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1

Manners of expressing negative and sympathetic attitudes towards the unemployed.  

PubMed

Social psychologists have examined ways in which indirectness and discursive techniques allow the communication of prejudice while not breaching the tolerance norm. The role these techniques play in the expression of other kinds of attitude, however, is as yet unknown. The present study examined the discursive techniques used by 67 employed individuals to express negative and sympathetic attitudes towards the unemployed. A style of directness was used significantly more frequently to express sympathetic attitudes than negative attitudes. Conversely, credibility techniques were used significantly more frequently to express negative attitudes than sympathetic attitudes. These credibility techniques were used in conjunction with either directness or indirectness. However, against hypothesis, indirectness alone was not used more frequently to express negative than sympathetic attitudes; in fact, one type of indirectness was associated to a greater extent with the expression of sympathy than with negativity. It was predicted that professionally employed individuals would tend to use different discursive techniques than non-professionally employed individuals. This prediction, while supported by a difference on a composite measure of the manners of expression, was not confirmed for any of the styles considered separately. PMID:7551774

McFadyen, R G; Gray, C D

1995-09-01

2

Believing Is Seeing: Fixation Duration Predicts Implicit Negative Attitudes  

PubMed Central

A prototypical finding of social cognition is that social experiences influence later performance even though those experiences are not introspectively available. Building on social cognition research on implicit attitudes, we evaluate whether ethnic category/attribute pairs influence eye movements during the Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz 1998). Results show that fixation duration predicted implicit attitudes such that when the category/attribute pairs disconfirmed one's implicit negative attitude fixation duration toward that pair increased. The present research provides evidence that eye movements and implicit processes inherent in the IAT are more broadly connected than previously thought. PMID:25133639

2014-01-01

3

Changing Teachers' Negative Attitudes Toward Persons With Intellectual Disabilities.  

PubMed

The current study aims at changing teachers' negative attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities. The intervention is based on the argument that providing information is not sufficient to achieve lasting change of attitudes toward people with disabilities, and that contact is required as an additional element to show positive results. A pretest-posttest intervention was conducted using three conditions: (a) cognitive intervention, (b) cognitive and behavioral intervention involving contact with the target group, and (c) no-intervention control. The participants comprised 18 teachers, with 6 teachers in each group. Following baseline assessments of attitudes, attitude change was measured immediately following the intervention and at a follow-up 12 weeks postintervention. The cognitive intervention provided information about intellectual disability and challenged stereotypic conceptions about persons with intellectual disabilities. The behavioral intervention involved being engaged in work with and training persons with intellectual disabilities in sheltered workshops. The results showed that the cognitive intervention alone did not result in significant changes in attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities. However, the combined cognitive-behavioral intervention resulted in greater attitude change than the no-intervention condition, both immediately postintervention and at a 12-week follow-up. The findings are discussed with regard to models of attitude change. The study concludes with some recommendations for teacher training programs to be attended to. PMID:25488181

Hassanein, Elsayed Elshabrawy Ahmed

2014-12-01

4

Neural Correlates of Attitude Change Following Positive and Negative Advertisements  

PubMed Central

Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour. PMID:19503749

Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

2009-01-01

5

Liking is not the opposite of disliking: the functional separability of positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups.  

PubMed

Two studies tested the hypotheses that positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups are not interchangeable in predicting positive versus negative behaviors toward those groups. In Study 1, positive attitudes about Latinos were a better predictor of a positive behavior toward Latinos than were negative attitudes or stereotyped positive attitudes. In Study 2, positive attitudes about African Americans were a better predictor of positive behavioral intentions toward that group than were negative attitudes, whereas negative attitudes were better predictors of negative behavioral intentions than were positive attitudes. Taken together, the studies support the perspective that positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups are theoretically and functionally distinct constructs. We conclude that it is important to measure both positive and negative attitudes to understand and predict behaviors toward minority groups. PMID:21604837

Pittinsky, Todd L; Rosenthal, Seth A; Montoya, R Matthew

2011-04-01

6

Attitudes about Childlessness in the United States: Correlates of Positive, Neutral, and Negative Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study used cross-sectional analyses of the National Survey of Families and Households (1987-1988, 1992-1994) to examine attitudes about childlessness in the United States. It (a) assesses prevalence of positive, neutral, and negative attitudes about childlessness and (b) identifies the correlates of different attitudes in the population. About…

Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya; Pendell, Gretchen

2007-01-01

7

Competitive disadvantage makes attitudes towards rape less negative.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape. PMID:22947990

Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine

2011-01-01

8

Analysis of Factors Influencing Negative Attitude toward Teacher Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study critically examined the factors influencing public attitudes toward teacher education in Nigeria. It analysed a series of nationwide surveys of negative public attitude toward the teaching profession using parents and prospective university students as respondents. A questionnaire made up of 12 items was used to gather data on public…

Ogiegbaen, S. E. Aduwa; Uwameiye, Raymond

2005-01-01

9

Stigma, Negative Attitudes About Treatment, and Utilization of Mental Health Care Among Soldiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stigma and organizational barriers have been identified as factors for why a small proportion of soldiers with psychological problems seek professional help. In this article, we examine the impact of negative attitudes toward treatment on treatment seeking among soldiers previously deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq (n = 2,623). We asked soldiers with psychological problems questions about stigma, organizational barriers, negative

Paul Y. Kim; Thomas W. Britt; Robert P. Klocko; Lyndon A. Riviere; Amy B. Adler

2011-01-01

10

Reduced negative affect response in female psychopaths  

PubMed Central

Studies that investigate the differences between high and low psychopathic persons in brain activity during emotional facial expression processing are rare and commonly focus on males. The current study assessed whether previously reported behavioral differences would be reflected in differential brain activity in a sample of female offenders. The participants included 23 female forensic inpatients with high and low scores on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). ERPs were recorded during presentation of emotional facial expressions (i.e., fear, angry, and happy). Results revealed no differences in N170, P3 and late positive potential components between groups, but a significant difference in N2 only for angry and fear facial expressions, with high psychopathic participants showing lower reactivity. This N2 effect was found to be related to Factor 2 but not Factor 1 of the PCL-R. In time frequency analysis, theta activity underlying N2 best reflected these differences. Findings in this female sample are consistent with a cortical deficit in processing facial expression of negative emotions in psychopathic men. In addition, differences in processing seem to appear relatively early. PMID:23896396

Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Angrilli, Alessandro; Calogero, Antonio; Harper, Jeremy; Olson, Lacy A.; Bernat, Edward

2013-01-01

11

Prediction of Negative Attitude from Congruity, Summation, and Logarithm Formulae for the Evaluation of Complex Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to Compare the efficacy of an averaging (congruity) formula vs. an additive formula for the evaluation of complex stimuli when negative adjectives were used to describe the attitude topic. A logarithm formula proposed by Mannis, Gleason, and Dawes was also used. (DB)

Anderson, Lynn R.

1970-01-01

12

HPV vaccine information in the blogosphere: how positive and negative blogs influence vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions.  

PubMed

This research examines the impact of exposure to online blogs about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. In a controlled experiment (N = 341), college students were exposed to either a negative blog post about the HPV vaccine or a positive one. Compared to the control group, participants who had viewed the negative blog perceived the vaccine as less safe, held more negative attitudes toward the vaccine, and had reduced intentions to receive the vaccine. In contrast, exposure to the positive blog did not alter any vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, or intentions. Implications of the findings for online vaccine risk communication are discussed. PMID:22452582

Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly

2012-01-01

13

Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

2012-01-01

14

The Continuation of Prejudice: Addressing Negative Attitudes in Nurse Training and Continuing Professional Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of attitudes to ageing typically examine only explicit attitudes, treating attitude holders as a homogeneous group with regards to education levels. Implicit attitudes (i.e., the immediate attitudinal response before conscious processes amend that attitude to an explicit attitude) have been less commonly examined. The current study…

Nash, Paul; Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mayer, Peter

2014-01-01

15

A comparison of HIV/AIDS-related stigma in four countries: Negative attitudes and perceived acts of discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS?  

PubMed Central

HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination have a substantial impact on people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the associations of two constructs of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (negative attitudes towards PLHA and perceived acts of discrimination towards PLHA) with previous history of HIV testing, knowledge of antiretroviral therapies (ARVs) and communication regarding HIV/AIDS and (2) to compare these two constructs across the five research sites with respect to differing levels of HIV prevalence and ARV coverage, using data presented from the baseline survey of U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Project Accept, a four-country HIV prevention trial in Sub-Saharan Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa) and northern Thailand. A household probability sample of 14,203 participants completed a survey including a scale measuring HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Logistic regression models determined the associations between negative attitudes and perceived discrimination with individual history of HIV testing, knowledge of ARVs and communication regarding HIV/AIDS. Spearman's correlation coefficients determined the relationships between negative attitudes and perceived discrimination and HIV prevalence and ARV coverage at the site-level. Negative attitudes were related to never having tested for HIV, lacking knowledge of ARVs, and never having discussed HIV/AIDS. More negative attitudes were found in sites with the lowest HIV prevalence (i.e., Tanzania and Thailand) and more perceived discrimination against PLHA was found in sites with the lowest ARV coverage (i.e., Tanzania and Zimbabwe). Programs that promote widespread HIV testing and discussion of HIV/AIDS, as well as education regarding and universal access to ARVs, may reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. PMID:19427086

Genberg, Becky L.; Hlavka, Zdenek; Konda, Kelika A.; Maman, Suzanne; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Mbwambo, Jessie; Modiba, Precious; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Celentano, David D.

2010-01-01

16

Relationship Between Attitudes and Evaluative Space: A Critical Review, With Emphasis on the Separability of Positive and Negative Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluative processes refer to the operations by which organisms discriminate threatening from nurturant environments. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects neutrality, whereas high activation of such processes reflects maximal conflict. Attitudes, an important class of manifestations of evaluative processes, have traditionally been conceptualized as falling along a bipolar dimension, and the positive and negative

John T. Cacioppo; Gary G. Berntson

1994-01-01

17

The Peer Attitudes toward Children Who Stutter (PATCS) Scale: An Evaluation of Validity, Reliability and the Negativity of Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Persistent calls for school-based education about stuttering necessitate a better understanding of peer attitudes toward children who stutter and a means to measure outcomes of such educational interventions. Langevin and Hagler in 2004 developed the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter scale (PATCS) to address these needs and…

Langevin, Marilyn; Kleitman, Sabina; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

2009-01-01

18

Imagining intergroup contact can combat mental health stigma by reducing anxiety, avoidance and negative stereotyping.  

PubMed

Research has demonstrated widespread negative attitudes held toward people with mental health problems. Our study investigated whether a new prejudice reduction technique, imagined intergroup contact (Crisp & Turner, 2009), could combat stigma against people with mental illness, and the mediating processes through which it may exert this beneficial effect. We found that compared to a control condition, participants who imagined a positive encounter with a schizophrenic person reported weakened stereotypes and formed stronger intentions to engage in future social interactions with schizophrenic people in general. Importantly, these intentions were formed due to reduced feelings of anxiety about future interactions. We discuss the implications of these findings for improving the social inclusion of people with mental health problems. PMID:23057193

Stathi, Sofia; Tsantila, Katerina; Crisp, Richard J

2012-01-01

19

Contact Reduces Transprejudice: A Study on Attitudes towards Transgenderism and Transgender Civil Rights in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between Hong Kong Chinese people's contact with transgender\\/transsexual (TG\\/TS) people and attitudes toward transgenderism and transgender civil rights, based on Allport's Contact Hypothesis. The term transprejudice is introduced to refer to the negative valuing, stereotyping and discriminatory treatment of TG\\/TS people. Data are presented from a population-based survey with a random sample of 856 Hong

Mark E. King; Sam Winter; Beverley Webster

2009-01-01

20

The Role of Shame as a Mediator between Anti-Black Racial Identity Attitudes and Negative Affect in a Sample of African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 168 African American undergraduates was surveyed to clarify past findings demonstrating a consistent relationship between endorsing negative attitudes about being African American and experiencing negative affect. Specifically, shame was tested as a mediator between participants' endorsement of preencounter attitudes (i.e., anti-Black…

Jefferson, Stephen

2011-01-01

21

Human attitudes towards herpetofauna: The influence of folklore and negative values on the conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background Human values and folklore of wildlife strongly influence the effectiveness of conservation efforts. These values and folklore may also vary with certain demographic characteristics such as gender, age, or education. Reptiles and amphibians are among the least appreciated of vertebrates and are victims of many negative values and wrong ideas resulting from the direct interpretation of folklore. We try to demonstrate how these values and folklore can affect the way people relate to them and also the possible conservation impacts on these animals. Methods A questionnaire survey distributed to 514 people in the district of Évora, Portugal, was used to obtain data regarding the hypothesis that the existence of wrong ideas and negative values contributes to the phenomenon of human-associated persecution of these animals. A structural equation model was specified in order to confirm the hypothesis about the possible relationships between the presence of perceptions and negative values about amphibians and reptiles and persecution and anti-conservation attitudes. Sociodemographic variables were also added. Results The results of the model suggest that the presence of folklore and negative values clearly predicts persecution and anti-conservation attitudes towards amphibians and reptiles. Also, the existence of folklore varies sociodemographically, but negative values concerning these animals are widespread in the population. Conclusions With the use of structural equation models, this work is a contribution to the study of how certain ideas and values can directly influence human attitudes towards herpetofauna and how they can be a serious conservation issue. PMID:22316318

2012-01-01

22

Attitudes toward Homosexuals among Students at a Canadian University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined attitudes toward homosexuals among 199 male and female students at a Canadian university. Attitudes toward gay men were more negative than attitudes toward lesbians. For male students, attitudes toward gay men improved with time spent at college, suggesting the influence of college in reducing antihomosexual prejudice. (SLD)

Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Hirt, Jessie; Sears, Alan

1999-01-01

23

Developmental challenges of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the role of eating attitudes, family support and fear of negative evaluation.  

PubMed

Young people with chronic illnesses including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are at increased risk of developing psychological problems during adolescence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether a relationship exists between developmental challenges of adolescence (eating attitudes, family support and fear of negative evaluation) and psychopathology in adolescents with T1DM, and the nature of such a relationship. Sixty-one adolescents with T1DM completed a series of questionnaires assessing illness beliefs, eating attitudes, family support, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and psychopathology. The study was of a correlational design, and also included a seven-day diabetes management diary in order to collect blood glucose levels over this time. Results demonstrated the relevance of all three developmental challenges. In multiple regression analyses, FNE and eating attitudes independently predicted current levels of depressive symptomatology. Current levels of anxiety were predicted by FNE and family support, but not eating attitudes. The results support the relevance of all three developmental challenges of adolescence to psychopathology in young people with diabetes. These results suggest that in working with adolescents who are having difficulty coping with diabetes; it may be beneficial to focus on the developmental issues that commonly face adolescents. PMID:23786542

Williams, Catherine; Sharpe, Louise; Mullan, Barbara

2014-01-01

24

Reducing STD/HIV stigmatizing attitudes through community popular opinion leaders in Chinese markets  

PubMed Central

Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes and practices of risky sexual behavior and its consequences. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus one campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community popular opinion leaders to discuss these issues in everyday social venues. This study tested the effectiveness of such an approach on reducing HIV/AIDS stigma, across two years, from a sample of over 4500 market vendors, in three conditions. Results showed an increasing growth in market communication about intervention messages, and concomitant declines in stigmatizing attitudes, across time, with the greatest changes in community popular opinion leaders, significant changes in intervention non-opinion leaders, and little change in the control markets. PMID:24944433

Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2013-01-01

25

Differences in negativity bias probably underlie variation in attitudes toward change generally, not political ideology specifically.  

PubMed

Many of the characteristics cited in Hibbing et al.'s account are ineffective predictors of economic conservatism. However, these same characteristics are often associated with differences not only in social conservatism but also in religiousness and authoritarianism. Hibbing et al. may have offered a useful explanation of traditionalism and attitudes toward change across domains rather than of general political attitudes. PMID:24970442

Ludeke, Steven G; DeYoung, Colin G

2014-06-01

26

Sustainable ecological development reducing negative effects of road maintenance salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure traffic safety in winter, large amounts of technical salts (chlorides) are applied on roads. De?icing salts directly or indirectly contaminate the road environment and have a negative effect on the components of road environment. The analysis of the situation raises a question: how to ensure traffic safety in wintertime applying salts and achieve sustainable development. The article presents

Pranas Baltrenas; Agne Kazlauskiene

2009-01-01

27

Options for reducing the negative effects of nitrogen in agriculture.  

PubMed

After addition to farms by fertilizer, crop residues, biological fixation and animal excreta, nitrogen can be lost through gaseous emission, runoff and leaching to contaminate the atmosphere and water bodies, and cause adverse health effects. The efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen can be increased and losses reduced, by matching supply with crop demand, optimizing split application schemes, changing the form to suit the conditions, and use of slow-release fertilizers and inhibitors. In addition, agronomic practices such as higher plant densities, weed and pest control and balanced fertilization with other nutrients can also increase efficiency of nitrogen use. Efficiency of use by animals can be increased by diet manipulation. Feeding dairy cattle low degradable protein and high starch diets, and grazing sheep and cattle on grasses high in water soluble carbohydrate result in less nitrogen excretion in urine and reduced ammonia volatilization. PMID:20549441

Freney, J R

2005-09-01

28

Options for reducing the negative effects of nitrogen in agriculture.  

PubMed

After addition to farms by fertilizer, crop residues, biological fixation and animal excreta, nitrogen can be lost through gaseous emission, runoff and leaching to contaminate the atmosphere and water bodies, and cause adverse health effects. The efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen can be increased and losses reduced, by matching supply with crop demand, optimizing split application schemes, changing the form to suit the conditions, and use of slow-release fertilizers and inhibitors. In addition, agronomic practices such as higher plant densities, weed and pest control and balanced fertilization with other nutrients can also increase efficiency of nitrogen use. Efficiency of use by animals can be increased by diet manipulation. Feeding dairy cattle low degradable protein and high starch diets, and grazing sheep and cattle on grasses high in water soluble carbohydrate result in less nitrogen excretion in urine and reduced ammonia volatiliztion. PMID:16512208

Freney, J R

2005-12-01

29

Thermostats with attitudes: A sociological analysis of assumptions underlying common approaches to reducing residential energy consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contributes to the emerging literature in the sociology of energy consumption by answering three important questions about the assumptions underlying popular approaches to reducing energy consumption behavior. The answers are gleaned from data on Wisconsin households gathered in 1998 and 1999. The first question has to do with the efficacy of a "cognitive fix" approach of attempting to change attitudes in hopes of changing behavior, and asks whether energy-related attitudes can predict actual energy savings. The results of a regression analysis of heating energy intensity revealed that a variable measuring respondents' attitudes toward energy conservation predict heating energy intensity, but the effect was overwhelmed by control variables for insulation and draftiness. These and other results offer some support for the cognitive fix approach of attitudinal change as a means of reducing energy consumption. The second question concerns a popular "technological fix" of subsidizing the replacement of manual thermostats with programmable ones, and asks whether programmable thermostats actually save significant home heating energy. The data show that households with programmable thermostats appear to use no less energy than do households with manual thermostats, and that it is behavioral norms, not the type of thermostat, that determine thermostat setting behavior. The results suggest strongly that in aggregate, the installation of programmable thermostats in residential households cannot be expected to deliver promised energy savings. The third question addressed is whether popular knowledge about global warming or the connection between energy use and global environmental change is growing, and if so, what is the likelihood that these prospective socio-cultural shifts might result in increased residential energy conservation. The analysis suggests that, compared to the findings of earlier studies, awareness of the environmental consequences of energy use is on the increase, but the likelihood that this growing awareness will lead to increased conservation appears to be minimal. In addition to answering the questions above, this work provides an example of how a comprehensive sociological approach to studying energy consumption can help inform our understanding of energy use in ways that earlier approaches could not.

Nevius, Monica Josefina

2001-12-01

30

USE OF NEGATIVE ARI IONIZATION FOR REDUCING BACTERIAL PATHOGENS AND SPORES ON STAINLESS STEEL SURFACES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of chemicals in food plant sanitation for removing and killing microorganisms could be reduced by the use of alternative non-chemical interventions. Negative air ionization is a new technology that has shown potential to effectively reduce airborne and surface microorganisms. Current studies...

31

The Peer Attitudes toward Children Who Stutter Scale: Reliability, Known Groups Validity, and Negativity of Elementary School-Age Children's Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychometric properties of the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter (PATCS) scale (Langevin, M., & Hagler, P. (2004). Development of a scale to measure peer attitudes toward children who stutter. In A.K. Bothe (Ed.), Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: empirical bases and clinical applications (pp. 139-171). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum…

Langevin, Marilyn

2009-01-01

32

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

33

Male Role Endorsement Explains Negative Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Among Students in Mexico More Than in Germany.  

PubMed

Anti-gay attitudes vary across cultures because the larger social context plays a role in attitude formation. Psychological correlates of these attitudes have been investigated in the United States and Europe. Endorsement of traditional gender roles has emerged from that research as a central correlate, next to religiosity and personal contact with lesbians/gay men. In a cross-sectional study, we tested whether these correlates are relevant in Mexico, characterized as an androcentric culture in which both gender-role traditionalism and religiosity are high, using a college-age student sample (N = 63). Because we relied on self-reports, the motivation to appear nonprejudiced was also assessed. We found typical gender differences in attitudes toward gay men. In bivariate tests, anti-gay attitudes were related to male role endorsement, contact with lesbians/gay men, and religiosity. In a multivariate analysis, variance in attitudes was explained by male role endorsement; personal contact or religiosity did not explain additional variance. In a German comparison sample (N = 112), male role endorsement played a smaller role. Variance in anti-gay attitudes in the German sample was also related to personal contact, religiosity, and the motivation to appear nonprejudiced. We discuss the centrality of (male) gender-role endorsement in cultures with high gender-role traditionalism. PMID:25369554

Steffens, Melanie C; Jonas, Kai J; Denger, Lisa

2014-11-01

34

Everybody Belongs: Changing Negative Attitudes toward Classmates with Disabilities. Garland Reference Library of Social Science. Critical Education Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides guidance to facilitate the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms, examining the concept of disability and attitudes toward disability. The book explains that the evil prosthesis of Captain Hook, the comical speech of Porky Pig, and the bumbling antics of Mr. Magoo are all examples of images in…

Shapiro, Arthur H.

35

Negative infrared photocurrent response in layered WS2/reduced graphene oxide hybrids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report high performance IR photocurrent response of two-dimensional hybrid materials consisting of layered WS2 nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Comparative photocurrent response studies of WS2 nanosheets, RGO, and WS2/RGO hybrids were carried out by performing current-voltage (I-V) and time-dependent current measurements with a laser excitation source having a wavelength of 808 nm. The experimental investigations indicate that WS2/RGO hybrids show negative photocurrent response, whereas WS2 and RGO show positive photocurrent response. The negative photocurrent response of the WS2/RGO hybrids is explained using a band alignment diagram and attributed to a charge transfer mechanism between WS2 and RGO. This analysis is further corroborated by first-principles density functional calculations. The fabricated device based on WS2/RGO hybrids shows a photosensitivity R? of about 6 AW-1 and a quantum efficiency ? of ˜924%, which demonstrates high sensitivity of the hybrid material towards IR detection. WS2/RGO hybrids are therefore promising candidates for potential applications in optoelectronic circuits and low cost, high performance, and reliable photodetectors.

Ratha, Satyajit; Simbeck, Adam J.; Late, Dattatray J.; Nayak, Saroj K.; Rout, Chandra Sekhar

2014-12-01

36

Assessing workplace bullying: Spanish validation of a reduced version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to validate a reduced Spanish version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ; Einarsen & Raknes, 1997). This instrument, which has been widely used in various studies, was developed to measure workplace bullying. Two samples, the first comprising 352 employees from 11 organizations, and the second comprising victims of bullying who were recruited from 15 Spanish associations against bullying, participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis conducted with the data from the first sample revealed a two-factor solution that accounted for 63.3% of the total variance. The data from the second sample were used for confirmatory factor analyses to compare three structure models of the NAQ (one factor, two independent factors, and two correlated factors). The results indicate that the correlated two-factor model provided the best fit to the data (chi2/df = 2.1, CFI = .93, GFI = .95, RMR = .04, RMSEA = .06, AIC = 215.4). Reliability analysis showed that this 14-item Spanish version had high internal consistency. Significant correlations between the NAQ and its dimensions and diverse health and perceived stress scales were found, which provided evidence of construct validity. Taken conjointly, the results of this study support the use of the Spanish version of the reduced NAQ in future research. PMID:17992971

Moreno Jiménez, Bernardo; Rodríguez Muñioz, Alfredo; Martínez Gamarra, Marino; Gálvez Herrer, Macarena

2007-11-01

37

Measuring Negative Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity in the German Population – Psychometric Properties and Reference Values for the German Short Version of the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS)  

PubMed Central

Objective Obesity is one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Obese individuals are often stigmatized and the psychosocial consequences of overweight and obesity are the subject of current research. To detect stigmatizing attitudes towards obese people, the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS) was developed in the USA in the early nineties. In addition, the 14-item short form of the FPS was constructed. The FPS belongs to the most commonly used instruments for measuring negative attitudes towards obese people because of its good psychometric properties. For the recently developed German short form of the FPS, however, the comprehensive investigation of the psychometric properties and the determination of reference values are still pending. Thus, the main objectives of this study were the evaluation of the psychometric quality of the scale as well as the calculation of reference values. Methods The study was based on a representative survey in the German general population. A sample of 1,657 subjects (18–94 years) was assessed via structured telephone interviews including the 14-item German version of the FPS. Descriptive statistics and inference-statistical analyses were conducted. Reference values in terms of percentage ranks were calculated. Results Substantial evidence for the reliability and validity of the German short version of the FPS was found. This study, for the first time in Germany, provides age-specific reference values for the German short form of the FPS allowing the interpretation of individual test scores. Conclusion Facing the far-reaching consequences of experienced stigmatization of obese individuals, these study results provide an important basis for further studies aiming at the investigation of negative attitudes towards overweight and obesity. PMID:25474195

Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Ruzanska, Ulrike; Sikorski, Claudia; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

2014-01-01

38

The film festival "AUSNAHME|ZUSTAND" (State of Emergency)-Do feature films and documentaries on mental health reduce stigma and influence help-seeking attitudes?  

PubMed

The study aims at evaluating the impact of the Germany-wide film festival "AUSNAHME|ZUSTAND" on social distance and help-seeking attitudes of the adolescent audience. The festival, on the subject of mental health, was staged for the second time, aiming to give a podium to the topic mental health and to inform and entertain an adolescent audience that has not been in close contact with the subject before. A pre-post test was carried out to look for the effect of feature films and documentaries on social distance of the audience towards people with mental illness and on the change in help-seeking attitudes. A total of 532 young people with a mean age of 15.6 were questioned during the film festival in Leipzig. As the results show, the effect on the viewers? social distance and their help-seeking attitudes strongly depend on the content of the feature films and documentaries. Two films improved attitudes - one both social distance and help-seeking, one only help-seeking. One film increased social distance, and two films did not affect either outcome. Age, gender, and knowing someone with mental health problems also turned out to be decisive factors influencing the development of social distance and help-seeking attitudes. Feature films or documentaries about mental illness can reduce social distance or influence help-seeking attitudes, but effects strongly depend on the particular film. PMID:25441016

Conrad, Ines; Schulze, Beate; Corrieri, Sandro; Heider, Dirk; Schomerus, Georg; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

2014-09-19

39

Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.  

PubMed

Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation. PMID:22148989

Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul

2012-04-01

40

A resprouter herb reduces negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeders after fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant communities are often composed of species belonging to different functional groups, but relatively few studies to date have explicitly linked their spatial structure to the outcome of the interaction among them. We investigated if mortality of seeder species during their establishment after fire is influenced by the proximity of the resprouter herb Brachypodium retusum. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean shrubland (00°39' W; 38°43' N), 40 km northwest of Alicante (Spain) with Ulex parviflorus, Cistus albidus, Helianthemum marifolium, and Ononis fruticosa as dominant obligate seeder species and a herbaceous layer is dominated by the resprouter B. retusum. We followed the fate of mapped seedlings and the biomass of B. retusum one, two, three and nine years after an experimental fire. We used point pattern analyses to evaluate the spatial pattern of mortality of seeder species at these years in relation to the biomass of B. retusum. We hypothesize that B. retusum may initially have a positive impact on seeder survival. We implemented this hypothesis as a point process model that maintains the overall number of dead seeder plants, but seeder survival varied proportionally to the biomass of B. retusum in its neighborhood. We then contrasted this hypothesis with a previous analysis based on a random mortality hypothesis. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that proximity of B. retusum reduced the mortality of seeder plants at their establishment phase (i.e., 2 yrs after fire). However, we found no evidence that B. retusum influenced seeder mortality when plants grow to maturity. We also found that, under the more stressful conditions (fire + erosion scenario), B. retusum had a lower impact on the performance of seeder species. Our results suggest that B. retusum may reduce negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeder plants during the first years after fire.

Raventós, José; Wiegand, Thorsten; Maestre, Fernando T.; de Luis, Martín

2012-01-01

41

Developmental Exposure to TCDD Reduces Fertility and Negatively Affects Pregnancy Outcomes across Multiple Generations  

PubMed Central

TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known endocrine disruptor. Since humans and animals are most sensitive to toxicant exposure during development, we previously developed a mouse model of in utero TCDD exposure in order to examine the impact of this toxicant on adult reproductive function. Our initial in utero toxicant-exposure study revealed a dose-dependent reduction in uterine sensitivity to progesterone; however, we did not previously explore establishment or maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, in the current study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in adult C57BL/6 mice with a history of developmental TCDD exposure. Herein we demonstrate reduced fertility and an increased incidence of premature birth (PTB) in F1 mice exposed in utero to TCDD as well as in three subsequent generations. Finally, our studies revealed that mice with a history of developmental TCDD exposure exhibit an increased sensitivity to inflammation which further negatively impacted gestation length in all generations examined. PMID:20955784

Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Osteen, Kevin G.

2010-01-01

42

Estrogen receptor ? selective agonists reduce invasiveness of triple?negative breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Metastasis to bone is a frequent problem of advanced breast cancer. Particularly breast cancers, which do not express estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and progesterone receptor (PR) and which have no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), so?called triple?negative breast cancers (TNBCs), are considered as very aggressive and have a poor prognosis. Recently we have shown that breast cancer cell invasion was dramatically increased when co?cultured with MG63 osteoblast?like cells. Using this model we have now analyzed whether estrogen receptor ? (ER?) plays a role in TNBC cell invasion in vitro. ER? and ER? protein expression was analyzed using western blot analysis. Invasion was quantified by assessment of TNBC cell migration rate through an artificial basement membrane in a modified Boyden chamber during co?culture with MG63 osteoblast?like cells. The effects of ER? agonist treatment on CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) protein expression during co?culture with MG64 cells was quantified using western blot analysis. Proliferation was measured using alamarBlue assay. TNBC cell lines HCC1806 and HCC1937 showed no ER? but high ER? protein expression. Cell invasion of HCC1806 and HCC1937 TNBC cells was significantly increased when co?cultured with MG63 osteoblast?like cells. Treatment with ER? selective estrogen agonists liquiritigenin and ERB?041 reduced the ability to invade a reconstituted basement membrane and to migrate in response to the cellular stimulus. During co?culture CXCR4 protein expression of TNBC cell lines HCC1806 and HCC1937 was significantly increased. Treatment with liquiritigenin resulted in a significant decrease of CXCR4 protein expression. Both ER? agonists showed no effect on TNBC cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that ER? plays a major role in TNBC invasion. Bone?directed invasion can be inhibited by ER? agonists. PMID:25420519

Hinsche, Oliver; Girgert, Rainer; Emons, Günter; Gründker, Carsten

2015-02-01

43

Atnoa1 mutant Arabidopsis plants induce compensation mechanisms to reduce the negative effects of the mutation.  

PubMed

Alterations in temperature adaptation processes and changes in the content of stress-related compounds, polyamines and salicylic acid were evaluated in Atnoa1 (NO-associated 1) Arabidopsis mutant. The F(v)/F(m) chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction parameter and the actual quantum yield were significantly lower in the Atnoa1 mutant than in the wild-type. In the wild-type Col-0, the fastest increase in the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) occurred in plants pre-treated at low temperature (4 °C), while the slowest was in those adapted to 30 °C. The NPQ showed not only a substantially increased level in the light-adapted state, but also more rapid light induction after the dark-adapted state in the Atnoa1 mutant than in the wild-type. The results of freezing tests indicated that both the wild-type and the mutant had better freezing tolerance after cold hardening, since no significant differences were found between the genotypes. The level of putrescine increased substantially, while that of spermine decreased by the end of the cold-hardening (4°C, 4d) period. The quantity of spermidine in Atnoa1 was significantly higher than in Col-0, at both control and cold-hardening temperatures. A similar trend was observed for spermine, but only under control conditions. The mutant plants showed substantially higher salicylic acid (SA) contents for both the free and bound forms. This difference was significant not only in the control, but also in the cold-hardened plants. These results suggest that there is a compensation mechanism in Atnoa1 mutant Arabidopsis plants to reduce the negative effects of the mutation. These adaptation processes include the stimulation of photoprotection and alterations in the SA and polyamine compositions. PMID:21392840

Majláth, Imre; Szalai, Gabriella; Papp, István; Vanková, Radomíra; Janda, Tibor

2011-07-15

44

The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

2011-01-01

45

Understanding the Dynamics Behind the Relationship Between Exposure to Negative Consequences of Risky Sex on Entertainment Television and Emerging Adults' Safe-Sex Attitudes and Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social cognitive theory (SCT; Bandura, 1986) has established that people often are inhibited from engaging in a behavior when they observe models experience negative consequences for their actions. Thus, in the realm of sexual portrayals on television, a program that depicts consequences of risky intercourse should reduce the likelihood that a viewer would respond positively. In addition, SCT suggests that

Keli Finnerty-Myers

2011-01-01

46

Efficacy of Creative Clay Work for Reducing Negative Mood: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clay work has long been used in art therapy to achieve therapeutic goals. However, little empirical evidence exists to document the efficacy of such work. The present study randomly assigned 102 adult participants to one of four conditions following induction of a negative mood: (a) handling clay with instructions to create a pinch pot, (b) handling clay with instructions to

Elizabeth R. Kimport; Steven J. Robbins

2012-01-01

47

Efficacy of Creative Clay Work for Reducing Negative Mood: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clay work has long been used in art therapy to achieve therapeutic goals. However, little empirical evidence exists to document the efficacy of such work. The present study randomly assigned 102 adult participants to one of four conditions following induction of a negative mood: (a) handling clay with instructions to create a pinch pot, (b)…

Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Robbins, Steven J.

2012-01-01

48

Distinct neural systems underlying reduced emotional enhancement for positive and negative stimuli in early Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Emotional information is typically better remembered than neutral content, and previous studies suggest that this effect is subserved particularly by the amygdala together with its interactions with the hippocampus. However, it is not known whether amygdala damage affects emotional memory performance at immediate and delayed recall, and whether its involvement is modulated by stimulus valence. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent more distributed neocortical regions involved in e.g., autobiographical memory, also contribute to emotional processing. We investigated these questions in a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects the amygdala, hippocampus and neocortical regions. Healthy controls (n = 14), patients with AD (n = 15) and its putative prodrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 11) completed a memory task consisting of immediate and delayed free recall of a list of positive, negative and neutral words. Memory performance was related to brain integrity in region of interest and whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses. In the brain-behavioral analyses, the left amygdala volume predicted the immediate recall of both positive and negative material, whereas at delay, left and right amygdala volumes were associated with performance with positive and negative words, respectively. Whole-brain analyses revealed additional associations between left angular gyrus integrity and the immediate recall of positive words as well as between the orbitofrontal cortex and the delayed recall of negative words. These results indicate that emotional memory impairments in AD may be underpinned by damage to regions implicated in emotional processing as well as frontoparietal regions, which may exert their influence via autobiographical memories and organizational strategies. PMID:24478669

Mistridis, Panagiota; Taylor, Kirsten I.; Kissler, Johanna M.; Monsch, Andreas U.; Kressig, Reto W.; Kivisaari, Sasa L.

2014-01-01

49

Feeling Bad and Looking Worse: Negative Affect Is Associated with Reduced Perceptions of Face-Healthiness  

PubMed Central

Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N?=?20) or negative affectivity (N?=?20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger’s faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger’s face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

2014-01-01

50

The Effects of a Distracting N-Back Task on Recognition Memory Are Reduced by Negative Emotional Intensity  

PubMed Central

Memory performance is usually impaired when participants have to encode information while performing a concurrent task. Recent studies using recall tasks have found that emotional items are more resistant to such cognitive depletion effects than non-emotional items. However, when recognition tasks are used, the same effect is more elusive as recent recognition studies have obtained contradictory results. In two experiments, we provide evidence that negative emotional content can reliably reduce the effects of cognitive depletion on recognition memory only if stimuli with high levels of emotional intensity are used. In particular, we found that recognition performance for realistic pictures was impaired by a secondary 3-back working memory task during encoding if stimuli were emotionally neutral or had moderate levels of negative emotionality. In contrast, when negative pictures with high levels of emotional intensity were used, the detrimental effects of the secondary task were significantly attenuated. PMID:25330251

Buratto, Luciano G.; Pottage, Claire L.; Brown, Charity; Morrison, Catriona M.; Schaefer, Alexandre

2014-01-01

51

Implantation reduces the negative effects of bio-logging devices on birds.  

PubMed

Animal-borne logging or telemetry devices are widely used for measurements of physiological and movement data from free-living animals. For such measurements to be relevant, however, it is essential that the devices themselves do not affect the data of interest. A recent meta-analysis reported an overall negative effect of these devices on the birds that bear them, i.e. on nesting productivity, clutch size, nest initiation date, offspring quality, body condition, flying ability, foraging behaviours, energy expenditure and survival rate. Method of attachment (harness, collar, glue, anchor, implant, breast-mounted or tailmount) had no influence on the strength of these effects but anchored and implanted transmitters had the highest reported rates of device-induced mortality. Furthermore, external devices, but not internal devices, caused an increase in 'device-induced behaviour' (comfort behaviours such as preening, fluffing and stretching, and unrest activities including unquantifiable 'active' behaviours). These findings suggest that, with the exception of device-induced behaviour, external attachment is preferable to implantation. In the present study we undertake a meta-analysis of 183 estimates of device impact from 39 studies of 36 species of bird designed to explicitly compare the effects of externally attached and surgically implanted devices on a range of traits, including condition, energy expenditure and reproduction. In contrast to a previous study, we demonstrate that externally attached devices have a consistent detrimental effect (i.e. negative influences on body condition, reproduction, metabolism and survival), whereas implanted devices have no consistent effect. We also show that the magnitude of the negative effect of externally attached devices decreases with time. We therefore conclude that device implantation is preferable to external attachment, providing that the risk of mortality associated with the anaesthesia and surgery required for implantation can be mitigated. We recommend that studies employing external devices use devices that can be borne for long periods, and, wherever possible, deploy devices in advance of the time period of interest. PMID:23125345

White, Craig R; Cassey, Phillip; Schimpf, Natalie G; Halsey, Lewis G; Green, Jonathan A; Portugal, Steven J

2013-02-15

52

Increasing water stress negatively affects pear fruit growth by reducing first its xylem and then its phloem inflow.  

PubMed

Drought stress negatively affects many physiological parameters and determines lower yields and fruit size. This paper investigates on the effects of prolonged water restriction on leaf gas exchanges, water relations and fruit growth on a 24-h time-scale in order to understand how different physiological processes interact to each other to face increasing drought stress and affect pear productive performances during the season. The diurnal patterns of tree water relations, leaf gas exchanges, fruit growth, fruit vascular and transpiration flows were monitored at about 50, 95 and 145 days after full bloom (DAFB) on pear trees of the cv. Abbé Fétel, subjected to two irrigation regimes, corresponding to a water restitution of 100% and 25% of the estimated Etc, respectively. Drought stress progressively increased during the season due to lower soil tensions and higher daily vapour pressure deficits (VPDs). Stem water potential was the first parameter to be negatively affected by stress and determined the simultaneous reduction of fruit xylem flow, which at 95 DAFB was reflected by a decrease in fruit daily growth. Leaf photosynthesis was reduced only from 95 DAFB on, but was not immediately reflected by a decrease in fruit phloem flow, which instead was reduced only at 145 DAFB. This work shows how water stress negatively affects pear fruit growth by reducing first its xylem and then its phloem inflow. This determines a progressive increase in the phloem relative contribution to growth, which lead to the typical higher dry matter percentages of stressed fruit. PMID:25105235

Morandi, Brunella; Losciale, Pasquale; Manfrini, Luigi; Zibordi, Marco; Anconelli, Stefano; Galli, Fabio; Pierpaoli, Emanuele; Corelli Grappadelli, Luca

2014-10-15

53

Glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy reduces negative effects of diarrhea on calf gut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Damage to the intestinal epithelium caused by diarrhea reduces nutrient absorption and growth rate, and may have long-term effects on the young animal. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an intestinotropic hormone that improves gut integrity and nutrient absorption, and has antioxidant effects in th...

54

Comprehensive Self-Management Reduces the Negative Impact of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms on Sexual Functioning  

PubMed Central

Background Women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) report sexual dysfunction. A comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention has been shown to reduce gastrointestinal, psychological, and somatic symptoms in IBS women. Whether this intervention also reduces sexual dysfunction is not known. Aims We sought to compare demographic and clinical factors in IBS women with and without sexual dysfunction as defined by the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and to test the effects of CSM treatment on sexual dysfunction scores and on the sexual relations subscale of an IBS Quality of Life (IBSQOL) scale which measures the impact of IBS on sexual QOL. Methods IBS (Rome II) women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of CSM treatment were characterized as having sexual dysfunction (N=89) or not (N=86) at baseline based on ASEX criteria. Baseline characteristics and symptoms were compared between the two groups. Post-intervention changes were compared between the CSM and the usual care arms of the randomized trial. Results Women meeting ASEX criteria for sexual dysfunction were older, had higher lifetime depression and antidepressant use, more primary care/MD visits, fewer mental healthcare visits, and greater sleep disturbances compared to those without sexual dysfunction. No significant group differences in gastrointestinal or somatic symptoms were observed. Compared to usual care treatment, CSM reduced sexual QOL scores and had a weaker effect on ASEX scores. Conclusions Severity of IBS symptoms at baseline did not differ between IBS women with or without sexual dysfunction. The CSM intervention can reduce the impact of IBS on sexual QOL. PMID:22290342

Eugenio, Margaret D.; Jun, Sang-Eun; Cain, Kevin C.; Jarrett, Monica E.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

2013-01-01

55

Reducing False Negative Reads in RFID Data Streams Using an Adaptive Sliding-Window Approach  

PubMed Central

Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D. M.; Vermaak, Herman

2012-01-01

56

Reducing false negative reads in RFID data streams using an adaptive sliding-window approach.  

PubMed

Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D M; Vermaak, Herman

2012-01-01

57

DEPRESSION STIGMA, RACE, AND TREATMENT SEEKING BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related attitudes and behaviors. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma mediated the relationship between public stigma and attitudes toward mental health treatment. Within group analyses indicated that the mediating effect of internalized stigma was significant for whites only. Among African Americans, internalized stigma did not mediate public stigma; it was directly related to attitudes toward mental health treatment. The internalization of stigma is key in the development of negative attitudes toward mental health treatment, and future research should focus on this aspect of stigma in both individual and community-based efforts to reduce stigma. PMID:21274407

Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F.

2011-01-01

58

Posttraumatic stress symptoms and smoking to reduce negative affect: an investigation of trauma-exposed daily smokers.  

PubMed

The present investigation examined the relations among posttraumatic stress symptoms and smoking motives. Participants included 100 daily smokers recruited from the community and university settings who reported exposure to at least one traumatic event that met criterion A for posttraumatic stress disorder. Consistent with prediction, higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms were associated with smoking to reduce negative affect; this relation was observed after controlling for variance accounted for by number of cigarettes smoked per day and gender. Results are discussed in terms of the implications of smoking to regulate affect among daily smokers who have been exposed to traumatic events. PMID:16644135

Feldner, Matthew T; Babson, Kimberly A; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Lewis, Sarah F; Gibson, Laura E; Monson, Candice M; Bernstein, Amit

2007-02-01

59

Reductive dechlorination reduces negative impact of PCBs on in vitro fertilization  

SciTech Connect

The variety of toxic effects ascribed to commercial PCB mixtures is likely because the individual congeners differ in their modes of toxicity and potencies. Similarly, a change in the congener composition of a PCB mixture due to reductive dechlorination by anaerobic microorganisms might be expected to alter the toxicological properties of that PCB mixture. In this study, Aroclors 1,242 and 1,254 were reductively dechlorinated using cultures of microorganisms from two different sites. The resulting dechlorination products and Aroclors were then tested for their effects on in vitro fertilization using mouse gametes. In general, percent fertilization increased with the extent of dechlorination. For example, fertilization in treatments with 10 {micro}g/ml of either Aroclor was only 40% of that in controls without Aroclor, but equal total molar concentrations of the dechlorination products produced by River Raisin microorganisms had no significant effect on fertilization. By this measure, therefore, the microbial dechlorination of PCBs appears to have a beneficial effect in reducing reproductive toxicity.

Chou, K.; Mousa, M.; Quensen, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

60

Gender, Internet and computer attitudes and experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely assumed that participation by females on the Internet is hampered by their attitudes towards computers, which in turn is reflective of their attitudes towards new technology. Research generally supports that females have less overall experience with computers and are more likely than males to have negative attitudes towards computers. Although limited, research on Internet experiences and attitudes

P. Schumacher; J. Morahan-Martin

2001-01-01

61

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

62

Understanding Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Food: The Role of Values and Attitude Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at gaining a better understanding of the nature of negative attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A sample of 250 students at the University of Tromsø responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes towards GM food, attitude strength, intention to buy such food, and their personal values. Values and attitude strength proved to be important constructs when

Pirjo Honkanen; Bas Verplanken

2004-01-01

63

Speech-Associated Attitudes of Stuttering and Nonstuttering Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-associated attitudes of 70 stuttering and 271 nonstuttering Belgian elementary and middle school children were assessed. Stuttering students evidenced significantly more negative attitudes toward speech than did their nonstuttering peers. These attitudes became more negative with age among stuttering children, whereas attitudes of…

De Nil, Luc F.; Brutten, Gene J.

1991-01-01

64

?-Synuclein Negatively Regulates PKC? Expression to Suppress Apoptosis in Dopaminergic Neurons by Reducing p300 HAT Activity  

PubMed Central

We recently demonstrated that PKC?, an important member of the novel PKC family, is a key oxidative stress-sensitive kinase that can be activated by caspase-3-dependent proteolytic cleavage to induce dopaminergic neuronal cell death. We now report a novel association between ?-synuclein (?syn), a protein associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s diseases (PD), and PKC?, in which ?syn negatively modulates the p300 and NF?B dependent transactivation to down-regulate proapoptotic kinase PKC? expression and thereby protects against apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Stable-expression human wild-type ?syn at physiological levels in dopaminergic neuronal cells resulted in an isoform-dependent transcriptional suppression of PKC? expression without changes in the stability of mRNA and protein or DNA methylation. The reduction in PKC? transcription was mediated, in part, through the suppression of constitutive NF?B activity targeted at two proximal PKC? promoter ?B sites. This occurred independently of NF?B/I?B? nuclear translocation, but was associated with decreased NF?B-p65 acetylation. Also, ?syn reduced p300 levels and its histone acetyl-transferase (HAT) activity, thereby contributing to diminished PKC? transactivation. Importantly, reduced PKC? and p300 expression also were observed within nigral dopaminergic neurons in ?syn transgenic mice. These findings expand the role of ?syn in neuroprotection by modulating the expression of the key proapoptotic kinase PKC? in dopaminergic neurons. PMID:21307242

Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Ghosh, Anamitra; Yang, Yongjie; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha

2011-01-01

65

Reduced sensitivity to both positive and negative reinforcement in mice over-expressing the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter.  

PubMed

The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) is believed to play a key role in both normal and pathological psychological states. Much previous data suggest that the s allele of the polymorphic regulatory region of the 5-HTT gene promoter is associated with reduced 5-HTT expression and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. In comparison, the l allele, which increases 5-HTT expression, is generally considered protective. However, recent data link this allele to both abnormal 5-HT signalling and psychopathic traits. Here, we studied the processing of aversive and rewarding cues in transgenic mice that over-express the 5-HTT (5-HTTOE mice). Compared with wild-type mice, 5-HTTOE mice froze less in response to both a tone that had previously been paired with footshock, and the conditioning context. In addition, on a decision-making T-maze task, 5-HTTOE mice displayed reduced preference for a larger, delayed reward and increased preference for a smaller, immediate reward, suggesting increased impulsiveness compared with wild-type mice. However, further inspection of the data revealed that 5-HTTOE mice displayed a relative insensitivity to reward magnitude, irrespective of delay. In contrast, 5-HTTOE mice appeared normal on tests of spatial working and reference memory, which required an absolute choice between options associated with either reward or no reward. Overall, the present findings suggest that 5-HTT over-expression results in a reduced sensitivity to both positive and negative reinforcers. Thus, these data show that increased 5-HTT expression has some maladaptive effects, supporting recent suggestions that l allele homozygosity may be a potential risk factor for disabling psychiatric traits. PMID:25283165

Line, Samantha J; Barkus, Chris; Rawlings, Nancy; Jennings, Katie; McHugh, Stephen; Sharp, Trevor; Bannerman, David M

2014-12-01

66

The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.  

PubMed

This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed. PMID:20587476

Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

2011-05-01

67

Simultaneous irrigation and negative pressure wound therapy enhances wound healing and reduces wound bioburden in a porcine model.  

PubMed

Infected foot wounds are one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and amputation among persons with diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate a new wound therapy system that employs negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with simultaneous irrigation therapy. For this study, we used a porcine model with full-thickness excisional wounds, inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wounds were treated for 21 days of therapy with either NPWT, NPWT with simultaneous irrigation therapy using normal saline or polyhexanide biguanide (PHMB) at low or high flow rates, or control. Data show that NPWT with either irrigation condition improved wound healing rates over control-treated wounds, yet did not differ from NPWT alone. NPWT improved bioburden over control-treated wounds. NPWT with simultaneous irrigation further reduced bioburden over control and NPWT-treated wounds; however, flow rate did not affect these outcomes. Together, these data show that NPWT with simultaneous irrigation therapy with either normal saline or PHMB has a positive effect on bioburden in a porcine model, which may translate clinically to improved wound healing outcomes. PMID:24134060

Davis, Kathryn; Bills, Jessica; Barker, Jenny; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence

2013-01-01

68

Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST: 37.8 plus or minus 1.9 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute). KES was significantly reduced by 30% in Con (PRE: 113 plus or minus 12; POST: 78 plus or minus 8 N-m), but was not different in EX (PRE: 126 plus or minus 25; POST: 115 plus or minus 25 N-m). The combination LBNPex and Rex during 60-d BR protects against cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning and may be efficacious countermeasure for prolonged space flight.

Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

2006-01-01

69

[Use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Surgical Incisions (Prevena™) after Surgery of Pectus Deformities Reduces Wound Complications.  

PubMed

Introduction: Pectus surgery can lead to postoperative wound complications in some cases. The purpose of this study is to determine whether preventive negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) could reduce wound complications after open pectus surgery. Material and Methods: 100 patients after open procedure for the treatment of pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum in the years 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively analysed. 50 patients treated with Prevena™ (KCI Medical Products GmbH, Wiesbaden, Germany) were compared with 50 patients whose wounds were covered with OPSITE® film (Smith & Nephew, Hamburg, Germany). Wound closure was performed following a standard procedure as well as the placement of subcutaneous drains. Therefore two comparable groups of patients were formed and analysed by standardised parameters. The wound dressing was placed epicutaneously immediately after wound closure in the operating room and removed after 5 days in each case. Follow-ups were performed immediately after removal of the wound dressing, at the time of discharge from hospital as well as 6 and 12 weeks after operation. The wounds were checked for tenderness, pain, secretion, redness and fistulas. Results: The Prevena group showed 10?% wound complications which needed operative treatment, whereas the OPSITE group showed complications in 24?%. Some patients who were treated with Prevena showed superficial skin lesions at the rim of the foam and the film. All of these lesions healed well. Conclusion: Treating wounds postoperatively with preventive measures (NPWT) showed a remarkable reduction of wound complications following open pectus surgery whereas statistically the difference was not significant (p?=?0.074). PMID:24647815

Simon, K; Schulz-Drost, M; Besendörfer, M; Carbon, R T; Schulz-Drost, S

2014-03-19

70

Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

71

Effects of labeling and interpersonal contact upon attitudes towards schizophrenia: implications for reducing mental illness stigma in urban China  

PubMed Central

Purpose As mental illness stigma contributes to poor outcomes for schizophrenia in China, locating strategies to reduce public stigma is imperative. It is currently unknown whether diagnostic labeling and contact with different help-seeking sources increase or decrease public stigma in China. Further, it remains unresolved whether prior personal contact acts to reduce stigma in this context. Advancing understanding of these processes may facilitate stigma-reduction strategies. Methods We administered an experimental vignette randomly assigning one of four labeling conditions to respondents to assess social distance towards a psychotic vignette individual in a sample of 160 Northern, urban Chinese community respondents. Results As expected, respondents given a “non-psychiatric, indigenous label” + “lay help-seeking” condition endorsed the least social distance. Unexpectedly, the labeling condition with a “psychiatric diagnostic label” + “lay help-seeking” condition elicited the greatest social distance. Unlike Western studies, personal contact did not independently decrease community stigma. However, prior contact reduced social distance to a greater extent in the labeling condition with a “non-psychiatric, indigenous label” + “lay help-seeking” condition when compared with all other labeling conditions. Conclusion The results indicate that cultural idioms do provide some protection from stigma, but only among respondents who are already familiar with what mental illness is. Our finding that the condition that depicted untreated psychosis elicited the greatest amount of stigma, while the “treated psychosis” condition was viewed relatively benignly in China, suggests that improved access to mental health services in urban China has the potential to decrease public stigma via labeling mechanisms. PMID:22075964

Lo, Graciete; WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J.; Singla, Daisy R.; Link, Bruce G.; Phillips, Michael R.

2013-01-01

72

Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans. PMID:23274039

Andretta, James R; Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Dixson, Dante D; Baik, Sharon H

2013-04-01

73

Reduced duration mismatch negativity in adolescents with psychotic symptoms: further evidence for mismatch negativity as a possible biomarker for vulnerability to psychosis  

PubMed Central

Background Deficits in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a components are the most reliable and robust findings in schizophrenia. These abnormalities have also been recently documented in individuals clinically at risk for psychosis, indicating that the MMN may be a potential biomarker for psychosis. However, the at risk samples included in MMN studies are characterised by pre-existing clinical symptomatology and significant functional decline which are related to MMN amplitude. These factors may be potential confounds in determining whether deficient MMN is present prior to clinical manifestation of the disorder. Therefore, investigating the MMN in the extended psychosis phenotype comprising adolescents with psychotic symptoms from the general population may provide important information on whether abnormal MMN is apparent in the earliest stages of risk. Methods Thirty six adolescents completed a duration deviant MMN task. Fourteen adolescents with psychotic symptoms comprised the at risk group and 22 with no psychotic symptoms comprised the Controls. The task consisted of 85% standard tones (25 ms) and 15% deviant tones (50 ms). The groups were compared on MMN and P3a amplitude and latency across frontocentral and temporal electrodes. Results Adolescents with psychotic symptoms were characterised by a reduction in MMN amplitude at frontal and temporal regions compared to the controls. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate impaired auditory discrimination for duration deviant tones in nonclinical adolescents with psychotic symptoms. These findings suggest that MMN amplitude may be a possible biomarker for vulnerability to psychosis. PMID:23375130

2013-01-01

74

Health workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to drive proportions and associations. Results The majority of health workers had positive attitudes. However, nearly one third (30%) of health care workers had negative attitudes toward providing RH services to unmarried adolescents. Close to half (46.5%) of the respondents had unfavorable responses toward providing family planning to unmarried adolescents. About 13% of health workers agreed to setting up penal rules and regulations against adolescents that practice pre-marital sexual intercourse. The multivariate analysis indicated that being married (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 - 3.06), lower education level (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.99), being a health extension worker (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.43 - 4.35), lack of training on reproductive health services (OR 5.27; 95% CI 1.51 - 5.89) to be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward provision of sexual and reproductive services to adolescents. Conclusions The majority of the health workers had generally positive attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health to adolescents. However, a minority has displayed negatives attitudes. Such negative attitudes will be barriers to service utilization by adolescents and hampers the efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. We therefore call for a targeted effort toward alleviating negative attitudes toward adolescent-friendly reproductive health service and re-enforcing the positive ones. PMID:22943476

2012-01-01

75

Mice with reduced NMDA receptor glycine affinity model some of the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Schizophrenic patients demonstrate prominent negative and cognitive symptoms that are poorly responsive to antipsychotic treatment.\\u000a Abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission may contribute to these pathophysiological dimensions of schizophrenia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  We examined the involvement of the glycine coagonist site on the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) glycine coagonist site in the modulation of negative and cognitive endophenotypes in mice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia

Viviane Labrie; Tatiana Lipina; John C. Roder

2008-01-01

76

What Does "Positive" Attitude Really Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this communication we analyze a dichotomy that pervades research on attitude in mathematics education: the classification of attitude as positive/negative. After highlighting the ambiguity of the term "positive", and some problems related to it, we suggest that the positive/negative dichotomy is too simplistic to take into account the deep…

Di Martino, Pietro; Zan, Rosetta

2003-01-01

77

Attitudes toward Counseling Clients: Subtle Stigmatization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although attitudes toward people who have sought psychological counseling have been characterized as negative and stigmatizing, research suggests the public holds no prejudice toward the mentally ill. To examine whether the apparent decrease in negative attitudes toward people involved in psychological treatment is more superficial than real, two…

Sibicky, Mark; Dovidio, John F.

78

Reducing Campylobacter and Salmonella infection: two studies of the economic cost and attitude to adoption of on-farm biosecurity measures.  

PubMed

To date there has been little research in the UK on farmer adoption of biosecurity measures to control food-borne zoonoses that have little or no impact on animal health or production but which threaten public health. Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the two most common causes of food-borne infectious intestinal disease in people in Great Britain, causing approximately 57,000 and 13,000 reported cases in 2007 respectively (Anon 2008a) with an important cost to society. Poultry are an important source of both infections, while pigs may also contribute to human salmonellosis. However, these infections in poultry and pigs seldom cause disease. Research has shown that improved farm biosecurity may reduce the prevalence of these infections in livestock and if the majority of farmers were prepared to enhance biosecurity then there could be an important impact on public health. This article reports on the findings of two studies of farmer attitudes to and cost of the adoption of on-farm biosecurity measures to reduce the risk of animal diseases and therefore enhance food safety. One study, of Campylobacter infection among broiler flocks, is based on a survey of farmers faced with a hypothetical biosecurity intervention, while the other study, of Salmonella infection among pigs, is based on the participation of a group of farmers in an intervention study. In both cases, the results show a clear inverse relationship between the willingness of farmers to adopt a biosecurity measure and its estimated cost. This finding has implications for the success of on-farm biosecurity-enhancement policies based on voluntary adoption by farmers. In particular, financial inducements or penalties to farmers could be necessary to facilitate adoption of these measures. PMID:19968845

Fraser, R W; Williams, N T; Powell, L F; Cook, A J C

2010-12-01

79

Fearless Dominance and reduced feedback-related negativity amplitudes in a time-estimation task – Further neuroscientific evidence for dual-process models of psychopathy?  

PubMed Central

Dual-process models of psychopathy postulate two etiologically relevant processes. Their involvement in feedback processing and its neural correlates has not been investigated so far. Multi-channel EEG was collected while healthy female volunteers performed a time-estimation task and received negative or positive feedback in form of signs or emotional faces. The affective-interpersonal factor Fearless Dominance, but not Self-Centered Impulsivity, was associated with reduced feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitudes. This neural dissociation extends previous findings on the impact of psychopathy on feedback processing and further highlights the importance of distinguishing psychopathic traits and extending previous (neuroscientific) models of psychopathy. PMID:23607997

Schulreich, Stefan; Pfabigan, Daniela M.; Derntl, Birgit; Sailer, Uta

2013-01-01

80

Attitudes of Younger University Students Toward Older Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the attitudes of college freshmen toward older students, as well as differences in ageist attitudes between the sexes. A study of 215 freshmen showed their attitudes toward older students were positive in academic or nonintimate situations but negative in social or intimate situations. Females reacted particularly negatively. (Author/JAC)

Peabody, Shelly Ann; Sedlacek, William E.

1982-01-01

81

Have College Students' Attitudes toward Older People Changed?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered Situational Attitude Scale-Age to 42 college freshmen in 1979 and again in 1988 to examine their attitudes toward age. Results revealed that overall attitudes of college students toward older people were generally negative in both samples. Respondents felt negatively toward older persons in both academic and social situations.…

Schwalb, Susan J.; Sedlacek, William E.

1990-01-01

82

Attitudes Toward Older and Younger Adults: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward the elderly have been examined in a number of empirical studies, yet the question of whether the elderly are viewed more negatively than younger persons has not been resolved. A meta-analysis of the literature was conducted to examine this question; results demonstrated that attitudes toward the elderly are more negative than attitudes toward younger people. However, smaller differences

Mary E. Kite; Blair T. Johnson

1988-01-01

83

Dominant-Negative c-Jun Promotes Neuronal Survival by Reducing BIM Expression and Inhibiting Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sympathetic neurons require nerve growth factor for survival and die by apoptosis in its absence. Key steps in the death pathway include c-Jun activation, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. Here, we show that neurons rescued from NGF withdrawal–induced apoptosis by expression of dominant-negative c-Jun do not release cytochrome c from their mitochondria. Furthermore, we find that the mRNA

Jonathan Whitfield; Stephen J Neame; Luc Paquet; Ora Bernard; Jonathan Ham

2001-01-01

84

Resistance to Endotoxin Shock and Reduced Dissemination of Gram-Negative Bacteria in CD14Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endotoxin shock is the result of activation of the immune system by endotoxin\\/LPS, a component of Gram-negative bacteria. CD14, a GPI-anchored glycoprotein expressed strongly by monocyte\\/macrophages, is one of several receptors for endotoxin\\/LPS. The role of CD14 in bacterial-induced and LPS-induced shock was tested in CD14-deficient mice produced by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. CD14-deficient mice were found to

Alain Haziot; Enza Ferrero; Frank Köntgen; Naoki Hijiya; Shunsuke Yamamoto; Jack Silver; Colin L Stewart; Sanna M Goyert

1996-01-01

85

Activating health goals reduces (increases) hedonic evaluation of food brands for people who harbor highly positive (negative) affect toward them.  

PubMed

Associations of pleasure and fun with junk foods have the potential to create considerable challenges for efforts to improve diets. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals had the potential to exploit mixed motivations (i.e., health and pleasure) that people have related to food, and subsequently strip junk foods of the expected pleasure derived from them. In study 1, 98 participants evaluated a soft drink brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In study 2, 93 participants evaluated a presweetened breakfast cereal brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In both studies, participants who harbored highly positive feelings for the food brands devalued their hedonic judgments of them when they were primed for health. However, in an unexpected result, participants in both studies who harbored highly negative feelings for the food brands revalued their hedonic judgments of them (i.e., increased the favorability) when they were primed for health. Thus, increasing health salience is only effective in decreasing expected pleasure derived from junk foods for people who harbor positive affect toward junk food brands, and is likely counterproductive for people who harbor negative affect toward junk food brands. PMID:23428938

Connell, Paul M; Mayor, Lauren F

2013-06-01

86

A Profile of the Scientific Attitudes of 672 Ninth-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninth graders in two junior high schools were administered the Scientific Attitude Inventory, composed of 60 items giving results for six positive and six opposing negative attitude scales. Results suggest that students neither strongly accept positive scientific attitudes nor strongly reject negative scientific attitudes, and lack understanding…

Moore, Richard W.

1971-01-01

87

Perspective Taking as a Means of Reducing Negative Stereotyping of Individuals Who Speak English as a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a test of the hypothesis that perspective taking reduces stereotyping of individuals who speak English as a second language, 160 college students participated in a 2 ¥ 2 factorial experiment. Participants heard an audio recording of either a native or non-native speaker of English. Then, they wrote a paragraph about the speaker either with instructions to take the speaker's

James M. Weyant

2007-01-01

88

Negativity bias and basic values.  

PubMed

Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

Schwartz, Shalom H

2014-06-01

89

A fluctuating salinity regime mitigates the negative effects of reduced salinity on the estuarine macroalga, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) link.  

PubMed

We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis to 0, 5, 15 and 25 psu water enriched with nutrients for 1-, 5-, 11- and 23-day periods. Each period was followed by 24 h of exposure to 25 psu (ambient) water that was not nutrient enriched. Following 24 h in ambient salinity water, algae were returned to reduced salinity conditions for the appropriate period and the cycle continued over the 24 days for which all treatments were maintained. Exposure to 0 psu for 5 days or longer resulted in loss of pigmentation, decreased wet and dry biomass, increased wet wt:dry wt ratios, decreased removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the water column and an accumulation of NH(4) in the water column. More frequent exposure to ambient salinity in the 1-day treatment mitigated these effects. Across all salinity levels tested, biomass increased as frequency of exposure to ambient salinity increased. At all durations of exposure to low salinity tested, biomass increased as salinity level increased. We conclude that growth of E. intestinalis is decreased by reduced salinity. E. intestinalis is able to withstand exposure to 0 psu but there is a temporal limit to this tolerance that is somewhere between 1 and 5 days. Populations of E. intestinalis in coastal estuaries may suffer from freshwater inputs if salinity conditions are persistently reduced. PMID:11058726

Kamer; Fong

2000-11-01

90

Understanding narrative effects: The role of discrete negative emotions on message processing and attitudes among low-income African American women  

PubMed Central

This study tests the processes through which breast cancer narrative messages are effective by taking a functional approach. We explore how discrete negative emotions (i.e., sadness, fear, and anger) induced by breast cancer survivor stories affect African American women’s message processing, recall of message content, and attitudinal outcomes. Structural equation modeling was performed for narrative and informational versions of a breast cancer screening video shown to 409 low-income African American women ages 40 and older. The model was well fitted. Sadness enhanced the persuasive process, while fear inhibited it. Sadness also helped participants recall more message-relevant content, while fear inhibited recall. Anger was not related to the persuasive process. Implications of these findings for narrative research and application are discussed. PMID:24111724

Yoo, Jina H.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Lai, Choi; Fu, Qiang

2014-01-01

91

Attitudes toward Child Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has shown that parents of children who commit suicide receive reduced emotional support from their community. More research in the area of attitudes toward child suicide may aid professionals in helping grieving friends and families and help pinpoint areas where more education may be needed. This study examined the differences…

Ellis, Jon B.; Lane, Debra

92

Attitude sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for controlling the attitude of a spacecraft is described. The device consists of two light sensors on a spacecraft that are mounted beneath a baffle which divides the light from a light source such as the sun or a star. The divided light reflects off of two reflective surfaces onto the two light sensors. When the spacecraft assumes its normal attitude, the baffle divides the light source into two equal parts, causing the two light sensors to produce equal outputs. When the light is equally detected, the stabilizing system is disconnected. Deviations from the normal attitude cause unequal distribution of the light source and energize the stabilizing system.

Newcomb, A. L., Jr.; Price, A. G. (inventors)

1973-01-01

93

Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat  

PubMed Central

A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4) that in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed. PMID:20822288

Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni

2010-01-01

94

Cognitive Predictors of Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol and Cocaine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…

Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

2003-01-01

95

Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.

Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

2013-08-01

96

Reduced numbers of regulatory B cells are negatively correlated with disease activity in patients with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

This study is aimed at determining the numbers of circulating Treg and Breg cells in patients with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis and during subsequent drug therapies. Patients were treated orally with 10 mg methotrexate weekly, and 20 mg leflunomide and 60 mg common threewingnut root daily (Lei Gong Teng) for 12 weeks, but received no steroid therapy. Basal measurements were performed of serum C-reactive protein, anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the numbers of cluster of differentiation CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells, interleukin 10 (IL10)-expressing on CD5(+)CD1d(+) and TIM1(+) B cells. Compared with the healthy controls, patients exhibited significantly less numbers of circulating CD19(+)TIM1(+)IL10(+), CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(+)IL10(+) B cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (P?negatively correlated with the numbers of CD19(+)TIM1(+)IL10(+) and CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(+)IL10(+) B cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (r?=?-0.533, P?=?0.023; r?=?-0.442, P?=?0.016; and r?=?-0.444, P?=?0.014, respectively). Of note, TIM1(+) B cells identified more circulating IL10(+) B cells than CD5(+)CD1d(+) B cells. Our data indicate that Breg and Treg cells have a potentially crucial role in controlling disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients, and TIM1(+) Breg cells may be a viable therapeutic target for these patients. PMID:23949637

Ma, Liang; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Zhenyu; Jiang, Yanfang

2014-02-01

97

LiF Reduces MICs of Antibiotics against Clinical Isolates of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria.  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem yet the development of new antibiotics has slowed to a trickle, giving rise to the use of combination therapy to eradicate infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined inhibitory effect of lithium fluoride (LiF) and commonly used antimicrobials on the growth of the following bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccoccus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The in vitro activities of ceftazidime, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, streptomycin, erythromycin, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, alone or combined with LiF were performed by microdilution method. MICs were determined visually following 18-20?h of incubation at 37°C. We observed reduced MICs of antibiotics associated with LiF ranging from two-fold to sixteen-fold. The strongest decreases of MICs observed were for streptomycin and erythromycin associated with LiF against Acinetobacter baumannii and Streptococcus pneumoniae. An eight-fold reduction was recorded for streptomycin against S. pneumoniae whereas an eight-fold and a sixteen-fold reduction were obtained for erythromycin against A. baumannii and S. pneumoniae. This suggests that LiF exhibits a synergistic effect with a wide range of antibiotics and is indicative of its potential as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy. PMID:22518143

Syed, H C; Ravaoarinoro, M

2012-01-01

98

Attitudes toward Embodied Old Age among Swedes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Messages in the consumer culture are often youth oriented, aiming at the prevention of the bodily decay associated with biological aging. In gerontological discourses, this has been hypothesized to generate negative attitudes toward embodied aging and old age. Studies about general attitudes toward old age show that younger respondents have more…

Oberg, Peter; Tornstam, Lars

2003-01-01

99

Open and Positive Attitudes toward Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter argues that the most important thing for a nonnative English-speaking teacher is to have an open and positive attitude toward students. A teacher's willingness to work out problems with individual students, coupled with openness to students' ideas and criticism, should help improve students' negative attitudes toward…

Hsu, Chia-Fang

2014-01-01

100

Correctional Officers' Attitudes toward Selected Treatment Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the attitudes of a sample of correctional officers toward selected treatment programs. Besides a number of factors which correlated with positive attitudes toward treatment, several factors correlated negatively, including number of years of service and a belief that the primary function of corrections is punishment. (Author)

Teske, Raymond H. C.; Williamson, Harold E.

1979-01-01

101

Career Identification and Women's Attitudes toward Retirement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined retirement process as experienced by female teachers (N=201). Found that, overall, females with stronger work identities had significantly more negative attitudes toward retirement than those with weaker work identities, even when years of teaching experience, expected age of retirement, and attitude toward work were controlled.…

Erdner, Ruth Ann; Guy, Rebecca F.

1990-01-01

102

A qualitative study to explore undergraduate medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explores medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning. Thirty-two medical students, including representatives from each year of the medical degree, participated in five focus-group discussions. Theme analysis of each transcript by two independent analysts produced two attitude-related themes: positive attitudes towards communication skills and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. Students held both positive and negative attitudes towards different aspects of communication skills learning. Students' negative attitudes were related to communication skills being a subjective social science, which was viewed as 'non-academic' and 'common sense'. Students with negative attitudes towards communication skills learning were thought to be good communicators. Some reported being socialized into developing the negative attitudes held by older students and qualified doctors. The timing of communication skills learning was also thought to be important in determining attitudes. The findings within each of these themes and their educational implications are discussed in this paper. PMID:12098416

Rees, C E; Sheard, C E; McPherson, A C

2002-05-01

103

Attitudes toward Invertebrates: Are Educational "Bug Banquets" Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists have used educational presentations and "bug banquets" to alter widespread negative attitudes toward invertebrates. In this article, the authors explore whether such presentations have a measurable affect on attitudes. Junior high, high school, and university students completed an attitude survey focusing on invertebrates in general and…

Looy, Heather; Wood, John R.

2006-01-01

104

In triple negative breast tumor cells, PLC-?2 promotes the conversion of CD133high to CD133low phenotype and reduces the CD133-related invasiveness  

PubMed Central

Background Beyond its possible correlation with stemness of tumor cells, CD133/prominin1 is considered an important marker in breast cancer, since it correlates with tumor size, metastasis and clinical stage of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC), to date the highest risk breast neoplasia. Methods To study the correlation between the levels of CD133 expression and the biology of breast-derived cells, CD133low and CD133high cell subpopulations isolated from triple negative MDA-MB-231 cells were compared in terms of malignant properties and protein expression. Results High expression of CD133 characterizes cells with larger adhesion area, lower proliferation rate and reduced migration speed, indicative of a less undifferentiated phenotype. Conversely, when compared with CD133low cells, CD133high cells show higher invasive capability and increased expression of proteins involved in metastasis and drug-resistance of breast tumors. Among the signalling proteins examined, PLC-?2 expression inversely correlates with the levels of CD133 and has a role in inducing the CD133high cells to CD133low cells conversion, suggesting that, in TNBC cells, the de-regulation of this PLC isoform is responsible of the switch from an early to a mature tumoral phenotype also by reducing the expression of CD133. Conclusions Since CD133 plays a role in determining the invasiveness of CD133high cells, it may constitute an attractive target to reduce the metastatic potential of TNBC. In addition, our data showing that the forced up-regulation of PLC-?2 counteracts the invasiveness of CD133-positive MDA-MB-231 cells might contribute to identify unexplored key steps responsible for the TNBC high malignancy, to be considered for potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:24330829

2013-01-01

105

A Dominant Negative Mutant of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase A Reduces Endoreduplication but Not Cell Size or Gene Expression in Maize Endosperm  

PubMed Central

Cells in maize (Zea mays) endosperm undergo multiple cycles of endoreduplication, with some attaining DNA contents as high as 96C and 192C. Genome amplification begins around 10 d after pollination, coincident with cell enlargement and the onset of starch and storage protein accumulation. Although the role of endoreduplication is unclear, it is thought to provide a mechanism that increases cell size and enhances gene expression. To investigate this process, we reduced endoreduplication in transgenic maize endosperm by ectopically expressing a gene encoding a dominant negative mutant form of cyclin-dependent kinase A. This gene was regulated by the 27-kD ?-zein promoter, which restricted synthesis of the defective enzyme to the endoreduplication rather than the mitotic phase of endosperm development. Overexpression of a wild-type cyclin-dependent kinase A increased enzyme activity but had no effect on endoreduplication. By contrast, ectopic expression of the defective enzyme lowered kinase activity and reduced by half the mean C-value and total DNA content of endosperm nuclei. The lower level of endoreduplication did not affect cell size and only slightly reduced starch and storage protein accumulation. There was little difference in the level of endosperm gene expression with high and low levels of endoreduplication, suggesting that this process may not enhance transcription of genes associated with starch and storage protein synthesis. PMID:15208390

Leiva-Neto, João T.; Grafi, Gideon; Sabelli, Paolo A.; Dante, Ricardo A.; Woo, Young-min; Maddock, Sheila; Gordon-Kamm, William J.; Larkins, Brian A.

2004-01-01

106

Application of a drainage film reduces fibroblast ingrowth into large-pored polyurethane foam during negative-pressure wound therapy in an in vitro model.  

PubMed

Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an advantageous treatment option in wound management to promote healing and reduce the risk of complications. NPWT is mainly carried out using open-cell polyurethane (PU) foams that stimulate granulation tissue formation. However, growth of wound bed tissue into foam material, leading to disruption of newly formed tissue upon dressing removal, has been observed. Consequently, it would be of clinical interest to preserve the positive effects of open-cell PU foams while avoiding cellular ingrowth. The study presented analyzed effects of NPWT using large-pored PU foam, fine-pored PU foam, and the combination of large-pored foam with drainage film on human dermal fibroblasts grown in a collagen matrix. The results showed no difference between the dressings in stimulating cellular migration during NPWT. However, when NPWT was applied using a large-pored PU foam, the fibroblasts continued to migrate into the dressing. This led to significant breaches in the cell layers upon removal of the samples after vacuum treatment. In contrast, cell migration stopped at the collagen matrix edge when fine-pored PU foam was used, as well as with the combination of PU foam and drainage film. In conclusion, placing a drainage film between collagen matrix and the large-pored PU foam dressing reduced the ingrowth of cells into the foam significantly. Moreover, positive effects on cellular migration were not affected, and the effect of the foam on tissue surface roughness in vitro was also reduced. PMID:23937617

Wiegand, Cornelia; Springer, Steffen; Abel, Martin; Wesarg, Falko; Ruth, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

2013-01-01

107

Reducing stigma toward seeking mental health treatment among adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce explicit and implicit stigma-relevant attitudes toward mental illness and treatment-seeking and behavioural indicators of willingness to seek treatment. Methods Adolescents were randomly assigned to the experimental (education about mental illness and treatment involving psychoeducation and contact (via DVD) with an affected individual) or control intervention (education about tobacco). Results Findings suggest the stigma intervention was effective at reducing explicit but not implicit stigma-relevant attitudes. As hypothesized, participants receiving the experimental intervention reported less explicit stigma toward treatment and greater openness to personally seek treatment if they had also reported prior mental health treatment. Conclusions and Implications These findings support the potential for a brief educational intervention among adolescents to reduce negative attitudes toward mental health treatment, but raise questions about how to effectively address implicit stigma as well as the importance of translating stigma reduction into behavior changes. PMID:24286023

Saporito, J. M.; Ryan, C.; Teachman, B. A.

2012-01-01

108

Noise screen for attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude control system comprising a controller and a noise screen device coupled to the controller. The controller is adapted to control an attitude of a vehicle carrying an actuator system that is adapted to pulse in metered bursts in order to generate a control torque to control the attitude of the vehicle in response to a control pulse. The noise screen device is adapted to generate a noise screen signal in response to the control pulse that is generated when an input attitude error signal exceeds a predetermined deadband attitude level. The noise screen signal comprises a decaying offset signal that when combined with the attitude error input signal results in a net attitude error input signal away from the predetermined deadband level to reduce further control pulse generation.

Rodden, John J. (Inventor); Stevens, Homer D. (Inventor); Hong, David P. (Inventor); Hirschberg, Philip C. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

109

Sex differences in attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: A multidimensional perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We addressed four components of attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: condemnation\\/tolerance, morality, contact, and stereotypes. We hypothesized that attitudes would vary by component and by the sex of the person being rated. Results indicated that men (n = 137) held more negative attitudes toward homosexuals than did women (n = 133) on all factors except stereotypes, and that attitudes

Lisa LaMar; Mary Kite

1998-01-01

110

Extensive protein hydrolysate formula effectively reduces regurgitation in infants with positive and negative challenge tests for cow’s milk allergy  

PubMed Central

Aim Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is treated using an elimination diet with an extensive protein hydrolysate. We explored whether a thickened or nonthickened version was best for infants with suspected CMPA, which commonly causes regurgitation/vomiting. Methods Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge test. We compared the efficacy of two casein extensive hydrolysates (eCH), a nonthickened version (NT-eCH) and a thickened version (T-eCH), using a symptom-based score covering regurgitation, crying, stool consistency, eczema, urticarial and respiratory symptoms. Results A challenge was performed in 52/72 infants with suspected CMPA and was positive in 65.4%. All confirmed CMPA cases tolerated eCH. The symptom-based score decreased significantly in all infants within a month, and the highest reduction was in those with confirmed CMPA. Regurgitation was reduced in all infants (6.4 ± 3.2–2.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.001), but fell more with the T-eCH (?4.2 ± 3.2 regurgitations/day vs. ?3.0 ± 4.5, ns), especially in infants with a negative challenge (?3.9 ± 4.0 vs. ?1.9 ± 3.4, ns). Conclusion eCH fulfilled the criteria for a hypoallergenic formula, and the NT-eCH and T-eCH formulas both reduced CMPA symptoms. The symptom-based score is useful for evaluating how effective dietary treatments are for CMPA. PMID:24575806

Vandenplas, Y; De Greef, E

2014-01-01

111

Attitudes to Colorectal Cancer Screening After Reading the Prevention Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the biggest barriers to increase colorectal cancer screening are negative attitudes to screening tests. These negative\\u000a attitudes might be evoked through reading cancer prevention information and impede the decision to get screened. Forty-two\\u000a adults aged ?50 years completed a 12-item attitude questionnaire after reading colorectal cancer prevention information. African-Americans\\u000a perceived that others had higher cancer risk than themselves whereas

Chiung-ju Liu; Tara Fleck; Joan Goldfarb; Casey Green; Elizabeth Porter

112

Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

Chang, Chingching

2012-01-01

113

The Effect of Attitude toward the Elderly on Behavior toward an Older Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people hold negative attitudes toward older adults, and these attitudes often are associated with negative behavior toward the old. To explore the behavioral correlates of attitudes toward the elderly, 105 male and female college students, with a mean age of 24.5 years, participated in a two-phase experiment. During phase one, all subjects…

Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

114

Development and Assessment of Traditional and Innovative Media to Reduce Individual HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Attitudes and Beliefs in India  

PubMed Central

Although stigma is considered a major barrier to effective response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, there is a lack of evidence on effective interventions. This media intervention took place among key HIV-vulnerable communities in Southern India. Two HIV stigma videos were created using techniques from traditional film production and new media digital storytelling. A series of 16 focus group discussions were held in 4 rural and 4 urban sites in South India, with specific groups for sex workers, men who have sex with men, young married women, and others. Focus groups with viewers of the traditional film (8 focus groups, 80 participants) and viewers of the new media production (8 focus groups, 69 participants) revealed the mechanisms through which storyline, characters, and esthetics influence viewers’ attitudes and beliefs about stigma. A comparative pre-/post-survey showed that audiences of both videos significantly improved their stigma scores. We found that a simple illustrated video, produced on a limited budget by amateurs, and a feature film, produced with an ample budget by professionals, elicited similar responses from audiences and similar positive short-term outcomes on stigma. PMID:24350190

Catalani, Caricia; Castaneda, Diego; Spielberg, Freya

2013-01-01

115

The Duration of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Can Be Reduced Using the HeartShield Device in Patients With Deep Sternal Wound Infection  

PubMed Central

Background: Heart rupture resulting in lethal bleeding is a devastating complication associated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with deep sternal wound infection (DSWI). We have previously reported that the use of a protective HeartShield device in combination with NPWT decreases the risk of damage to the heart. This article presents a retrospective analysis of NPWT duration with and without the HeartShield device. Subjects and patients: The study included 6 patients treated with the HeartShield device in combination with NPWT and 6 patients treated with conventional NPWT during the same time period. The duration of active treatment time was measured. Results: The median duration of NPWT was 8 days (range: 6-14 days) in the HeartShield device NPWT group and 14 days in the conventional group (range: 10-18 days). The difference was statistically significant (P < .05). Conclusions: It appears that the treatment of patients with DSWI with the HeartShield device reduces the duration of NPWT. PMID:24741387

Ingemansson, Richard; Malmsjö, Malin; Lindstedt, Sandra

2014-01-01

116

Overcoming Graduate Students' Negative Perceptions of Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there has been some attention in the literature to such issues as students' attitudes toward statistics, instructors are still constantly faced with the challenge to engage students; understand their perceptions, motivations, and interests; and deal with their reluctance and negative attitudes toward the field of statistics. The purpose…

Lalayants, Marina

2012-01-01

117

Potentiated clinoptilolite: artificially enhanced aluminosilicate reduces symptoms associated with endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastritis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The cation exchanger, a potentiated clinoptilolite (Absorbatox™ 2.4D), is a synthetically enhanced aluminosilicate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible benefits of a potentiated clinoptilolite as a gastroprotective agent in reducing the severity of clinical symptoms and signs associated with 1) endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease (ENGORD) and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) medication. Methods and patients Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot studies, the ENGORD and NSAID studies, were conducted. After initial negative gastroscopy, a total of 25 patients suffering from ENGORD were randomized to receive either placebo capsules or 750 mg Absorbatox twice daily for 14 days. The NSAID study recruited 23 healthy patients who received orally either 1,500 mg Absorbatox or placebo three times daily, plus 500 mg naproxen twice daily. Patients underwent gastroscopic evaluation of their stomach linings prior to and on day 14 of the study. Gastric biopsies were obtained and evaluated via the upgraded Sydney system, whereas visible gastric events and status of the gastric mucosa were evaluated via a 0–3 rating scale. During both studies, patients recorded gastric symptoms in a daily symptom diary. Results In the ENGORD study, patients who received the potentiated clinoptilolite reported a significant reduction (P?0.05) in severity of symptoms including reduction in heartburn (44%), discomfort (54%), and pain (56%). Symptom-free days improved by 41% compared to the group who received placebo (not significant). This was over and above the benefits seen with the proton pump inhibitor. In the NSAID study, the reduction in gastric symptom severity was echoed in the group who received the potentiated clinoptilolite. Treatment with the potentiated clinoptilolite resulted in significant prevention (P?0.05) of mucosal erosion severity as graded by the gastroenterologist. Conclusion Absorbatox is a nonabsorbable aluminosilicate with potential gastroprotective benefits as it protected against ENGORD symptoms and NSAID-induced gastric events. The exact mechanism of action is not clear but may be due to its binding to hydrogen ions and biologically active amines and nitrates. PMID:25061329

Potgieter, Wilna; Samuels, Caroline Selma; Snyman, Jacques Renè

2014-01-01

118

Attitudes of University Students toward Lesbians and Gay Men in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of university students in Turkey toward lesbians and gay men. Findings\\u000a indicate that relatively negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are prevalent, but attitudes toward lesbians seem\\u000a to be more positive than attitudes toward gay men. Gender differences directly affect attitudes, and religiosity also has\\u000a great impact on the

Selahattin Gelbal; Veli Duyan

2006-01-01

119

Career identification and women's attitudes toward retirement.  

PubMed

This study seeks to heighten understanding of the retirement process as experienced by women through an examination of working women's attitudes toward retirement. The subjects for this study were 201 female teachers employed in the public school system in a central Oklahoma district. The survey instrument used was a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic and work-related variables. The findings indicate that overall, females with stronger work identities have significantly more negative attitudes toward retirement than those with weaker work identities; this difference remains significant when controls are introduced for years of teaching experience, expected age of retirement, and attitude toward work. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2318540

Erdner, R A; Guy, R F

1990-01-01

120

High School Knowledge and Attitudes towards Thalassemia in Southeastern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objectives Thalassemia (thal) is the most single gene disorders in southeast of Iran. About one quarter of total Iranian new thal cases were born in the Sistan and Balouchistan province so the aim of this study is to assess knowledge level and attitudes towards thal in high school students in Zahedan, capital of Sistan and Balouchistan province in Iran. Study design Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Methods This study was conducted on 762 Zahedan high school boys and girls students in 2009. The structured questionnaires were completed by students which consisted of three parts, namely demographic characteristics, knowledge part by 20 multiple choice questions and attitude part by 9 questions. Results The results indicated that only 14.7% students had good knowledge, good knowledge towards thal was 16.2% in boys and 29.1% in girls (P-value<0.001), positive attitude was 76.7% in boys and 84.7% in girls (P-value<0.029). Negative attitude in students who were born in villages and cities were 33.3% and 20.7% respectively (P-value=0.04). Good knowledge level in experimental field studied was between 2-4-fold more than other field students. Students in the last year high school had more knowledge and more positive attitude. Students’ knowledge score had no significant relationship with father education level (P-value=0.11) but had considerable difference with mother educational level (P-value=0.03). Conclusions It is concluded that long term and target based programs are suggested for high school students and local population of Sistan and Balouchistan where the trend of family marriages is quite high. These programs would impart valuable education and improve knowledge of people towards thal being couples in pre-marriage period and then after becoming parents thereby reducing the effects of disease. PMID:24505548

Motaharitabar, Eisa; Erfannia, Leila; Dashipour, Alireza; Houshvar, Marziyeh

2014-01-01

121

Evidence that attitude accessibility augments the relationship between speeding attitudes and speeding behavior: A test of the MODE model in the context of driving.  

PubMed

According to the MODE model of attitude-to-behavior processes, attitude accessibility augments attitude-behavior correspondence, reflecting an automatic influence of attitudes on behavior. We therefore tested whether attitude accessibility moderates the attitude-behavior relationship in a context that is governed by characteristically automatic behavior, namely driving. In study 1 (correlational design), participants (N=130) completed online questionnaire measures of the valences and accessibilities of their attitudes towards speeding. Two weeks later, online questionnaire measures of subsequent speeding behavior were obtained. Attitude valence was a significantly better predictor of behavior at high (mean+1SD) versus low (mean-1SD) levels of attitude accessibility. In study 2 (experimental design), attitude accessibility was manipulated with a repeated attitude expression task. Immediately after the manipulation, participants (N=122) completed online questionnaire measures of attitude valence and accessibility, and two weeks later, subsequent speeding behavior. Increased attitude accessibility in the experimental (versus control) condition generated an increase in attitude-behavior correspondence. The findings are consistent with the MODE model's proposition that attitudes can exert an automatic influence on behavior. Interventions to reduce speeding could usefully increase the accessibility of anti-speeding attitudes and reduce the accessibility of pro-speeding attitudes. PMID:25463944

Elliott, Mark A; Lee, Emme; Robertson, Jamie S; Innes, Rhona

2015-01-01

122

Scientific Attitudes: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews the following areas: the nature of scientific attitudes, the development of scientific attitudes as an educational objective, instruments for measuring scientific attitudes, and research concerning relationships between scientific attitudes and other variables; and makes recommendations for changes in research into scientific…

Gauld, C. F.; Hukins, A. A.

1980-01-01

123

Perceived erotic value of homosexuality and sex?role attitudes as mediators of sex differences in heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on attitudes toward lesbians and gay men commonly shows that heterosexual women hold similar attitudes toward members of the two groups, whereas heterosexual men hold more negative attitudes toward gay men than toward lesbians. We tested the hypothesis that one reason for this sex difference is that heterosexual men attribute a high erotic value to lesbianism and that this

Laura A. Louderback; Bernard E. Whitley Jr

1997-01-01

124

Agonists and antagonists of GnRH-I and -II reduce metastasis formation by triple-negative human breast cancer cells in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasis to bone is a frequent problem of advanced breast cancer. Particularly breast cancers, which do not express estrogen\\u000a and progesterone receptors and which have no overexpression\\/amplification of the HER2-neu gene, so called triple-negative\\u000a breast cancers, are considered as very aggressive and possess a bad prognosis. About 60% of all human breast cancers and about\\u000a 74% of triple-negative breast cancers

Antje Schubert; Thomas Hawighorst; Günter Emons; Carsten Gründker

125

Desulfoprunum benzoelyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-stain-negative, benzoate-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain KoBa311(T), isolated from the wastewater treatment plant at Konstanz, Germany, was characterized phenotypically and phylogenetically. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, oval to short rods, 3-5 µm long and 0.8-1.0 µm wide with rounded ends, dividing by binary fission and occurring singly or in pairs. The strain grew optimally in freshwater medium and the optimum temperature was 30 °C. Strain KoBa311(T) showed optimum growth at pH 7.3-7.6. Organic electron donors were oxidized completely to carbon dioxide concomitant with sulfate reduction to sulfide. At excess substrate supply, substrates were oxidized incompletely and acetate (mainly) and/or propionate accumulated. The strain utilized short-chain fatty acids, alcohols (except methanol) and benzoate. Sulfate and DMSO were used as terminal electron acceptors for growth. The genomic DNA G+C content was 52.3 mol% and the respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-5 (V-H2). The major fatty acids were C16?:?0, C16?:?1?7c/?6c and C18?:?1?7c. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain KoBa311(T) within the family Desulfobulbaceae in the class Deltaproteobacteria. Its closest related bacterial species on the basis of the distance matrix were Desulfobacterium catecholicum DSM 3882(T) (93.0?% similarity), Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes (93.1?%), Desulforhopalus singaporensis (92.9?%), Desulfopila aestuarii (92.4?%), Desulfopila inferna JS_SRB250Lac(T) (92.3?%) and Desulfofustis glycolicus (92.3?%). On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain KoBa311(T) was distinct from any related type species. Therefore, strain KoBa311(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Desulfoprunum benzoelyticum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desulfoprunum benzoelyticum is KoBa311(T) (?=?DSM 28570(T)?=?KCTC 15441(T)). PMID:25278560

Junghare, Madan; Schink, Bernhard

2015-01-01

126

Social Work Educators’ Attitudes Toward Gay Men and Lesbians: A National Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 927 U.S. social work educators expressed limited negative attitudes toward lesbians and slightly more negative attitudes toward gay men in this cross-sectional, national study using standardized survey instruments with proven psychometric properties. Faculty most likely to express negative attitudes toward lesbians included those employed at a religiously affiliated university (whether sectarian or non-sectarian), identifying as African-American and

Susan D. Einbinder; Stephen Fiechter; Dennis A. Sheridan; Diane L. Miller

2012-01-01

127

How Do Attitudes toward Mental Health Treatment Vary by Age, Gender, and Ethnicity/Race in Young Adults?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment in a national epidemiological sample. Young adults reported the most negative attitudes, as compared to older adults. Males reported more negative attitudes, as compared to females, a consistent finding in young adults. The gender difference was not consistent in Latinos…

Gonzalez, Jodi M.; Alegria, Margarita; Prihoda, Thomas J.

2005-01-01

128

Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

2014-06-01

129

High precision attitude determination for Magsat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two phase approach to attitude determination software development is introduced. The prelaunch planning and software activities connected with the development and testing of the baseline system for processing nominal attitude data for MAGSAT are described and postlaunch analysis and modifications are outlined. Attitude data processing began 5 months after launch so that postlaunch anomalies could be accounted for. Another advantage of the two phase approach is that costs are reduced because the system is not burdened with software dealing with all possible contingencies. A definitive, continuous, time history of the three axis attitude of the spacecraft was generated to a precision of 20 arc sec (one standard deviation), in each axis. Sensor alignment determinations were done continuously because of the deletrious effects of changing alignments on attitude precision.

Abshire, G.; Mccutcheon, R.; Summers, G.; Vanlandingham, F.; Meyers, G.

1981-01-01

130

White Racial Identity and Attitudes toward People with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical study investigated the relationship between racial identity and attitudes toward people with disabilities. Results indicate that higher statuses of racial identity correlate positively while lower and more racist-oriented statuses correlate negatively with attitudes toward people with disabilities. The study supports the notion that…

Sciarra, Daniel; Chang, Tai; McLean, Ron; Wong, Daniel

2005-01-01

131

Intergenerational Contact, Attitudes, and Stereotypes of Adolescents and Older People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contradictory findings characterize the literature on the efficacy of intergenerational programs that bring children and older persons together for joint activities to promote more positive attitudes and stereotypes. Nor is it clear whether cross-generational attitudes are negative to begin with. The research reported in this paper operationalized…

Meshel, David; Mcglynn, Richard

2004-01-01

132

Examining Teachers' Attitudes Toward a Required Environmental Education Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requiring teachers to partake in environmental education (EE) may generate negative reactions since elementary teachers can be overloaded with meeting standards and student performance goals. This study explores teachers' attitudes toward a required EE program, Lagoon Quest. We compare attitudes among teachers with and without prior Lagoon Quest, EE, and science experience. The results suggest that previous voluntary Lagoon Quest

Judith Chen-Hsuan Cheng; Martha C. Monroe

2010-01-01

133

The Effects of Priming on Children's Attitudes toward Older Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present research was to examine younger (7-years-old) and older (10-years-old) children's attitudes toward older individuals following one type of five primes: positive prime, negative prime, elderly prime, grandparent prime, or neutral prime. Overall, children's attitudes on three tests--Apperception, Semantic Differential, and…

Hoe, Sony; Davidson, Denise

2002-01-01

134

When training boomerangs - Negative outcomes associated with Cockpit Resource Management programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Participants' self-reports and measures of attitudes regarding flightdeck management indicate that Cockpit Resource Management training is positively received and causes highly significant changes in attitudes regarding crew coordination and personal capabilities. However, a subset of participants react negatively to the training and show boomerangs (negative change) in attitudes. Explorations into the causes of this effect pinpoint personality factors and group dynamics as critical determinants of reactions to training and the magnitude and direction of attitude change.

Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

1989-01-01

135

Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

Alwitt, Linda F.

136

Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales  

PubMed Central

The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term “euthanasia” influences people’s support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman’s Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term “euthanasia”, the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it. PMID:23908751

Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

2011-01-01

137

Negatively-Marked MCQ Assessments That Reward Partial Knowledge Do Not Introduce Gender Bias Yet Increase Student Performance and Satisfaction and Reduce Anxiety  

PubMed Central

Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The ‘Single Answer’ (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the elimination answering methods in MCQ tests via rewarding partial and full knowledge. PMID:23437081

Bond, A. Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O. F.; Jones, D. Hugh; Restall, Colin J.; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

2013-01-01

138

Body appreciation and attitudes toward menstruation.  

PubMed

Menstruation is an important function of the female body, yet it has rarely been included in research on body image. As women's attitudes toward menstruation are so often negative, this study was designed to examine whether women with positive body image would have more positive attitudes toward menstruation. Seventy-two American women, ages 18-45 years, were recruited online to complete the Body Appreciation Scale (Avalos et al., 2005) and the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Scale (Marván et al., 2006) and to answer some questions about their interest in menstrual suppression. Linear regressions showed that higher scores on body appreciation predicted more positive attitudes toward and beliefs about menstruation, but were not related to interest in menstrual suppression. Our findings may be useful in designing interventions to increase women's comfort with their bodies and bodily functions. PMID:25462885

Chrisler, Joan C; Marván, Maria Luisa; Gorman, Jennifer A; Rossini, Meghan

2014-11-17

139

Medical students’ attitudes toward gay men  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N?=?371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25?years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches. PMID:22873668

2012-01-01

140

The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own…

Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

2009-01-01

141

Perceptions, Attitudes, and Choosing to Study Foreign Languages in England: An Experimental Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The declining interest in foreign languages in English-speaking countries has been attributed to negative societal attitudes and specific pupil attitudes and perceptions. While various initiatives have aimed to encourage language study, little research has systematically documented the relationship among perceptions, attitudes, and actually opting…

Taylor, Florentina; Marsden, Emma J.

2014-01-01

142

"Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2008-01-01

143

A Key to the Future: The Attitudes and Values of Adolescent Europeans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on original empirical data collected from adolescents in Europe (N = 9003) this paper focuses the lifeworlds of young people. It analyses negative and positive patterns of attitude and combines them with further concepts: personal life perspectives, various key values and political attitudes. Technically, the attitude towards Europe acts as…

Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Kay, William K.

2009-01-01

144

Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes

Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

2009-01-01

145

Evangelical Christian College Students and Attitudes toward Gay Rights: A California University Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research demonstrates that Evangelical Christians generally hold more negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and are less supportive of gay rights than the general U.S. population. To assess these attitudes, undergraduate students at an Evangelical Christian university in California (N = 319) completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay…

Wolff, Joshua R.; Himes, Heather L.; Kwon, Ellen Miller; Bollinger, Richard A.

2012-01-01

146

Euthanasia: A National Survey of Attitudes toward Voluntary Termination of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study on the attitudes of adults related to the voluntary termination of life showed that those persons with favorable attitudes toward suicide were also favorable toward euthanasia. Religiosity was negatively associated with pro-euthanasia attitudes. Whites and males were more favorable toward euthanasia than Blacks and females. (Author)

Jorgenson, David E.; Neubecker, Ron C.

1980-01-01

147

Influence of depression, gender, and prior psychological assistance on adolescents' attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents tend to have negative attitudes toward seeking psychological assistance and often exhibit significant resistance toward receiving the help that they so desperately need. A better understanding of adolescents' attitudes toward seeking help is provided in the present study by exploring how these attitudes are influenced by such factors as depression, gender, and prior psychological assistance. This study was conducted

Lyle Martin Becourtney

1996-01-01

148

Attitudes of Dental Faculty toward Individuals with AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of one dental school's faculty concerning attitudes toward homosexual or heterosexual patients with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia found significant negative biases both toward individuals with AIDS and toward homosexuals. (MSE)

Cohen, Leonard A.; Grace, Edward G., Jr.

1989-01-01

149

Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is an account of how negative numbers became part of the "vocabulary" of mathematicians and of some of the earliest appearances of negative numbers in calculations of the ancient civilizations of China, India and Greece. Although negative numbers were used in calculations, negative answers to mathematical problems were considered meaningless or impossible. The troubled history of negative numbers presented in this article shows how the simple mathematical principles taken for granted today have taken thousands of years to develop.

Howard, Jill

2009-05-01

150

Physician Attitudes Toward Distressed Colleagues  

PubMed Central

Attitudes and behaviors of physicians toward their impaired colleagues often affect whether the latter seek treatment. Negative responses include (1) silence, usually based on anxiety, ignorance and pessimism; (2) tentative responses based on stereotyped assumptions or distraction by organic problems; (3) judgmental responses that may result in mutual avoidance, and (4) permissive responses that encourage continued use of alcohol or other drugs. Positive responses include (1) confrontation in a concerned, constructive manner as early as possible; (2) assistance to the impaired colleague in obtaining treatment, and (3) education and information sharing to increase awareness of potential and real problems. Educational programs can help physicians develop more positive attitudes toward both impaired colleagues and impaired patients. The emphasis is on active participation. The goals of these programs should include optimism about therapy, using structured treatment approaches that include paraprofessionals and formerly impaired physicians on the treatment team, and the development of confrontational skills on the part of each physician. PMID:7222667

Chappel, John N.

1981-01-01

151

Negative pressure wound therapy for post-sternotomy mediastinitis reduces mortality rate and sternal re-infection rate compared to conventional treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a recently introduced treatment modality for post-sternotomy mediastinitis. The aim of this study was to compare the mortality rate, the sternal re-infection rate and the length of hospital stay in patients with post-sternotomy mediastinitis after NPWT and conventional treatment. Methods: We retrospectively analysed 118 patients with post-sternotomy mediastinitis after cardiac surgery. One group

Rainer Petzina; Julia Hoffmann; Artashes Navasardyan; Malin Malmsjö; Christof Stamm; Axel Unbehaun; Roland Hetzer

2010-01-01

152

Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

Speer, Rita D.

153

Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

2013-01-01

154

An early Phase II randomised controlled trial testing the effect on persecutory delusions of using CBT to reduce negative cognitions about the self: The potential benefits of enhancing self confidence  

PubMed Central

Background Research has shown that paranoia may directly build on negative ideas about the self. Feeling inferior can lead to ideas of vulnerability. The clinical prediction is that decreasing negative self cognitions will reduce paranoia. Method Thirty patients with persistent persecutory delusions were randomised to receive brief CBT in addition to standard care or to standard care (ISRCTN06118265). The six session intervention was designed to decrease negative, and increase positive, self cognitions. Assessments at baseline, 8 weeks (posttreatment) and 12 weeks were carried out by a rater blind to allocation. The primary outcomes were posttreatment scores for negative self beliefs and paranoia. Secondary outcomes were psychological well-being, positive beliefs about the self, persecutory delusions, social comparison, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Results Trial recruitment and retention were feasible and the intervention highly acceptable to the patients. All patients provided follow-up data. Posttreatment there was a small reduction in negative self beliefs (Cohen's d = 0.24) and a moderate reduction in paranoia (d = 0.59), but these were not statistically significant. There were statistically significant improvements in psychological well-being (d = 1.16), positive beliefs about the self (d = 1.00), negative social comparison (d = 0.88), self-esteem (d = 0.62), and depression (d = 0.68). No improvements were maintained. No adverse events were associated with the intervention. Conclusions The intervention produced short-term gains consistent with the prediction that improving cognitions about the self will reduce persecutory delusions. The improvement in psychological well-being is important in its own right. We recommend that the different elements of the intervention are tested separately and that the treatment is lengthened. PMID:25468186

Freeman, Daniel; Pugh, Katherine; Dunn, Graham; Evans, Nicole; Sheaves, Bryony; Waite, Felicity; ?ernis, Emma; Lister, Rachel; Fowler, David

2014-01-01

155

Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Poland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes

Przepiorka, Aneta M.; Blachnio, Agata; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Wozniak, Tomasz

2013-01-01

156

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents

Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2002-01-01

157

Comparing project-based learning to direct instruction on students' attitude to learn science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.

Haugen, Marlen Ingvard

158

Best Practices for Measuring Students’ Attitudes toward Learning Science  

PubMed Central

Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students’ learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students’ attitudes influence their learning. Students’ science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students’ attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students’ attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data. PMID:24297288

Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy

2013-01-01

159

Patients attitudes towards sleep disturbances during chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbances are among the most distressing symptoms in cancer: they often co-occur with fatigue, pain and psychological distress. Despite the negative impact on quality of life, patients rarely seek help for managing their sleep disturbances. This paper presents the results of a multicentre observational study on patients' attitudes towards their sleep problems. The study also investigates symptom correlates. Patients responded to a semi-structured interview and completed the following questionnaires: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Brief Fatigue Inventory; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life QLQ-C30 Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Four hundred and three cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Bad sleepers constituted 66% of the sample. Thirty-eight per cent of them had not turned to any professional to solve their sleep disturbances because they had various beliefs about the importance of the problem and the possibility to be treated. The main correlates of sleep disturbances were psychological distress, reduced physical functioning and reduced overall quality of life. In conclusion, there is a need to sensitise patients to actively search for a solution to their sleep disturbances so they can be solved along with other co-occurring symptoms. Doctors could also be encouraged to dedicate more attention to routinely asking cancer patients about eventual sleep disturbances. PMID:23947497

Romito, F; Cormio, C; De Padova, S; Lorusso, V; Berio, M A; Fimiani, F; Piattelli, A; Palazzo, S; Abram, G; Dudine, L; Guglielmi, A; Galise, I; Romito, S; Mattioli, V

2014-05-01

160

Interprofessional Collaboration and Turf Wars How Prevalent Are Hidden Attitudes?*  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Interprofessional collaboration in health care is believed to enhance patient outcomes. However, where professions have overlapping scopes of practice (eg, chiropractors and physical therapists), "turf wars" can hinder effective collaboration. Deep-rooted beliefs, identified as implicit attitudes, provide a potential explanation. Even with positive explicit attitudes toward a social group, negative stereotypes may be influential. Previous studies on interprofessional attitudes have mostly used qualitative research methodologies. This study used quantitative methods to evaluate explicit and implicit attitudes of physical therapy students toward chiropractic. Methods: A paper-and-pencil instrument was developed and administered to 49 individuals (students and faculty) associated with a Canadian University master's entry-level physical therapy program after approval by the Research Ethics Board. The instrument evaluated explicit and implicit attitudes toward the chiropractic profession. Implicit attitudes were determined by comparing response times of chiropractic paired with positive versus negative descriptors. Results: Mean time to complete a word association task was significantly longer (t = 4.75, p =.00) when chiropractic was associated with positive rather than negative words. Explicit and implicit attitudes were not correlated (r = 0.13, p =.38). Conclusions: While little explicit bias existed, individuals associated with a master's entry-level physical therapy program appeared to have a significant negative implicit bias toward chiropractic PMID:22778528

Chung, Chadwick L. R.; Manga, Jasmin; McGregor, Marion; Michailidis, Christos; Stavros, Demetrios; Woodhouse, Linda J.

2012-01-01

161

Awareness of Implicit Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

2013-01-01

162

Selective Expression of a Dominant-Negative Type ?? PKA Regulatory Subunit in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons Impairs Gene Expression and Leads to Reduced Feeding and Locomotor Activity  

PubMed Central

Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) mediate many of the physiological effects of dopamine, including the regulation of feeding and motor behaviors. Dopaminergic inputs from the midbrain modulate MSN excitability through pathways that involve cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA), but the physiological role of specific PKA isoforms in MSN neurons remains poorly understood. One of the major PKA regulatory (R) subunit isoforms expressed in MSNs is RII?, which localizes the PKA holoenzyme primarily to dendrites by interaction with AKAP5 and other scaffolding proteins. However, RI (RI? and RI?) subunits are also expressed in MSNs and the RI holoenzyme has a weaker affinity for most scaffolding proteins and tends to localize in the cell body. We generated mice with selective expression of a dominant-negative RI subunit (RI?B) in striatal MSNs and show that this dominant-negative RI?B localizes to the cytoplasm and specifically inhibits type I PKA activity in the striatum. These mice are normal at birth; however, soon after weaning they exhibit growth retardation and the adult mice are hypophagic, lean, and resistant to high-fat diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity. The RI?B-expressing mice also exhibit decreased locomotor activity and decreased dopamine-regulated CREB phosphorylation and c-fos gene expression in the striatum. Our results demonstrate a critical role for cytoplasmic RI-PKA holoenzyme in gene regulation and the overall physiological function of MSNs. PMID:24695708

Yang, Linghai; Gilbert, Merle L.; Zheng, Ruimao

2014-01-01

163

Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. PMID:23866038

Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

2013-08-01

164

Control of bovine virus diarrhoea at the herd level: reducing the risk of false negatives in the detection of persistently infected cattle.  

PubMed

The need to detect and eliminate cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is key to the control of BVD and has been shown to be very effective in eradicating BVDV from infected herds. However, because of pitfalls in the detection procedures, some PI animals can be missed and, as a result, are not identified and removal is delayed. The high prevalence of BVDV in cattle populations in some countries (such as Belgium and neighbouring countries) means there is a high risk of reinfection of a herd from which BVDV has been eradicated. Based on both practical experience and a literature study, this review considers those points that are critical to minimising the number of false negatives in the detection of PI cattle. PMID:19157928

Laureyns, Jozef; Ribbens, Stefaan; de Kruif, Aart

2010-04-01

165

Amitifadine, a triple monoamine uptake inhibitor, reduces binge drinking and negative affect in an animal model of co-occurring alcoholism and depression symptomatology.  

PubMed

The co-occurrence of alcoholism and depression is highly prevalent and difficult to treat. In an animal model of binge drinking that exhibits abstinence-induced behaviors reminiscent of negative affective states, the triple monoamine uptake inhibitor, amitifadine, produced a selective, dose dependent attenuation of binge drinking. Amitifadine also reversed abstinence-induced increases in the intracranial self-stimulation threshold, a model of anhedonia, and immobility in the forced swim test, reflecting behavioral despair. In view of the safety profile of amitifadine in humans, including low risk for weight gain, lack of sexual side effects, and low potential for abuse, we hypothesize that amitifadine will be effective in treating co-occurring alcoholism and depression. PMID:22884707

Warnock, Kaitlin T; Yang, Andrew R S T; Yi, Heon S; June, Harry L; Kelly, Timothy; Basile, Anthony S; Skolnick, Phil; June, Harry L

2012-11-01

166

Amitifadine, a triple monoamine uptake inhibitor reduces binge drinking and negative affect in an animal model of co-occurring alcoholism and depression symptomatology  

PubMed Central

The co-occurrence of alcoholism and depression is highly prevalent and difficult to treat. In an animal model of binge drinking that exhibits abstinence-induced behaviors reminiscent of negative affective states, the triple monoamine uptake inhibitor, amitifadine, produced a selective, dose dependent attenuation of binge drinking. Amitifadine also reversed abstinence-induced increases in the intracranial self-stimulation threshold, a model of anhedonia, and immobility in the forced swim test, reflecting behavioral despair. In view of the safety profile of amitifadine in humans, including low risk for weight gain, lack of sexual side effects, and low potential for abuse, we hypothesize that amitifadine will be effective in treating co-occurring alcoholism and depression. PMID:22884707

Warnock, Kaitlin T.; Yang, Andrew R.S.T.; Yi, Heon S.; June, Harry L.; Kelly, Tim; Basile, Anthony S.; Skolnick, Phil; June, Harry L.

2012-01-01

167

Attitudes of Heterosexual Students toward Their Gay Male and Lesbian Peers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines heterosexual college students' (N=224) stereotypical negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Results indicate that participants reported more negative attitudes toward both gay male and lesbian peers than toward students whose sexual orientation was not disclosed in social, academic, and family situations. Implications of these…

Engstrom, Catherine McHugh; Sedlacek, William

1997-01-01

168

Attitude Similarity and Attraction: The Predictability of a Stranger's Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attribution theory raises the possibility that findings of a direct linear relationship between attitude similarity and interpersonal attraction are mediated by the predictability of the other's attitudes and behaviors. In a nonexperimental study, 288 subjects predicted the attitudes of a stranger and compared his attitudes to their own. Findings showed that attitude similarity was directly related to attraction only when

John C. Touhey

1973-01-01

169

Gender-based attitudes, HIV misconceptions and feelings towards marginalized groups are associated with stigmatization in Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

Summary This study examined the association of gender-based attitudes, HIV misconceptions and community feelings for marginalized groups with stigmatizing responses towards people with HIV/AIDS in Mumbai, India. Participants included 546 men and women sampled in hospital settings during 2007-2008. Structured measures were used to assess avoidance intentions and denial of rights of people with HIV/AIDS. Mean age of participants was 32 years; 42% had less than 10 years of education. Higher HIV transmission misconceptions (?=0.47; p<0.001), more traditional gender attitudes (?=0.11; p<0.01) and more negative feelings towards HIV-positive people (?=0.23; p<0.001) were related to higher avoidance intentions. Endorsement of denial of rights was also significantly associated with higher transmission misconceptions (?=0.20; p<0.001), more traditional gender attitudes (?=0.33; p<0.001) and greater negative feelings towards HIV-positive people (?=0.12; p<0.05), as well as with a lower education level (?=-0.10; p<0.05). The feelings respondents had towards people with HIV/AIDS were more strongly correlated with their feelings towards those with other diseases (tuberculosis, leprosy) than with feelings they had towards those associated with 'immoral' behaviour (e.g. sex workers). Eliminating HIV transmission misconceptions and addressing traditional gender attitudes are critical for reducing HIV stigma in Indian society. PMID:24524379

Bharat, Shalini; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Heylen, Elsa; Ekstrand, Maria L

2014-11-01

170

Kalman Filter for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.

Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.

2008-01-01

171

Distinct roles of age and abdominal visceral fat in reducing androgen receptor-dependent negative feedback on LH secretion in healthy men.  

PubMed

Testosterone (T) impacts luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion through negative feedback via the androgen receptor (AR) in the hypothalamo-pituitary system. An untested postulate is that increasing body mass index (BMI), abdominal visceral fat (AVF) or total abdominal fat (TAF) with ageing decreases LH secretion by heightening T negative feedback via AR. This hypothesis was tested in a prospective, randomized double-blind cross-over study of 19 healthy men comparing the effects of flutamide, a selective non-steroidal AR antagonist and placebo administration on basal and pulsatile LH secretion as a function of age and obesity measures. To this end, serum levels of 2-hydroxyflutamide (2-OHF), a major active flutamide metabolite, were measured by mass spectrometry, and AVF/TAF quantified by abdominal computerized tomography. Statistical analysis showed that antiandrogen administration elevated 6-h mean LH concentrations to 5.4 ± 1.3 IU/L compared with 3.3 ± 1.2 IU/L for placebo (p < 10(-3) ), and total T by 35% (p < 10(-4) ). The LH-T concentration product doubled (p < 10(-8) ). According to deconvolution analysis, flutamide exposure increased total LH secretion (p < 10(-3) ) and pulsatile LH secretion (p = 0.0077), along with LH pulse frequency (p = 0.019). Despite feedback inhibition, the LH-T product declined as a linear function of AVF (p = 0.021) and TAF (p = 0.017). This was explained by the fact that higher BMI was associated with lower 2-OHF concentrations (R = -0.562, p = 0.012). In contrast, age was associated with less pulsatile LH secretion (R = -0.567, p = 0.011) even when LH responses were normalized to antiantrogen levels. In conclusion, increased AVF, TAF and BMI predict decreased LH and flutamide blood levels, whereas older age is marked by impaired stimulation of pulsatile LH secretion even when normalized for antiandrogen levels, suggesting different mechanisms of regulation by adiposity and age. PMID:24782426

Takahashi, P Y; Liu, P Y; Veldhuis, J D

2014-07-01

172

When feeling different pays off: how older adults can counteract negative age-related information.  

PubMed

Negative age stereotypes are pervasive and threaten older adults' self-esteem. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that differentiation from one's age group reduces the impact of negative age-related information on older adults' self-evaluation. In Experiment 1, older adults (N = 83, M = 71.9 years) were confronted with neutral or negative age-related information followed by a manipulation of self-differentiation. Experiment 2 (N = 44, M = 73.55 years) tested the moderating role of self-differentiation in the relationship of implicit attitudes toward older adults and implicit self-esteem. Results suggest that self-differentiation prevents the impact of negative age-related information on older adults' self-esteem. PMID:23957227

Weiss, David; Sassenberg, Kai; Freund, Alexandra M

2013-12-01

173

Loss of Trabid, a New Negative Regulator of the Drosophila Immune-Deficiency Pathway at the Level of TAK1, Reduces Life Span  

PubMed Central

A relatively unexplored nexus in Drosophila Immune deficiency (IMD) pathway is TGF-beta Activating Kinase 1 (TAK1), which triggers both immunity and apoptosis. In a cell culture screen, we identified that Lysine at position 142 was a K63-linked Ubiquitin acceptor site for TAK1, required for signalling. Moreover, Lysine at position 156 functioned as a K48-linked Ubiquitin acceptor site, also necessary for TAK1 activity. The deubiquitinase Trabid interacted with TAK1, reducing immune signalling output and K63-linked ubiquitination. The three tandem Npl4 Zinc Fingers and the catalytic Cysteine at position 518 were required for Trabid activity. Flies deficient for Trabid had a reduced life span due to chronic activation of IMD both systemically as well as in their gut where homeostasis was disrupted. The TAK1-associated Binding Protein 2 (TAB2) was linked with the TAK1-Trabid interaction through its Zinc finger domain that pacified the TAK1 signal. These results indicate an elaborate and multi-tiered mechanism for regulating TAK1 activity and modulating its immune signal. PMID:24586180

Ligoxygakis, Petros

2014-01-01

174

Greek Cypriot attitudes toward Turkish Cypriots and Turkish immigrants.  

PubMed

The authors examined the attitudes of 106 Greek Cypriots toward Turkish Cypriots and Turkish immigrants on Cyprus. The authors examined Greek Cypriot attitudes, willingness to cohabit with Turkish Cypriots and Turkish immigrants, and the reasons behind their attitudes in terms of their social-identity perceptions, victimization experiences, and human-rights concerns. A series of repeated measures analyses of variance showed that Greek Cypriots were more willing to cohabit with and had less negative attitudes toward Turkish Cypriots than they were with and toward Turkish immigrants. Women felt more victimized by Turkish Cypriots and Turkish immigrants than did men. Perceived differences in social identity predicted unwillingness to cohabit with Turkish Cypriots. Feelings of victimization predicted negative attitudes toward Turkish Cypriots. Differences in social identity and victimization experiences predicted unwillingness to cohabit with Turkish immigrants. Differences in social identity predicted negative attitudes toward Turkish immigrants. The authors discussed the findings in terms of support for realistic group conflict theories of attitudes and their implications for the coexistence of these ethnic groups in Cyprus and of other ethnic groups in multicultural societies. PMID:16894701

Danielidou, Liana; Horvath, Peter

2006-08-01

175

Student's corner: potential implications of registered nurse attitudes towards caring for older people.  

PubMed

In discussing the potential implications of the attitudes of the registered nurse towards the work of caring for older people, it was helpful to highlight why this work is important, gain some understanding of quality care and how it can be facilitated or hindered. Patient centred care is essential as there is great diversity found amongst older people. It was found that attitudes held by registered nurses and students towards older people have a direct impact on the quality of care provided. Negative attitudes and stereotyping get in the way of quality care while positive attitudes enabled quality care. In identifying the factors that influence these attitudes, registered nurses can take on a leadership role in promoting positive attitudes and challenging negative attitudes towards the care of older people with the goal of providing patient centre care. PMID:20636182

Marshall, Lynette C

2010-01-01

176

Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to HIV transmission in northeastern China.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe what nurses know about HIV/AIDS in the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Heilongjiang Province, China. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Only 7.9% of the nurse (n = 177) used condoms during their first experience of sexual intercourse. Eight-six percent of the nurses had been stuck by sharps while working, and 76% of them had been splashed by patient fluids. For 12 basic HIV/AIDS questions, the mean score was 6.66. The mean score is 6.28 for 9 HIV/AIDS attitude questions. Knowledge and attitude are negatively related (r = -0.215, p < 0.005). Training in reducing the risk for occupational exposures in this sample is important. Nurses who have a better understanding of HIV/AIDS prevention are more likely to have negative attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. This study suggests the necessity of increasing HIV/AIDS education for nurses, family members, friends, and all health care providers. PMID:15307930

Chen, Wei-Ti; Han, Mei; Holzemer, William L

2004-07-01

177

Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. Conclusion EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. PMID:25035760

Hogan, Teresita M.; Chan, Shu B.; Hansoti, Bhakti

2014-01-01

178

Context, engagement, and the (multiple) functions of negativity bias.  

PubMed

Hibbing and colleagues argue that political attitudes may be rooted in individual differences in negativity bias. Here, we highlight the complex, conditional nature of the relationship between negativity bias and ideology by arguing that the political impact of negativity bias should vary as a function of (1) issue domain and (2) political engagement. PMID:24970433

Federico, Christopher M; Johnston, Christopher D; Lavine, Howard G

2014-06-01

179

Ethnic composition of school classes, majority-minority friendships, and adolescents' intergroup attitudes in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority adolescents, both ethnic majority and ethnic minority adolescents reported more negative out-group attitudes. Moreover, in these school classes, ethnic majority adolescents showed more positive in-group attitudes, whereas ethnic minority adolescents showed less positive in-group attitudes. The proportion of majority-minority friendships was related to less negative out-group attitudes for ethnic majority adolescents only. The quality of majority-minority friendships was related to less negative out-group and in-group attitudes for both the ethnic majority and ethnic minority adolescents. The results are discussed in the light of contact theory and ethnic competition theory. PMID:20570342

Vervoort, Miranda H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Scheepers, Peer L H

2011-04-01

180

Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems is well established and highlighted by studies establishing a correlation between the protective function of mangroves and the loss of lives and property caused by coastal hazards. Nevertheless, degradation of this ecosystem remains a matter of concern, emphasizing the fact that effective conservation of natural resources is possible only with an understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of local communities. In the present study, we examined the attitudes and perceptions of local communities towards mangrove forests through questionnaire surveys in 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. The sample villages were selected from 336 villages using hierarchical cluster analysis. The study revealed that local communities in the area had positive attitudes towards conservation and that their demographic and socio-economic conditions influenced people's attitudes. Local communities valued those functions of mangrove forests that were directly linked to their wellbeing. Despite human-wildlife conflict, the attitudes of the local communities were not altogether negative, and they were willing to participate in mangrove restoration. People agreed to adopt alternative resources if access to forest resources were curtailed. Respondents living near the forests, who could not afford alternatives, admitted that they would resort to pilfering. Hence, increasing their livelihood options may reduce the pressure on mangrove forests. In contrast with other ecosystems, the linkages of mangrove ecosystem services with local livelihoods and security are direct and tangible. It is therefore possible to develop strong local support for sustainable management of mangrove forests in areas where a positive attitude towards mangrove conservation prevails. The current debates on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and payment for ecosystem services provide ample scope for development of sustainable livelihood options for local communities from the conservation of critical ecosystems such as mangroves.

Badola, Ruchi; Barthwal, Shivani; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2012-01-01

181

Conflicting attitudes to corneal and organ donation: a study of nurses' attitudes to organ donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for transplantable organs and tissues is steadily increasing and action is necessary to improve the organ and tissue donation rates. Previous research has suggested that nurses have a substantial influence on the rates of donation in the clinical area. Nurses (N = 150) were asked to complete a number of measures to assess positive and negative attitudes towards

Bridie Kent; R. Glynn Owens

1995-01-01

182

The Impact of College Student Money Attitudes on Credit Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing concern among academics, policymakers and educators to address credit abuse among college students prompts a need for greater understanding of the determinants of these negative behaviors. The present study investigates the impact of individuals' money attitudes on both negative and positive credit behaviors within a single empirical model…

Moore, Marguerite; Carpenter, Jason M.

2009-01-01

183

The Relationships of Attitudes toward Multiple-Choice Tests and Convergent Production, Divergent Production, and Risk-Taking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research investigated the claim that certain intellectual characteristics predict attitudes toward multiple-choice tests, particularly the claim that creative persons hold negative attitudes toward these tests. The study examined the relationships between attitudes toward multiple-choice tests and convergent production, divergent…

Horber, Dorothy T.; Geisinger, Kurt F.

184

The Effectiveness of a Sexuality Education Newsletter in Influencing Teenagers' Knowledge and Attitudes about Sexual Involvement and Drug Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied effectiveness of a sexual and health issues newsletter written by teenagers in changing readers' knowledge and attitudes about sexual activity, condom use, and drug use. Found that newsletter reading produced more positive attitudes toward postponing sexual involvement, more negative attitudes toward using drugs, and particularly affected…

Sanderson, Catherine A.

2000-01-01

185

Prospective Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Children's Attitudes toward Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective elementary teachers hold preconceived ideas about elementary school students' attitudes toward mathematics. We found that there exists a gender bias with prospective teachers expecting girls to have negative attitudes toward mathematics and boys more likely to have positive attitudes toward mathematics. We found that these…

Schwartz, Catherine S.; Sinicrope, Rose

2013-01-01

186

Adolescents' attitudes toward tourism impacts.  

E-print Network

??Tourism scholars have long recognized the importance of understanding residents’ attitudes toward tourism impacts. Most of their research, however, has addressed adult residents’ attitudes, with… (more)

Koerte, Tammy

2013-01-01

187

High Radiation Dose May Reduce the Negative Effect of Large Gross Tumor Volume in Patients With Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the effect of radiation dose varies with gross tumor volume (GTV) in patients with stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 114 consecutive patients with medically inoperable stage I/II NSCLC treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy between 1992 and 2004. The median biologic equivalent dose (BED) was 79.2 Gy (range, 58.2-124.5 Gy). The median GTV was 51.8 cm{sup 3} (range, 2.1-727.8 cm{sup 3}). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant interaction between radiation dose and GTV (p < 0.001). In patients with BED {<=}79.2 Gy (n = 68), the OS medians for patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} and {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} were 18.2 and 23.9 months, respectively (p 0.015). If BED was >79.2 Gy (n = 46), no significant difference was found between GTV groups (p = 0.681). For patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the OS medians in those with BED >79.2 Gy and {<=}79.2 Gy were 30.4 and 18.2 months, respectively (p < 0.001). If GTV was {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the difference was no longer significant (p = 0.577). Conclusion: High-dose radiation is more important for patients with larger tumors and may be effective in reducing the adverse outcome associated with large GTV. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

Zhao Lujun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); West, Brady T. [Center for Statistical Consultation and Research, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lyons, Susan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cease, Kemp [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: Fengkong@med.umich.edu

2007-05-01

188

The Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution Scale: A New Tool for Measuring Public Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…

Levin, Lia; Peled, Einat

2011-01-01

189

Longitudinal analysis of attitudes toward wolves.  

PubMed

Understanding individual attitudes and how these predict overt opposition to predator conservation or direct, covert action against predators will help to recover and maintain them. Studies of attitudes toward wild animals rely primarily on samples of individuals at a single time point. We examined longitudinal change in individuals' attitudes toward gray wolves (Canis lupus). In the contiguous United States, amidst persistent controversy and opposition, abundances of gray wolves are at their highest in 60 years. We used mailed surveys to sample 1892 residents of Wisconsin in 2001 or 2004 and then resampled 656 of these individuals who resided in wolf range in 2009. Our study spanned a period of policy shifts and increasing wolf abundance. Over time, the 656 respondents increased agreement with statements reflecting fear of wolves, the belief that wolves compete with hunters for deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and inclination to poach a wolf. Endorsement of lethal control of wolves by the state and public hunting of wolves also increased. Neither the time span over which respondents reported exposure to wolves locally nor self-reported losses of domestic animals to wolves correlated with changes in attitude. We predict future increases in legal and illegal killing of wolves that may reduce their abundance in Wisconsin unless interventions are implemented to improve attitudes and behavior toward wolves. To assess whether interventions change attitudes, longitudinal studies like ours are needed. Análisis Longitudinal de las Actitudes Hacia Lobos. PMID:23293913

Treves, Adrian; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Shelley, Victoria

2013-04-01

190

Attitude Determination Using Two Vector Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.

Markley, F. Landis

1998-01-01

191

Attitude Determination Using Two Vector Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.

Markley, F. Landis

1999-01-01

192

Transmission of social attitudes.  

PubMed Central

Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179

Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

1986-01-01

193

Students' Attitude Towards Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' success in mathematics depends upon attitude towards mathematics. It also influences the participation rate of learners. This study was based on a survey of high school students about their attitudes towards mathematics. Students of both the gender constitute the population of this study. Sample of the study was 685 students (male = 379…

Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Shah, Syed Zia Ullah

2008-01-01

194

Intervention Effectiveness in Reducing Prejudice against Transsexuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…

Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

2013-01-01

195

Nursing students' attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania.  

PubMed

This paper presents baseline data on attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients and homophobic levels among nursing students in three Baltic Sea countries: Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. The aim is to describe and compare nursing students' attitudes in these three countries and to explore how attitudes towards HIV/AIDS correlate with background variables. The total sample comprised 471 nursing students. The respondents demonstrated average attitude scores towards patients with HIV/AIDS and rather positive attitudes towards homosexually oriented patients. Significant country differences were found, with Finnish nursing students showing the most positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients and homosexually oriented patients. Previous experience of HIV/AIDS patients was the single factor with the greatest positive impact on nursing students' attitudes. Nursing students' willingness to provide care for an HIV/AIDS patient was associated with a positive attitude towards these patients. Length of employment experience correlated negatively with general attitude, and older nursing students with more work experience showed a more negative attitude towards homosexual patients. Proper education to achieve a sound knowledge base and good nursing skills promotes a more positive attitude to HIV/AIDS. It is important that nursing students are sensitive and show respect for the patient's human dignity. There is need for greater harmonization of education in the three countries. PMID:19645805

Suominen, Tarja; Koponen, Niina; Staniuliene, Vida; Istomina, Natalja; Aro, Ilme; Kisper-Hint, Ima-Riina; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Välimäki, Maritta

2009-06-01

196

Attitudes of occupational therapy personnel toward persons with disabilities.  

PubMed

The study described in the following article investigated the attitudes of occupational therapy personnel toward persons with disabilities. The examination involved attitudes in general as measured by the Scale of Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons (SADP) (Antonak, 1981), specific attitudes toward infants with Down's syndrome, beliefs concerning the importance of favorable attitudes toward patients, and beliefs concerning the role of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) in the development of ethical guidelines for the delivery of health care services. The results of a survey of 619 occupational therapy personnel indicate that they hold a very favorable attitude toward persons with disabilities, and that they believe that a negative attitude would adversely affect the therapeutic relationship. The majority agree that the expression of a favorable attitude should be a criterion in student selection. The majority also agree that AOTA should develop position papers on ethical issues and take a public position on issues pertinent to the rights of the disabled person. Occupational therapy personnel proved to be very homogeneous on the general attitudinal scale. However, the Down's syndrome scenario uncovered significant differences among the different categories of respondents in the variables for professional level, area of practice, years of practice, and geographic location. A majority of respondents agreed that is is unethical to withhold needed surgery from a child because of disability. However, they differed on the ethics of aborting a fetus with Down's syndrome (most thought it was unethical). PMID:2969193

Benham, P K

1988-05-01

197

Panoramic attitude sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each subassembly, design analysis, and final calibration data on all assemblies for the Panormic Attitude Sensor (PAS) are described. The PAS is used for course attitude determination on the International Ultraviolet Explorer Spacecraft (IUE). The PAS contains a sun sensor which is sensitive only to the sun's radiation and a mechanically scanned sensor which is sensitive to the earth, moon, and the sun. The signals from these two sensors are encoded and sent back in the telemetry data stream to determine the spacecraft attitude.

Meek, I. C.

1976-01-01

198

Skylab attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attitude stabilization and control system for Skylab evolved from an analog controller into a fully digital processing system. Features of this system include a software-determined attitude reference to provide general maneuvering ability, an in-orbit programming capability, the use of large control moment gyros for attitude control, and the use of vehicle maneuvers to desaturate gyro momentum. The objectives, requirements, and implementations of the control system software are described, along with the rationales for certain design decisions and discussion of some system dynamics and actual performance.

Coon, T. R.; Irby, J. E.

1976-01-01

199

Predictors of Attitudes toward Disability and Employment Policy Issues among Undergraduate Students at the University of Nairobi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disability rights issues are an emerging area of discourse in Kenya. Persons with disabilities in Kenya face many barriers to integration into the larger Kenyan society possibly due to barriers such as societal negative attitudes. Research has indicated that the greatest barrier to rehabilitation of persons with disabilities is negative attitudes

Mamboleo, George Isaboke

2009-01-01

200

Health Professionals' Attitudes and Emotions towards Working with Adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) and Mental Ill Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Mainstream mental health services are providing more care for individuals with an intellectual disability (ID); this has implications for staff and service users. Attitudes of staff towards people with ID in mental health services may be negative and negative staff attitudes may have a detrimental impact on service provision. Design: A…

Rose, N.; Kent, S.; Rose, J.

2012-01-01

201

Attitude profile design program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Attitude Profile Design (APD) Program was designed to be used as a stand-alone addition to the Simplex Computation of Optimum Orbital Trajectories (SCOOT). The program uses information from a SCOOT output file and the user defined attitude profile to produce time histories of attitude, angular body rates, and accelerations. The APD program is written in standard FORTRAN77 and should be portable to any machine that has an appropriate compiler. The input and output are through formatted files. The program reads the basic flight data, such as the states of the vehicles, acceleration profiles, and burn information, from the SCOOT output file. The user inputs information about the desired attitude profile during coasts in a high level manner. The program then takes these high level commands and executes the maneuvers, outputting the desired information.

1991-01-01

202

Spacecraft Attitude Representations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

Markley, F. Landis

1999-01-01

203

Airship attitude tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered\\u000a in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input\\/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based\\u000a on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds\\u000a of the uncertainties. Using the input\\/output feedback

Xiao-liang Wang; Xue-xiong Shan

2006-01-01

204

Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing olympic or paralympic performance.  

PubMed

Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities. PMID:25544718

Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

2015-01-01

205

Perceived motivational climate, sportsmanship, and students' attitudes toward physical education classes and teachers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among students' perceptions of motivational climate, sportsmanship attitudes, and attitudes toward content and teachers in physical education. 910 secondary school students ages 13 to 16 years (M=14.3, SD=1.1) completed Spanish translations of L'Echelle de Perception du Climat Motivational by Biddle, et al., the Multidimensional Sportspersonship Orientations Scale by Vallerand, et al., and the Student Attitudes toward Teacher and Program in Physical Education by Luke and Cope. Structural equation modeling showed that perceived mastery climate is a predictor of students' attitudes toward teacher and content and positive sportsmanship attitudes. In contrast, perceived performance climate was not a predictor or mainly predicted negatively the students' attitudes toward the physical education teacher, content, and sportsmanship attitudes. These findings are discussed with regard to the implications for physical educators. PMID:19425471

Gutiérrez, Melchor; Ruiz, Luis Miguel

2009-02-01

206

Discipline stereotyping and evaluative attitudes among community mental health center staff.  

PubMed

The Adjective Check List was administered to psychiatrists, psychiatric social workers, and clinical psychologists on the staff of a university-operated community mental health center, to measure attitudes toward five mental health disciplines. Adjective stereotypes and evaluative attitudes were highly positive, although social workers tended to be more negative toward psychiatrists than toward the other disciplines. Cognitive and dynamic factors are examined in an attempt to understand discipline differences in stereotyping and evaluative attitudes. PMID:7212025

Folkins, C; Wieselberg, N; Spensley, J

1981-01-01

207

The attitudes of primary school teachers toward inclusive education in rural and urban China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the attitudes of primary school teachers from the selected rural and urban areas in China toward inclusive\\u000a education. The results indicated that, (1) teachers’ attitudes are composed of three dimensions: positive and negative effects\\u000a of inclusion, and benefits of segregated special education; (2) most surveyed teachers demonstrated positive attitudes toward\\u000a segregated special school education while supporting inclusion;

Meng Deng

2008-01-01

208

Stigmatizing attitudes towards people with pedophilia and their malleability among psychotherapists in training.  

PubMed

Offering counseling and psychotherapy to patients with pedophilia is considered an essential part of sexual abuse prevention by many experts in the field. Yet, professionals' willingness to offer treatment might be compromised by stigmatizing attitudes towards these patients. In the present study, we developed and tested a 10-min online intervention (including educational material and a video about a person with pedophilia) to reduce stigma and increase motivation to work with this particular patient group. Psychotherapists in training were either assigned to the anti-stigma intervention group (n=68) or the control group (n=69) that received information about violence-free parenting. In the anti-stigma condition, agreement with the stereotypes controllability and dangerousness, anger, reduced pity and social distance were significantly reduced after the intervention, compared to the control group, while motivation to work with this group remained unchanged. The effects persisted, though slightly reduced in size, for perceived controllability, anger and social distance at follow-up. Our results suggest that stigmatizing attitudes, negative affective responses and social distance regarding people with pedophilia among psychotherapists in training can be positively influenced by a low-cost intervention. Practical implications of these findings for high quality health care and child sexual abuse prevention are discussed. PMID:25085206

Jahnke, Sara; Philipp, Kathleen; Hoyer, Juergen

2015-02-01

209

Relationships between religiosity level and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among Turkish university students.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationships between religiosity levels and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among freshmen university students in Turkey. The Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale-Short Form and the Religiosity Scale were administered to 91 male (M = 19.95, SD = 1.48 years) and 171 female (M = 19.23, SD = 1.28 years) students. The findings showed that male freshmen (M = 19.32, SD = 4.97) had more negative attitudes toward gay men than toward lesbians (M = 17.84, SD = 5.25), p = .000. In addition, attitudes of male freshmen were significantly more negative toward gay men (M =19.32, SD = 4.97) than females (M = 17.51, SD = 5.73), p = .012. Both male and female freshmen students who had higher levels of religiosity were found to have higher levels of negative attitudes toward both lesbians and gay men. PMID:25365111

Saraç, Leyla

2015-04-01

210

Negative probability  

E-print Network

This article was written for the Logic in Computer Science column in the February 2015 issue of the Bulletin of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science. The intended audience is general computer science audience. The uncertainty principle asserts a limit to the precision with which position x and momentum p of a particle can be known simultaneously. You may know the probability distributions of x and p individually but the joint distribution makes no physical sense. Yet Wigner exhibited such a joint distribution f(x,p). There was, however, a little trouble with it: some of its values were negative. Nevertheless Wigner's discovery attracted attention and found applications. There are other joint distribution, all with negative values, which produce the correct marginal distributions of x and p. But only Wigner's distribution produces the correct marginal distributions for all linear combinations of position and momentum. We offer a simple proof of the uniqueness and discuss related issues.

Andreas Blass; Yuri Gurevich

2015-02-02

211

Change my body, change my mind: the effects of illusory ownership of an outgroup hand on implicit attitudes toward that outgroup  

PubMed Central

The effect of multisensory-induced changes on body-ownership and self-awareness using bodily illusions has been well established. More recently, experimental manipulation of bodily illusions have been combined with social cognition tasks to investigate whether changes in body-ownership can in turn change the way we perceive others. For example, experiencing ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand reduces implicit bias against dark-skin groups. Several studies have also shown that processing of skin color and facial features play an important role in judgements of racial typicality and racial categorization independently and in an additive manner. The present study aimed at examining whether using multisensory stimulation to induce feelings of body-ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand would lead to an increase in positive attitudes toward black faces. We here show, that the induced ownership of a body-part of a different skin color affected the participants’ implicit attitudes when processing facial features, in addition to the processing of skin color shown previously. Furthermore, when the levels of pre-existing attitudes toward black people were taken into account, the effect of the rubber hand illusion on the post-stimulation implicit attitudes was only significant for those participants who had a negative initial attitude toward black people, with no significant effects found for those who had positive initial attitudes toward black people. Taken together, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that the representation of the self and its relation to others, as given to us by body-related multisensory processing, is critical in maintaining but also in changing social attitudes. PMID:24454301

Farmer, Harry; Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

2014-01-01

212

HIV/AIDS stigma-associated attitudes in a rural Ethiopian community: characteristics, correlation with HIV knowledge and other factors, and implications for community intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Whether scale-up of HIV prevention and care will reduce negative attitudes and discriminatory practices towards persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) is uncertain. An HIV knowledge and attitude survey was conducted in a rural Ethiopian community where HIV prevention and treatment was being rapidly scaled up. Data were analyzed to identify prevalence of and factors associated with stigma-associated attitudes towards PLWH. Methods We surveyed 561 adults from 250 randomly selected households in the rural town of Arba Minch and surrounding villages about positive or negative attitudes towards PLWH, as well as demographic characteristics, and knowledge about HIV transmission and treatment. Results Eighty percent of respondents agreed with???1 negative statements indicating blame or shame towards PLWH and 41% agreed with???1 negative statements associated with distancing themselves from PLWH. However, only 14% expressed negative responses about whether PLWH should receive support from their communities. In multivariate analysis, a greater number of negative attitudes towards PLWH was significantly (p?attitudes of the importance of supporting and showing compassion for PLWH. PMID:22553906

2012-01-01

213

Fast Quaternion Attitude Estimation from Two Vector Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. Existing closed-form attitude estimates based on Wahba's optimality criterion for two arbitrarily weighted observations are somewhat slow to evaluate. This paper presents two new fast quaternion attitude estimation algorithms using two vector observations, one optimal and one suboptimal. The suboptimal method gives the same estimate as the TRIAD algorithm, at reduced computational cost. Simulations show that the TRIAD estimate is almost as accurate as the optimal estimate in representative test scenarios.

Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

214

Attitudes Toward Women's Rights: Relationships with Social Dominance Orientation and Political Group Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the extent to whichattitudes toward women's rights are predicted by socialdominance orientation (SDO) and the political groupidentities socialist and capitalist. Respondents were 181 Australian undergraduates (54 males, 127females), most of whom were of European descent. Theresults of multiple regression analyses suggested thatSDO was the most consistent predictor of negative attitudes, although the extent to which itunderpins attitudes

Patrick C. L. Heaven

1999-01-01

215

Attitudes toward Individuals with Disabilities: Results of a Recent Survey and Implications of Those Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes toward individuals with disabilities are often negative and deleterious, resulting in decreased opportunity and chances at successful integration into the community for these individuals. The purpose of the current study was to investigate attitudes of a group of 129 individuals attending a state-wide conference aimed toward improving…

Goreczny, Anthony J.; Bender, Erin E.; Caruso, Guy; Feinstein, Celia S.

2011-01-01

216

Prediction of Attitudes towards Child Sexual Abuse among Three Different Norwegian Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the current study was to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse and investigate predictors of such attitudes. A random sample of the Norwegian adult population (n = 296), active Christians (n = 125) and prisoners convicted of child sexual abuse (n = 36) were included in the study. The results show that women were more negative

Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

2006-01-01

217

Beliefs, attitude and behaviour towards fresh meat revisited after the Belgian dioxin crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study revisits consumer beliefs, attitude and behaviour towards fresh meat consumption in Belgium after the occurrence of the dioxin crisis of 1999. The meat dioxin scare evoked a large amount of negative press, mainly pertained to poultry meat and pork. The focus of this follow-up study is on assessing shifts and persistence in consumer perception and attitude, based on

Wim Verbeke

2001-01-01

218

First Year Graduate Social Work Students' Knowledge of and attitude Toward Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined attitudes and knowledge of 96 first year MSW social work students toward older adults using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and the Facts on Aging Quiz II. Results suggest that the sample had limited previous contact with older adults and little knowledge about aging prior to admission. Students reported negative attitudes toward older adults on productivity,

Zvi D. Gellis; Susan Sherman; Frances Lawrance

2003-01-01

219

A Survey of Natural Resource and National Parks Knowledge and Attitudes of Dominican Republic Citizens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a study designed to ascertain the level of ecological knowledge and attitudes of citizens of the Dominican Republic regarding national parks and natural resources. Overall, the level of ecological knowledge was determined to be very low and attitudes toward parks and resources seemed to be negative. (CW)

Berroa, Juan Leonel Batista; Roth, Robert E.

1990-01-01

220

Attitudes of Heterosexual Students toward Their Gay Male and Lesbian Peers. Research Report #3-95.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined heterosexual college students attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, and in what types of situations were negative feelings expressed toward gay men and lesbians. A random sample of 224 residence hall students at the University of Maryland College Park completed the Situational Attitude Scale Sexual Orientation Survey, which…

Engstrom, Catherine McHugh; Sedlacek, William E.

221

Counselor Demographics, Ageist Attitudes, and Multicultural Counseling Competence among Counselors and Counselor Trainees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among counselors' self-reported multicultural counseling competence and their attitudes of the geriatric population. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between participants' attitudes of the geriatric population and their self-reported multicultural counseling…

McBride, Rebecca G.; Hays, Danica G.

2012-01-01

222

Attitudes and expectations about children with nontraditional and traditional gender roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sex behavior in boys generally is viewed more negatively than cross-sex behavior in girls. The two goals of this study were to assess attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and to explore possible causes for differential evaluations of tomboys and sissies. Eighty undergraduates completed questionnaires assessing their attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and their expectations for the future adult behavior of

Carol Lynn Martin

1990-01-01

223

Pornography, erotica, and attitudes toward women: The effects of repeated exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a widespread belief that pornography causes negative attitudes toward women, but tests of this belief are contradictory. A large body of research has studied the effect of violent pornography on behavior, but the effects of erotica and violence have often been confounded. Thus, the relationship between pornography and attitudes toward women was assessed in two correlational studies, and

Vernon R. Padgett; James A. Neal

1989-01-01

224

"Me and Maths": Towards a Definition of Attitude Grounded on Students' Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitude construct is widely used by teachers and researchers in mathematics education. Often, however, teachers' diagnosis of a "negative attitude" is a causal attribution of students' failure, perceived as global and uncontrollable, rather than an accurate interpretation of students' behaviour, capable of steering future action. In order to…

Di Martino, Pietro; Zan, Rosetta

2010-01-01

225

Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive…

Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.

2010-01-01

226

Improving Attitudes towards Children with Disabilities in a School Context: A Cluster Randomized Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Although inclusive education of disabled children is now an accepted practice, it is often challenged by negative peer attitudes. We undertook an interventional study aimed at improving students' attitudes towards their disabled peers. Method: The participants were students from the 7th grade of twelve paired schools (1509 students from 62…

Godeau, Emmanuelle; Vignes, Celine; Sentenac, Mariane; Ehlinger, Virginie; Navarro, Felix; Grandjean, Helene; Arnaud, Catherine

2010-01-01

227

Attitudes toward Research of African-American Graduate Students as a Function of Locality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that many graduate students have negative attitudes toward research. However, studies in this area have primarily involved white populations, and little is known about the attitudes toward research of African American students, despite the fact that the latter tend to attain lower levels of achievement in research methodology…

Richardson, Dianne; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

228

Effect of western culture on women's attitudes to eating and perceptions of body shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The current study investigated the effect of culture on two factors implicated in the development of eating disorders, negative attitudes toward eating and dissatisfaction with body shape. Method: Hong Kong-born and Australian-born women from two Australian universities were surveyed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS). Results: Results showed no difference between the groups

Amelia J. Lake; Petra K. Staiger; Huguette Glowinski

2000-01-01

229

Differential Sensitivity to Administration Format of Measures of Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Reluctance to reveal sensitive or socially undesirable attitudes has posed a problem for measurement of personal attributes such as attitudes toward older people. These have long been documented to be negative and likely arise both from fears of one's own aging and the modern societal emphasis on youth. In order to increase our knowledge…

Helmes, Edward; Campbell, Alistair

2010-01-01

230

Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

2005-01-01

231

Korean Speech-Language Pathologists' Attitudes toward Stuttering According to Clinical Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there…

Lee, Kyungjae

2014-01-01

232

Responses of Deaf High School Students to an 'Attitudes toward Alcohol' Scale: A National Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national sample of 414 juniors and seniors in high schools for hearing impaired students was surveyed with an Attitudes Toward Alcohol scale developed for this purpose and administered in sign language. Four factors (hedonism, concern with health, value structure, and addiction) were identified as contributing to negative attitudes toward…

Sabin, Martha C.

1988-01-01

233

The Attitudes of Primary School Teachers toward Inclusive Education in Rural and Urban China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitudes of primary school teachers from the selected rural and urban areas in China toward inclusive education. The results indicated that, (1) teachers' attitudes are composed of three dimensions: positive and negative effects of inclusion, and benefits of segregated special education; (2) most surveyed teachers…

Deng, Meng

2008-01-01

234

Impact of an Oncology Course on the Attitudes of Freshman Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous attempts to change the prevailing negative attitudes of health professionals toward cancer and cancer patients have consisted mainly of elective courses for small groups of students at advanced levels of medical training. In order to develop more positive attitudes, the Cancer Coordinating Committee at the Medical College of Pennsylvania…

Appel, Marilyn H.; And Others

235

Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

2012-01-01

236

Comparison of Drug Attitudes of College Freshmen: Metropolitan Area Vs. University Community Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A "Social Attitude Questionnaire" was used to obtain anonymous replies from 481 University of Houston (U.H.) and 470 University of Georgia (U. Ga.) freshmen concerning drug use and related attitudes. Among the most significant results were: (1) more U.H. freshmen endorsed negative statements about their parents than did U. Ga. students; (2) the…

Boardman, William K.

237

Emotional Openness as a Predictor of College Students' Attitudes Toward Seeking Psychological Help  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fear of emotions is hypothesized to be a primary reason for individuals' negative attitudes toward seeking psychological treatment. This study examined the effects of emotional openness and other potential predictors of attitudes toward seeking psychological help in a sample of 311 college students. Results of simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that gender (male), perception of stigma, discomfort with emotions, and

Noboru Komiya; Glenn E. Good; Nancy B. Sherrod

2000-01-01

238

Racial Differences in Attitudes Toward Professional Mental Health Treatment: The Mediating Effect of Stigma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stigma associated with mental illness continues to be a pervasive barrier to mental health treatment, leading to negative attitudes about treatment and deterring appropriate care seeking. Empirical research suggests that the stigma of mental illness may exert an adverse influence on attitudes toward mental health treatment and service utilization patterns by individuals with a mental illness, particularly African Americans. However,

Kyaien O. Conner; Gary Koeske; Charlotte Brown

2009-01-01

239

Emotional openness as a predictor of college students' attitudes toward seeking psychological help  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fear of emotions is hypothesized to be a primary reason for individuals' negative attitudes toward seeking psychological treatment. This study examined the effects of emotional openness and other potential predictors of attitudes toward seeking psychological help in a sample of 311 college students. Results of simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that gender (male), perception of stigma, discomfort with emotions, and

Noboru Komiya; Glenn E. Good; Nancy B. Sherrod

2000-01-01

240

Relationship between Recent Life Events, Social Supports, and Attitudes to Domestic Violence: Predictive Roles in Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between recent life events, attitudes to domestic violence (DV), and DV behaviors among perpetrators of DV in China. A total of 600 participants were assessed for recent life events, psychological functioning, social support, and attitudes to DV. Results demonstrated that recent negative life…

Guoping, Huang; Yalin, Zhang; Yuping, Cao; Momartin, Shakeh; Ming, Wei

2010-01-01

241

The Implicit Prejudiced Attitudes of Teachers: Relations to Teacher Expectations and the Ethnic Achievement Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethnic minority students are at risk for school failure and show a heightened susceptibility to negative teacher expectancy effects. In the present study, whether the prejudiced attitudes of teachers relate to their expectations and the academic achievement of their students is examined. The prejudiced attitudes of 41 elementary school teachers…

van den Bergh, Linda; Denessen, Eddie; Hornstra, Lisette; Voeten, Marinus; Holland, Rob W.

2010-01-01

242

An In-Service Teacher Education Program's Effect on Teacher Efficacy and Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in teacher efficacy and attitudes toward teaching were examined throughout a teacher education program as teachers worked to integrate new skills into their science curriculum. Correlation coefficients were calculated for the changes. Positive correlation was observed between changes in attitude and self-efficacy. Negative correlation was observed between changes in self-efficacy at the beginning of the school year and changes

Loran E. Carleton; Jenelle C. Fitch; Gerald H. Krockover

2007-01-01

243

The Olympic Effect on American Attitudes towards China: beyond personality, ideology, and media exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact that increased exposure to China during the two and a half weeks of the Beijing Olympics had on American attitudes towards China. A large N longitudinal survey revealed a significant increase in negative attitudes towards China from the beginning to the end of August 2008. Statistical analysis revealed no dominant explanation for this change, however.

Peter Hays Gries; H. Michael Crowson; Todd Sandel

2010-01-01

244

Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities at High School: Applying the Integrated Threat Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this work was to study attitudes toward people with disabilities from the viewpoint of the integrated threat theory of prejudice. This theory postulates that threat may cause negative attitudes toward a group and posits that such threat may come from different sources. To test this model, a study was carried out with high school…

Bustillos, Antonio; Silvan-Ferrero, Maria del Prado

2013-01-01

245

Chinese nursing students' attitudes toward traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined Chinese nursing students' attitudes toward and use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Survey questionnaires were distributed to 439 nursing students, 263 of whom (60%) returned them. Of the respondents, 92% had used TCM, while 48% had used TCM at least once during the previous year. Forty-five percent of respondents reported positive attitudes toward TCM use, 52% had neutral attitudes, and only 3% reported negative attitudes. The majority of respondents (76%) reported no change in their attitude toward TCM after studying nursing. Mean scores related to the adequacy of the current curriculum in TCM training and the state of respondents' TCM knowledge were generally low. Of the respondents who had used TCM during the past year, the most common use was for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common type of TCM used by respondents was herbal tea or soup. Final-year nursing students were more likely to have used TCM during the previous year, report they would like more courses on TCM, and consult Western medicine physicians before using TCM; they were also less likely to develop more negative attitudes toward TCM after studying nursing. PMID:16722501

Hon, Kam-lun Ellis; Twinn, Sheila F; Leung, Ting F; Thompson, David R; Wong, Yin; Fok, Tai F

2006-05-01

246

Attitudes Toward Mentally Retarded Persons: Effects of Attitude Referent Specificity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study involving 75 female undergraduate education majors, attitudes toward a "mentally retarded person" referent were compared with attitudes toward mentally retarded referents who were described in more specific terms (retardation severity and chronological age). (Author/CL)

Gottlieb, Jay; Siperstein, Gary N.

1976-01-01

247

Nature-based science and its effect on early childhood teachers' (K--3) attitudes toward science content knowledge and science instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that early childhood teachers often hold negative attitudes toward science content knowledge and instruction. This study sought to examine the effect of a nature-based professional development course on early childhood teacher attitudes toward science content knowledge and science instruction. Exploratory case study design was utilized to study change in participant attitudes over a five month period. Open

Roxanne Sorrick

2007-01-01

248

Testing the bi-dimensional effects of attitudes on behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour.  

PubMed

Attitudes are typically treated as unidimensional predictors of both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour. On the basis of previous research showing that attitudes comprise two independent, positive and negative dimensions, we hypothesized that attitudes would be bi-dimensional predictors of both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour. We focused on health-risk behaviours. We therefore also hypothesized that the positive dimension of attitude (evaluations of positive behavioural outcomes) would better predict both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour than would the negative dimension, consistent with the positivity bias/offset principle. In Study 1 (cross sectional design), N = 109 university students completed questionnaire measures of their intentions to binge-drink and the positive and negative dimensions of attitude. Consistent with the hypotheses, both attitude dimensions independently predicted behavioural intentions and the positive dimension was a significantly better predictor than was the negative dimension. The same pattern of findings emerged in Study 2 (cross sectional design; N = 186 university students) when we predicted intentions to binge-drink, smoke and consume a high-fat diet. Similarly, in Study 3 (prospective design; N = 1,232 speed limit offenders), both the positive and negative dimensions of attitude predicted subsequent (6-month post-baseline) speeding behaviour on two different road types and the positive dimension was the better predictor. The implications for understanding the motivation of behaviour and the development of behaviour-change interventions are discussed. PMID:25440892

Elliott, Mark A; Brewster, Sarah E; Thomson, James A; Malcolm, Carly; Rasmussen, Susan

2014-11-29

249

of Public Attitudes Energy & Environment  

E-print Network

.............................................................. 2 4. Public Attitudes toward Global Warming. Willingness to Pay to Solve Global Warming............................................................... 15 9 concerns.1 Goals of the surveys included collecting information about attitudes toward global warming

250

Attitude control compensator for flexible spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude control loop for a spacecraft uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for control about an axis. The spacecraft body has at least a primary mechanical resonance. The attitude sensors are collocated, or both on the rigid portion of the spacecraft. The flexure attributable to the resonance may result in instability of the system. A compensator for the control loop has an amplitude response which includes a component which rolls off beginning at frequencies below the resonance, and which also includes a component having a notch at a notch frequency somewhat below the resonant frequency. The phase response of the compensator tends toward zero at low frequencies, and tends toward -180.degree. as frequency increases toward the notch frequency. At frequencies above the notch frequency, the phase decreases from +180.degree., becoming more negative, and tending toward -90.degree. at frequencies far above the resonance frequency. Near the resonance frequency, the compensator phase is near zero.

Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

251

Instrument Attitude Precision Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

Juang, Jer-Nan

2004-01-01

252

Age of the emergence of negative attitudes toward strabismus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Strabismus impacts a variety of psychosocial variables in both children and adults. Poor self-esteem, lack of confidence, altered interpersonal relationships, and difficulty with employment procurement have been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the age at which children perceive strabismus in dolls and to evaluate their reactions. Methods: Three identical dolls were altered so that one

Evelyn A. Paysse; Eric A. Steele; Kathryn M. Brady McCreery; Kirk R. Wilhelmus; David K. Coats

2001-01-01

253

Implicit attitudes toward smoking: how the smell of cigarettes influences responses of college-age smokers and nonsmokers.  

PubMed

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. PMID:23479305

Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

2014-05-01

254

Low cost spacecraft attitude sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing interest in small satellites there is a growing requirement for low cost attitude sensing and control systems. The development of such a low cost attitude sensing system, suitable for spinning spacecraft is described. The attitude sensor system uses fan beam Sun and Earth albedo sensors based on those used successfully on the Active Mesospheric Particle Tracer Explorer

M. R. Leese; A. K. Ward; S. Paice; S. Heyhoe

1991-01-01

255

Smoking behavior and attitudes toward smoking among hospital nurses.  

PubMed Central

We examined smoking prevalence, smoking behavior, and attitudes toward smoking in hospitals in 1,380 respondents among 1,719 registered nurses in a large urban teaching hospital. In this group, current prevalence of smoking in hospital nurses (22 per cent) was less than women in the general population (29 per cent). Smoking nurses were more likely than nonsmokers to hold attitudes which potentially reduce their efficacy in helping patients to stop smoking. PMID:3777295

Becker, D M; Myers, A H; Sacci, M; Weida, S; Swank, R; Levine, D M; Pearson, T A

1986-01-01

256

Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

2009-01-01

257

Preferences of and Attitudes toward Treble Choral Ensembles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In choral ensembles, a pursuit where females far outnumber males, concern exists that females are being devalued. Attitudes of female choral singers may be negatively affected by the gender imbalance that exists in mixed choirs and by the placement of the mixed choir as the most select ensemble in a program. The purpose of this research was to…

Wilson, Jill M.

2012-01-01

258

Just Where's the Barrier? A New Look at Employer Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that negative employer attitudes are no longer restricting employment of the disabled. Instead, inadequate job preparation has resulted in a lack of marketable job skills in many disabled job seekers. (Disabled USA, President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped, Washington, DC 20210.) (JOW)

Ruffner, Robert H.

1981-01-01

259

Racial Differences in Eating Disorder Attitudes, Cigarette, and Alcohol Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed black and white college women regarding their eating disorder attitudes and use of cigarettes and alcohol. Black women used substances significantly less than whites. Substance use related to eating disorder symptoms. Women at highest risk of eating disorders reported highest levels of substance use. Negative affect reduction and weight…

Granner, Michelle L.; Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.

2001-01-01

260

Age Differences in Alcohol and Cocaine Expectancies and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive and negative expectancies regarding the behavioral effects of alcohol and cocaine were assessed and used to predict attitudes toward their use across four age groups. Children and adolescents appeared to overgeneralize their beliefs about alcohol to a less familiar drug, cocaine, perceiving the effects of the two drugs similarly. Only…

Sigelman, Carol K.; Weir, Catherine; Davies, Elizabeth; Silk, Alyson

2002-01-01

261

Environmental Attitudes in the Elementary Grades: A Bibliographic Essay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ecological or environmental programs integrated into science courses in the elementary grades can make children aware that they can have either a positive or a negative effect on their environment. The following bibliography was compiled from articles and dissertations on environmental education and children's awareness, attitudes, and perceptions…

Wagner, Elaine

262

Relationship between attitudes toward life and death among elderly women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To replicate and extend J. Durlak's earlier study with high school and college students, 39 female residents from retirement and nursing homes (mean age = 76 yr.) were given the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and 2 attitude scales employed by V. Frankl to measure purpose in life and personal fear of death. A significant negative correlation was obtained between purpose

Joseph A. Durlak

1973-01-01

263

Attitudes of Dental Hygiene Students toward Individuals with AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…

Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.

1992-01-01

264

The Illness Attitude Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) were developed by Robert Kellner as a clinimetric index for measuring hypochondriacal fears and beliefs (worry about illness, concerns about pain, health habits, hypochondriacal beliefs, thanatophobia, disease phobia, bodily preoccupations, treatment experience and effects of symptoms). The IAS have been extensively used in the past two decades, but there has been no comprehensive review

Laura Sirri; Silvana Grandi; Giovanni A. Fava

2008-01-01

265

Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

266

Age and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses age differences in public attitudes toward public schools from recent Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll. For example, the biggest problem facing schools identified by those 50 and older is discipline, whereas those between 18 and 29 identified finance. Both age groups strongly support public schools. (PKP)

Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

2003-01-01

267

Thoughts on Attitude Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner…

Reid, Norman

2006-01-01

268

Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

Tracy Dietz

269

Attitudes towards Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike in many other countries, physics in secondary education in Scotland is highly popular, with large numbers opting for study at the Higher Grade from which entry to higher education is possible. This paper reports a project which explored attitudes towards physics in Scotland, looking at students aged from about 10 to 20 years old. Overall, over 850 school pupils were surveyed along with 208 level 1 and 2 university physics students. The work was carried out mainly by use of questionnaires and interviewing. The approach allowed the development of 'snap shots' of attitudes held by pupils simultaneously at various stages of education. These attitudes can be compared at the different stages, although care must be taken in such comparison to allow for varying degrees of self-selection. The main factors attracting school pupils into a study of physics are described, together with the pattern of attitude changes which take place with age. From the picture obtained, it is possible to determine areas of the curriculum where there are difficulties. The enormous success of the applications-led course for Standard Grade is apparent in attracting and retaining pupils within physics, including girls. The outcomes suggest some ways by which physics curriculum planners can develop courses in physics which will prove attractive and robust.

Reid, Norman; Skryabina, Elena A.

2002-01-01

270

Attitude Surveys Document Sampler.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet presents results of a series of attitude surveys representing a variety of purposes, methods and defined publics. They range from a simple questionnaire prepared and mailed to a small group of key individuals by a public relations staff to scientifically derived surveys purchased from Louis Harris and Associates and other research…

Walker, Albert, Comp.

271

Affective Guide with Attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aective Guide System is a mobile context-aware and spatial-aware system, oering the user with an aective multimodal in- teraction interface. The system takes advantage of the current mobile and wireless technologies. It includes an 'aective guide with attitude' that links its memories and visitor's interest to the spatial location so that stories are relevant to what can be immediately

Mei Yii Lim; Ruth Aylett; Christian Martyn Jones

2005-01-01

272

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

273

Attitude Is Everything  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 10 years, college and university administrators have been embracing online learning as the next logical step in higher education, but not all faculty have been on board. Studies conducted by the Sloan Consortium, an association that promotes online learning, suggest that faculty attitudes have become a barrier to successful online…

Hunt, Jazelle

2009-01-01

274

Safety: An Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes eight safety concepts developed by the author to teach safety and accident prevention in industrial arts shops and to promote more positive student attitudes toward shop safety. Stressing several general safety concepts instead of requiring dozens of rules has been found to work. (MF)

Smith, Harry T.

1978-01-01

275

Improving Attitudes Toward Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for improving students' attitudes toward reading. The targeted population consisted of second and third grade students in a growing middle class community. The problem of the lack of interest in reading and the poor quality of classroom work were evident in parent and student surveys, and teacher observations.…

Dean, Stephanie J.; Trent, Jane A.

276

Academics, Activities, Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Oklahoma high school is striving to integrate activities, attitudes, and academics. The school broadens curriculum by involving students in its performance, governance, service, and instruction via sports activities, job-related organizations, course-related clubs, membership groups, and school-service and government clubs open to all students.…

Lannert, Grace

2000-01-01

277

The attitudes of mental health professionals towards patients with mental illness in an inpatient setting in Palestine.  

PubMed

Culture plays a vital role in shaping public and professional attitudes towards mental illness. In Arab cultures negative attitudes toward patients experiencing mental illnesses are common. There is a lack of studies that investigate the attitudes of professionals towards patients in inpatient mental health settings. This study aimed to assess the attitudes of professionals towards patients with mental illnesses in the only psychiatric hospital in Palestine. A survey was undertaken using the Attitudes Toward Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS 33). The scale was distributed to a variety of professionals at the only psychiatric hospital in Bethlehem. Data was managed and analysed by using SPSS 15 (a statistical package for social sciences). The participants (mostly nurses) expressed both negative and positive attitudes toward patients, however, results revealed more negative than positive attitudes, particularly in relation to alcohol misuse, medication, patients' ability to control their emotions, and genetic predisposition to mental illness. This paper provides baseline data about the attitude of mental health professionals towards patients experiencing mental illnesses. Education and direct contact with patients with mental illness may not be enough to foster positive attitudes towards them. This may indicate the need to revise educational curriculum at the Palestinian universities and offer more training for mental health professionals in order to change their attitudes. PMID:20887610

Ahmead, Muna K; Rahhal, Ahmad A; Baker, John A

2010-10-01

278

Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral social skills training for older consumers with schizophrenia: Defeatist performance attitudes and functional outcome  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) is an effective psychosocial intervention to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and whether defeatist performance attitudes are associated with change in functioning in CBSST. Design An 18-month, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting Outpatient clinic at a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants Veteran and non-veteran consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=79) age 45–78. Interventions CBSST was a 36-session, weekly group therapy that combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem solving training to improve functioning. The comparison intervention, goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC), was supportive group therapy focused on achieving functioning goals. Measurements Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey) CBSST skill mastery, positive and negative symptoms, depression, anxiety, defeatist attitudes, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results Functioning trajectories over time were significantly more positive in CBSST than in GFSC, especially for participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes. Greater improvement in defeatist attitudes was also associated with better functioning in CBSST, but not GFSC. Both treatments showed comparable significant improvements in amotivation, depression, anxiety, positive self-esteem and life satisfaction. Conclusions CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and other supportive goal-focused interventions can reduce symptom distress, increase motivation and self esteem, and improve life satisfaction. Participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes may benefit most from cognitive behavioral interventions that target functioning. PMID:23395192

Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C.; McQuaid, John R.; Jeste, Dilip V.

2012-01-01

279

Attitude measurement: Principles and sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tools used in the measurement of satellite attitude are described. Attention is given to the elements that characterize an attitude sensor, the references employed (stars, moon, Sun, Earth, magnetic fields, etc.), and the detectors (optical, magnetic, and inertial). Several examples of attitude sensors are described, including sun sensors, star sensors, earth sensors, triaxial magnetometers, and gyrometers. Finally, sensor combinations that make it possible to determine a complete attitude are considered; the SPOT attitude measurement system and a combined CCD star sensor-gyrometer system are discussed.

Duchon, P.; Vermande, M. P.

1981-01-01

280

Impact of work experience placements on school students’ attitude towards mental illness  

PubMed Central

Aims and method Research shows that 16- to 19-year-olds express the greatest level of negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of work experience placements in influencing secondary-school students’ attitudes towards mental illness and career choices. The Adolescent Attitude Towards Mental Illness questionnaire measured and assessed the adolescents’ attitude changes. Pre- and post-evaluation questionnaires assessed changes in their career choices. Results There was a statistically significant change in the adolescents’ attitudes, especially regarding categorical thinking and perceptions that people with mental illness are violent and out of control. There was also a positive shift in their career choices towards options in the field of mental health. Clinical implications Work experience placements can have a positive impact on secondary-school students’ attitudes towards mental illness and may improve the level of student recruitment into the field of psychiatry. PMID:25237537

Kennedy, Vanathi; Belgamwar, Ravindra B.

2014-01-01

281

TRMM On Orbit Attitude Control System Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Attitude Control System (ACS) along with detailed in-flight performance results for each operational mode. The TRMM spacecraft is an Earth-pointed, zero momentum bias satellite launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Launched to provide a validation for poorly known rainfall data sets generated by global climate models, TRMM has demonstrated its utility by reducing uncertainties in global rainfall measurements by a factor of two. The ACS is comprised of Attitude Control Electronics (ACE), an Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), Digital Sun Sensors (DSS), Inertial Reference Units (IRU), Three Axis Magnetometers (TAM), Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS), Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTB), Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWA), Engine Valve Drivers (EVD) and thrusters. While in Mission Mode, the ESA provides roll and pitch axis attitude error measurements and the DSS provide yaw updates twice per orbit. In addition, the TAM in combination with the IRU and DSS can be used to provide pointing in a contingency attitude determination mode which does not rely on the ESA. Although the ACS performance to date has been highly successful, lessons were learned during checkout and initial on-orbit operation. This paper describes the design, on-orbit checkout, performance and lessons learned for the TRMM ACS.

Robertson, Brent; Placanica, Sam; Morgenstern, Wendy

1999-01-01

282

Spacecraft methods and structures with enhanced attitude control that facilitates gyroscope substitutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and structures are provided that enhance attitude control during gyroscope substitutions by insuring that a spacecraft's attitude control system does not drive its absolute-attitude sensors out of their capture ranges. In a method embodiment, an operational process-noise covariance Q of a Kalman filter is temporarily replaced with a substantially greater interim process-noise covariance Q. This replacement increases the weight given to the most recent attitude measurements and hastens the reduction of attitude errors and gyroscope bias errors. The error effect of the substituted gyroscopes is reduced and the absolute-attitude sensors are not driven out of their capture range. In another method embodiment, this replacement is preceded by the temporary replacement of an operational measurement-noise variance R with a substantially larger interim measurement-noise variance R to reduce transients during the gyroscope substitutions.

Li, Rongsheng (Inventor); Kurland, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Dawson, Alec M. (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei A. (Inventor); Uetrecht, David S. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

283

The attitude accuracy consequences of on-orbit calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude sensors by the Flight Dynamics Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science mission of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) requires attitude solutions with uncertainties of 27, 16.7, 16.7 arcseconds (3 sigma) around the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, respectively. The primary input to the attitude determination process is provided by two NASA standard fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) and a Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) 2. The attitude determination requirements approach the limits attainable with the FHSTs and DRIRU. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designed and executed calibration procedures that far exceeded the extent and the data volume of any other FDF-supported mission. The techniques and results of this attempt to obtain attitude accuracies at the limit of sensor capability and the results of analysis of the factors that limit the attitude accuracy are the primary subjects of this paper. The success of the calibration effort is judged by the resulting measurement residuals and comparisons between ground- and onboard-determined attitudes. The FHST star position residuals have been reduced to less tha 4 arcsec per axis -- a value that appears to be limited by the sensor capabilities. The FDF ground system uses a batch least-squares estimator to determine attitude. The EUVE onboard computer (OBC) uses an extended Kalman filter. Currently, there are systematic differences between the two attitude solutions that occasionally exceed the mission requirements for 3 sigma attitude uncertainty. Attempts to understand and reduce these differences are continuing.

Hashmall, J.; Davis, W.; Harman, R.

1993-01-01

284

HIV Prevention Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk for African Americans: The Influence of Community-Level Stigma and Psychological Processes  

PubMed Central

Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans’ condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma—Whites’ attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites’ attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites’ attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites’ attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites’ attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants’ values and needs, which may reduce African Americans’ mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites’ attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed along with public health implications. PMID:24507916

Reid, Allecia E.; Dovidio, John F.; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T.

2013-01-01

285

HIV prevention interventions to reduce sexual risk for African Americans: the influence of community-level stigma and psychological processes.  

PubMed

Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans' condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma-Whites' attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites' attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites' attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites' attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites' attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants' values and needs, which may reduce African Americans' mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites' attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed along with public health implications. PMID:24507916

Reid, Allecia E; Dovidio, John F; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T

2014-02-01

286

Inferring attitudes from mindwandering.  

PubMed

Self-perception theory posits that people understand their own attitudes and preferences much as they understand others', by interpreting the meaning of their behavior in light of the context in which it occurs. Four studies tested whether people also rely on unobservable "behavior," their mindwandering, when making such inferences. It is proposed here that people rely on the content of their mindwandering to decide whether it reflects boredom with an ongoing task or a reverie's irresistible pull. Having the mind wander to positive events, to concurrent as opposed to past activities, and to many events rather than just one tends to be attributed to boredom and therefore leads to perceived dissatisfaction with an ongoing task. Participants appeared to rely spontaneously on the content of their wandering minds as a cue to their attitudes, but not when an alternative cause for their mindwandering was made salient. PMID:20625177

Critcher, Clayton R; Gilovich, Thomas

2010-09-01

287

Measuring the scientific attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific attitude as analyzed and described includes the following habits of thinking: habit of accuracy in all operations, including accuracy in calculation, observation and report; habit of intellectual honesty; habit of open-mindedness; habit of suspended judgment; habit of looking for true cause-and-effect relationships; and habit of criticalness, including that of self-criticism. An example of the types of items devised

V. H. Noll

1935-01-01

288

The Pet Attitude Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It was the intention of the authors that this chapter be a resource of test and measures for the reader. The name of the Pet\\u000a Attitude Scale (PAS) (Templer, Salter, Dickey, Baldwin, & Veleber, 1981), apparently the first published scale that measures\\u000a human–animal bonding, reflects the fact that it was developed three decades ago. If it were constructed today, it

Donald I. Templer; Hiroko Arikawa

289

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

290

Pew Global Attitudes Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most social scientists will tell you that it is fairly hard to get any type of meaningful sense of public opinion on any number of important issues, so it is with great interest that the Scout Report has found the website of the Pew Global Attitudes Project. With principal funding from The Pew Charitable Trusts, the Global Attitudes Project was created with the intent to gauge public attitudes toward globalization, democracy, and a number of other crucial issues. To accomplish this task, they have conducted over 90,000 interviews in 50 countries over the past few years. So far, their work has yielded a number of intriguing reports which deal with subjects such as Islamic extremism, the war in Iraq, and prosperity in China. Visitors can view all of these reports on the site, and also take a look at the datasets used to craft each report. Finally, visitors can elect to sign up to receive email updates when new reports are released.

291

Torque equilibrium attitudes for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All spacecraft orbiting in a low earth orbit (LEO) experience external torques due to environmental effects. Examples of these torques include those induced by aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and solar forces. It is the gravity-gradient and aerodynamic torques that produce the greatest disturbances to the attitude of a spacecraft in LEO, and large asymmetric spacecraft, such as the space station, are affected to a greater degree because the magnitude of the torques will, in general, be larger in proportion to the moments of inertia. If left unchecked, these torques would cause the attitude of the space station to oscillate in a complex manner and the resulting motion would destroy the micro-gravity environment as well as prohibit the orbiter from docking. The application of control torques will maintain the proper attitude, but the controllers have limited momentum capacity. When any controller reaches its limit, propellant must then be used while the device is reset to a zero or negatively-biased momentum state. Consequently, the rate at which momentum is accumulated is a significant factor in the amount of propellant used and the frequency of resupply necessary to operate the station. A torque profile in which the area curve for a positive torque is not equal to the area under the curve for a negative torque is 'biased,' and the consequent momentum build-up about that axis is defined as secular momentum because it continues to grow with time. Conversely, when the areas are equal, the momentum is cyclic and bounded. A Torque Equilibrium Attitude (TEA) is thus defined as an attitude at which the external torques 'balance' each other as much as possible, and which will result in lower momentum growth in the controllers. Ideally, the positive and negative external moments experienced by a spacecraft at the TEA would exactly cancel each other out and small cyclic control torques would be required only for precise attitude control. Over time, the only momentum build-up in the controllers would be due to electro-mechanical losses within the device. However, the atmospheric torques are proportional to the density of the atmosphere and the density varies with the orbital position, time of day, time of year, and the solar cycle. In addition, there are unmodeled disturbances and uncertainties in the mass and inertias. Therefore, there is no constant attitude that will completely balance the environmental torques and the dynamic TEA cannot be solved in closed form. The objective of this research was to determine a method to calculate a dynamic TEA such that the rate of momentum build-up in the controllers would be minimized and to implement this method in the MATRIX(x) simulation software by Integrated Systems, Inc.

Thompson, Roger C.

1993-01-01

292

The Importance of Attitudes in Statistics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People forget what they do not use. But attitudes "stick." Our article emphasizes the importance of students' attitudes toward statistics. We examine 15 surveys that purport to assess these attitudes and then describe the "Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics," a commonly used attitude survey. We present our conceptual model of Students'…

Ramirez, Caroline; Schau, Candace; Emmioglu, Esma

2012-01-01

293

College Students' Intentions to Seek Help for Suicidal Ideation: Accounting for the Help-Negation Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has identified a negative association between suicidal ideation and help-seeking, a phenomenon called "help-negation." Help-negation has been documented to occur for both professional and nonprofessional sources of help. In this study help-seeking attitudes, stigma concerns, and perceptions of social support were examined as…

Yakunina, Elena S.; Rogers, James R.; Waehler, Charles A.; Werth, James L., Jr.

2010-01-01

294

Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men's attitudes toward seeking psychological help.  

PubMed

This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes. PMID:23668728

Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M

2013-07-01

295

Values of Catholic science educators: Their impact on attitudes of science teaching and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This quantitative study examined the associations between the values held by middle school science teachers in Catholic schools and their attitudes towards science teaching. A total of six value types were studied---theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious. Teachers can have negative, positive, or neutral attitudes towards their teaching that are linked to their teaching practices and student learning. These teachers' attitudes may affect their competence and have a subsequent impact on their students' attitudes and dispositions towards science. Of particular interest was the relationship between science teaching attitudes and religious values. A non-experimental research design was used to obtain responses from 54 teachers with two survey instruments, the Science Teaching Attitude Scale II and the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that political values were negatively associated with attitudes towards science teaching. Data collected were inconsistent with the existence of any measurable association between religious values and attitudes towards science teaching. This study implies that science teacher preparation programs should adopt a more contextual perspective on science that seeks to develop the valuation of science within a cultural context, as well as programs that enable teachers to identify the influence of their beliefs on instructional actions to optimize the impact of learning new teaching practices that may enhance student learning.

DeMizio, Joanne Greenwald

296

The Persuasive Power of Emotions: Effects of Emotional Expressions on Attitude Formation and Change.  

PubMed

Despite a long-standing interest in the intrapersonal role of affect in persuasion, the interpersonal effects of emotions on persuasion remain poorly understood-how do one person's emotional expressions shape others' attitudes? Drawing on emotions as social information (EASI) theory (Van Kleef, 2009), we hypothesized that people use the emotional expressions of others to inform their own attitudes, but only when they are sufficiently motivated and able to process those expressions. Five experiments support these ideas. Participants reported more positive attitudes about various topics after seeing a source's sad (rather than happy) expressions when topics were negatively framed (e.g., abandoning bobsleighing from the Olympics). Conversely, participants reported more positive attitudes after seeing happy (rather than sad) expressions when topics were positively framed (e.g., introducing kite surfing at the Olympics). This suggests that participants used the source's emotional expressions as information when forming their own attitudes. Supporting this interpretation, effects were mitigated when participants' information processing was undermined by cognitive load or was chronically low. Moreover, a source's anger expressions engendered negative attitude change when directed at the attitude object and positive change when directed at the recipient's attitude. Effects occurred regardless of whether emotional expressions were manipulated through written words, pictures of facial expressions, film clips containing both facial and vocal emotional expressions, or emoticons. The findings support EASI theory and indicate that emotional expressions are a powerful source of social influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25402955

Van Kleef, Gerben A; van den Berg, Helma; Heerdink, Marc W

2014-11-17

297

The relative importance of gender role attitudes to male and female attitudes toward lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that gender role attitudes, parental attitudes, authoritarianism, religiosity, contact with homosexuals, and exposure to educational influences are associated with attitudes toward homosexuals. Few studies have been conducted on attitudes toward lesbians specifically. This study investigated the pattern of predictors for male and female attitudes toward lesbians. The regression analysis on males revealed that gender role attitudes were

Bernie S. Newman

1989-01-01

298

Employing music exposure to reduce prejudice and discrimination.  

PubMed

Whereas previous research has mainly focused on negative effects of listening to music on intergroup attitudes and behavior, the present three experiments examined whether music exposure could reduce prejudice and discrimination. In fact, those participants who had listened to songs with pro-integration (relative to neutral) lyrics expressed less prejudice (Studies 1 and 3) and were less aggressive against (Study 2) and more helpful toward an outgroup member (Study 3). These effects were unaffected by song liking as well as mood and arousal properties of the songs employed, suggesting that it is indeed the pro-integration content of the lyrics that drives the effects. It is discussed to what extent music exposure could be employed to effectively reduce prejudice and discrimination in the real world. PMID:24604768

Greitemeyer, Tobias; Schwab, Anne

2014-01-01

299

Automated Attitude Sensor Calibration: Progress and Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes ongoing work a NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to improve the quality of spacecraft attitude sensor calibration and reduce costs by automating parts of the calibration process. The new calibration software can autonomously preview data quality over a given time span, select a subset of the data for processing, perform the requested calibration, and output a report. This level of automation is currently being implemented for two specific applications: inertial reference unit (IRU) calibration and sensor alignment calibration. The IRU calibration utility makes use of a sequential version of the Davenport algorithm. This utility has been successfully tested with simulated and actual flight data. The alignment calibration is still in the early testing stage. Both utilities will be incorporated into the institutional attitude ground support system.

Sedlak, Joseph; Hashmall, Joseph

2004-01-01

300

COBE ground segment attitude determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was launched in November 1989 by NASA to survey the sky for primordial radiation left from the Big Bang explosion. The success of the mission requires an accurate determination of the spacecraft attitude. While the accuracy of the attitude obtained from the attitude sensors is adequate for two of the experiments, the higher accuracy required by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is obtained by using the DIRBE instrument as a special type of star sensor. Presented here is an overview of the attitude processing algorithms used at the Cosmology Data Analysis Center (CDAC) and the results obtained from the flight data.

Kumar, V. K.; Freedman, I.; Wright, E. L.; Patt, F. S.

1991-01-01

301

Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes, Concerns and Sentiments about Inclusive Education: An International Comparison of Novice Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the nature of concerns and attitudes held by pre-service teachers regarding inclusive education and their degree of comfort on interaction with people with disabilities. Pre-service training may be the optimal time to address educators' concerns and alter any negative attitudes about inclusive education. This paper reports…

Sharma, Umesh; Forlin, Chris; Loreman, Tim; Earle, Chris

2006-01-01

302

Public attitudes toward depression and seeking professional help: baseline survey prior to the OSPI intervention in four European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public attitudes with regard to mental illness strongly impact upon whether and how professional help is sought by people affected and are important to understand stigmatisation. Several studies indicate rather negative attitudes among the general population, which, however, may be amenable to change. We undertook a general population survey in four European countries participating in the OSPI project, prior to

G Scheerder; C Van Audenhove; E Arensman

2010-01-01

303

Knowledge and attitudes of nurses on pressure ulcer prevention: a cross-sectional multicenter study in Belgian hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guidelines for pressure ulcer prevention have been developed and promoted by authoritative organizations. However, nonadherence to these guidelines is frequently reported. Negative attitudes and lack of knowledge may act as barriers to using guidelines in clinical practice. AIMS: To study the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about pressure ulcer prevention in Belgian hospitals and to explore the correlation

D. Beeckman; T. Defloor; L. Schoonhoven; K. Vanderwee

2011-01-01

304

Pressure ulcers: Development and psychometric evaluation of the Attitude towards Pressure ulcer Prevention instrument (APuP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPressure ulcers continue to be a significant problem in hospitals, nursing homes and community care settings. Pressure ulcer incidence is widely accepted as an indicator for the quality of care. Negative attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention may result in suboptimal preventive care. A reliable and valid instrument to assess attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention is lacking.

D. Beeckman; T. Defloor; L. Demarré; A. Van Hecke; K. Vanderwee

2010-01-01

305

An Investigation of Nursing Staff Attitudes and Emotional Reactions towards Patients with Intellectual Disability in a General Hospital Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It has been suggested that inequalities in health care for people with intellectual disabilities may be partly explained by negative attitudes of health professionals. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes and emotional reactions reported by nursing staff working in general hospitals towards caring for patients with…

Lewis, Sharna; Stenfert-Kroese, Biza

2010-01-01

306

THE ROLE OF SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS AND LIFESTYLE VARIABLES IN ATTITUDE AND THE DEMAND FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer resistance is a key barrier to the diffusion of genetically modified foods (GMFs). Several studies have shown that consumers in general have a negative attitude toward GMFs. Through analysis of a survey conducted in Israel, we find consumer attitudes toward GMFs to be context specific, differing based on the available alternatives. Consumers responded positively to genetically modified meats when

Amir Heiman; David R. Just; David Zilberman

2000-01-01

307

Ethnic Attitudes among Minority and Majority Children: The Role of Ethnic Identification, Peer Group Victimization and Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relative importance of ethnic identification, perceived parental attitudes, and peer victimization for Dutch and Turkish 10- to 12-year-olds' ethnic attitudes in the Netherlands. Found that for both groups, stronger ethnic identification related to more positive in-group evaluation, and peer victimization related to more negative

Verkuyten, Maykel

2002-01-01

308

Attitudes of university precalculus students toward mathematics.  

PubMed

To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics. PMID:15941096

Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Mji, Andile

2005-04-01

309

Introduction into quaternions for spacecraft attitude representation  

E-print Network

Introduction into quaternions for spacecraft attitude representation Dipl. -Ing. Karsten-forward and practical introduction to quaternion operation and calculation for rigid-body attitude representation other attitude representation parameters are summarized. The quaternion computation rules are supported

Berlin,Technische Universität

310

Predicting Student Attitudes and Grades from Perceptions of Instructors' Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological availability to students defines immediacy, a concept traditionally measured using ratings of instructor behaviors. However, students' perceptions of their professor's attitude toward them may serve as a more parsimonious measure of psychological availability. In fact, ratings of a professor's attitude toward students are positively…

Wilson, Janie H.

2006-01-01

311

Parental and School Effects on Children's Political Attitudes in Northern Ireland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent research has suggested that intergroup contacts with out-group members can both reduce prejudice and is associated with attitude change. Aim: This study extends prior work in Northern Ireland to examine parental and schooling effects on children's attitudes in a post-conflict environment. Sample: A large-scale cross-sectional…

Stringer, Maurice; Irwing, Paul; Giles, Melanie; McClenahan, Carol; Wilson, Ronnie; Hunter, John

2010-01-01

312

On the Propositional Attitudes  

E-print Network

of the particular attitude. Syntactically, any such sentence can be constructed from a singular term, a proposing phrase, and a sentence.2 Where 'R' represents a proposing phrase and a is any term and p is any sentence, we have raRp~} as the apparent form...' to refer to the second sentence, which appears after the 'that' merely to provide the content to what is referred to by the 'that'. The entire construction reports the content of what someone has said, regardless of how they said it or in what language...

Coleman, Keith

313

Ion Accelerator With Negatively Biased Decelerator Grid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-grid ion accelerator in which accelerator grid is biased at negative potential and decelerator grid downstream of accelerator grid biased at smaller negative potential. This grid and bias arrangement reduces frequency of impacts, upon accelerator grid, of charge-exchange ions produced downstream in collisions between accelerated ions and atoms and molecules of background gas. Sputter erosion of accelerator grid reduced.

Brophy, John R.

1994-01-01

314

Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes influence the teaching-learning process. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of undergraduate-elementary education majors at a small, rural south-central U.S. university toward gifted students. Gagne's and Nadeau's (Gagne, 1991) opinions about the gifted and their education was used. The respondents held…

Troxclair, Debra A.

2013-01-01

315

Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

2012-01-01

316

Sexual Attitudes of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the sexual attitudes of college students at a western Kansas university. The independent variables employed were gender, family structure, family sex communication, age, and classification. The dependent variables were the following subscales of sexual attitudes: permissiveness, sex practices, communion, and…

Etchison, Marilyn G.

317

Preschool Racial Attitude Measure II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The earlier version of the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure (PRAM I) had been found to be a useful measure in attitude development and modification studies of young children. This paper describes the lengthened and otherwise revised version of this procedure -- PRAM II. Standardization data are reported for 252 Caucasian and 140 Negro children,…

Williams, John E.; And Others

318

Mothers' attitudes to preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mothers' attitudes to their preterm and term children were examined and compared using the Semantic-Differential and an interview related to the experiences of mothers during pregnancy and after birth. It was postulated that mothers would show more concern for their preterm infant than their term infant, but this hypothesis was not supported by the results. The attitudes of mothers were

R. T. Bidder; E. A. Crowe; O. P. Gray

1974-01-01

319

Measurement of Attitude to Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides definitions of "attitudes" and discusses these attitude measures: (1) Thurstone (equal-appearing) scales; (2) Likert scales; (3) (Osgood's) semantic differential scale; (4) inventories and checklists; (5) preference rankings; (6) projective techniques; (7) enrollments; (8) clinical and anthropological observations; and (9) psychological…

Leder, Gilah C.

1985-01-01

320

Portuguese nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward hospitalized older adults.  

PubMed

Portugal is impacted by the rapid growth of the aging population, which has significant implications for its health care system. However, nurses have received little education focusing on the unique and complex care needs of older adults. This gap in the nurses' education has an enormous impact in their knowledge and attitudes and affects the quality of nursing care provided to older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1068 Portuguese nurses in five hospitals (northern and central region) with the following purposes: (i) explore the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about four common geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcer, incontinence, restraint use and sleep disturbance) in Portuguese hospitals; and (ii) evaluate the influence of demographic, professional and nurses' perception about hospital educational support, geriatric knowledge, and burden of caring for older adults upon geriatric nursing knowledge and attitudes. The mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 0.41 ± 0.15 and 0.40 ± 0.21, respectively (the maximum score was 1). Knowledge of nurses in Portuguese hospitals about the four geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcers, sleep disturbance, urinary incontinence and restraint use) was found inadequate. The nurses' attitudes towards caring for hospitalized older adults were generally negative. Nurses who work in academic hospitals demonstrated significantly more knowledge than nurses in hospital centers. The attitudes of nurses were significantly associated with the hospital and unit type, region, hospital educational support, staff knowledge, and perceived burden of caring for older adults. The study findings support the need for improving nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards hospitalized older adults and implementing evidence-based guidelines in their practice. PMID:24628017

de Almeida Tavares, João Paulo; Silva, Alcione Leite da; Sá-Couto, Pedro; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth

2015-03-01

321

A dynamic attitude measurement system based on LINS.  

PubMed

A dynamic attitude measurement system (DAMS) is developed based on a laser inertial navigation system (LINS). Three factors of the dynamic attitude measurement error using LINS are analyzed: dynamic error, time synchronization and phase lag. An optimal coning errors compensation algorithm is used to reduce coning errors, and two-axis wobbling verification experiments are presented in the paper. The tests indicate that the attitude accuracy is improved 2-fold by the algorithm. In order to decrease coning errors further, the attitude updating frequency is improved from 200 Hz to 2000 Hz. At the same time, a novel finite impulse response (FIR) filter with three notches is designed to filter the dither frequency of the ring laser gyro (RLG). The comparison tests suggest that the new filter is five times more effective than the old one. The paper indicates that phase-frequency characteristics of FIR filter and first-order holder of navigation computer constitute the main sources of phase lag in LINS. A formula to calculate the LINS attitude phase lag is introduced in the paper. The expressions of dynamic attitude errors induced by phase lag are derived. The paper proposes a novel synchronization mechanism that is able to simultaneously solve the problems of dynamic test synchronization and phase compensation. A single-axis turntable and a laser interferometer are applied to verify the synchronization mechanism. The experiments results show that the theoretically calculated values of phase lag and attitude error induced by phase lag can both match perfectly with testing data. The block diagram of DAMS and physical photos are presented in the paper. The final experiments demonstrate that the real-time attitude measurement accuracy of DAMS can reach up to 20? (1?) and the synchronization error is less than 0.2 ms on the condition of three axes wobbling for 10 min. PMID:25177802

Li, Hanzhou; Pan, Quan; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Juanni; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Xiangjun

2014-01-01

322

The attitudes of socially marginalized men toward physician-assisted suicide.  

PubMed

Bioethics and public policy literature suggests that socially marginalized populations may be at increased risk for overuse of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) were it to become more accepted. Yet the attitudes of socially marginalized populations toward PAS have not been widely studied. The present study surveyed a sample of men in a substance abuse recovery program. Participants completed a PAS attitude questionnaire and a religiosity measure. Support for PAS was fairly evenly split, with 52.2% indicating general opposition to PAS and 46.9% indicating general support. Greater religiosity was associated with more negative attitudes toward PAS. Higher educational level was associated with more acceptance. Overall attitudes toward PAS were considerably more negative than those of Dr. George Domino's (2003) general population sample. PMID:21375117

Parks, Louisa A; Zelman, Diane C; Wanlass, Richard L

323

Factors that influence dental students' attitudes about older adults.  

PubMed

Our study considered dental students' general attitudes towards older persons using the Aging Semantic Differential. The influence of age, gender, cohort, education, and academic exposure on general attitudes towards older adults was evaluated using a total of 328 dental students across all four years of academic standing. Students were assessed in the fall and spring semesters. The results showed differential responding on the four subscales, with slight positive ratings on the autonomy, acceptability, and integrity subscales and a slight negative rating for instrumentality. Females expressed more negative attitudes than their male counterparts, with no age differences. There was also no significant impact from a specific, didactic educational component offered to the fourth-year students. However, the fourth-year students were the only group to show positive changes across the full academic year. The results suggest that general attitudes can be changed, but didactic (classroom) forms of education alone are insufficient to meaningfully modify students' perceptions of the elderly. Exposure to older adults in a clinical setting appears to be a critical element, as the fourth-year students received much greater exposure to older patients and more intensified interface with their mentors. PMID:19126770

Nochajski, Thomas H; Waldrop, Deborah P; Davis, Elaine L; Fabiano, Jude A; Goldberg, Louis J

2009-01-01

324

Indecent Exposure: Self-objectification and Young Women’s Attitudes Toward Breastfeeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexualization of the breast may lead women who internalize the sexual objectification of their bodies to have more negative\\u000a attitudes toward breastfeeding. The purpose of the present study was to examine self-objectification in relation to young\\u000a women’s attitudes toward and concerns about breastfeeding. Two hundred and seventy-five female undergraduates completed a\\u000a survey with questions that assessed their plans for

Ingrid Johnston-Robledo; Stephanie Wares; Jessica Fricker; Leigh Pasek

2007-01-01

325

Is The Skeptical Attitude the Attitude of the Skeptic?  

E-print Network

-sense position (of the Moorean type, for instance), the last-with a thorough-going skeptical stance, and the second—with a "scientific" attitude. If that is correct, as we shall attempt to show in the course of this essay, then the conclusion that suggests.... The term 'scientific attitude' is supposed to mean 'the (impersonal, "objective") attitude exhibited in, or presupposed by, or ' G.W.F. Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), trans. A.V. Miller, p. 125. 2 L...

Paprzycka, Katarzyna

326

Knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Zambia: a questionnaire survey.  

PubMed

Misconception and stigma towards epilepsy have a profound impact on this disease in Africa. An unselected sample of Zambian people was interviewed to investigate their knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy. Proper/improper answers were scored, and a composite score was developed with negative values for unsatisfactory awareness and high stigma levels. The sample comprised 231 people residing in urban (107) or in rural (124) areas. The median and interquartile range of scores for epilepsy awareness and stigma were, respectively, -1 (-3; +1) and +1 (-1; +6). Poor education was the only significant predictor of unsatisfactory awareness (p=0.0131), while education and residency were significantly associated with stigma (p<0.0001 and p=0.0004). Rural people were mostly in the highest stigma level (44.2%) and urban people in the lowest stigma level (60.4%). Misconception and negative attitudes towards epilepsy among Zambian people reflect poor education and rural residency. PMID:24681384

Pupillo, Elisabetta; Vitelli, Eugenio; Messina, Paolo; Beghi, Ettore

2014-05-01

327

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Attitudes Toward Homosexuality: An Australian Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward homophobia, we analysed data from 4,688 twins who completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour and attitudes, including attitudes toward homosexuality. Results show that, in accordance with literature, males have significantly more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than females and non-heterosexuals are less homophobic than heterosexuals. In contrast with some earlier findings, age had no significant effect on the homophobia scores in this study. Genetic modelling showed that variation in homophobia scores could be explained by additive genetic (36%), shared environmental (18%) and unique environmental factors (46%). However, corrections based on previous findings show that the shared environmental estimate may be almost entirely accounted for as extra additive genetic variance arising from assortative mating for homophobic attitudes. The results suggest that variation in attitudes toward homosexuality is substantially inherited, and that social environmental influences are relatively minor. PMID:18347968

Shekar, Sri N.; Zietsch, Brendan P.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Bailey, J. Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2008-01-01

328

Consistency in Attitudes Across Cancer Screenings in Medically Underserved Minority Populations  

PubMed Central

While a wide range of behavioral and psychosocial literature explores attitudes and beliefs towards cancer screenings, fewer studies examine attitudes across cancer screening types. We draw on quantitative and qualitative findings from a 4-year prospective study based at a community health center serving diverse, low-income patients. Methods included self-report surveys (n=297), medical chart abstraction, and several qualitative methods with a subsample of participants. Participants included white, African–American, Vietnamese, and Latino patients who were diagnosed with diabetes, hypertension, or both. Patients’ attitudes (both positive and negative) towards cancer screening types were remarkably consistent across cancer screening types. These effects were stronger among men than women. Never having had a cancer screening was generally associated with more unfavorable attitudes towards all screenings. Qualitative interviews indicate the importance of information circulated through social networks in shaping attitudes towards cancer screenings. Condensed abstract: In a multi-method study of attitudes towards cancer screening among medically underserved patients in a primary care setting, we found that attitudes (both positive and negative) were remarkably consistent across cancer screening types. PMID:22105657

Vivian, James; Orzech, Kathryn M.; Torres, Cristina Huebner; Armin, Julie

2014-01-01

329

Delinquency as a Mediator of the Relation between Negative Affectivity and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder  

PubMed Central

This investigation examined mediators of the longitudinal relation between negative affectivity and the development of problematic drinking behavior in adolescent boys and girls. In the present study, 499 early adolescents completed inventories of negative affectivity, attitudes toward delinquency, personal delinquency, and affiliation with delinquent peers. Positive attitudes toward delinquency emerged as the most consistent mediator and strongly predicted drinking frequency in various situations. Compared with personal delinquency, both attitudes toward delinquency and peer delinquency were superior predictors of affect-related drinking. Our results also demonstrated that positive attitudes toward delinquency mediated the relation between negative affectivity and later development of an alcohol use disorder. These findings suggest that a proneness to unpleasant affect impacts adolescent drinking by heightening risk for general rejection of normative behavior, rather than by increasing drinking as a means of managing affect. The importance and implications of testing delinquency variables together in the same model are discussed. PMID:17490823

Shoal, Gavin D.; Gudonis, Lauren C.; Giancola, Peter R.; Tarter, Ralph E.

2007-01-01

330

The complexity of victim-questioning attitudes by rape victim advocates: exploring some gray areas.  

PubMed

Despite efforts to educate and create community awareness, rape myths and victim-blaming attitudes persist in society. This research explores whether advocates express victim-questioning attitudes or questions, negative judgment, or frustration regarding victims' behavior or choices. Data from interviews with 58 advocates reveal that the majority (76%) of advocates never expressed any victim-questioning attitudes during the interview. However, responses from 14 advocates (24%) show that victim-questioning has evolved into a much more complex, subtle form than historical victim blaming or acceptance of rape myths. PMID:23419277

Maier, Shana L

2012-12-01

331

Asylum blues: staff attitudes towards psychiatric nursing in Sarawak, East Malaysia.  

PubMed

This paper draws upon findings from an ethnographic study of psychiatric service users in a psychiatric institution in Sarawak, East Malaysia. Findings focus primarily on the accounts of nursing staff in relation to attitudes towards psychiatric work and patients. These indicate that despite a rhetoric of decentralized services, a custodial 'asylum' model continues to influence the care of patients at many levels. Negative professional attitudes towards patients lead to issues of both moral and physical containment. However, an associated attitude of stigma and prejudice towards mental illness impacts upon how attractive a career in psychiatric nursing is perceived to be by respondents, subject to gender differentials. PMID:15005485

Ashencaen Crabtree, S

2003-12-01

332

Sociocultural attitudes surrounding menstruation and alternative menstrual products: the explanatory role of self-objectification.  

PubMed

We extend objectification theory research to consider the relationship between self-objectification and attitudes toward an alternative menstrual product in a diverse sample of female undergraduates from the United States (N = 151). We use a survey design to investigate attitudes toward one's menstruation as a potential mechanism that may explain this relationship. Reactions to an alternative menstrual product were predominantly negative, supporting prior research on stigma and shame surrounding menstruation. Exploratory structural equation modeling revealed attitudes toward one's menstruation mediated the relationship between self-objectification and participants' reactions to an alternative menstrual product. Implications for women's health are discussed. PMID:24527840

Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly

2014-01-01

333

Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process.  

PubMed

Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change. PMID:17430368

Svensen, Erling; Neset, Gunnar; Eriksen, Hege R

2007-04-01

334

Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: A randomized, independent samples design  

PubMed Central

Background Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age18. Results Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure than for the non-exposed teen beyond .0001 alpha level. The positive media program closed estimated grade point average differences and risks of later problems to a non-statistically significant margin, p >.05. Conclusion Ratings for prenatal cocaine were more negative than comparable ratings for alcohol, nicotine or caffeine exposure. Stereotypes can be reduced, showing viewers that positive postnatal environments ameliorate potential teratogenic effects of cocaine. Reducing negative stereotypes for crack babies may be a requisite for substantive changes in current policy. PMID:16722564

Ginsburg, Harvey J; Raffeld, Paul; Alanis, Kelly L; Boyce, Angela S

2006-01-01

335

Improving facilities, transforming attitudes.  

PubMed

Providing an effective healing environment for patients facing a wide range of mental health issues, while balancing their needs with security, safety, and affordability considerations, will be key area of focus at this year's Design in Mental Health (DIMH) conference and exhibition, taking place from 13-14 May at the National Motorcycle Museum in Bickenhill near Solihull. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports, conference speakers will include the director of estates and new business at the Priory Group; the chief executive of mental health charity, Mind; architects and designers with substantial mental healthcare experience; top academics, and service-users--all with their own perspective on the 2014 conference theme, 'Improving facilities, transforming attitudes'. PMID:24783329

Baillie, Jonathan

2014-04-01

336

Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

2014-01-01

337

On the automatic activation of attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that attitudes characterized by a strong association between the attitude object and an evaluation of that object are capable of being activated from memory automatically upon mere presentation of the attitude object. We used a priming procedure to examine the extent to which the mere presentation of an attitude object would facilitate the latency with which subjects could

Russell H. Fazio; David M. Sanbonmatsu; Martha C. Powell; Frank R. Kardes

1986-01-01

338

Endurance of Undergraduate Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study assessed undergraduate attitudes toward older adults and attitude endurance 3 to 18 months after aging coursework. Survey respondents included 349 students who took an aging elective and 430 comparison students. Aging-elective students indicated more positive attitudes than comparison students. Attitudes did not vary…

Funderburk, Brooke; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Storms, Lene Levy; Solomon, David H.

2006-01-01

339

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

340

Information systems research with an attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes have been uniquely defined by each discipline that uses them and information systems (IS) research is no exception. While traditional IS research looks at attitudes toward a behavior, consumer research pursues attitudes towards objects. This study applies concepts from marketing to formalize and operationalize Attitude consistent with the marketing perspective as involvement, including both cognitive and emotional evaluations. This

Bonnie C. Glassberg; Varun Grover; James T. C. Teng

2006-01-01

341

Reducing Media Viewing: Implications for Behaviorists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American children spend an average of 6 hours and 32 minutes each day using various forms of media. Research has suggested that this high level of exposure has a negative impact on children's attitudes and behaviors. For example, media violence increases aggression in children, especially video games which allows children to be the aggressor and…

Jason, Leonard A.; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Mesina, Anna

2005-01-01

342

Measuring attitude with a gradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static attitude estimation and dynamic attitude estimation are used to describe a gradiometer composed of a number of accelerometers that are used to measure a combination of the local gravity gradient and instrument rotation effects. After a series of measures to isolate the gradient, a global mesh of measurements can be obtained that determine the planetary external gravity potential. Orbital and spacecraft models are developed to determine if, when the gravity potential is known, the same measurements, unsupported by any other information can be used to infer the spacecraft attitude.

Sonnabend, David; Born, George H.

1994-01-01

343

Modular design attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid multilevel linear quadratic regulator (ML-LQR) approach was developed and applied to the attitude control of models of the rotational dynamics of a prototype flexible spacecraft and of a typical space platform. Three axis rigid body flexible suspension models were developed for both the spacecraft and the space platform utilizing augmented body methods. Models of the spacecraft with hybrid ML-LQR attitude control and with LQR attitude control were simulated and their response with the two different types of control were compared.

Chichester, F. D.

1982-01-01

344

Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Teacher Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the teacher's guide to accompany the student guide which together comprise one of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. This unit is concerned with the attitude of people toward gasoline shortages and different steps the government could take to reduce gasoline consumption. Through the exercises, part of which make…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

345

Enculturation and attitudes toward intimate partner violence and gender roles in an asian Indian population: implications for community-based prevention.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationships among enculturation, attitudes supporting intimate partner violence (IPV-supporting attitudes), and gender role attitudes among one of the largest Asian Indian population groups in the US. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18-64 in Metropolitan Detroit. Using structural equation modeling, we modeled the effects of three components of enculturation (behavior, values, and community participation) on gender role attitudes and IPV-supporting attitudes among married respondents (N = 373). Analyses also accounted for the effects of respondent age, education, religious service attendance, perceived financial difficulty, and lengths of residence in the US. The second-order, overall construct of enculturation was the strongest predictor of IPV-supporting attitudes (standardized B = 0.61), but not gender role attitudes. Patriarchal gender role attitudes were positively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes (B = 0.49). In addition to the overall effect of the enculturation construct, two of the components of enculturation had specific effects. "Enculturation-values" had a specific positive indirect association with IPV-supporting attitudes, through its relationship with patriarchal gender role attitudes. However, "enculturation-community participation" was negatively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes, suggesting the importance of community-based prevention of IPV among this immigrant population group. PMID:24515653

Yoshihama, Mieko; Blazevski, Juliane; Bybee, Deborah

2014-06-01

346

Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

1974-01-01

347

Public Attitudes to Technological Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

Marshall, Eliot

1979-01-01

348

Videomicroscopy and Improved Student Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The improvement in student attitudes as the result of the use of videomicroscopy in the science classroom at the elementary, secondary, and college levels is discussed. The results of published research studies are reviewed. (CW)

Fedak, John; And Others

1990-01-01

349

Further Support For the Role of Dysfunctional Attitudes in Models of Real-World Functioning in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

According to A.T. Beck and colleagues’ cognitive formulation of poor functioning in schizophrenia, maladaptive cognitive appraisals play a key role in the expression and persistence of negative symptoms and associated real-world functioning deficits. They provided initial support for this model by showing that dysfunctional attitudes are elevated in schizophrenia and account for significant variance in negative symptoms and subjective quality of life. The current study used structural equation modeling to further evaluate the contribution of dysfunctional attitudes to outcome in schizophrenia. One hundred eleven outpatients and 67 healthy controls completed a dysfunctional attitudes scale, and patients completed a competence measure of functional capacity, clinical ratings of negative symptoms, and interview-based ratings of real-world functioning. Patients reported higher defeatist performance beliefs than controls and these were significantly related to lower functional capacity, higher negative symptoms, and worse community functioning. Consistent with Beck and colleagues’ formulation, modeling analyses indicated a significant indirect pathway from functional capacity ? dysfunctional attitudes ? negative symptoms ? real world functioning. These findings support the value of dysfunctional attitudes for understanding the determinants of outcome in schizophrenia and suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting these attitudes may facilitate functional recovery. PMID:20006849

Horan, William P.; Rassovsky, Yuri; Kern, Robert S.; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Green, Michael F.

2012-01-01

350

Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in coastal areas of Karachi  

PubMed Central

Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24886122

2014-01-01

351

Low cost spacecraft attitude sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing interest in small satellites there is a growing requirement for low cost attitude sensing and control systems. The development of such a low cost attitude sensing system, suitable for spinning spacecraft is described. The attitude sensor system uses fan beam Sun and Earth albedo sensors based on those used successfully on the Active Mesospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) mission. The sensors interface to an electronics module which records the timing of the triggers on the Sun and Earth, which data can then be processed for attitude determination. The system is to be flown on the Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1) currently under development. STRV-1 is to be launched in early 1993 into a Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO). The sensors and electronics module are designed to withstand the GTO high radiation environment whilst minimizing the power requirements. The electronics module are designed to withstand the GTO high radiation environment whilst minimizing the power requirements. The electronics module employs Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices which are inherently radiation hard. The way in which attitude reconstruction is performed by software running on the onboard computer or by ground based software is described. Further development of attitude sensing and control systems, including a low cost digital Sun sensor suitable for three axis stabilized spacecraft, is described.

Leese, M. R.; Ward, A. K.; Paice, S.; Heyhoe, S.

1991-12-01

352

The development and demonstration of hybrid programmable attitude control electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the course of extended life attitude control system (ELACS) research sponsored by NASA a hybrid programable attitude control electronics (HYPACE) concept was developed and demonstrated. The wide variety of future planetary missions demanded a new control approach to accommodate the automatic fault tolerance and long the life requirements of such missions. HYPACE provides an adaptable, analog/digital design approach that permits preflight and in-flight accommodation of mission changes, component performance variations, and spacecraft changes, through programing. This enabled broad multimission flexibility of application in a cost effective manner. Previously, flight control computers have not been not flown on planetary missions because of weight and power problems. These problems were resolved in the design of HYPACE. The HYPACE design, which was demonstrated in breadboard form on a single-axis gas-bearing spacecraft simulation, uses a single control channel to perform the attitude control functions sequentially, thus significantly reducing the number of component parts over hard-wired designs.

Smith, L. S.; Kopf, E. H., Jr.

1973-01-01

353

Attitude and Trajectory Determination using Magnetometers and Estimated Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simultaneous attitude and orbit determination algorithm which uses magnetometer measurements and estimated attitude rates is presented. This is an extension of an algorithm which uses magnetometer and rate gyro measurements. The new algorithm is intended for gyroless spacecraft, or in the case of gyro failures/saturation. Torque control input data is used in forming the rate estimates. Simulation tests of the algorithm are presented. First, tests were performed using the 'true' rate values at each time step. This simulated using accurate gyro measurements. Then, tests were performed estimating the rates. Using estimated rates rather than 'gyro measurements' did not significantly degrade the algorithm's performance if accurate estimates of the initial rates were available. An initial Root-Sum-Square (RSS) position error of 1,400 km was reduced to an average error of approximately 100 km within the first two minutes. The RSS attitude error converged to less than 1.5 degrees within three orbits.

Schierman, J. D.; Schmidt, D. K.; Deutschmann, J.

1997-01-01

354

TGF-? induced TMEPAI/PMEPA1 inhibits canonical Smad signaling through R-Smad sequestration and promotes non-canonical PI3K/Akt signaling by reducing PTEN in triple negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

TMEPAI (transmembrane prostate androgen-induced) is amplified at genomic, transcript and protein levels in triple-negative breast cancers and promotes TGF-? dependent growth, motility and invasion. Tumor promotion by TMEPAI depends on two different but related actions on TGF-? signaling. Firstly, TMEPAI binds and sequesters regulatory Smads2/3 and thereby decreases growth suppressive signaling by TGF-?. Secondly, increased expression of TMEPAI decreases PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) abundance, and thereby increases TGF-? dependent tumor promotive PI3K/Akt signaling. These actions of TMEPAI give rise to increased cell proliferation and motility. Moreover, signaling alterations produced by high TMEPAI were associated with oncogenic Snail expression and lung metastases. Finally, an inverse correlation between TMEPAI and PTEN levels was confirmed in triple negative breast cancer tumor samples. Together, our findings suggest that TMEPAI has dually critical roles to promote TGF-? dependent cancer cell growth and metastasis. Thus, redirected TGF-? signaling through TMEPAI may play a pivotal role in TGF-? mediated tumor promotion. PMID:25352949

Singha, Prajjal K.; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Geng, Hui; Lan, Rongpei; Venkatachalam, Manjeri A.; Saikumar, Pothana

2014-01-01

355

Attitude identification for SCOLE using two infrared cameras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm is presented that incorporates real time data from two infrared cameras and computes the attitude parameters of the Spacecraft COntrol Lab Experiment (SCOLE), a lab apparatus representing an offset feed antenna attached to the Space Shuttle by a flexible mast. The algorithm uses camera position data of three miniature light emitting diodes (LEDs), mounted on the SCOLE platform, permitting arbitrary camera placement and an on-line attitude extraction. The continuous nature of the algorithm allows identification of the placement of the two cameras with respect to some initial position of the three reference LEDs, followed by on-line six degrees of freedom attitude tracking, regardless of the attitude time history. A description is provided of the algorithm in the camera identification mode as well as the mode of target tracking. Experimental data from a reduced size SCOLE-like lab model, reflecting the performance of the camera identification and the tracking processes, are presented. Computer code for camera placement identification and SCOLE attitude tracking is listed.

Shenhar, Joram

1991-01-01

356

Students' Attitudes Toward Gene Technology: Deconstructing a Construct  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergent technologies are commonly characterized as involving cutting-edge developments while lacking wide-scale public implementation. Although currently prevalent in many applications, gene technology is often considered emergent in that the science changes so rapidly. Science educators at all levels of formal education are faced with a unique challenge of facilitating student understanding of gene technology (in comparison with more established content) as well as integrating some of the more controversial socioscientific aspects of such content into the curricula. Much of the literature regarding student understanding of biotechnology has focused on development of student attitudes toward the field and the impact of this on their learning. However, there has, of yet, been no unifying framework in the literature regarding what is meant by attitudes toward gene technology. This article reviews the current scholarship (38 empirical studies published between 1990 and 2011) on the measurement of student attitudes toward biotechnology in order to highlight major themes present within the literature. Items from all reviewed studies were collected, coded, and sorted for construction of a comprehensive instrument representing the conceptualizations of attitudes toward gene technology in all 38 studies. Factor analytic techniques were used as a tool to reduce and categorize measurement items. Results provided a framework of five factors that help describe student attitudes toward biotechnology across all the studies. This emergent framework of factors is proposed as a useful means to standardize the discourse in future research.

Gardner, Grant E.; Troelstrup, Angelique

2015-01-01

357

The Relationship among Negative Life Events, Cognitions, and Depression within Three Generations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated extent to which cognitions mediate relationship between negative life events and depression. College students and their same-sex parents and grandparents (n=171) completed measures of stressful life events, automatic thoughts, dysfunctional attitudes, and depression. Found interaction between negative life events and cognition for…

Nacoste, Denise R. Barnes; Wise, Erica H.

1991-01-01

358

'Soft and fluffy': Medical students' attitudes towards psychology in medical education.  

PubMed

Psychology is viewed by medical students in a negative light. In order to understand this phenomenon, we interviewed 19 medical students about their experiences of psychology in medical education. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were generated: attitudes, teaching culture, curriculum factors and future career path; negative attitudes were transmitted by teachers to students and psychology was associated with students opting for a career in general practice. In summary, appreciation of psychology in medical education will only happen if all educators involved in medical education value and respect each other's speciality and expertise. PMID:23988684

Gallagher, Stephen; Wallace, Sarah; Nathan, Yoga; McGrath, Deirdre

2015-01-01

359

Attitude towards antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prescription among HIV specialists  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate perceptions and attitude to prescribe Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among HIV specialists. Methods A questionnaire developed through a Focus Group and literature review was administered to a convenience sample of HIV specialists during educational courses in two Regions and an online survey in February-May 2012. Participants were classified as having a positive or negative attitude according to their willingness to prescribe PrEP. Demographic and working information, experience with HIV-infected patients, information and provision of antiretrovirals to uninfected persons, self-reported knowledge, perceptions and concerns regarding PrEP were assessed. The association between a different attitude towards PrEP prescription and selected characteristics was assessed through univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results Of 311 specialists, 70% would prescribe PrEP, mainly to serodiscordant partners (64%) but also to people at ongoing, high risk of HIV infection (56%); 66% advocated public support of costs. A negative attitude towards PrEP was significantly associated with lack of provision of information on, and prescription of, antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis; specialists with a negative attitude believed behavioural interventions to be more effective than PrEP and were more concerned about toxicity. Overall, 90% of specialists disagreed regarding a lack of time for engaging in prevention counselling and PrEP monitoring; 79% would welcome formal guidelines, while those with a negative attitude did not consider this advisable. Conclusions Although conflicting attitudes appear evident, most specialists seem to be willing, with guidance from normative bodies, to promote PrEP within multiple prevention strategies among vulnerable populations. More scientific evidence regarding effectiveness could overcome resistance. PMID:23672424

2013-01-01

360

Effects of Disengagement Coping with HIV Risk on Unprotected Sex among HIV-Negative Gay Men in New York City  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined how disengagement coping with HIV risk mediated the association between internalized homophobia and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and how sexual encounters in public venues (public sex) and drug use moderated the association between disengagement coping and UAI among HIV-negative gay men. Disengagement coping included fatalistic beliefs about maintaining HIV-negative seronegative serostatus (fatalism), optimistic attitudes toward medical seriousness of HIV infection and reduced concern about HIV risk due to HAART (optimism), and negative affective states associated with sexual risk (anxiety). Design A survey was conducted among 285 HIV-negative gay men at an HIV prevention counseling program in New York City. Main Outcome Measures Sexual risk was defined as having had UAI with non-primary partners in the past six months. Results In addition to the positive association between internalized homophobia, disengagement coping, and UAI, fatalism mediated the association between internalized homophobia and UAI; and optimism mediated the association between anxiety and UAI. A significant moderation effect of public sex was found between fatalism and UAI. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of understanding disengagement coping as it affects sexual risk practices among HIV-negative gay men in the continuing epidemic. PMID:20230094

Yi, Huso; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Shidlo, Ariel

2009-01-01

361

Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through autoclitic functions. That is, verbal communities reinforce (a) reporting general rather than specific attitudes and beliefs, (b) presentation of intraverbals as if they were tacts, and (c) presentation of beliefs as if they were attitudes. Consistency among and between attitudes, beliefs, and behavior is also contingent upon the reinforcing practices of verbal communities. Thus, attitudes and beliefs can be studied as social behavior rather than as private, cognitive processes. PMID:22478181

Guerin, Bernard

1994-01-01

362

Prevalence and predictive factors of stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV in the remote villages on the Maroni River in French Guiana.  

PubMed

Abstract The Maroni basin, an isolated region which lies between Suriname and French Guiana, has been affected by the HIV epidemic 10 years after coastal French Guiana. However, the rise in HIV prevalence was sharp with a prevalence exceeding 1% within 10 years. Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWHIV) or "suspected to have HIV" is rampant as reported by health professionals or non-governmental organisations. The objective of this article is to present the first quantitative data from the general population of this region on stigma towards people living with HIV. Data were collected in 2012 by a structured questionnaire among a random sample of 896 individuals residing in remote villages on the Maroni River. Proportion comparisons between the Maroni sample and the sample from the general population on the coastline in 2011 were conducted. Simple and multivariate logistic regression models were used to predict stigmatising attitudes. For all situations involving PLWHIV, the proportion of negative attitudes was significantly higher on the Maroni than in coastal French Guiana (p < 0.001). Findings indicate that the different levels of knowledge, erroneous beliefs and poor situation (not having electricity in one's home; not having French health insurance) were associated with stigmatising attitudes. The present data could help both sides coordinate interventions both at the individual level by improving knowledge and at the community level to change norms in order to reduce stigma and discrimination aiming for increased impact. PMID:25078678

van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Jolivet, Anne; Flamand, Claude; Pigeon, Perrine; Caudal, Johanna; Lydié, Nathalie; Halfen, Sandrine; Goerger-Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Nacher, Mathieu

2015-02-01

363

Attitudes toward buying online.  

PubMed

A survey of 11 positive features and 10 discouraging features of online shopping was carried out on 180 students and identified certain behavioral patterns for online shoppers versus non-shoppers. It was found that online shoppers have consistently stronger positive feelings about online shopping than do non-shoppers. On the other hand, non-shoppers have more negative feelings about online shopping than do shoppers, but not consistently so. Online shoppers are aware of some of the discouraging features of online shopping, but these features do not deter them from shopping online. The implication for marketers is that they should focus on making the experience of online shopping more accommodating and more user-friendly since the positive features of online shopping ("convenience" and "efficiency") appear to be more important than the negative features ("effort/impersonality"). PMID:15006173

Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

2004-02-01

364

Attitude Heading Reference System Using MEMS Inertial Sensors with Dual-Axis Rotation  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a low cost and small size attitude and heading reference system based on MEMS inertial sensors. A dual-axis rotation structure with a proper rotary scheme according to the design principles is applied in the system to compensate for the attitude and heading drift caused by the large gyroscope biases. An optimization algorithm is applied to compensate for the installation angle error between the body frame and the rotation table's frame. Simulations and experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the AHRS. The results show that the proper rotation could significantly reduce the attitude and heading drifts. Moreover, the new AHRS is not affected by magnetic interference. After the rotation, the attitude and heading are almost just oscillating in a range. The attitude error is about 3° and the heading error is less than 3° which are at least 5 times better than the non-rotation condition. PMID:25268911

Kang, Li; Ye, Lingyun; Song, Kaichen; Zhou, Yang

2014-01-01

365

Attitude heading reference system using MEMS inertial sensors with dual-axis rotation.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a low cost and small size attitude and heading reference system based on MEMS inertial sensors. A dual-axis rotation structure with a proper rotary scheme according to the design principles is applied in the system to compensate for the attitude and heading drift caused by the large gyroscope biases. An optimization algorithm is applied to compensate for the installation angle error between the body frame and the rotation table's frame. Simulations and experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the AHRS. The results show that the proper rotation could significantly reduce the attitude and heading drifts. Moreover, the new AHRS is not affected by magnetic interference. After the rotation, the attitude and heading are almost just oscillating in a range. The attitude error is about 3° and the heading error is less than 3° which are at least 5 times better than the non-rotation condition. PMID:25268911

Kang, Li; Ye, Lingyun; Song, Kaichen; Zhou, Yang

2014-01-01

366

Mental Health Stigma, Self-Concealment, and Help-Seeking Attitudes among Asian American and European American College Students with No Help-Seeking Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined whether mental health stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward people with a psychological disorder) and self-concealment are unique predictors of help-seeking attitudes in Asian American and European American college students with no history of seeking professional psychological services. The Asian American group had…

Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S.

2011-01-01

367

A Study of the Positive Impact of Parents' and Teachers' Attitudes and Expectations on Poor, Black Students Who Are Successful Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether a difference exists between parental and teachers' attitudes and expectations toward Black, disadvantaged children and a child's success or nonsuccess in reading. Finds that students who perceived negative attitudes and expectations were more likely to be unsuccessful readers. (MG)

Bonner-Douglas, Madge

1987-01-01

368

Comparison of nursing students’ and clinical nurses’ attitude toward the nursing profession  

PubMed Central

Background: To develop nursing education and promote nursing strategies, there is a need for a staff with positive attitude. The present study was conducted to compare the attitudes among clinical nurses and nursing students toward the nursing profession. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive- analytical study 313 clinical nurses and 81 nursing students (total n = 394) of Tehran, Iran, were selected through a systematic sampling method and their viewpoints were investigated using a nursing professional attitude questionnaire. Results: The findings of this study showed that 72.6% of nurses and 65.4% of students had positive attitude toward their profession, and despite the high percentage of the clinical nurses’ positive outlook, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that approximately one-third of the students and nursing practitioners had neutral or negative attitude toward their occupation. Due to the serious effect of one’s professional attitude and commitment of service, it is necessary to have further studies about the current situation to eliminate such negative factors. PMID:23853651

Koushali, Ali Noruzi; Hajiamini, Zahra; Ebadi, Abbas

2012-01-01

369

School- and community-based associations to hypermasculine attitudes in African American adolescent males.  

PubMed

This study examined the role of hypermasculinity as a form of reactive coping among urban African American adolescent males (ages 12-17) and assessed the extent to which hypermasculinity is influenced by youth appraisals of how adults in their school and community perceive them. Two research questions were addressed: (a) Do adolescent males who report negative community and school experiences use hypermasculine attitudes as a coping response? (b) Do the effects of perceived negative school and community experiences persist, if they are present at all? Participants in the study were 241 African American adolescent males who attended public schools in a large southeastern city. Associating youth-reported questionnaires on perceived teacher expectations and perceptions of community challenges from one wave of data on hypermasculine attitudes within the same year and 2 years later, the results indicate that hypermasculinity attitudes stem from negative perceptions in the community and school contexts. Also, hypermasculinity attitudes were associated with these negatively perceived experiences across time. When examined longitudinally, negative experiences in the community had a stronger relation to hypermasculinity than similar experiences at school. PMID:23889016

Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips; Hayes, Demarquis M

2013-01-01

370

Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

2014-01-01

371

Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey.  

PubMed

Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

Mbada, Chidozie E; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B; Arije, Olujide O; Dada, Olumide O; Akinwande, Olabisi A; Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Alonge, Ibidun A

2014-01-01

372

Nutritional Knowledge and Attitudes of Adolescent Swimmers in Trinidad and Tobago  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent male and female swimmers training competitively in Trinidad and Tobago. Methodology. A self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 21 nutrition knowledge and 11 attitude statements, was utilized to assess the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent swimmers. For the assessment of nutrition knowledge, correct answers were given a score of “1” and incorrect answers were given a score of “0.” For the evaluation of attitude towards nutrition, a score ranging from 1 to 5 was assigned to each response; “5” was given to the most positive response, and “1” was given to the most negative. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Results. Two hundred and twenty swimmers with a mean age of 14.56 ± 2.544 completed the questionnaire. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 10.97 ± 2.897 and mean attitude score was 41.69 ± 6.215. Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the number of reported nutrition sources (r = 0.172, P = 0.005). Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the attitude (r = 0.130, P = 0.027). Conclusions and Implication. Athletes lack nutrition knowledge but have a positive attitude towards nutrition, which may indicate receptiveness to future nutrition education. PMID:24669316

Webb, Marquitta C.; Beckford, Safiya E.

2014-01-01

373

Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Attitudes towards Mental Illness: Implications for Specific Academic Education  

PubMed Central

Background: Health care professions are not immune to social prejudices and surprisingly share the general public's attitude attributed to people with mental illness. Nursing students are future health manpower research related to nursing students attitudes toward mental illness is limited. Aim: The aim of this following study is to examine the undergraduate nursing students’ attitudes toward people with mental illness. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted for the present study. A total of 148 undergraduate nursing students were purposively selected to complete self-reported questionnaires. Results: The nursing students have significant positive attitudes towards mental illness in three of the six attitudes factors: Restrictiveness (8.59), benevolence (29.8) and stigmatization (9.18). However, these students have negative attitudes in separatism (27.1), stereotype (11.5) and pessimistic predictions (11.7) domains as they rated high. Conclusion: Academic education in this area must be planned so as to favor the change of the attitudes that include greater use of teaching strategies that challenge beliefs and assumptions and promote a commitment to provide holistic care to people with mental illness. PMID:25336767

Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Pashupu, Dharma Reddy; Ramachandra; Badamath, Suresh

2014-01-01

374

Do medical students like communication? Validation of the German CSAS (Communication Skills Attitude Scale)  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Attitudes towards communication skills of medical undergraduates can be gathered using the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). We aimed to develop a German version of the CSAS (CSAS-G) in order to explore attitudes towards communication skills in a German cohort. Additionally the potential influence of demographic factors was examined. Methods: We realized the CSAS-G and conducted a survey with 529 participants from 3 different years of study. We then carried out an explorative as well as confirmatory factor analysis and compared the attitudinal scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed. Results: The confirmatory analysis confirmed the two-subscale system revealed by the explorative factor analysis. Students indicate low levels of negative attitudes and moderate levels of positive attitudes. Attitudinal scores differ significantly in relation to gender. Conclusion: The CSAS-G can be used in German cohorts to evaluate attitudes towards communication skills. Medical students in our study show basically a positive approach. Further investigation is necessary to explore and understand attitudes towards communication skills of German medical students.

Busch, Anne-Kathrin; Rockenbauch, Katrin; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar

2015-01-01

375

Attitude control and stability analysis of satellites in earth and Thomas R. Krogstad Jan Tommy Gravdahl Petter Tndel  

E-print Network

Attitude control and stability analysis of satellites in earth and moon orbit Thomas R. Krogstad.ntnu.no ABSTRACT This project presents a way of controlling the attitude of a pico-satellite, actuated by means algorithm, designed to reduce the energy needed to control the satellite. The work was done using

Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

376

Hospital nurses' attitudes toward patients with a history of illicit drug use.  

PubMed

Negative attitudes toward patients with a history of illicit drug use can adversely affect the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship, resulting in suboptimal patient care. We examined registered nurses' attitudes toward patients with illicit drug use (e.g., non-prescription use of opioids and narcotics, use of illicit drugs) admitted to the general internal medicine unit of an urban hospital and attempted to identify nurse-specific and environmental factors influencing these attitudes. The results indicated that nurses had a neutral attitude toward working with patients with a history of illicit drug use, but respondents also had low motivation and role support (i.e., perception of receiving support to fulfil one's professional role) related to caring for this high-risk population. The authors suggest greater use of organizational tools, such as protocols, consult services and in-services, to address nurses' clinical concerns and support therapeutic nurse-patient relationships and thereby enhance care delivery. PMID:23862324

Chu, Charlene; Galang, Ashley

2013-06-01

377

Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to identify relationships between OHV rider attitudes, management preferences, and intentions toward two trail use-related behaviors (i.e., illegal use of trails by OHVs and the creation and/or use of unauthorized trails by OHV riders). Results reveal that the average responding association member has a negative attitude toward the two depreciative behaviors, intends to ride OHVs legally, and slightly prefers indirect over direct forms of management. Significant relationships between intentions and both attitudes and management preferences are identified. Policy and management implications and strategies are discussed. ?? 2011 by the Society of American Foresters.

Kuehn, D.M.; D'Luhosch, P. D.; Luzadis, V.A.; Malmsheimer, R.W.; Schuster, R.M.

2011-01-01

378

Sentential Negation in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

Mowarin, Macaulay

2009-01-01

379

Attitude Determination Improvements for GOES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a summary of the basic simulation parameters and results of a new study for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) is shown. The study for GOES involves the simulation of minor modifications to the current spacecraft, so that the relative performance of these modifications can be analyzed. The first modification studies requires the placement of a baseline inertial reference unit, such as the Dry Rotor Inertial Reference Unit or the Hemispherical Resonator Gyro onto the spacecraft. The imager/sounder assembly is currently used to obtain landmark and/or star observations in order to compensate for spacecraft motion and external disturbances through ground processing. The study uses the imager/sounder assembly as another attitude sensor for on-board attitude determination. Also the addition of star trackers is used to provide precise attitude knowledge.

Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis; Kyle, Arthur M.; Kull, Kathie

1996-01-01

380

Measuring attitude with a gradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores using a gravity gradiometer to measure the attitude of a satellite, given that the gravity field is accurately known. Since gradiometers actually measure a combination of the gradient and attitude rate and acceleration terms, the answer is far from obvious. The paper demonstrates that it can be done and at microradian accuracy. The technique employed is dynamic estimation, based on the momentum biased Euler equations. The satellite is assumed nominally planet pointed, and subject to control, gravity gradient, and partly radom drag torques. The attitude estimator is unusual. While the standard method of feeding back measurement residuals is used, the feedback gain matrix isn't derived from Kalman theory. instead, it's chosen to minimize a measure of the terminal covariance of the error in the estimate. This depends on the gain matrix and the power spectra of all the process and measurement noises. An integration is required over multiple solutions of Lyapunov equations.

Sonnabend, David; Gardner, Thomas G.

1994-01-01

381

Attitudes in social context: A social identity perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on attitudes and attitude phenomena occupies a central place in social psychology, but tends to focus mainly on cognitive, intra-individual, and interpersonal dimensions. The normative, group membership, and identity dimensions of attitudes tend to attract less attention. This article approaches attitudes from the perspective of research on group processes, intergroup relations, and social identity, and conceptualises attitudes and attitude

Michael A. Hogg; Joanne R. Smith

2007-01-01

382

Patients' attitudes towards the presence of medical students during consultations.  

PubMed

This study analyses the attitudes of patients towards the presence of medical students during consultations. It was conducted in a very culturally and ethnically diverse part of London. The study aimed to investigate the factors, particularly ethnicity, which influence patients' attitudes towards medical students. A total of 422 patients participated in the study, which was conducted in general practice and hospital outpatient waiting areas in the London Boroughs of Tower Hamlets and Hackney. In general, the results demonstrate that patients are positive towards medical student participation during consultations. In particular, older patients, patients born in the UK and patients with prior experience of medical students seem to be particularly favourable towards students. However, compared with the White-British population, the non-White-British population appears to be more negative towards medical student participation. This study highlights the need for patient education regarding the importance, for the training of future doctors, of medical student involvement in consultations. PMID:17594546

Choudhury, Tawfiqur Rahman; Moosa, Ali A; Cushing, Annie; Bestwick, Jonathan

2006-11-01

383

Attitude sensing of APPLE spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of attitude sensors have been used in the Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) geosynchronous satellite's control system. Sensor tasks encompass satellite attitude determination after separation from launch vehicle, spin axis orientation for apogee boost motor firing and satellite spin-up, satellite despin and sunward pointing on reaching geosynchronous orbit, three-axis stabilization, and yaw axis control during stationkeeping. Attention is given to problems encountered during APPLE deployment, of which the most serious was the failure of one of the solar panels to deploy. Pitch rotation was used to keep earth sensor temperature below operating maximum range.

Alex, T. K.; Jain, Y. K.; Philip, M. P.; Kalakrishnan, B.; Kanakaraju, K.; Kamalakar, J. A.

1983-11-01

384

Attitude measurement by artificial vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of light and low-cost airborne platforms (microlight, drones, kites, balloons,...) has led to the need for simple and low-cost devices allowing attitude measurement with respect to a reference horizon of the platform itself or of an embedded setting. A theoretical study of the conditions for measuring attitude angles from artificial vision is proposed and an original practical algorithm allowing these measurements to be performed in real time is described. An implementation in a CMOS retina circuit is also presented. These points are illustrated by experiments confirming the feasibility of the device.

Truchetet, F.; Aubreton, O.; Gorria, P.; Laligant, O.

2006-01-01

385

Differences in African American and White Women’s Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to examine racial differences in women’s attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and to offer an understanding of these differences. Participants were 224 18–30 year old heterosexual African American (64%) and White (36%) female undergraduates from a large urban university in the southeastern United States. Participants completed measures of social demographics, sexual orientation, and sexual prejudice. Results showed that African American, relative to White, women endorsed more negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Also, unlike White women, African American women reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than lesbians. Implications are discussed regarding differences in cultural contexts that exist between African American and White women. PMID:20161368

Vincent, Wilson; Peterson, John L.; Parrott, Dominic J.

2009-01-01

386

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

387

Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

2006-01-01

388

What Predicts Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Gifted?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores teachers' attitudes toward the gifted and gifted education. Specifically, the authors examine whether teachers tailor their responses about attitudes toward the gifted to fit the perceived interests of the researcher. In addition, the authors examine several potential predictors of attitudes toward the gifted: training…

McCoach, D. Betsy; Siegle, Del

2007-01-01

389

CONTINGENCY DESIGNS FOR ATTITUDE DETERMINATION OF TRMM  

E-print Network

, a contingency mode is used to allow for the continuation of the scientific mission. Attitude determination1 CONTINGENCY DESIGNS FOR ATTITUDE DETERMINATION OF TRMM John L. Crassidis, Stephen F. Andrews, F Corporation Greenbelt, MD 20770 Abstract In this paper, several attitude estimation designs are developed

Crassidis, John L.

390

Disordered eating attitudes among elementary school population.  

PubMed

Disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors among elementary school children were evaluated using the Children's Eating Attitude Test. Our findings demonstrate that students in early adolescence have disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors. We recommend screening for eating disorders in this group in order to provide primary and secondary prevention. PMID:16635782

Knez, Rajna; Munjas, Radenka; Petrovecki, Mladen; Pauci?-Kirinci?, Ela; Persi?, Mladen

2006-05-01

391

Attitudes toward wolves in southeastern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some Norwegian regions conflicts between sheep farmers and wildlife managers have increased considerably in frequency and intensity. In order to gain more insight into the inhabitants’ attitudes toward one carnivore species, opinions about the preferred size of the wolf population, attitudes and knowledge about wolves, and experience with animal?related activities were surveyed in southeastern Norway. The attitude typology identified

Tore Bjerke; Ole Reitan; Stephen R. Kellert

1998-01-01

392

Attitudes of EFL Learners towards the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Related literature indicates that the Internet has an important role and great potential in foreign language learning. It is also obvious that attitudes of learners affect learning process significantly. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of foreign language learners and to find the relationship between attitudes and subject variables.…

Aydin, Selami

2007-01-01

393

Attitude of Student Teachers towards Teaching Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favourable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers' proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect…

Bhargava, Anupama; Pathy, M. K.

2014-01-01

394

Intergroup Attitudes in Multi-Ethnic Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines racial attitudes of students in multi-ethnic schools by means of a tridimensional intergroup attitude scale. The purpose of the study was to measure attitudes with a scale which does not contain a built-in ethnic bias. (DB)

D'Souza, Mathew B.

1978-01-01

395

College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

2009-01-01

396

Young Children's Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two reliable and valid instruments to assess first- and second-grade children's (N = 100, M = 6.8 years) environmental attitudes and behaviors are presented. A series of games derived primarily from dimensions of the new ecological paradigm theory of environmental attitudes are described for the assessment of environmental attitudes. The games include felt board construction, a board game, and an

Gary W. Evans; Gernot Brauchle; Aliya Haq; Rachel Stecker; Kimberly Wong; Elan Shapiro

2007-01-01

397

Young Children's Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two reliable and valid instruments to assess first- and second-grade children's (N = 100, M = 6.8 years) environmental attitudes and behaviors are presented. A series of games derived primarily from dimensions of the new ecological paradigm theory of environmental attitudes are described for the assessment of environmental attitudes. The games…

Evans, Gary W.; Brauchle, Gernot; Haq, Aliya; Stecker, Rachel; Wong, Kimberly; Shapiro, Elan

2007-01-01

398

Police Recruits‘ Attitudes toward the Death Penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of police toward capital punishment help to shape public opinion regarding the death penalty. Prior research has not consistently identified the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of officers regarding capital punishment. This article examines that relationship, as well as the role of background factors and other attitudes.Survey questionnaires were given in 1995 to Boston area

Sylvia I. Mignon; William M. Holmes

1999-01-01

399

Magazine Exposure, Tanned Women Stereotypes, and Tanning Attitudes  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether magazine exposure is related to stereotypical beliefs about tanned women. A survey of White college women (n = 205) assessed their exposure to beauty/fashion and health/fitness magazines. Outcome variables were the beliefs that tanned women are fashionable, fit, and shallow. Attention to the tanned women’s images in health magazines positively predicted the belief that tanned women are fit and that tanned women are shallow; in contrast, attention to the images in beauty magazine negatively predicted the belief that tanned women are fit. Number of beauty magazines women read negatively predicted the belief that tanned women are shallow. The belief that tanned women are fit was unrelated, but the belief that tanned women are shallow was negatively related, with tanning attitudes. PMID:20573553

Lee, Seungyoon; Wilson, Kari

2010-01-01

400

Attitudes towards mental illness in Sweden: adaptation and development of the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness questionnaire.  

PubMed

The main purpose for the expansion of supported community care for persons with serious mental illness in Sweden was to ensure the right for these persons to live as citizens in the community. However, earlier research shows that negative attitudes towards mental illness present an obstacle for social integration of persons with serious mental illness. The aim of this study, conducted in Sweden, was to evaluate an existing instrument's (Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness, CAMI), validity and reliability. An additional aim was to adapt and develop the questionnaire to Swedish circumstances. After translation and modification of the original CAMI, the Swedish version of the questionnaire (CAMI-S) was distributed to all student nurses at three different universities in Sweden. The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90 of the original CAMI-S. A corrected inter-item total correlation excluded 20 items because they showed loading <0.43. The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient on the 20 items (new CAMI-S) that showed loading, >0.43, was 0.903. A factor analysis of these items revealed that the data could be extracted in three factors labelled as: open-minded and pro-integration, fear and avoidance and community mental health ideology. Finally, in order to reach reliable results in attitude research, it is important to measure the respondent's attitude towards the object in common as well as the respondent's attitude to interact with the object. Accordingly, it is important to add behavioural intention items to the 'new CAMI-S'. Statements exemplifying how something 'ought to be' in an impersonal way have a good degree of stability over time and place. PMID:18789039

Högberg, Torbjörn; Magnusson, Annabella; Ewertzon, Mats; Lützén, Kim

2008-10-01

401

Dating People with Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa: Attitudes and Beliefs of University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes and beliefs about dating people with eating disorders were investigated in men and women using a questionnaire administered to 752 university students. Students believed that people with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa had a difficult time dating, dates would involve conflict, and dating would be a negative experience. Students were more comfortable in casual interactions than more serious dating

Jeffery Sobal; Mark Bursztyn

1998-01-01

402

Attitudes of Taiwanese Scholars toward English and Chinese as Languages of Publication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the influence of globalization, English has almost become the default language in scientific academia. While the culture-independent nature of scientific research may result in scholars' preference for using one common language, over-reliance on English may shape non-English-speaking scholars' negative attitudes toward their national…

Huang, Ju Chuan

2011-01-01

403

Children's Attitudes towards ADHD, Depression and Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression and general learning disabilities (LD) are common difficulties for British primary school children. It has been found that characteristics associated with these difficulties can result in negative attitudes and stigma from other children, causing problems with peer relationships.…

Bellanca, Faye Francesca; Pote, Helen

2013-01-01

404

Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes toward Aging among Nursing and Non-Nursing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…

Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.

2009-01-01

405

Multiprofessional learning: the attitudes of medical, nursing and pharmacy students to shared learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The belief that the effectiveness of patient care will improve through collaboration and teamwork within and between health care teams is providing a focus internationally for 'shared learning' in health professional education. While it may be hard to over- come structural and organizational obstacles to imple- menting interprofessional learning, negative student attitudes may be most difficult to change. This

Margaret Horsburgh; Rain Lamdin; Emma Williamson

2001-01-01

406

Attitudes of hunters, locals, and the general public in Sweden now that the wolves are back  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wolf population in Scandinavia has increased from functionally extinct to about 100 wolves since the 1970s. In 2001 we surveyed four groups of Swedes to analyze the relationship between experience, knowledge, and people's attitude toward wolves. Although all groups support the right of wolves to exist, Swedes who live in areas where wolves have been restored have more negative

Göran Ericsson; Thomas A. Heberlein

2003-01-01

407

Changing Nursing Students' Attitudes about Aging: An Argument for the Successful Aging Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ageism retards recruitment of healthcare professionals to work with older adults. Negative attitudes toward older adults were found in surveying four colleges of nursing (N = 117). Curriculum enhancements at one of the colleges used successful aging as an organizing framework, developed faculty as aging specialists, and required coursework and…

Ferrario, Catherine G.; Freeman, Florida J.; Nellett, Gaile; Scheel, Jeanne

2008-01-01

408

Relationships between Exposure to Rap Music Videos and Attitudes toward Relationships among African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to (a) predict adversarial attitudes toward male-female relationships and (b) explore the relationships between traditional agents of socialization and personal acceptance of negative images in rap videos by African American adolescents. Participants completed psychosocial measures, viewed videos, and completed surveys…

Bryant, Yaphet

2008-01-01

409

Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Homosexual Persons, Behaviors, and Civil Rights: A Meta-analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used meta-analytic techniques to compare men's and women's attitudes toward homosexual persons, homosexual behaviors, and gay people's civil rights. As expected, size of sex differences varied across these categories. Men were more negative than women toward homosexual persons and homosexual behavior, but the sexes viewed gay civil rights…

Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

1996-01-01

410

Stoicism: Its Relation to Gender, Attitudes Toward Poverty, and Reactions to Emotive Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scale was developed to test the hypotheses that stoicism would be more prevalent in British men (n = 30) than in British women (n = 32) and that stoicism would be related to negative attitudes toward the poor. It was also hypothesized that stoics would exhibit a weaker emotional reaction to stories that had emotive content. All three hypotheses

Graham F. Wagstaff; Andrea M. Rowledge

1995-01-01

411

Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry and Psychiatry as a Career: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The discipline of psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career option, have been negatively regarded by medical students for decades. There is a large amount of literature on attitudes of students and the factors that attract them to and detract from psychiatry. The aim of this article is to systematically review this literature from 1990 to…

Lyons, Zaza

2013-01-01

412

Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative \\

Erin C. Barney; Joel J. Mintzes; Chiung-Fen Yen

2005-01-01

413

Television and Attitudes toward Mental Health Issues: Cultivation Analysis and the Third-Person Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A television content analysis and survey of 419 community respondents supports the hypothesis that media stereotypes affect public attitudes toward mental health issues. A content analysis of network, prime-time television demonstrates that portrayals are violent, false, and negative. The mentally disordered are portrayed as 10 times more likely…

Diefenbach, Donald L.; West, Mark D.

2007-01-01

414

High School Students' Attitudes towards Spiders: A Cross-Cultural Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spiders are traditionally considered to be among the least popular of animals. Current evidence suggests that a negative attitude towards spiders could be influenced by both cultural and evolutionary pressures. Some researchers suggest that science education activities could positively influence students' perceptions of spiders. Their evidence is,…

Prokop, Pavol; Tolarovicova, Andrea; Camerik, Anne M.; Peterkova, Viera

2010-01-01

415

Automatically Determining Attitude Type and Force for Sentiment Analysis Shlomo Argamon  

E-print Network

in sentiment analysis has begun to apply fine-grained semantic distinctions between expressions of attitude expresses appreciation of an object's quality, while evil expresses a negative judgement of social behavior include market research, customer rela- tionship management, and intelligence analysis. Critical

Sebastiani, Fabrizio

416

Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

2009-01-01

417

Teacher Attitudes toward Staff Development and Related Activities in a Rural Educational Consortium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the findings of a study conducted to investigate negative teacher attitudes toward staff development as mandated by the Mississippi Educational Reform Act of 1982. The East Mississippi Center for Educational Development is a consortium of 16 rural school districts and the Meridian Branch of Mississippi State University. The…

Amos, Neil G.; Benton, Gary J.

418

Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…

Black, Kathy

2007-01-01

419

The Importance of Attitudes toward and Understanding of Disability and Science in the Age of Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports concerns among disability community members that the implications of genetic research will be driven by mistaken beliefs about genetics and negative attitudes toward disability as identified in a qualitative study funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute. In addition to reporting the nature and the context of…

Stowe, Matthew J.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford; Pence, Ray; Rack, Jennifer; Schrandt, Suzanne; Laub, Lesley

2007-01-01

420

Tal Como Somos/just as we are: an educational film to reduce stigma toward gay and bisexual men, transgender individuals, and persons living with HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

In this article, the authors describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively influence attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting, and film festivals. PMID:24377496

Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Manjarrez, Dianna

2014-04-01

421

Dramatic events and attitude change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two quasi-experimental field studies tested the potentiality of dramatic events to change the racial attitudes of White Texas adults. Exp I investigated the effects of the 1957 desegregation crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas, using data from interviews conducted with 686 and 682 White Texans in August and December 1957, respectively. Some overall change toward greater compliance with desegregation occurred, but

Robert T. Riley; Thomas F. Pettigrew

1976-01-01

422

Consumer attitude toward food irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person.

Bruhn, C.M.M.

1986-01-01

423

Changing attitudes in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

Martiradonna, Luigi

2014-04-01

424

Precision tethered satellite attitude control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tethered spacecraft possess unique dynamic characteristics which make them advantageous for certain classes of experiments. One use for which tethers are particularly well suited is to provide an isolated platform for spaceborne observatories. The advantages of tethering a pointing platform 1 or 2 km from a space shuttle or space station are that, compared to placing the observatory on the parent spacecraft, vibrational disturbances are attenuated and contamination is eliminated. In practice, all satellites have some requirement on the attitude control of the spacecraft, and tethered satellites are no exception. It has previously been shown that conventional means of performing attitude control for tethered satellites are insufficient for any mission with pointing requirements more stringent than about 1 deg. This is due mainly to the relatively large force applied by the tether to the spacecraft. A particularly effective method of implementing attitude control for tethered satellites is to use this tether tension force to generate control torques by moving the tether attach point relative to the subsatellite center of mass. A demonstration of this attitude control technique on an astrophysical pointing platform has been proposed for a space shuttle flight test project and is referred to as the Kinetic Isolation Tether Experiment (KITE).

Kline-Schoder, Robert J.

1990-03-01

425

Changing Adolescent Attitudes toward Stuttering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Live oral or recorded video presentations on stuttering were delivered to high school students in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes toward stuttering could be improved. Methods: A classroom teacher administered the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") to two health classes before and…

Flynn, Timothy W.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.

2011-01-01

426

Changing Attitudes Through Behavior Modification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the philosophy and methods used by the staff at the Granite Alternative School in changing student attitudes through behavior modification. The students involved all have a failure syndrome or low self-image, and are dropouts from traditional high schools. Among the techniques used are: (1) reinforcing good behavior (praise…

Whipple, W. Scott

427

Entrepreneurship Education: Attitudes across Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated student and faculty attitudes toward entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education. The authors collected data from 317 students and 87 faculty members at a comprehensive 4-year university to examine students' level of interest in entrepreneurial education, perceptions of motivations and barriers to startup businesses,…

Shinnar, Rachel; Pruett, Mark; Toney, Bryan

2009-01-01

428

The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes  

E-print Network

The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations Gabriel A. Almond and Sidney to answer these questions and, by doing so, to get to the heart of democratic political culture. They argued power of the ordinary citizen. The Civic Culture represented the best early fruit of a new re- search

Landweber, Laura

429

Attitude Control Working Group report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals were to establish the Attitude Control System (ACS) requirements, constraints, technology assessment, technology shortfalls, expected in the year 2000. These were based upon all missions, military and civil, for LEO and GEO. The critical ACS technology issues were identified and ACS programs developed to address these critical issues.

Reid, Daniel F.; Studer, Phillip A.

1986-01-01

430

Adolescent Attitudes towards Virtual Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine adolescents' attitudes towards virtual schooling. Virtual schooling may be defined as any public or private organization that delivers instruction via the Internet. The rationale for this study is based on the increased number of adolescents opting to complete some or all of their secondary education through…

Pleau, Andrea R.

2012-01-01

431

Personality factors and attitudes toward euthanasia in Iran: implications for end-of-life research and practice.  

PubMed

This article reports on the relationship of personality and euthanasia attitudes. Results from a survey of 165 Iranian students showed that religiosity, honesty-humility, agreeableness, and extraversion were related to negative attitudes toward euthanasia, whereas openness was related to acceptance of euthanasia, with the unconventionality facet driving this relationship. Moreover, openness explained additional variance when added to a multivariate model containing religiosity and HEXACO factors. This study illustrates the possibility of accounting for variation beyond the traditional group level predictors of attitudes toward euthanasia and promoting future cross-cultural studies into personality and end-of-life issues and informing end-of-life conversations at the bedside. PMID:24517707

Aghababaei, Naser; Wasserman, Jason Adam; Hatami, Javad

2014-01-01

432

Low cost attitude sensors for spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of two-low cost attitude sensors developed with existing technology, but with emphasis directed to reducing the unit costs without compromising reliability or quality. The solar aspect sensor was developed to determine the angle of the sun with respect to the optical axis of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Experiment Package. Using sensor readings updated every five milliseconds, signal processing electronics determine the location of the center of the sun's image on the array. An earth horizon sensor was developed to measure the nadir angle with respect to the optical axis of the SSBUV Experiment Package to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 deg. Operation of each of the sensors is described along with flight results obtained when flown onboard Atlantis as part of the SSBUV Experiment Package.

Auer, S.; Von Bun, F. O.

1990-01-01

433

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Using DNA-Fragmented Sperm in Mice Negatively Affects Embryo-Derived Embryonic Stem Cells, Reduces the Fertility of Male Offspring and Induces Heritable Changes in Epialleles  

PubMed Central

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in mice using DNA-fragmented sperm (DFS) has been linked to an increased risk of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities both in embryos and offspring. This study examines: whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from DFS-ICSI embryos reflect the abnormalities observed in the DFS-ICSI progeny; the effect of DFS-ICSI on male fertility; and whether DFS-ICSI induces epigenetic changes that lead to a modified heritable phenotype. DFS-ICSI-produced embryos showed a low potential to generate ESC lines. However, these lines had normal karyotype accompanied by early gene expression alterations, though a normal expression pattern was observed after several passages. The fertility of males in the DFS-ICSI and control groups was compared by mating test. Sperm quantity, vaginal plug and pregnancy rates were significantly lower for the DFS-ICSI-produced males compared to in vivo-produced mice, while the number of females showing resorptions was higher. The epigenetic effects of DFS-ICSI were assessed by analyzing the phenotype rendered by the Axin1Fu allele, a locus that is highly sensitive to epigenetic perturbations. Oocytes were injected with spermatozoa from Axin1Fu/+ mice and the DFS-ICSI-generated embryos were transferred to females. A significantly higher proportion of pups expressed the active kinky-tail epiallele in the DFS-ICSI group than the controls. In conclusion: 1) ESCs cannot be used as a model of DFS-ICSI; 2) DFS-ICSI reduces sperm production and fertility in the male progeny; and 3) DFS-ICSI affects the postnatal expression of a defined epigenetically sensitive allele and this modification may be inherited across generations. PMID:24743851

Fernández-González, Raúl; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Pericuesta, Eva; Calero, Antonia; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

2014-01-01

434

Adaptive mass expulsion attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude control system and method operative with a thruster controls the attitude of a vehicle carrying the thruster, wherein the thruster has a valve enabling the formation of pulses of expelled gas from a source of compressed gas. Data of the attitude of the vehicle is gathered, wherein the vehicle is located within a force field tending to orient the vehicle in a first attitude different from a desired attitude. The attitude data is evaluated to determine a pattern of values of attitude of the vehicle in response to the gas pulses of the thruster and in response to the force field. The system and the method maintain the attitude within a predetermined band of values of attitude which includes the desired attitude. Computation circuitry establishes an optimal duration of each of the gas pulses based on the pattern of values of attitude, the optimal duration providing for a minimal number of opening and closure operations of the valve. The thruster is operated to provide gas pulses having the optimal duration.

Rodden, John J. (Inventor); Stevens, Homer D. (Inventor); Carrou, Stephane (Inventor)

2001-01-01

435

Flight Test of Attitude Determination System using Multiple GPS Antennae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or inexpensive airplanes, such as a Cessna single engine aircraft, require a navigation system with a cheap, compact and precise sensor. Over the past ten years, GPS receivers have begun to be used as primary or alternative navigation sensors, because their use can significantly reduce the overall system cost. This paper describes a navigation system incorporating a velocity-based attitude estimation system with an attitude determination system using multiple antennae, which was implemented and tested using a UAV. The main objective was to obtain precise attitude information using low cost GPS OEM boards and antennae. Attitude boundaries are derived from the relationship between the body frame and the wind coordinates, which are used to validate the resolved cycle ambiguity in an Euler angle domain. Angular rate based on Doppler measurements was used to exclude the degenerate pseudo-roll angle information during severe uncoordinated flight. Searching for cycle ambiguity at every epoch of the flight showed that the developed system gave reliable cycle integer solutions, although the carrier phase measurement was subject to additional errors, such as multipath, external interference, and phase centre variation. A flight test was performed using a 1/4-scale Piper J3 Cub model, CMC Allstar OEM boards, OEM AT575-70 antennae, and 700 MHz PC104 board.

Jang, Jaegyu; Kee, Changdon

2006-01-01

436

Flight results of a low-cost attitude determination system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents flight results of the attitude determination system (ADS) flown on the Radio Aurora Explorer (RAX) satellites, RAX-1 and RAX-2, which are CubeSats developed to study space weather. The ADS sensors include commercial-off-the-shelf magnetometers, coarse sun sensors (photodiodes), and a MEMs rate gyroscope. A multiplicative extended Kalman filter is used for attitude estimation. On-orbit calibration was developed and applied to compensate for sensor and alignment errors, and attitude determination accuracies of 0.5° 1-? have been demonstrated on-orbit. The approach of using low-cost sensors in conjunction with on-orbit calibration, which mitigates the need for pre-flight calibration and high-tolerance alignment during spacecraft assembly, reduces the time and cost associated with the subsystem development, and provides a low-cost solution for modest attitude determination requirements. Although the flight results presented in this paper are from a specific mission, the methods used and lessons learned can be used to maximize the performance of the ADS of any vehicle while minimizing the pre-flight calibration and alignment requirements.

Springmann, John C.; Cutler, James W.

2014-06-01

437

Stellar Gyroscope for Determining Attitude of a Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper introduces the concept of a stellar gyroscope, currently at an early stage of development, for determining the attitude or spin axis, and spin rate of a spacecraft. Like star trackers, which are commercially available, a stellar gyroscope would capture and process images of stars to determine the orientation of a spacecraft in celestial coordinates. Star trackers utilize chargecoupled devices as image detectors and are capable of tracking attitudes at spin rates of no more than a few degrees per second and update rates typically <5 Hz. In contrast, a stellar gyroscope would utilize an activepixel sensor as an image detector and would be capable of tracking attitude at a slew rate as high as 50 deg/s, with an update rate as high as 200 Hz. Moreover, a stellar gyroscope would be capable of measuring a slew rate up to 420 deg/s. Whereas a Sun sensor and a three-axis mechanical gyroscope are typically needed to complement a star tracker, a stellar gyroscope would function without them; consequently, the mass, power consumption, and mechanical complexity of an attitude-determination system could be reduced considerably.

Pain, Bedabrata; Hancock, Bruce; Liebe, Carl; Mellstrom, Jeffrey

2005-01-01

438

FROM BIAS TO BISEXUAL HEALTH DISPARITIES: ATTITUDES TOWARD BISEXUAL MEN AND WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES  

PubMed Central

PUROPSE A newly emergent literature suggest that bisexual men and women face profound health disparities in comparison to both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Additionally, bisexual individuals often experience prejudice, stigma, and discrimination from both gay/lesbian and straight communities, termed “biphobia.” However, only limited research exists that empirically tests the extent and predictors of this double discrimination. The Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Survey (BIAS) was developed to test associations between biphobia and sexual identity. METHODS Using standard techniques, we developed and administered a scale to a purposive online sample of adults from a wide range of social networking websites. We conducted exploratory factor analysis to refine scales assessing attitudes toward bisexual men and bisexual women, respectively. Using generalized linear modeling, we assessed relationships between BIAS scores and sexual identity, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS Two separately gendered scales were developed, administered, and refined: BIAS-m (n=645), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual men; and BIAS-f (n=631), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual women. Across scales, sexual identity significantly predicted response variance. Lesbian/gay respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their heterosexual counterparts (all p-values <.05); bisexual respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their straight counterparts (all p-values <.001); and bisexual respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their lesbian/gay counterparts (all p-values <.05). Within racial/ethnic minority respondents, biracial/multiracial status was associated with lower bi-negativity scores (all p-values <.05). CONCLUSION This study provides important quantitative support for theories related to biphobia and double discrimination. Our findings provide strong evidence for understanding how stereotypes and stigma may lead to dramatic disparities in depression, anxiety, stress, and other health outcomes among bisexual individuals in comparison to their heterosexual and homosexual counterparts. Our results yield valuable data for informing social awareness and intervention efforts that aim to decrease bi-negative attitudes within both straight and gay/lesbian communities, with the ultimate goal of alleviating health disparities among bisexual men and women. PMID:25568885

Friedman, M. Reuel; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Hubach, Randolph; Bowling, Jessamyn; Goncalves, Gabriel; Krier, Sarah; Reece, Michael

2014-01-01

439

Psychological effects of rapid weight loss and attitudes towards eating among professional jockeys.  

PubMed

We examined the psychological effects of rapid weight loss among a sample of 41 professional jockeys (mean age 30.9 years, s = 7.0). Participants completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) to establish the relationships between rapid weight loss, mood, and attitudes towards eating. These instruments were administered on three occasions: at the jockeys' minimal weight (achieved through rapid weight loss), their optimal riding weight (when they were not excessively restricting their weight and felt healthy), and their relaxed weight (when there were no forthcoming light rides or no rides at all). It was hypothesized that when riding at minimal weight, jockeys would record a more negative mood profile compared with scores recorded at optimal or relaxed weights. The same trend was expected for eating attitudes. These hypotheses were supported as jockeys reported significantly more negative mood profiles and eating attitudes at minimal weight. The EAT-26 scores indicated the presence of disordered attitudes towards eating at this weight. These results suggest that jockeys' endeavours to reach the minimum weight limit stipulated by governing bodies are likely to jeopardize their psychological well-being. Dialogue surrounding the appropriateness of current weight regulations is therefore encouraged. PMID:18569553

Caulfield, Michael J; Karageorghis, Costas I

2008-07-01

440

Changes in resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.  

PubMed

Negative attitudes of resident communities towards conservation are associated with resource decline in developing countries. In Botswana, Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) was adopted to address this challenge. CBNRM links rural development and conservation. However, the impact of CBNRM on changes of resident attitudes towards conservation and tourism is not adequately researched. This paper, therefore, assesses the impacts of CBNRM on resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. The study purposively sampled villages of Khwai, Mababe and Sankoyo. Household data using variables like: economic benefits from CBNRM; level of satisfaction with CBNRM; co-management of natural resources between resident communities and government agencies; and collective action was collected. This data was supplemented by secondary and ethnographic data. Using qualitative and quantitative analysis, results indicate changes in resident attitudes from being negative to positive towards tourism and conservation. These changes are triggered by economic benefits residents derived from CBNRM, co-management in resource management; and, collective action of communities in CBNRM development. Positive attitudes towards conservation and tourism are the first building blocks towards achieving conservation in nature-based tourism destinations. As a result, decision-makers should give priority to CBNRM and use it as a tool to achieve conservation and improved livelihoods in nature-based tourism destinations of developing countries. PMID:21482448

Mbaiwa, Joseph E; Stronza, Amanda L

2011-08-01

441

Attitude motion of a non-attitude-controlled cylindrical satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1985, two non-attitude-controlled satellites were each placed in a low earth orbit by the Scout Launch Vehicle. The satellites were cylindrical in shape and contained reservoirs of hydrazine fuel. Three-axis magnetometer measurements, telemetered in real time, were used to derive the attitude motion of each satellite. Algorithms are generated to deduce possible orientations (and magnitudes) of each vehicle's angular momentum for each telemetry contact. To resolve ambiguities at each contact, a force model was derived to simulate the significant long-term effects of magnetic, gravity gradient, and aerodynamic torques on the angular momentum of the vehicles. The histories of the orientation and magnitude of the angular momentum are illustrated.

Wilkinson, C. K.

1988-01-01

442

Positive and negative perfectionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research into perfectionism has focused on clinical populations resulting in a bias towards a negativistic, pathologically inclined conceptualization. The present study investigated the possibility of distinguishing aspects of perfectionism on the basis of perceived consequences, mirroring a behavioural distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. A 40-item questionnaire, designed to measure perfectionism defined in terms of both positive and negative

L. A. Terry-Short; R. Glynn Owens; P. D. Slade; M. E. Dewey

1995-01-01

443

Positive, Zero, or Negative?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson involves students using positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of zero in each situation. Students will understand the positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite values.

Brown, Kathleen

2012-09-16

444

Cognitive reactivity, dysfunctional attitudes, and depressive relapse and recurrence in cognitive therapy responders.  

PubMed

Dysfunctional attitudes can foreshadow depressive relapse/recurrence. Priming mood, through induction paradigms, is hypothesized to activate dysfunctional attitudes. Cognitive reactivity (CR) refers to mood-linked increases in dysfunctional attitudes after priming. Here we explored the extent to which CR as well as residual, unprimed, dysfunctional attitudes predicted depressive relapse/recurrence among depressed patients who responded to acute phase cognitive therapy (CT). Consenting adults, aged 18-70, with recurrent major depressive disorder (n = 523) participated in a two-site randomized controlled trial examining the durability of continuation phase treatments. Patients received 16-20 sessions of CT. Among the 245 incompletely remitted responders, 213 agreed to undergo a mood induction paradigm. After 8 months of continuation phase treatments, participants were followed an additional 24 months. Although the mood induction significantly lowered mood in 80% of responders, the expected CR was not evident. By contrast, higher unprimed dysfunctional attitudes following CT did predict relapse/recurrence over 20 and 32 months post-randomization. The findings of this large longitudinal study of incompletely remitted CT responders challenge the notion that it is necessary to prime mood in order to maximize dysfunctional attitudes' prediction of relapse and/or recurrence. While findings cannot be generalized beyond CT responders, they emphasize the clinical importance of reducing dysfunctional attitudes in preventing depression. PMID:22445946

Jarrett, Robin B; Minhajuddin, Abu; Borman, Patricia D; Dunlap, Lauren; Segal, Zindel V; Kidner, Cindy L; Friedman, Edward S; Thase, Michael E

2012-05-01

445

Attitudes towards suicidal behaviour in outpatient clinics among mental health professionals in Oslo  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate attitudes of professionals working in mental health care outpatient clinics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) (for children and adolescents aged 0–18?years) and District Psychiatric Centres (DPC) (for adults aged 18–67?years). Methods Professionals in four outpatient units in Oslo were enrolled (n?=?229: 77%). The Understanding of Suicidal Patient scale (USP) (11?=?positive to 55?=?negative) and Attitudes Towards Suicide questionnaire (ATTS) (1?=?totally disagree to 5?=?totally agree) were used to assess professionals’ attitudes. Questions explored competence, religion, experiences of and views on suicidal behaviour and its treatment. Results All the professionals indicated positive attitudes (USP 18.7) and endorsed the view that suicide was preventable (ATTS 4.3). Professionals who had received supervision or were specialists had attitudes that were more positive. Professionals in CAP were less satisfied with available treatment. Psychiatric disorders were considered the most common cause of suicidal behaviour, and psychotherapy the most appropriate form of treatment. The professionals confirmed that patients with other disorders of comparable severity are followed up more systematically. Conclusions The professionals showed positive attitudes with minor differences between CAP and DPC. PMID:23510325

2013-01-01

446

Does Individualism Help Explain Differences in Employers' Stigmatizing Attitudes Toward Disability Across Chinese and American Cities?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Stigmatizing attitudes toward people with disabilities can jeopardize such individuals' well-being and recovery through denial of employment and community isolation. By shaping social norms that define group membership, the construct of individualism may partially explain differences in stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. Further, widespread globalization has brought intensely individualistic social practices to certain segments of non-Western cultures. This paper examines whether the construct of individualism can help to explain cross-cultural differences in stigmatizing attitudes observed between American and Chinese employers. Design Employers (N = 879) from Beijing, Hong Kong, and Chicago provided information on their attitudes toward hiring people with disabilities, and Path Analyses were conducted to examine potential mediating relationships. Results Path analyses indicated that vertical individualism, along with perceived responsibility for acquiring a condition, partially mediated the relationship between culture and employers' negative attitudes about job candidates with disabilities. Conclusion These results suggested that greater espousal of competitive and individualist values may drive stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. PMID:21171794

Rao, Deepa; Horton, Randall A.; Tsang, Hector W.H.; Shi, Kan; Corrigan, Patrick W.

2011-01-01

447

Can singular examples change implicit attitudes in the real-world?  

PubMed Central

Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or “IAT” revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes toward African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or “ALPS” and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words—similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes. PMID:24046756

Roos, Leslie E.; Lebrecht, Sophie; Tanaka, James W.; Tarr, Michael J.

2013-01-01

448

Exploring Reactions to Pilot Reliability Certification and Changing Attitudes on the Reduction of Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 70% of aviation accidents are attributable to human error. The greatest opportunity for further improving aviation safety is found in reducing human errors in the cockpit. The purpose of this quasi-experimental, mixed-method research was to evaluate whether there was a difference in pilot attitudes toward reducing human error in the…

Boedigheimer, Dan

2010-01-01

449

Local attitudes and perceptions toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii) and other nonhuman primates in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Human-wildlife conflicts, such as crop-raiding, increase as people expand their agricultural activities into wildlife habitats. Crop-raiding can reduce tolerance toward species that are already threatened, whereas potential dangers posed by conflicts with large-bodied species may also negatively influence local attitudes. Across Asia, wild pigs and primates, such as macaques, tend to be the most commonly reported crop raiders. To date, reports of crop-raiding incidents involving great apes have been less common, but incidents involving orangutans are increasingly emerging in Indonesia. To investigate the interplay of factors that might explain attitudes toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii), focal group discussions and semi-structured interviews were conducted among 822 farmers from 2 contrasting study areas in North Sumatra. The first study area of Batang Serangan is an agroforest system containing isolated orangutans that crop-raid. In contrast, the second area of Sidikalang comprises farmlands bordering extensive primary forest where orangutans are present but not reported to crop-raid. Farmers living in Batang Serangan thought that orangutans were dangerous, irrespective of earlier experience of crop-raiding. Farmers placed orangutans as the third most frequent and fourth most destructive crop pest, after Thomas' leaf monkey (Presbytis thomasi), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Although most (57%) farmers across both study areas were not scared of wildlife species, more than a quarter (28%) of the farmers' feared orangutans. Farmers in Batang Serangan were generally more tolerant toward crop-raiding orangutans, if they did not perceive them to present a physical threat. Most (67%) Batang Serangan farmers said that the local Forestry Department staff should handle crop-raiding orangutans, and most (81%) said that these officials did not care about such problems. Our results suggest that efforts to mitigate human-orangutan conflict may not, per se, change negative perceptions of those who live with the species, because these perceptions are often driven by fear. PMID:20301138

Campbell-Smith, Gail; Simanjorang, Hubert V P; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Linkie, Matthew

2010-09-01

450

Gay Male Couples’ Attitudes Toward Using Couples-based Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing  

PubMed Central

Many men who have sex with men (MSM) acquire HIV from their primary male partners while in a relationship. Studies with gay couples have demonstrated that relationship characteristics and testing behaviors are important to examine for HIV prevention. Recently, couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) has become available to male couples throughout the U.S. However, HIV-negative couples’ attitudes toward using CVCT and how their relationship characteristics may affect their use of CVCT remain largely unknown. This information is particularly relevant for organizations that offer CVCT. To assess couples’ attitudes, and associated factors toward using CVCT, a cross-sectional study design was used with a novel Internet-based recruitment method to collect dyadic data from a national sample of 275 HIV-negative gay couples. Multivariate multilevel modeling was used to identify factors associated with differences between and within couples about their attitudes towards using CVCT. Findings revealed that couples were “somewhat” to “very likely” to use CVCT. More positive attitudes toward using CVCT were associated with couples who had higher levels of relationship satisfaction and commitment toward their sexual agreement and among those who had at least one partner having had sex outside of the relationship. Less positive attitude toward using CVCT was associated with couples who had higher levels of trust toward their partners being dependable. Differences within couples, including age between partners, whether sex had occurred outside of the relationship, and value toward a sexual agreement also affected their attitudes toward using CVCT. Providing additional testing methods may help HIV-negative gay couples better manage their HIV risk. PMID:24213623

Mitchell, Jason W.

2015-01-01

451

Jordanian nursing students' attitudes toward the elderly.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify Jordanian nursing students' attitudes towards older people and to consider whether the attitudes of the selected sample had any bearing on the care provided for this client group. A descriptive correlational design was employed and Kogan's [Kogan, N., 1961. Attitudes toward old people: the development of a scale and examination of correlates. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 44-54.] attitudes toward older people scale was administered to a convenience sample of 250 nursing students enrolled in the BSN program at a governmental university in the northern region of Jordan. Students' attitudes were identified using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Jordanian nursing students who participated in this study displayed marginally positive attitudes toward older people. Age and the socio-economic status of the students correlated significantly with their attitudes. Senior and male nursing students had more positive attitudes toward this client group than their counterparts. Students who prefer to work with older people following graduation reported more positive attitudes toward older people than students who did not. The results of this study suggest that positive attitudes exist towards older people; despite this, it is clear that efforts are required to enhance them further. In addition, the Jordanian lecturers in schools of nursing should further consider the need to prepare the students for their roles as caregivers for this particular client group. PMID:16115699

Hweidi, Issa M; Al-Obeisat, Salwa M

2006-01-01

452

Viking orbiter attitude control analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Viking orbiters are currently in Mars orbit. In the nearly two years since they were launched, the orbiters have successfully performed many functions including transportation of the Viking landers to Mars. The orbiters have for the last year provided relay links for lander-earth communications, and they have carried out from orbit their own scientific exploration of the planet. Crucial to the success of the orbiters has been the performance of the on-board attitude control system, which has provided the required orbiter stabilization and orientation throughout the missions. A comprehensive spacecraft and attitude control system dynamic analysis was necessary to certify the control system before launch and to evaluate its flight performance. This paper contains an outline of the analysis and of some of its results.

Rodriguez, G.

1977-01-01

453

Radar Attitude Sensing System (RASS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial design and fabrication efforts for a radar attitude sensing system (RASS) are covered. The design and fabrication of the RASS system is being undertaken in two phases, 1B1 and 1B2. The RASS system as configured under phase 1B1 contains the solid state transmitter and local oscillator, the antenna system, the receiving system, and the altitude electronics. RASS employs a pseudo-random coded cw signal and receiver correlation techniques to measure range. The antenna is a planar, phased array, monopulse type, whose beam is electronically steerable using diode phase shifters. The beam steering computer and attitude sensing circuitry are to be included in Phase 1B2 of the program.

1971-01-01

454

Attitude propulsion technology for TOPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft (TOPS) attitude propulsion subsystem (APS) effort is discussed. It includes the tradeoff rationale that went into the selection of an anhydrous hydrazine baseline system, followed by a discussion of the 0.22 N thruster and its integration into a portable, self-contained propulsion module that was designed, developed, and man rated to support the TOPS single-axis attitude control tests. The results of a cold-start feasibility demonstration with a modified thruster are presented. A description of three types of 0.44 thrusters that were procured for in-house evaluation is included along with the results of the test program. This is followed by a description of the APS feed system components, their evaluations, and a discussion of an evaluation of elastomeric material for valve seat seals. A list of new technology items which will be of value for application to future systems of this type is included.

Moynihan, P. I.

1972-01-01

455

Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose. PMID:15156734

Abe, Keiko

2004-01-01

456

The Effect of Achievement Goals on Moral Attitudes in Young Athletes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study is to assess the hypothesis that achievement goal orientations will predict sportpersonship attitudes among young athletes, namely that task orientation will predict socially positive attitudes and ego orientation will predict socially negative attitudes. For hundred and eighty two athletes, aged 13 to 16 years completed the Portuguese versions of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQp) and of the Sports Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQp). Bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships between TEOSQp and SAQp. Afterwards, relationships between ego orientation and score agreement in cheating and gamesmanship as well as task orientation and score agreement in convention and commitment were examined through EQS (version 5.7). For the estimation of the model, the maximum likelihood method was used. A matrix correlation between the variables (task orientation, ego orientation, cheating, gamesmanship, convention and commitment) showed positive correlations between task orientation and convention (r = 0.29, p < 0.01) and commitment (r = 0. 40, p < 0.01). Ego orientation appeared to be positively correlated with cheating (r = 0.30, p < 0.01) and gamesmanship (r = 0.33, p < 0.01), and negatively with convention (r = -0.16, p < 0.01).The fit of the model was evaluated using the CFI (0.97) and SRMR (0.04). The hypothesized model was confirmed. Task and ego orientations produced a significant effect on prosocial attitudes and on antisocial attitudes, respectively. Task-oriented goals in youth sport programs can represent a relevant framework for promoting prosocial attitudes and consequentely increment the effectiveness of educational interventions. Key points Sport seems to be an important component of daily physical activity in children and adolescents and its importance is often viewed as positive. Literature suggests that a high task orientation has a positive link with moral variables and a high ego orientation is likely to promote inappropriate behaviours. Task orientation will predict pro-social sport attitudes, and to assess the hypothesis that ego orientation will predict anti-social sport attitudes among young athletes. It is possible to suggest a pattern in which the self-referenced achievement goals can promote the expression of sportspersonship attitudes Environmental factors can be more influential than dispositional orientations when it comes to sportspersonship. PMID:24149787

Gonçalves, Carlos Eduardo; Silva, Manuel J Coelho e; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Cumming, Sean

2010-01-01

457

Measuring Police Attitudes Toward Discretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the construction of two scales to measure police attitudes toward the selective enforcement of the law. The Service-Legalistic scale measures police discretion along a flexible-inflexible continuum. Service-oriented police advocate the use of discretion to help solve social problems; legalistic police oppose discretion because it interferes with their duty to enforce the law equitably. The Watchman scale examines

Richard K. Wortley

2003-01-01

458

Ornitopter attitude estimation: ground test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the preliminary study on the ornithopter attitude estimation. An ornithopter platform with the payload affordability up to 60gf was designed and developed. Within the maximum take-off weight of the ornithopter, an ornithopter flight data acquisition system was successfully constructed and it consisted of 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyro, magnetometer, hall-effect sensor, low-performance MCU, RF module, and ground station.

Jun-Seong Lee; Dong-Kyu Lee; Jae-Hung Han

2010-01-01

459

Attitudes on DNA ancestry tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA ancestry testing industry is more than a decade old, yet details about it remain a mystery: there remain no reliable,\\u000a empirical data on the number, motivations, and attitudes of customers to date, the number of products available and their\\u000a characteristics, or the industry customs and standard practices that have emerged in the absence of specific governmental\\u000a regulations. Here,

Jennifer K. WagnerKenneth; Kenneth M. Weiss

460

Introducing English and German versions of the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale.  

PubMed

In this study, the authors report on the development of English and German versions of the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS). The ATAS consists of six subscales assessing Past Positive, Past Negative, Present Positive, Present Negative, Future Positive, and Future Negative time attitudes. The authors describe the development of the scales and present data on the reliability and structural validity of ATAS scores in samples of American (N = 300) and German (N = 316) adolescents. Internal consistency estimates for scores on the English and German versions of the ATAS were in the .70 to .80 range. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a six-factor structure yielded the best fit for scores and that the scores were invariant across samples. PMID:21266372

Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Buhl, Monika

2013-08-01

461

Kriging without negative weights  

SciTech Connect

Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

1987-08-01

462

Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy and their predictors among university students in Jordan.  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy. PMID:25461223

Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid

2014-12-01

463

Attitude and Heading Reference System for Small Unmanned Aircraft Collision Avoidance Maneuvers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes the development of an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) to sense three-dimensional orientation for collision avoidance control in small unmanned aircraft. Unmanned aircraft are currently restricted to flight in designated airspace due to safety concerns of collision with manned aircraft. Therefore, collision avoidance is necessary to ensure the safety of both aircraft. Technical challenges, mainly in sensor limitations, restrict AHRS performance in attitude estimation during high-g maneuvers. Using sensor filtering techniques and a robust attitude representation, an AHRS suitable for collision avoidance is developed. Acceleration disturbances are reduced using estimates of non-gravitational accelerations including centripetal acceleration and model-based acceleration to improve gravity vector measurement during aircraft maneuvers. Simulation results with a variety of maneuvers deemed challenging for most AHRS are given showing accurate attitude estimates. Flight data from an existing commercial autopilot is compared with the results of the AHRS to demonstrate the validity of the solution with real flight data.

Murrant, Kevin

464

Attitudes on DNA ancestry tests.  

PubMed

The DNA ancestry testing industry is more than a decade old, yet details about it remain a mystery: there remain no reliable, empirical data on the number, motivations, and attitudes of customers to date, the number of products available and their characteristics, or the industry customs and standard practices that have emerged in the absence of specific governmental regulations. Here, we provide preliminary data collected in 2009 through indirect and direct participant observation, namely blog post analysis, generalized survey analysis, and targeted survey analysis. The attitudes include the first available data on attitudes of those of individuals who have and have not had their own DNA ancestry tested as well as individuals who are members of DNA ancestry-related social networking groups. In a new and fluid landscape, the results highlight the need for empirical data to guide policy discussions and should be interpreted collectively as an invitation for additional investigation of (1) the opinions of individuals purchasing these tests, individuals obtaining these tests through research participation, and individuals not obtaining these tests; (2) the psychosocial and behavioral reactions of individuals obtaining their DNA ancestry information with attention given both to expectations prior to testing and the sociotechnical architecture of the test used; and (3) the applications of DNA ancestry information in varying contexts. PMID:21698460

Wagner, Jennifer K; Weiss, Kenneth M

2012-01-01