissions to the atmosphere are described and include the use of virtually impermeable films, the creation of reactive soil barriers and a recently developed reactive film which was designed to limit loss of MeBr from soil without adding any material to the soil surface. Ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) was used to create a reactive layer. For a reactive soil layer, ATS was sprayed on the soil surface or incorporated to a depth of 1-2 cm. For the reactive film, ATS was placed between two layers of plastic film. The lower plastic layer was a high-density polyethylene film (HDPE), which is readily permeable to MeBr. The upper layer was a virtually impermeable film (VIF) and limits MeBr diffusion. MeBr diffusion and transformation through VIFs and reactive layers were tested in laboratory and field experiments. Although ineffective when dry, when sufficient water was present, reactive barriers substantially depleted halogenated fumigants, including MeBr. When ATS was activated in laboratory experiments, MeBr half-life was about 9.0 h (20C) in a reactive film barrier, and half life decreased with increasing temperature. When the soil was covered with VIF, less than 10% of the added MeBr diffused through the film and the remainder was transformed within the soil. This compares with 60 to 90% emission losses, respectively, for a soil covered with HDPE or for a bare soil surface. These findings demonstrate that several methods are available to reduce atmospheric emissions of MeBr and other halogenated fumigants.

Yates, S. R.; Xuan, R.; Ashworth, D.; Luo, L.

2011-12-01

298

Potential dilemma: the methods of meeting automotive exhaust emission standards of the clean air act of 1970.  

PubMed

This review attempts to provide an overview of the interconnected industrial changes associated with compliance with the exhaust emission standards of the Clean Air Act of 1970. To understand the complex nature of air pollution problems, Federal legislation, and compliance with this legislation requires an understanding of automotive technology, petroleum refining, atmospheric chemistry and physics, economics, and public health. The endeavors of all of these different areas impinge to a greater or lesser extent on the final response to the Clean Air Act which is designed to safeguard public health. This overview begins by examining gasoline refinery practice and gasoline composition. Included in this discussion are average values for trace contaminants in gasoline, and an explanation of the function of the many gasoline additives. Next, exhaust emissions are characterized, average values of exhaust components given, and a summary of important atmospheric air pollution reactions presented. Emission control devices and sulfate emissions from these devices are described. This is followed by a complete discussion of methyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a substitute antiknock for tetraethyllead. In the event TEL is legally banned from gasoline, or removed because it poisons the catalytic muffler surface, this manganese antiknock is the most efficaous replacement. In this discussion, the adverse health effects caused by exposure to manganese oxide particulates, the possible exhaust emission products from this additive, are examined in detail. The review concludes with comments on automotive engine and gasoline composition redesign as an approach to automotive air pollution. PMID:4143457

Piver, W T

1974-08-01

299

Potential Dilemma: The Methods of Meeting Automotive Exhaust Emission Standards of the Clean Air Act of 1970  

PubMed Central

This review attempts to provide an overview of the interconnected industrial changes associated with compliance with the exhaust emission standards of the Clean Air Act of 1970. To understand the complex nature of air pollution problems, Federal legislation, and compliance with this legislation requires an understanding of automotive technology, petroleum refining, atmospheric chemistry and physics, economics, and public health. The endeavors of all of these different areas impinge to a greater or lesser extent on the final response to the Clean Air Act which is designed to safeguard public health. This overview begins by examining gasoline refinery practice and gasoline composition. Included in this discussion are average values for trace contaminants in gasoline, and an explanation of the function of the many gasoline additives. Next, exhaust emissions are characterized, average values of exhaust components given, and a summary of important atmospheric air pollution reactions presented. Emission control devices and sulfate emissions from these devices are described. This is followed by a complete discussion of methyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a substitute antiknock for tetraethyllead. In the event TEL is legally banned from gasoline, or removed because it poisons the catalytic muffler surface, this manganese antiknock is the most efficaous replacement. In this discussion, the adverse health effects caused by exposure to manganese oxide particulates, the possible exhaust emission products from this additive, are examined in detail. The review concludes with comments on automotive engine and gasoline composition redesign as an approach to automotive air pollution. PMID:4143457

Piver, Warren T.

1974-01-01

300

Reduced Coronal Emission Above Large Isolated Sunspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed specific regions of reduced soft X-ray and microwave emission in five large isolated sunspots. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph 17 GHz observations reveal a local depression of microwave brightness in the peripheral area of the sunspots. The depression regions appear light (weak absorption) in the He 10830 Å line in areas with extended (open) field lines, as indicated by potential field source surface model (PFSS) extrapolations up to 1.5 R?. The observed depressions of 3 - 8 % in ordinary mode at 17 GHz are interpreted as resulting from free-free emission when the plasma density is lower by 5 - 10 %. Our model estimates show that the decrease in density in both the coronal and the lower layers above the depression region accounts for the depression. These depression regions lend themselves well to marking the location of outward plasma motions.

Ryabov, B. I.; Gary, D. E.; Peterova, N. G.; Shibasaki, K.; Topchilo, N. A.

2015-01-01

301

Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C). PMID:24758145

Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

2014-05-20

302

Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.

Poola, R.B.; Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baudino, J.H. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Colucci, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

303

Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

2011-01-01

304

Nanoparticle emissions from 11 non-vehicle exhaust sources - A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle emissions from road vehicles have been studied extensively in the recent past due to their dominant contribution towards the total airborne particle number concentrations (PNCs) found in the urban atmospheric environment. In view of upcoming tighter vehicle emission standards and adoption of cleaner fuels in many parts of the world, the contribution to urban nanoparticles from non-vehicle exhaust sources (NES) may become more pronounced in future. As of now, only limited information exists on nanoparticle emissions from NES through the discretely published studies. This article presents critically synthesised information in a consolidated manner on 11 NES (i.e. road-tyre interaction, construction and demolition, aircraft, ships, municipal waste incineration, power plants, domestic biomass burning, forest fires, cigarette smoking, cooking, and secondary formation). Source characteristics and formation mechanisms of nanoparticles emitted from each NES are firstly discussed, followed by their emission strengths, airborne concentrations and physicochemical characteristics. Direct comparisons of the strengths of NES are not straightforward but an attempt has been made to discuss their importance relative to the most prominent source (i.e. road vehicles) of urban nanoparticles. Some interesting comparisons emerged such as 1 kg of fast and slow wood burning produces nearly the same number of particles as for each km driven by a heavy duty vehicle (HDV) and a light duty vehicle, respectively. About 1 min of cooking on gas can produce the similar particle numbers generated by ˜10 min of cigarette smoking or 1 m travel by a HDV. Apportioning the contribution of numerous sources from the bulk measured airborne PNCs is essential for determining their relative importance. Receptor modelling methods for estimation of source emission contributions are discussed. A further section evaluates the likely exposure risks, health and regulatory implications associated with each NES. It is concluded that much research is needed to provide adequate quantification of all nanoparticle sources, and to establish the relative toxicity of nanosize particles from each.

Kumar, Prashant; Pirjola, Liisa; Ketzel, Matthias; Harrison, Roy M.

2013-03-01

305

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2013-07-01

306

40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

2012-07-01

307

NEW YORK CITY BUS TERMINAL DIESEL EMISSIONS STUDY: MEASUREMENT AND COLLECTION OF DIESEL EXHAUST FOR CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper is concerned with the impact of diesel emissions on the quality of the ambient air and the resulting effects on human health. The study was designed to chemically characterize and bioassay heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust as it exists in the ambient atmosphere. Diesel e...

308

INHERENT FUEL CONSUMPTION AND EXHAUST EMISSION OF THE CNG-PETROL BIFUEL ENGINE BASED AT NON-LOADED OPERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed natural gas (CNG) is the most successful and widely used alternative fuel for vehicles in the market today. Petrol fuelled vehicles are fitted with natural gas vehicle (NGV) conversion kit to enable bi-fuel operation between CNG and petrol. This experimental approach is focused on the fuel consumption, exhaust emission and fuel cost between natural gas and petrol operations. The

RAHMAT MOHSIN; ZULKEFLI YAACOB; ZULKIFLI ABDUL MAJID; SHAMEED ASHRAF

2008-01-01

309

NO x emission reduction in a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine at 3000 rpm using exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes five experiments conducted on a 2-l, 4-cylinder Ford ZETEC internal combustion engine (ICE) developed to operate on hydrogen fuel. The experiments were conducted to ascertain the effect exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a standard 3-way catalytic converter had on NOx emissions and engine performance. All the experiments were conducted at a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm

James W Heffel

2003-01-01

310

NO x emission and performance data for a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine at 1500 rpm using exhaust gas recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes six experiments conducted on a 2-liter, 4-cylinder Ford ZETEC internal combustion engine developed to operate on hydrogen fuel. The experiments were conducted to ascertain the effect exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a standard 3-way catalytic converter had on NOx emissions and engine performance. All the experiments were conducted at a constant engine speed of 1500rpm and each

James W Heffel

2003-01-01

311

Understanding the catalytic conversion of automobile exhaust emissions using model catalysts: CO+NO reaction on Pd(111)  

E-print Network

- ment of catalytic converters with higher performance and longer lasting stability. Pt/Rh (90/10) threeUnderstanding the catalytic conversion of automobile exhaust emissions using model catalysts: CO as well as the nature of the products that are formed during their reaction under realistic catalytic

Goodman, Wayne

312

Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

2010-06-01

313

Turbine exhaust diffuser flow path with region of reduced total flow area  

DOEpatents

An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary has a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub. The region can begin at a point that is substantially aligned with the downstream end of the hub or, alternatively, at a point that is proximately upstream of the downstream end of the hub. The region directs at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub. As a result, the exhaust diffuser system and method can achieve the performance of a long hub system while enjoying the costs of a short hub system.

Orosa, John A.

2012-12-25

314

Laboratory evaluation of a prototype photochemical chamber designed to investigate the health effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions  

PubMed Central

Laboratory experiments simulating atmospheric aging of motor vehicle exhaust emissions were conducted using a single vehicle and a photochemical chamber. A compact automobile was used as a source of emissions. The vehicle exhaust was diluted with ambient air to achieve carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations similar to those observed in an urban highway tunnel. With the car engine idling, it is expected that the CO concentration is a reasonable surrogate for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Varying the amount of dilution of the exhaust gas to produce different CO concentrations, allowed adjustment of the concentrations of VOCs in the chamber to optimize production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) needed for animal toxicological exposures. Photochemical reactions in the chamber resulted in nitric oxide (NO) depletion, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) formation, ozone (O3) accumulation, and SOA formation. A stable SOA concentration of approximately 40 µg m?3 at a chamber mean residence time of 30 min was achieved. This relatively short mean residence time provided adequate chamber flow output for both particle characterization and animal exposures. The chamber was operated as a continuous flow reactor for animal toxicological tests. SOA mass generated from the car exhaust diluted with ambient air was almost entirely in the ultrafine mode. Chamber performance was improved by using different types of seed aerosol to provide a surface for condensation of semivolatile reaction products, thus increasing the yield of SOA. Toxicological studies using Sprague-Dawley rats found significant increases of in vivo chemiluminescence in lungs following exposure to SOA. PMID:21689011

Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy E.; Diaz, Edgar A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Long, Mark S.; Godleski, John J.; Koutrakis, Petros

2013-01-01

315

Laboratory evaluation of a prototype photochemical chamber designed to investigate the health effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments simulating atmospheric aging of motor vehicle exhaust emissions were conducted using a single vehicle and a photochemical chamber. A compact automobile was used as a source of emissions. The vehicle exhaust was diluted with ambient air to achieve carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations similar to those observed in an urban highway tunnel. With the car engine idling, it is expected that the CO concentration is a reasonable surrogate for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Varying the amount of dilution of the exhaust gas to produce different CO concentrations, allowed adjustment of the concentrations of VOCs in the chamber to optimize production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) needed for animal toxicological exposures. Photochemical reactions in the chamber resulted in nitric oxide (NO) depletion, nitrogen dioxide (NO?) formation, ozone (O?) accumulation, and SOA formation. A stable SOA concentration of approximately 40 ?g m?³ at a chamber mean residence time of 30 min was achieved. This relatively short mean residence time provided adequate chamber flow output for both particle characterization and animal exposures. The chamber was operated as a continuous flow reactor for animal toxicological tests. SOA mass generated from the car exhaust diluted with ambient air was almost entirely in the ultrafine mode. Chamber performance was improved by using different types of seed aerosol to provide a surface for condensation of semivolatile reaction products, thus increasing the yield of SOA. Toxicological studies using Sprague-Dawley rats found significant increases of in vivo chemiluminescence in lungs following exposure to SOA. PMID:21689011

Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy E; Diaz, Edgar A; Wolfson, Jack M; Ferguson, Stephen T; Long, Mark S; Godleski, John J; Koutrakis, Petros

2011-07-01

316

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at  

E-print Network

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at Dartmouth College Summary selected the mission: "To reduce Dartmouth College's fossil carbon emissions." We believe this mission's responsibility to educate others about how it is reducing its fossil carbon emissions and encourage them to do

317

Characteristics and photochemical potentials of volatile organics emission from stack exhaust gas of industrial processes  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project was to measure the main volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in stack gas from the downstream petrochemical plants. Six pollution sources of industrial processes, including Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Vinyl Chloride(VC), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Acrylic Resin, para-Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Polyurethane (PU) synthetic manufacturing processes, were measured by using USEPA Method 18. The concentration and emission rate database of twenty-seven VOCs has been established. Fifty-two selected stacks were sampled and analyzed for VOCs. Analysis of emission factors and characteristics of the twenty-seven VOCs in these stacks show that the emission characteristics are various among different industrial processes. The order of the single-stack VOCs average emission factor are ABS (1.109 lbs VOCs/ton-ABS; 22 stacks) {gt} Acrylic Resin (0.651 lbs VOCs/ton-acrylic resin; 7 stacks) {gt} PU Synthetic (0.606 lbs VOCs/ton-PU synthetic; 4 stacks) {gt} PTA (0.054 lbs VOCs/ton-PTA; 4 stacks) {gt} PVC (0.014 lbs VOCs/ton-PVC; 11 stacks) {gt} VC ({lt} 0.001; 4 stacks) manufacturing processes. The emission factors of VOC in AP-42 database for the processes of are 5 to 40 times higher than those of VOCs in this research. Because of the equipment of pollutant control setting up before the emitted exhaust gas, their average emission factors in these measured processes are almost lower than those of VOCs in AP-42 database. Compared with the characteristics of VOCs, there is little similarity in VOC characteristics for the stacks of six processes between the results from this research and the data from US EPA SPECIATE data system. Furthermore, according to maximum incremental reactivities (MIR) of VOCs probed into photochemical reaction potentials, the results show that those of PTA manufacturing process have an ozone formation potential of 2.33 g O{sub 3}/g VOCs, which is higher than other processes.

Hsu, Y.C.; Tsai, J.H.; Lin, T.C.; Cheng, C.C.; Huang, Y.H.

1999-07-01

318

Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

2001-12-31

319

A comparative study on the ultrafine particle episodes induced by vehicle exhaust: A crude oil refinery and ship emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the contribution of vehicle exhausts, ships and an oil refinery emission to the ambient air concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs) is presented. It is based on a data set of particle number coarser than 2.5 nm (N), black carbon (BC), gaseous pollutants (NOx, SO2, CO and O3), PM2.5 and PM10 measured from 2008 to 2010 in the ambient air of Santa Cruz de Tenerife City, where a previous study found an association between hospitalizations due to heart failure and exposure to UFPs in the ambient air. The observed relationship between N, BC and gaseous pollutants allowed segregating UFP concentrations in a set of components linked to each source. It was found that vehicle exhausts contribute to the background of UFPs, whereas high UFP episodes were due to the emissions of the refinery and ships. The concentration of UFP linked to vehicle exhaust emissions maximized in the morning (07:00-09:00 GMT, 5000-25,000 cm- 3 = 25th-75th percentile), whereas those linked to ship (15,000-45,000 cm- 3) and refinery (25,000-95,000 cm- 3) emissions maximized in the 10:00-17:00 GMT period due to the effects of meteorology and photochemistry. It was found that the UFP concentrations were more sensitive to the fresh emissions of the three sources than PM2.5, which was mostly linked to aged fine particles (0.1-1 ?m) of the urban background. BC was the better tracer of vehicle exhaust emissions. It was concluded that the simultaneous monitoring of UFP, BC and PM2.5 is a suitable strategy of tracing aerosol pollutants of different nature (fresh vs. aged) and from different sources.

González, Yenny; Rodríguez, Sergio

2013-02-01

320

A new device for reducing diesel engine emissions: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

A new catalytic converter is compose by a alloy noble metal supported on inert wool and located downstream to combustion chamber appears able to markedly reduce the content of toxic organics, fine particulates and CO emitted by a diesel engine equipped truck. By contrast, emissions of NOx and particulate n-alkanes remain unaltered or increase, according to the driving and operating conditions of the vehicle. Although this tesrs are preliminary the results obtained, however, suggest that the adoption of this device significantly reduce the health risk associated to fine aerosols and carcinogenic PAH. Exhaust concentrations of some unregulated species, e.g. volatile aldehydes, were lowered by the oxidising catalyzer. PMID:12650577

Mabilia, Rosanna; Cecinato, Angelo; Possanzini, Massimiliano; Di Palo, Vincenzo

2003-01-01

321

Analysis of aircraft exhausts with Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Because of the worldwide growth in air traffic and its increasing effects on the atmospheric environment, it is necessary to quantify the direct aircraft emissions at all altitudes. In this study Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy as a remote-sensing multi-component-analyzing technique for aircraft exhausts was investigated at ground level with a double pendulum interferometer and a line-by-line computer algorithm that was applied to a multilayer radiative transfer problem. Initial measurements were made to specify the spectral windows for traceable compounds, to test the sensitivity of the system, and to develop calibration and continuum handling procedures. To obtain information about the radial temperature and concentration profiles, we developed an algorithm for the analysis of an axial-symmetric multilayered plume by use of the CO(2) hot band at approximately 2400 cm(-1). Measurements were made with several in-service engines. Effects that were due to engine aging were detected but have to be analyzed systematically in the near future. Validation measurements were carried out with a conventional propane gas burner to compare the results with those obtained with standard measurement equipment. These measurements showed good agreement to within +/-20% for the CO and NO(x) results. The overall accuracy of the system was found to be +/-30%. The detection limits of the system for a typical engine plume (380 degrees C, ? = 50 cm) are below 0.1% for CO(2), ~0.7% for H(2)O, ~20 ppmv (parts per million by volume) for CO, and ~90 ppmv for NO. PMID:18259296

Heland, J; Schäfer, K

1997-07-20

322

Influence of ethanol-diesel blended fuels on diesel exhaust emissions and mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate extracts.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of ethanol addition on diesel exhaust emissions and the toxicity of particulate extracts. The experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty diesel engine and five fuels were used, namely: E0 (base diesel fuel), E5 (5%), E10 (10%), E15 (15%) and E20 (20%), respectively. The regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were measured, and Ames test and Comet assay, respectively, were used to investigate the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of particulate extracts. From the point of exhaust emissions, the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel could result in higher brake specific THC (BSTHC) and CO (BSCO) emissions and lower smoke emissions, while the effects on the brake specific NOx (BSNOx) and particulate matters (BSPM) were not obvious. The PAH emissions showed an increasing trend with a growth of ethanol content in the ethanol-diesel blends. As to the biotoxicity, E20 always had the highest brake specific revertants (BSR) in both TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolizing enzymes (S9), while the lowest BSR were found in E5 except that of TA98-S9. DNA damage data showed a lower genotoxic potency of E10 and E15 as a whole. PMID:17513038

Song, Chong-Lin; Zhou, Ying-Chao; Huang, Rui-Jing; Wang, Yu-Qiu; Huang, Qi-Fei; Lü, Gang; Liu, Ke-Ming

2007-10-22

323

Control of automotive exhaust emission by modifications of the carburetion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carburetion of a lean air-fuel mixture is proposed for reduction of all major contaminants emitted from automotive exhaust. Since the mixture lean limits tolerable by an internal combustion engine equipped with conventional carburetor make this approach unsuitable for nitrogen oxides control, exhaust gas recirculation as a supplemental control method is considered. Good fuel atomization and homogeneous mixing with air prior

Kopa

2009-01-01

324

Effect of diesel exhaust emissions, particulates, and extract on sister chromatid exchange in transplacentally exposed fetal hamster liver.  

PubMed

The genotoxic activity of diesel exhaust emissions, particulate matter, and an organic extract of the particulate matter was evaluated in transplacentally exposed Syrian hamster fetal liver cells. The frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was determined on day 13 of gestation. The extract of diesel particulate matter caused a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of SCE with a doubling in the incidence above 320mg/kg. The diesel particulate matter and diesel exhaust emissions did not alter the frequency of SCE. The extract and particulate matter did cause a dose-dependent decrease in the mitotic activity of the fetal liver. The in utero SCE analysis was demonstrated to be a sensitive assay for determination of the genotoxic activity of a complex mixture in transplacentally exposed fetuses. PMID:6178584

Pereira, M A; McMillan, L; Kaur, P; Gulati, D K; Sabharwal, P S

1982-01-01

325

On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions  

PubMed Central

Equity is of fundamental concern in the quest for international cooperation to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations by the reduction of emissions. By modeling the carbon cycle, we estimate the global CO2 emissions that would be required to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO2 at levels ranging from 450 to 1,000 ppm. These are compared, on both an absolute and a per-capita basis, to scenarios for emissions from the developed and developing worlds generated by socio-economic models under the assumption that actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are not taken. Need and equity have provided strong arguments for developing countries to request that the developed world takes the lead in controlling its emissions, while permitting the developing countries in the meantime to use primarily fossil fuels for their development. Even with major and early control of CO2 emissions by the developed world, limiting concentration to 450 ppm implies that the developing world also would need to control its emissions within decades, given that we expect developing world emissions would otherwise double over this time. Scenarios leading to CO2 concentrations of 550 ppm exhibit a reduction of the developed world's per-capita emission by about 50% over the next 50 years. Even for the higher stabilization levels considered, the developing world would not be able to use fossil fuels for their development in the manner that the developed world has used them. PMID:11296250

Bolin, Bert; Kheshgi, Haroon S.

2001-01-01

326

Strenuous endurance training in humans reduces oxidative stress following exhausting exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether high-intensity endurance training would alleviate exercise-induced oxidative\\u000a stress. Nine untrained male subjects (aged 19–21?years) participated in a 12-week training programme, and performed an acute\\u000a period of exhausting exercise on a cycle ergometer before and after training. The training programme consisted of running\\u000a at 80% maximal exercise heart rate for 60?min?·?day?1, 5?days?·?week?1

Hiromi Miyazaki; Shuji Oh-ishi; Takako Ookawara; Takako Kizaki; Koji Toshinai; Sung Ha; Shukoh Haga; Li Li Ji; Hideki Ohno

2001-01-01

327

40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust...a date of manufacture prior to August 31, 2013 and be fully compliant with all requirements applicable to Tier 4 engines....

2013-07-01

328

40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust...a date of manufacture prior to August 31, 2013 and be fully compliant with all requirements applicable to Tier 4 engines....

2014-07-01

329

Online characterization of regulated and unregulated gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions from two-stroke mopeds: a chemometric approach.  

PubMed

Two-stroke mopeds are a popular and convenient mean of transport in particular in the highly populated cities. These vehicles can emit potentially toxic gaseous and aerosol pollutants due to their engine technology. The legislative measurements of moped emissions are based on offline methods; however, the online characterization of gas and particulate phases offers great possibilities to understand aerosol formation mechanism and to adapt future emission standards. The purpose of this work was to study the emission behavior of two mopeds complying with different European emission standards (EURO-1 and EURO-2). A sophisticated set of online analyzers was applied to simultaneously monitor the gas phase and particulate phase of exhaust on a real time basis. The gaseous emission was analyzed with a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR; nitrogen species) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-ToF-MS; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: PAH), whereas the particulate phase was chemically characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS; organic, nitrate and chloride aerosol) and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon). The physical characterization of the aerosol was carried out with a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number concentration) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS; size distribution in real time). In order to extract underlying correlation between gas and solid emissions, principal component analysis was applied to the comprehensive online dataset. Multivariate analysis highlighted the considerable effect of the exhaust temperature on the particles and heavy PAH emissions. The results showed that the after-treatment used to comply with the latest EURO-2 emission standard may be responsible for the production of more potentially harmful particles compared to the EURO-1 moped emissions. PMID:22304813

Clairotte, M; Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Giechaskiel, B; Manfredi, U; Elsasser, M; Sklorz, M; DeCarlo, P F; Heringa, M F; Zimmermann, R; Martini, G; Krasenbrink, A; Vicet, A; Tournié, E; Prévôt, A S H; Astorga, C

2012-03-01

330

Emission of viable bacteria in the exhaust flue gases from a hospital incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The exhaust gases from an oil-fired hospital \\\\\\\\.aste incinerator \\\\\\\\ere examined during normal incinerator operation. The design-specified operating temperature was 800'C in the primary combustion chamber and 1000°C in the secondary chamber. Flue gas temperatures, measured from the sampling point at the base of the exhaust stack, varied over the range 186-30jaC, and bacteria were recovered from this position

J. I. Blenkharn; D. Oakland

1989-01-01

331

Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and phenols from vehicles coming within different European classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EU emission standards for vehicles do not include many particulate (PM) and gaseous species, despite their considerable impact on air pollution and health. Emission factors (EFs) were measured for unregulated species, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes (ALKs) in the particle phase, and, for the first time, EFs for phenols in both particle and gas phases. Exhaust samples were collected under controlled operating conditions (chassis dynamometer tests) for in-service vehicles (private cars, PCs and light duty vehicles, LDVs) from different EURO classes. EFs of trace organics were highest for the old EURO 1 vehicles (the tested EURO 1 vehicles were without emission-control devices), and lowest for the more recent EURO 3 and 4 vehicles. ALKs (C20-C32) were the most abundant trace organic compounds found in PM vehicle exhaust, and their EF ranged between 2034 and 101 ?g km-1 (Euro 1-4 LDVs). PM-phased phenols EFs were in the range 0.42-2.50 ?g km-1, and 4-nitrophenol was the most abundant one. The highest EFs were measured for phenols in the gas phase (dominated by the presence of phenol) for gasoline EURO 1 (43.16 ± 9.99 ?g km-1). Emissions of PAHs changed depending on the fuel used. The PAH EFs of diesel-driven PCs were 4-5 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles, with PAHs diesel exhaust being mainly enriched in low 4-ring PAHs (85%), while 5-6 ring PAHs were prevalent (55%) in gasoline vehicles. Results of source profiles from chassis dynamometer tests were compared with ambient data, and the traffic PAH source profile derived from a tunnel study (Milan) agreed with the estimated emissions from a mix of diesel and gasoline vehicles circulating in the same area. Moreover, the impact of EURO regulatory changes on exhaust emissions was calculated, and this made it possible to estimate the downward trend of PAH emissions in the Province of Milan in the period 2005-2020.

Perrone, Maria Grazia; Carbone, Claudio; Faedo, Davide; Ferrero, Luca; Maggioni, Angela; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Bolzacchini, Ezio

2014-01-01

332

Policy Planning to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preceded by the State Workbook: Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this document by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves to guide states in "identifying and evaluating options to mitigate emissions" affecting global climate change. Each of the report's three parts details climate change and policy options. Part one discusses the Initiation of Climate Change Programs. Part two describes sources of emissions and potential policy options. Part three completes the report by offering "guidance in preparing the State Action Plan." Appendices supply a glossary, references, state plans, and a specific example reduction plan.

United States. Environmental Protection Agency.

1998-01-01

333

Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison of aerosol emissions between ground and altitude is less straight forward. The implications of these factors for developing new aviation emissions factors / inventories related to aerosol species will be discussed.

Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

2013-12-01

334

Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison of aerosol emissions between ground and altitude is less straight forward. The implications of these factors for developing new aviation emissions factors / inventories related to aerosol species will be discussed.

Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

2011-12-01

335

Instrumental and bio-monitoring of heavy metal and nanoparticle emissions from diesel engine exhaust in controlled environment.  

PubMed

In the present article we characterized the emissions at the exhaust of a Common Rail (CR) diesel engine, representative of light-duty class, equipped with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) in controlled environment. The downstream exhausts were directly analyzed (for PM, CO, CO2, 02, HCs, NOx) by infrared and electrochemical sensors, and SEM-EDS microscope; heavy metals were chemically analyzed using mosses and lichens in bags, and glass-fibre filters all exposed at the engine exhausts. The highest particle emission value was in the 7-54 nm size range; the peak concentration rose until one order of magnitude for the highest load and speed. Particle composition was mainly carbonaceous, associated to noticeable amounts of Fe and silica fibres. Moreover, the content of Cu, Fe, Na, Ni and Zn in both moss and lichen, and of Al and Cr in moss, was significantly increased. Glass-fibre filters were significantly enriched in Al, B, Ba, Cu, Fe, Na, and Zn. The role of diesel engines as source of carbonaceous nanoparticles has been confirmed, while further investigations in controlled environment are needed to test the catalytic muffler as a possible source of silica fibres considered very hazardous for human health. PMID:21174966

Giordano, Simonetta; Adamo, Paola; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Vaglieco, Bianca Maria

2010-01-01

336

Current and future emission estimates of exhaust gases and particles from shipping at the largest port in Korea.  

PubMed

The emissions of exhaust gases (NOx , SO2, VOCs, and CO2) and particles (e.g., PM) from ships traversing Busan Port in Korea were estimated over three different years (the years 2006, 2008, and 2009). This analysis was performed according to the ship operational modes ("at sea," "maneuvering," and "in port") and ship types based on an activity-based method. The ship emissions for current (base year 2009) and future scenarios (years 2020 and 2050) were also compared. The annual emissions of SO2, VOCs, PM, and CO2 were highest (9.6?×?10(3), 374, 1.2?×?10(3), and 5.6?×?10(5) ton year(-1), respectively) in 2008. In contrast, the annual NO x emissions were highest (11.7?×?10(3) ton year(-1)) in 2006 due mainly to the high NO x emission factor. The emissions of air pollutants for each ship operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in "in port" mode. In addition, the largest fraction (approximately 45-67%) of the emissions of all air pollutants during the study period was emitted from container ships. The future ship emissions of most pollutants (except for SO2 and PM) in 2020 and 2050 are estimated to be 1.4-1.8 and 4.7-6.1 times higher than those in 2009 (base year), respectively. PMID:24497306

Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

2014-05-01

337

Role of average speed in N?O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?  

PubMed

Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. PMID:22245865

Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

2012-05-15

338

40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...gas-fueled snowmobiles: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled snowmobiles: THCE emissions. (3) Other snowmobiles: THC emissions. (c) Your snowmobiles must meet emission standards over their full useful life. The minimum useful life...

2010-07-01

339

Estimation of road vehicle exhaust emissions from 1992 to 2010 and comparison with air quality measurements in Genoa, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation into road transport exhaust emissions in the Genoa urban area was performed by comparing the quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and particulate matter (PM) emitted by different vehicle categories with air quality measurements referred to the same pollutants. Exhaust emissions were evaluated by applying the PROGRESS (computer PROGramme for Road vehicle EmiSSions evaluation) code, developed by the Internal Combustion Engines Group of the University of Genoa, to eight different years (from 1992 to 2010), considering spark ignition and Diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles and buses, motorcycles and mopeds. Changes in terms of vehicles number, mileage and total emissions are presented together with relative distributions among the various vehicle categories. By comparing 1992 and 2010 data, calculated trends show a 7% increase in the number of vehicles, with total mileage growing at a faster rate (approx. 22%); total emissions decrease considerably, by approximately 50% for NO x and PM, 70% for HC and 80% for CO, due to improvements in engines and fuels forced by the stricter European legislation and the fleet renewal, while primary NO 2 emission will be very close to 1992 level, after a decrease of about 18% in 2000. Air quality was analysed by selecting traffic and background measuring stations from the monitoring network managed by the Environmental Department of the Province of Genoa: average annual concentrations of considered pollutants from 1994 to 2007 were calculated in order to obtain the relative historical trends and compare them with European public health limits and with road vehicle emissions. Though an important reduction in pollutant concentrations has been achieved as a consequence of cleaner vehicles, some difficulties in complying with present and/or future NO 2 and PM 10 limits are also apparent, thus requiring suitable measures to be taken by the local authorities.

Zamboni, Giorgio; Capobianco, Massimo; Daminelli, Enrico

340

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines  

E-print Network

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continued, but it can also result in reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot when used in diesel engines. ct & LOGISTICS SYMPOSIUM page 3 CIVIL ENGINEERING DIRECTIONS page 4 WORK-ZONE SAFETY page 5 PUBLIC AFFAIRS PH

Minnesota, University of

341

How can we reduce carbon emissions from transport?  

E-print Network

.......................................................................................... 5 3. DEVELOPING STRATEGIES TO MEET THE TARGETS FOR LAND BASED PASSENGER TRANSPORTHow can we reduce carbon emissions from transport? Abigail Bristow, Alison Pridmore, Miles Tight Technical Report 15 #12;1 How Can We Reduce Carbon Emissions From Transport? Tyndall Centre Technical Report

Watson, Andrew

342

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Using the Mole Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an application of quantitative chemistry concepts in the context of motor vehicle emissions. Shows how carbon dioxide emissions from cars may be reduced by up to 25% by reducing motorway speeds from 70-75 mph to 60 mph. (Author/MM)

Myers, Alan

2002-01-01

343

REFORMULATING BIODIESEL TO REDUCE NOX EMISSIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of biodiesel, a diesel engine fuel produced from agriculturally derived fats and oils, offers many advantages over petrodiesel, but has been shown in certain instances to increase emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a federally regulated pollutant. The work described here involved modifi...

344

Field Methods To Reduce Soil Fumigation Emission  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Telone or 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin are primary alternative soil fumigants to methyl bromide and their emission reductions are required to improve air-quality standards in California. Research has identified various methods including plastic tarp, irrigation, and soil amendment with orga...

345

Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

1999-01-01

346

Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

347

Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.  

PubMed

Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%. PMID:22870990

Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

2012-09-01

348

Methods for reducing pollutant emissions from jet aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pollutant emissions from jet aircraft and combustion research aimed at reducing these emissions are defined. The problem of smoke formation and results achieved in smoke reduction from commercial combustors are discussed. Expermental results of parametric tests performed on both conventional and experimental combustors over a range of combustor-inlet conditions are presented. Combustor design techniques for reducing pollutant emissions are discussed. Improved fuel atomization resulting from the use of air-assist fuel nozzles has brought about significant reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at idle. Diffuser tests have shown that the combustor-inlet airflow profile can be controlled through the use of diffuser-wall bleed and that it may thus be possible to reduce emissions by controlling combustor airflow distribution. Emissions of nitric oxide from a shortlength annular swirl-can combustor were significantly lower than those from a conventional combustor operating at similar conditions.

Butze, H. F.

1971-01-01

349

40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3) of this section, the useful life period for exhaust requirements...to § 1054.107—Nominal Useful Life Periods Nonhandheld... 500 1,000 Handheld Light use Medium use Heavy use...2) You may select a longer useful life for nonhandheld...

2010-07-01

350

A quantitative estimation of the exhaust, abrasion and resuspension components of particulate traffic emissions using electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of the three traffic-related components exhaust, abrasion, and resuspension to kerbside and urban background PM10 and PM1 levels was quantified based on the analysis of individual particles by scanning electron microscopy. A total of 160 samples was collected on 38 days between February and September 2009 at a kerbside and an urban background station in the urban/industrial Ruhr area (Germany). Based on size, morphology, chemical composition and stability under electron bombardment, the 111,003 particles studied in detail were classified into the following 14 particle classes: traffic/exhaust, traffic/abrasion, traffic/resuspension, carbonaceous/organic, industry/metallurgy, industry/power plants, secondary particles, (aged) sea salt, silicates, Ca sulfates, carbonates, Fe oxides/hydroxides, biological particles, and other particles. The traffic/exhaust component consists predominantly of externally mixed soot particles and soot internally mixed with secondary particles. The traffic/abrasion component contains all particles with characteristic tracer elements (Fe, Cu, Ba, Sb, Zn) for brake and tire abrasion. The traffic/resuspension component is defined by the mixing state and comprises all internally mixed particles with a high proportion of silicates or Fe oxides/hydroxides which contain soot or abrasion particles as minor constituent. In addition, silicates and Fe oxides/hydroxides internally mixed with chlorine and sulphur containing particles were also assigned to the traffic/resuspension component. The total contribution of traffic to PM10 was found to be 27% at the urban background station and 48% at the kerbside station, the corresponding values for PM1 are 15% and 39%. These values lie within the range reported in previous literature. The relative share of the different traffic components for PM10 at the kerbside station was 27% exhaust, 15% abrasion, and 58% resuspension (38%, 8%, 54% for PM1). For the urban background, the following relative shares were obtained for PM10: 22% exhaust, 22% abrasion and 56% resuspension (40%, 27%, 33% for PM1). Compared to previous publications we have observed a significantly lower portion of exhaust particles and a significantly higher portion of resuspension particles. The high abundance of resuspension particles underlines their significance for the observed adverse health effects of traffic emissions and for mitigation measures.

Weinbruch, Stephan; Worringen, Annette; Ebert, Martin; Scheuvens, Dirk; Kandler, Konrad; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Bruckmann, Peter

2014-12-01

351

PARKING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report defines the concept of parking management and explores how parking management can be used to improve air quality, support mass transit, reduce energy consumption and improve the amenities of life in urban areas. Specific aspects of this analysis were developments of a...

352

The 1977 emissions inventory for southeastern Virginia. [environment model of air quality based on exhaust emission from urban areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regional tropospheric air pollution modeling and data compilation to simulate the time variation of species concentrations in and around an urban area is discussed. The methods used to compile an emissions inventory are outlined. Emissions factors for vehicular travel in the urban area are presented along with an analysis of the emission gases. Emission sources other than vehicular including industrial wastes, residential solid waste disposal, aircraft emissions, and emissions from the railroads are investigated.

Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.; Quinn, L. C.

1979-01-01

353

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia  

SciTech Connect

In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine.

Kostalova, M. [Office of International Economic Corp., Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Suk, J. [Inst. for Forecasting, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Kolar, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-12-01

354

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

355

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-11-10

356

Incentives for reducing emissions in Krakow  

SciTech Connect

This effort is identifying, specific incentives that may be used by Krakow city officials to encourage, residents to change the way they heat their homes and businesses in order to reduce pollution. This paper describes the incentives study for converting small coal or coke-fired boilers to gas in the Old Town area. A similar study looked at incentives for expanding the district heating system and future analyses will be performed for home stove options.

Uberman, R. [Polinvest Ltd., Krakow (Poland); Pierce, B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Lazecki, A. [Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa, Krakow (Poland)

1994-06-01

357

Effects of Fresh and Aged Vehicular Exhaust Emissions on Breathing Pattern and Cellular Responses – Pilot Single Vehicle Study  

PubMed Central

The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O3, OH and other radicals. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for five hours to either filtered room air (Sham) or one of two different atmospheres: 1. Diluted Car Exhaust (P) + Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); 2. P+MSHA+SOA (Secondary Organic Aerosol, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a non-selective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 hours after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363±66 ?g/m3 P+MSHA and 212±95 ?g/m3 P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in Total Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils in the BAL and in-vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

Diaz, Edgar A.; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S.; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J.

2013-01-01

358

Emission of viable bacteria in the exhaust flue gases from a hospital incinerator.  

PubMed

The exhaust gases from an oil-fired hospital waste incinerator were examined during normal incinerator operation. The design-specified operating temperature was 800 degrees C in the primary combustion chamber and 1000 degrees C in the secondary chamber. Flue gas temperatures, measured from the sampling point at the base of the exhaust stack, varied over the range 186-305 degrees C, and bacteria were recovered from this position in numbers up to 400 cfu m-3 (mean 56 cfu m-3). No sampling was performed at the top of the stack where flue gases were discharged to the atmosphere. Isolates were predominantly gram positive, i.e. Bacillus spp., coagulase negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus, although low numbers of gram negative species (Pseudomonas fluorescens and other pseudomonads) were also recovered. Our results suggest that incineration may not constitute an absolute method of sterilization for clinical waste. PMID:2570106

Blenkharn, J I; Oakland, D

1989-07-01

359

Motor exhaust emissions as a primary source of dicarboxylic acids in Los Angeles ambient air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (Câ-Cââ) were analyzed in Los Angeles air and auto exhaust, as well as greenhouse air, soil, dust, and bog sediment samples, as dibutyl esters by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with fused silica capillary columns. In the Los Angeles ambient atmosphere, 19 dicarboxylic acids in the range Câ-Cââ were identified, including straight-chain, branched-chain, cis-

Kimitaka Kawamura; Isaac R. Kaplan

1987-01-01

360

Effects of alkylate fuel on exhaust emissions and secondary aerosol formation of a 2-stroke and a 4-stroke scooter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulated and unregulated emissions from a 2-stroke and a 4-stroke scooter were characterized during a legislative driving cycle in a certified laboratory. Scooter exhaust was analyzed at the tailpipe, in a dilution tunnel, and partly collected in a mobile smog chamber for photochemical ageing. We present evidence that the photochemically aged exhaust from a 2-stroke and a 4-stroke scooter produces considerable amounts of secondary organic aerosol: from 1.5 to 22.0 mg/km, and from 5.5 to 6.6 mg/km, respectively. Tests were repeated after replacing the standard petrol and synthetic lube oil with an alkylate fuel (with low content of aromatic compounds) and ultra-clean lube oil (low ash forming potential). We observed emission reduction (with some exceptions) for several gaseous and particulate phase species, in particular for carbon monoxide (from 8% up to 38% and from 31% to 50%, for the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke scooters, respectively), particulate mass (from 32% up to 75% for the 2-stroke scooter), aromatic compounds (89% and 97% for the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke scooter, respectively), and secondary organic aerosol (from 87% to 100% and 99% for the 2-stroke and the 4-stroke scooters, respectively). We attribute the organic aerosol reduction to the low content of aromatics in the alkylate fuel.

Zardini, Alessandro A.; Platt, Stephen M.; Clairotte, Michael; El Haddad, Imad; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Ježek, Irena; Drinovec, Luka; Mo?nik, Griša; Slowik, Jay G.; Manfredi, Urbano; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; Astorga, Covadonga

2014-09-01

361

Chemical characterization of exhaust emissions from selected canadian marine vessels: the case of trace metals and lanthanoids.  

PubMed

This paper reports the chemical composition of exhaust emissions from the main engines of five ocean going cargo vessels, as they traveled in Canadian waters. The emission factors (EFs) of PM2.5 and SO2 for vessels tested on various intermediate fuel oils (IFO), ranged from 0.4 to 2.2 g kW(-1) hr(-1) and 4.7 to 10.3 g kW(-1) hr(-1), respectively, and were mainly dependent on the content of sulfur in the fuel. Average NOx, CO, and CO2 EFs for these tests were 12.7, 0.45, and 618 g kW(-1) hr(-1), respectively and were generally below benchmark values commonly used by regulatory agencies. The composition of PM2.5 was dominated by hydrated sulfates, organic carbon and trace metals which accounted for 80-97% of total PM2.5 mass. A substantial decrease of measured emission factors for PM2.5 and SO2 was observed when the fuel was changed from IFO to marine diesel oil (MDO), in one of the tested vessels. The main component of PM2.5 in this case was organic carbon accounting for 65% of PM2.5 mass. In addition to commonly reported pollutants, this study presents EFs of the lanthanoid elements and showed that their distribution patterns in ship-exhaust PM2.5 were very similar to the PM2.5 emitted by oil refining facilities. Hence, using La:Ce:V tertiary diagrams and La/V ratios is necessary to distinguish ship plumes from primary emissions related to accidental and/or routine operation of oil-refining industry. PMID:25825794

Celo, Valbona; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; McCurdy, Mark

2015-04-21

362

Reduced Turbine Emissions Using Hydrogen-Enriched Fuels  

E-print Network

(LPC) is method of choice for NOx control in Gas Turbines Ultimately, lean operation is limited and reduces CO emissions #12;Approach Lean Premixed Swirl Burner Experiments · Establish scientific data base Economic Analysis Establish base case cost & emissions Evaluate economics of H2 addition for NOx control

363

REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM THE WOOD FURNITURE INDUSTRY WITH WATERBORNE COATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

This program was initiated to develop meaningful, defensible, and reliable data on emission reduction benefits from the use of reduced hydrocarbon finishes. The program also included assessing add-on emission control options and considering installation aspects such as costs. Thi...

364

The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2011-12-31

365

Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today.\\u000aIn order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof,\\u000athe emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane\\u000a(CH4 ) should be reduced.\\u000aMuch greenhouse gases are emitted due

Marko Peter Hekkert

2000-01-01

366

RSM based optimization of chemical and enzymatic transesterification of palm oil: biodiesel production and assessment of exhaust emission levels.  

PubMed

Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 ± 1.5, 92.7 ± 2.5, and 95.4 ± 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 ± 3.1 and 62.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from -2.1 to -68.7% and -6.2 to -58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel. PMID:25162053

Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Mukhtar, Hamid; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

2014-01-01

367

Exhaust emissions survey of a turbofan engine for flame holder swirl type augmentors at simulated altitude flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions of carbon dioxide, total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide from an F100 afterburning two spool turbofan engine at simulated flight conditions are reported. Tests were run at Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 10.97 and 13.71 km (36,000 and 45,000 ft), and at Mach 1.2 at 13.71 km (45,000 ft). Emission measurements were made from intermediate power (nonafterburning) through maximum afterburning, using a single point gas sample probe traversed across the horizontal diameter of the exhaust nozzle. The data show that emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the nozzle. Carbon monoxide emissions were low for intermediate and partial afterburning power. Unburned hydrocarbons were near zero for most of the simulated flight conditions. At maximum afterburning, there were regions of NOx deficiency in regions of high CO. The results suggest that the low NOx levels observed in the tests are a result of interaction with high CO in the thermal converter. CO2 emissions were proportional to local fuel air ratio for all test conditions.

Moss, J. E., Jr.

1981-01-01

368

Vegetative environmental buffers and exhaust fan deflectors for reducing downwind odor and VOCs from tunnel-ventilated swine barns  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists have investigated methods for reducing odor emissions from livestock buildings for decades, yet few technologies have proven effective. Vegetative Environmental Buffers (VEB), which are specially designed combinations of trees, shrubs and grasses, have shown promise in recent years for r...

369

40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Collect emission data using measurements with enough significant figures to calculate the cycle-weighted emission rate to...described in § 1033.245, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2012-07-01

370

40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Collect emission data using measurements with enough significant figures to calculate the cycle-weighted emission rate to...described in § 1033.245, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2010-07-01

371

40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Collect emission data using measurements with enough significant figures to calculate the cycle-weighted emission rate to...described in § 1033.245, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2014-07-01

372

40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Collect emission data using measurements with enough significant figures to calculate the cycle-weighted emission rate to...described in § 1033.245, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2013-07-01

373

40 CFR 1033.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Collect emission data using measurements with enough significant figures to calculate the cycle-weighted emission rate to...described in § 1033.245, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2011-07-01

374

75 FR 67634 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA...Compliance with Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards...through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...Compliance with Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission...

2010-11-03

375

78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...comments amending the emission standards for turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

376

78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...amended the emission standards for certain turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the...

2013-10-23

377

Liquid cooled exhaust flange  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a liquid-cooled exhaust flange for mating a liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system to a conventional internal combustion engine turbo charger discharge port. It comprises: a generally cylindrical elongated exhaust conduit member adapted to mate in sandwiched relationship between the turbo charger housing and the liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system; a cooling liquid-jacket housing internally and concentrically connected to the exhaust conduit member adapted to mate in fluidly communicating relationship with a flow of cooling liquid within the liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system; the liquid-jacket housing covering a substantial portion of the external surface area of the exhaust conduit member so as to reduce the temperature of the external surface of the exhaust flange.

Woods, W.E.

1990-04-24

378

Real-World Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Monitoring: Review and Critical Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic-related emissions represent a major component of airborne pollution. Historically, dynamometer testing has been most widely used to estimate vehicle emission rates, and these emission rates, in turn, have been used as inputs when modeling traffic-related air quality impacts. However, such conventional drive cycle testing is not considered strictly representative of vehicles under real driving conditions. Therefore, in recent years,

Karl Ropkins; Joe Beebe; Hu Li; Basil Daham; James Tate; Margaret Bell; Gordon Andrews

2009-01-01

379

A comprehensive inventory of ship traffic exhaust emissions in the European sea areas in 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions originated from ship traffic in European sea areas were modelled using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM), which uses Automatic Identification System data to describe ship traffic activity. We have estimated the emissions from ship traffic in the whole of Europe in 2011. We report the emission totals, the seasonal variation, the geographical distribution of emissions, and their disaggregation between various ship types and flag states. The total ship emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, CO and PM2.5 in Europe for year 2011 were estimated to be 131, 2.9, 1.2, 0.2 and 0.3 million tons, respectively. The emissions of CO2 from Baltic Sea were evaluated to be more than a half (58%) of the emissions of the North Sea shipping; the combined contribution of these two sea regions was almost as high (96%) as the total emissions from ships in the Mediterranean. As expected, the shipping emissions of SOx were significantly lower in the SOx Emission Control Areas, compared with the corresponding values in the Mediterranean. Shipping in the Mediterranean Sea is responsible for 39 and 49% of the European ship emitted CO2 and SOx emissions, respectively. In particular, this study reported significantly smaller emissions of NOx, SOx and CO for shipping in the Mediterranean than the EMEP inventory; however, the reported PM2.5 emissions were in a fairly good agreement with the corresponding values reported by EMEP. The vessels registered to all EU member states are responsible for 55% of the total CO2 emitted by ships in the study area. The vessels under the flags of convenience were responsible for 25% of the total CO2 emissions.

Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Kukkonen, J.

2015-03-01

380

Detailed Characterization and Profiles of Crankcase and Diesel Particulate Matter Exhaust Emissions Using Speciated Organics  

SciTech Connect

A monitoring campaign was conducted in August-September 2005 to compare different experimental approaches quantifying school bus self-pollution. As part of this monitoring campaign, a detailed characterization of PM2.5 diesel engine emissions from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions from the road draft tubes was performed. To distinguish between tailpipe and crankcase vent emissions, a deuterated alkane, n-hexatriacontane-d74 (n-C36D74) was added to the engine oil to serve as an intentional quantitative tracer for lubricating oil PM emissions. This paper focuses on the detailed chemical speciation of crankcase and tailpipe PM emissions from two school buses used in this study. We found that organic carbon emission rates were generally higher from the crankcase than from the tailpipe for these two school buses, while elemental carbon contributed significantly only in the tailpipe emissions. The n-C36D74 that was added to the engine oil was emitted at higher rates from the crankcase than the tailpipe. Tracers of engine oil (hopanes and steranes) were present in much higher proportion in crankcase emissions. Particle-associated PAH emission rates were generally very low (<1 {micro}g/km), but more PAH species were present in crankcase than in tailpipe emissions. The speciation of samples collected in the bus cabins was consistent with most of the bus self-pollution originating from crankcase emissions.

Zielinska, B.; Campbell, D.; Lawson, D. R.; Ireson, R. G.; Weaver, C. S.; Hesterberg, T. W.; Larson, T.; Davey, M.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

2008-01-01

381

Detailed characterization and profiles of crankcase and diesel particulate matter exhaust emissions using speciated organics.  

PubMed

A monitoring campaign was conducted in August-September 2005 to compare different experimental approaches quantifying school bus self-pollution. As part of this monitoring campaign, a detailed characterization of PM2.5 diesel engine emissions from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions from the road draft tubes was performed. To distinguish between tailpipe and crankcase vent emissions, a deuterated alkane, n-hexatriacontane-d74 (n-C36D74) was added to the engine oil to serve as an intentional quantitative tracer for lubricating oil PM emissions. This paper focuses on the detailed chemical speciation of crankcase and tailpipe PM emissions from two school buses used in this study. We found that organic carbon emission rates were generally higher from the crankcase than from the tailpipe for these two school buses, while elemental carbon contributed significantly only in the tailpipe emissions. The n-C36D74 that was added to the engine oil was emitted at higher rates from the crankcase than the tailpipe. Tracers of engine oil (hopanes and steranes) were present in much higher proportion in crankcase emissions. Particle-associated PAH emission rates were generally very low (< 1 microg/km), but more PAH species were present in crankcase than in tailpipe emissions. The speciation of samples collected in the bus cabins was consistent with most of the bus self-pollution originating from crankcase emissions. PMID:18754490

Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David; Lawson, Douglas R; Ireson, Robert G; Weaver, Christopher S; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Larson, Timothy; Davey, Mark; Liu, L J Sally

2008-08-01

382

Detailed Characterization and Profiles of Crankcase and Diesel Particular Matter Exhaust Emissions Using Speciated Organics  

PubMed Central

A monitoring campaign was conducted in August-September 2005 to compare different experimental approaches quantifying school bus self-pollution. As part of this monitoring campaign, a detailed characterization of PM2.5 diesel engine emissions from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions from the road draft tubes was performed. To distinguish between tailpipe and crankcase vent emissions, a deuterated alkane, n-hexatriacontane-d74 (n-C36D74) was added to the engine oil to serve as intentional quantitative tracers for lubricating oil PM emissions. This paper focuses on the detailed chemical speciation of crankcase and tailpipe PM emissions from two school buses used in this study. We found that organic carbon emission rates were generally higher from the crankcase than from the tailpipe for these two school buses, while elemental carbon contributed significantly only in the tailpipe emissions. The n-C36D74 that was added to the engine oil was emitted at higher rates from the crankcase than the tailpipe. Tracers of engine oil (hopanes, and steranes) were present in much higher proportion in crankcase emissions. Particle-associated PAH emission rates were generally very low (< 1 ?g/km), but more PAH species were present in crankcase than in tailpipe emissions. The speciation of samples collected in the bus cabins was consistent with most of the bus self-pollution originating from crankcase emissions. PMID:18754490

Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David; Lawson, Douglas R.; Ireson, Robert G.; Weaver, Christopher S.; Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Larson, Timothy; Davey, Mark; Liu, L.-J. Sally

2008-01-01

383

A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

1996-01-01

384

Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Tailpipe Exhaust for Several Automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automotive catalytic converter reduces or eliminates the emission of various chemical species (e.g. CO, hydrocarbons, etc.) that are the products of combustion from automobile exhaust. However, these units are only effective once they have reached operating temperature. The design and placement of catalytic converters has changed in order to reduce both the quantity of emissions and the time that

Allen R. White; James Allen; Rebecca B. Devasher

2011-01-01

385

Effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) temperature for various EGR rates on heavy duty DI diesel engine performance and emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

DI diesel engines are well established today as the main powertrain solution for trucks and other relevant heavy duty vehicles. At the same time emission legislation (mainly for NOx and particulate matter) becomes stricter, reducing their limit to extremely low values. One efficient method to control NOx in order to achieve future emissions limits is the use of rather high

D. T. Hountalas; G. C. Mavropoulos; K. B. Binder

2008-01-01

386

Policy Options to Reduce Ireland's Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A side effect of the economic downturn since 2008 is that Ireland may meet its Kyoto Protocol commitment for 2008-2012 to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, but that its longer term targets for 2020 and beyond are still stringent. This paper addresses both the political challenge and the economic implications of moving to a low-carbon state. The cost of reducing

Thomas Legge; Susan Scott

387

Reducing CO 2 emissions by substituting biomass for fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing fossil fuels with sustainably-produced biomass will reduce the net flow of CO2 to the atmosphere. We express the efficiency of this substitution in reduced emissions per unit of used land or biomass and in costs of the substitution per tonne of C. The substitution costs are calculated as the cost difference between continued use of fossil fuels at current

Leif Gustavsson; Pål Börjesson; Bengt Johansson; Per Svenningsson

1995-01-01

388

Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies relating to environmental emissions associated with the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) military jet and charter jet aircraft were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report includes engine emission results for baseline 1990 charter and military scenario and the projected jet engine emissions results for a 2015 scenario for a Mach 1.6 HSCT charter and military fleet. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

Landau, Z. Harry; Metwally, Munir; Vanalstyne, Richard; Ward, Clay A.

1994-01-01

389

Reducing Children's Exposure to School Bus Diesel Exhaust in One School District in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from…

Mazer, Mary E.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Lamanna, Beth F.; Davison, Jean

2014-01-01

390

Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.  

SciTech Connect

Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with the slotted baffle plates is recommended. Some particles will also deposit in the exhaust ducts

Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2008-06-30

391

40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045.105...FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related...standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? (a) Duty-cycle emission...

2010-07-01

392

Preface: Special Issue on Catalytic Control of Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Catalysis Today includes original research articles based on select presentations from the Mobile Emissions Control Symposium at the 22nd North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meeting held in Detroit in June 2011, with a particular focus on catalyzed diesel emissions control. The Symposium was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Haren Gandhi, a visionary technology leader and a passionate environmental advocate.

Yezerets, Aleksey; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill

2012-04-30

393

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

394

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM LIGHT-DUTY GAS VEHICLES IN THE KANSAS CITY METROPOLITAN AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program on light duty vehicle emissions is being performed under an interagency agreement. It will provide current information on particulate matter emissions and distributions from light-duty vehicles, an area where more and better data are necessary to meet the n...

395

A GIS-BASED MODAL MODEL OF AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS (EPA/600/R-98/097)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents progress toward the development of a computer tool called MEASURE, the Mobile Emission Assessment System for Urban and Regional Evaluation. The tool works toward a goal of providing researchers and planners with a way to assess new mobile emission mitigation s...

396

Influence of European passenger cars weight to exhaust CO 2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration influences climate changes. The road transport sector is one of the main anthropogenic sources of CO2 emissions in the European Union (EU). One of the main parameters influencing CO2 emissions from passenger cars (PCs) is their weight, which increases during last years. For the same driving distance, heavier vehicles need more work than lighter

Efthimios Zervas; Christos Lazarou

2008-01-01

397

77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...action amends the emission standards for turbine engine powered airplanes to incorporate...The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of ICAO. The...

2012-12-31

398

Mathematical modeling of catalytic converter lightoff; Part III: Prediction of vehicle exhaust emissions and parametric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The converter warmup model developed previously (Oh and Cavendish, 1985) has been used to simulate the performance of a packed-bed converter during the cold-start portion of vehicle emission tests. Despite the highly transient converter inlet conditions, the model successfully predicts tailpipe mass emissions as a function of time.

S. H. Oh; J. C. Cavendish

1985-01-01

399

Ammonia exhaust emissions from spark ignition vehicles over the New European Driving Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study aiming to measure ammonia emissions from light duty vehicles has been performed in the Vehicle Emission Laboratory at the European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. Ammonia, known for being toxic and dangerous for the environment, also contributes to the formation of particulate matter that has been related with adverse health and environmental effects. Nine modern light duty vehicles tested over the New European Driving Cycle showed that ammonia emissions are considerable for gasoline and ethanol flexi-fuel vehicles and also for one diesel vehicle equipped with a selective catalytic reduction system, ranging from 4 mg/km to 70 mg/km. Real-time ammonia emission profiles were monitored at the tailpipe by a High Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer during tests at 22 and/or -7 °C. Ammonia emissions are thoroughly discussed and compared to those of its precursors, CO and NO, and other regulated compounds.

Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

2014-11-01

400

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

National Lab Directors, . .

2001-04-05

401

In Brief: Reducing black carbon emissions could immediately reduce global temperature increases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new assessment by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) shows that measures to reduce emissions of black carbon, or soot, which is produced through burning of wood and other biofuels as well as by some industrial processes, could improve public health and help to significantly reduce projected global temperature increases. The Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone highlights how specific measures targeting black carbon and other emissions from fossil fuel extraction, residential wood-burning cooking, diesel vehicles, waste management, agriculture, and small industries could affect climate. Full implementation of a variety of measures to reduce black carbon and methane emissions could reduce future global warming by about 0.5°C, the assessment found. Reducing black carbon could have substantial benefits in the Arctic, the Himalayas, and other snow-covered regions because black carbon that settles on top of snow absorbs heat, speeding melting of snow and ice. Black carbon emission reductions would affect global temperatures more quickly than carbon dioxide emission reductions. Furthermore, reducing black carbon emissions would improve public health in the regions that emit large amounts of the harmful air pollutant.

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-03-01

402

Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on emissions from a flame-tube combustor using Liquid Jet A fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of uncooled exhaust gas recirculation as an inert diluent on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2) and on combustion efficiency were investigated. Ratios of recirculated combustion products to inlet airflow were varied from 10 to 80 percent by using an inlet air ejector nozzle. Liquid Jet A fuel was used. The flame-tube combustor was 10.2 cm in diameter. It was operated with and without a flameholder present. The combustor pressure was maintained constant at 0.5 MPa. The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.3 to 1.0. The inlet air temperature was varied from 590 to 800 K, and the reference velocity from 10 to 30 m/sec. Increasing the percent recirculation from 10 to 25 had the following effects: (1) the peak NOx emission was decreased by 37 percent, from 8 to 5 g NO2/kg fuel, at an inlet air temperature of 590 K and a reference velocity of 15 m/sec; (2) the combustion efficiency was increased, particularly at the higher equivalence ratios; and (3) for a high combustion efficiency of greater than 99.5 percent, the range of operation of the combustor was nearly doubled in terms of equivalence ratio. Increasing the recirculation from 25 to 50 percent did not change the emissions significantly.

Marek, C. J.; Tacina, R. R.

1976-01-01

403

Methods for reducing pollutant emissions from jet aircraft.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to define the problem of pollutant emissions from jet aircraft and to review NASA-Lewis combustion research aimed at reducing these emissions. The problem of smoke formation and results achieved in smoke reduction from commercial combustors are discussed. Experimental results of parametric tests performed on both conventional and experimental combustors over a range of combustor-inlet conditions are presented. Combustor design techniques for reducing pollutant emissions are discussed. Improved fuel atomization resulting from the use of air-assist fuel nozzles has brought about significant reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at idle. Diffuser tests have shown that the combustor-inlet airflow profile can be controlled through the use of diffuser-wall bleed and that it may thus be possible to reduce emissions by controlling combustor airflow distribution. Emissions of nitric oxide from a shortlength annular swirl-can combustor were significantly lower than those from a conventional combustor operating at similar conditions.

Butze, H. F.

1971-01-01

404

40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...follows: (i) Alcohol-fueled engines must comply with HC standards... (ii) Natural gas-fueled engines must comply with HC standards...on NMHC emissions. (iii) Diesel-fueled and all other engines not described in...

2014-07-01

405

40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...emissions. (iii) Diesel-fueled and all other engines not described...use low-sulfur diesel fuel (without request) to certify an engine otherwise requiring...operated using diesel fuel. (e) Useful life. Your engines must meet...

2014-07-01

406

40 CFR 1045.705 - How do I generate and calculate exhaust emission credits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1045.705 How do I generate and...

2014-07-01

407

40 CFR 1045.705 - How do I generate and calculate exhaust emission credits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1045.705 How do I generate and...

2011-07-01

408

40 CFR 1045.705 - How do I generate and calculate exhaust emission credits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1045.705 How do I generate and...

2013-07-01

409

40 CFR 1045.705 - How do I generate and calculate exhaust emission credits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1045.705 How do I generate and...

2010-07-01

410

40 CFR 1042.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1042.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...multiplicative or additive) or include the effects in combined deterioration factors...

2010-07-01

411

75 FR 57191 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards...Systems AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT...TMA), the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA...through Friday, except Federal holidays. The telephone number is...

2010-09-20

412

40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES...Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and...

2011-07-01

413

40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for...

2012-07-01

414

40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES...Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and...

2010-07-01

415

Critique of the regulatory limitations of exhaust CO 2 emissions from passenger cars in European union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport is the second emitter of CO2 in the European Union, after the energy production sector, with constantly increased trend. European Union proposed the regulation 443\\/2009 to control the CO2 emissions from new passenger cars. According to that regulation, the average, for each car manufacturer, CO2 emissions of the new passenger cars registered in 2020 in European Union should not

Christina Bampatsou; Efthimios Zervas

2011-01-01

416

The impact of crankcase oil containing phosphorus on catalytic converters and engine exhaust emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two 10W30 mineral-base phosphorus containing (commercial) and phosphorus-free (P-Free) crankcase oils were tested in the engine dynamometer for the poisoning effects on a catalytic converter and emission-engine’s performance. The emission results of the two oils were compared with and without a catalytic converter, including the light-off temperature of the catalyst. Surface characterisation was used to determine accumulated catalyst poisoning from

Hakan Kaleli

2001-01-01

417

Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A  

SciTech Connect

Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

418

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in Borneo will also be discussed.

Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

2011-12-01

419

Determination of major combustion products in aircraft exhausts by FTIR emission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of ground-based FTIR emission measurements of major combustion products such as CO 2, H 2O, CO, NO, and N 2O of in-service aircraft engines are reported and compared to values published in recent literature. About 25% differences in the NO and CO emission indices at several power settings were found for two military bypass engines of the same type. In addition the measured CO emission index of (51.8±4.6) g kg -1 at idle power of a CFM56-3 engine was about 27% lower than the value given by Spicer et al. (1984, 1994)for this engine type and about 27-48% higher than the ICAO data ( ICAO, 1995) for the whole span of CFM56-3 engines. The CO emission index measured at idle power of a CFM56-5C2 engine of AN Airbus A340 was (24±4) g kg -1 and can be compared to the ICAO value of 34 g kg -1. The N 2O mixing ratios measured at a higher power setting of this engine was found to be 4 ppm and is in the range of reported literature values. Since the NO and CO emissions are strongly connected to the combustion process/efficiency and thus to the state of engine maintainance and/or the engine age, it can be concluded that there are significant engine-to-engine (of the same type) and possibly day-to-day variations in the emission characteristics of aero engines which cannot be neglected for the estimation of the overall air-traffic emissions.

Heland, J.; Schäfer, K.

420

Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

1994-07-01

421

40 CFR 1054.240 - How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...one. Specify the deterioration factor to one more significant figure than the emission standard. You may use assigned...the deterioration factor, then rounding the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2014-07-01

422

40 CFR 1054.240 - How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...one. Specify the deterioration factor to one more significant figure than the emission standard. You may use assigned...the deterioration factor, then rounding the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2011-07-01

423

40 CFR 1054.240 - How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...one. Specify the deterioration factor to one more significant figure than the emission standard. You may use assigned...the deterioration factor, then rounding the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2010-07-01

424

40 CFR 1054.240 - How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...one. Specify the deterioration factor to one more significant figure than the emission standard. You may use assigned...the deterioration factor, then rounding the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2013-07-01

425

40 CFR 1054.240 - How do I demonstrate that my emission family complies with exhaust emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...one. Specify the deterioration factor to one more significant figure than the emission standard. You may use assigned...the deterioration factor, then rounding the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the...

2012-07-01

426

Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.  

PubMed

Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (<0.5-5 ?m) are abundant upstream of the DPF and are ash-free or contain notably little attached ash. Post-DPF soot agglomerates are very few, typically large (>1-5 ?m, exceptionally 13 ?m), rarely <0.5 ?m, and contain abundant ash carried mostly from inside the DPF. The ash that reaches the atmosphere also occurs as separate aggregates ca. 0.2-2 ?m in size consisting of sintered primary phases, ca. 20-400 nm large. Insoluble particles of these sizes may harm the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The DPF probably promotes breakout of large soot agglomerates (mostly ash-bearing) by favoring sintering. Noble metals detached from the DOC coating may reach the ambient air. Finally, very few agglomerates of Fe-oxide nanoparticles form newly from engine wear and escape into the atmosphere. PMID:24274188

Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

2013-12-17

427

Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

2014-06-01

428

Approach to SSME health monitoring. III - Exhaust plume emission spectroscopy: Recent results and detailed analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral data for two recent A-1 test firings, 901-717 and 901-718, obtained from an Optical Multichannel Analyzer and an Optical Plume Anomaly Detector, are presented. The spectral data encompasses the database of SSME critical components and materials and the spectral database for the SSME related elements and materials. Relatively strong and continuous emissions from Cr and Fe atomic transitions were observed starting at engine start plus 494 s and persisting until the engine shut off at engine start plus 520 s. These emissions are considered to be emanated from the SSME material AISI 440C, which is traced to high pressure turbopump bearings.

Tejwani, Gopal D.; Van Dyke, David B.; Bircher, Felix E.

1993-01-01

429

Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

PubMed Central

To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalized for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

2014-01-01

430

Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what 'wellbeing' is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

2014-12-01

431

REDUCING FUMIGANT EMISSIONS USING SURFACE TARPS: FIELD AND LABORATORY ASSESSMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasingly stringent regulations require that emissions of fumigants to the atmosphere be reduced to protect human and environmental health. Plastic tarps used to cover the soil surface during soil fumigation vary in their effectiveness as diffusion barriers. Virtually impermeable films (VIFs) hav...

432

TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

433

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

2005-01-01

434

Reduce emissions and operating costs with appropriate glycol selection  

SciTech Connect

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) emissions from glycol dehydration units have become a major concern and some form of control is necessary in many cases. One method of reducing BTEX emissions that is often overlooked is in the selection of the proper dehydrating agent. BTEX compounds are less soluble in diethylene glycol (DEG) than triethylene glycol (TEG) and considerably less soluble in ethylene glycol (EG). If the use of DEG or EG achieves the required gas dew point in cases where BTEX emissions are a concern, a significant savings in both operating costs and the cost of treating still vent gases may be achieved. This paper compares plant operations using TEG, DEG and EG from the viewpoint of BTEX emissions, circulating rates, utilities and dehydration capabilities.

Covington, K.; Lyddon, L. [Bryan Research and Engineering, Inc., TX (United States); Ebeling, H. [Latoka Engineering L.L.C., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1998-12-31

435

40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standard for Tier 2 and later engines is 2.0 g/kW-hr. This...follows: (i) Alcohol-fueled engines must comply with HC standards based on THCE emissions. (ii) Natural gas-fueled engines must comply with HC...

2012-07-01

436

40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standard for Tier 2 and later engines is 2.0 g/kW-hr. This standard...follows: (i) Alcohol-fueled engines must comply with HC standards based on THCE emissions. (ii) Natural gas-fueled engines must comply with HC...

2013-07-01

437

40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...manufactured. Where a gaseous emission standard is specified by a formula, calculate and round the standard to three significant figures or to the nearest 0.1 g/kN (for standards at or above 100 g/kN). Where a smoke standard is...

2012-07-01

438

Particulate sizing and emission indices for a jet engine exhaust sampled at cruise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle size and emission indices measurements for jet engines, primarily the Rolls Royce RB211 engines on a NASA 757 aircraft are reported. These data were used to estimate the fraction of fuel sulfur that was converted to particulates. These measurements were made in-situ with the sampling aircraft several kilometers behind the source. Some complimentary ground measurements on the same source

D. Hagen; P. Whitefield; J. Paladino; M. Trueblood; H. Lilenfeld

1998-01-01

439

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas recirculation passageway leads from an engine exhaust passageway to an engine induction passageway downstream of a throttle valve. A fuel control member of an injection pump moves the throttle valve in the opening direction to reduce the vacuum in the induction passageway and thereby the amount of exhaust gas recirculation only when the fuel control member is moved beyond a predetermined position in the fuel increasing direction. A stopper limits movement of the throttle valve in the closing direction.

Wake, J.; Matsuda, H.

1980-01-01

440

Sadhana Vol. 29, Part 3, June 2004, pp. 275284. Printed in India Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust  

E-print Network

, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of reducing the NOx emission, electronic management system, lube oil consumption control etc. However, technologies like exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), soot traps and exhaust gas after- treatment are essential to cater to the challenges posed

Jagannatham, Aditya K.

441

Increasing trend of primary NO 2 exhaust emission fraction in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the successful reduction in roadside NO\\u000a x\\u000a levels, no such decrease has been detected in roadside NO2 concentration in Hong Kong. One underlying cause could be the rising primary NO2 fraction of the total emission of NO\\u000a x\\u000a . Primary NO2 can be particularly detrimental to Hong Kong because a large fraction of the population are exposed to the

Linwei Tian; Sarah R. Hossain; Hualiang Lin; Kin Fai Ho; Shun Cheng Lee; Ignatius T. S. Yu

442

Estimations of primary nitrogen dioxide exhaust emissions from chemiluminescence NOx measurements in a UK road tunnel.  

PubMed

NO and NO(2) measurements have been made using the chemiluminescence method from 115 weekdays during the period 4th Jan-10th Sep 2010 in a well characterised, unventilated tunnel on the Leeds Inner Ring Road. Measurements are made at two points in the tunnel and the difference in NO and NO(2) was attributed to emissions from vehicles in the tunnel. These data have been used to determine the fraction of NOx (NO+NO(2)) as primary NO(2) (f-NO(2)) from vehicles using the tunnel. The average value of f-NO(2) from 7 am to 7 pm was 0.17 (-0.03)(+0.01) in agreement with estimations from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). However, during the day there was a reproducible increase in f-NO(2) from approximately 0.10 at 7 am to 0.21 at 7 pm which is not reproduced with the current UK vehicle fleet emissions inventories. The increase in f-NO(2) can be qualitatively linked to a decrease in the fraction of NOx arising from heavy goods vehicles and buses. PMID:23000714

Simmons, W A; Seakins, P W

2012-11-01

443

Determination of naval medium speed diesel engine air exhaust emissions and validation of a proposed estimation model. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

Steady state marine diesel engine exhaust emissions are being reviewed by the Environmental Protection Agency for possible regulation. In anticipation of future regulation, the United States Navy is developing appropriate emissions models for naval vessels. A procedure for collecting this data from an U. S. Navy ship with medium speed main propulsion diesels is presented. It is based on similar testing conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard for measuring patrol boat diesel engine emissions and International Standards Organization methodology. The primary challenge of the experiment design was to minimize interference with the engineering plant as the assigned ship was concurrently tasked for other operations. Data gathered allowed calculation of engine rpm, engine load, exhaust gas flow rate, and determination of pollutant amounts. The tests were conducted at a series of predetermined speeds to reflect an 11-Mode duty cycle developed previously for the LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines.

Mayeaux, A.M.

1995-05-01

444

Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands  

PubMed Central

The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO2 per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO2 per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N2O emissions compared to CO2 losses remains unclear. PMID:21081702

Murdiyarso, D.; Hergoualc’h, K.; Verchot, L. V.

2010-01-01

445

Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

446

Duplex tab exhaust nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

2012-01-01

447

Studies on exhaust emissions of mahua oil operated compression ignition engine.  

PubMed

The world is confronted with fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The energy demand and pollution problems lead to research for an alternative renewable energy sources. Vegetable oils and biodiesel present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel. In this work, an experimental work was carried out to study the feasibility of using raw mahua oil (MO) as a substitute for diesel in dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was used as primary fuel and mahua oil was used as pilot fuel. The results show that the performance of the dual fuel engine at the injector opening pressure of 220 bar and the advanced injection timing of 30 degrees bTDC results in performance close to diesel base line (DBL) operation and lower smoke and oxides of nitrogen emission. PMID:21117439

Kapilan, N; Reddy, R P

2009-07-01

448

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

SciTech Connect

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (US)

2005-08-15

449

Rotary Cement Kiln Control for Reducing NOx Emissions to Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A logic procedure, including 12 alternatives within 32 activities and 13 decision nodes has been designed\\/developed\\/implemented for the rotary cement kiln control aiming at reducing NOx emissions to atmosphere. The hierarchy of alternatives was evaluated through simple and top-down Kendall's coefficients of concordance, proved to be of statistical significance. An implementation is presented in the case of fuel substitution including

Fragiskos A. Batzias

2006-01-01

450

Appraisal of policy instruments for reducing buildings' CO2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The building sector currently contributes approximately one-third of energy-related CO2 emissions worldwide. It is economically possible to achieve a 30% reduction. However, numerous barriers such as financial and behavioural issues, market failures, and misplaced incentives prevent the realization of the high economic potentials. Which policy instruments are the most appropriate and cost-effective for reducing these barriers? To address this question,

Diana ürge-Vorsatz; Sonja Koeppel; Sebastian Mirasgedis

2007-01-01

451

The effect of two ammonia-emission-reducing pig housing systems on odour emission.  

PubMed

Odour nuisance from agricultural activities is increasing in densely populated countries like the Netherlands. To develop adequate regulations, a large-scale, government-financed monitoring programme was started in the mid-1990s to establish odour emission levels for both conventional and low ammonia emission housing systems for cattle, pigs and poultry. The results indicate that high- and low-odour emission housing are difficult to distinguish because of the large variation within housing systems. Measurements on different farm locations within the same housing system show both a large variation between locations and within one location (in time). The latter, however, is significantly smaller, which suggests that farm management is an important determinant in odour emission that interferes with the effects of housing systems. The current research was aimed at determining the effect of two common ammonia-reducing pig-housing systems on odour emissions compared to conventional housing systems under similar management conditions. The respective reduction principles of these systems are reducing the emitting surface of the manure pit and cooling of manure in the manure pit (both pits beneath slatted floor). Five farms that combined conventional housing with one low-ammonia system (three reduced emitting surface and two manure cooling) were selected for a direct, pair-wise comparison of (olfactometric) odour emission measurements. The results show a highly significant effect (p < 0.01) for two of the three reduced emitting surface systems and for one of the two manure cooling system. The average odour reduction percentages of these systems are 35% (from 24.9 to 16.0 OUE/s per animal) and 23% (from 30.1 to 24.0 OUE/s per animal) respectively. Although odour emission reduction through the type of housing system is possible, management factors interact with the system and thereby determine whether the system reduces odour emission or not. PMID:15484778

Mol, G; Ogink, N W M

2004-01-01

452

The New York City bus terminal diesel emissions study measurement and collection of diesel exhaust for chemical characterization and mutagenic activity  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the impact of emission from heavy-duty diesel engines on the mutagenicity of ambient air, this study was designed to compare the mutagenic activity of size-fractionated airborne particles collected inside and outside a large bus terminal. Most diesel exhaust studies have been performed in a laboratory setting. The NYC Port Authority Bus Terminal Study, on the other hand, was designed to collect, measure, chemically characterize, and bioassay diesel exhaust as it exists after becoming resident in the surrounding air. Chamber studies have demonstrated that some of the organic compounds associated with diesel exhaust undergo atmospheric transformation when subjected to ultraviolet light in combination with other pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and reactive hydrocarbons. These studies have also shown that the mutagenic response changes with the transformations. A high ambient loading of the emissions aerosol was chosen for the study in order to maximize the amount of information which could be acquired on the character, ambient exposure level, and potential health effects associated with diesel exhaust.

Burton, R.M.; Suggs, J.C.; Jungers, R.H.; Lewtas, J. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (US))

1987-01-01

453

Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2013-01-01

454

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

1992-09-01

455

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge '92  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

1992-01-01

456

Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions  

DOEpatents

Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

2002-01-01

457

Differential Responses upon Inhalation Exposure to Biodiesel versus Diesel Exhaust on Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Immune Outcomes  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodiesel (BD) exhaust may have reduced adverse health effects due to lower mass emissions and reduced production of hazardous compounds compared to diesel exhaust. To investigate this possibility, we compared adverse effects in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation ex...

458

Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption\\u000a and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system,\\u000a at temperatures which depend upon the engine’s operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C\\u000a at the tail-pipe. Beneficial

D. M. Rowe; J. Smith; G. Thomas; G. Min

2011-01-01

459

Bioavailability and biotransformation of the mutagenic component of particulate emissions present in motor exhaust samples.  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetic concepts of bioavailability and biotransformation are introduced into the assessment of public health risk from experimental data concerning the emissions of potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic substances from motor vehicles. The inappropriateness of an automatic application in the risk assessment process of analytical or experimental results, obtained with extracts and procedures incompatible with the biological environment, is illustrated on the discrepancy between short-term laboratory tests predictions that wider use of diesel engines on our roads will increase the risk of respiratory cancer and the widely negative epidemiological evidence. Mutagenic activity of diesel particulates was minimal or negative when tested in extracts obtained with biological fluids, was substantially dependent on the presence of nitroreductase in the microbial tester strain, and disappeared completely 48 hr after the diesel particles had been phagocytized by alveolar macrophages. Similarly, long-term animal inhalation exposures to high concentrations of diesel particles did not induce the activity of hydrocarbon metabolizing enzymes or specific adverse immune response unless organic solvent extracts of diesel particles were administered intratracheally or parenterally in doses that highly exceed the predicted levels of public exposure even by the year 2000. Furthermore, the suspected cancer producing effects of inhaled diesel particles have thus far not been verified by experimental animal models or available long-term epidemiological observations. It is concluded that unless the biological accessibility of the active component on the pollutant as well as its biotransformation and clearance by natural defense mechanisms are considered, lung cancer risk assessment based solely on laboratory microbial tests will remain an arbitrary and unrealistic process and will not provide meaningful information on the potential health hazard of a pollutant. PMID:6186478

Vostal, J J

1983-01-01

460

Evaluation of concepts for controlling exhaust emissions from minimally processed petroleum and synthetic fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rich-lean combustor concepts designed to enhance rich combustion chemistry and increase combustor flexibility for NO(x) reduction with minimally processed fuels are examined. Processes such as rich product recirculation in the rich chamber, rich-lean annihilation, and graduated air addition or staged rich combustion to release bound nitrogen in steps of reduced equivalence ratio are discussed. Variations to the baseline rapid quench section are considered, and the effect of residence time in the rich zone is investigated. The feasibility of using uncooled non-metallic materials for the rich zone combustion construction is also addressed. The preliminary results indicate that rich primary zone staged combustion provides environmentally acceptable operation with residual and/or synthetic coal-derived liquid fuels

Russell, P. L.; Beal, G. W.; Sederquist, R. A.; Shultz, D.

1981-01-01

461

Certification of Pd and Pt single spikes and application to the quantification of Pt and Pd in automotive exhaust emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous epidemiological studies show the effect of increased ambient pollution. Therefore measurement networks for air quality have been installed worldwide and legislation requires the monitoring of air pollution. Besides monitoring it is also important to be able to identify, to quantify and finally to regulate the emission of distinct sources in order to improve the quality of life. Automotive vehicles are a major source of environmental pollution especially through contaminants such as CO, NOX, SOX and hydrocarbons which derive from petrol combustion, while for example Platinum Group Elements (PGE) can be present from catalytic converters. The release of PGE into the environment, however, may be damaging in terms of public health, ecological and economic interests. In order to reliably assess the risks from PGEs, traceable and thus comparable data on the release rates of PGE from automotive catalysers are needed. As no Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are available for such samples the development of analytical procedures enabling SI-traceable results will be challenging. Therefore reference procedures for Pd and Pt in automotive exhaust emissions based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) have been developed and applied to specifically sampled automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the commonly known advantages, IDMS often is applied for quantification PGEs, as is the case within this work. The main reasons here are the required accuracy and the low PGE mass fractions in the sample. In order to perform IDMS analysis the analyte element must be available in an isotopically enriched form as so-called spike material or solution thereof, which is mixed with the sample. Unfortunately, no certified PGE spike solutions are available yet. To fill this gap two single PGE spikes, one 106Pd and one 194Pt spike, have been produced and characterized. The selection of the isotopes, the production of the solutions and the ampoulation will be described in this presentation. Details on the characterization of these spike solutions by reverse IDMS using a primary assay for Pd and Pt will be given. With measurement uncertainties < 0.1 % for the Pd and Pt mass fraction both spike solutions are well suited to become certified reference materials under the ERM® label. The newly developed IDMS reference procedures consist of a dissolution step by microwave assisted digestion or wet high pressure ashing, followed by a 2-step ion chromatographic Pd- and Pt-matrix separation. The total blank values for this analytical procedure are ? 5 pg for Pd and ? 75 pg for Pt. First results on filters obtained under harmonized driving cycles (e.g. Artemis, NEDC) show Pd and Pt masses below 1 ng down to 100 pg with some filters showing relatively high values of 4 - 6 ng, which of course depends on the driving cycle.

Vogl, Jochen; Meyer, Christian; Noordmann, Janine; Rienitz, Olaf; Geilert, Sonja

2014-05-01

462

Exposure to volatile organic compounds for individuals with occupations associated with potential exposure to motor vehicle exhaust and\\/or gasoline vapor emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers who work near volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source(s), motor vehicle exhausts and\\/or gasoline vapor emissions, are suspected to be exposed to highly-elevated VOC levels during their work-time. This study confirmed this suspicion and evaluated the work-time exposure VOCs for traffic police officers, parking garage attendants, service station attendants, roadside storekeepers and underground storekeepers, by measuring the concentrations of six

Wan-Kuen Jo; Ki-Berm Song

2001-01-01

463

Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation  

PubMed Central

Tropical deforestation is estimated to cause about one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon emissions, loss of biodiversity, and other environmental services. United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change talks are now considering mechanisms for avoiding deforestation (AD), but the economic potential of AD has yet to be addressed. We use three economic models of global land use and management to analyze the potential contribution of AD activities to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. AD activities are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.3–0.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 × 105 g) CO2·yr?1 in emission reductions and would require $0.4 billion to $1.7 billion·yr?1 for 30 years. A 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.5–2.7 Gt CO2·yr?1 in emission reductions and would require $17.2 billion to $28.0 billion·yr?1. Finally, some caveats to the analysis that could increase costs of AD programs are described. PMID:18650377

Kindermann, Georg; Obersteiner, Michael; Sohngen, Brent; Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Kenneth; Rametsteiner, Ewald; Schlamadinger, Bernhard; Wunder, Sven; Beach, Robert

2008-01-01

464

Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

Higgins, P. A.

2004-12-01

465

Impacts of reducing shipboard NOx? and SOx? emissions on vessel performance  

E-print Network

The international maritime community has been experiencing tremendous pressures from environmental organizations to reduce the emissions footprint of their vessels. In the last decade, air emissions, including nitrogen ...

Caputo, Ronald J., Jr. (Ronald Joseph)

2010-01-01

466

A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80 km h -1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The total emission factors of the elements from the exhausts of ULP cars were higher than those of LPG cars at both engine speeds even though high variability in the exhaust emissions from different cars was noted. The effect of the operating conditions such as mileage of the cars, engine speed, fuel and lubricating oil compositions on the emissions was studied. To investigate the effects of these conditions, multivariate data analysis methods were employed including exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), and the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), for ranking the cars on the basis of the emission factors of the elements. PCA biplot of the complete data matrix showed a clear discrimination of the February, June and August emission test results. In addition, (i) platinum group elements (PGE) emissions were separated from each other in the three different clusters viz. Pt with February, Pd with June and Rh with August; (ii) the motor oil related elements, Zn and P, were particularly associated with the June and August tests (these vectors were also grouped with V, Al and Cu); and (iii) highest emissions of most major elements were associated with the August test after the cars have recorded their highest mileage. Extensive analysis with the aid of the MCDM ranking methods demonstrated clearly that cars powered by LPG outperform those powered by ULP. In general, cars tested in June perform better than those tested in August, which suggested that mileage was the key criterion of car performance on the basis of elemental emission factors.

Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan; Kokot, Serge

467

Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

2005-08-25

468

Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry  

E-print Network

A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

Plumley, Michael J

2005-01-01

469

Influence of physical and chemical characteristics of diesel fuels and exhaust emissions on biological effects of particle extracts: a multivariate statistical analysis of ten diesel fuels.  

PubMed

The emission of diesel exhaust particulates is associated with potentially severe biological effects, e.g., cancer. The aim of the present study was to apply multivariate statistical methods to identify factors that affect the biological potency of these exhausts. Ten diesel fuels were analyzed regarding physical and chemical characteristics. Particulate exhaust emissions were sampled after combustion of these fuels on two makes of heavy duty diesel engines. Particle extracts were chemically analyzed and tested for mutagenicity in the Ames test. Also, the potency of the extracts to competitively inhibit the binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the Ah receptor was assessed. Relationships between fuel characteristics and biological effects of the extracts were studied, using partial least squares regression (PLS). The most influential chemical fuel parameters included the contents of sulfur, certain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), and naphthenes. Density and flash point were positively correlated with genotoxic potency. Cetane number and upper distillation curve points were negatively correlated with both mutagenicity and Ah receptor affinity. Between 61% and 70% of the biological response data could be explained by the measured chemical and physical factors of the fuels. By PLS modeling of extract data versus the biological response data, 66% of the genotoxicity could be explained, by 41% of the chemical variation. The most important variables, associated with both mutagenicity and Ah receptor affinity, included 1-nitropyrene, particle bound nitrate, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and emitted mass of particles. S9-requiring mutagenicity was highly correlated with certain PAC, whereas S9-independent mutagenicity was better correlated with nitrates and 1-nitropyrene. The emission of sulfates also showed a correlation both with the emission of particles and with the biological effects. The results indicate that fuels with biologically less hazardous potentials should have high cetane number and contain less PAC and sulfur. The results also indicate that engine factors affect the formation and emission of nitrated PAC. PMID:8924591

Sjögren, M; Li, H; Banner, C; Rafter, J; Westerholm, R; Rannug, U

1996-01-01

470

Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector  

SciTech Connect

Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

2011-01-01

471

Worldwide diesel emission standards, current experiences and future needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tightening of future exhaust emission limits for diesel engines and diesel vehicles require more and more extraordinary development efforts with respect to reducing both engine-out emissions by improved combustion processes and tailpipe emissions by new exhaust gas aftertreatment systems (EGAS). Today, the main EGAS activities in engine application as well as in research and development concentrates on oxidation catalysts,

Paul Zelenka; Wolfgang Cartellieri; Peter Herzog

1996-01-01

472

A Strategy for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Personal Travel in Britain  

E-print Network

and other research outputs A strategy for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from personal travel in Britain Thesis How to cite: Hughes, Peter Samuel (1992). A strategy for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from personal

Peter Samuel; Hughes Bsc

473

40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...streams before emission sampling, you may configure the exhaust system with turbulence generators, such as orifice plates or fins, to achieve good mixing. We recommend a minimum Reynolds number, Re# , of 4000 for the combined exhaust stream,...

2011-07-01

474

Traffic generated non-exhaust particulate emissions from concrete pavement: A mass and particle size study for two-wheelers and small cars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to understand the non-exhaust (NE) emission of particles from wear of summer tire and concrete pavement, especially for two wheelers and small cars. A fully enclosed laboratory-scale model was fabricated to simulate road tire interaction with a facility to collect particles in different sizes. A road was cast using the M-45 concrete mixture and the centrifugal casting method. It was observed that emission of large particle non exhaust emission (LPNE) as well as PM 10 and PM 2.5 increased with increasing load. The LPNE was 3.5 mg tire -1 km -1 for a two wheeler and 6.4 mg tire -1 km -1 for a small car. The LPNE can lead to water pollution through water run-off from the roads. The contribution of the PM 10 and PM 2.5 was smaller compared to the LPNE particles (less than 0.1%). About 32 percent of particle mass of PM 10 was present below 1 ?m. The number as well as mass size distribution for PM 10 was observed to be bi-modal with peaks at 0.3 ?m and 4-5 ?m. The NE emissions did not show any significant trend with change in tire pressure.

Aatmeeyata; Kaul, D. S.; Sharma, Mukesh

475

40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must be the systems expected to yield the...

2014-07-01

476

40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must be the systems expected to yield the...

2011-07-01

477

40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must be the systems expected to yield the...

2010-07-01

478

40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must be the systems expected to yield the...

2012-07-01

479

40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must be the systems expected to yield the...

2013-07-01

480

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

PubMed

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2011-01-01

481

Aerosol number size distributions within the exhaust plume of a diesel and a gasoline passenger car under on-road conditions and determination of emission factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new setup has been developed and built to measure number size distributions of exhaust particles and thermodynamic parameters under real traffic conditions. Measurements have been performed using a diesel and a gasoline passenger car driving with different speeds and engine conditions. Significant number of nucleation mode particles was found only during high load conditions, i.e. high car and engine speeds behind the diesel car. The number concentration of soot mode particles varied within a factor of two for different engine conditions while the concentration of nucleation mode particles varied up to two orders of magnitude. The results show that roadside measurements are still quite different from those behind the tailpipe. Beside dilution transformation processes within the first meter behind the tailpipe also play an important role, such as nucleation and growth. Emission factors were calculated and compared with those obtained by other studies. Emission factors for particles larger than 25 nm (primary emissions) varied within 1.1 × 10 14 km -1 and 2.7 × 10 14 km -1 for the diesel car and between 0.6 × 10 12 km -1 and 3.5 × 10 12 km -1 for the gasoline car. The advantage of these measurements is the exhaust dilution under atmospheric conditions and the size-resolved measurement technique to divide into primary emitted and secondary formed particles.

Wehner, B.; Uhrner, U.; von Löwis, S.; Zallinger, M.; Wiedensohler, A.

482

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster at 244-AR vault. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault. The exhauster would be used during air jetting of accumulated liquids from the cell sumps into the tanks and to make transfers among the tanks within the vault when needed. The 244-AR Vault is considered to be a double-contained receiver tank (OCRT) based on its functional characteristics, although it is not listed as one of the five designated DCRTs in the 200 Area Tank Farm systems. Process operations at the vault have been inactive since 1978 and the vault`s two stacks have not operated since 1993. Since cessation of vault operations an extremely large amount of rain water and snow melt have accumulated in the cell sumps. The water level in the sumps is substantially above their respective operating levels and there is concern for leakage to the environment through containment failure due to corrosion from backed-up sump liquid. Active ventilation is required to provide contamination control during air jetting operations within the vault. It has been determined that it would not be cost effective to repair the existing exhaust systems to an operational condition; thus, a portable exhauster will be used to support the intermittent operations.

Carrell, D.J.

1997-12-17

483

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty...not requiring particulate emissions measurements. (a)...

2011-07-01

484

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty...not requiring particulate emissions measurements. (a)...

2013-07-01

485

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty...not requiring particulate emissions measurements. (a)...

2010-07-01

486

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty...not requiring particulate emissions measurements. (a)...

2012-07-01

487

Emissions R&D at GE/CRD coal-fueled diesel: Technology development methods for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal from coal diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Four processes were investigated at the GE Research and Development Center (GE-CRD) for the removal of gaseous pollutants from the exhaust of a coal-fired diesel locomotive engine. The minimum goal for emissions control was to reduce the pollutant levels at least to the levels of a conventional diesel engine. It should be noted, however, that some of the methods investigated were capable of reducing emissions below these levels. Achieving the minimum goal requires a reduction of approximately 50% in SO{sub 2} emissions and a 90 to 95% reduction in particulate emissions, the actual percentages varying with the fuel. NO{sub x} emissions from the coal diesel are approximately 50% of the conventional diesel level. The space limitations on board the locomotive present the greatest obstacle to the design of an emissions control system. The cleanup system must be compact as well as multifunctional. The development of a particulate collection device was undertaken by GE Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI). Among the options they evaluated were high-temperature metal filters, cyclones, and a granular bed. The development of a cleanup method or SO{sub 2} and possibly NO{sub x} was undertaken at GE-CRD. A process was sought which could incorporate one of the particulate removal devices under consideration. Four processes utilizing three classes of sorbents -- copper oxide, calcium-based, and sodium bicarbonate --were investigated for SO{sub 2} capture: Two of these processes use copper oxide (CuO), a regenerable SO{sub 2} sorbent. The CuSO{sub 4} formed has the added property that it catalyzes the reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} in the presence of NH{sub 3}. This NO{sub x} removal capability was tested for both CuO processes.

Cohen, M.R.; Leonard, G.L.; Slaughter, D.M.

1993-10-01