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1

Positive and negative associations underlying ambivalent attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two studies, we compared the strength of positive and negative associations of ambivalent attitudes to those of nonambivalent attitudes. In Study 1, results from an implicit association task showed that, in contrast to nonambivalent attitudes, ambivalent attitudes were characterized by strong positive and negative associations. In Study 2 responses to ambivalent attitude objects were faster following a positive as

Yaël de Liver; Joop van der Pligt; Daniël Wigboldus

2007-01-01

2

Attitude Statements as Positive and Negative Reinforcements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that attraction is a function of attitude similarity has been interpreted as a special case of the effect of positive and negative reinforcements on attraction. A simple discrimination learning task was employed in which the reinforcements were attitude statements similar and dissimilar to the opinions of the subject. The presentation of similar attitude statements after each correct response

Carole Golightly; Donn Byrne

1964-01-01

3

Negative attitudes toward masturbation in sex therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of masturbation in males and females as reported by Kinsey was cited as basic data to support Gagnon and Simon's theoretical conceptions of differences in the psychosexual development of males and females. The use of masturbation as treatment in sex therapy was reviewed. An inventory to measure negative attitudes toward masturbation was described, and four research studies supporting

Donald L. Mosher

1979-01-01

4

Impact of negation salience and cognitive resources on negation during attitude formation.  

PubMed

Because of the increased cognitive resources required to process negations, past research has shown that explicit attitude measures are more sensitive to negations than implicit attitude measures. The current work demonstrated that the differential impact of negations on implicit and explicit attitude measures was moderated by (a) the extent to which the negation was made salient and (b) the amount of cognitive resources available during attitude formation. When negations were less visually salient, explicit but not implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations. When negations were more visually salient, both explicit and implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations, but only when perceivers had ample cognitive resources during encoding. Competing models of negation processing, schema-plus-tag and fusion, were examined to determine how negation salience impacts the processing of negations. PMID:22711740

Boucher, Kathryn L; Rydell, Robert J

2012-06-18

5

Correlates of Chilean Adolescents' Negative Attitudes Toward Cigarettes: The Role of Gender, Peer, Parental, and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. Results: For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Conclusion: Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls’ but not boys’ attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking.

Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

2012-01-01

6

Development of a measure of negative attitudes toward masturbation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the development of a new, 30-item measure of negative attitudes toward masturbation and the relationships between negative attitudes toward masturbation, sex guilt, and frequency of masturbation in 96 male and 102 female undergraduates. 4 male and 4 female Es administered the Sex Guilt subscale of the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory, a measure of sex experience by Brady and Levitt,

Paul R. Abramson; Donald L. Mosher

1975-01-01

7

The relation between gender and negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: Do gender role attitudes mediate this relation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether traditional gender role attitudes mediated the relation between gender and negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. One hundred and fifty-five heterosexual college students (59% female; 97% Caucasian) completed questionnaires that assessed their attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and their gender role attitudes. Although males reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than females, there

John G. Kerns; Mark A. Fine

1994-01-01

8

Interpersonal chemistry through negativity: Bonding by sharing negative attitudes about others  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that sharing a negative—as compared to a positive—attitude about a third party is particularly effective in promoting closeness between people. Findings from two survey studies and an experiment support this idea. In Studies 1 and 2, participants' open-ended responses revealed a tendency to recall sharing with their closest friends more negative than positive attitudes about other people. Study

JENNIFER K. BOSSON; AMBER B. JOHNSON; KATE NIEDERHOFFER; WILLIAM B. SWANN JR

2006-01-01

9

Positive and Negative Attitudes Mediating Suicide Ideation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Conducted three studies to examine independent feasibility of two explanations for why individuals consider suicide (presence of negative expectancies and absence of positive reasons for living). Results from both clinical and nonclinical samples consistently indicated distinct nomological nets for measures of "hopelessness" and "reasons for…

Dyck, Murray J.

1991-01-01

10

Liking Is Not the Opposite of Disliking: The Functional Separability of Positive and Negative Attitudes Toward Minority Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies tested the hypotheses that positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups are not interchangeable in predicting positive versus negative behaviors toward those groups. In Study 1, positive attitudes about Latinos were a better predictor of a positive behavior toward Latinos than were negative attitudes or stereotyped positive attitudes. In Study 2, positive attitudes about African Americans were a

Todd L. Pittinsky; Seth A. Rosenthal; R. Matthew Montoya

2011-01-01

11

Approach behavior can mitigate predominately univalent negative attitudes: Evidence regarding insects and spiders.  

PubMed

Three experiments tested whether disliking of predominately univalently negative attitude objects could be reduced by a procedure pairing approach behaviors with subliminally presented images of the objects. Experiment 1 demonstrated that participants who approached images of insects rated insects less negatively than participants who did not approach insect pictures. Experiment 2 extended this effect to spiders and used an implicit measure of spider attitudes. Experiment 3 examined the consequences of an approach induction for affect during actual approach behavior in a sample of individuals with elevated levels of spider fear by using a Behavioral Approach Task. Fearful individuals who approached spider pictures reported less anxiety when encountering live spiders than participants who did not approach spider pictures. As such, the results provided evidence on explicit, implicit, and behavioral measures that negative and predominately univalent attitudes can be influenced by approach behaviors. Implications for attitude change interventions and potential contribution to the efficacy of exposure therapy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23795593

Jones, Christopher R; Vilensky, Michael R; Vasey, Michael W; Fazio, Russell H

2013-06-24

12

Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements.  

PubMed

Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour. PMID:19503749

Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

2009-05-18

13

Neural Correlates of Attitude Change Following Positive and Negative Advertisements  

PubMed Central

Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

2009-01-01

14

The Effects of Social Skills Training vs. Psychoeducation on Negative Attitudes of Mothers of Persons with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objective We compared the effects of two brief psychoeducation programs and social skills training on the negative attitudes of mothers with a son who has schizophrenia. Methods 15 mothers with strong negative feelings towards a sons with schizophrenia were assigned by convenience to participate in one of three brief (5 session) group programs at an outpatient clinic: lecture-based psychoeducation, video-based psychoeducation, or social skills training. Assessments using the Patient Rejection Scale were conducted with the mothers at post-treatment, and 3-, 6-, and 9-months later. Results Mothers in the three groups demonstrated significantly different patterns of changes in their negative attitudes following treatment. Whereas the mothers who received the two psychoeducation interventions showed reductions in rejecting attitudes immediately following the program, their scores gradually increased at the subsequent follow-up assessments. In contrast, the mothers in the social skills training group showed reductions in negative attitudes that were sustained across all of the follow-up assessments. Conclusion Brief social skills training may be more effective than psychoeducation in reducing negative attitudes of parents who have an offspring with schizophrenia.

Kim, Chulkwon

2011-01-01

15

Estrogen patient package insert: medication acceptance despite negative attitudes  

SciTech Connect

We surveyed 100 women receiving short courses of estrogen post partum to suppress lactation. Thirty six had significant apprehension about estrogens, but took them. These women were significantly older and better educated and 92% of them were married. In contrast, only one third of the ''nonapprehensive'' women were married and they had significantly lower family incomes. More of the apprehensive women read the estrogen patient package insert (PPI) and almost 30% developed negative attitudes toward estrogens. The major concerns of these women reflected information in the PPI about cancer and thromboembolism. The reasons given for taking estrogens despite apprehension included the lower risk of short courses, assurance from physicians, nurses, or family members, and the desired therapeutic effect. These women should not be given the current estrogen PPI, which was designed to warn women of the risks of long-term estrogen use; a PPI should be written specifically for patients receiving short courses. Similar problems will arise with the PPIs for other medications that have different risks for different therapeutic indications.

Weintraub, M.; Glickstein, S.; Lasagna, L.

1981-08-01

16

Correlates of negative attitudes toward gay men: Sexism, male role norms, and male sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that heterosexual men are more negative toward gay men than women are on measures of attitudes toward homosexual behaviour and homosexual persons (Kite & Whitley, 1996). Gender differences in attitudes toward gay men's civil rights are less clear. No empirical studies, however, have investigated these findings with a scale that measures specifically these three attitudinal subcomponents. This

Michelle Davies

2004-01-01

17

Negative Affect in Victimized Children: The Roles of Social Withdrawal, Peer Rejection, and Attitudes Toward Bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the validity of mediating pathways in predicting self-assessed negative affect from shyness\\/social withdrawal, peer rejection, victimization by peers (overt and relational), and the attitude that aggression is legitimate and warranted. Participants were 296 3rd through 5th graders (156 girls, 140 boys) from 10 elementary schools. Self-report measures of victimization, attitudes, and negative affect, and a teacher-report measure

Edward J. Dill; Eric M. Vernberg; Peter Fonagy; Stuart W. Twemlow; Bridget K. Gamm

2004-01-01

18

Gender effect and prejudice: when a salient female norm moderates male negative attitudes toward homosexuals.  

PubMed

Men generally express more negative attitudes than women toward homosexuals. This study aims to determine if social norms saliency can rely on this "gender effect" and influence attitudes toward homosexuals. Gender characteristics (attitudes and lexical markers) concerning homosexuality were identified in Study 1 and used to construct male- (i.e., promoting a prejudice-related norm) and female-marked (i.e., promoting an anti-prejudice-related norm) messages. Social norms saliency was primed using these messages (Studies 2 and 3) and the participant's immediate context (Study 3). Results show that promoting a prejudiced norm eases expression of males' negative attitudes toward homosexuals, whereas the promotion of an anti-prejudice norm inhibits their attitudes. Theoretical elaborations and potential applications for promotion of tolerance are discussed. PMID:23808349

Mange, Jessica; Lepastourel, Nadia

2013-07-01

19

The effect of negative online consumer reviews on product attitude: An information processing view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online consumer reviews provide product information and recommendations from the customer perspective. This study investigates the effects of negative online consumer reviews on consumer product attitude. In particular, it examines the proportion and quality of negative online consumer reviews from the perspective of information processing. The elaboration likelihood model is used to explain the persuasive effect of the proportion and

Jumin Lee; Do-hyung Park; Ingoo Han

2008-01-01

20

Negative Affect in Victimized Children: The Roles of Social Withdrawal, Peer Rejection, and Attitudes toward Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the validity of mediating pathways in predicting self-assessed negative affect from shyness/social withdrawal, peer rejection, victimization by peers (overt and relational), and the attitude that aggression is legitimate and warranted. Participants were 296 3rd through 5th graders (156 girls, 140 boys) from 10 elementary…

Dill, Edward J.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Gamm, Bridget K.

2004-01-01

21

Some Characteristics of Those Who Hold Positive and Negative Attitudes Toward Homosexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study (presented as a paradigm in the area of majority-minority relations) replicates previous findings that negative attitudes toward homosexuals are associated with lack of support for equality between the sexes. It includes a multidimensional measure of support for equality between the sexes; Semantic Differentials for Man, Woman, Male Homosexual, and Lesbian; four value factors derived from Rokeach's 36 Instrumental

A. P. MacDonald Jr; Richard G. Games

1976-01-01

22

Reducing the Negative Effects of Large Schools. Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reviews recent efforts to promote small schools. The rationale for small schools is discussed, drawing on recent studies linking school size and various outcomes. Arguments for large schools are considered, followed by an examination of four ways to reduce the negative effects of school size--build smaller schools, utilize satellite…

Duke, Daniel L.; DeRoberto, Thomas; Trautvetter, Sarah

2009-01-01

23

Out-Group Mating Threat and Disease Threat Increase Implicit Negative Attitudes Toward the Out-Group Among Men  

PubMed Central

We investigated if perceiving an out-group as a threat to one's mating opportunities enhanced the implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of disease threat on the relationship between an out-group mating threat and implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In Experiment 1, an out-group mating threat led to stronger implicit negative out-group attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test, but only for men with high chronic perceived vulnerability to disease. No such effects were found among women. In Experiment 2, men in the out-group mating threat condition who were primed with disease prevalence showed significantly stronger implicit negative attitudes toward the out-group than controls. Findings are discussed with reference to the functional approach to prejudice and sex-specific motivational reactions to different out-group threats.

Klavina, Liga; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.

2011-01-01

24

Alcohol Makes Others Dislike You: Reducing the Positivity of Teens' Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Alcohol Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N?=?108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of an edited episode of the reality program Jersey Shore in which alcohol use had negative consequences,

Anneke de Graaf

2012-01-01

25

Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

2012-01-01

26

Changing attitudes - women's experiences of negative reactions to their decision for home birth: a population-based study.  

PubMed

Being confronted with negative attitudes influences the self-concept of pregnant women. Few women in Sweden give birth at home, and Sweden does not have national home birth guidelines. This study describes women's experiences concerning reactions to their decision to give birth at home. One in five women experienced negative attitudes to a high extent from health care staff during the study period (1992-2005). Fewer women reported this during the latter part of the period compared to the earlier part. The change in attitudes may be related to the introduction in 2002 of guidelines for planned home births in Stockholm County Council. PMID:22325803

Sjöblom, Ingela; Idvall, Ewa; Lindgren, Helena

2011-11-28

27

HIV-negative and HIV-positive gay men's attitudes to medicines, HIV treatments and antiretroviral-based prevention.  

PubMed

We assessed attitudes to medicines, HIV treatments and antiretroviral-based prevention in a national, online survey of 1,041 Australian gay men (88.3% HIV-negative and 11.7% HIV-positive). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to identify the effect of HIV status on attitudes. HIV-negative men disagreed with the idea that HIV drugs should be restricted to HIV-positive people. HIV-positive men agreed and HIV-negative men disagreed that taking HIV treatments was straightforward and HIV-negative men were more sceptical about whether HIV treatment or an undetectable viral load prevented HIV transmission. HIV-negative and HIV-positive men had similar attitudes to pre-exposure prophylaxis but divergent views about 'treatment as prevention'. PMID:23001412

Holt, Martin; Murphy, Dean; Callander, Denton; Ellard, Jeanne; Rosengarten, Marsha; Kippax, Susan; de Wit, John

2013-07-01

28

Belief in a Just World and Social Dominance Orientation: Evidence for a Mediational Pathway Predicting Negative Attitudes and Discrimination Against Individuals with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prejudice against individuals with mental illness stems from multiple factors, including the personality traits of those harboring the prejudiced attitudes. However, little is known about the personality processes (as opposed to static correlates) leading to negative attitudes and discrimination toward individuals with mental illness. The present research tested a mediational model such that negative attitudes against such people and resulting

George Y. Bizer; Joshua B. Hart; Allison Jekogian

29

Imagining intergroup contact can combat mental health stigma by reducing anxiety, avoidance and negative stereotyping.  

PubMed

Research has demonstrated widespread negative attitudes held toward people with mental health problems. Our study investigated whether a new prejudice reduction technique, imagined intergroup contact (Crisp & Turner, 2009), could combat stigma against people with mental illness, and the mediating processes through which it may exert this beneficial effect. We found that compared to a control condition, participants who imagined a positive encounter with a schizophrenic person reported weakened stereotypes and formed stronger intentions to engage in future social interactions with schizophrenic people in general. Importantly, these intentions were formed due to reduced feelings of anxiety about future interactions. We discuss the implications of these findings for improving the social inclusion of people with mental health problems. PMID:23057193

Stathi, Sofia; Tsantila, Katerina; Crisp, Richard J

30

A fourth-year medical school clerkship that addressed negative attitudes toward geriatric medicine.  

PubMed

Despite extensive educational efforts, many medical students still have negative attitudes toward the field of geriatric medicine and the care of older adult patients. This article describes a fourth-year geriatric clerkship that addressed this issue by providing opportunities for students to actively discuss many of the negative stereotypes that exist regarding geriatric medicine. Emphasis was also placed on personalizing the course content to show the relevance of geriatric medicine to all medical students. During the 2008/09 academic year, 150 students completed the rotation. Although no students expressed an interest in pursuing a career as a geriatrician, they expressed a highly favorable evaluation of this personalized geriatric clerkship and voted this clerkship "the most outstanding clinical course" at the medical school. PMID:20398156

Golden, Adam G; van Zuilen, Maria H; Mintzer, Michael J; Issenberg, S Barry; Silverman, Michael A; Roos, Bernard A

2010-04-01

31

Influences of Trait Negative Affect and Situational Similarity on Correlation and Convergence of Work Attitudes and Job Stress Perceptions Across Two Jobs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Job attitude and work stressor measures were obtained from members of a large militaty reserve unit. Respondents workedpart-time at the unit and full-time in a different occupation in a separate organization. Correlations of corresponding job attitudes and perceived stressors across the two jobs were signtjicant,. but not of high magnitude. For both job stressors and work attitudes, trait negative affectivity

John Schaubroeck; Timothy A. Judge; Lewis A. Taylor

1998-01-01

32

Influences of trait negative affect and situational similarity on correlation and convergence of work attitudes and job stress perceptions across two jobs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Job attitude and work stressor measures were obtained from members of a large military reserve unit. Respondents worked part-time at the unit and full-time in a different occupation in a separate organization. Correlations of corresponding job attitudes and perceived stressors across the two jobs were significant,. but not of high magnitude. For both job stressors and work attitudes, trait negative

Lewis A. Taylor

1998-01-01

33

Imagining Intergroup Contact Can Combat Mental Health Stigma by Reducing Anxiety, Avoidance and Negative Stereotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has demonstrated widespread negative attitudes held towards people with mental health problems. Our study investigated whether a new prejudice reduction technique, imagined intergroup contact (Crisp & Turner, 2009), could combat stigma against people with mental illness, and the mediating processes through which it may exert this beneficial effect. We found that compared to a control condition, participants who imagined

Sofia Stathi; Katerina Tsantila; Richard J. Crisp

2012-01-01

34

Measurement and Predictors of a Negative Attitude towards Statistics among LMU Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of the attitude towards statistics and the relationship between the attitude towards statistics and several\\u000a socio-demographic and educational factors was investigated in a survey on over 600 students of the Ludgwig-Maximilians-Universität\\u000a (LMU). The attitude towards statistics was measured by means of the Affect and Cognitive Competence scales of the Survey of\\u000a Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS, Schau et al.

Carolin Strobl; Friedrich Leisch; Christian Dittrich; Christian Seiler; Sandra Hackensperger

35

Negative Affect Reduces Performance in Implicit Sequence Learning  

PubMed Central

Background It is well documented that positive rather than negative moods encourage integrative processing of conscious information. However, the extent to which implicit or unconscious learning can be influenced by affective states remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings A Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task with sequence structures requiring integration over past trials was adopted to examine the effect of affective states on implicit learning. Music was used to induce and maintain positive and negative affective states. The present study showed that participants in negative rather than positive states learned less of the regularity. Moreover, the knowledge was shown by a Bayesian analysis to be largely unconscious as participants were poor at recognizing the regularity. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrated that negative rather than positive affect inhibited implicit learning of complex structures. Our findings help to understand the effects of affective states on unconscious or implicit processing.

Shang, Junchen; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan; Shao, Can; Fu, Xiaolan

2013-01-01

36

Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

Shin, Junseob

2011-01-01

37

Contact Reduces Transprejudice: A Study on Attitudes towards Transgenderism and Transgender Civil Rights in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between Hong Kong Chinese people's contact with transgender\\/transsexual (TG\\/TS) people and attitudes toward transgenderism and transgender civil rights, based on Allport's Contact Hypothesis. The term transprejudice is introduced to refer to the negative valuing, stereotyping and discriminatory treatment of TG\\/TS people. Data are presented from a population-based survey with a random sample of 856 Hong

Mark E. King; Sam Winter; Beverley Webster

2009-01-01

38

Reducing STD/HIV Stigmatizing Attitudes through Community Popular Opinion Leaders in Chinese Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes, and practices of risky sexual behavior. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus 1 campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community leaders to discuss these issues in everyday…

Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.

2012-01-01

39

Reducing STD/HIV Stigmatizing Attitudes through Community Popular Opinion Leaders in Chinese Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes, and practices of risky sexual behavior. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus 1 campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community leaders to discuss these issues in everyday…

Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.

2012-01-01

40

The Role of Shame as a Mediator between Anti-Black Racial Identity Attitudes and Negative Affect in a Sample of African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 168 African American undergraduates was surveyed to clarify past findings demonstrating a consistent relationship between endorsing negative attitudes about being African American and experiencing negative affect. Specifically, shame was tested as a mediator between participants' endorsement of preencounter attitudes (i.e., anti-Black…

Jefferson, Stephen

2011-01-01

41

Adolescents' negative attitudes towards non-drinkers: A novel predictor of risky drinking.  

PubMed

The Regan Attitudes towards Non-Drinkers Scale was developed to address the concept that consumption of alcohol may serve as a means of avoiding social costs associated with being a non-drinker. This study sought to examine the Regan Attitudes towards Non-Drinkers Scale within a sample of Irish school-age adolescents. Results indicated that the Regan Attitudes towards Non-Drinkers Scale was a statistically significant predictor of self-reported problematic drinking. The findings of this study underscore the importance of this newly identified construct and highlight the necessity of further empirical tests of the Regan Attitudes towards Non-Drinkers Scale. PMID:23221617

Regan, Daniel; Morrison, Todd G

2012-12-07

42

South African TV and Censorship: Does It Reduce Negative Coverage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses a content analysis of U. S. network television coverage of South Africa from January 1982 through May 1987 to determine the impact of varying degrees of censorship on the amount and kind of reporting from South Africa. Finds that press censorship intensified rather than reduced coverage of South Africa. (MM)|

Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

1989-01-01

43

Working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. Reducing negative stereotypes via inservice education.  

PubMed

Basic components of an inservice program that concerns working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual people are presented. Staff nurses will encounter such people in every nursing specialty and will have lesbian, gay, and bisexual coworkers whether they know it or not. Inservice programs that deal with any sexuality issue must include cognitive and affective interventions, because negative or uncomfortable attitudes may have been ingrained since childhood. PMID:8716410

Eliason, M J

44

Options for reducing the negative effects of nitrogen in agriculture.  

PubMed

After addition to farms by fertilizer, crop residues, biological fixation and animal excreta, nitrogen can be lost through gaseous emission, runoff and leaching to contaminate the atmosphere and water bodies, and cause adverse health effects. The efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen can be increased and losses reduced, by matching supply with crop demand, optimizing split application schemes, changing the form to suit the conditions, and use of slow-release fertilizers and inhibitors. In addition, agronomic practices such as higher plant densities, weed and pest control and balanced fertilization with other nutrients can also increase efficiency of nitrogen use. Efficiency of use by animals can be increased by diet manipulation. Feeding dairy cattle low degradable protein and high starch diets, and grazing sheep and cattle on grasses high in water soluble carbohydrate result in less nitrogen excretion in urine and reduced ammonia volatilization. PMID:20549441

Freney, J R

2005-09-01

45

Options for reducing the negative effects of nitrogen in agriculture.  

PubMed

After addition to farms by fertilizer, crop residues, biological fixation and animal excreta, nitrogen can be lost through gaseous emission, runoff and leaching to contaminate the atmosphere and water bodies, and cause adverse health effects. The efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen can be increased and losses reduced, by matching supply with crop demand, optimizing split application schemes, changing the form to suit the conditions, and use of slow-release fertilizers and inhibitors. In addition, agronomic practices such as higher plant densities, weed and pest control and balanced fertilization with other nutrients can also increase efficiency of nitrogen use. Efficiency of use by animals can be increased by diet manipulation. Feeding dairy cattle low degradable protein and high starch diets, and grazing sheep and cattle on grasses high in water soluble carbohydrate result in less nitrogen excretion in urine and reduced ammonia volatiliztion. PMID:16512208

Freney, J R

2005-12-01

46

Options for reducing the negative effects of nitrogen in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

After addition to farms by fertilizer, crop residues, biological fixation and animal excreta, nitrogen can be lost through\\u000a gaseous emission, runoff and leaching to contaminate the atmosphere and water bodies, and cause adverse health effects. The\\u000a efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen can be increased and losses reduced, by matching supply with crop demand, optimizing split\\u000a application schemes, changing the form to

J. R. Freney

2005-01-01

47

Learning to dislike alcohol: conditioning negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol and its effect on drinking behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Since implicit attitudes toward alcohol play an important role in drinking behavior, a possible way to obtain a behavioral\\u000a change is changing these implicit attitudes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  This study examined whether a change in implicit attitudes and in drinking behavior can be achieved via evaluative conditioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition and a control condition. In the experimental condition,

Katrijn Houben; Remco C. Havermans; Reinout W. Wiers

2010-01-01

48

Attitudes and subjective norms: determinants of parents' intentions to reduce childhood fever with medications.  

PubMed

Fever is a natural protective response of the host organism. Mild to moderate fevers, up to 40.0 degrees C, have immunological benefits and do not need to be reduced. However, parents regularly reduce fever with medications to prevent perceived harmful outcomes. This study identified the determinants of parents' intentions to reduce childhood fever with medications. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 391 Australian parents of children aged between 6 months and 5 years. Recruitment was through advertising, face-to-face and snowball methods. The survey targeted constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior: attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions and previously identified background factors. Structural equation modeling identified 69% of the variance in intentions. The strongest influences were from non-scientifically based attitudes (phobic) (beta=0.55) and subjective norms (husband/partner and doctors) (beta=0.36). Attitudes (beta=0.69) and subjective norms (beta=0.52) were strongly determined by child medication behavior (whether the child took medications easily when febrile) which had a total effect on intentions of beta=0.66. Perceived control, education and number of children had minimal influence on intentions. There is an urgent need for (i) the education of both parents in the benefits of fever and (ii) for doctors to consistently provide parents with evidence-based information. PMID:18974070

Walsh, A; Edwards, H; Fraser, J

2008-10-28

49

Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and develop a briefer version of the scale. Using DAS-A

Christopher G. Beevers; David R. Strong; Björn Meyer; Paul A. Pilkonis; Ivan W. Miller

2007-01-01

50

Attitudes to AIDS: A comparative analysis of a new and negative stereotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two propositions about attitudes, which have previously been supported with respect to the mentally ill [18, 21], were examined with respect to AIDS patients. The first, that people attach a stigma to the AIDS patient, was strongly supported, and two quite independent components of the stigma were found. One of these components identified as dependence, was closely related to the

Frank H. Walkey; Antony J. W. Taylor; Dianne E. Green

1990-01-01

51

Are attitudes to people with learning disabilities negatively influenced by charity advertising?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigated the hypothesis that the images presented by charity posters can have an effect on attitudes towards those that they portray. Ninety-nine school-children were shown one of two MENCAP posters; one from a much-criticised campaign in the 1980s and one a poster from the 1991 campaign. Subjects who saw the older poster were more likely to report that

K. Doddington; R. S. P. Jones; B. Y. Miller

1994-01-01

52

HPV Vaccine Information in the Blogosphere: How Positive and Negative Blogs Influence Vaccine-Related Risk Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the impact of exposure to online blogs about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. In a controlled experiment (N = 341), college students were exposed to either a negative blog post about the HPV vaccine or a positive one. Compared to the control group, participants who had viewed the negative

Xiaoli Nan; Kelly Madden

2012-01-01

53

Psychological adjustment to systemic sclerosis—exploring the association of disease factors, functional ability, body related attitudes and fear of negative evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological impact of chronic, disabling, disfiguring and painful conditions such as systemic sclerosis (SSc) may be considerable. The purpose of the study was to examine the psychological impact of SSc and to investigate the relative importance of disease parameters, functional ability and cognitive variables specifically regarding fear of negative evaluation and negative body related attitudes in relation to psychological

HL Richards; AL Herrick; K Griffin; PDH Gwilliam; DG Fortune

2004-01-01

54

How do people react to negative procedures? On the moderating role of authority's biased attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors focus on the eVects an authority's apparent inconsistency between persons on judgments of relational treatment and pro- cedural justice following negative procedures (i.e., procedures that people commonly regard as unfair). In Experiment 1, participants responded most negatively following a procedure that denied them, but granted another participant, an opportunity to voice an opinion when the intergroup context raised

Jan-Willem van Prooijen; Kees van den Bos; E. Allan Lind; Henk A. M. Wilke

2005-01-01

55

Psychological Motives Versus Health Concerns: Predicting Smoking Attitudes and Promoting Antismoking Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes findings from 2 studies of smoking attitudes and behavior among Taiwanese adolescents. In the first, a survey, the motivations to gain positive external rewards, enhance positive internal affect, and reduce negative internal affect were all found to predict positive attitudes toward smoking, the intention to smoke, and actual smoking behavior. Concern for short-term health consequences was negatively

Chingching Chang

2009-01-01

56

Thermostats with attitudes: A sociological analysis of assumptions underlying common approaches to reducing residential energy consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contributes to the emerging literature in the sociology of energy consumption by answering three important questions about the assumptions underlying popular approaches to reducing energy consumption behavior. The answers are gleaned from data on Wisconsin households gathered in 1998 and 1999. The first question has to do with the efficacy of a "cognitive fix" approach of attempting to change attitudes in hopes of changing behavior, and asks whether energy-related attitudes can predict actual energy savings. The results of a regression analysis of heating energy intensity revealed that a variable measuring respondents' attitudes toward energy conservation predict heating energy intensity, but the effect was overwhelmed by control variables for insulation and draftiness. These and other results offer some support for the cognitive fix approach of attitudinal change as a means of reducing energy consumption. The second question concerns a popular "technological fix" of subsidizing the replacement of manual thermostats with programmable ones, and asks whether programmable thermostats actually save significant home heating energy. The data show that households with programmable thermostats appear to use no less energy than do households with manual thermostats, and that it is behavioral norms, not the type of thermostat, that determine thermostat setting behavior. The results suggest strongly that in aggregate, the installation of programmable thermostats in residential households cannot be expected to deliver promised energy savings. The third question addressed is whether popular knowledge about global warming or the connection between energy use and global environmental change is growing, and if so, what is the likelihood that these prospective socio-cultural shifts might result in increased residential energy conservation. The analysis suggests that, compared to the findings of earlier studies, awareness of the environmental consequences of energy use is on the increase, but the likelihood that this growing awareness will lead to increased conservation appears to be minimal. In addition to answering the questions above, this work provides an example of how a comprehensive sociological approach to studying energy consumption can help inform our understanding of energy use in ways that earlier approaches could not.

Nevius, Monica Josefina

2001-12-01

57

Differentiating Hostile and Benevolent Sexist Attitudes Toward Positive and Negative Sexual Female Subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions of hostile and benevolent sexism toward a female character whose behavior was consistent with either a positive (i.e., chaste) or negative (i.e., promiscuous) sexual female subtype were examined. Consistent with the theory that benevolent and hostile sexism form complementary ideologies that serve to maintain and legitimize gender-based social hierarchies, men expressed increased hostile, but decreased benevolent,sexism toward a female

Chris G. Sibley; Marc Stewart Wilson

2004-01-01

58

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups.

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

59

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring.  

PubMed

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A; Cocroft, Reginald B

2012-07-11

60

Reduced sensitivity to prosodic attitudes in adults with focal right hemisphere brain damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a strong link between the right hemisphere and understanding emotional prosody in speech, there are few data on how the right hemisphere is implicated for understanding the emotive “attitudes” of a speaker from prosody. This report describes two experiments which compared how listeners with and without focal right hemisphere damage (RHD) rate speaker attitudes of “confidence” and

Marc D. Pell

2007-01-01

61

Aging is associated with positive responding to neutral information but reduced recovery from negative information  

PubMed Central

Studies on aging and emotion suggest an increase in reported positive affect, a processing bias of positive over negative information, as well as increasingly adaptive regulation in response to negative events with advancing age. These findings imply that older individuals evaluate information differently, resulting in lowered reactivity to, and/or faster recovery from, negative information, while maintaining more positive responding to positive information. We examined this hypothesis in an ongoing study on Midlife in the US (MIDUS II) where emotional reactivity and recovery were assessed in a large number of respondents (N = 159) from a wide age range (36–84 years). We recorded eye-blink startle magnitudes and corrugator activity during and after the presentation of positive, neutral and negative pictures. The most robust age effect was found in response to neutral stimuli, where increasing age is associated with a decreased corrugator and eyeblink startle response to neutral stimuli. These data suggest that an age-related positivity effect does not essentially alter the response to emotion-laden information, but is reflected in a more positive interpretation of affectively ambiguous information. Furthermore, older women showed reduced corrugator recovery from negative pictures relative to the younger women and men, suggesting that an age-related prioritization of well-being is not necessarily reflected in adaptive regulation of negative affect.

Schaefer, Stacey M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Norris, Catherine J.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Davidson, Richard J.

2011-01-01

62

Aging is associated with positive responding to neutral information but reduced recovery from negative information.  

PubMed

Studies on aging and emotion suggest an increase in reported positive affect, a processing bias of positive over negative information, as well as increasingly adaptive regulation in response to negative events with advancing age. These findings imply that older individuals evaluate information differently, resulting in lowered reactivity to, and/or faster recovery from, negative information, while maintaining more positive responding to positive information. We examined this hypothesis in an ongoing study on Midlife in the US (MIDUS II) where emotional reactivity and recovery were assessed in a large number of respondents (N = 159) from a wide age range (36-84 years). We recorded eye-blink startle magnitudes and corrugator activity during and after the presentation of positive, neutral and negative pictures. The most robust age effect was found in response to neutral stimuli, where increasing age is associated with a decreased corrugator and eyeblink startle response to neutral stimuli. These data suggest that an age-related positivity effect does not essentially alter the response to emotion-laden information, but is reflected in a more positive interpretation of affectively ambiguous information. Furthermore, older women showed reduced corrugator recovery from negative pictures relative to the younger women and men, suggesting that an age-related prioritization of well-being is not necessarily reflected in adaptive regulation of negative affect. PMID:20385664

van Reekum, Carien M; Schaefer, Stacey M; Lapate, Regina C; Norris, Catherine J; Greischar, Lawrence L; Davidson, Richard J

2010-04-12

63

Use of sexual intercourse to reduce negative affect as a prospective mediator of sexual revictimization.  

PubMed

Increased risk of adult sexual assault (ASA) among women who experienced child sexual abuse (CSA) is well established. The strategies these women use to reduce negative affect secondary to CSA, such as sexual contact, may mediate the link between CSA and later ASA. Two waves of data from a racially diverse sample (i.e., 46% Black, 46.1% White, 7.9% other) of community women (N = 776) were analyzed using structural equation modeling. A history of CSA was associated with a twofold increase in the likelihood of experiencing ASA between the two measurement occasions (approximately 6 years). Psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety) and use of sex to reduce negative affect partially mediated the relation between CSA and prospective ASA. Implications for the treatment of CSA and prevention of sexual assault are discussed. PMID:16382425

Orcutt, Holly K; Cooper, M Lynne; Garcia, Marilyn

2005-12-01

64

Effectiveness of negative-thought-reduction, meditation and placebo training treatment in reducing anger.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine highly angry subjects who obtained high scores on Spielberger's Trait component of State-Trait Anger Scale went through a thought-listing procedure to determine their negative self-statements in response to high, medium, and low anger-arousing situations. It was found that subjects made more negative self-statements in response to a high anger-arousing situation compared to the medium and low anger-arousing situations. The subjects were divided into four groups. Subjects in one group were trained to reduce their negative thoughts, subjects in a second group were trained to meditate, subjects in the third group were asked to imagine the high anger-arousing situations (placebo procedure), and subjects in the fourth group were given no treatment. It was found that the subjects in the Negative-thought-reduction, Meditation and Placebo groups showed improvement in trait anger, anger aroused through high-anger situations, anger scores across a wide variety of situations, unconstructive coping, and anger measured through physiological symptoms. The gains made through intervention were maintained at a 6-week follow-up. The No-treatment Group showed no significant change in anger scores across a wide variety of situations, unconstructive coping, and physiological symptom scores but showed a small but significant improvement in trait anger and in anger aroused by high-anger situations. PMID:1641608

Dua, J K; Swinden, M L

1992-01-01

65

Do experiences of racial discrimination predict cardiovascular disease among African American Men? The moderating role of internalized negative racial group attitudes  

PubMed Central

Studies examining associations between racial discrimination and cardiovascular health outcomes have been inconsistent, with some studies finding the highest risk of hypertension among African Americans who report no discrimination. A potential explanation of the latter is that hypertension and other cardiovascular problems are fostered by internalization and denial of racial discrimination. To explore this hypothesis, the current study examines the role of internalized negative racial group attitudes in linking experiences of racial discrimination and history of cardiovascular disease among African American men. We predicted a significant interaction between reported discrimination and internalized negative racial group attitudes in predicting cardiovascular disease. Weighted logistic regression analyses were conducted among 1216 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL; 2001– 2003). We found no main effect of racial discrimination in predicting history of cardiovascular disease. However, agreeing with negative beliefs about Blacks was positively associated with cardiovascular disease history, and also moderated the effect of racial discrimination. Reporting racial discrimination was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease among African American men who disagreed with negative beliefs about Blacks. However, among African American men who endorsed negative beliefs about Blacks, the risk of cardiovascular disease was greatest among those reporting no discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination and the internalization of negative racial group attitudes are both risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African American men. Furthermore, the combination of internalizing negative beliefs about Blacks and the absence of reported racial discrimination appear to be associated with particularly poor cardiovascular health. Steps to address racial discrimination as well as programs aimed at developing a positive racial group identity may help to improve cardiovascular health among African American men.

Lincoln, Karen D; Adler, Nancy E; Syme, S. Leonard

2010-01-01

66

Reduced virulence of a defined pneumolysin-negative mutant of Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

Insertion-duplication mutagenesis was used to construct a pneumolysin-negative derivative of Streptococcus pneumoniae. This was achieved by first transforming the nonencapsulated strain Rx1 with a derivative of the vector pVA891 carrying a 690-base-pair DNA fragment from the middle of the pneumolysin structural gene. DNA was extracted from the resultant erythromycin-resistant, pneumolysin-negative rough pneumococcus and used to transform S. pneumoniae D39, a virulent type 2 strain. Several erythromycin-resistant transformants were obtained from two independent experiments, and none of these produced pneumolysin. Southern blot analysis confirmed that the pneumolysin gene in these transformants had been interrupted by the plasmid-derived sequences. The pneumolysin-negative mutants showed reduced virulence for mice compared with D39, as judged by survival time after intranasal challenge, intraperitoneal 50% lethal dose, and blood clearance studies. Pneumolysin production was reinstated in one of the mutants by transformation with the cloned pneumolysin gene, with the concomitant loss of erythromycin resistance; the virulence in mice of this isolate was indistinguishable from that of D39. These results confirm the involvement of pneumolysin in pneumococcal pathogenesis. Images

Berry, A M; Yother, J; Briles, D E; Hansman, D; Paton, J C

1989-01-01

67

Reduced Sensitivity to Prosodic Attitudes in Adults with Focal Right Hemisphere Brain Damage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although there is a strong link between the right hemisphere and understanding emotional prosody in speech, there are few data on how the right hemisphere is implicated for understanding the emotive "attitudes" of a speaker from prosody. This report describes two experiments which compared how listeners with and without focal right hemisphere…

Pell, Marc D.

2007-01-01

68

Strategies to Reduce Negative Socialization in the First Years of Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Transitioning into a new role can be difficult in any walk of life, and this is no different for physical educators entering a new teaching environment. In a new setting, a physical educator may go through a socialization process where beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and teaching philosophies are influenced. Teacher socialization research suggests…

Hushman, Glenn; Napper-Owens, Gloria

2012-01-01

69

Family Violence and Juvenile Sex OffendingThe Potential Mediating Role of Psychopathic Traits and Negative Attitudes Toward Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile sex offenders were compared to other juvenile offenders in the degree of violence against women they witnessed in their families of origin. Poor impulse control, a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, and sexist attitudes toward women were tested as potential mediators of this relation. Participants were 70 incarcerated juvenile males, ages 13 to 18, from three offender categories: 23

ALICIA A. CAPUTO; PAUL J. FRICK; STANLEY L. BRODSKY

1999-01-01

70

Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.  

PubMed

Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation. PMID:22148989

Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul

2011-12-12

71

A resprouter herb reduces negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeders after fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant communities are often composed of species belonging to different functional groups, but relatively few studies to date have explicitly linked their spatial structure to the outcome of the interaction among them. We investigated if mortality of seeder species during their establishment after fire is influenced by the proximity of the resprouter herb Brachypodium retusum. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean shrubland (00°39? W; 38°43? N), 40 km northwest of Alicante (Spain) with Ulex parviflorus, Cistus albidus, Helianthemum marifolium, and Ononis fruticosa as dominant obligate seeder species and a herbaceous layer is dominated by the resprouter B. retusum. We followed the fate of mapped seedlings and the biomass of B. retusum one, two, three and nine years after an experimental fire. We used point pattern analyses to evaluate the spatial pattern of mortality of seeder species at these years in relation to the biomass of B. retusum. We hypothesize that B. retusum may initially have a positive impact on seeder survival. We implemented this hypothesis as a point process model that maintains the overall number of dead seeder plants, but seeder survival varied proportionally to the biomass of B. retusum in its neighborhood. We then contrasted this hypothesis with a previous analysis based on a random mortality hypothesis. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that proximity of B. retusum reduced the mortality of seeder plants at their establishment phase (i.e., 2 yrs after fire). However, we found no evidence that B. retusum influenced seeder mortality when plants grow to maturity. We also found that, under the more stressful conditions (fire + erosion scenario), B. retusum had a lower impact on the performance of seeder species. Our results suggest that B. retusum may reduce negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeder plants during the first years after fire.

Raventós, José; Wiegand, Thorsten; Maestre, Fernando T.; de Luis, Martín

2012-01-01

72

The contact caveat: negative contact predicts increased prejudice more than positive contact predicts reduced prejudice.  

PubMed

Contact researchers have largely overlooked the potential for negative intergroup contact to increase prejudice. In Study 1, we tested the interaction between contact quantity and valence on prejudice toward Black Australians (n = 1,476), Muslim Australians (n = 173), and asylum seekers (n = 293). In all cases, the association between contact quantity and prejudice was moderated by its valence, with negative contact emerging as a stronger and more consistent predictor than positive contact. In Study 2, White Americans (n = 441) indicated how much positive and negative contact they had with Black Americans on separate measures. Although both quantity of positive and negative contact predicted racism and avoidance, negative contact was the stronger predictor. Furthermore, negative (but not positive) contact independently predicted suspicion about Barack Obama's birthplace. These results extend the contact hypothesis by issuing an important caveat: Negative contact may be more strongly associated with increased racism and discrimination than positive contact is with its reduction. PMID:22941796

Barlow, Fiona Kate; Paolini, Stefania; Pedersen, Anne; Hornsey, Matthew J; Radke, Helena R M; Harwood, Jake; Rubin, Mark; Sibley, Chris G

2012-08-31

73

Reduced sense of agency in chronic schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms.  

PubMed

Self-disturbances in schizophrenia have been regarded as a fundamental vulnerability marker for this disease, and have begun to be studied from the standpoint of an abnormal "sense of agency (SoA)" in cognitive neuroscience. To clarify the nature of aberrant SoA in schizophrenia, it needs to be investigated in various clinical subtypes and stages. The residual type of chronic schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms (NS) has never been investigated for SoA. Accordingly, we investigated SoA by an original agency attribution task in NS-predominant schizophrenia, and evaluated the dynamic interplay between the predictive and postdictive components of SoA in the optimal cue integration framework. We studied 20 patients with NS-predominant schizophrenia, and compared with 30 patients with paranoid-type schizophrenia and 35 normal volunteers. NS-predominant schizophrenia showed markedly diminished SoA compared to normal controls and paranoid-type schizophrenia, indicating a completely opposite direction in agency attribution compared with excessive SoA demonstrated in paranoid-type schizophrenia. Reduced SoA was detected in experimental studies of schizophrenia for the first time. According to the optimal cue integration framework, these results indicate that there was no increase in compensatory contributions of the postdictive processes despite the existence of inadequate predictions, contrary to the exaggerated postdictive component in paranoid-type schizophrenia. PMID:23680465

Maeda, Takaki; Takahata, Keisuke; Muramatsu, Taro; Okimura, Tsukasa; Koreki, Akihiro; Iwashita, Satoru; Mimura, Masaru; Kato, Motoichiro

2013-05-14

74

Examining Implicit Attitudes towards Exercisers with a Physical Disability  

PubMed Central

Background. Using measures of explicit attitudes, physical activity status has been established as a factor that reduces the stigma able-bodied people hold towards people with physical disabilities. This phenomenon is called the exerciser stereotype. However, whether the exerciser stereotype exists when using measures of implicit attitudes remains unknown. Objective. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of negative implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities and determine whether implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities were influenced by the exerciser stereotype. Methods. One hundred able-bodied participants (82 females, 18 males) completed two implicit association tests (IATs): the Disability-Attitudes IAT and the Disability-Activity IAT. The Disability-Attitudes IAT measured implicit attitudes towards people who were not disabled relative to disabled; the Disability-Activity IAT measured attitudes towards people with a physical disability who were active relative to inactive. Results. Results revealed that 83.8% of participants had negative implicit attitudes towards people with a disability. Participants held more positive attitudes towards active versus inactive people with a physical disability. Conclusions. The study findings indicate that the exerciser stereotype exists implicitly and may undermine negative attitudes towards people with physical disabilities.

Dionne, Cassandra D.; Gainforth, Heather L.; O'Malley, Deborah A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

2013-01-01

75

Maternal Attitude Toward Pregnancy and the Risk of Neonatal Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES. Reduced options for fertility control over the past decade have increased the rates of unwanted pregnancy. We evaluated whether a woman's negative attitude toward her pregnancy increased the risk of perinatal mortality, in a large, prospective cohort study. METHODS. The association between attitude toward the pregnancy and perinatal mortality was evaluated in a longitudinal cohort study of 8823 married,

Muhammad N. Bustan; Ann L. Coker

1994-01-01

76

Attitudes and Attitude Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and

Gerd Bohner; Nina Dickel

77

Attitudes and Attitude Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and

Gerd Bohner; Nina Dickel

2011-01-01

78

Improving intergroup attitudes and reducing stereotype threat: An integrated contact model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we develop an intergroup contact model of stereotype threat effects. We review research on improving intergroup relations and reducing stereotype threat. We then propose an integrated model that specifies the processes through which both actual and imagined intergroup contact reduce the impact of stereotypes on behaviour. We discuss support for this model and, drawing on social identity

Richard J. Crisp; Dominic Abrams

2008-01-01

79

Attitudes and subjective norms: determinants of parents' intentions to reduce childhood fever with medications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fever is a natural protective response of the host organism. Mild to moderate fevers, up to 40.0C, have immunological benefits and do not need to be reduced. However, parents regularly reduce fever with medications to prevent per- ceived harmful outcomes. This study identified the determinants of parents' intentions to re- duce childhood fever with medications. A com- munity-based cross-sectional survey

A. Walsh; H. Edwards; J. Fraser

2009-01-01

80

Thermostats with attitudes: A sociological analysis of assumptions underlying common approaches to reducing residential energy consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation contributes to the emerging literature in the sociology of energy consumption by answering three important questions about the assumptions underlying popular approaches to reducing energy consumption behavior. The answers are gleaned from data on Wisconsin households gathered in 1998 and 1999. The first question has to do with the efficacy of a \\

Monica Josefina Nevius

2001-01-01

81

The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

2011-01-01

82

Trilostane-induced inhibition of cortisol secretion results in reduced negative feedback at the hypothalamic–pituitary axis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma in dogs is usually treated by medical treatment, and the efficacy of this treatment has been reported. However, controversy remains as to whether reduced negative feedback through the inhibition of cortisol secretion, similar to Nelson's syndrome, may appear as an adverse effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of

Takahiro Teshima; Yasushi Hara; Susumu Takekoshi; Yoshinori Nezu; Yasuji Harada; Takuya Yogo; Akira Teramoto; Robert Y. Osamura; Masahiro Tagawa

2009-01-01

83

IMPROVING PRECISION AND REDUCING BIAS IN BIOLOGICAL SURVEYS: ESTIMATING FALSE-NEGATIVE ERROR RATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of presence\\/absence data in wildlife management and biological surveys is widespread. There is a growing interest in quantifying the sources of error associated with these data. We show that false-negative errors (failure to record a species when in fact it is present) can have a significant impact on statistical estimation of habitat models using simulated data. Then we

Andrew J. Tyre; Brigitte Tenhumberg; Scott A. Field; Darren Niejalke; Kirsten Parris; Hugh P. Possingham

2003-01-01

84

Efficacy of Creative Clay Work for Reducing Negative Mood: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Clay work has long been used in art therapy to achieve therapeutic goals. However, little empirical evidence exists to document the efficacy of such work. The present study randomly assigned 102 adult participants to one of four conditions following induction of a negative mood: (a) handling clay with instructions to create a pinch pot, (b)…

Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Robbins, Steven J.

2012-01-01

85

Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers.  

PubMed

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (?1.5?h) smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode to the right supra-orbital area for 20?min with a current of 2.0?mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS) Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation. PMID:24065930

Xu, Jiansong; Fregni, Felipe; Brody, Arthur L; Rahman, Ardeshir S

2013-09-20

86

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Reduces Negative Affect but Not Cigarette Craving in Overnight Abstinent Smokers  

PubMed Central

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (?1.5?h) smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode to the right supra-orbital area for 20?min with a current of 2.0?mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS) Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension–anxiety, depression–dejection, and confusion–bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation.

Xu, Jiansong; Fregni, Felipe; Brody, Arthur L.; Rahman, Ardeshir S.

2013-01-01

87

Use of Negative Air Ionization for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Stainless Steel Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Microbiological concerns in food plant sanitation that relies heavily on physical and chemical methods for removing and killing bacteria could be reduced by the use of non-chemical intervention methods. This initial work on the effects of electrostatic space charge on biofilms shows promise as a viable intervention option for reducing bacterial contamination on surfaces. Natural bacterial populations from a

J. W. Arnold; B. W. Mitchell

2002-01-01

88

Laparoscopy for questionable appendicitis: can it reduce the negative appendectomy rate?  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopy has been performed in 32 patients in whom the diagnosis of appendicitis was suspected, but in whom clinical findings were equivocal and insufficient to establish the diagnosis. These patients represented 13.6% of the total group of patients admitted with questionable appendicitis during this period. Fifty per cent of these 32 patients had unusual clinical features, such as a prolonged history of symptoms, significant intercurrent disease, prior treatment with antibiotics or steroids, etc. At laparoscopy, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made in 17 patients. Another disease was diagnosed in 8 patients, and 7 were judged to have no pathologic abnormalities. There were two false negative examinations and one false positive, but no ruptured appendices resulted. Twelve patients (37.5%) were spared operation by laparoscopy. The negative appendectomy rate was decreased from 10 to 1%. Images Fig. 1.

Leape, L L; Ramenofsky, M L

1980-01-01

89

Video games as a means to reduce age-related cognitive decline: attitudes, compliance, and effectiveness.  

PubMed

Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a "brain fitness" game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants' ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why. PMID:23378841

Boot, Walter R; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J; Charness, Neil

2013-02-01

90

Individualized antibiotic prophylaxis reduces surgical site infections by gram-negative bacteria in instrumented spinal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Surgical site infection (SSI) can be a challenging complication after posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation (PSFI).\\u000a An increasing rate of SSI by gram-negative bacteria (GNB) has been observed. Current guideline recommendations have not been\\u000a effective for preventing infection by these microorganisms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   Retrospective cohort study comparing two consecutive groups of patients undergoing PSFI at a single institution. Cohort A\\u000a includes

Susana Nunez-PereiraF; F. Pellisé; D. Rodríguez-Pardo; C. Pigrau; J. M. Sánchez; J. Bagó; C. Villanueva; E. Cáceres

91

Understanding the Dynamics Behind the Relationship Between Exposure to Negative Consequences of Risky Sex on Entertainment Television and Emerging Adults' Safe-Sex Attitudes and Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social cognitive theory (SCT; Bandura, 1986) has established that people often are inhibited from engaging in a behavior when they observe models experience negative consequences for their actions. Thus, in the realm of sexual portrayals on television, a program that depicts consequences of risky intercourse should reduce the likelihood that a viewer would respond positively. In addition, SCT suggests that

Keli Finnerty-Myers

2011-01-01

92

Comprehensive Self-Management Reduces the Negative Impact of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms on Sexual Functioning  

PubMed Central

Background Women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) report sexual dysfunction. A comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention has been shown to reduce gastrointestinal, psychological, and somatic symptoms in IBS women. Whether this intervention also reduces sexual dysfunction is not known. Aims We sought to compare demographic and clinical factors in IBS women with and without sexual dysfunction as defined by the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and to test the effects of CSM treatment on sexual dysfunction scores and on the sexual relations subscale of an IBS Quality of Life (IBSQOL) scale which measures the impact of IBS on sexual QOL. Methods IBS (Rome II) women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of CSM treatment were characterized as having sexual dysfunction (N=89) or not (N=86) at baseline based on ASEX criteria. Baseline characteristics and symptoms were compared between the two groups. Post-intervention changes were compared between the CSM and the usual care arms of the randomized trial. Results Women meeting ASEX criteria for sexual dysfunction were older, had higher lifetime depression and antidepressant use, more primary care/MD visits, fewer mental healthcare visits, and greater sleep disturbances compared to those without sexual dysfunction. No significant group differences in gastrointestinal or somatic symptoms were observed. Compared to usual care treatment, CSM reduced sexual QOL scores and had a weaker effect on ASEX scores. Conclusions Severity of IBS symptoms at baseline did not differ between IBS women with or without sexual dysfunction. The CSM intervention can reduce the impact of IBS on sexual QOL.

Eugenio, Margaret D.; Jun, Sang-Eun; Cain, Kevin C.; Jarrett, Monica E.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

2013-01-01

93

Reducing False Negative Reads in RFID Data Streams Using an Adaptive Sliding-Window Approach  

PubMed Central

Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D. M.; Vermaak, Herman

2012-01-01

94

Reducing false negative reads in RFID data streams using an adaptive sliding-window approach.  

PubMed

Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D M; Vermaak, Herman

2012-03-28

95

Violating Conversational Conventions Disrupts Cognitive Processing of Attitude Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research distinguishes conversational norms from conversational conventions and tests the notion that violation of conversational conventions in attitude questions disrupts processing and reduces data quality. Our first study showed that in questions with simple, dichotomous affirmative and negative response alternatives, respondents expect the affirmative response alternative to be offered before the negative one. Four studies showed that violating this

Allyson L. Holbrook; Jon A. Krosnick; Richard T. Carson; Robert Cameron Mitchell

2000-01-01

96

Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress.  

PubMed

The notion that chewing gum may relieve stress was investigated in a controlled setting. A multi-tasking framework which reliably evokes stress and also includes performance measures was used to induce acute stress in the laboratory. Using a randomised crossover design forty participants (mean age 21.98 years) performed on the multi-tasking framework at two intensities (on separate days) both while chewing and not chewing. Order of workload intensity and chewing conditions were counterbalanced. Before and after undergoing the platform participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Bond-Lader visual analogue mood scales, a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale and provided saliva samples for cortisol measurement. Baseline measures showed that both levels of the multi-tasking framework were effective in significantly reducing self-rated alertness, calmness and contentment while increasing self-rated stress and state anxiety. Cortisol levels fell during both levels of the stressor during the morning, reflecting the predominance of a.m. diurnal changes, but this effect was reversed in the afternoon which may reflect a measurable stress response. Pre-post stressor changes (Delta) for each measure at baseline were subtracted from Delta scores under chewing and no chewing conditions. During both levels of stress the chewing gum condition was associated with significantly better alertness and reduced state anxiety, stress and salivary cortisol. Overall performance on the framework was also significantly better in the chewing condition. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown but may involve improved cerebral blood flow and/or effects secondary to performance improvement during gum chewing. PMID:19268676

Scholey, Andrew; Haskell, Crystal; Robertson, Bernadette; Kennedy, David; Milne, Anthea; Wetherell, Mark

2009-03-05

97

Effects of an intervention to reduce insecticide exposure on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude: a quasi-experimental study in Shogun orange farmers in Krabi Province, Thailand.  

PubMed

An intervention to reduce insecticide exposure in Shogun orange farmers was implemented in Krabi Province, Thailand. Intervention effects on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude were evaluated in a quasi-experimental study in two farms about 20 kilometers (km) apart. The intervention was conducted at one farm; the other served as control. The study included 42 and 50 farmers at the intervention and control farms, respectively. The intervention included several components, including didactic instruction, practical demonstrations, use of a fluorescent tracer, and continuing guidance on insecticide use via a small, specially trained group within the overall intervention group. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first such intervention in Thailand. Knowledge and attitude were measured at baseline (pre-intervention), and at 2 and 5 months after the intervention (follow-up 1 and follow-up 2, respectively). Intervention effects were assessed with linear mixed models, specified to enable testing of effects at each follow-up time. The intervention was associated with substantial and statistically significant improvements in both knowledge score and attitude score (P < 0.001 for each score at each follow-up time). Intervention-related improvements in knowledge score and attitude score were equivalent to about 27% and 14% of baseline mean knowledge and attitude scores, respectively. Intervention-related benefits were similar at both follow-up times. Findings were similar before and after adjustment for covariates. These findings increase confidence that well-designed interventions can reduce farmers' insecticide exposure in Thailand and elsewhere. In future research, it would be desirable to address long-term intervention effects on farmers' health and quality of life. PMID:24082797

Boonyakawee, Paisit; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Chapman, Robert S

2013-09-20

98

Effects of an intervention to reduce insecticide exposure on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude: a quasi-experimental study in Shogun orange farmers in Krabi Province, Thailand  

PubMed Central

An intervention to reduce insecticide exposure in Shogun orange farmers was implemented in Krabi Province, Thailand. Intervention effects on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude were evaluated in a quasi-experimental study in two farms about 20 kilometers (km) apart. The intervention was conducted at one farm; the other served as control. The study included 42 and 50 farmers at the intervention and control farms, respectively. The intervention included several components, including didactic instruction, practical demonstrations, use of a fluorescent tracer, and continuing guidance on insecticide use via a small, specially trained group within the overall intervention group. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first such intervention in Thailand. Knowledge and attitude were measured at baseline (pre-intervention), and at 2 and 5 months after the intervention (follow-up 1 and follow-up 2, respectively). Intervention effects were assessed with linear mixed models, specified to enable testing of effects at each follow-up time. The intervention was associated with substantial and statistically significant improvements in both knowledge score and attitude score (P < 0.001 for each score at each follow-up time). Intervention-related improvements in knowledge score and attitude score were equivalent to about 27% and 14% of baseline mean knowledge and attitude scores, respectively. Intervention-related benefits were similar at both follow-up times. Findings were similar before and after adjustment for covariates. These findings increase confidence that well-designed interventions can reduce farmers’ insecticide exposure in Thailand and elsewhere. In future research, it would be desirable to address long-term intervention effects on farmers’ health and quality of life.

Boonyakawee, Paisit; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Chapman, Robert S

2013-01-01

99

Trilostane-induced inhibition of cortisol secretion results in reduced negative feedback at the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.  

PubMed

Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma in dogs is usually treated by medical treatment, and the efficacy of this treatment has been reported. However, controversy remains as to whether reduced negative feedback through the inhibition of cortisol secretion, similar to Nelson's syndrome, may appear as an adverse effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of reduced negative feedback through the inhibition of cortisol secretion by daily trilostane administration on the pituitary-adrenal axis in clinically normal dogs. Dogs were administered 5mg/kg trilostane twice a day every day for 8 weeks (n=8) or 16 weeks (n=3). After the initiation of trilostane administration, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were increased remarkably. As assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during administration, the pituitary became enlarged. After trilostane administration, the cytoplasmic areas of the pituitary corticotrophs were increased and the ratio of pituitary corticotrophs to all cells in the anterior lobe was greater in the trilostane-treated dogs than that in untreated animals. In addition, histological examinations revealed bilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia. Using real-time PCR quantification, the expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in the pituitary and ACTH receptor (ACTH-R) mRNA in the adrenal gland was greater in the dogs treated with trilostane than in untreated dogs. These results indicate that reduced negative feedback induced hyperfunction of the pituitary corticotrophs and pituitary enlargement in healthy dogs. These changes suggest that the inhibition of cortisol secretion by trilostane may increase the risk for accelerating the growth of corticotroph adenomas in dogs with Cushing's disease. PMID:19041802

Teshima, Takahiro; Hara, Yasushi; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nezu, Yoshinori; Harada, Yasuji; Yogo, Takuya; Teramoto, Akira; Osamura, Robert Y; Tagawa, Masahiro

2008-11-11

100

Potential negative effects of perspective-taking efforts in the context of close relationships: increased bias and reduced satisfaction.  

PubMed

Three experiments demonstrated that trying to appreciate a close other's unique point of view (imagine-other perspective taking) increases the extent to which individuals overestimate their own transparency to the close other, that is, how many of their values, preferences, traits, and feelings are readily apparent to him or her. Trying to be objective and pay careful attention to cues from a close other, which inhibits perspective taking, instead had the opposite effect. Mediation analyses suggested that increased focus on the self as an object of evaluation contributed to the positive effect of imagine-other perspective taking on perceived transparency, and decreased focus on the self as an object of evaluation contributed to the negative effect of trying to be objective on these judgments. These effects on perceived transparency had important implications for relationship well-being: Enhanced perceived transparency of negative feelings prompted by imagine-other perspective taking during a back-and-forth exchange with a romantic partner led to systematic discrepancies between individuals' own and their partner's experience of the exchange and reduced relationship satisfaction; trying to be objective instead reduced perceived transparency and thereby increased satisfaction. Notably, initial closeness with another person enhanced rather than tempered the egocentric effects of perspective taking. Taken together, these results suggest that positive motivations to nurture a close relationship and be sensitive to a loved one might sometimes be better channeled toward paying closer attention to his or her behavior than toward perspective taking. PMID:23002955

Vorauer, Jacquie D; Sucharyna, Tamara A

2012-09-24

101

Inactivation of GPR30 reduces growth of triple-negative breast cancer cells: possible application in targeted therapy.  

PubMed

Triple-negative breast cancers lack estrogen receptor ? (ER?), progesterone receptor, and do not overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2). They are neither susceptible to endocrine therapy nor to a therapy using the anti-Her-2 antibody, trastuzumab. Therefore, an efficient targeted therapy is warranted. Triple-negative breast tumors frequently express membrane bound estrogen receptor G-protein coupled receptor (GPR30). As proof of principle, we analyzed the consequences of a knock-down of GPR30 expression on the growth regulation of triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Cells of triple-negative breast cancer cell lines were transfected with siRNA against GPR30 or control siRNA, and cell growth was stimulated either with 10(??) M 17?-estradiol or 10(??) M 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Cell proliferation was measured using Alamar blue staining. Activation of c-Src and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor was assessed using western blot. Expression of c-fos was quantified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Seven days after transfection with siRNA, GPR30 mRNA in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-435 and HCC1806 was reduced by 74 and 90%, respectively. 10(??) M 17?-estradiol enhanced proliferation of MDA-MB-435 to 129.6±5.4% of control (p<0.05) and HCC1806 to 156.9±15.4% of control (p<0.05), respectively. 10(??) M 4-hydroxytamoxifen increased cell number of MDA-MB-435 to 121.0±6.9% of control (p<0.05) and HCC1806 to 124.5±12.1% of control (n.s.), respectively. This increased proliferation by the two estrogenic compounds was completely prevented by knock-down of GPR30 expression in both cell lines. In control cells, activity of Src kinase was increased 3-fold by estradiol and 3.8-fold using 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Transactivation of the EGF-receptor was similarly increased in both cell lines by 17?-estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Both compounds increased c-fos expression 1.5- and 3.1-fold, respectively. Knock-down of GPR30 expression completely abolished activation of all these signaling pathways responsible for enhanced proliferation. A pharmacological inhibition of GPR30 by specific small molecular inhibitors might prove to be an appropriate targeted therapy of triple-negative breast cancer in the future. PMID:22290080

Girgert, Rainer; Emons, Günter; Gründker, Carsten

2012-07-01

102

Does Moral Judgment Development Reduce to Political Attitudes or Verbal Ability? Evidence Using the Defining Issues Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent critics of the Defining Issues Test (DIT) suggest that moral judgment development as currently measured is neither developmental nor moral. Instead, scores on the DIT are claimed to be the result of political attitudes or verbal ability. In making such claims, these critics raise the possibility that the validity of the DIT is suspect as well as the construct

Stephen J. Thoma; Darcia Narvaez; James Rest; Pitt Derryberry

1999-01-01

103

Assessing medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills – which components of attitudes do we measure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Communication Skills Attitudes Scale (CSAS) created by Rees, Sheard and Davies and published in 2002 has been a widely used instrument for measuring medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. Earlier studies have shown that the CSAS mainly tests two dimensions of attitudes towards communication; positive attitudes (PAS) and negative attitudes (NAS). The objectives of our study are

Tor Anvik; Tore Gude; Hilde Grimstad; Anders Baerheim; Ole B Fasmer; Per Hjortdahl; Are Holen; Terje Risberg; Per Vaglum

2007-01-01

104

Welfare effects of reduced milk production associated with Johne's disease on Johne's-positive versus Johne's-negative dairy operations.  

PubMed

An examination of the economic impacts of reduced milk production associated with Johne's disease on Johne's-positive and Johne's-negative dairy operations indicated that, if Johne's disease had not existed in US dairy cows in 1996, then the economic surplus of Johne's-negative operations would have been $600 million+/-$530 million lower, while the economic surplus of Johne's-positive operations would have been higher by $28 million+/-$79 million, which was not significantly different from zero. The data available for projecting changes in surplus were not sufficiently precise to allow an exact statement on whether Johne's-positive operations would have been better or worse off economically, in terms of the value received for producing more milk if they had not been affected by Johne's disease. The changes in producer surplus, based upon eliminating specific epidemiological risk factors for Johne's disease, were disaggregated between Johne's-positive dairy operations exposed to the risk factor and all other US dairy operations. Eliminating the risk factor of having any cows not born on the operation would have had a significant positive effect on the economic surplus of Johne's-positive operations that had any cows not born on the operation. PMID:16827950

Losinger, Willard C

2006-07-07

105

Mutant Ferritin L-chains That Cause Neurodegeneration Act in a Dominant-negative Manner to Reduce Ferritin Iron Incorporation*  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide insertions that modify the C terminus of ferritin light chain (FTL) cause neurodegenerative movement disorders named neuroferritinopathies, which are inherited with dominant transmission. The disorders are characterized by abnormal brain iron accumulation. Here we describe the biochemical and crystallographic characterization of pathogenic FTL mutant p.Phe167SerfsX26 showing that it is a functional ferritin with an altered conformation of the C terminus. Moreover we analyze functional and stability properties of ferritin heteropolymers made of 20–23 H-chains and 1–4 L-chains with representative pathogenic mutations or the last 10–28 residues truncated. All the heteropolymers containing the pathogenic or truncated mutants had a strongly reduced capacity to incorporate iron, both when expressed in Escherichia coli, and in vitro when iron was supplied as Fe(III) in the presence of ascorbate. The mutations also reduced the physical stability of the heteropolymers. The data indicate that even a few mutated L-chains are sufficient to alter the permeability of 1–2 of the 6 hydrophobic channels and modify ferritin capacity to incorporate iron. The dominant-negative action of the mutations explains the dominant transmission of the disorder. The data support the hypothesis that hereditary ferritinopathies are due to alterations of ferritin functionality and provide new input on the mechanism of the function of isoferritins.

Luscieti, Sara; Santambrogio, Paolo; Langlois d'Estaintot, Beatrice; Granier, Thierry; Cozzi, Anna; Poli, Maura; Gallois, Bernard; Finazzi, Dario; Cattaneo, Angela; Levi, Sonia; Arosio, Paolo

2010-01-01

106

Negative correlation between oral malodour and numbers and activities of sulphate-reducing bacteria in the human mouth.  

PubMed

The majority of cases of oral malodour are thought to be due to bacterial activities in the mouth, but many of the bacterial species responsible have not been identified. Volatile sulphide compounds have been proposed as constituents of oral malodour. Therefore, the relation between intensity of odour and numbers of bacteria in the mouth that are sulphide-producing from sulphate was investigated. Numbers of such dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulphide reduction rates were evaluated in samples from different oral sites in relation to measures of oral malodour. Results showed that sulphate-reducing bacterial numbers and activities were negatively correlated with malodour, as determined by organoleptic assessment and measurement with a sulphide-monitoring instrument, the Halimeter. The data indicate that sulphide produced by oral SRB may not be an important contributor to oral malodour. A rather poor correlation was observed between Halimetric and organoleptic values, indicating that these methods may measure different aspects of oral malodour intensity. PMID:10459778

Willis, C L; Gibson, G R; Holt, J; Allison, C

1999-08-01

107

A depression training session with consumer educators to reduce stigmatizing views and improve pharmacists' depression care attitudes and practices.  

PubMed

Objective. To measure the impact of a depression training day for pharmacists that included a 75-minute session with a consumer educator. Design. The training day included interactive lectures on depression; the effects and side effects of and indications for the use of antidepressants; adherence issues; non-drug treatment options for depression; and basic skills in communication. Pharmacists also participated in a session with a consumer educator and in counseling exercises that included role playing. Assessment. The study used a randomized, clustered, comparative design to measure pharmacists' stigma, attitudes, and current practice related to the provision of pharmaceutical care to people with depression. Mean scores for depression-care practice after the training session were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Analysis of the changes between baseline and postintervention measures in both the control and intervention groups confirmed a significant difference in the change in both social distance and practice but no significant difference in the change in attitude between the 2 groups of pharmacists. Conclusion. A continuing-education depression training day for pharmacists that involve consumer educators may improve the care delivered in the community pharmacy to people with depression. PMID:23966723

Liekens, Sophie; Smits, Tim; Laekeman, Gert; Foulon, Veerle

2013-08-12

108

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

109

Male Circumcision Reduces Human Papillomavirus Transmission to HIV-Negative Female Partners: A Randomized Trial in Rakai, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Randomized trials show that medical male circumcision (MC) reduces high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in men. We assessed the efficacy of MC to reduce HR-HPV in female partners. Methods HIV-negative men were randomized to immediate MC (intervention) or MC delayed for 24 months (control). HIV-uninfected female partners of married men (648 intervention and 597 control arm) were simultaneously enrolled and provided interview information and self-collected vaginal swabs at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Female HPV infection was a secondary trial end point. Vaginal swabs were evaluated for HR-HPV by Roche HPV Linear Array. An intention-to-treat analysis estimated prevalence risk and incident rate ratios (PRR and IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of HR-HPV by Poisson multiple regression. In women with pre-existing HR-HPV, we estimated the risk ratio (RR) of cleared infection (i.e., loss of detection). The trials were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00425984 and NCT00124878.) Findings Female characteristics and HPV prevalence were similar between arms at enrollment. Two year retention rates were 84.7% (549/648) in intervention arm and 84.1% (502/597) in control arm spouses. Year 2 female HR-HPV prevalence was 27.8% (151/544) in the intervention and 38.7% (189/488) in the control arm (PRR=0.72, 95%CI 0.60–0.85, p=0.001). HR-HPV incidence was 20.7/100py in the intervention arm and 26.9/100py in the control arm wives (IRR=0.77, 95%CI 0.63-0.93, p=0.008). HR-HPV incidence was lower in intervention than control arm wives for 13 of 14 (92.9%) HR-HPV genotypes and in most demographic/behavioral subgroups. Genotype specific HR-HPV clearance was higher in the wives of men in the intervention arm (66.2%, 376/568) than the control arm (59.2%, 339/573, RR=1.12, 95%CI 1.02-1.22). Interpretation MC reduces the prevalence and incidence and increases clearance of HR-HPV infections in female partners. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation with additional laboratory and training support from National Institutes of Health and Fogarty International Center.

Wawer, Maria J.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kong, Xiangrong; Gravitt, Patti E.; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred; Makumbi, Frederick; Ssempiija, Victor; Sewankambo, Nelson; Watya, Stephen; Eaton, Kevin P.; Oliver, Amy E.; Chen, Michael Z.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gray, Ronald H.

2011-01-01

110

Differences in Attitudes Toward Nudity in Advertising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated variations in attitudes toward female nudity and sex in advertising for several different market segments. More negative attitudes were found for females generally and females from smaller towns, who read more magazines, and watch more TV. Negative attitudes also were associated with younger males and males who attend church…

Alexander, M. Wayne; Judd, Ben B., Jr.

1986-01-01

111

Attitude toward advertising through sport: A theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important goal of advertising is designing effective campaigns that foster favorable attitudes toward a product. Attitude toward a product is influenced by one's attitude toward an advertisement. Previous research examining attitude toward advertising in general and in specific mediums (e.g., TV and online) has found that consumers’ attitudes toward advertising have become increasingly negative. The researchers propose that sport

Do Young Pyun; Jeffrey D. James

2011-01-01

112

Assessing the Structure of Prejudicial Attitudes: The Case of Attitudes Toward Homosexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies assessed the structure of attitudes toward homosexuals. In Study 1, Ss completed measures of stereotypes, symbolic beliefs, and affective associates as well as attitudes toward homosexuals. They also completed the right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) scale. The results revealed that (a) stereotypes did not provide a complete representation of attitudes, (b) RWA was negatively correlated with attitudes toward homosexuals, (c)

Geoffrey Haddock; Mark P. Zanna; Victoria M. Esses

1993-01-01

113

Understanding Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Food: The Role of Values and Attitude Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at gaining a better understanding of the nature of negative attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A sample of 250 students at the University of Tromsø responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes towards GM food, attitude strength, intention to buy such food, and their personal values. Values and attitude strength proved to be important constructs when

Pirjo Honkanen; Bas Verplanken

2004-01-01

114

The effects of parole officers' perceptions of the organizational control structure and satisfaction with management on their attitudes toward policy change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the organizational control structure in prison suggests that correctional officers' perceptions of reduced control negatively affected work-related attitudes. This study seeks to extend the literature by examining the impact that perceptions regarding the organizational control structure have on parole officers' attitudes toward policy change. The Ohio Adult Parole Authority Progressive Sanction Grid was implemented to increase uniformity when

Matthew D. Makarios; James McCafferty; Benjamin Steiner; Lawrence F. Travis III

2012-01-01

115

Individual Differences in Implicit and Declared Self-Esteem as Predictors of Response to Negative Performance Evaluation: Validating Implicit Association Test as a Measure of Self-Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential and combined influence of implicit and explicit self-esteem (SE) on individual's response to negative feedback was examined in a controlled experiment. Sixty-three psychology undergraduates performed a simulated social interaction task, followed by an artificial negative feedback on their performance. Self-reported (explicit) SE was…

Meagher, Brendan E.; Aidman, Eugene V.

2004-01-01

116

Are drinkers implicitly positive about drinking alcohol? Personalizing the alcohol-IAT to reduce negative extrapersonal contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The advent of indirect measures, such as the Implicit Association test (IAT), has stimulated interest in implicit cognitions that may automatically steer addictive behaviours such as alcohol abuse. Counter-intuitively, recent IAT research has demonstrated that alcohol is implicitly associated with negative valence, regardless of the level of alcohol consumption. However, because the IAT is susceptible to extrapersonal contamination, this

KATRIJN HOUBEN; REINOUT W. WIERS

2007-01-01

117

A group Motivational Interviewing intervention reduces drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences in adjudicated college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students who violate campus alcohol policies (adjudicated students) are at high risk for experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences and for undermining campus life. Further, college women may be especially at-risk due to differential intoxication effects and sexual consequences experienced mainly by female students. Research on interventions for adjudicated students, especially adjudicated females, has been limited. One hundred and fifteen college

Joseph W. LaBrie; Alysha D. Thompson; Karen Huchting; Andrew Lac; Kevin Buckley

2007-01-01

118

Effects of labeling and interpersonal contact upon attitudes towards schizophrenia: implications for reducing mental illness stigma in urban China  

PubMed Central

Purpose As mental illness stigma contributes to poor outcomes for schizophrenia in China, locating strategies to reduce public stigma is imperative. It is currently unknown whether diagnostic labeling and contact with different help-seeking sources increase or decrease public stigma in China. Further, it remains unresolved whether prior personal contact acts to reduce stigma in this context. Advancing understanding of these processes may facilitate stigma-reduction strategies. Methods We administered an experimental vignette randomly assigning one of four labeling conditions to respondents to assess social distance towards a psychotic vignette individual in a sample of 160 Northern, urban Chinese community respondents. Results As expected, respondents given a “non-psychiatric, indigenous label” + “lay help-seeking” condition endorsed the least social distance. Unexpectedly, the labeling condition with a “psychiatric diagnostic label” + “lay help-seeking” condition elicited the greatest social distance. Unlike Western studies, personal contact did not independently decrease community stigma. However, prior contact reduced social distance to a greater extent in the labeling condition with a “non-psychiatric, indigenous label” + “lay help-seeking” condition when compared with all other labeling conditions. Conclusion The results indicate that cultural idioms do provide some protection from stigma, but only among respondents who are already familiar with what mental illness is. Our finding that the condition that depicted untreated psychosis elicited the greatest amount of stigma, while the “treated psychosis” condition was viewed relatively benignly in China, suggests that improved access to mental health services in urban China has the potential to decrease public stigma via labeling mechanisms.

Lo, Graciete; WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J.; Singla, Daisy R.; Link, Bruce G.; Phillips, Michael R.

2013-01-01

119

Improvement of photo-induced negative bias stability of oxide thin film transistors by reducing the density of sub-gap states related to oxygen vacancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical absorption in the sub-gap region of amorphous indium zinc oxide films and the photo-induced negative bias stability of the resulting thin film transistors were studied. As the indium ratio increases, optical absorption via sub-gap states increases, and the threshold voltage degradation under negative bias temperature stress (NBTS) with light illumination becomes more severe. By applying high pressure anneal treatments in oxygen ambient, the density of sub-gap states is reduced by an order of magnitude compared to air-annealed devices. Consequently, significant improvements are observed in the threshold voltage shifts and the stretched exponential parameters under NBTS with light illumination.

Son, Kyoung-Seok; Seok Park, Joon; Sang Kim, Tae; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Baek Seon, Jong; Hwan Ji, Kwang; Kyeong Jeong, Jae; Kwan Ryu, Myung; Lee, Sangyoon

2013-03-01

120

Novel Differentiation Therapy Approach to Reduce the Metastatic Potential of Basal, Highly Metastatic, Triple-Negative Breast Cancers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-grade breast cancer is associated with increased differentiation and reduced metastases, suggesting that reprogramming tumor cells to a more differentiated state could improve outcome. Utilizing a novel differentiation therapy approach, We have reprog...

I. M. Chu

2011-01-01

121

Dogmatism and Attitudes Toward Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale and an Adoption Attitude Scale administered to 113 college students study supports hypothesis that among males dogmatism and intolerance toward areas relating to adoption would be positively correlated. Negative correlation for females suggests that emphasis on maternal role makes adoption attitudes exception to…

Dembroski, Betty G.; Johnson Dale L.

1969-01-01

122

Generating nonnegative attitudes among parents of depressed adolescents: The power of empathy, concern, and positive regard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental negativity is associated with the onset and maintenance of adolescent depression. Reducing parental negativity is a primary focus of family-based treatments for this clinical population. This study examined the association between therapist relationship-facilitating and attachment-oriented interventions and the valence (i.e., positivity–negativity) of parents’ attitudes toward their depressed adolescent in a sample of 13 sessions of attachment-based family therapy. Lag

Galia Moran; Gary Diamond

2008-01-01

123

Effects of SBIRT Education and Training on Nursing Students' Attitudes Toward Working with Patients Who Use Alcohol and Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) can reduce alcohol use and negative outcomes in patients with risky substance use. However, negative attitudes that some healthcare professionals have toward patients who use substances are a barrier to implementing SBIRT. The University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing, in partnership with the Institute for Research, Education, and Training in Addictions (IRETA),

Kathryn Puskar; Heather J. Gotham; Lauren Terhorst; Holly Hagle; Ann Mitchell; Betty Braxter; Marie Fioravanti; Irene Kane; Kimberly S. Talcott; Gail R. Woomer; Helen K. Burns

2013-01-01

124

Activating health goals reduces (increases) hedonic evaluation of food brands for people who harbor highly positive (negative) affect toward them.  

PubMed

Associations of pleasure and fun with junk foods have the potential to create considerable challenges for efforts to improve diets. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals had the potential to exploit mixed motivations (i.e., health and pleasure) that people have related to food, and subsequently strip junk foods of the expected pleasure derived from them. In study 1, 98 participants evaluated a soft drink brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In study 2, 93 participants evaluated a presweetened breakfast cereal brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In both studies, participants who harbored highly positive feelings for the food brands devalued their hedonic judgments of them when they were primed for health. However, in an unexpected result, participants in both studies who harbored highly negative feelings for the food brands revalued their hedonic judgments of them (i.e., increased the favorability) when they were primed for health. Thus, increasing health salience is only effective in decreasing expected pleasure derived from junk foods for people who harbor positive affect toward junk food brands, and is likely counterproductive for people who harbor negative affect toward junk food brands. PMID:23428938

Connell, Paul M; Mayor, Lauren F

2013-02-18

125

Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

126

Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

127

Isolation and Characterization of a New Gram-Negative, Acetone-Degrading, Nitrate-Reducing Bacterium from Soil, Paracoccus solventivorans sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acetone-degrading, nitrate-reducing, coccoid to rod-shaped bacterium, strain L1, was isolated from soil on the site of a natural gas company. Cells of the logarithmic growth phase reacted gram positive, while those of the stationary growth phase were gram negative. Single organisms were 0.4 to 0.5 by 0.9 to 1.5 pm in size, nonmotile, and non-spore forming and had poly-P-hydroxybutyrate

HUBERT SILLER; FRED A. RAINEY; ERKO STACKEBRANDT; JOSEF WINTER

128

Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans. PMID:23274039

Andretta, James R; Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Dixson, Dante D; Baik, Sharon H

2012-12-27

129

Reducing Campylobacter and Salmonella infection: two studies of the economic cost and attitude to adoption of on-farm biosecurity measures.  

PubMed

To date there has been little research in the UK on farmer adoption of biosecurity measures to control food-borne zoonoses that have little or no impact on animal health or production but which threaten public health. Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the two most common causes of food-borne infectious intestinal disease in people in Great Britain, causing approximately 57,000 and 13,000 reported cases in 2007 respectively (Anon 2008a) with an important cost to society. Poultry are an important source of both infections, while pigs may also contribute to human salmonellosis. However, these infections in poultry and pigs seldom cause disease. Research has shown that improved farm biosecurity may reduce the prevalence of these infections in livestock and if the majority of farmers were prepared to enhance biosecurity then there could be an important impact on public health. This article reports on the findings of two studies of farmer attitudes to and cost of the adoption of on-farm biosecurity measures to reduce the risk of animal diseases and therefore enhance food safety. One study, of Campylobacter infection among broiler flocks, is based on a survey of farmers faced with a hypothetical biosecurity intervention, while the other study, of Salmonella infection among pigs, is based on the participation of a group of farmers in an intervention study. In both cases, the results show a clear inverse relationship between the willingness of farmers to adopt a biosecurity measure and its estimated cost. This finding has implications for the success of on-farm biosecurity-enhancement policies based on voluntary adoption by farmers. In particular, financial inducements or penalties to farmers could be necessary to facilitate adoption of these measures. PMID:19968845

Fraser, R W; Williams, N T; Powell, L F; Cook, A J C

2010-12-01

130

Effectiveness of counselling on the attitudes of mothers towards their children with intellectual disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mothers of children with intellectual disability have more negative attitudes towards them compared with mothers' of normally developing children. If attitudes of mothers are negative, psychological intervention for their children may be less effective. The primary aim of this study was to compare the attitudes of mothers before and after psychological counselling to change their negative attitudes. Thirty-two mothers of

Coumaravelou Saravanan; Karuppannan Rangaswamy

2012-01-01

131

A fluctuating salinity regime mitigates the negative effects of reduced salinity on the estuarine macroalga, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) link.  

PubMed

We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis to 0, 5, 15 and 25 psu water enriched with nutrients for 1-, 5-, 11- and 23-day periods. Each period was followed by 24 h of exposure to 25 psu (ambient) water that was not nutrient enriched. Following 24 h in ambient salinity water, algae were returned to reduced salinity conditions for the appropriate period and the cycle continued over the 24 days for which all treatments were maintained. Exposure to 0 psu for 5 days or longer resulted in loss of pigmentation, decreased wet and dry biomass, increased wet wt:dry wt ratios, decreased removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the water column and an accumulation of NH(4) in the water column. More frequent exposure to ambient salinity in the 1-day treatment mitigated these effects. Across all salinity levels tested, biomass increased as frequency of exposure to ambient salinity increased. At all durations of exposure to low salinity tested, biomass increased as salinity level increased. We conclude that growth of E. intestinalis is decreased by reduced salinity. E. intestinalis is able to withstand exposure to 0 psu but there is a temporal limit to this tolerance that is somewhere between 1 and 5 days. Populations of E. intestinalis in coastal estuaries may suffer from freshwater inputs if salinity conditions are persistently reduced. PMID:11058726

Kamer; Fong

2000-11-01

132

The context dependency of extinction negates the effectiveness of cognitive enhancement to reduce cocaine-primed reinstatement.  

PubMed

With respect to the treatment of addiction, the objective of extinction training is to decrease drug-seeking behavior by repeatedly exposing the patient to cues in the absence of unconditioned reinforcement. Such exposure therapy typically takes place in a novel (clinical) environment. This is potentially problematic, as the effects of extinction training include a context dependent component and therefore diminished efficacy is expected upon the patient's return to former drug-seeking/taking environments. We have reported that treatment with the NMDAR coagonist d-serine is effective in facilitating the effects of extinction to reduce cocaine-primed reinstatement. The present study assesses d-serine's effectiveness in reducing drug-primed reinstatement under conditions in which extinction training occurs in a novel environment. After 22 days of cocaine self-administration (0.5 mg/kg) in context "A", animals underwent 5 extinction training sessions in context "B". Immediately after each extinction session in "B", animals received either saline or d-serine (60 mg/kg) treatment. Our results indicate that d-serine treatment following extinction in "B" had no effect on either IV or IP cocaine-primed reinstatement conducted in "A". These results stand in contrast to our previous findings where extinction occurred in "A", indicating that d-serine's effectiveness in facilitating extinction training to reduce drug-primed reinstatement is not transferable to a novel extinction environment. This inability of d-serine treatment to reduce the context specificity of extinction training may explain the inconsistent effects observed in clinical studies published to date in which adjunctive cognitive enhancement treatment has been combined with behavioral therapy without significant benefit. PMID:23796972

Hammond, Sherri; Wagner, John J

2013-06-21

133

Irradiation and chlorination effectively reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) without negatively affecting quality.  

PubMed

Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 at levels approximating 10(7) CFU/g was dipped in 200 ppm chlorine solution followed by low-dose gamma irradiation. Samples were plated on tryptic soy agar containing 50 microg/ml nalidixic acid (TSAN) as well as TSAN plates with two 7-ml layers of basal yeast extract agar (TSAN-TAL). Levels of E. coli O157:H7 recovered from both types of media were determined over 11 days. Chlorination alone reduced counts by just over 1.0 log cycle, whereas irradiation at 1.05 kGy resulted in a 6.7-log reduction, and a combination of irradiation and chlorination reduced counts more than 7 log cycles. Trained panels performed analytical sensory tests at time intervals for 14 days to detect changes in yellowing, tip burn, browning, black rot, sliminess, off-aroma, and off-flavor. Sensory tests found no significant differences among attributes over time or dose in samples irradiated at 1.08 to 3.85 kGy. This study showed that combination treatments of chlorination and low-dose irradiation can significantly reduce levels of E. coli O157:H7 in fresh cilantro while maintaining product quality. PMID:15508616

Foley, Denise; Euper, Megan; Caporaso, Fred; Prakash, Anuradha

2004-10-01

134

Reduced soil water availability did not protect two competing grassland species from the negative effects of increasing background ozone.  

PubMed

Two common (semi-) natural temperate grassland species, Dactylis glomerata and Ranunculus acris, were grown in competition and exposed to two watering regimes: well-watered (WW, 20-40% v/v) and reduced-watered (RW, 7.5-20% v/v) in combination with eight ozone treatments ranging from pre-industrial to predicted 2100 background levels. For both species there was a significant increase in leaf damage with increasing background ozone concentration. RW had no protective effect against increasing levels of ozone-induced senescence/injury. In high ozone, based on measurements of stomatal conductance, we propose that ozone influx into the leaves was not prevented in the RW treatment, in D. glomerata because stomata were a) more widely open than those in less polluted plants and b) were less responsive to drought. Total seasonal above ground biomass was not significantly altered by increased ozone; however, ozone significantly reduced root biomass in both species to differing amounts depending on watering regime. PMID:22420992

Wagg, Serena; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Wilkinson, Sally; Cooper, David; Davies, William J

2012-03-13

135

On the reduced effectiveness of some sexually suggestive ads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing research on the effects of sexually suggestive illustrations in advertising has reported reduced recall of brand\\u000a names and product information as well as negative product attitudes. This study evaluates two explanations for the reduced\\u000a recall. A negative affect explanation hypothesizes that a viewer's attitudinal response to the suggestive material interferes\\u000a with recall. An attention-distraction explanation hypothesizes that the visual

Ben B. Judd; M. Wayne Alexander

1983-01-01

136

Attitudes toward Counseling Clients: Subtle Stigmatization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although attitudes toward people who have sought psychological counseling have been characterized as negative and stigmatizing, research suggests the public holds no prejudice toward the mentally ill. To examine whether the apparent decrease in negative attitudes toward people involved in psychological treatment is more superficial than real, two…

Sibicky, Mark; Dovidio, John F.

137

What Does "Positive" Attitude Really Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this communication we analyze a dichotomy that pervades research on attitude in mathematics education: the classification of attitude as positive/negative. After highlighting the ambiguity of the term "positive", and some problems related to it, we suggest that the positive/negative dichotomy is too simplistic to take into account the deep…

Di Martino, Pietro; Zan, Rosetta

2003-01-01

138

Anti?black attitudes, religious orthodoxy, permissiveness, and sexual information: A study of the attitudes of heterosexuals toward homosexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate three sets of predictors of attitudes toward homosexuality: (a) anti?black and orthodox religious attitudes, (b) sexual permissiveness, and (c) the effect of an introductory human sexuality course. Significantly more positive attitudes were expected for those holding more positive attitudes toward blacks and those who were more sexually permissive. A negative relationship was

Knud S. Larsen; Rodney Cate; Michael Reed

1983-01-01

139

LiF Reduces MICs of Antibiotics against Clinical Isolates of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem yet the development of new antibiotics has slowed to a trickle, giving rise to the use of combination therapy to eradicate infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined inhibitory effect of lithium fluoride (LiF) and commonly used antimicrobials on the growth of the following bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccoccus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The in vitro activities of ceftazidime, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, streptomycin, erythromycin, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, alone or combined with LiF were performed by microdilution method. MICs were determined visually following 18–20?h of incubation at 37°C. We observed reduced MICs of antibiotics associated with LiF ranging from two-fold to sixteen-fold. The strongest decreases of MICs observed were for streptomycin and erythromycin associated with LiF against Acinetobacter baumannii and Streptococcus pneumoniae. An eight-fold reduction was recorded for streptomycin against S. pneumoniae whereas an eight-fold and a sixteen-fold reduction were obtained for erythromycin against A. baumannii and S. pneumoniae. This suggests that LiF exhibits a synergistic effect with a wide range of antibiotics and is indicative of its potential as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy.

Syed, H. C.; Ravaoarinoro, M.

2012-01-01

140

Evaluating the Effects of a Peer-Support Model: Reducing Negative Body Esteem and Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviours in Grade Eight Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss\\/weight gain behaviour, internalization

Carmen Thompson; Shelly Russell-Mayhew; Reana Saraceni

2012-01-01

141

Evaluating the effects of a peer-support model: reducing negative body esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in grade eight girls.  

PubMed

During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed. PMID:22364343

Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana

2012-01-01

142

Preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections and reducing HIV-stigmatizing attitudes in high-risk youth: Evaluation of a comprehensive community-based and peer-facilitated curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive prevention programs for youth are needed to reduce transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and address HIV-stigmatizing attitudes effectively. We evaluated a behavioral risk-reduction curriculum with high-risk youth in the United States. Participants in the five-session course were recruited through a community-based agency in San Diego, California. Participants completed a demographic survey and

Mana Luisa Zúñiga; Estela Blanco; Lizette M. Sanchez; Stephen P. Carroll; Alisa M. Olshefsky

2009-01-01

143

Using model derived regional climate forecasts to enhance the effectiveness and skill of selected application models in reducing negative impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to regional climate forecasting in Southern Africa is involving a cross section of researchers working to integrate the key elements of the global system that determine seasonal conditions. The aim is to produce seasonal forecasts of temperature and rainfall with a 1-3 month lead-time. These forecasts, reflecting climatic variation and inter-annual change, using a combination of global and regional climate models, can be used as input for a selection of crop-yield/ hydrological/ economic models to assess the impact and usefulness in specific application areas e.g. water resources, agriculture etc. The investigation focuses on the usefulness of the information content of the forecast output. The impacts of severe droughts and flooding associated with ENSO events can be prepared for and reduced. However, until recently (Vogel, 2000; Mukara, 2000) the value of these forecasts for farming, industry and commerce in South Africa has not been assessed. An essential part of the analysis is the collaboration with others working within the forecaster-user dynamic. This ensures that forecast/model output provides the most usable content for end-users whether in small scale pastoral or commercial farming, hydrological planning, industry or fishing. Input from the users informs the modellers with respect to the format and content of forecast outputs. The parameters most useful to user applications are identified and in consultation with the modellers, specified in the model output. Different model runs are compared and various hindcasts performed. The issue is to determine the level and scope of the accuracy of the identified parameters. A model's accuracy may be temporally substantial, but spatially unreliable. When submitting the seasonal forecast data into other models within a localised region, specific accuracy for that region, during the particular season and in the individual topography, is essential. If the accuracy is lower than a critical value, then the forecast must be deemed no more useful than persistence. The usefulness of model output in existing application models must be maximised. Various models have been used to identify the impacts of climatic change on agriculture (e.g. ACRU and CERES), hydrology (e.g. ACRU) and global warming (e.g. MAGICC). Many of these models have used GCM data and it remains to be investigated how the regional model data can best be beneficial in this regard.

Johnston, P. A.; Hewitson, B. C.

2001-05-01

144

Attitude towards psychiatry among medical students.  

PubMed

The proportion of medical graduates opting for psychiatry in career has been observed to be distinctly less compared to those choosing other specialties. The study was undertaken to find out the attitudes of newly entrant medical students towards psychiatry in comparison to other specialties. Sixty-two students of first year MBBS were administered a questionnaire to assess their attitudes towards various specialties. Only 1 student (1.5%) opted for psychiatry as a career choice, another 2 students (3%) considered it as a strong possibility, 71.5% negated psychiatry as a career choice. Students rated psychiatry significantly lower than other specialties in regards to financially rewarding, enjoyable and satisfying work, intellectually challenging, scientific basis, prestige among others, lifestyle. Psychiatry was also rated as poor on prospects of having a bright and interesting future. The present study suggests that new entrants in medical college harbour a negative attitude towards psychiatry, which has not changed over the last three to four decades. A conscious effort in trying to make psychiatry an active and interesting component of medical education and an improved portrayal of this field in society thereby reducing stigma associated with it would be of immense importance in generating interest in this field among newly entrant medical students. PMID:23738403

Srivastava, Ashish

2012-10-01

145

Characteristics, Work Attitudes, and Intentions to Work A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF NEWLY LICENSED RNS AND THEIR EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS IS CRUCIAL TO REDUCING TURNOVER RATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In an effort to better understand turnover rates in hospitals and the effect of new nurses on them, this study sought to describe the characteristics and attitudes toward work of newly licensed RNs, a popula- tion important to both the nursing profession and the health care system. Methods: A survey was mailed to a random sample of new RNs

CHRISTINE T. K OVNER; C AROL S. BREWER; S USAN FAIRCHILD; SHAKTHI POORNIMA; H ONGSOO KIM; MAJA DJUKIC

2007-01-01

146

Attitudes toward homosexuality among U.S. residents of Mexican descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined attitudes toward lesbians and gay men in a sample of northern California residents of Mexican descent (N = 616), using 3?item versions of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men (ATG) and Attitudes Toward Lesbians (ATL) scales presented simultaneously in Spanish and English. Males’ attitudes toward homosexual men were significantly more negative than females’ attitudes, whereas females expressed relatively

Gregory M. Herek

2006-01-01

147

Sex Differences in the Association between Secondary School Students' Attitudes toward Mathematics and toward Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes toward mathematics and attitudes toward computers were examined for 1,018 grade 8 students and 800 grade 12 students. The female students were more likely than the male students to associate negative attitudes toward mathematics with negative attitudes toward computers. Participation in an eighth-grade mathematics course with a computer…

Collis, Betty

1987-01-01

148

Application of a drainage film reduces fibroblast ingrowth into large-pored polyurethane foam during negative-pressure wound therapy in an in vitro model.  

PubMed

Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an advantageous treatment option in wound management to promote healing and reduce the risk of complications. NPWT is mainly carried out using open-cell polyurethane (PU) foams that stimulate granulation tissue formation. However, growth of wound bed tissue into foam material, leading to disruption of newly formed tissue upon dressing removal, has been observed. Consequently, it would be of clinical interest to preserve the positive effects of open-cell PU foams while avoiding cellular ingrowth. The study presented analyzed effects of NPWT using large-pored PU foam, fine-pored PU foam, and the combination of large-pored foam with drainage film on human dermal fibroblasts grown in a collagen matrix. The results showed no difference between the dressings in stimulating cellular migration during NPWT. However, when NPWT was applied using a large-pored PU foam, the fibroblasts continued to migrate into the dressing. This led to significant breaches in the cell layers upon removal of the samples after vacuum treatment. In contrast, cell migration stopped at the collagen matrix edge when fine-pored PU foam was used, as well as with the combination of PU foam and drainage film. In conclusion, placing a drainage film between collagen matrix and the large-pored PU foam dressing reduced the ingrowth of cells into the foam significantly. Moreover, positive effects on cellular migration were not affected, and the effect of the foam on tissue surface roughness in vitro was also reduced. PMID:23937617

Wiegand, Cornelia; Springer, Steffen; Abel, Martin; Wesarg, Falko; Ruth, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

2013-08-12

149

Cognitive Predictors of Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol and Cocaine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…

Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

2003-01-01

150

[Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].  

PubMed

This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem. PMID:23681384

Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

151

The relationship between attitude, assertiveness and condom use.  

PubMed

The Australian study investigated condom-specific assertiveness and condom use as a means of prevention infection from sexually transmitted diseases. 211 men participated including 83 homosexual men (aged 19-62 years) and 128 heterosexual men (aged 17-49) who completed a questionnaire that comprised demographic details such as age, monogamy, and sexual activity as well as attitudinal and assertiveness measures. General assertiveness was measured by the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) which had been widely used across a wide range of social situations. Assertiveness relating specifically to situations involving condoms was measured by the Condom Assertiveness Scale (CAS). Intention to use condoms was positively related to favorable attitudes, which were related to condom-specific assertiveness for both groups. For the heterosexual men only, general social assertiveness was negatively related to attitudes toward condoms. For both groups, the condom-specific measure of assertiveness was positively correlated with attitudes toward condoms. Condom-specific assertiveness was positively related to general social assertiveness as measured by the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule for the homosexual, but not for the heterosexual men. The negative relationship between general assertiveness and attitude to condoms among the heterosexual men implies that the risk reducing behavior of condom use did not seem to accord with the perceptions of masculinity and social assertiveness among heterosexual men. Thus, female partners of such heterosexual men exhibiting negative attitudes toward condom use combined with assertiveness would have to overcome resistance to insist on the use of condoms. Recently some advertising campaigns have been directed at women. The promotion of condom use among heterosexual men has to deal with the perceptions of condom use as unmasculine behavior. PMID:12317998

Treffke, H; Tiggemann, M; Ross, M W

1992-01-01

152

English Language Learners' Writing Practices and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study of English language learners, six Mandarin-speaking and five Spanish-speaking elementary students, revealed that students engaged in a variety of writing practices at home and school. A continuum of attitudes, from positive to negative, characterized students' attitudes toward writing in English and their native languages. Students…

McCarthey, Sarah J.; Garcia, Georgia Earnest

2005-01-01

153

Attitudes toward Embodied Old Age among Swedes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Messages in the consumer culture are often youth oriented, aiming at the prevention of the bodily decay associated with biological aging. In gerontological discourses, this has been hypothesized to generate negative attitudes toward embodied aging and old age. Studies about general attitudes toward old age show that younger respondents have more…

Oberg, Peter; Tornstam, Lars

2003-01-01

154

Heterosexual Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However,

David A. Moskowitz; Gerulf Rieger; Michael E. Roloff

2010-01-01

155

The Eden Alternative: Impact on Student Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nursing homes as clinical sites for student learning have the potential to produce negative attitudes toward aging. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to determine the impact of the Eden Alternative on the attitudes of students toward elders residing in nursing homes. Prior to beginning implementation of the Eden Alternative, 61…

Rosher, Richard B.; Robinson, Sherry

2005-01-01

156

Transit employee attitudes toward merit pay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merit pay programs are the most widely used financial incentive program among urban mass transit systems. An attitude survey was conducted at a large transit system to determine how employees perceived the merit pay program in which they participated. Employee attitudes toward the merit pay system were mixed. Their perceptions of the accuracy of the performance evaluation were quite negative.

Dow Scott; M J Vest; F S Hills; S E Markham

1987-01-01

157

Aortic distensibility is reduced during intense lower body negative pressure and is related to low frequency power of systolic blood pressure.  

PubMed

As sympathetic activity approximately doubles during intense lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of -60 mmHg or greater, we examined the relationship between surrogate markers of sympathetic activation and central arterial distensibility during severe LBNP. Eight participants were exposed to progressive 8-min stages of LBNP of increasing intensity (-20, -40, -60, and -80 mmHg), while recording carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV), stroke volume (SV), heart rate, and beat-by-beat blood pressure. The spectral power of low frequency oscillations in SBP (SBP(LF)) was used as a surrogate indicator of sympathetically modulated vasomotor modulation. Total arterial compliance (C) was calculated as C = SV/pulse pressure. Both cPWV and C were compared between baseline, 50 % of the maximally tolerated LBNP stage (LBNP(50)), and the maximum fully tolerated stage of LBNP (LBNP(max)). No change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) occurred over LBNP. An increase in cPWV (6.5 ± 2.2; 7.2 ± 1.4; 9.0 ± 2.5 m/s; P = 0.004) occurred during LBNP(max). Over progressive LBNP, SBP(LF) increased (8.5 ± 4.6; 9.3 ± 5.8; 16.1 ± 12.9 mmHg(2); P = 0.04) and C decreased significantly (18.3 ± 6.8; 14.3 ± 4.1; 11.6 ± 4.8 ml/mmHg × 10; P = 0.03). The mean correlation (r) between cPWV and SBP(LF) was 0.9 ± 0.03 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99). Severe LBNP increased central stiffness and reduced total arterial compliance. It appears that increased sympathetic vasomotor tone during LBNP is associated with reduced aortic distensibility in the absence of changes in MAP. PMID:22971725

Phillips, Aaron A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Cote, Anita T; Drury, C Taylor; Warburton, Darren E R

2012-09-14

158

Negative allosteric modulation of the mGluR5 receptor reduces repetitive behaviors and rescues social deficits in mouse models of autism.  

PubMed

Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and fragile X syndrome were long thought to be medically untreatable, on the assumption that brain dysfunctions were immutably hardwired before diagnosis. Recent revelations that many cases of autism are caused by mutations in genes that control the ongoing formation and maturation of synapses have challenged this dogma. Antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5), which modulate excitatory neurotransmission, are in clinical trials for fragile X syndrome, a major genetic cause of intellectual disabilities. About 30% of patients with fragile X syndrome meet the diagnostic criteria for autism. Reasoning by analogy, we considered the mGluR5 receptor as a potential target for intervention in autism. We used BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice, an established model with robust behavioral phenotypes relevant to the three diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism--unusual social interactions, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors--to probe the efficacy of a selective negative allosteric modulator of the mGluR5 receptor, GRN-529. GRN-529 reduced repetitive behaviors in three cohorts of BTBR mice at doses that did not induce sedation in control assays of open field locomotion. In addition, the same nonsedating doses reduced the spontaneous stereotyped jumping that characterizes a second inbred strain of mice, C58/J. Further, GRN-529 partially reversed the striking lack of sociability in BTBR mice on some parameters of social approach and reciprocal social interactions. These findings raise the possibility that a single targeted pharmacological intervention may alleviate multiple diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism. PMID:22539775

Silverman, Jill L; Smith, Daniel G; Rizzo, Stacey J Sukoff; Karras, Michael N; Turner, Sarah M; Tolu, Seda S; Bryce, Dianne K; Smith, Deborah L; Fonseca, Kari; Ring, Robert H; Crawley, Jacqueline N

2012-04-25

159

A qualitative study to explore undergraduate medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explores medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning. Thirty-two medical students, including representatives from each year of the medical degree, participated in five focus-group discussions. Theme analysis of each transcript by two independent analysts produced two attitude-related themes: positive attitudes towards communication skills and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. Students held both positive and negative attitudes towards different aspects of communication skills learning. Students' negative attitudes were related to communication skills being a subjective social science, which was viewed as 'non-academic' and 'common sense'. Students with negative attitudes towards communication skills learning were thought to be good communicators. Some reported being socialized into developing the negative attitudes held by older students and qualified doctors. The timing of communication skills learning was also thought to be important in determining attitudes. The findings within each of these themes and their educational implications are discussed in this paper. PMID:12098416

Rees, C E; Sheard, C E; McPherson, A C

2002-05-01

160

Attitudes without objects: evidence for a dispositional attitude, its measurement, and its consequences.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive vs. negative attitudes, a trait termed the dispositional attitude. Across 4 studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual preexisting attitudes; (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits; and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the Big 5 and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. PMID:23586409

Hepler, Justin; Albarracín, Dolores

2013-04-15

161

Attitudes without Objects: Evidence for a Dispositional Attitude, its Measurement, and its Consequences  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive versus negative attitudes, a trait termed the Dispositional Attitude. Across four studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual pre-existing attitudes, (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits, and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the big-five and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction.

Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores

2013-01-01

162

DOES VIEWING VIDEO OF STATISTICS IN ACTION AFFECT STUDENT ATTITUDES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that student attitudes can assist or impede learning and that students tend to have negative attitudes towards mathematics and statistics. We used a treatment- control experimental design to explore the effects of using video clips, showing applications of statistics in real world settings, on student attitudes toward statistics. Students with higher scores on standardized tests of

J. Richard Alldredge; H. Dean Johnson; Jose J. Sanchez

2006-01-01

163

Edward Said and Interfaith Attitudes of Christian Missionaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative interfaith attitudes are a major stumbling block to interfaith relations. This article raises awareness of stereotypical attitudes that commonly occur in Christian missionary discourse. The author utilizes Edward Said’s critique of Western concepts of the Orient as a touchstone for evaluating contrasting interfaith attitudes among Christian missionaries at the turn of the 20th century. Although ideally situated for interfaith

Eric N. Newberg

2011-01-01

164

Development of a Scale to Measure Attitudes toward Inclusive Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to scale the Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) with Rasch analysis. The ATIES records positive and negative attitudes toward integrating children with various disabilities into regular classes. Rasch analysis resolved the nonlinear relationship between the finite range of recorded ATIES scores and the conceptually infinite range of attitudes. Results showed that the 16-item scale defined

Felicia L. Wilczenski

1995-01-01

165

Teacher-Trainees Attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the attitudes of teacher trainees towards physical education (PE). It was hypothesised that teacher-trainees have negative attitudes towards PE. A total of 132 teacher trainees were randomly selected from a teacher Training College in Kenya completed a questionnaire adapted from Wear's attitude scale with equivalent forms.…

Gitonga, E. R.; Andanje, M.; Wanderi, P. M.; Bailasha, N.

2012-01-01

166

Baby walkers: paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes, and health promotion.  

PubMed

Paediatricians were surveyed about baby walker knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Advising about walkers was associated with working in community paediatrics, treating walker related injuries, knowledge about walkers, and positive attitudes towards walker health promotion. Greater knowledge about walkers was associated with more negative attitudes to walkers. Educating paediatricians and parents about the risks of, and alternatives to using walkers is important. PMID:14670775

Rhodes, K; Kendrick, D; Collier, J

2003-12-01

167

Mothers' attitudes and behavior toward medicating children's pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on physicians', patients', and the public's attitudes toward using opioid pain medications in adults have shown that negative attitudes are associated with decreased prescription\\/use of opioids in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Most of the pain that children experience is managed by parents, yet little is known about parents' attitudes toward using medication to treat children's pain.

S. Paula Forward; Tracy L. Brown; Patrick J. McGrath

1996-01-01

168

Negative-pressure wound therapy for deep sternal wound infections reduces the rate of surgical interventions for early re-infections†  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To evaluate the outcome of treatment for deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) in a nationwide patient cohort, before and after the introduction of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT). METHODS This was a population-based cohort of all patients treated for DSWI in Iceland out of 2446 open heart operations performed between 2000 and 2010. Length of hospital stay, survival and reoperations were compared in (i) 23 patients treated with open and/or closed irrigation before August 2005 (conventional treatment, CvT group) and in (ii) 20 patients treated after this time with NPWT as a first-line therapy (NPWT group). RESULTS The DSWI rate was 1.8% and did not change during the study period. Demographics were similar for both groups, except for peripheral arterial disease which was less common in the NPWT group. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were also more common (as the only pathogen identified) in the NPWT group (70% vs 30%, P = 0.01). The median length of hospital stay was 43 days in both groups and the sternum could be closed with delayed primary closure in all except 2 patients, one in each group. Eight patients in the CvT group required surgical revision for re-infections, including debridement and rewiring, when compared with 1 patient in the NPWT group (P = 0.02). Furthermore, 6 patients in the CvT group developed late chronic infections of the sternum requiring surgical revision, compared with one in the NPWT group (P = 0.10). The 30-day mortality was not significantly different between groups (4% vs 0%, P > 0.1) and the same was true for 1-year mortality (17% vs 0%, P = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS NPWT significantly reduces the risk of early re-infections in patients with DSWI. There was a lower rate of late chronic sternal infections and lower mortality in the NPWT group, but the difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that NPWT should be considered as a first-line treatment for most DSWIs.

Steingrimsson, Steinn; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Gudmundsdottir, Ingibjorg; Sjogren, Johan; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

2012-01-01

169

Promoting positive attitudes towards science and religion among sixth?form pupils: dealing with scientism and creationism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth?form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude towards science. However, this negative correlation was transformed into a positive correlation after taking into

Jeff Astley; Leslie J. Francis

2010-01-01

170

Restricting Portrayals of Film Violence to Reduce the Likelihood of Negative Effects in Viewers: Did the Framers of the Motion Picture Production Code Get It Right?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent social scientific research into the potential negative effects of viewing media violence has focused on the context in which violence is depicted and found that some ways of depicting violence may carry greater risks of negative effects for viewers than others. When this research is compared to the Motion Picture Production Code's restrictions on depictions of film violence, there

Joel Timmer

2011-01-01

171

Positive attitude in cancer: the nurse's perspective.  

PubMed

This paper reports the findings of a qualitative descriptive study, which explored the meaning of 'positive attitude' for a group of oncology nurses. Unstructured interviews were conducted with eight female nurses who volunteered to participate in the study. The importance and impact of attitude to patients with cancer and definitions of positive and negative attitude as perceived by nurses were key concepts addressed. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed and analysed for themes that related to positive attitude and cancer. The nurses perceived hope and positive attitude as similar and used three broad themes to describe this multifaceted construct: acceptance, a fighting spirit and looking on the bright side. The nurses perceived to have a major influence on the positive attitude of the cancer patient. However, they acknowledged their obligation to support and encourage patients to maintain a sense of positivity based on patient's values and beliefs. PMID:18315823

O'Baugh, Jenny; Wilkes, Lesley M; Luke, Suzanne; George, Ajesh

2008-04-01

172

Overcoming Graduate Students' Negative Perceptions of Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although there has been some attention in the literature to such issues as students' attitudes toward statistics, instructors are still constantly faced with the challenge to engage students; understand their perceptions, motivations, and interests; and deal with their reluctance and negative attitudes toward the field of statistics. The purpose…

Lalayants, Marina

2012-01-01

173

Young children and alcohol: a theory of attitude development.  

PubMed

This investigation traces the development of alcohol-related knowledge and attitudes of 228 children aged 5.5-10.5 years, using methods adapted from a study by Jahoda and Cramond (Children and Alcohol. HMSO, 1972). Preliminary results indicate that attitudes have changed little over the past 20 years. Young children's attitudes remain distinctly negative towards adult drinking, and are particularly negative in relation to women drinkers. As age increased, this negativity intensified. Moreover, girls were more condemnatory of women drinkers than were boys. The results are described in terms of a socio-cognitive theory of attitude development. The implications for primary intervention strategies are also discussed. PMID:8397531

Fossey, E

1993-07-01

174

The Effect of Unintended Interracial Contact Upon Racial Interaction and Attitude Change. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This was a study of the influence of unintended interracial contact and characteristics of the contact situation on attitude-related action and attitude change. It was designed to determine if persons with initially negative racial attitudes would change these attitudes by an experimental experience. The research subjects were white students from…

Cook, Stuart W.

175

Malignant Memories: Effect of a Shooting in the Workplace on School Personnel's Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Post-disaster surveys of elementary school personnel examined the effects of a shooting incident on attitudes toward self, family, workplace, community, and social issues. Specific attitudes were associated with specific preexisting personality and familial variables. Results revealed more positive than negative attitudes. Positive self attitudes

Schwarz, Eitan D.; Kowalski, Janice M.

1993-01-01

176

Sex differences in attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: A multidimensional perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We addressed four components of attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: condemnation\\/tolerance, morality, contact, and stereotypes. We hypothesized that attitudes would vary by component and by the sex of the person being rated. Results indicated that men (n = 137) held more negative attitudes toward homosexuals than did women (n = 133) on all factors except stereotypes, and that attitudes

Lisa LaMar; Mary Kite

1998-01-01

177

Influence of contact with schizophrenia on implicit attitudes towards schizophrenia patients held by clinical residents  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with schizophrenia and their families have suffered greatly from stigmatizing effects. Although many efforts have been made to eradicate both prejudice and stigma, they still prevail even among medical professionals, and little is known about how contact with schizophrenia patients affects their attitudes towards schizophrenia. Methods We assessed the impact of the renaming of the Japanese term for schizophrenia on clinical residents and also evaluated the influence of contact with schizophrenia patients on attitudes toward schizophrenia by comparing the attitudes toward schizophrenia before and after a one-month clinical training period in psychiatry. Fifty-one clinical residents participated. Their attitudes toward schizophrenia were assessed twice, before and one month after clinical training in psychiatry using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as well as Link’s devaluation-discrimination scale. Results The old term for schizophrenia, “Seishin-Bunretsu-Byo”, was more congruent with criminal than the new term for schizophrenia, “Togo-Shitcho-Sho”, before clinical training. However, quite opposite to our expectation, after clinical training the new term had become even more congruent with criminal than the old term. There was no significant correlation between Link's scale and IAT effect. Conclusions Renaming the Japanese term for schizophrenia still reduced the negative images of schizophrenia among clinical residents. However, contact with schizophrenia patients unexpectedly changed clinical residents’ attitudes towards schizophrenia negatively. Our results might contribute to an understanding of the formation of negative attitudes about schizophrenia and assist in developing appropriate clinical training in psychiatry that could reduce prejudice and stigma concerning schizophrenia.

2012-01-01

178

Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

Chang, Chingching

2012-01-01

179

Maternal attitude toward pregnancy and the risk of neonatal death.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Reduced options for fertility control over the past decade have increased the rates of unwanted pregnancy. We evaluated whether a woman's negative attitude toward her pregnancy increased the risk of perinatal mortality, in a large, prospective cohort study. METHODS. The association between attitude toward the pregnancy and perinatal mortality was evaluated in a longitudinal cohort study of 8823 married, pregnant patients enrolled from 1959 to 1966 in the Child Health and Development Studies. RESULTS. Women who reported during the first trimester of prenatal care that the pregnancy was unwanted were more than two times more likely to deliver infants who died within the first 28 days of life than were women reporting accepted pregnancies. A positive attitude toward pregnancy was not associated with fetal death or post-neonatal death. CONCLUSIONS. These data, collected when induced abortions were illegal, may have important implications for the 1990s. If maternal attitude toward the pregnancy is associated with neonatal mortality and abortion laws change such that access is restricted, infant mortality may increase because a greater proportion of births will be unwanted.

Bustan, M N; Coker, A L

1994-01-01

180

Instructional strategies to improve women's attitudes toward science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted for some students.

Newbill, Phyllis Leary

181

A Comparison of Knowledge Gained by Adults When Presentations Are Followed by Discussion Led by Local Volunteer and Professional Leaders with a Positive or Negative Attitude Toward the Discussion Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined whether or not the knowledge gained by adults in a group is influenced by media employed, by discussion, and by attitudes of local and professional discussion leaders. Research results were presented to the adults (250 4-H Club leaders) by film, lecture, and bulletin, then by discussion. Phases of the project included the…

Bussett, Glenn Morton

182

Improving Attitudes Regarding the Elderly Population: The Effects of Information and Reinforcement for Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Altering negative attitudes associated with ageism may be possible by giving people accurate information about older people in conjunction with reinforcement for change. This study, which involved 99 college students, supports the premise that negative attitudes toward older people are amenable; however, the new attitude may be lost without…

Ragan, Amie M.; Bowen, Anne M.

2001-01-01

183

The Effect of Attitude toward the Elderly on Behavior toward an Older Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people hold negative attitudes toward older adults, and these attitudes often are associated with negative behavior toward the old. To explore the behavioral correlates of attitudes toward the elderly, 105 male and female college students, with a mean age of 24.5 years, participated in a two-phase experiment. During phase one, all subjects…

Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

184

Understanding attitudes toward people with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Understanding attitudes of the public toward people with Down syndrome is important because negative attitudes might create barriers to social integration, which can affect their success and quality of life. We used data from two 2008 U.S. surveys (HealthStyles(c) survey of adults 18 years or older and YouthStyles(c) survey of youth ages 9-18) that asked about attitudes toward people with Down syndrome, including attitudes toward educational and occupational inclusion and toward willingness to interact with people with Down syndrome. Results showed that many adults continue to hold negative attitudes toward people with Down syndrome: A quarter of respondents agreed that students with Down syndrome should go to special schools, nearly 30% agreed that including students with Down syndrome in typical educational settings is distracting, and 18% agreed that persons with Down syndrome in the workplace increase the chance for accidents. Negative attitudes were also held by many youth: 30% agreed that students with Down syndrome should go to separate schools, 27% were not willing to work with a student with Down syndrome on a class project, and nearly 40% indicated they would not be willing to spend time with a student with Down syndrome outside of school. Among both adult and youth, female sex and respondents with previous relationships with people with Down syndrome were consistently associated with more positive attitudes. These results may be helpful in the development of educational materials about Down syndrome and in guiding policies on educational and occupational inclusion. PMID:20803641

Pace, Jill E; Shin, Mikyong; Rasmussen, Sonja A

2010-09-01

185

Evaluation of a school-based program designed to improve body image satisfaction, global self-esteem, and eating attitudes and behaviors: A replication study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life-skills promotion program designed to improve body image satisfaction and global self- esteem, while reducing negative eating attitudes and behaviors and feelings of perfectionism, all of which have been identified as predisposing factors to disordered eating. Method: A total of 258 girls with a mean age

Gail L. McVey; Ron Davis; Stacey Tweed; Brian F. Shaw

2004-01-01

186

Generating nonnegative attitudes among parents of depressed adolescents: The power of empathy, concern, and positive regard.  

PubMed

Parental negativity is associated with the onset and maintenance of adolescent depression. Reducing parental negativity is a primary focus of family-based treatments for this clinical population. This study examined the association between therapist relationship-facilitating and attachment-oriented interventions and the valence (i.e., positivity-negativity) of parents' attitudes toward their depressed adolescent in a sample of 13 sessions of attachment-based family therapy. Lag sequential analyses revealed that in good alliance sessions relationship-facilitating interventions, such as empathy and positive regard for the parent, were associated with parents' nonnegative attitudes toward their adolescent in the five speech turns subsequent to the intervention. Attachment-oriented interventions, such as relational reframes, addressing core relational themes, and highlighting vulnerable emotions, were also intermittently associated with nonnegative parental attitudes in good alliance sessions. No such effects were evident for the comparison interventions. This study represents a first step in the process of testing specific strategies for reducing parental negativity in family therapy. PMID:18815960

Moran, Galia; Diamond, Gary

2008-01-01

187

The Revival of Rejective Negation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether assent (“acceptance”) and dissent (“rejection”) are thought of as speech acts or as propositional attitudes, the leading idea of rejectivism is that a grasp of the distinction between them is prior to our understanding of negation as a sentence operator, this operator then being explicable as applying to A to yield something assent to which is tantamount to dissent

Lloyd Humberstone

2000-01-01

188

Attitudes to conservation and water consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sydney's water supply is under great pressure as the demand continues to rise. Demand mitigation strategies have had some success, but domestic consumption remains high. This paper discusses the attitudes of households to their water consumption in a search for ways in which domestic demand for water may be reduced. Evidence on attitudes of households in different kinds of housing

Bill Randolph; Patrick Troy

2008-01-01

189

Attitudes of Allied Health Students toward Writing in Community College Science Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study of the attitudes toward writing and self-evaluation of writing skills of 78 allied health students. Reports negative attitudes toward the writing process and skills deficiencies. Advocates incorporating writing into science course curriculum. (PAA)|

Kuhn, David J.

1990-01-01

190

Affection, Anger, or Ambivalence? an Examination of Tunisian and Two Groups of American Students' Attitudes Toward American Politics and Popular Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitude ambivalence is the attitude actor's simultaneous possession of both negative and positive affect toward an attitude object. The competing affect produces tension, creating attitude ambivalence. In the present project, the attitude object is the United States of America. Students in Tunisia (a predominately Muslim nation) were asked specific questions about American foreign policy and American popular culture (n =

Jonya Leverett

2010-01-01

191

Attitudes toward suicide prevention in front-line health staff.  

PubMed

A questionnaire assessing attitudes toward suicide prevention was constructed and shown to have satisfactory reliability and internal consistency. The determinants and distribution of these attitudes were investigated in four groups of health professionals who are in contact with suicidal patients: general practitioners, accident and emergency nurses, psychiatrists in training, and community psychiatric nurses. Attitudes toward suicide prevention were shown to differ significantly between professional groups. More positive attitudes were associated with mental health professionals, working in the community, and previous training in suicide risk assessment. Negative attitudes should be assessed and targeted in training designed to improve the management of suicide risk. PMID:11577918

Herron, J; Ticehurst, H; Appleby, L; Perry, A; Cordingley, L

2001-01-01

192

Sexuality attitudes: the impact of trauma.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationship between traumatic events and attitudes toward sexuality. Our results show that suffering trauma is related to more accepting attitudes concerning sexuality. Generally, people who suffer negative events, many of which are traumatic, are more likely to see both pornography and having a homosexual friend or family member as acceptable. Traumatic events that are sex-related or related to other physical assault proved to be most significant in the prediction of sexuality attitudes for women only. The results are specified by gender: Trauma predicts attitudes toward pornography for women but not for men, and traumatic events are associated with attitudes concerning homosexuality for women. These results are discussed in light of the previous research, and suggestions for future research made. PMID:14735409

Broman, Clifford L

2003-11-01

193

Distributed attitude synchronization for multiple rigid bodies without velocity measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming the desired time-varying reference trajectory is available to all the rigid bodies, we consider distributed attitude synchronization for multiple rigid bodies only with attitude measurement. Based on two lead filters which remove the requirement of angular velocity, we propose control law composed of two parts to reduce tracking error and to achieve attitude synchronization, respectively. First, we show the

Shanjie Chen; Haibo Ji; Sheng Bi

2009-01-01

194

Antagonistic modulatory influences of negative affect on cognitive control: Reduced and enhanced interference resolution capability after the induction of fear and sadness.  

PubMed

The present behavioral study investigated the influence of negative affect on the neural mechanisms of cognitive control. We expected to find evidence for an antagonistic modulation of cognition by threat-relevant and threat-irrelevant negative affect (i.e. fear and sadness) that should promote bottom-up monitoring and top-down selection, respectively. Subjects performed one of three conflict tasks (Stroop, Flanker, or Simon) that tap distinct control mechanisms of conflict resolution, comprising specific attentional and motor control processes. On each task trial, target stimuli were preceded by a face stimulus exhibiting a fearful, sad, or neutral expression, providing three affect conditions. Our data provides strong evidence for substantially increased selection (attentional and motor selection) after priming of threat-irrelevant negative affect (sadness). Deviating from the results of previous studies, our analysis did not consistently yield increased monitoring after fear priming. We discuss these findings with respect to the effectiveness of different experimental affect priming procedures (i.e. stimuli) and the role of the task context, among others. PMID:22366726

Melcher, Tobias; Obst, Katrin; Mann, Andreas; Paulus, Christine; Gruber, Oliver

2012-02-25

195

Regular screening mammography before the diagnosis of breast cancer reduces black:white breast cancer differences and modifies negative biological prognostic factors.  

PubMed

Black women present with later stage breast cancers compared to white women, and their cancers are more likely to be larger, receptor negative, and undifferentiated. This study evaluated black:white differences in the stage and biology of breast cancer among women who had a screening mammogram at one of two Chicago academic medical centers within two years of the breast cancer diagnosis (regularly screened) and compared them to the black:white differences in the stage and biology of breast cancer in women who had not received mammographic screening within two years of a breast cancer diagnosis (irregularly screened.) There were no significant black:white differences in the proportion of early breast cancers (black = 74 %; white = 69 %, p = NS) in the regularly screened population or in the irregularly screened group (black = 60 %; white = 68 %, p = NS.) The regularly screened population received significantly more mammograms (58 % ?4 mammograms) compared to the irregularly screened population (41 % ?4 mammograms.) Black women in the regularly screened population were less likely than irregularly screened black women to have estrogen negative breast cancers (26 vs. 36 %, p < .05), progesterone negative breast cancers (35 vs. 46 %, p < .05), and poorly differentiated breast cancers (39 vs. 53 %, p < .05.) White women in the irregularly screened population also had worse prognostic factors than white women in the regularly screened population, though these were not statistically significant. Regular mammographic screening can contribute to the narrowing of black:white differences in presentation of breast cancer. PMID:22886477

Grabler, Paula; Dupuy, Danielle; Rai, Jennifer; Bernstein, Sean; Ansell, David

2012-08-12

196

Attitudes toward a South African Liberation Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation sought to determine attitudes toward the African National Congress (A.N.C.) among groups of black and white South African university students, especially because the A.N.C. was outlawed in South Africa. Results indicate that, among the white Afrikaans speaking group, negative attitudes toward the A.N.C. were not associated with authoritarianism, conformity, or racial prejudice. By contrast, the English speaking

Patrick Heaven; Chris Stones; Coen Bester

1986-01-01

197

The importance of shiftwork attitudes and ethics  

SciTech Connect

The author, a nuclear power plant operator at the Ginna pressurized water reactor, discusses the positive and negative aspects of 12-hour workshifts, the various schedules that have been developed to optimize performance during the 12-hour shifts, and the motivation required to prepare mentally and physically for the shift. A healthy work attitude is the best guarantee of high standards of performance whether the shift be of 8-, 10-, or 12-hour duration. This healthy work attitude will cause peers to improve their attitudes and attentiveness and strive to lift their own work levels to a higher standard.

Litzenberger, G. (Rochester Gas and Electric Corp., Ontario, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

198

Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Science "and" Religion among Sixth-Form Pupils: Dealing with Scientism and Creationism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth-form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude

Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.

2010-01-01

199

REDUCED RESTING POTENTIALS IN DYSTROPHIC (MDX) MUSCLE FIBERS ARE SECONDARY TO NF-?B-DEPENDENT NEGATIVE MODULATION OF OUABAIN SENSITIVE Na+ - K+ PUMP ACTIVITY  

PubMed Central

To examine potential mechanisms for the reduced resting membrane potentials (RP) of mature dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers, the Na+ - K+ pump inhibitor ouabain was added to freshly isolated nondystrophic and mdx fibers. Ouabain produced a 71% smaller depolarization in mdx fibers than in nondystrophic fibers, increased the [Na+]i in nondystrophic fibers by 40%, but had no significant effect on the [Na+]i of mdx fibers, which was approximately double that observed in untreated nondystrophic fibers. Western blots indicated no difference in total and phosphorylated Na+ - K+ ATPase catalytic ?1 subunit between nondystrophic and mdx muscle Examination of the effects of the NF-?B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) indicated that direct application of the drug slowly hyperpolarized mdx fibers (7 mV in 90 minutes) but had no effect on nondystrophic fibers. Pretreatment with ouabain abolished this hyperpolarization, and pretreatment with PDTC restored ouabain-induced depolarization and reduced [Na+]i Administration of an NF-?B inhibitor that utilizes a different mechanism for reducing nuclear NF-?B activation, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), also hyperpolarized mdx fibers. These results suggest that in situ Na+ - K+ pump activity is depressed in mature dystrophic fibers by NF-?B dependent modulators, and that this reduced pump activity contributes to the weakness characteristic of dystrophic muscle.

Miles, M. T.; Cottey, E.; Cottey, A.; Stefanski, C.

2011-01-01

200

The association between health care professional attitudes and beliefs and the attitudes and beliefs, clinical management, and outcomes of patients with low back pain: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIt has been suggested that health care professional (HCP) attitudes and beliefs may negatively influence the beliefs of patients with low back pain (LBP), but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aimed to investigate the association between HCP attitudes and beliefs and the attitudes and beliefs, clinical management, and outcomes of this patient population.

Ben Darlow; Brona M. Fullen; Sarah Dean; Deirdre A. Hurley; G. David Baxter; Anthony Dowell

201

Attitudes of health care providers and students towards tattooed people.  

PubMed

Attitudes of health care providers and medical and nursing students (n = 513) towards tattooed adults and adolescents were examined. No respondent group had mean scores reflecting a positive attitude towards tattooed persons. Overall, physicians (MDs) and registered nurses (RNs) rated tattooed people less positively than did students. Womens' attitudes were consistently less favourable than those of men, especially towards tattooed professional women. Attitudes towards tattooed adolescents were generally less positive than attitudes towards the adult groups. Research has found that negative attitudes impact patient care. This study suggests that tattooed persons, especially adolescents, may be at risk of being negatively perceived when they seek health care. Increased efforts are needed to assure that those with tattoos receive non-judgemental and sensitive care. PMID:9663867

Stuppy, D J; Armstrong, M L; Casals-Ariet, C

1998-06-01

202

Amitifadine, a triple monoamine uptake inhibitor, reduces binge drinking and negative affect in an animal model of co-occurring alcoholism and depression symptomatology.  

PubMed

The co-occurrence of alcoholism and depression is highly prevalent and difficult to treat. In an animal model of binge drinking that exhibits abstinence-induced behaviors reminiscent of negative affective states, the triple monoamine uptake inhibitor, amitifadine, produced a selective, dose dependent attenuation of binge drinking. Amitifadine also reversed abstinence-induced increases in the intracranial self-stimulation threshold, a model of anhedonia, and immobility in the forced swim test, reflecting behavioral despair. In view of the safety profile of amitifadine in humans, including low risk for weight gain, lack of sexual side effects, and low potential for abuse, we hypothesize that amitifadine will be effective in treating co-occurring alcoholism and depression. PMID:22884707

Warnock, Kaitlin T; Yang, Andrew R S T; Yi, Heon S; June, Harry L; Kelly, Timothy; Basile, Anthony S; Skolnick, Phil; June, Harry L

2012-11-01

203

Attitude and personality correlates of hallucinogenic drug use.  

PubMed

Personality, attitude, and hallucinogenic drug use data were obtained from 298 male and female adult members of labor unions. Multiple regression and canonical correlation analyses of drug use, personality, and attitude data revealed that: the use of hallucinogens was significantly related to needs for novel or unconventional experiences and negative attitudes toward conventionally defined social values, and marijuana use scores were more strongly associated with the set of predictor variables than were other drugs reported. PMID:3744619

Mabry, E A; Khavari, K A

1986-06-01

204

Attitudes of Older Adults About Community-Based Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

We currently lack critical information about an important component of community-based service use-attitudes about these services. To understand such attitudes, 115 older adults (age 65+) participated in in-depth interviews. Because of their vulnerability to poor health status, insufficient resources, and low use of formal services relative to their needs, we oversampled African-American and rural elders. Both positive and negative attitudes

Nancy E. Schoenberg; Raymond T. Coward; Stan L. Albrecht

2002-01-01

205

Attitudes towards prostitution among males: A “Consumers’ report”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic attitudes toward prostitution of 140 men who have used prostitutes were examined in relation to several descriptive\\u000a characteristics, as well as to MMPI-2 results for a subgroup of these men. The attitudes were assessed by subscales of the\\u000a Attitudes Toward Prostitution Scale (ATPS)— Inaccurate Beliefs about Prostitution, Social\\/Legal Acceptance of Prostitution, Personal Acceptance of the Prostitute, and\\u000a Negative

Steven Sawyer; Michael E. Metz; Jeffrey D. Hinds; Robert A. Brucker

2001-01-01

206

Hypochondriacal attitudes may reflect a general cognitive bias that is not limited to illness-related thoughts.  

PubMed

Previous findings suggested that hypochondriacal attitudes could originate from a pessimistic trait independent of illness-related thoughts. We hypothesised that hypochondriacal attitudes correlated with a general cognitive tendency towards negative interpretations and reduced familiarisation. Healthy non-patients were invited to participate. The sum score from the Hypochondriacal Beliefs and Disease Phobia scales of the Illness Attitude Scales assessed hypochondriacal attitudes. Participants without any knowledge of the Chinese language were asked to guess whether or not each of eight Chinese characters had a positive meaning and whether the characters appeared familiar. Stimuli without semantic content avoided a reference to illness in order to assess a general cognitive bias. Participants with high hypochondriasis scores rated apparently familiar stimuli as being less positive in comparison to low hypochondriacal participants, F(1,78)?=?9.2, p?=?0.003, ?²?=?0.10; correlation of hypochondriasis scores to the differences between ratings of familiar and unfamiliar characters: ??=?0.345, p?=?0.002. Positivity and familiarity ratings did not correlate with hypochondriacal attitudes independent of each other. A less positive appraisal of familiar experiences, which is unrelated to illness-related thoughts, may maintain hypochondriacal concerns. A general distrustful attitude towards familiar procedures should be considered in hypochondriasis. PMID:21432734

Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Klaus

2011-05-24

207

Medical Students' Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies from the USA have identified medical students as a major source of stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals. As data from Europe is scarce, medical students’ attitudes were investigated at the University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany. Design Cross-sectional survey containing an experimental manipulation consisting of a pair of vignettes depicting an obese and a normal weight 42-year-old woman, respectively. Vignettes were followed by the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), a semantic differential assessing weight related attitudes. In case of the overweight vignette a panel of questions on causal attribution for the overweight preceded administration of the FPS. Subjects 671 medical students were enrolled at the University of Leipzig from May to June 2011. Results The overweight vignette was rated significantly more negative than the normal weight vignette (mean FPS score 3.65±0.45 versus 2.54±0.38, p<0.001). A higher proportion of students had negative attitudes towards the overweight as compared to the normal weight individual (98.9% versus 53.7%, p<0.001). A “positive energy balance” was perceived as the most relevant cause for the overweight, followed by “negligent personality trait”, “societal and social environment” and “biomedical causes”. Attributing a “positive energy balance” or “negligent personality trait” as relevant cause for the overweight was positively associated with negative attitudes. Conclusion The results of this study confirm and complement findings from other countries, mainly the USA, and indicate that weight bias in the health care setting may be a global issue. Stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obesity are prevalent among a sample of medical students at the University of Leipzig. Negative attitudes arise on the basis of holding the individual accountable for the excess weight. They call for bringing the topic of overweight and obesity more into the focus of the medical curriculum and for enhancing medical students’ awareness of the complex aetiology of this health condition.

Pantenburg, Birte; Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Schomerus, Georg; Konig, Hans-Helmut; Werner, Perla; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

2012-01-01

208

Negative Influence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter is all about negative numbers, and how to deal with them. They're not all that difficult to understand, but for some reason people get just a little uptight when they see computations involving negative numbers. I'm guessing that the apprehension results from the view that negative numbers mean there are more rules to follow--rules you don't necessarily understand. Well, we'll try and correct that.

Robertson, William C.

2006-01-01

209

Complete Oxidation of Propionate, Valerate, Succinate, and Other Organic Compounds by Newly Isolated Types of Marine, Anaerobic, Mesophilic, Gram-Negative, Sulfur-Reducing Eubacteria  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic enrichment cultures with either propionate, succinate, lactate, or valerate and elemental sulfur and inocula from shallow marine or deep-sea sediments were dominated by rod-shaped motile bacteria after three transfers. By application of deep-agar dilutions, five eubacterial strains were obtained in pure culture and designated Kyprop, Gyprop, Kysw2, Gylac, and Kyval. All strains were gram negative and grew by complete oxidation of the electron donors and concomitant stoichiometric reduction of elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. The isolates used acetate, propionate, succinate, lactate, pyruvate, oxaloacetate, maleate, glutamate, alanine, aspartate, and yeast extract. All isolates, except strain Gylac, used citrate as an electron donor but valerate was oxidized only by strain Kyval. Fumarate and malate were degraded by all strains without an additional electron donor or acceptor. Kyprop, Gyprop, and Gylac utilized elemental sulfur as the sole inorganic electron acceptor, while Kysw2 and Kyval also utilized nitrate, dimethyl sulfoxide, or Fe(III)-citrate as an electron acceptor. Images

Finster, Kai; Bak, Friedhelm

1993-01-01

210

STAFF ATTITUDES TOWARD THE AGED IN NURSING HOMES: A REVIEW AND SUGGESTIONS FOR AN ALTERNATE APPROACH TO TRAINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of staff attitudes toward the aged in nursing homes suggests the presence of a negative feedback situation between staff and patients that promotes negative attitudes toward aging by both parties. Attitudes are reviewed in relation to the level of training of professional and paraprofessional personnel, to include nurse's aides, the nursing staff, and consulting physicians. Suggestions for improvement

Francis J. Winn Jr; Jeffrey W. Elias; Gail S. McComb

1978-01-01

211

Change Plan as an Active Ingredient of Brief Motivational Interventions for Reducing Negative Consequences of Drinking in Hazardous Drinking Emergency-Department Patients*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Few studies have examined the effects of brief motivational intervention components, such as change-plan completion, on treatment outcomes. This secondary analysis of an opportunistically recruited emergency-department sample of hazardous injured drinkers examines the potential predictive role of an alcohol-related change plan on treatment outcomes after accounting for pretreatment readiness. Written change plans were independently rated. Method: A mediational analysis framework tested directional hypotheses between pretreatment readiness, change plan, and treatment outcomes using linear regressions. The baseline total Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC) score was covaried on 12-month DrInC total score, in all analyses. Participants who completed a brief motivational intervention and a change plan were included (N = 333). Results: Pretreatment readiness was negatively associated with alcohol consequences at 12 months, (? = -.09, t(254) = -2.07, p < .05, and good-quality change plans, (? = .18, t(320) = 4.37, p < .001. With change plan and readiness in the same model, the relationship between readiness and treatment outcomes became nonsignificant, but change plan remained a significant predictor of treatment outcomes in the expected direction, p = -.17, t(254) = -2.89, p < .01. Follow-up generalized linear modeling including an interaction term (change plan and pretreatment readiness) revealed that those with high readiness and a good-quality change plan versus those with low readiness and a poor-quality change plan had better-than-predicted outcomes for either readiness or change plan alone. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that the change plan in brief motivational intervention may be an active ingredient of treatment associated with better outcomes over and above the influence of pretreatment readiness.

Lee, Christina S.; Baird, Janette; Longabaugh, Richard; Nirenberg, Ted D.; Mello, Michael J.; Woolard, Robert

2010-01-01

212

Teenagers' Attitudes about Seeking Help from Telephone Crisis Services (Hotlines)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward the use of telephone crisis services (hotlines) among 519 adolescents in 9th through 12th grade mandatory health courses in six high schools in New York State. Few adolescents (2.1%) used hotlines and negative attitudes were stronger toward hotlines than they were toward other formal…

Gould, Madelyn S.; Greenberg, Ted; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lubell, Keri

2006-01-01

213

Regular and Special Education Teachers Marking Attitudes and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Marking Attitude Scale was administered to regular and special education teachers. Results indicated that regular educators believed that marks have a positive influence on students while special educators believed marks exerted neither positive nor negative influence. Assigned marks, attitude scores, and teaching experience were not…

Crowl, Thomas K.; Berkowitz, Mina

1985-01-01

214

Attitudes toward Rape Victims: Effects of Gender and Professional Status.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upper-class undergraduates (n=740) beginning graduate students in counseling (n=78) and mental health professionals (n=45) were surveyed regarding attitudes toward rape victims. Results show that male undergraduates had the most negative attitudes toward rape victims, and female professionals the most favorable. Male participants held more…

White, Bradley H.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson

1999-01-01

215

Russian and USA University Students’ Attitudes toward Female Social Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Russia a declared equality of women together with a general negative attitude toward feminism (which were instilled in the former USSR) coexist with the present indefinite federal policy with regard to women, with absence or inactivity of laws against women’s discrimination and sexism in mass media. The study aimed at finding how the situation had influenced attitudes toward female

Ludmila V. Popova

1999-01-01

216

Differential Attitudes toward an Adult Education Program for Pharmacists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study measured post exposure attitude differences toward a series of continuing education programs for registered pharmacists. Analysis of variance revealed that hospital pharmacists held more negative general attitudes toward the series than community pharmacists. Graduation date (year since pharmacy school) showed no relationship to…

Kotzan, Jeffrey A.; Jowdy, Albert W.

1970-01-01

217

Conditioning Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol, Smoking and Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Classical conditioning procedures were used to change the attitudes and choice of social behavior of elementary and secondary students associated with drinking, smoking, and the use of drugs. The experimental group expressed more negative attitudes toward smoking and drinking and chose the use of drugs less frequently. (Author/BW)|

Moore, Laura P.; And Others

1982-01-01

218

Factors Contributing to Attitude Exchange amongst Preservice Elementary Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a study designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Identifies three main factors: (1) personal attributes of the tutor; (2)…

Palmer, David H.

2002-01-01

219

The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude

Friedkin, Noah E.

2010-01-01

220

Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

Alwitt, Linda F.

221

Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite…

Alwitt, Linda F.

222

Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales  

PubMed Central

The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term “euthanasia” influences people’s support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman’s Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term “euthanasia”, the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it.

Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

2011-01-01

223

Attitudes toward authority and mental health in adolescent college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all instances, those subjects holding negative perceptions of authority scored in less favorable mental health directions. The author cautions, however, that “in potentially ‘creative’ college students, such negative attitudes (perhaps even negative behavior) may not be as ominous from the mental health\\/personality development point of view” as might otherwise be the case.

Herbert G. Richek

1971-01-01

224

How children with facial differences are perceived by non-affected children and adolescents: Perceiver effects on stereotypical attitudes.  

PubMed

Children with a facial difference are presumed to be at risk of social stigmatization. The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to assess the effect of facial differences on social perceptions by unaffected children and adolescents; and (2) to identify perceiver characteristics that predict stereotypical attitudes toward facial differences. Participants were 344 non-affected children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years. Participants rated digitally altered images of 12 children depicted either with or without a facial difference. Results show that participants attributed less favorable characteristics to children with a facial difference than to those without. Moreover, participants reported less willingness to interact with or befriend a child with a facial difference. Significant predictors of low discriminative attitudes were older participant age and previous contact with someone with a facial difference. Our data call attention to the need for public education programs targeted at reducing negative attitudes toward facial differences. PMID:23810827

Masnari, Ornella; Schiestl, Clemens; Weibel, Lisa; Wuttke, Franziska; Landolt, Markus A

2013-06-28

225

Mothers' attitudes and behavior toward medicating children's pain.  

PubMed

Studies on physicians', patients', and the public's attitudes toward using opioid pain medications in adults have shown that negative attitudes are associated with decreased prescription/use of opioids in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Most of the pain that children experience is managed by parents, yet little is known about parents' attitudes toward using medication to treat children's pain. A 20-item scale was developed to examine mothers' attitudes to using acetaminophen to treat children's pain. During a structured telephone interview, 298 mothers responded to the attitude scale items. Mothers also responded to questions concerning their medicating behaviors. Mothers were concerned about tolerance and side effects from acetaminophen. Principal components factor analysis on the acetaminophen scale extracted four factors which accounted for 59% of the variance in responses. Mothers with more positive attitudes toward acetaminophen were more likely to medicate for common childhood pains and would give medication at lower levels of pain than would mothers with less positive attitudes. However, the moderate internal reliability of the attitude subscales somewhat limits the generalizability of these findings. Further scale development will be necessary in order to clarify mothers' attitudes and the relationship between their attitudes and behaviors. Studies using different pain contexts, and using fathers and older children and adolescents as respondents, will add to our understanding of attitudes toward using medication for children's pain. PMID:8951943

Forward, S P; Brown, T L; McGrath, P J

1996-10-01

226

Transmission of social attitudes.  

PubMed Central

Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance.

Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

1986-01-01

227

MiR-125b reduces porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication by negatively regulating the NF-?B pathway.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. To investigate the impact of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) on the replication of PRRSV, we screened 10 highly conserved miRNAs implicated in innate immunity or antiviral function and identified miR-125b as an inhibitor of PRRSV replication. Virus titer and western blot assays demonstrated that miR-125b reduced PRRSV replication and viral gene expression in a dose-dependent manner in both MARC-145 cell line and primary porcine alveolar macrophages. Mechanistically, miR-125b did not target the PRRSV genome. Rather, it inhibited activation of NF-?B, which we found to be required for PRRSV replication. PRRSV, in turn, down-regulated miR-125b expression post-infection to promote viral replication. Collectively, miR-125b is an antiviral host factor against PRRSV, but it is subject to manipulation by PRRSV. Our study reveals an example of manipulation of a cellular miRNA by an arterivirus to re-orchestrate host gene expression for viral propagation and sheds new light on targeting host factors to develop effective control measures for PRRS. PMID:23409058

Wang, Dang; Cao, Lu; Xu, Zheng; Fang, Liurong; Zhong, Yao; Chen, Quangang; Luo, Rui; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Kui; Xiao, Shaobo

2013-02-07

228

Reduced redox potential during growth of some gram-negative bacteria. Effect on the biochemical and physicochemical surface properties and phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

When cultivated at reduced redox potential the physico-chemical surface properties were altered in strains of E. coli, Salmonella and Yersinia bacteria. In particular, strains which showed hydrophilic surface properties under normal aerobic cultivation became more hydrophobic when exposed to anaerobic conditions (e.g. E. coli K12, E. coli K12D21, E. coli K12D22, S. minnesota S99, S. typhimurium 395MS, S. braenderup 2828 and Yersinia enterocolitica). Moreover, there were qualitative as well as quantitative differences in the protein profiles of whole bacterial lysates and membrane preparations analysed in SDS-PAGE. There were no qualitative differences in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bands. However, when E. coli K12D22 were cultivated aerobically, remarkably more high molecular temperature-sensitive (70 degrees C for 45 min) carbohydrate material was produced (weight about 360 KD and 660 KD). Interaction between polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and the E. coli K12D22 strain, measured as chemiluminescence, showed that the anaerobically cultivated bacteria induced a chemiluminescence that was mainly of intracellular origin, while the aerobically cultivated induced an extracellular response. Phagocytosis and killing-studies showed that only anaerobically-grown E. coli were effectively inactivated by the PMNL. PMID:2901846

Maluszynska, G M; Magnusson, K E; Stendahl, O; Lock, R; Kniola, B

1988-09-01

229

Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes

Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

2009-01-01

230

A Key to the Future: The Attitudes and Values of Adolescent Europeans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on original empirical data collected from adolescents in Europe (N = 9003) this paper focuses the lifeworlds of young people. It analyses negative and positive patterns of attitude and combines them with further concepts: personal life perspectives, various key values and political attitudes. Technically, the attitude towards Europe acts as…

Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Kay, William K.

2009-01-01

231

Effects of Sex-Based Preferential Selection and Discrimination on Job Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of managerial and professional employees' (N = 188) perceptions of sex-based preferential selection and discrimination on their job attitudes were examined. As expected, men and women had negative job attitudes when they believed that selection practices discriminated against their own sex. Contrary to previous findings, however, both men and women had more positive job attitudes when their own

Laura M. Graves; Gary N. Powell

1994-01-01

232

Research on effect of current chinese cultural values on consumption attitude loyalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

1120 questionnaires are collected by survey, and structural equation model (SEM) is applied to research effect of current Chinese cultural values on consumption attitude loyalty. The research indicates that cultural values of ldquolong term versus short term orientationrdquo, ldquouncertainty avoidancerdquo, ldquotime orientationrdquo, ldquoaffectivity versus affective neutralityrdquo positively affect attitude loyalty, cultural value of ldquomaterial comfortrdquo negatively affects attitude loyalty, and

Liu Shi-xiong

2008-01-01

233

Self-Defense, Sexism, and Etiological Beliefs: Predictors of Attitudes toward Gay and Lesbian Adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

While attitudes toward gay and lesbian civil rights issues have generally become more positive, attitudes regarding the rights of gay and lesbian couples to adopt children are relatively more negative. It is proposed that attitudes toward homosexual adoption are rooted in self-protective defense mechanisms, sexism, and beliefs about the etiology of sexual orientation. A sample of Introductory Psychology students was

B J Rye; Glenn J. Meaney

2010-01-01

234

A Qualitative Study of Asian International Students' Attitudes toward African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study was designed to gather information, using focus groups, about Asian international students' experiences with and attitudes toward African Americans, to identify the sources of these attitudes, and to discover methods that would address negative attitudes that Asian students might have towards African American students.…

Talbot, Donna M.; Geelhoed, Robyn J.; Ninggal, Mohd. Tajudin Hj.

1999-01-01

235

Effect of the Challenger Experience on Elementary Children's Attitudes to Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how the Challenger experience influenced over 655 elementary boys' and girls' general attitudes toward science and space during the five months after their visit by examining their responses to four different attitude scales. Discusses positive outcomes and negative effects of the Challenger experience on children's attitude toward…

Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony

2002-01-01

236

"Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2008-01-01

237

Evangelical Christian College Students and Attitudes toward Gay Rights: A California University Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research demonstrates that Evangelical Christians generally hold more negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and are less supportive of gay rights than the general U.S. population. To assess these attitudes, undergraduate students at an Evangelical Christian university in California (N = 319) completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay…

Wolff, Joshua R.; Himes, Heather L.; Kwon, Ellen Miller; Bollinger, Richard A.

2012-01-01

238

The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own…

Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

2009-01-01

239

An Investigation of Egyptian Consumers’ Attitudes Toward Ethical Issues in Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates Egyptian consumers’ attitudes toward ethical issues in advertising held by a sample of 306 participants. The subjects completed a 20-item instrument originally designed to measure respondents’ attitudes toward controversial issues in advertising. The study validates the scale in an Arab non-Western context. The results revealed that Egyptian consumers have negative attitudes toward ethical issues in advertising. There

Mohamed M. Mostafa

2011-01-01

240

Evangelical Christian College Students and Attitudes Toward Gay Rights: A California University Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research demonstrates that Evangelical Christians generally hold more negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and are less supportive of gay rights than the general U.S. population. To assess these attitudes, undergraduate students at an Evangelical Christian university in California (N = 319) completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (ATLG) scale (Herek, 1984, 1998) and other demographic and religiosity

Joshua R. Wolff; Heather L. Himes; Ellen Miller Kwon; Richard A. Bollinger

2012-01-01

241

"Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2008-01-01

242

Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Attitudes Toward Sexist\\/Nonsexist Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite documented, negative effects of sexist language, some people still strongly oppose inclusive language. Their attitudes need study, but existing measures of attitude lack comprehensiveness or validity. This paper reports construction and validation of the 42-item Inventory of Attitudes Toward Sexist\\/Nonsexist Language (IASNL), which is based on a conceptual framework related to beliefs about language, recognition of sexist language, and

Janet B. Parks; Mary Ann Roberton

2000-01-01

243

Perceived Cultural Attitudes Toward Homosexuality and Their Effects on Iranian and American Sexual Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between three mental health constructs and perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Specifically, differences in perceived cultural attitudes and depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress between 49 Iranians and 47 Americans were compared. It was hypothesized that (a) perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality would be more negative among Iranians than Americans;

Sholeh I. Mireshghi; David Matsumoto

2008-01-01

244

A Key to the Future: The Attitudes and Values of Adolescent Europeans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on original empirical data collected from adolescents in Europe (N = 9003) this paper focuses the lifeworlds of young people. It analyses negative and positive patterns of attitude and combines them with further concepts: personal life perspectives, various key values and political attitudes. Technically, the attitude towards Europe acts as…

Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Kay, William K.

2009-01-01

245

Attitudes towards prisoners, as reported by prison inmates, prison employees and college students  

PubMed Central

Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Results The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Conclusion The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated.

Kjelsberg, Ellen; Skoglund, Tom Hilding; Rustad, Aase-Bente

2007-01-01

246

Attitudes towards suicide following an undergraduate suicide prevention module: experience of medical students in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES. To explore qualitative and quantitative changes in attitudes and experiences of medical students following a special study suicide prevention module. DESIGN. Pilot study. SETTING. The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. A 2-week intensive special studies module was delivered to third- and fourth-year medical students in June 2011. The module was elective and involved several modes of teaching. All students filled the Chinese Attitude toward Suicide Questionnaire before and after the course. They also provided written feedback about the module experience. Three students participated in in-depth interviews. RESULTS. In all, 22 students aged 20 to 23 years enrolled in the special studies module; 15 (68%) of whom were male and only one was married. Positive trends were noted in attitudes towards suicide following the participation in the special studies module, namely, reduced negative appraisal of suicide, reduced stigmatisation of the phenomena, and increased sensitivity to suicide-related facts. Feedback of the students suggested inclusion of this module into the main medical curriculum, increased confidence in dealing with issues related to suicide, and appreciation of skills focusing on interviewing in patients. Overall the module was well received by medical students. CONCLUSIONS. A suicide prevention training module seems to have been valued by students and lead to positive attitudes towards understanding suicide. Adopting this initiative as a suicide prevention strategy warrants further exploration. PMID:24088587

Yousuf, S; Beh, P Sl; Wong, P Wc

2013-10-01

247

A Model of Dual Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an attitude changes from A1 to A2, what happens to A1? Most theories assume, at least implicitly, that the new attitude replaces the former one. The authors argue that a new attitude can override, but not replace, the old one, resulting in dual attitudes. Dual attitudes are defined as different evaluations of the same attitude object an automatic, implicit

Timothy D. Wilson; Samuel Lindsey; Tonya Y. Schooler

2000-01-01

248

Physician Attitudes Toward Distressed Colleagues  

PubMed Central

Attitudes and behaviors of physicians toward their impaired colleagues often affect whether the latter seek treatment. Negative responses include (1) silence, usually based on anxiety, ignorance and pessimism; (2) tentative responses based on stereotyped assumptions or distraction by organic problems; (3) judgmental responses that may result in mutual avoidance, and (4) permissive responses that encourage continued use of alcohol or other drugs. Positive responses include (1) confrontation in a concerned, constructive manner as early as possible; (2) assistance to the impaired colleague in obtaining treatment, and (3) education and information sharing to increase awareness of potential and real problems. Educational programs can help physicians develop more positive attitudes toward both impaired colleagues and impaired patients. The emphasis is on active participation. The goals of these programs should include optimism about therapy, using structured treatment approaches that include paraprofessionals and formerly impaired physicians on the treatment team, and the development of confrontational skills on the part of each physician.

Chappel, John N.

1981-01-01

249

High Radiation Dose May Reduce the Negative Effect of Large Gross Tumor Volume in Patients With Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the effect of radiation dose varies with gross tumor volume (GTV) in patients with stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 114 consecutive patients with medically inoperable stage I/II NSCLC treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy between 1992 and 2004. The median biologic equivalent dose (BED) was 79.2 Gy (range, 58.2-124.5 Gy). The median GTV was 51.8 cm{sup 3} (range, 2.1-727.8 cm{sup 3}). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant interaction between radiation dose and GTV (p < 0.001). In patients with BED {<=}79.2 Gy (n = 68), the OS medians for patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} and {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} were 18.2 and 23.9 months, respectively (p 0.015). If BED was >79.2 Gy (n = 46), no significant difference was found between GTV groups (p = 0.681). For patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the OS medians in those with BED >79.2 Gy and {<=}79.2 Gy were 30.4 and 18.2 months, respectively (p < 0.001). If GTV was {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the difference was no longer significant (p = 0.577). Conclusion: High-dose radiation is more important for patients with larger tumors and may be effective in reducing the adverse outcome associated with large GTV. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

Zhao Lujun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); West, Brady T. [Center for Statistical Consultation and Research, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lyons, Susan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cease, Kemp [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: Fengkong@med.umich.edu

2007-05-01

250

Observational Learning of Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using basic learning theory the S-R behaviorial approach to the formation of attitudes defines an attitude in terms of a conditioned anticipatory implicit response to a stimulus object. Described in this study is a model used to investigate observational learning of attitudes in a laboratory situation. (SM)

Kanekar, Suresh

1973-01-01

251

Attitudes Toward Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Asian region moves to becoming a strong economic force and advertisers continue to increase their spending targeted toward Asian consumers, it is important to examine how these consumers feel about advertising. Consumers' attitudes towards advertising have been found to influence assessments of other desired advertising outcomes such as attitude toward individual advertisements and brand attitude. A study was

Carrie La Ferle; Wei-Na Lee

2003-01-01

252

Negative learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technical information may lead to scientific beliefs that diverge over time from the a posteriori right answer. We call this phenomenon, which is particularly problematic in the global change arena, negative learning. Negative\\u000a learning may have affected policy in important cases, including stratospheric ozone depletion, dynamics of the West Antarctic\\u000a ice sheet, and population and energy projections. We simulate

Michael Oppenheimer; Brian C. O’Neill; Mort Webster

2008-01-01

253

Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males).

2013-01-01

254

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents

Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2002-01-01

255

Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…

Barnabei, Fred; And Others

256

Attitude changes during and after long submarine missions.  

PubMed

To assess the kind and degree of attitude changes occurring during a 2-month submerged mission, two enlisted crews of one fleet ballistic missile submarine (FBM) (n = 101 each) were administered the Submarine Attitude Questionnaire before and after two 55-day submerged missions interspersed with a rehabilitation period of the same duration. Results showed that time-in-service and pay grade bore a U-shaped relationship to positive attitudes toward the service. During submergence, most attitudes became negative and then reversed polarity during rehabilitation. However, there were no cumulative effects upon attitudes during successive missions. Attitudes pertaining to the realities of the mission (for example, boredom, hazardous aspects) became more negative but recovered faster. On the other hand, attitude changes related to long-range expectancies in terms of goal achievement of the crew members were less likely to recover. Several possible explanations for these attitude changes are discussed in the context of the mission of the FBM submarine. Suggestions for preventing or alleviating untoward attitude changes during long submarine missions are also presented. PMID:505625

Weybrew, B B; Molish, H B

1979-01-01

257

Automatic and self-reported attitudes in romantic relationships.  

PubMed

Two studies used response latency measures to assess automatic attitudes that individuals are unwilling or unable to reveal about their partners. In Study 1, participants (n = 51) in dating relationships completed two response latency measures (Time 1) and several relationship self-reports (Times 1 and 2). Participants who faced high barriers to exiting (BTE) their relationship generally showed a negative association between their relationship self-reports and automatic attitudes, and there was some evidence that automatic attitudes at Time 1 predicted relationship satisfaction at Time 2. Study 2 (n = 41 couples) replicated the BTE finding and showed that image-based response latency measures may assess automatic attitudes more effectively than word-based measures. A negative correlation between self-reported and automatic attitudes among high-BTE participants suggests that they may overreport relationship positivity to quell feelings of doubt about a relationship they cannot feasibly dissolve. PMID:17502418

Scinta, Anthony; Gable, Shelly L

2007-05-14

258

Impact of Perceived Consensus on Stereotypes About Obese People: A New Approach for Reducing Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 3 experiments, the authors tested the effect of perceived social consensus on attitudes toward obese people. Participants completed self-report measures of attitudes toward obese people prior to and after manipulated consensus feedback depicting attitudes of others. In Study 1 (N = 60), participants decreased negative and increased positive stereotypes after learning that others held more favorable attitudes toward obese

Rebecca M. Puhl; Marlene B. Schwartz; Kelly D. Brownell

2005-01-01

259

Interprofessional Collaboration and Turf Wars How Prevalent Are Hidden Attitudes?*  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Interprofessional collaboration in health care is believed to enhance patient outcomes. However, where professions have overlapping scopes of practice (eg, chiropractors and physical therapists), "turf wars" can hinder effective collaboration. Deep-rooted beliefs, identified as implicit attitudes, provide a potential explanation. Even with positive explicit attitudes toward a social group, negative stereotypes may be influential. Previous studies on interprofessional attitudes have mostly used qualitative research methodologies. This study used quantitative methods to evaluate explicit and implicit attitudes of physical therapy students toward chiropractic. Methods: A paper-and-pencil instrument was developed and administered to 49 individuals (students and faculty) associated with a Canadian University master's entry-level physical therapy program after approval by the Research Ethics Board. The instrument evaluated explicit and implicit attitudes toward the chiropractic profession. Implicit attitudes were determined by comparing response times of chiropractic paired with positive versus negative descriptors. Results: Mean time to complete a word association task was significantly longer (t = 4.75, p =.00) when chiropractic was associated with positive rather than negative words. Explicit and implicit attitudes were not correlated (r = 0.13, p =.38). Conclusions: While little explicit bias existed, individuals associated with a master's entry-level physical therapy program appeared to have a significant negative implicit bias toward chiropractic

Chung, Chadwick L. R.; Manga, Jasmin; McGregor, Marion; Michailidis, Christos; Stavros, Demetrios; Woodhouse, Linda J.

2012-01-01

260

Regulatory focus and attitudes to migrants.  

PubMed

In two studies we examined the role of two regulatory foci (i.e., prevention and promotion) in predicting Australian's attitudes to different types of migrants. According to regulatory focus theory, promotion-focused self-regulation is concerned with nurturance and accomplishment needs and involves the pursuit of wishes and aspirations. As such, it results in sensitivity to positive outcomes and to relative pleasure from gains. On the other hand, prevention-focused self-regulation is concerned with security needs and is directed at meeting duties and obligations. As such, it results in sensitivity to negative outcome and relative pain from losses. In Study 1, as predicted, the extent of promotion focus (i.e., a concern with accomplishment and the pursuit of ideals) predicted more positive attitudes to culturally similar and economically beneficial migrants, whereas the extent of prevention focus (i.e., concern with security and meeting obligations) predicted more negative attitudes to migrants who are culturally dissimilar. In Study 2 we replicated and extended these findings, showing that the extent of promotion focus and a lack of concern with threats predicted positive attitudes to both culturally similar and economically beneficial migrants, which, in the case of the latter group, was mediated by a focus on the benefits these migrants provide. In the case of culturally dissimilar migrants, the extent of promotion focus and a concern with gains predicted more positive attitudes. However, for economically less beneficial migrants, neither the extent of promotion nor prevention focus was a predictor. Only lower concerns with threat predicted more positive attitudes to this migrant group. The results are discussed with respect to other determinants of attitudes to migrants and the implications for migration and asylum-seeker policy. PMID:22043932

Whelan, Jennifer; Laham, Simon M; Peters, Kim; Boldero, Jennifer; Kashima, Yoshihisa

2010-06-01

261

Attitudes toward homosexuality: Feminist attitudes and sexual conservatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward homosexuality, attitudes toward women, sexual conservatism, social desirability, masculinity, femininity, and psychological androgyny were measured in 104 male and female subjects. Both nonfeminist and conservative sexual attitudes independently correlated with antihomosexual attitudes. Antihomosexual individuals held more stereotyped attitudes regarding women and defined acceptable heterosexual behaviors more narrowly than prohomosexual individuals. Psychological androgyny, measured with Bem's Sex-Role Inventory, did

Fred A. Minnigerode

1976-01-01

262

Negative necrotaxis.  

PubMed

We studied necrotaxis in several strains of protists and compared the reaction of living cells in the vicinity of cells killed by a ruby laser. Negative necrotaxis was observed for the unicellular green alga Euglena gracilis, whereas Chlamydomonas was shown to exhibit positive necrotaxis. The cellular colony Pandorina morum exhibited no reaction to the killing of nearby colonies. Both the colorless cryptomonad Chilomonas paramecium and the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis exhibited negative necrotaxis following the lysis of vitally stained specimens of their own species. They also exhibited negative necrotaxis following the lysis of Euglena cells. It was also demonstrated that the cellular content of Euglena cells lysed by heat or by a mechanical procedure acts as a repellent to intact Euglena cells. These results suggest that the negative necrotaxis provoked in Euglena by the laser irradiation is probably due to the chemotactic effect produced by the release of cell content in the extracellular medium. This cell content could, according to its chemical composition, act either as a repellent, an attractant, or be inactive. The sensitivity of cells (specific or nonspecific ion channels or chemoreceptors) are also of prime importance in the process. PMID:8400315

Ragot, R

1993-01-01

263

Factors influencing conservation attitudes of local people in Western Serengeti, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudinal studies are increasingly being adopted as tools for evaluating public understanding, acceptance and the impact\\u000a of conservation interventions. The findings of these studies have been useful in guiding the policy interventions. Many factors\\u000a affect conservation attitudes positively or negatively. The factors inspiring positive attitudes are likely to enhance the\\u000a conservation objectives while those inducing negative attitudes may detrimentally undermine

Jafari R. Kideghesho; Eivin Røskaft; Bjørn P. Kaltenborn

2007-01-01

264

The relationship of sex-role orientation to heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that heterosexuals' negative attitudes toward homosexuals derives in part from perceptions that homosexuality threatens society's traditional sex role structure. This explanation suggests that persons who are more traditional in their sex role characteristics will hold more negative attitudes toward homosexuals. This hypothesis was tested using three aspects of sex role — sex role beliefs, sex role

Bernard E. Whitley

1987-01-01

265

An Examination of Personality and Demographic Factors on Attitudes toward Old People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of college students showed that persons scoring higher in aggression demonstrated more negative attitudes toward the aged. Females, older students, and graduate students were more positive. Students majoring in business subjects tended to be more negative, while social work students had the most positive attitudes toward older people.…

Thorson, James A.; Perkins, Mark L.

1980-01-01

266

The structure and dynamics of the ethnic attitudes of Jewish adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A factorial analysis was carried out on a variety of measures obtained from 100 Jewish high school students in Montreal. A general factor composed of negative attitudes to Jews and to gentiles, a hostile disposition to people, and verbal aggression against nonconformists was isolated. This factor, reflecting a generally negative social orientation, is independent of 2 other factors representing attitudes

Moshe Anisfeld; Stanley R. Munoz; Wallace E. Lambert

1963-01-01

267

The Effects of Dichotomous Attitudes toward Science on Interest and Conceptual Understanding in Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on students' attitudinal constructs in science education asserts that students hold dichotomous attitudes toward science (AS). For instance, studies from the Relevance of Science Education project reveal that students possess negative attitudes in terms of their favourableness toward school science, preference toward scientific careers, and emotional states toward science (negative intrinsic AS), despite their positive perception that science

Minkee Kim; Jinwoong Song

2009-01-01

268

Attitudes Toward Cosmetic Surgery Patients: The Role of Culture and Social Contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmetic surgery is increasingly popular globally, but how cosmetic surgery patients are socially evaluated is largely unknown. The present research documents attitudes toward these patients in multiple cultures (Hong Kong, Japan, and the U.S.). Across these cultures, attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients were predominantly negative: Participants ascribed more negative attributes to cosmetic surgery patients and found cosmetic surgery not acceptable.

Kim-Pong Tam; Henry Kin-Shin Ng; Young-Hoon Kim; Victoria Wai-Lan Yeung; Francis Yue-Lok Cheung

2012-01-01

269

Attitudes Toward Human Service Organizations: Perspectives From an Urban Black Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has suggested that black Americans tend to view mental health services and community mental health centers more negatively than do white Americans. This article discusses a recent study that sought to determine whether black persons possess positive or negative attitudes, what factors influence attitude formation, and the implications of these findings. Based on a sample of black residents

Lawrence E. Gary

1985-01-01

270

Perceived Threats and Latino Immigrant Attitudes: How White and African American College Students Respond to News Coverage of Latino Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 326 White and African American college respondents examined the relationship among perceptions of news coverage of Latino immigrants, perceived threats, and attitudes toward Latino immigrants. Perceived negative news images of Latino immigrants were associated with greater perceived threats, which were related to White and African American respondents' negative immigrant attitudes. Negative news perception also predicted unfavorable Latino

Yuki Fujioka

2011-01-01

271

Gender-equitable attitudes, bystander behavior, and recent abuse perpetration against heterosexual dating partners of male high school athletes.  

PubMed

Objectives. We assessed the relationship between gender attitudes, identified as a critical component of violence prevention, and abuse toward dating partners among adolescent male athletes. Methods. Our sample comprised 1699 athletes from 16 high schools in northern California who were surveyed between December 2009 and October 2010 in the larger Coaching Boys Into Men trial. We used logistic regression to assess the association between gender-equitable attitudes, bystander behavior, and recent abuse incidents. Results. Athletes with more gender-equitable attitudes and greater intention to intervene were less likely (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.28, 0.46; and AOR?=?0.60; 95% CI?=?0.48, 0.75, respectively) and athletes who engaged in negative bystander behavior were more likely (AOR?=?1.22, 95% CI?=?1.10, 1.35) to perpetrate abuse against their female dating partners. Conclusions. Despite the shift among bystander intervention programs toward gender neutrality, our findings suggest a strong association between gender attitudes and dating violence. Programs designed for adolescents should include discussion of gender attitudes and target bystander behavior, because these components may operate on related but distinct pathways to reduce abuse. PMID:23947324

McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Austin, S Bryn; McCormick, Marie C; Virata, Maria Catrina; Miller, Elizabeth

2013-08-15

272

Patients' and clinicians' attitude towards long-acting depot antipsychotics in subjects with a first episode of psychosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The acceptance and use of long-acting depot antipsychotics has been shown to be influenced by the attitudes of patients and clinicians. Depot treatment rates are low across countries and especially patients with first-episode psychosis are rarely treated with depot medication. The aim of this article was to review the literature on patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards long-acting depot antipsychotics in subjects with first-episode psychosis. Methods: A systematic search of Medline, Embase, PsycINF and Google Scholar was conducted. Studies were included if they reported original data describing patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards long-acting depot antipsychotic in subjects with first-episode psychosis. Results: Six studies out of a total of 503 articles met the inclusion criteria. Four studies conveyed a negative and two a positive opinion of clinicians toward depot medication. No systematic study directly addressed the attitude of patients with first-episode psychosis. Psychiatrists frequently presume that patients with first-episode psychosis would not accept depot medication and that depots are mostly eligible for chronic patients. Conclusions: Full information of all patients especially those with first episode psychosis in a therapeutic relationship that includes shared decision-making processes could reduce the negative image and stigmatization attached to depots.

Theodoridou, Anastasia; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Kaiser, Stefan; Jager, Matthias

2013-01-01

273

Attitudes toward Animals: Th e Eff ect of Priming Th oughts of Human-Animal Similarities and Mortality Salience on the Evaluation of Companion Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human attitudes toward nonhuman animals are complex and quite contradictory. Th ey can range between extremely negative (animal cruelty) to positive (treating companion animals like human surrogates). Attitudes toward animals are especially negative when people think about human creatureliness and personal mortality. Th is paper investigates people's attitudes toward highly valued animals (companion animals). Th e research presented here tested

Ruth Beatson; Stephen Loughnan; Michael Halloran

274

Knowledge of HBV and HCV and Individuals' Attitudes Toward HBV- and HCV-Infected Colleagues: A National Cross-Sectional Study among a Working Population in Japan.  

PubMed

Prejudice and discrimination in the workplace regarding the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are increased by excess concerns due to a lack of relevant knowledge. Education to increase knowledge about HBV and HCV and their prevention could be the first step to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This study aimed to determine the association between the level of knowledge and negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues among the Japanese working population. An online anonymous nationwide survey involving about 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. The questionnaire consisted of knowledge of HBV and HCV, and attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues in the workplace. Knowledge was divided into three categories: "ensuring daily activities not to be infected"; "risk of infection"; and "characteristics of HBV/HCV hepatitis", based on the result of factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied. A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey: 36.0% reported they worried about the possibility of transmission of HBV and HCV from infected colleagues; 32.1% avoided contact with infected colleagues; and 23.7% had prejudiced opinions about HBV and HCV infection. The participants were classified into tertiles. A higher level of knowledge of HBV and HCV was significantly associated with these three negative attitudes (P for trend < 0.005). This study suggests that increasing knowledge may decrease individuals' negative attitudes towards HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. Thus, we should promote increased knowledge of HBV and HCV in stages to reduce negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. PMID:24086765

Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji

2013-09-26

275

Knowledge of HBV and HCV and Individuals' Attitudes Toward HBV- and HCV-Infected Colleagues: A National Cross-Sectional Study among a Working Population in Japan  

PubMed Central

Prejudice and discrimination in the workplace regarding the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are increased by excess concerns due to a lack of relevant knowledge. Education to increase knowledge about HBV and HCV and their prevention could be the first step to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This study aimed to determine the association between the level of knowledge and negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues among the Japanese working population. An online anonymous nationwide survey involving about 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. The questionnaire consisted of knowledge of HBV and HCV, and attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues in the workplace. Knowledge was divided into three categories: “ensuring daily activities not to be infected”; “risk of infection”; and “characteristics of HBV/HCV hepatitis”, based on the result of factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied. A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey: 36.0% reported they worried about the possibility of transmission of HBV and HCV from infected colleagues; 32.1% avoided contact with infected colleagues; and 23.7% had prejudiced opinions about HBV and HCV infection. The participants were classified into tertiles. A higher level of knowledge of HBV and HCV was significantly associated with these three negative attitudes (P for trend < 0.005). This study suggests that increasing knowledge may decrease individuals’ negative attitudes towards HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. Thus, we should promote increased knowledge of HBV and HCV in stages to reduce negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues.

Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji

2013-01-01

276

An empirical investigation of insanity defense attitudes: exploring factors related to bias.  

PubMed

This study's primary aim was to evaluate factors that influence attitudes toward the insanity defense in a sample of 578 college undergraduates. In addition to a comprehensive demographics survey, participants completed the Insanity Defense Attitude Scale-Revised (IDAS-R) and the Attitude Toward the Death Penalty (ATDP) Scale. Favorable attitude toward capital punishment and misperceptions about overuse of the insanity defense were related to negative attitudes toward the insanity defense. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that possessing a favorable attitude toward capital punishment was the most robust predictor of a negative attitude toward the insanity defense. These findings provide valuable information about factors that create and maintain biases against the insanity defense and suggest areas of inquiry that could aid attorneys in selecting unbiased jurors. PMID:17166589

Bloechl, Angela L; Vitacco, Michael J; Neumann, Craig S; Erickson, Steven E

2006-12-12

277

Intervention Effectiveness in Reducing Prejudice against Transsexuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…

Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

2013-01-01

278

Knowledge and attitudes about the differences between emergency contraception and medical abortion among middle-class women and men of reproductive age in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two reproductive technologies—emergency contraception and medical abortion—have the potential to reduce unintended pregnancy significantly in Latin America. Lack of knowledge and negative attitudes about the methods may limit their impact, however. Results from focus group discussions with middle-class men and women of reproductive age residing in Mexico City indicate that knowledge about emergency contraception and medical abortion is low. After

Heather Gould; Charlotte Ellertson; Georgina Corona

2002-01-01

279

Igbo students' attitudes toward supporting aged parents.  

PubMed

This study was designed to explore attitudes of Nigerian, i.e., Igbo, students toward caring for aged parents. A questionnaire consisting of descriptive information and eighteen statements of attitudes about supporting aged parents was administered to 134 students in a Nigerian teacher training college. Students expressed strong support for caring for aged parents; however, male students were not as keen about supporting aged parents as were females. Students' age correlated negatively with the desire to support aged parents in that older students were less willing to care for their aged parents than were younger students. Factors such as birth order, place of residence in the past five years, religion, and educational levels of the mother and father had no significant relationship with attitudes toward supporting aged parents. PMID:2628350

Ohuche, N M; Littrell, J M

1989-01-01

280

Heterosexual attitudes toward same-sex marriage.  

PubMed

Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996

Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E

2010-01-01

281

Magnitude of positive and negative reinforcements as a determinant of attraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that positive and negative reinforcements concerning personal attributes are of greater magnitude and hence exert a greater effect on attraction than reinforcements involving attitude similarity-dissimilarity with respect to impersonal topics. In a 4 X 3 factorial design, 4 levels of attitude similarity (1.00, .67, .33, and .00) and 3 types of evaluation conditions (positive, negative, and control)

Donn Byrne; Ray Rhamey

1965-01-01

282

Impact of spacecraft attitude variations on the GRACE scientific results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our work is to understand and reduce disturbance effects in gravity field determination from GRACE and to support the mitigation of noise sources for next generation missions. Systematic patterns in long time series of attitude variations of the GRACE spacecraft are discussed. The relative and absolute attitude variations of both spacecrafts are investigated as well as the

Tamara Bandikova; Jakob Flury; Ung-Dai Ko

2010-01-01

283

Attitudes and Success in Children's Learning of English as a Second Language: The Motivational vs. the Resultative Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the claim that attitudes determine the way a foreign language is acquired v the claim that the exact opposite relationship exists. Concludes that the motivational hypothesis does not fully account for the relationship between attitude and success and that foreign language learning causes the formation of positive and negative attitudes.…

Hermann, Gisela

1980-01-01

284

The Effectiveness of a Sexuality Education Newsletter in Influencing Teenagers' Knowledge and Attitudes about Sexual Involvement and Drug Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied effectiveness of a sexual and health issues newsletter written by teenagers in changing readers' knowledge and attitudes about sexual activity, condom use, and drug use. Found that newsletter reading produced more positive attitudes toward postponing sexual involvement, more negative attitudes toward using drugs, and particularly affected…

Sanderson, Catherine A.

2000-01-01

285

Belief in a just world, generalised self-efficacy and stigma may contribute to unsafe sexual intentions via a reduced perception of vulnerability to HIV\\/AIDS amongst young people in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complacency about one's HIV risk status may reduce the intention to practise safe sex. It was hypothesised that belief in a just world and stigmatising attitudes may contribute to complacency and thereby have a negative impact on safe sex intention. A sample of 238 young people in Ghana, ranging in age from 14 to 22, completed the Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale

Gerard A. Riley; Dinah Baah-Odoom

2012-01-01

286

Belief in a just world, generalised self-efficacy and stigma may contribute to unsafe sexual intentions via a reduced perception of vulnerability to HIV\\/AIDS amongst young people in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complacency about one's HIV risk status may reduce the intention to practise safe sex. It was hypothesised that belief in a just world and stigmatising attitudes may contribute to complacency and thereby have a negative impact on safe sex intention. A sample of 238 young people in Ghana, ranging in age from 14 to 22, completed the Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale

Gerard A. Riley; Dinah Baah-Odoom

2011-01-01

287

Students' attitudes towards suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes of 800 college students from nine institutions were assessed by means of a 100 item Suicide Opinion Questionnaire. The results indicate both wide heterogeneity and communality of attitudes. Students see depression but not mental illness as a predisposing aspect. They exhibit considerable individual differences and intraindividual indecision as to religious precepts vis-a-vis suicide, see suicide as a “cry for

George Domino; Linda Gibson; Steven Poling; Laurie Westlake

1980-01-01

288

Lifespan Attitudes toward Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…

Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert

289

Nutrition Knowledge And Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to measure the nutrition knowledge and attitudes toward nutrition of caregivers in child care programs and relate these to the behaviors of caregivers as they interact with children at mealtime. The relationship between the independent variables: caregiver nutrition knowledge, attitudes toward nutrition, years of teaching experience, prior nutrition training, and level of education was

M. L. Nahikian-Nelms; P. O. Sarvela; C. Mogharreban; S. L. Andersen

1995-01-01

290

Changes in Soldier Attitudes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a study of methods for increasing motivation and preventing attitude deterioration of the enlisted man, responses to specific items in a 1970 HumRRO attitude survey conducted at Fort Knox were compared with responses to the same items in severa...

E. H. Drucker

1974-01-01

291

Calibration of attitude sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles governing the development of simple algorithms for calibrating attitude and velocity sensors without the need for reference point identification and without using information on the orientation of the moving object are examined. The approach proposed here makes it possible to calibrate attitude and velocity sensors by using an on-board computer.

Potapenko, E. M.

1986-04-01

292

Direct marketing attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines empirically consumers' attitudes toward direct marketing using a sample of 354 consumers. The sample was randomly drawn from a large southern metropolitan area. The study instrument comprised items developed from literature sources. Respondents' evaluations of the items were obtained through in-home personal interviews. Underlying the study is the hypothesis that consumers' attitudes toward direct marketing are a

Daulatram Lund; Pradeep K. Korgaonkar

1995-01-01

293

Longitudinal analysis of attitudes toward wolves.  

PubMed

Understanding individual attitudes and how these predict overt opposition to predator conservation or direct, covert action against predators will help to recover and maintain them. Studies of attitudes toward wild animals rely primarily on samples of individuals at a single time point. We examined longitudinal change in individuals' attitudes toward gray wolves (Canis lupus). In the contiguous United States, amidst persistent controversy and opposition, abundances of gray wolves are at their highest in 60 years. We used mailed surveys to sample 1892 residents of Wisconsin in 2001 or 2004 and then resampled 656 of these individuals who resided in wolf range in 2009. Our study spanned a period of policy shifts and increasing wolf abundance. Over time, the 656 respondents increased agreement with statements reflecting fear of wolves, the belief that wolves compete with hunters for deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and inclination to poach a wolf. Endorsement of lethal control of wolves by the state and public hunting of wolves also increased. Neither the time span over which respondents reported exposure to wolves locally nor self-reported losses of domestic animals to wolves correlated with changes in attitude. We predict future increases in legal and illegal killing of wolves that may reduce their abundance in Wisconsin unless interventions are implemented to improve attitudes and behavior toward wolves. To assess whether interventions change attitudes, longitudinal studies like ours are needed. Análisis Longitudinal de las Actitudes Hacia Lobos. PMID:23293913

Treves, Adrian; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Shelley, Victoria

2013-01-07

294

ITF2 is a target of CXCR4 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and is associated with reduced survival in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.  

PubMed

CXCR4, a chemokine receptor, plays an important role in breast cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. The transcriptional targets of CXCR4 signaling are not known. Microarray analysis of CXCR4-enriched and CXCR4-low subpopulations of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line, which has a constitutively active CXCR4 signaling network, revealed differential expression of ? 200 genes in the CXCR4-enriched subpopulation. ITF2, upregulated in CXCR4-enriched cells, was investigated further. Expression array datasets of primary breast tumors revealed higher ITF2 expression in estrogen receptor negative tumors, which correlated with reduced progression free and overall survival and suggested its relevance in breast cancer progression. CXCL12, a CXCR4 ligand, increased ITF2 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. ITF2 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that controls the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and the function of the ID family (inhibitor-of-differentiation) of transcription factors, such as ID2. ID2 promotes differentiation of breast epithelial cells and its reduced expression in breast cancer is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Both CXCR4 and ITF2 repressed ID2 expression. In xenograft studies, CXCR4-enriched cells formed large tumors and exhibited significantly elevated lung metastasis. Short interfering RNA against ITF2 reduced invasion of the CXCR4-enriched MDA-MB-231 subpopulation, whereas ITF2 overexpression restored the invasive capacity of MDA-MB-231 cells expressing CXCR4shRNA. Furthermore, overexpression of ITF2 in these cells enhanced tumor growth. We propose that ITF2 is one of the CXCR4 targets, which is involved in CXCR4-dependent tumor growth and invasion of breast cancer cells. PMID:20603605

Appaiah, Hitesh; Bhat-Nakshatri, Poornima; Mehta, Rutika; Thorat, Mangesh; Badve, Sunil; Nakshatri, Harikrishna

2010-09-04

295

ITF2 is a target of CXCR4 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and is associated with reduced survival in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

CXCR4, a chemokine receptor, plays an important role in breast cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. The transcriptional targets of CXCR4 signaling are not known. Microarray analysis of CXCR4-enriched and CXCR4-low subpopulations of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line, which has a constitutively active CXCR4 signaling network, revealed differential expression of ? 200 genes in the CXCR4-enriched subpopulation. ITF2, upregulated in CXCR4-enriched cells, was investigated further. Expression array datasets of primary breast tumors revealed higher ITF2 expression in estrogen receptor negative tumors, which correlated with reduced progression free and overall survival and suggested its relevance in breast cancer progression. CXCL12, a CXCR4 ligand, increased ITF2 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. ITF2 is a basic helixloop-helix transcription factor that controls the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and the function of the ID family (inhibitor-of-differentiation) of transcription factors, such as ID2. ID2 promotes differentiation of breast epithelial cells and its reduced expression in breast cancer is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Both CXCR4 and ITF2 repressed ID2 expression. In xenograft studies, CXCR4-enriched cells formed large tumors and exhibited significantly elevated lung metastasis. Short interfering RNA against ITF2 reduced invasion of the CXCR4-enriched MDA-MB-231 subpopulation, whereas ITF2 overexpression restored the invasive capacity of MDA-MB-231 cells expressing CXCR4shRNA. Furthermore, overexpression of ITF2 in these cells enhanced tumor growth. We propose that ITF2 is one of the CXCR4 targets, which is involved in CXCR4-dependent tumor growth and invasion of breast cancer cells.

Appaiah, Hitesh; Bhat-Nakshatri, Poornima; Mehta, Rutika; Thorat, Mangesh; Badve, Sunil

2010-01-01

296

Attitudes to teaching mathematics: Further development of a measurement instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evidence that a relationship exists between attitudes to teaching mathematics and the formation of positive attitudes to mathematics among pupils is somewhat tenuous. Nevertheless, there is a strong belief among pre-service teacher educators that positive attitudes need to be fostered in teacher education students, particularly for prospective primary school teachers. Unfortunately, the research evidence suggests that high proportions of pre-service teachers hold negative attitudes towards mathematics. Although many instruments measuring affect in areas such as self-concept, anxiety, etc. have appeared in the literature over the years, no comprehensive instrument on attitudes is available to help teacher educators monitor attitudinal changes among their pre-service student teachers to the teaching of mathematics. This research re-examines an earlier attempt to develop such an instrument in Australia (Nisbet, 1991) and posits an alternative and refined version.

Relich, Joe; Way, Jenni; Martin, Andrew

1994-07-01

297

Attitudes toward homosexuality: Preservation of sex morality or the double standard?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered a battery of psychological tests concerning sex roles, attitudes, and permissiveness to 47 male and 57 female university students and faculty, to study the sources of the nonhomosexual's attitudes toward homosexuality. The hypothesis that attitudes are determined by a need to preserve a double standard, i.e., to condemn the homosexual in order to reduce sex-role confusion, was confirmed.

A. P. MacDonald; Jim Huggins; Susan Young; Richard A. Swanson

1973-01-01

298

Time-varying exponential stabilization of the position and attitude of an underactuated autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers feedback stabilization of the position and attitude of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with a reduced number of actuators. A nonlinear model describing both the dynamics and the kinematics of an AUV is studied. The paper shows that previous results on attitude stabilization of a spacecraft can be applied to exponentially stabilize both the position and attitude

K. Y. Pettersen; O. Egeland

1999-01-01

299

Distributed attitude synchronization for multiple rigid bodies with euler-lagrange equations of motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, distributed attitude synchronization problems are considered for multiple rigid bodies with attitude dynamics represented by Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. Three distributed control laws for attitude synchronization are proposed and analyzed. The first control law introduces bounded functions to reduce the required control torque. The second control law applies a passivity approach to remove the requirement for relative

Wei Ren

2007-01-01

300

A Study of the Contemporary Racial Attitudes of Whites and African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied racial attitudes and patterns of interracial interaction of 260 White and African-American residents of a metropolitan area. Values of both groups were influenced powerfully by attitudes grounded in old racial stereotypes. Formal knowledge of African-American culture and history and racial interaction reduced stereotypical attitudes for…

Hudson, J. Blaine; Hines-Hudson, Bonetta M.

1999-01-01

301

Predictors of Employee Deviance: The Relationship Between Bad Attitudes and Bad Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employee deviance is a serious problem for business owners. To reduce this problem, researchers have attempted to predict which employees are more likely to exhibit deviant behavior based on their attitudes. Although many researchers have successfully predicted various types of employee deviance from attitudes, very little information is available detailing which attitudes are more useful in predicting each type of

Aaron Bolin; Linette Heatherly

2001-01-01

302

Food attitudes, eating behavior, and the information underlying food attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined healthiness perceptions and how the information underlying food attitudes more generally relate to attitudes and behaviors. Participants completed attitudinal measures and various card-sorting tasks in which they rank ordered foods (pictures and\\/or nutrition labels) in terms of healthiness. Taste was found to be a stronger predictor of attitudes and past eating behavior than other information underlying attitudes

Shelley N. Aikman; Kate E. Min; Dan Graham

2006-01-01

303

Rape Perceptions, Gender Role Attitudes, and Victim-Perpetrator Acquaintance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The connection between rape perceptions, gender role attitudes, and victim-perpetrator acquaintance was examined. One hundred fifty Israeli students rated their perceptions of the victim, the perpetrator, the situation, and the appropriate punishment, after reading scenarios in which rape was committed by a neighbor, an ex-boyfriend, and a current life partner. Significant negative correlations were found between gender-role attitudes and four

Sarah Ben-David; Ofra Schneider

2005-01-01

304

Attitudes of dentists and dental patients toward advertising.  

PubMed

Twenty years ago, Hite, Bellizzi, and Andrus (1988) examined the attitudes of dentists and consumers toward advertising. This study re-examines those attitudes to see if significant differences still exist. Based on a sample of dentists and consumers, significant differences were found. While attitude of dentists toward advertising is not as negative as it was 20 years ago, their views still tend to lag behind that of consumers. Further, the marketing tools used by dentists today are not consistent with what is seen by consumers and what consumers view as effective. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19042517

Clow, Kenneth E; Stevens, Robert E; McConkey, C; Loudon, David L

2007-01-01

305

Doctors’ attitude towards people with mental illness in Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  It had been suggested that those more knowledgeable about mental illness are less likely to endorse negative or stigmatizing\\u000a attitudes. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of doctors in Nigeria towards the mentally ill.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Medical doctors (n = 312) from eight selected health institutions in Nigeria completed various questionnaires on knowledge and attitude towards\\u000a people with mental illness.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Beliefs in supernatural

Abiodun O. Adewuya; Ayotunde A. Oguntade

2007-01-01

306

Sri Lankan doctors’ and medical undergraduates’ attitudes towards mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness can impede help-seeking and adversely affect treatment outcomes, especially\\u000a if such attitudes are endorsed by medical personnel. In order to help identify targets for anti-stigma interventions, we comprehensively\\u000a examined negative attitudes towards mental illness displayed by Sri Lankan doctors and medical students and compared these\\u000a with equivalent UK and other international data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A self-report questionnaire

Sunera Mayanthi Fernando; Frank P. Deane; Hamish J. McLeod

2010-01-01

307

Beyond bipolar conceptualizations and measures: the case of attitudes and evaluative space.  

PubMed

All organisms must be capable of differentiating hostile from hospitable stimuli to survive. Typically, this evaluative discrimination is conceptualized as being bipolar (hostile-hospitable). This conceptualization is certainly evident in the area of attitudes, where the ubiquitous bipolar attitude measure, by gauging the net affective predisposition toward a stimulus, treats positive and negative evaluative processes as equivalent, reciprocally activated, and interchangeable. Contrary to conceptualizations of this evaluative process as bipolar, recent evidence suggests that distinguishable motivational systems underlie assessments of the positive and negative significance of a stimulus. Thus, a stimulus may vary in terms of the strength of positive evaluative activation and the strength of negative evaluative activation it evokes. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects attitude neutrality or indifference, whereas high activation of positive and negative evaluative processes reflects attitude ambivalence. As such, attitudes can be represented more completely within a bivariate space than along a bipolar continuum. Evidence is reviewed showing that the positive and negative evaluative processes underlying many attitudes are distinguishable (stochastically and functionally independent), are characterized by distinct activation functions (positivity offset and negativity bias principles), are related differentially to attitude ambivalence (corollary of ambivalence asymmetries), have distinguishable antecedents (heteroscedacity principle), and tend to gravitate from a bivariate toward a bipolar structure when the underlying beliefs are the target of deliberation or a guide for behavior (principle of motivational certainty). The implications for society phenomena such as political elections and democratic structures are discussed. PMID:15647126

Cacioppo, J T; Gardner, W L; Berntson, G G

1997-01-01

308

Gendered egos: attitude functions and gender as predictors of homonegativity.  

PubMed

This study used a correlational design with a sample of university students to clarify the relationships between attitude functions and homonegativity with respect to gender. Classic work on attitude functions posits that attitudes serve psychological needs for the attitude holder. Herek (1986b) adapted this theory to explain attitudes toward homosexuality. Herek (1987) identified four functions: ego-defensive (defense of threats to the self), value-expressive (expression of key values), social-expressive (expression of important social norms), and experiential (based on past experiences). Results suggested that men were more likely to attribute their attitudes to the ego-defensive function. Men and women were equally likely to attribute their attitudes to the experiential function. The ego-defensive function was the best predictor of homonegativity for men and women, whether they held generally positive or generally negative attitudes toward homosexuality. The experiential function did not predict homonegativity. Participants tended to be neither very homonegative nor very ego-defensive. PMID:21058147

Meaney, Glenn J; Rye, B J

2010-01-01

309

Negativity Bias, Negativity Dominance, and Contagion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that there is a general bias, based on both innate predispositions and experience, in animals and humans, to give greater weight to negative entities (e.g., events, objects, personal traits). This is manifested in 4 ways: (a) negative potency (negative entities are stronger than the equivalent positive entities), (b) steeper nega - tive gradients (the negativity of negative events

Paul Rozin; Edward B. Royzman

2001-01-01

310

Attitudes towards euthanasia.  

PubMed

There are an infinite variety of attitudes to euthanasia, each individual response to the concept being influenced by many factors. Consequently there is a literature on the subject ranging from the popular article to papers in specialized journals. This study, however, has taken a well defined sample of people, inviting them to answer a questionnaire which was designed to elicit their attitudes to euthanasia in a way which could be analysed statistically. Nor surprisingly attitudes appeared to 'harden' as those answering the questionnaire grew more experienced in dealing with patients and also more professionally established. Thus it was found that of the seven groups questioned practising physicians showed more positive attitudes to euthanasia and their responses did not differ significantly from those of senior medical students. It is these groups which actually or potentially have to resolve the clinical dilemma posed by the dying patient. PMID:859163

Winget, C; Kapp, F T; Yeaworth, R C

1977-03-01

311

ATTITUDE LEARNING IN CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

INVESTIGATED THE EFFECT OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING UPON ATTITUDE BEHAVIOR WITH 60 4TH AND 5TH GRADE MIDDLE-CLASS SS IN RELATION TO 2 HYPOTHESES: (1) THAT TREATMENT WILL MEDIATE OVERT RESPONSES TOWARD THE \\

C. JOAN EARLY

1968-01-01

312

Experiencing ownership over a dark-skinned body reduces implicit racial bias  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have investigated how existing social attitudes towards other races affect the way we ‘share’ their bodily experiences, for example in empathy for pain, and sensorimotor mapping. Here, we ask whether it is possible to alter implicit racial attitudes by experimentally increasing self-other bodily overlap. Employing a bodily illusion known as the ‘Rubber Hand Illusion’, we delivered multisensory stimulation to light-skinned Caucasian participants to induce the feeling that a dark-skinned hand belonged to them. We then measured whether this could change their implicit racial biases against people with dark skin. Across two experiments, the more intense the participants’ illusion of ownership over the dark-skinned rubber hand, the more positive their implicit racial attitudes became. Importantly, it was not the pattern of multisensory stimulation per se, but rather, it was the change in the subjective experience of body ownership that altered implicit attitudes. These findings suggest that inducing an overlap between the bodies of self and other through illusory ownership is an effective way to change and reduce negative implicit attitudes towards outgroups.

Maister, Lara; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-01-01

313

Energy management and attitude control for spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This PhD dissertation describes the design and implementation of various control strategies centered around spacecraft applications: (i) an attitude control system for spacecraft, (ii) flywheels used for combined attitude and energy tracking, and (iii) an adaptive autobalancing control algorithm. The theory found in each of these sections is demonstrated through simulation or experimental results. An introduction to each of these three primary chapters can be found in chapter one. The main problem addressed in the second chapter is the quaternion-based, attitude tracking control of rigid spacecraft without angular velocity measurements and in the presence of an unknown inertia matrix. As a stepping-stone, an adaptive, full-state feedback controller that compensates for parametric uncertainty while ensuring asymptotic attitude tracking errors is designed. The adaptive, full-state feedback controller is then redesigned such that the need for angular velocity measurements is eliminated. The proposed adaptive, output feedback controller ensures asymptotic attitude tracking. This work uses a four-parameter representation of the spacecraft attitude that does not exhibit singular orientations as in the case of the previous three-parameter representation-based results. To the best of my knowledge, this represents the first solution to the adaptive, output feedback, attitude tracking control problem for the quaternion representation. Simulation results are included to illustrate the performance of the proposed output feedback control strategy. The third chapter is devoted to the use of multiple flywheels that integrate the energy storage and attitude control functions in space vehicles. This concept, which is referred to as an Integrated Energy Management and Attitude Control (IEMAC) system, reduces the space vehicle bus mass, volume, cost, and maintenance requirements while maintaining or improving the space vehicle performance. To this end, two nonlinear IEMAC strategies (model-based and adaptive) that simultaneously track a desired attitude trajectory and desired energy/power profile are presented. Both strategies ensure asymptotic tracking while the adaptive controller compensates for uncertain spacecraft inertia. In the final chapter, a control strategy is designed for a rotating, unbalanced disk. The control strategy, which is composed of a control torque and two control forces, regulates the disk displacement and ensures angular velocity tracking. The controller uses a desired compensation adaptation law and a gain adjusted forgetting factor to achieve exponential stability despite the lack of knowledge of the imbalance-related parameters, provided a mild persistency of excitation condition is satisfied.

Costic, Bret Thomas

2001-07-01

314

Ew, that's icky: Assessing children's attitudes towards the insects of Connecticut  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated children's attitudes towards insects, focusing on how attitudes change from fascination to repulsion as the children age. This study involved 127 elementary students (grades 4-6) and 139 high school students (grades 9-12) from New Haven public schools. Students were administered Likert type surveys to evaluate their attitudes after viewing photos of 8 common insects of Connecticut; the butterfly, ladybug, dragonfly, ant, moth, cricket, beetle, and fly. Scores from elementary school students were compared with high school students to determine if attitudes towards insects became less favorable as the children age. The results were also analyzed to determine if attitudinal changes were consistent between girls and boys. It was found that elementary school students did not hold more negative attitudes than high school students, but girls did hold more negative attitudes towards insects than boys.

Weeks, Faith Jean-Ellen

315

Hellenic (Greek) gender attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from 1,120 residents of Athens, Greece, we used structural equation modeling to confirm the existence of three\\u000a types of gender attitudes: (1) egalitarian housework attitudes, (2) acceptance of females in traditionally male occupations,\\u000a and (3) acceptance of males in traditionally female occupations. There was more acceptance of females in traditionally male\\u000a occupations than of males in traditionally female

Anastasios C. Marcos; Stephen J. Bahr

2001-01-01

316

Implicit attitudes and psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past 15 years have witnessed an ever-growing interest in the role of implicit attitudes in mental and health-related problems\\u000a and disorders. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to this research area. More specifically, the\\u000a following issues will be addressed: 1) Why do researchers consider implicit attitudes to be of interest? 2) In what way

Jorg Huijding

2006-01-01

317

Feeling conflicted and seeking information: when ambivalence enhances and diminishes selective exposure to attitude-consistent information.  

PubMed

To date, little research has examined the impact of attitudinal ambivalence on attitude-congruent selective exposure. Past research would suggest that strong/univalent rather than weak/ambivalent attitudes should be more predictive of proattitudinal information seeking. Although ambivalent attitude structure might weaken the attitude's effect on seeking proattitudinal information, we believe that conflicted attitudes might also motivate attitude-congruent selective exposure because proattitudinal information should be effective in reducing ambivalence. Two studies provide evidence that the effects of ambivalence on information choices depend on amount of issue knowledge. That is, ambivalence motivates attitude-consistent exposure when issue knowledge is relatively low because less familiar information is perceived to be effective at reducing ambivalence. Conversely, when knowledge is relatively high, more unambivalent (univalent) attitudes predicted attitude-consistent information seeking. PMID:23482502

Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T; Clark, Jason K; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Smith, Steven M; Durso, Geoffrey R O

2013-03-12

318

Brief Intervention Effective in Reducing Weight Bias in Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Background Medical students are exposed to a growing number of obese patients in clinical encounters. Many medical students harbor negative attitudes and stereotypes regarding obese patients, which lead to negative interpersonal behaviors. This study pilot-tested the effectiveness of an educational intervention in reducing bias towards obese patients. Methods Second and third year medical students (N=64) watched a 17- minute video, “Weight Bias in Health Care,” and participated in interactive discussion to share experiences with encountering obese patients. The Beliefs About Obese Persons (BAOP), Attitudes Toward Obese Persons (ATOP), and Fat Phobia Scales (FPS) were administered pre- and post-intervention. Change in mean scores from pre- to post-intervention was tested for statistical significance using the paired samples t-test. General linear models were used to examine associations of subject characteristics with mean scores for each scale. Results The intervention increased beliefs that genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the cause of obesity as opposed to lack of personal control (mean BAOP increased from 16.53 to 19.27, p=0.0006). It also decreased students’ negative stereotypes regarding obese patients (mean FPS decreased from 3.65 to 3.45, p<0.0001). There were independent associations of subject characteristics with post-intervention ATOP scores, with more positive attitudes in younger, male, and white participants. Conclusions Implementing a short educational intervention was effective in improving medical students’ beliefs and stereotypes regarding obese patients. This widely accessible and easily replicable program can serve as a model and springboard for further development of educational interventions to reduce weight bias among medical students.

Poustchi, Yasmin; Saks, Norma S.; Piasecki, Alicja K.; Hahn, Karissa A.; Ferrante, Jeanne M.

2013-01-01

319

Understanding successful behaviour change: the role of intentions, attitudes to the target and motivations and the example of diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many attempts to change health behaviour fail, some individuals do show suc- cessful behaviour change. This study assessed the role of behavioural intentions, motivations and attitudes to the target in explaining success- ful changes in diet with a particular focus on positive and negative intentions and positive and negative attitudes. Participants (n 5 282) completed a questionnaire describing a

Jane Ogden; Lubna Karim; Abida Choudry; Kerry Brown

2007-01-01

320

Measuring Attitudes toward the Insanity Defense in Venirepersons: Refining the IDA-R in the Evaluation of Juror Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative attitude against the insanity defense held by venirepersons has a direct effect on individuals with mental illness who are in contact with the criminal justice system. Identifying factors in jurors that support negative attitudes is critical in trying to ensure that the insanity defense is given full consideration when pleaded by people with mental illnesses. This article used

Michael J. Vitacco; L. Alvin Malesky Jr; Steven Erickson; William Leslie; Allison Croysdale; Angela Bloechl

2009-01-01

321

Conflict and agreement in stakeholder attitudes: residents’ and hotel managers’ views of tourism impacts and forest-related tourism development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper probes differences in attitudes toward tourism impacts between two leading stakeholder groups in tourism, local residents and the managers of tourism facilities. It uses case study surveys of residents and managers in Belek, Antalya, Turkey. Differences in attitudes across seven main areas are investigated, including the positive and negative economic outcomes of tourism; positive and negative sociocultural impacts;

Yalç?n Kuvan; Perran Akan

2011-01-01

322

Conflict and agreement in stakeholder attitudes: residents’ and hotel managers’ views of tourism impacts and forest-related tourism development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper probes differences in attitudes toward tourism impacts between two leading stakeholder groups in tourism, local residents and the managers of tourism facilities. It uses case study surveys of residents and managers in Belek, Antalya, Turkey. Differences in attitudes across seven main areas are investigated, including the positive and negative economic outcomes of tourism; positive and negative sociocultural impacts;

Yalç?n Kuvan; Perran Akan

2012-01-01

323

Perceived motivational climate, sportsmanship, and students' attitudes toward physical education classes and teachers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among students' perceptions of motivational climate, sportsmanship attitudes, and attitudes toward content and teachers in physical education. 910 secondary school students ages 13 to 16 years (M=14.3, SD=1.1) completed Spanish translations of L'Echelle de Perception du Climat Motivational by Biddle, et al., the Multidimensional Sportspersonship Orientations Scale by Vallerand, et al., and the Student Attitudes toward Teacher and Program in Physical Education by Luke and Cope. Structural equation modeling showed that perceived mastery climate is a predictor of students' attitudes toward teacher and content and positive sportsmanship attitudes. In contrast, perceived performance climate was not a predictor or mainly predicted negatively the students' attitudes toward the physical education teacher, content, and sportsmanship attitudes. These findings are discussed with regard to the implications for physical educators. PMID:19425471

Gutiérrez, Melchor; Ruiz, Luis Miguel

2009-02-01

324

The attitudes of primary schoolchildren in Northern Thailand towards their peers who are affected by HIV and AIDS.  

PubMed

After more than a decade of the AIDS epidemic in Thailand, the number of children whose parents are living with HIV or have died from AIDS is increasing significantly and it has been reported that these children are often discriminated against by their peers. In order to better understand the current situation and to explore possible strategies to support HIV-affected children, this study examined children's attitudes towards HIV and AIDS using questionnaires and focus group discussions with children in Grades three-six in five primary schools in a northern province in Thailand. A total of 513 children (274 boys and 239 girls) answered the questionnaire and five focus groups were organised. The findings showed a strong positive correlation between children's belief that HIV could be transmitted through casual contact and their negative attitudes towards their HIV-affected peers. Most children overestimated the risk of HIV transmission through casual contact and this made their attitudes less tolerant and less supportive. After HIV prevention education (which included information on HIV transmission routes) was given in three of the study schools, the same questionnaire and focus groups were repeated and the findings showed that children's attitudes had become more supportive. These findings suggest that HIV prevention education delivered through primary schools in Thailand can be an effective way to help foster a more supportive and inclusive environment and reduce the stigma and discrimination that decrease educational access and attainment for HIV-affected schoolchildren. PMID:21259137

Ishikawa, Naoko; Pridmore, Pat; Carr-Hill, Roy; Chaimuangdee, Kreangkrai

2011-02-01

325

Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country  

PubMed Central

Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ‘evil’ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher's Exact Test). Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.

Mir, Azeem Sultan; Malik, Raees

2010-01-01

326

Venirepersons’s Attitudes Toward the Insanity Defense: Developing, Refining, and Validating a Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the prevalence and predictive strength of negative attitudes toward the insanity defense, we conducted three studies with 426 venirepersons to develop an understanding and a measure of public attitudes toward the insanity defense. In these studies, we developed, iteratively refined, and cross-validated the insanity defense attitude-revised (IDA-R) scale. The results suggest that IDAs are underpinned by one’s degree of

Jennifer L. Skeem; Jennifer Eno Louden; Jennee Evans

2004-01-01

327

The Effects Of Education On The Attitudes Of Counselors In Training Toward Alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Societal attitudes toward alcoholics tend to be negative, and shame and behavior based. Research shows these same attitudes are prevalent among medical and mental health care professionals. Alcohol related problems are frequently misdiagnosed, and sometimes the expectation for recovery is limited or negligible.\\u000aThis study posited that the attitudes of counselors in training would become more positive as a result

Pamela Sue Van Kampen

2010-01-01

328

Comparable outcomes of partially matched related and matched related allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation following reduced-intensity conditioning in adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Reports from multiple centers have shown that reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (RIC-HCT) is able to benefit some adult patients suffering from Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, the relationship between donor cell source and outcome of RIC-HCT in (Ph-)ALL patients has not been elucidated. In this study, we present the outcome of 57 (Ph-)ALL patients treated with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) followed by HCT from HLA-matched related (MRD, n = 34) or HLA partially matched related (PMRD, n = 23) donors from a multicenter cohort. Neutrophil recovery at day 100 occurred in 91.3 % of the PMRD group and 97.1 % of the MRD group (P = 0.84). One hundred days after treatment, the cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 30.4 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 13.0-53.0 %) in patients who received PMRD grafts, and 27.3 % (95 % CI, 15.0-48.0 %) for those who received MRD grafts (P = 0.76). The cumulative risk of developing chronic GVHD was 59.4 % (95 % CI, 31.0-72.0 %) in the MRD group and 23.4 % (95 % CI, 4.0-43.0 %) in the PMRD group (P = 0.03). The cumulative incidence of relapse in patients who received PMRD grafts was 18.8 % (95 % CI, 3.0-34.0 %), while for those who received MRD grafts it was 37.2 % (95 % CI, 15.0-48.0 %) (P = 0.32). Overall treatment-related mortality was 41.6 % (95 % CI, 20.0-62.0 %) in the PMRD group and 19.9 % (95 % CI, 7.0-35.0 %) in the MRD group (P = 0.08). Relapse was the most common cause of mortality in the MRD group, while infection contributed to the majority of deaths in the PMRD group. The 3-year probability of disease-free survival did not differ significantly between the two groups (55.5 % for the PMRD group vs. 48.4 % for the MRD group; P = 0.81). These data strongly suggest that RIC-HCT performed with PMRD may represent an alternative treatment option for adult patients with (Ph-)ALL. PMID:23975518

Wu, Xiaojin; He, Guangsheng; Fa, Yihua; Ma, Xiao; Wu, Depei; Ai, Huisheng; Huang, Xiaojun; Han, Yue; Xu, Yang; Sun, Aining; Wu, Qian; Tang, Xiaowen; Fu, Zhengzheng

2013-08-24

329

Changing expectations: A longitudinal study of community attitudes toward a nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial and 5-year follow-up interviews were conducted with 213 residents of the host community for a nuclear power plant. The purpose was to determine possible changes in attitudes toward the plant and expectations about potential outcomes associated with construction. Large negative changes in attitudes toward the plant were noted and were accompanied most notably by decreased expectations of positive outcomes.

Joseph B. Hughey; John W. Lounsbury; Eric Sundstrom; Thomas J. Mattingly

1983-01-01

330

Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with…

Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

2009-01-01

331

Effects of Television Viewing on Knowledge and Attitudes about Older Adults: A Critical Reexamination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses research suggesting that television viewing contributes to negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge about older people. Using the same data set and measurements, concludes that the effect of television viewing on knowledge and attitudes about older people is small and restricted to younger people. (NRB)|

Passuth, Patricia M.; Cook, Fay Lomax

1985-01-01

332

Impact of an Oncology Course on the Attitudes of Freshman Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous attempts to change the prevailing negative attitudes of health professionals toward cancer and cancer patients have consisted mainly of elective courses for small groups of students at advanced levels of medical training. In order to develop more positive attitudes, the Cancer Coordinating Committee at the Medical College of Pennsylvania…

Appel, Marilyn H.; And Others

333

Using Video and Contact to Change Attitudes Toward Gay Men and Lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prejudice against gay men and lesbians has continued to fuel negative attitudes that are perpetuated by stereotypes and by validation from those within one’s own social group. While there has been some research regarding the impact of contact on attitudes, the present study expands the theoretical approach of Allport and the empirical work of researchers such as Herek to examine

Jonna J Cooley; Gary J Burkholder

2011-01-01

334

Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

2012-01-01

335

The Effects of Dichotomous Attitudes toward Science on Interest and Conceptual Understanding in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The literature on students' attitudinal constructs in science education asserts that students hold dichotomous attitudes toward science (AS). For instance, studies from the Relevance of Science Education project reveal that students possess negative attitudes in terms of their favourableness toward school science, preference toward scientific…

Kim, Minkee; Song, Jinwoong

2009-01-01

336

Prediction of Attitudes towards Child Sexual Abuse among Three Different Norwegian Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the current study was to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse and investigate predictors of such attitudes. A random sample of the Norwegian adult population (n = 296), active Christians (n = 125) and prisoners convicted of child sexual abuse (n = 36) were included in the study. The results show that women were more negative

Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

2006-01-01

337

Attitudes Toward Women's Rights: Relationships with Social Dominance Orientation and Political Group Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the extent to whichattitudes toward women's rights are predicted by socialdominance orientation (SDO) and the political groupidentities socialist and capitalist. Respondents were 181 Australian undergraduates (54 males, 127females), most of whom were of European descent. Theresults of multiple regression analyses suggested thatSDO was the most consistent predictor of negative attitudes, although the extent to which itunderpins attitudes

Patrick C. L. Heaven

1999-01-01

338

Impacts of parental attitude towards sexual identity development on child's sexual identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, positive or negative impacts of different parental attitudes on children's sexual identity and character development have been presented. The general object of the research is to determine the impacts of parental attitude towards child's sexual identity development on the sexual identity development of the children during pre-school period. The research, for which the general scanning model is

Müberra Eser; Nadir Çeliköz

2009-01-01

339

Implicit Attitudes toward Children May Be Unrelated to Child Abuse Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To explore whether adults possess implicit attitudes toward children and whether those attitudes are especially negative among respondents who are high in child physical abuse (CPA) risk. Methods: The present study used an implicit evaluative priming procedure. In this procedure, participants were instructed to make decisions about the…

Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Crouch, Julie L.

2011-01-01

340

Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities at High School: Applying the Integrated Threat Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this work was to study attitudes toward people with disabilities from the viewpoint of the integrated threat theory of prejudice. This theory postulates that threat may cause negative attitudes toward a group and posits that such threat may come from different sources. To test this model, a study was carried out with high school…

Bustillos, Antonio; Silvan-Ferrero, Maria del Prado

2013-01-01

341

The Olympic Effect on American Attitudes towards China: beyond personality, ideology, and media exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact that increased exposure to China during the two and a half weeks of the Beijing Olympics had on American attitudes towards China. A large N longitudinal survey revealed a significant increase in negative attitudes towards China from the beginning to the end of August 2008. Statistical analysis revealed no dominant explanation for this change, however.

Peter Hays Gries; H. Michael Crowson; Todd Sandel

2010-01-01

342

Effect of western culture on women's attitudes to eating and perceptions of body shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The current study investigated the effect of culture on two factors implicated in the development of eating disorders, negative attitudes toward eating and dissatisfaction with body shape. Method: Hong Kong-born and Australian-born women from two Australian universities were surveyed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS). Results: Results showed no difference between the groups

Amelia J. Lake; Petra K. Staiger; Huguette Glowinski

2000-01-01

343

"Me and Maths": Towards a Definition of Attitude Grounded on Students' Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The attitude construct is widely used by teachers and researchers in mathematics education. Often, however, teachers' diagnosis of a "negative attitude" is a causal attribution of students' failure, perceived as global and uncontrollable, rather than an accurate interpretation of students' behaviour, capable of steering future action. In order to…

Di Martino, Pietro; Zan, Rosetta

2010-01-01

344

Effects of Television Viewing on Knowledge and Attitudes about Older Adults: A Critical Reexamination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses research suggesting that television viewing contributes to negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge about older people. Using the same data set and measurements, concludes that the effect of television viewing on knowledge and attitudes about older people is small and restricted to younger people. (NRB)

Passuth, Patricia M.; Cook, Fay Lomax

1985-01-01

345

An experimental approach to improve student attitudes toward careers in selling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' negative attitudes toward careers in selling are well documented in the literature. This study shows how such attitudes\\u000a can be improved by minor changes in course content of the introductory marketing course. Such changes are necessary if the\\u000a full potential of the personal selling component is to be realized.

Thomas H. Stevenson; Christie H. Paksoy

1983-01-01

346

Attitudes Toward Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatment: Parents' and Children's Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward pharmacological treatment may be a major factor contributing to adherence to such treatment. In the current study, attitudes toward methylphenidate treatment among 50 children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their parents were assessed. Authors of this study have found that the study population is concerned and suspicious toward methylphenidate treatment. Most participants were exposed to negative

Itai Berger; Talia Dor; Yoram Nevo; Gil Goldzweig

2008-01-01

347

Impact of an Oncology Course on the Attitudes of Freshman Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous attempts to change the prevailing negative attitudes of health professionals toward cancer and cancer patients have consisted mainly of elective courses for small groups of students at advanced levels of medical training. In order to develop more positive attitudes, the Cancer Coordinating Committee at the Medical College of Pennsylvania…

Appel, Marilyn H.; And Others

348

Beliefs, attitude and behaviour towards fresh meat revisited after the Belgian dioxin crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study revisits consumer beliefs, attitude and behaviour towards fresh meat consumption in Belgium after the occurrence of the dioxin crisis of 1999. The meat dioxin scare evoked a large amount of negative press, mainly pertained to poultry meat and pork. The focus of this follow-up study is on assessing shifts and persistence in consumer perception and attitude, based on

Wim Verbeke

2001-01-01

349

Attitudes and expectations about children with nontraditional and traditional gender roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sex behavior in boys generally is viewed more negatively than cross-sex behavior in girls. The two goals of this study were to assess attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and to explore possible causes for differential evaluations of tomboys and sissies. Eighty undergraduates completed questionnaires assessing their attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and their expectations for the future adult behavior of

Carol Lynn Martin

1990-01-01

350

Black heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the direction and intensity of Black heterosexuals’ attitudes toward homosexuality have been topics for considerable speculation, empirical data from representative samples previously have not been available. In the current article we report findings from a two?wave telephone survey with a national probability sample of 391 Black heterosexual adults. Results indicated that negative attitudes toward homosexuality are widespread but do

Gregory M. Herek; John P. Capitanio

1995-01-01

351

The Effects of Dichotomous Attitudes toward Science on Interest and Conceptual Understanding in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on students' attitudinal constructs in science education asserts that students hold dichotomous attitudes toward science (AS). For instance, studies from the Relevance of Science Education project reveal that students possess negative attitudes in terms of their favourableness toward school science, preference toward scientific…

Kim, Minkee; Song, Jinwoong

2009-01-01

352

DEATH ANXIETY AND ATTITUDES TOWARDTHE ELDERLY AMONG OLDER ADULTS: THE ROLE OF GENDER AND ETHNICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article investigated the relationship between death anxiety, attitudes toward older adults, and personal anxiety toward one's own aging in a group of 197 older men and women. As predicted, negative attitudes toward other older adults were predicted by personal anxieties about aging and death, and, more specifically, fear of the unknown. In addition, several distinctive anxieties were noted for

STEPHEN J. DEPAOLA; MELODY GRIFFIN; JENNIE R. YOUNG; ROBERT A. NEIMEYER

2003-01-01

353

Pornography, erotica, and attitudes toward women: The effects of repeated exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a widespread belief that pornography causes negative attitudes toward women, but tests of this belief are contradictory. A large body of research has studied the effect of violent pornography on behavior, but the effects of erotica and violence have often been confounded. Thus, the relationship between pornography and attitudes toward women was assessed in two correlational studies, and

Vernon R. Padgett; James A. Neal

1989-01-01

354

Counselor Demographics, Ageist Attitudes, and Multicultural Counseling Competence among Counselors and Counselor Trainees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among counselors' self-reported multicultural counseling competence and their attitudes of the geriatric population. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between participants' attitudes of the geriatric population and their self-reported multicultural counseling…

McBride, Rebecca G.; Hays, Danica G.

2012-01-01

355

The Spanos Attitudes Toward Hypnosis Questionnaire: Psychometric Characteristics and Normative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Attitudes Toward Hypnosis Questionnaire (ATHQ) is a 14-item, self-report measure of positive versus negative attitudes about hypnosis. It is composed of three subscales identified via factor analysis: Positive Beliefs, Fearlessness, and Mental Stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalizability of the original factor structure of the ATHQ and to provide normative data based on a

Leonard S. Milling

2012-01-01

356

Effect of Drug and Alcohol Education on Attitudes of High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined effects of 3-week alcohol and drug education course on attitudes about alcohol and drugs in ninth grade students (n=180). Results showed mean attitude score changed in desired direction after education indicating negative feelings toward drugs and alcohol use and abuse, polydrug use, dependency, social pressure, and media pressure and…

Lignell, Constance; Davidhizar, Ruth

1991-01-01

357

Young Girls' Eating Attitudes and Body Image DissatisfactionAssociations with Communication and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among communication, modeling, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescent girls were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 69 girls in fourth through sixth grade and their mothers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing familial and peer influences, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. Positive communication was significantly more frequent than negative communication;

Jessica C. Kichler; Janis H. Crowther

2009-01-01

358

Obesity in the News: Do Photographic Images of Obese Persons Influence Antifat Attitudes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

News coverage of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years, and research shows that media content may contribute to negative public attitudes toward obese people. However, no work has assessed whether photographic portrayals of obese people that accompany news stories affect attitudes. In the present study, the authors used a randomized experimental design to test whether viewing photographic portrayals of

Kimberly J. McClure; Rebecca M. Puhl; Chelsea A. Heuer

2011-01-01

359

"Me and Maths": Towards a Definition of Attitude Grounded on Students' Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitude construct is widely used by teachers and researchers in mathematics education. Often, however, teachers' diagnosis of a "negative attitude" is a causal attribution of students' failure, perceived as global and uncontrollable, rather than an accurate interpretation of students' behaviour, capable of steering future action. In order to…

Di Martino, Pietro; Zan, Rosetta

2010-01-01

360

Labeling Genetically Modified Food Products: Attitudes among the consumers in the United States and United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight perceived attributes of agro-biotechnology were identified to be associated with consumers' attitude toward existing practices of GM food labeling. The perceived negative attributes, particularly health risk from GM food, played a dominant role in shaping the overall attitude toward GM labeling. Female and older respondents were more likely to be concerned about the existing GM labeling practices than male

Arbindra Rimal; Wanki Moon; Siva K. Balasubramanian

2005-01-01

361

Learning to Love Math: Teaching Strategies that Change Student Attitudes and Get Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Has it ever seemed to you that some students are hardwired to dislike math? If so, then here's a book that explains how negative attitudes toward math get established in the brain and what you can do to turn those attitudes around. Math teacher and neurologist Judy Willis gives you over 50 strategies you can use right away in any grade level to:…

Willis, Judy

2010-01-01

362

Drug use and attitudes toward social and legal aspects of marijuana in a large metropolitan university  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the responses of 788 students at a large metropolitan university on an anonymous questionnaire concerning marihuana. Ss' attitude toward marihuana shifted from strongly negative to strongly positive as frequency of marihuana use increased. With frequency of use controlled, attitude toward marihuana was even more favorable when other drugs had been tried, and also among Ss who were religiously inactive.

Edward R. Martino; Carroll V. Truss

1973-01-01

363

Attitude Toward the Elderly, Fear of Death, and Work Preference of Baccalaureate Nursing Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging increases the proximity to death. It may be that fear of death has a negative impact on attitude toward the elderly. The previous research is inconclusive. A positive attitude toward the elderly in past studies was not found to be related to preference for working with this age group. In the present study of senior baccalaureate nursing students, no

Gerda E. Gomez; E. Anne Young; Efrain A. Gomez

1991-01-01

364

Racial Differences in Attitudes Toward Professional Mental Health Treatment: The Mediating Effect of Stigma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stigma associated with mental illness continues to be a pervasive barrier to mental health treatment, leading to negative attitudes about treatment and deterring appropriate care seeking. Empirical research suggests that the stigma of mental illness may exert an adverse influence on attitudes toward mental health treatment and service utilization patterns by individuals with a mental illness, particularly African Americans. However,

Kyaien O. Conner; Gary Koeske; Charlotte Brown

2009-01-01

365

Attitudes to Poverty, the Protestant Ethic, and Political Affiliation: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated British attitudes toward the poor as measured by MacDonald's Povery Scale and the Protestant Ethic Scale. Supporters of the British Conservative Party had more negative attitudes toward the poor, and were more likely to blame the poor for their fate than supporters of the British Labour Party. (JAC)|

Wagstaff, Graham F.

1983-01-01

366

Factors contributing to attitude exchange amongst preservice elementary teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has shown that elementary education majors often dislike science and lack confidence in their ability to teach it. This is an important problem because students who hold these attitudes are likely to avoid teaching science, or teach it poorly, when they become teachers. It is therefore necessary to identify preservice elementary teachers who hold negative attitudes towards science, and attempt to convert these attitudes to positive before they become teachers. This study was designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Four participants were individually interviewed. The transcripts indicated that attitude exchange had occurred for each of the four students. Each student described several features of the course that had a positive influence. These were of three main types: personal attributes of the tutor, specific teaching strategies, and external validation. It was proposed that many of the individual factors were effective because they represented either performance accomplishments or vicarious experience as defined by Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 1977, 191-215).

Palmer, David H.

2002-01-01

367

Implementing energy education focusing on attitudes and concerns  

SciTech Connect

Forty-two secondary science and social studies teachers from 11 high schools in Lincoln and Omaha, Nebraska administered the Youth Energy Survey (Michigan Energy Extension Service) to their classes (N = 3129), received survey results and interpretive data, and were invited to request innovative energy-education materials from the Nebraska State Energy Office. All teachers completed a modified form of the Youth Energy Survey (Adult Energy Survey) and the Stages of Concern Questionnaire. (1) Comparison of 1981 student energy attitude scores with 1979 scores showed more positive scores on five scales, more negative scores for one scale (nuclear energy), and no change on three scales. (2) With no exceptions, mean teacher attitude scores were more positive than were student attitude scores. Teachers classified in the impact concern stage had consistently more positive attitude scores than did teachers in either the self or task concern groups. (3) There appears to be little or no relationship between teacher and student energy attitudes. (4) Teachers with impact concerns about energy education had the most negative energy attitudes. (5) The ratio of request/no request responses for energy-education materials was uniformly consistent across all teacher concern states. Three out of four teachers in the study requested no energy-education materials. (6) Teacher search behavior for alternatives to existing curriculum materials was significantly increased when the Youth Energy Survey was administered to classes and the results of the survey returned to teachers.

Ulmer, D.C. Jr.

1983-01-01

368

An Experimental Analysis of the Role of Cognitive Errors in the Development of Depressed Mood Following Negative Social Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the extent to which negative and positive cognitive errors, dysfunctional attitudes, and self-reported symptoms of depression predicted change in college students' depressed mood and social self-esteem following an experimentally arranged negative social event. The amount of negative cognitive errors, the ratio of negative-to-positive cognitive errors, the amount of dysfunctional attitudes, and the amount of depressive symptoms obtained

Gregg Henriques; Harold Leitenberg

2002-01-01

369

Nature and operation of attitudes.  

PubMed

This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit. PMID:11148298

Ajzen, I

2001-01-01

370

Negative Emissions Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

Day, Danny

2006-04-01

371

Attitude feedback tracking with optimal attitude state estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an estimator-based attitude tracking control scheme that uses feedback of attitude and angular velocity estimates constructed by an optimal state estimation scheme. The tracking control scheme gives almost global convergence to a desired attitude and angular velocity profile with perfect state feedback. The estimation scheme consists of measurement, filtering and state propagation stages, and the measurements are

Nikolaj Nordkvist; Amit K. Sanyal

2010-01-01

372

Math Attitudes and Computer Attitudes among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the relationships among mathematics attitudes and computer attitudes. Approximately 105 college students were administered a questionnaire which assessed three dimensions of computer attitudes (anxiety toward computers, confidence in working with computers, and liking to work with computers) and three dimensions of math…

Payton, Jacqueline; Loyd, Brenda H.

373

Associations between adult attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. METHODS: A sample of undergraduate students (n=160) completed the Relationships Structures Questionnaire, which provides global ratings of adult attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance) by assessing attachment across four relationship targets (friend, mother, father and romantic partner). Attitudes regarding the acceptability of pain behaviour were assessed using male and female versions of the Appropriate Pain Behaviour Questionnaire (APBQ). RESULTS: Consistent with the hypothesis, attachment avoidance was negatively correlated with both APBQ-Female and APBQ-Male scores. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the attachment scales and the APBQ scales while statistically adjusting for sex and testing for interaction effects. The findings revealed complex relationships involving interaction effects that provided further support for the hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provided support for the hypothesis that attachment avoidance is associated with less accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. Additional research regarding the role of attachment and attitudes on responses to pain behaviour is warranted.

McWilliams, Lachlan A; Murphy, Paul DJ; Bailey, S Jeffrey

2010-01-01

374

Attitudes to animal euthanasia do not correlate with acceptance of human euthanasia or suicide.  

PubMed

Several reasons have been suggested for the elevated risk of suicide experienced by those in the veterinary profession. The current study aimed to investigate possible links between veterinarians' attitudes to 'convenience' or non-justified animal euthanasia and attitudes towards human euthanasia and suicide. Veterinary students and graduates had a negative attitude towards convenience animal euthanasia, but their attitudes changed over time (pre-clinical studies, clinical studies and recently graduated). A greater tolerance to euthanasia was displayed in the later years of study and post qualification - primarily by males. Attitudes towards both human euthanasia and suicide, however, remained stable over time and indicated on average a neutral stance. No correlations were found between attitudes to convenience euthanasia and either human euthanasia or suicide, suggesting a tolerance to convenience euthanasia of animals does not lead to desensitisation in valuing human life and a changed attitude to human euthanasia or suicide, or vice versa. Attitudes to human euthanasia and suicide were predictably correlated, perhaps suggesting an overarching attitude towards control over human death. The results of the current study throw into question the argument that it is the changes in attitudes to animal life that affect veterinarian's attitudes to human life and contribute to the high suicide rate. PMID:22791520

Ogden, U; Kinnison, T; May, S A

2012-07-11

375

Physician's Assistants Attitudes and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Perceptions of physician's assistants (PAs) performance and utilization were received from 274 PAs (67%), 194 physicians, and 278 commanders. PAs were asked to answer demographic and attitude questions. Responses to attitude statements were made from four...

A. D. Mangelsdorff

1978-01-01

376

Toward the Army of the 1980s: A Study of Male Attitudes Toward Women as Combatants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study reflects attitudes of students of the CGSC Class of 1978 toward the issue of women in combat. A sample of the Class responded to 57 questions which included demographic discriminators, positive and negative social role perceptions and personal ...

D. E. Spencer

1978-01-01

377

Bilismen och Miljoen: Attityder och Attitydbildning (Motoring and the Environment: Attitudes and Formation of Attitudes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was initiated as part of the basis for a new government bill about the transport policy in Sweden (SOU 1997:35). The purpose was to investigate the attitudes toward certain policy measures aiming at reducing car use but also to study environmen...

M. Bennulf N. Fransson M. Polk A. Biel

1998-01-01

378

On-ground attitude determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The on-ground attitude determination of the Hipparcos satellite, is examined. It is based on the information from the star mapper transits, and the satellite's gyroscopes. According to the physical perturbations, such as solar radiation pressure, acting on the satellite, models of the satellite attitude are developed. Concerning the attitude estimation, the body rigidity, the disturbance and control torques, the gyro and star mapper measurements are discussed. The adopted procedures for star coordinates and attitude improvements are given.

Donati, F.; Canuto, E.; Belforte, P.; Carlucci, D.; van Leeuwen, F.

1989-06-01

379

Cognitive engagement and attitude development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of thinking that underlies and supports an attitude is integral to it and deserves greater attention. The present study examines this aspect of attitudes by investigating the effects of different forms of cognitive engagement on the thinking underlying attitudes toward capital punishment. Urban community college students in three interactive conditions engaged in dyadic discussion of the topic with

Joseph Lao; Deanna Kuhn

2002-01-01

380

Attitudes toward mental health professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes of 85 undergraduates toward various mental health professional roles were evaluated using a semantic differential assessment instrument. Expressed attitudes were most positive toward those roles identified with physical medicine (i.e., physician and nurse) and least positive toward those professions traditionally identified with mental illness (i.e., psychiatrist and psychoanalyst). However, the public appears to be making increasing differentiations in attitudes

John M. McGuire; Thomas D. Borowy

1979-01-01

381

Neonatal nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward caring for cocaine-exposed infants and their mothers.  

PubMed

The knowledge, attitudes, and backgrounds of 215 nurses employed in the nurseries of six hospitals were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. The nurses' attitudes toward the mothers of cocaine-addicted infants were found to be generally negative and/or judgmental and their knowledge to be low. More experience with nursing cocaine-addicted infants and greater acuity of the neonatal unit in which the nurse worked correlated with more positive attitudes toward the infants but not toward their mothers. Knowledge and attitude correlated positively with formal education, inservice education, and self-education, but the correlations were weak. PMID:8699370

Ludwig, M A; Marecki, M; Wooldridge, P J; Sherman, L M

1996-03-01

382

Did the pandemic have an impact on influenza vaccination attitude? a survey among health care workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Health care workers' (HCWs) influenza vaccination attitude is known to be negative. The H1N1 epidemic had started in mid 2009\\u000a and made a peak in October-November in Turkey. A national vaccination campaign began on November 2nd, 2009. Despite the diligent efforts of the Ministry of Health and NGOs, the attitudes of the media and politicians were mostly\\u000a negative. The aim

Bilgin Arda; Raika Durusoy; Tansu Yamazhan; O?uz Re?at Sipahi; Meltem Ta?bakan; Hüsnü Pullukçu; Esra Erdem; Sercan Ulusoy

2011-01-01

383

Implicit Attitudes toward Smoking: How the Smell of Cigarettes Influences College-Age Smokers and Non-Smokers.  

PubMed

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. PMID:23479305

Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

2013-03-11

384

Attitude Is Everything  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the past 10 years, college and university administrators have been embracing online learning as the next logical step in higher education, but not all faculty have been on board. Studies conducted by the Sloan Consortium, an association that promotes online learning, suggest that faculty attitudes have become a barrier to successful online…

Hunt, Jazelle

2009-01-01

385

Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

Dietz, Tracy

386

Men's attitudes toward parenthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent family literature, men are often characterized as deadbeat dads, with a focus on their lack of involvement, mainly financial but physical and emotional as well. At the same time, there has been little attention paid to how men feel about being parents. This paper examines men's attitudes toward parenthood using data from the National Survey of Families and

Gayle Kaufman

1997-01-01

387

New attitudes toward wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite highly vocal opposition to specific projects near Los Angeles, opinion surveys still found strong support for wind energy. The first, a mail survey Consumer Attitude and Choice in Local Energy Development, was conducted by Robert Thayer at the University of California's Davis campus. The other survey, conducted by Dr. Phyllis Bosley at Towson State University targeted national environmental leaders.

Gipe

1990-01-01

388

Puerto Rican Spanish: Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a larger sociolinguistic study investigating the attitudes of Puerto Ricans on the island toward their own vernacular speech, the present research focused on the subjective reactions of 104 public high school teachers and students to spoken speech styles. The subjects' task was to: listen to a prerecorded tape, rate the voices on the…

Betancourt, Francisco

389

Attitudes towards euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are an infinite variety of attitudes to euthanasia, each individual response to the concept being influenced by many factors. Consequently there is a literature on the subject ranging from the popular article to papers in specialized journals. This study, however, has taken a well defined sample of people, inviting them to answer a questionnaire which was designed to elicit

C Winget; F T Kapp; R C Yeaworth

1977-01-01

390

Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

391

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

392

Pornography and moral attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research identifies two dissimilar strains of anti?pornography sentiment: conservative moral traditionalism and feminism. Spokespersons for each of these sources of opposition to pornography have achieved some visibility in the media and political arena, but their general level of support is undetermined. This study analyzes the underpinnings of attitudes toward pornography in the public with data from a citywide survey.

Eric Woodrum

1992-01-01

393

The Illness Attitude Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) were developed by Robert Kellner as a clinimetric index for measuring hypochondriacal fears and beliefs (worry about illness, concerns about pain, health habits, hypochondriacal beliefs, thanatophobia, disease phobia, bodily preoccupations, treatment experience and effects of symptoms). The IAS have been extensively used in the past two decades, but there has been no comprehensive review

Laura Sirri; Silvana Grandi; Giovanni A. Fava

2008-01-01

394

Attitudes of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document investigates the attitudes of successful individuals, citing the achievement of established goals as the criteria for success. After offering various definitions of success, the paper focuses on the importance of self-esteem to success and considers ways by which the self-esteem of students can be improved. Theories of human…

Pendarvis, Faye

395

Nurses' Attitudes toward Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined whether nurses' attitudes toward suicide are based on clinical specialty, age, and degree completed. Findings from 184 nurses revealed no significant differences between clinical specialty groups. Age and degree were significant only on Right to Die scale. Older nurses and those with advanced degrees were more likely to agree with…

Alston, Maude H.; Robinson, Beverly H.

1992-01-01

396

Students' Attitudes Count  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students' attitudes, interests, and values are enormously important to educators because affective dispositions are powerful predictors of students' subsequent behavior. A remarkably important way to judge schools can be gained by collecting evidence of important affective changes in groups of students over time.|

Popham, W. James

2005-01-01

397

The impact of submissive versus dominant authoritarianism and negative emotions on prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two present studies tested the relationships between the negative emotions of fear, anger, and sadness and the social attitudes of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO). It was hypothesized that these specific emotions interact with the social attitudes exerting an influence on prejudice toward outgroups with varying status levels. The emotions studied reflected general predispositions to experience

Ma?gorzata Kossowska; Marcin Bukowski; Alain Van Hiel

2008-01-01

398

Dimensionality in the measurement of authoritarian and political attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered 300 items from major inventories of authoritarian and political attitudes (e.g., the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale) to 135 undergraduates. The 300 items were reduced to 77 by selecting those with major factor loadings. Refactoring the 77 produced 25 1st-order factors and 10 2nd-order factors. The 1st-order factors typically referred to groupings of specific attitudes while 2nd-order factors referred to broad

Wayne Poley

1974-01-01

399

Preferences of and Attitudes toward Treble Choral Ensembles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In choral ensembles, a pursuit where females far outnumber males, concern exists that females are being devalued. Attitudes of female choral singers may be negatively affected by the gender imbalance that exists in mixed choirs and by the placement of the mixed choir as the most select ensemble in a program. The purpose of this research was to…

Wilson, Jill M.

2012-01-01

400

Attitude Change in Bilingual Education: The Case of Brunei Darussalam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares scores of primary and secondary school students in Brunei Darussalam in relation to their attitudes toward teachers, learning processes, language arts, mathematics, and reading and comprehension ability in English. Results indicate both positive and negative correlations among five dependent variables and significant differences between…

Ghadessy, Mohsen; Nicol, Mary

2002-01-01

401

Environmental Attitudes in the Elementary Grades: A Bibliographic Essay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ecological or environmental programs integrated into science courses in the elementary grades can make children aware that they can have either a positive or a negative effect on their environment. The following bibliography was compiled from articles and dissertations on environmental education and children's awareness, attitudes, and perceptions…

Wagner, Elaine

402

Monitoring awareness of and attitudes to depression in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

PREVIOUS SURVEYS of the Australian community's knowl- edge of depression have shown that most people have little specific knowledge about depression or the effective phar- macological or psychological interventions available. 1,2 However, the community has reported a preference for self- help strategies and expressed negative attitudes towards pharmacological interventions. 3 Consistent with these views, people report that they prefer to

Nicole J Highet; Ian B Hickie; Tracey A Davenport

2002-01-01

403

Impact of Training on Attitudes of Older Paraprofessionals Toward Aging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the increased use of paraprofessionals as service providers to the elderly, and indication in current literature that negative attitudes toward the aged are reflected in treatment received, the need for specialized training in geriatrics is apparent. A true-false 54-item questionnaire concerning older people's social, economic, physical and…

Guttman, Rosalie A.

404

Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

2009-01-01

405

Parental Childrearing Attitudes as Correlates of Father Involvement during Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using daily diary data to document involvement with infants at 6-8 months of age (n = 142) and 6 months later (n = 95), we examined relations between reported childrearing attitudes and resident fathers' relative (as compared to mothers') involvement with children. Fathers' authoritarian views related negatively to their relative involvement on…

Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Greving, Karissa A.

2007-01-01

406

Attitudes Toward Professional Foreign Players in Finnish Amateur Basketball  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of foreign professional players may influence the host country's sport culture. To determine the attitudes toward foreign professionals in various Finnish amateur basketball leagues, all clubs (n = 55) playing basketball in the three highest Finnish leagues were interviewed by mailed questionnaire. The results indicated that recruitment of foreign pros was held to effect negatively the team spirit

Kalevi Olin

1984-01-01

407

Management attitudes to older workers in the retail sector1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older workers tend to face negative stereotypes that impact on their employability and their training and promotional opportunities. In this paper, the determinants of attitudes of management to older workers in the retail sector are examined. The study finds that top management support, effective utilisation or deployment of older workers and monitoring of the percentage of older workers determines positive

Sally Howell; Donna M Buttigieg; Wendy Webber

2006-01-01

408

Racial Differences in Eating Disorder Attitudes, Cigarette, and Alcohol Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed black and white college women regarding their eating disorder attitudes and use of cigarettes and alcohol. Black women used substances significantly less than whites. Substance use related to eating disorder symptoms. Women at highest risk of eating disorders reported highest levels of substance use. Negative affect reduction and weight…

Granner, Michelle L.; Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.

2001-01-01

409

The Effect of Advertising on Attitude Accessibility, Attitude Confidence, and the Attitude-Behavior Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of advertising repetition on several non-evaluative dimensions of attitudes and the strength of the relationship between attitudes and behavior are examined. The results indicate that attitudes formed on the basis of repeated ad exposure are similar to those formed on the basis of direct experience in that they are more accessible from memory, held with more confidence, and

Ida E. Berger; Andrew A. Mitchell

1989-01-01

410

Stigma and hostility towards pregnant smokers: does individuating information reduce the effect?  

PubMed

Australia is at the forefront of tobacco control, yet 17% of Australian women smoke during pregnancy. Negative attitudes to smoking are intensified when the smoker is pregnant, consistent with a discourse that encourages surveillance of pregnant women. Such overt anti-smoking attitudes create a context which may make it difficult for pregnant smokers to seek assistance to stop. However, there is little evidence on the extent to which pregnant smokers are stigmatised by community members. We used vignettes to examine the degree of smoking-related stigma expressed by 595 Australian university students who rated a woman, described as a mother who was smoking or not, and pregnant or not. Further, we examined whether provision of individuating information reduced the degree of stigma. Mothers described as smokers were rated more negatively than those not, particularly if they were pregnant: smokers were perceived as unhealthy, and also as bad mothers. Provision of individuating information slightly reduced these effects. These findings support the view that smokers--particularly if pregnant--are subject to negative moral judgement. Our findings contribute to the ethical debate about stigma-inducing tobacco control efforts, and suggest that anti-smoking campaigns that contextualise smoking in pregnancy might reduce stigma and assist cessation. PMID:23343130

Wigginton, Britta; Lee, Christina

2013-01-24

411

Pharmacy Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Evaluation of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and evaluation of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Methods A cross sectional, self-administered, 106-item survey instrument was used to assess first, second, and third professional year pharmacy students' knowledge about DTCA regulations, attitudes toward DTCA, and evaluation of DTC advertisements with different brief summary formats (professional labeling and patient labeling) and in different media sources (print and television). Results One hundred twenty (51.3%) of the 234 students enrolled participated in the study. The mean percentage knowledge score was 48.7% ± 12.5%. Based on the mean scores per item, pharmacy students had an overall negative attitude toward DTC advertisements. Students had an overall negative attitude toward television and print advertisements using the professional labeling format but an overall positive attitude toward the print advertisement using the patient labeling format. Conclusions Lectures discussing DTC advertising should be included in the pharmacy curriculum.

Borrego, Matthew E.; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Dodd, Melanie; Sather, Mike R.

2007-01-01

412

The time for doing is not the time for change: effects of general action and inaction goals on attitude retrieval and attitude change.  

PubMed

Implicit in many informal and formal principles of psychological change is the understudied assumption that change requires either an active approach or an inactive approach. This issue was systematically investigated by comparing the effects of general action goals and general inaction goals on attitude change. As prior attitudes facilitate preparation for an upcoming persuasive message, general action goals were hypothesized to facilitate conscious retrieval of prior attitudes and therefore hinder attitude change to a greater extent than general inaction goals. Experiment 1 demonstrated that action primes (e.g., "go," "energy") yielded faster attitude report than inaction primes (e.g., "rest," "still") among participants who were forewarned of an upcoming persuasive message. Experiment 2 showed that the faster attitude report identified in Experiment 1 was localized on attitudes toward a message topic participants were prepared to receive. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 showed that, compared with inaction primes, action primes produced less attitude change and less argument scrutiny in response to a counterattitudinal message on a previously forewarned topic. Experiment 6 confirmed that the effects of the primes on attitude change were due to differential attitude retrieval. That is, when attitude expression was induced immediately after the primes, action and inaction goals produced similar amounts of attitude change. In contrast, when no attitude expression was induced after the prime, action goals produced less attitude change than inaction goals. Finally, Experiment 7 validated the assumption that these goal effects can be reduced or reversed when the goals have already been satisfied by an intervening task. PMID:21639651

Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M

2011-06-01

413

Attitude and behavior are correlates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science attitude scales can be expected to predict science-related behavior. But A-B correspondence can seldom be expected to approach the r value of 1.00. Attitude and behavior covary to the degree that valid measurement and mediating variables are considered: Individual differences of subjects (e.g., high versus low self-monitoring); the social situation (e.g., direct experience); cognitive factors (e.g., attitude accessibility in memory). Attitude and behavior are reciprocal; that is, attitude can follow behavior. Variables other than attitude, e.g., behavioral intention, previous behavior, and habit, may under some conditions better predict behavior. Also, a viable alternative to attitude testing may be direct appraisal of some science classroom behaviors through ethnomethodology.

Shrigley, Robert L.

414

The moral roots of environmental attitudes.  

PubMed

Americans' attitudes about the environment are highly polarized, but it is unclear why this is the case. We conducted five studies to examine this issue. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrated that liberals, but not conservatives, view the environment in moral terms and that this tendency partially explains the relation between political ideology and environmental attitudes. Content analyses of newspaper op-eds (Study 2a) and public-service announcements (Study 2b) found that contemporary environmental discourse is based largely on moral concerns related to harm and care, which are more deeply held by liberals than by conservatives. However, we found that reframing proenvironmental rhetoric in terms of purity, a moral value resonating primarily among conservatives, largely eliminated the difference between liberals' and conservatives' environmental attitudes (Study 3). These results establish the importance of moralization as a cause of polarization on environmental attitudes and suggest that reframing environmental discourse in different moral terms can reduce the gap between liberals and conservatives in environmental concern. PMID:23228937

Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb

2012-12-10

415

Negative indefinites in Afrikaans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is concerned with the syntactic and semantic status of negative indefinites in Afrikaans. The problem posed by negative indefinites is that their interpretation appears to differ across double negation (DN) and negative concord (NC) languages. With respect to negative indefinites, Afrikaans displays features that distinguish it from both typical NC and typical DN languages. Contrary to most NC

K. M. Huddlestone

2010-01-01

416

Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Families of suicidal youths are viewed as more psychologically disturbed than families of youths who die from other causes, and experience other comparatively negative reactions as well. Likewise, divorced families also are viewed more negatively than intact families. To see whether a combination of suicide plus divorce led adolescents have particularly negative views, 120 high school students read one of

Jeffie A. Gibson; Lillian M. Range; Howard N. Anderson

1987-01-01

417

Sexual behavior and attitudes of university students in Northern Ireland.  

PubMed

Two surveys of a Northern Ireland student sample were conducted in 1987 and 1988. A total of 419 female and 201 male subjects completed self-administered anonymous questionnaires concerning their behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards sex, AIDS, homosexuality, contraception, and relationships. Results indicated a relatively low level of sexual experience, and for those with experience, relatively few partners. The possible influences of gender and religiosity on sexual behavior and attitudes, in the context of Northern Ireland, are discussed. Subjects reported considerable variation in the amount of sex education, but the majority received little or none. This student sample held relatively conservative attitudes towards love, sex, and marriage and this was particularly true for females and for regular churchgoers. In addition, attitudes towards homosexuality were negative (particularly among regular churchgoers). Attitudes towards contraception were more positive than expected among Catholic subjects, and few indicated that they would refuse to use contraceptives on principle. Responses to items about AIDS were highly uniform, suggesting that much of the information made available to the public has been absorbed. However, the lack of uniformity of response to more general items about sex, relationships, and contraception may indicate that fundamental changes in sexual behavior are unlikely to be brought about by influencing a rather narrowly defined set of attitudes about AIDS. PMID:1610290

Sneddon, I; Kremer, J

1992-06-01

418

Effects of Image–Issue and Positive–Negative Scene Orders in Broadcast News  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of image–issue scene orders and positive–negative scene orders in a broadcast news story on viewers’ memory, attitudes, and voting intention are examined. The 2 different orders of image–issue and positive–negative scenes are independent variables, whereas free recall, recognition memory, attitudes toward candidates, and voting intention are the dependent variables for this study. An experiment with broadcast news stories

Yun Jung Choi; Jong Hyuk Lee

2007-01-01

419

Negative-ion generator  

DOEpatents

This negative ion generator comprises a magnetically insulated transmission line having at least one hole in the cathode to permit negative ions to escape the transmission line, and a device for removing electrons from the negative ion flow.

Stinnett, R.W.

1982-02-11

420

Changing Attitudes About Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the effectiveness of short-term education programs in changing societal attitudes about mental illness has been mixed. Education efforts seem to be mediated by characteristi cs of the program partici- pants. This study determines whether the effects of a specially prepared, semester-long course on severe mental illness are mediated by pre-education knowl- edge about and contact with severe mental

E. Paul Holmes; Patrick W. Corrigan; Princess Williams; Jeffrey Canar; Mary Ann Kubiak

1999-01-01

421

The Pet Attitude Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It was the intention of the authors that this chapter be a resource of test and measures for the reader. The name of the Pet\\u000a Attitude Scale (PAS) (Templer, Salter, Dickey, Baldwin, & Veleber, 1981), apparently the first published scale that measures\\u000a human–animal bonding, reflects the fact that it was developed three decades ago. If it were constructed today, it

Donald I. Templer; Hiroko Arikawa

422

The Importance of Attitudes in Statistics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People forget what they do not use. But attitudes "stick." Our article emphasizes the importance of students' attitudes toward statistics. We examine 15 surveys that purport to assess these attitudes and then describe the "Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics," a commonly used attitude survey. We present our conceptual model of Students'…

Ramirez, Caroline; Schau, Candace; Emmioglu, Esma

2012-01-01

423

Impact of spacecraft attitude variations on the GRACE scientific results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of our work is to understand and reduce disturbance effects in gravity field determination from GRACE and to support the mitigation of noise sources for next generation missions. Systematic patterns in long time series of attitude variations of the GRACE spacecraft are discussed. The relative and absolute attitude variations of both spacecrafts are investigated as well as the attitude variations during different AOCS operational modes. On one hand, they are put into connection to orbital configuration, attitude determination sensors such as star cameras or inertial measurement unit, other sensors and satellite environment. On the other hand, they are put into connection to the K-band range geometric correction which should be applied before the gravity field solution is computed.

Bandikova, Tamara; Flury, Jakob; Ko, Ung-Dai

2010-05-01

424

Trends in attitudes toward people living with HIV, homophobia, and HIV transmission knowledge in Quebec, Canada (1996, 2002, and 2010).  

PubMed

People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ?50 years of age, <14 years of education, higher levels of homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups. PMID:22533309

Adrien, Alix; Beaulieu, Marianne; Leaune, Viviane; Perron, Michèle; Dassa, Clément

2012-04-26

425

Ambivalence Amplifies College Smokers' Negative Emotional Responses to Antismoking Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many smoking college students hold ambivalent attitudes toward smoking. Although ambivalence is widely believed to evoke negative affect, little research attention has been paid to how ambivalence may influence emotional responses to persuasive information. Participants in this study (N = 133 college smokers) completed a survey that included a presentation of novel and credible antismoking information. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that

Xiaoquan Zhao; Xiaomei Cai

2009-01-01

426

The relative importance of gender role attitudes to male and female attitudes toward lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that gender role attitudes, parental attitudes, authoritarianism, religiosity, contact with homosexuals, and exposure to educational influences are associated with attitudes toward homosexuals. Few studies have been conducted on attitudes toward lesbians specifically. This study investigated the pattern of predictors for male and female attitudes toward lesbians. The regression analysis on males revealed that gender role attitudes were

Bernie S. Newman

1989-01-01

427

Attitude development in designers' education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern academic design and engineering education adopted the issues and goals of holistic development of design competence. Holistic design competence is a combination of generic capacities: capability, knowledge, skill, experience and attitude. All capacities should be addressed in academic\\u000aeducation, but the development of attitude is not sufficiently emphasized. Designers’ attitude can be\\u000aseen as the relationship between a designer

E. Van Doorn; N. Moes; N. Fain

1942-01-01

428

Spin-Axis Attitude Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin-axis attitude estimation is examined in a manner analogous to the study of three-axis attitude estimation. Measurement modeling issues are given careful consideration, as are those of representation, frame, and constraint. Three approaches to spin-axis attitude esti- mation are presented and compared numerically. A thorough covariance analysis of all algorithms is performed. 3 You're like really so spinning (lit. crazy)!

Sergei Tanygin; Malcolm D. Shuster

2007-01-01

429

Evidentiality and German Attitude Verbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

German attitude verbs usually embed that-clause complements. In addition, only certain verbs can also license clauses with matrix verb-second (V2) word order as their complements. These same verbs can also appear in slifting constructions. The main question addressed in this paper is why only some attitude verbs allow these additional constructions. I argue that in slifting, the attitude verb functions

Tatjana Scheffler

2009-01-01

430

Applying the motorcyclist's perspective to improve car drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists.  

PubMed

This study sought to provide a first crucial step in the direction of developing an intervention program aimed at improving safe attitudes and skills among car drivers towards motorcycles. We intended to improve drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists by exposing them to demands that motorcyclists face on the road. Car drivers were exposed to hazard perception clips taken from a motorcyclist's perspective, and interactive hazards in a motorcycle simulator. Car hazard perception clips and a car simulator were used as control conditions. A questionnaire assessed participant knowledge and attitudes towards motorcyclists before and after the intervention. After the intervention participants had more empathic- and fewer negative-attitudes, as well as safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. Self-reported attitude-change suggested that the use of motorcycle hazard perception clips was more effective than the simulator, and the intervention was most effective for those car drivers who reported the most negative attitudes prior viewing the clips or riding the simulator. Providing car drivers with a perspective of the motorcyclist may prove to be a useful tool for promoting safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. PMID:21658502

Shahar, Amit; Clarke, David; Crundall, David

2011-04-29

431

Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men's attitudes toward seeking psychological help.  

PubMed

This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes. PMID:23668728

Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M

2013-05-13

432

The Attitudes Toward Women with HIV/AIDS Scale (ATWAS): development and validation.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, many scales have been created to measure general attitudes toward People with HIV/AIDS (PWA). A high correlation between negative attitudes toward PWA and rejecting attitudes toward homosexuality has been demonstrated in many studies, which may suggest that although the scales posit to examine "attitudes toward PWA," they may actually tap into attitudes toward homosexuals with HIV/AIDS. These scales may be inappropriate to use for examining attitudes toward other groups of people with HIV/AIDS (e.g., heterosexual women). The present researchers developed and validated the Attitudes Toward Women with HIV/AIDS Scale (ATWAS). Principal components analysis of the ATWAS yielded a four-factor structure accounting for 48.6% of the total variance of attitudes toward women with HIV/AIDS. The four factors were Child Care, Myths/Negative Stereotypes, Reproduction/Contraception issues, and Sympathy/Transmission Route. The ATWAS was found to have good internal consistency (r = .82) and construct validity. PMID:11398957

O'Hea, E L; Sytsma, S E; Copeland, A; Brantley, P J

2001-04-01

433

Consumer Attitudes and Use of Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Recent antibiotic use is a risk factor for infection or colonization with resistant bacterial pathogens. Demand for antibiotics can be affected by consumers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices. In 1998–1999, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) conducted a population-based, random-digit dialing telephone survey, including questions regarding respondents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices of antibiotic use. Twelve percent had recently taken antibiotics; 27% believed that taking antibiotics when they had a cold made them better more quickly, 32% believed that taking antibiotics when they had a cold prevented more serious illness, and 48% expected a prescription for antibiotics when they were ill enough from a cold to seek medical attention. These misguided beliefs and expectations were associated with a lack of awareness of the dangers of antibiotic use; 58% of patients were not aware of the possible health dangers. National educational efforts are needed to address these issues if patient demand for antibiotics is to be reduced.

Vanden Eng, Jodi; Hadler, James L.; Imhoff, Beth; Vugia, Duc J.; Cieslak, Paul R.; Zell, Elizabeth; Deneen, Valerie; McCombs, Katherine Gibbs; Zansky, Shelley M.; Hawkins, Marguerite A.; Besser, Richard E.

2003-01-01

434

Racial differences in attitudes toward professional mental health treatment: the mediating effect of stigma.  

PubMed

Stigma associated with mental illness continues to be a pervasive barrier to mental health treatment, leading to negative attitudes about treatment and deterring appropriate care seeking. Empirical research suggests that the stigma of mental illness may exert an adverse influence on attitudes toward mental health treatment and service utilization patterns by individuals with a mental illness, particularly African Americans. However, little research has examined the impact of stigma on racial differences in attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment. This study examined the hypothesis that stigma partially mediates the relationship between race and attitudes towards mental health treatment in a community-based sample of 101 African American and White older adults. Multiple regression analyses and classic path analysis was utilized to test the partial mediation model. Controlling for socio-demographic factors, African American older adults were more likely to have negative attitudes toward mental health treatment, and they also reported more public and internalized stigma than their White counterparts. As hypothesized, the relationship between race and attitudes toward mental health treatment was partially mediated by internalized stigma, suggesting that internalized stigma may cause older adults to develop negative attitudes about mental health treatment. The partial mediation model was not significant for public stigma, however. Implications for social work research and practice are discussed. PMID:19787528

Conner, Kyaien O; Koeske, Gary; Brown, Charlotte

2009-10-01

435

The influences of new employee development practices upon role stressors and work-related attitudes of temporary employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding what influences temporary employee attitudes toward their work is becoming an increasingly significant managerial concern in organizations employing temporary workers. In this empirical study, we examine the relationship between new employee development (NED) practices, role stressors and employee work-related attitudes. It was hypothesized that NED practices will be negatively related to the role stressor variables and that the role

Jeffrey P. Slattery; T. T. Selvarajan; John E. Anderson

2008-01-01

436

An Investigation of Nursing Staff Attitudes and Emotional Reactions towards Patients with Intellectual Disability in a General Hospital Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: It has been suggested that inequalities in health care for people with intellectual disabilities may be partly explained by negative attitudes of health professionals. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes and emotional reactions reported by nursing staff working in general hospitals towards caring for patients with…

Lewis, Sharna; Stenfert-Kroese, Biza

2010-01-01

437

Gender Differences in the Usage and Attitudes toward the Internet among Student Teachers in a Public Malaysian University  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of gender disparity in the usage and attitude towards the Internet have received considerable interest among researchers. Most findings have revealed that females are at a disadvantage compared to their male counterparts where Internet usage is concerned. They have unequal access, a low rate of usage and exhibit negative attitudes towards the Internet (Nachmias et al., 2000; Sherman

Wong Su Luan; Ng Siew Fung; Hanafi Atan

2008-01-01

438

Knowledge and attitudes of nurses on pressure ulcer prevention: a cross-sectional multicenter study in Belgian hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guidelines for pressure ulcer prevention have been developed and promoted by authoritative organizations. However, nonadherence to these guidelines is frequently reported. Negative attitudes and lack of knowledge may act as barriers to using guidelines in clinical practice. AIMS: To study the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about pressure ulcer prevention in Belgian hospitals and to explore the correlation

D. Beeckman; T. Defloor; L. Schoonhoven; K. Vanderwee

2011-01-01

439

Pressure ulcers: Development and psychometric evaluation of the Attitude towards Pressure ulcer Prevention instrument (APuP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPressure ulcers continue to be a significant problem in hospitals, nursing homes and community care settings. Pressure ulcer incidence is widely accepted as an indicator for the quality of care. Negative attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention may result in suboptimal preventive care. A reliable and valid instrument to assess attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention is lacking.

D. Beeckman; T. Defloor; L. Demarré; A. Van Hecke; K. Vanderwee

2010-01-01

440

High School-Aged Youths' Attitudes Toward Their Peers with Disabilities: The Role of School and Student Interpersonal Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negative peer attitudes are generally recognised as being a major barrier to full social inclusion at school for children and youth with disabilities. The present study examined the attitudes of 1,872 grade nine high school students in Ontario, Canada toward their peers with disabilities. A bioecological perspective and a structural equation…

McDougall, Janette; DeWit, David J.; King, Gillian; Miller, Linda T.; Killip, Steve

2004-01-01

441

High School-Aged Youths' Attitudes toward Their Peers with Disabilities: The Role of School and Student Interpersonal Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negative peer attitudes are generally recognised as being a major barrier to full social inclusion at school for children and youth with disabilities. The present study examined the attitudes of 1,872 grade nine high school students in Ontario, Canada toward their peers with disabilities. A bioecological perspective and a structural equation…

McDougall, Janette; DeWit, David J.; King, Gillian; Miller, Linda T.; Killip, Steve

2004-01-01

442

Attitudes of Functionally Independent Residents Toward Residents Who Were Disabled in Old Age Homes: The Role of Separation Versus Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of attitudes of elderly people toward their peers, particularly in residential settings, has been the subject of few investigations. This study examines the extent to which residents who are functionally independent express positive and negative attitudes toward residents who live in the nursing wards of the same facilities and investigates the factors that best explain the differences in

Esther Iecovich; Orly Lev-Ran

2006-01-01

443

Gender attitudes, sexual power, HIV risk: a model for understanding HIV risk behavior of South African men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gender Attitudes-Power-Risk (GAPR) model of HIV risk behavior was tested using survey data collected from among 309 men who were attending STI services in a primary health care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Results showed that negative attitudes towards women were significantly positively associated with a high level of HIV risk behavior, and that endorsement of traditional male

Michelle R. Kaufman; Tamara Shefer; Mary Crawford; Leickness C. Simbayi; Seth C. Kalichman

2008-01-01

444

Attitudes toward Alcoholism: A Comparative Study of Secondary School Teachers in Urban and Rural Areas of Benin District-Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared attitudes toward alcoholism in 120 urban secondary school teachers and 105 rural secondary school teachers in Benin District, Nigeria. Results indicated that urban teachers, males, younger teachers, those with higher degrees, and unmarried teachers had less negative attitudes toward alcoholism. (JAC)

Oshodin, Osayuki G.

1985-01-01

445

The Impact of PBL on the Students' Attitudes towards Science among Nine Graders in Hamza Independent School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A weak negative attitude towards learning science was noticed among the students in Qatar, a matter that was reflected on their achievement in national tests. To test if the use of PBL would improve the students' attitudes towards learning science, a sample of 25 nine graders from Hamza school were motivated to plan their own investigations and to…

Faris, Ahmed

2008-01-01

446

THE ROLE OF SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS AND LIFESTYLE VARIABLES IN ATTITUDE AND THE DEMAND FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer resistance is a key barrier to the diffusion of genetically modified foods (GMFs). Several studies have shown that consumers in general have a negative attitude toward GMFs. Through analysis of a survey conducted in Israel, we find consumer attitudes toward GMFs to be context specific, differing based on the available alternatives. Consumers responded positively to genetically modified meats when

Amir Heiman; David R. Just; David Zilberman

2000-01-01

447

High School?Aged Youths' Attitudes Toward their Peers with Disabilities: the role of school and student interpersonal Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative peer attitudes are generally recognised as being a major barrier to full social inclusion at school for children and youth with disabilities. The present study examined the attitudes of 1,872 grade nine high school students in Ontario, Canada toward their peers with disabilities. A bioecological perspective and a structural equation modeling approach were adopted to investigate how various aspects

Janette McDougall; David J. DeWit; Gillian King; Linda T. Miller; Steve Killip

2004-01-01

448

Social Work Students' Attitudes towards Lesbians and Gay Men: The Case of the Social Work Department in Crete, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the attitudes towards lesbians and gay men among the student population of the Social Work Department of the Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Greece, using Herek's ATLG scale. None of the respondents were found to hold completely non-heterosexist or completely heterosexist attitudes; still, 10% had scores in the negative range. On the whole, students held rather positive

Vasileia Papadaki; Kyriaki Plotnikof; Eleni Papadaki

2012-01-01

449

Attitudes of university precalculus students toward mathematics.  

PubMed

To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics. PMID:15941096

Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Mji, Andile

2005-04-01

450

Can values moderate the attitudes of right-wing authoritarians?  

PubMed

This investigation explored how right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and endorsement of egalitarian beliefs may interact to determine attitudes toward immigrants, homosexuals, and African Americans. Study 1 (N = 239) found that RWA was negatively related to evaluations of immigrants for those who weakly endorsed egalitarian beliefs. In contrast, endorsement of egalitarian beliefs was associated with positive evaluations of immigrants for both low and high RWAs. RWA did not interact with egalitarianism to determine attitudes toward homosexuals or African Americans. Study 2 analyzed data from the 1992 National Election Study and replicated these effects in a young adult (age < or = 24) sample (n = 102) using moral traditionalism as a proxy for RWA. Partial support for the hypotheses also was found in the adult (age > or = 25) sample (n = 1,257). It is concluded that when tradition and/or social norms offer unclear positions, endorsement of egalitarian beliefs influences the attitudes of authoritarians. PMID:16513801

Oyamot, Clifton M; Borgida, Eugene; Fisher, Emily L

2006-04-01

451

Spontaneous prejudice in context: variability in automatically activated attitudes.  

PubMed

The goal of the research reported in this article was to examine whether automatic group attitudes and stereotypes, commonly thought to be fixed responses to a social category cue, are sensitive to changes in the situational context. Two experiments demonstrated such variability of automatic responses due to changes in the stimulus context. In Study 1 White participants' implicit attitudes toward Blacks varied as a result of exposure to either a positive (a family barbecue) or a negative (a gang incident) stereotypic situation. Study 2 demonstrated similar context effects under clearly automatic processing conditions. Here, the use of different background pictures (church interior vs. street corner) for Black and White face primes affected participants' racial attitudes as measured by a sequential priming task. Implications for the concept of automaticity in social cognition are discussed. PMID:11708559

Wittenbrink, B; Judd, C M; Park, B

2001-11-01

452

Attitudes of European farmers towards GM crop adoption.  

PubMed

This article analyses European Union (EU) farmers' attitudes towards adoption of genetically modified crops by identifying and classifying groups of farmers. Cluster analysis provided two groups of farmers allowing us to classify farmers into potential adopters or rejecters of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops. Results showed that economic issues such as the guarantee of a higher income and the reduction of weed control costs are the most encouraging reasons for potential adopters and rejecters of GMHT crops. This article also examines how putting in place measures to ensure coexistence between GM and non-GM crops may influence farmers' attitudes towards GMHT crop adoption. Results show that the implementation of a coexistence policy would have a negative impact on farmers' attitudes on adoption and consequently may hamper GMHT adoption in the EU. PMID:21923717

Areal, Francisco J; Riesgo, Laura; Rodríguez-Cerezo, Emilio

2011-09-19

453

Feeling fat: motivations, knowledge, and attitudes of overweight women and men.  

PubMed

This study concerned obesity from the perspective of 47 women and 8 men who considered themselves overweight. They responded to a questionnaire about various aspects of motivation to lose weight, knowledge about obesity, and personal and societal attitudes toward the obese. Although they reduced calorie intake and increased exercise when trying to lose weight, they reported various reasons why their exercise levels were less than optimal. Verbal motivation to lose was only partially reflected in willingness to change lifestyle, even though respondents had spent substantial sums of money on weight-loss attempts. Knowledge about obesity was imperfect, with women and thinner subjects somewhat more knowledgeable. Subjects were aware of and shared some of the negative social stereotypes of the obese, blaming themselves for their overweight. However, most would not trade their obesity for other handicaps found less stigmatizing in other research. As expected, women expressed a greater desire for thinness than men. Implications for health care professionals are discussed. PMID:2084745

Harris, M B; Waschull, S; Walters, L

1990-12-01

454

'It's not that we hate you': understanding children's gender attitudes and expectancies about peer relationships.  

PubMed

Widespread gender segregation, evident throughout elementary school, seems to imply that girls and boys have negative feelings and thoughts about one another, and classic theories of inter-group processes support this idea. However, research has generally overlooked children's feelings and perceptions about gender-related interpersonal interactions. This paper investigates the nature of children's attitudes about same- and other-gender peers, and explores how those attitudes relate to the expectancies and beliefs children hold about same- and other-gender peer interactions. Children (N= 98 fifth graders) completed questionnaires assessing their global liking of own- and other-gender peers (Yee & Brown, 1994), positive and negative attitudes about own- and other-gender peers, and outcome expectancies related to interacting with own- and other-gender peers. Results indicated that rather than being characterized by out-group negativity, children's inter-group gender attitudes are best characterized by an in-group positivity bias. Children's positive and negative affective attitudes were also significantly associated with outcome expectancies. In contrast, global liking of own- and other-gender peers was less predictive of outcome expectancies. Thus, the greater specificity of the affective attitude measures appeared to be a more predictive and potentially fruitful gauge of children's feelings about own- and other-gender peers. Results are discussed in terms of the need for finer grained and more extensive studies of children's gender-related feelings and cognitions about own- and other-gender peers. PMID:21592150

Zosuls, Kristina M; Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N; Miller, Cindy F; Gaertner, Bridget M; England, Dawn E; Hill, Alison P

2011-02-08

455

ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS EFFECT FREQUENCY OF EATING OUT IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI DELTA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Attitudes and beliefs reflecting cultural values can have a positive or negative influence on eating behaviors. Eating out may negatively affect diet quality. In a representative sample of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) consisting of 1601 African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) adults, the aim wa...

456

Attitudes and beliefs affect frequency of eating out in the Lower Mississippi Delta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Attitudes and beliefs reflecting cultural values can have a positive or negative influence on eating behaviors. Eating out may negatively affect diet quality through increased fat intake and larger portion sizes. In a representative sample of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) consisting of 1601 Af...

457

Household behaviour and attitudes with respect to recycling food waste – experiences from focus groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a challenge to reduce the ever-increasing flow of waste. In Norway the systems for recycling of organic waste, paper, glass, metals, etc. differ between municipalities, both with regard to organizational and to technological structures. Our hypothesis is that people's attitudes and behaviour may differ with different systems of waste management. People's behaviour and attitudes regarding (organic) waste recycling

Karen Refsgaard; Kristin Magnussen

2009-01-01

458

ADDRESSING GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMPUTER ABILITY, ATTITUDES AND USE: THE LAPTOP EFFECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of gender on computer related attitudes, ability, and use has been actively documented, but little research has been done examining how to modify and reduce imbalances. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of ubiquitous computing (24-hour access to a laptop and the Internet) on gender differences in pre-service teachers with respect to computer attitudes,

ROBIN KAY

2006-01-01

459

Measuring Teacher Attitudes toward Instructional Technology: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the TAC and TAT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article the authors present a confirmatory factor analysis of the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computers (TAC) and the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Information Technology (TAT) scales by Christensen and Knezek (1996, 1998) using large samples from three states. The TAC was reduced from 98 items and nine factors to 35 items and eight factors,…

Shattuck, Dominick; Corbell, Kristen A.; Osbourne, Jason W.; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Grable, Lisa Leonor

2011-01-01

460

Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Speaker Panels Lead to Attitude Change Among Heterosexual College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contact hypothesis (Allport, 1954) suggests that a speaker panel intervention may be effective in reducing prejudice toward sexual minorities among heterosexual individuals. Addressing methodological limitations of prior studies, the present study compared the effects of a speaker panel presentation versus a control condition in altering attitudes among 186 heterosexual university students. After controlling for context effects by collecting attitude

Paul Kwon; Daniela S. Hugelshofer

2012-01-01

461

Measuring Teacher Attitudes toward Instructional Technology: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the TAC and TAT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors present a confirmatory factor analysis of the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computers (TAC) and the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Information Technology (TAT) scales by Christensen and Knezek (1996, 1998) using large samples from three states. The TAC was reduced from 98 items and nine factors to 35 items and eight factors,…

Shattuck, Dominick; Corbell, Kristen A.; Osbourne, Jason W.; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Grable, Lisa Leonor

2011-01-01

462

Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: The Hilo Women's Health Study  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai`i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai`i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as “natural,” to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai`i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai`i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women’s attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes.

Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

2010-01-01

463

Gifted Adolescents' Attitudes toward Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the attitudes toward and knowledge about suicide of gifted and unselected high school students. A questionnaire was developed which included items about societal factors related to suicide, warning signs of suicide, general knowledge of and attitudes about suicide, personal knowledge about suicide, and the intervention…

Sloat, Robert S.; Hayes, Marnell L.

464

College Students' Attitudes Toward Abortion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)

Maxwell, Joseph W.

1970-01-01

465

College Students' Attitudes About Lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reviews empirical studies on trends in attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and compares data from a 1985 survey of 297 students living in a college residence hall with data collected in 2001 when 152 students living in the same residence hall responded to a similar questionnaire. College students in 2001 expressed more accepting attitudes toward lesbians, reported

Bernie Sue Newman

2007-01-01

466

College Students' Attitudes Toward Abortion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)|

Maxwell, Joseph W.

1970-01-01

467

Attitude measurement by artificial vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of light and low-cost airborne platforms (microlight, drones, kites, balloons,...) has led to the need for simple and low-cost devices allowing attitude measurement with respect to a reference horizon of the platform itself or of an embedded setting. A theoretical study of the conditions for measuring attitude angles from artificial vision is proposed and an original practical

F. Truchetet; O. Aubreton; P. Gorria; O. Laligant

2006-01-01

468

College Students' Attitudes toward Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes towards mathematics of college students in mathematics, psychology, and other fields were measured. Items describing mathematics as a good mental exercise and valuable mental training were selected by more than 55 percent of the students sampled. Overall similarity in attitudes among the three samples was high. Mathematics was highly…

Lin, Yi-Guang

1982-01-01

469

Calibration of attitude control sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles governing the development of simple algorithms for calibrating attitude and velocity sensors without the need for reference point identification and without using information on the orientation of the moving object are examined. The approach proposed here makes it possible to calibrate attitude and velocity sensors by using an onboard computer.

Potapenko, Ye. M.

1987-05-01

470

A Survey of Student Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of student opinions concerning experiences at Cuyahoga Community College (Ohio) was conducted in 1969 to determine whether these students differed from typical college students in attitudes, ideas, and cultural background, and whether they were satisfied with the instructional program and services at Cuyahoga. Student attitudes toward…

Greive, Donald E.

471

Reducing Media Viewing: Implications for Behaviorists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|American children spend an average of 6 hours and 32 minutes each day using various forms of media. Research has suggested that this high level of exposure has a negative impact on children's attitudes and behaviors. For example, media violence increases aggression in children, especially video games which allows children to be the aggressor and…

Jason, Leonard A.; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Mesina, Anna

2005-01-01

472

New attitudes toward wind  

SciTech Connect

Despite highly vocal opposition to specific projects near Los Angeles, opinion surveys still found strong support for wind energy. The first, a mail survey Consumer Attitude and Choice in Local Energy Development, was conducted by Robert Thayer at the University of California's Davis campus. The other survey, conducted by Dr. Phyllis Bosley at Towson State University targeted national environmental leaders. The Thayer survey examined how people view four energy technologies - biomass, nuclear, fossil, and wind - and where they would find them most acceptable. Of the six factors Thayer measure - safety, reliability, environmental impacts, cost, dependence on foreign oil, and visual impacts - wind energy's big bugaboo, visual impact, was the least important. Wind turbines do produce a strong NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) response among customers, however. The Bosley study of national environmental leaders found, somewhat surprisingly, that the Sierra Club held slightly more positive views toward wind energy than environmental leaders in general. Nationally, solar was seen as the most cost effective energy source, followed by wind. The survey compared attitudes toward four energy technologies: solar, wind, fossil fuels, and nuclear power. There was general agreement among the environmentalists that both wind and solar were environmentally superior energy sources to fossil fuels and nuclear power.

Gipe, P.

1990-03-01

473