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Sample records for reduce negative attitudes

  1. Comparative analysis of positive and negative attitudes toward statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-02-01

    Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.

  2. Believing Is Seeing: Fixation Duration Predicts Implicit Negative Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A prototypical finding of social cognition is that social experiences influence later performance even though those experiences are not introspectively available. Building on social cognition research on implicit attitudes, we evaluate whether ethnic category/attribute pairs influence eye movements during the Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz 1998). Results show that fixation duration predicted implicit attitudes such that when the category/attribute pairs disconfirmed one's implicit negative attitude fixation duration toward that pair increased. The present research provides evidence that eye movements and implicit processes inherent in the IAT are more broadly connected than previously thought. PMID:25133639

  3. Changing teachers' negative attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Elsayed Elshabrawy Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    The current study aims at changing teachers' negative attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities. The intervention is based on the argument that providing information is not sufficient to achieve lasting change of attitudes toward people with disabilities, and that contact is required as an additional element to show positive results. A pretest-posttest intervention was conducted using three conditions: (a) cognitive intervention, (b) cognitive and behavioral intervention involving contact with the target group, and (c) no-intervention control. The participants comprised 18 teachers, with 6 teachers in each group. Following baseline assessments of attitudes, attitude change was measured immediately following the intervention and at a follow-up 12 weeks postintervention. The cognitive intervention provided information about intellectual disability and challenged stereotypic conceptions about persons with intellectual disabilities. The behavioral intervention involved being engaged in work with and training persons with intellectual disabilities in sheltered workshops. The results showed that the cognitive intervention alone did not result in significant changes in attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities. However, the combined cognitive-behavioral intervention resulted in greater attitude change than the no-intervention condition, both immediately postintervention and at a 12-week follow-up. The findings are discussed with regard to models of attitude change. The study concludes with some recommendations for teacher training programs to be attended to. PMID:25488181

  4. On the Negative Attitude towards Left-Handedness of Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makashvili, Malkhaz; Taliashvili, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    Present study was aimed to determine the reasons behind negative attitude of some teachers to the left-handed writing of their pupils. Total of 745 primary school teachers of both sexes, mean age 34, Caucasians, citizens of the Republic Georgia, served as respondents in the study presented. Teachers were requested to answer in writing the…

  5. Alcohol makes others dislike you: reducing the positivity of teens' beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol use.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of an edited episode of the reality program Jersey Shore in which alcohol use had negative consequences, another group watched a version of the episode in which alcohol use had more positive consequences, and a control group was not exposed to any program. Results showed that participants who saw the version with negative consequences had more negative beliefs about alcohol and more negative attitudes toward beer than participants who saw the more positive consequences and participants in the control condition. This indicates that the portrayal of negative consequences can have positive outcomes for viewers' health beliefs and attitudes, reducing their positivity toward alcohol use. PMID:22809293

  6. Neural Correlates of Attitude Change Following Positive and Negative Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour. PMID:19503749

  7. Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements.

    PubMed

    Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour. PMID:19503749

  8. Negative ions at Titan: New results using spacecraft attitude changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellbrock, A.; Coates, A. J.; Lewis, G. R.; Jones, G. H.; Arridge, C. S.; Magee, B. A.; Crary, F. J.; Waite, J. H.; Sittler, E. C.; Young, D. T.

    2009-04-01

    A. Wellbrock, A. J. Coates, G. R. Lewis, G. H. Jones, C. S. Arridge, B. A. Magee, F. J. Crary, J. H. Waite, E. C. Sittler, D. T. Young The ELS (ELectron Spectrometer) part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) revealed the existence of negative ions in Titan's ionosphere (Coates et al, 2007, Waite et al, 2007). The instrument is mounted on a rotating platform called the actuator. The negative ions are detected when this actuator points in the direction in which the spacecraft travels (the ‘ram direction'). This is because the negative ions have slow thermal speeds compared to the spacecraft speed, whereas electrons have much higher thermal speeds and are detected in any direction as their distribution is isotropic. Hence the negative ions can be identified as narrow spikes in the ELS electron spectrograms. During most Titan flybys, the spacecraft attitude is oriented such that the central anode of the instrument points in the ram direction. However, during Titan encounters when the spacecraft rotates, other anodes can point in the ram direction for short periods of time, or in a direction very close to the ram direction. In the latter case, only higher mass ions are detected. Comparing data from different anodes in and near the ram direction can be used to obtain information related to the ion velocity and temperature, which we discuss. The study of measurements from all anodes of the instrument also significantly increases the number of negative ion spikes available for analysis. The resulting set of data allows a statistical study of the different mass groups at a range of altitudes and latitudes, and their scale heights. We summarise and discuss the results. References: Coates, A.J., F.J. Crary, G.R. Lewis, D.T. Young, J.H. Waite, Jr., E.C.Sittler Jr., Discovery of heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L22103, 2007. Waite, J. H., Jr., D. T. Young, T. E. Cravens, A. J. Coates, F. J. Crary, B. Magee and J. Westlake, The Process of Tholin Formation in Titan's Upper Atmosphere, Science 316, 870 (11 May 2007).

  9. Reduced negative affect response in female psychopaths

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Angrilli, Alessandro; Calogero, Antonio; Harper, Jeremy; Olson, Lacy A.; Bernat, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate the differences between high and low psychopathic persons in brain activity during emotional facial expression processing are rare and commonly focus on males. The current study assessed whether previously reported behavioral differences would be reflected in differential brain activity in a sample of female offenders. The participants included 23 female forensic inpatients with high and low scores on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). ERPs were recorded during presentation of emotional facial expressions (i.e., fear, angry, and happy). Results revealed no differences in N170, P3 and late positive potential components between groups, but a significant difference in N2 only for angry and fear facial expressions, with high psychopathic participants showing lower reactivity. This N2 effect was found to be related to Factor 2 but not Factor 1 of the PCL-R. In time frequency analysis, theta activity underlying N2 best reflected these differences. Findings in this female sample are consistent with a cortical deficit in processing facial expression of negative emotions in psychopathic men. In addition, differences in processing seem to appear relatively early. PMID:23896396

  10. Validity of the Butcher Treatment Planning Inventory as a Measure of Negative Treatment Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the Butcher Treatment Planning Inventory (BTPI) as a measure of negative expectations and attitudes toward counseling. Undergraduate students completed the BTPI, the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-Abbreviated Version, and the Expectations About Counseling-Brief Form during one…

  11. Gender effect and prejudice: when a salient female norm moderates male negative attitudes toward homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Mange, Jessica; Lepastourel, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Men generally express more negative attitudes than women toward homosexuals. This study aims to determine if social norms saliency can rely on this "gender effect" and influence attitudes toward homosexuals. Gender characteristics (attitudes and lexical markers) concerning homosexuality were identified in Study 1 and used to construct male- (i.e., promoting a prejudice-related norm) and female-marked (i.e., promoting an anti-prejudice-related norm) messages. Social norms saliency was primed using these messages (Studies 2 and 3) and the participant's immediate context (Study 3). Results show that promoting a prejudiced norm eases expression of males' negative attitudes toward homosexuals, whereas the promotion of an anti-prejudice norm inhibits their attitudes. Theoretical elaborations and potential applications for promotion of tolerance are discussed. PMID:23808349

  12. Negative Public Attitudes Towards Cancer Survivors Returning to Work: A Nationwide Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Hye-Young; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jong Heun; Kim, So-Young; Yang, Hyung-Kook; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Early diagnosis and an improved survival rate have emerged as important issues for cancer survivors returning to work during the prime of their working life. This study investigated the attitudes of the general public towards cancer survivors returning to work in Korea and attempted to identify the factors influencing this negative attitude. Materials and Methods A general public perception survey regarding cancer survivors returning to work, targeting 2,000 individuals between 40-70 years of age, was conducted as face-to-face home visit. Results The public expressed a negative attitude towards cancer survivors returning to work, in terms of both perception and acceptance. Negative perception was higher among those in metropolitan areas compared with urban/rural areas (odds ratio [OR], 1.71), with monthly incomes < $2,000 compared with > $4,000 (OR, 1.54), and with patient care experience compared with those without (OR, 1.41). Negative acceptance was higher among those with monthly incomes < $2,000 compared with > $4,000 (OR, 1.71) and those with patient care experience compared with those without (OR, 1.54). The common factors between acceptance and perception that influenced negative attitude included area of residence, patient care experience, and monthly income. Conclusion This study identified negative attitudes towards cancer survivors returning to work in South Korea and the factors influencing the reintegration of cancer survivors into society. It is necessary to promote community awareness and intervention activities to enable access to community, social, and individual units for the social reintegration of cancer survivors. PMID:26044157

  13. Negative Affect in Victimized Children: The Roles of Social Withdrawal, Peer Rejection, and Attitudes toward Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Edward J.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Gamm, Bridget K.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of mediating pathways in predicting self-assessed negative affect from shyness/social withdrawal, peer rejection, victimization by peers (overt and relational), and the attitude that aggression is legitimate and warranted. Participants were 296 3rd through 5th graders (156 girls, 140 boys) from 10 elementary…

  14. Validity of the Butcher Treatment Planning Inventory as a measure of negative treatment attitudes.

    PubMed

    Hatchett, Gregory T

    2007-12-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the Butcher Treatment Planning Inventory (BTPI) as a measure of negative expectations and attitudes toward counseling. Undergraduate students completed the BTPI, the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-Abbreviated Version, and the Expectations About Counseling-Brief Form during one administration period. Higher scores on the BTPI Closed-Mindedness and Low Expectation of Benefit scales were associated with more negative attitudes toward counseling. Furthermore, higher scores on Closed-Mindedness, Problems in Relationship Formation, and the Treatment Difficulty Composite were associated with lower expectations to become actively involved in counseling. Participants reporting higher levels of psychological distress on the BTPI were less likely to expect warm therapeutic relationships and to take active roles in treatment. Relationships between attitudes and expectations about counseling were also evaluated. Participants reporting more positive attitudes toward counseling reported higher expectations to work with warm, empathic counselors and to take active roles in counseling and lower expectations for prescriptive, doctor-patient relationships with counselors. PMID:17986659

  15. Can hopelessness and adolescents' beliefs and attitudes about seeking help account for help negation?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Coralie J; Deane, Frank P; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2005-12-01

    Avoidance of appropriate help is common in acutely suicidal samples and has been confirmed in nonclinical samples but factors that contribute to this help negation effect remain unclear. In a sample of 269 nonclinical Australian high school students, the current study examines the impact of hopelessness, previous mental health care, beliefs, and attitudes toward professional psychological help on the help negation relationship. Results revealed that suicidal ideation significantly predicted lower help seeking intentions and that although hopelessness could not explain the help negation effect, it moderated the effect for seeking help from family. They also revealed that although previous mental health care was unable to explain the effect fully for professional mental health sources, beliefs and attitudes about professional psychological help could. Implications of the findings for prevention, primary health care, and professional psychological practice are discussed. PMID:16173086

  16. The effect of a negative mood priming challenge on dysfunctional attitudes, explanatory style, and explanatory flexibility.

    PubMed

    Fresco, David M; Heimberg, Richard G; Abramowitz, Adrienne; Bertram, Tara L

    2006-06-01

    Ninety-seven undergraduates, 48 of whom had a history of self-reported major depression, completed measures of mood and cognitive style (e.g. explanatory style, explanatory flexibility, dysfunctional attitudes) prior to and directly after a negative mood priming challenge that consisted of listening to sad music and thinking about an upsetting past event. Eighteen of the previously depressed participants endorsed baseline levels of depression, explanatory style for negative events, and dysfunctional attitudes higher than levels reported by never depressed participants or euthymic participants with a history of depression. All three groups (never depressed participants, dysphoric participants with a history of depression, euthymic participants with a history of depression) demonstrated increases in dysphoria and dysfunctional attitudes in response to the negative mood priming challenge. Dysphoric participants with a history of depression, but not the other two groups, evidenced modest increases in explanatory style following the negative mood priming challenge. Finally, euthymic participants with a history of depression, but not the other two groups, evidenced drops in explanatory flexibility. Findings from the present study suggest that the cognitive theories of depression may benefit from examining both cognitive content and cognitive flexibility when assessing risk for depression. PMID:16719978

  17. Distress related to subclinical negative symptoms in a non-clinical sample: Role of dysfunctional attitudes.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-12-15

    Negative symptoms are a prominent feature of schizophrenia that are intimately linked to poor outcomes characterizing the illness. One mechanistic model suggests that these symptoms are produced and maintained, at least in part, through maladaptive attitudes. Beyond mechanisms, it remains phenomenologically unclear if these symptoms are particularly distressing. In the present study we examined whether subclinical negative symptoms evaluated in a non-clinical sample of young adults (N=370) were distressful or bothersome to participants and, further, whether these symptoms were associated with dysfunctional attitudes. We found that greater severity of subclinical negative symptoms such as amotivation and anhedonia were associated with higher ratings of distress specifically attributable to these symptoms. This relationship held even after controlling for severity of depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater negative symptom burden was associated with greater endorsement of defeatist performance beliefs. Negative symptoms expressed in the general population were found to be particularly distressing. Maladaptive cognitive schemas are implicated in the expression of these symptoms, as well as the amount of distress these symptoms instil. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying negative symptoms, including both neurobiological and cognitive, is needed in order to effectively develop treatment strategies for these disabling symptoms. PMID:26365687

  18. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. PMID:26232242

  19. Response of Vocational Students to Supervision: Effects of Reinforcing Positive and Negative Attitudes Toward Different Supervisory Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stogdill, Ralph M.; And Others

    This study was designed to determine whether student response to supervision would be affected by the reinforcement of positive (or negative) attitudes toward five patterns of supervisory behavior as shown in motion pictures. For one group of vocational high school students, attitudes toward the supervisory roles "Consideration" and "Tolerance of

  20. Out-Group Mating Threat and Disease Threat Increase Implicit Negative Attitudes Toward the Out-Group Among Men

    PubMed Central

    Klavina, Liga; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated if perceiving an out-group as a threat to one's mating opportunities enhanced the implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of disease threat on the relationship between an out-group mating threat and implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In Experiment 1, an out-group mating threat led to stronger implicit negative out-group attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test, but only for men with high chronic perceived vulnerability to disease. No such effects were found among women. In Experiment 2, men in the out-group mating threat condition who were primed with disease prevalence showed significantly stronger implicit negative attitudes toward the out-group than controls. Findings are discussed with reference to the functional approach to prejudice and sex-specific motivational reactions to different out-group threats. PMID:21687447

  1. The Continuation of Prejudice: Addressing Negative Attitudes in Nurse Training and Continuing Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Paul; Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mayer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Measures of attitudes to ageing typically examine only explicit attitudes, treating attitude holders as a homogeneous group with regards to education levels. Implicit attitudes (i.e., the immediate attitudinal response before conscious processes amend that attitude to an explicit attitude) have been less commonly examined. The current study

  2. The Continuation of Prejudice: Addressing Negative Attitudes in Nurse Training and Continuing Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Paul; Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mayer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Measures of attitudes to ageing typically examine only explicit attitudes, treating attitude holders as a homogeneous group with regards to education levels. Implicit attitudes (i.e., the immediate attitudinal response before conscious processes amend that attitude to an explicit attitude) have been less commonly examined. The current study…

  3. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with

  4. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  5. Predicting whether multiculturalism positively or negatively influences White Americans' intergroup attitudes: the role of ethnic identification.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kimberly Rios; Plaut, Victoria C; Ybarra, Oscar

    2010-12-01

    Multiculturalism, or the belief that racial and ethnic differences should be acknowledged and appreciated, has been met with both positive reactions (e.g., decreased prejudice) and negative reactions (e.g., perceptions of threat) from dominant group members. The present research proposes that multiculturalism can either positively or negatively influence White Americans' intergroup attitudes depending on their degree of ethnic identification. In Studies 1 and 2, White Americans primed with multiculturalism exhibited higher social dominance orientation (Study 1) and greater prejudice (Study 2), especially when they identified strongly with their ethnicity. In Study 3, perceptions of threat to group values were found to mediate the relation between multiculturalism, ethnic identification, and prejudice among White Americans. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for threat perceptions, ethnic identification, and conceptions of diversity. PMID:21041522

  6. A comparison of HIV/AIDS-related stigma in four countries: negative attitudes and perceived acts of discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Genberg, Becky L; Hlavka, Zdenek; Konda, Kelika A; Maman, Suzanne; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Mbwambo, Jessie; Modiba, Precious; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Celentano, David D

    2009-06-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination have a substantial impact on people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the associations of two constructs of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (negative attitudes towards PLHA and perceived acts of discrimination towards PLHA) with previous history of HIV testing, knowledge of antiretroviral therapies (ARVs) and communication regarding HIV/AIDS and (2) to compare these two constructs across the five research sites with respect to differing levels of HIV prevalence and ARV coverage, using data presented from the baseline survey of U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Project Accept, a four-country HIV prevention trial in Sub-Saharan Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa) and northern Thailand. A household probability sample of 14,203 participants completed a survey including a scale measuring HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Logistic regression models determined the associations between negative attitudes and perceived discrimination with individual history of HIV testing, knowledge of ARVs and communication regarding HIV/AIDS. Spearman's correlation coefficients determined the relationships between negative attitudes and perceived discrimination and HIV prevalence and ARV coverage at the site-level. Negative attitudes were related to never having tested for HIV, lacking knowledge of ARVs, and never having discussed HIV/AIDS. More negative attitudes were found in sites with the lowest HIV prevalence (i.e., Tanzania and Thailand) and more perceived discrimination against PLHA was found in sites with the lowest ARV coverage (i.e., Tanzania and Zimbabwe). Programs that promote widespread HIV testing and discussion of HIV/AIDS, as well as education regarding and universal access to ARVs, may reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. PMID:19427086

  7. Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M = 31.42, SD = 16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically to different types of meat. PMID:25312749

  8. The Effect of Implicitly Incentivized Faking on Explicit and Implicit Measures of Doping Attitude: When Athletes Want to Pretend an Even More Negative Attitude to Doping

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) aims to measure participants’ automatic evaluation of an attitude object and is useful especially for the measurement of attitudes related to socially sensitive subjects, e.g. doping in sports. Several studies indicate that IAT scores can be faked on instruction. But fully or semi-instructed research scenarios might not properly reflect what happens in more realistic situations, when participants secretly decide to try faking the test. The present study is the first to investigate IAT faking when there is only an implicit incentive to do so. Sixty-five athletes (22.83 years ± 2.45; 25 women) were randomly assigned to an incentive-to-fake condition or a control condition. Participants in the incentive-to-fake condition were manipulated to believe that athletes with lenient doping attitudes would be referred to a tedious 45-minute anti-doping program. Attitudes were measured with the pictorial doping brief IAT (BIAT) and with the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). A one-way MANOVA revealed significant differences between conditions after the manipulation in PEAS scores, but not in the doping BIAT. In the light of our hypothesis this suggests that participants successfully faked an exceedingly negative attitude to doping when completing the PEAS, but were unsuccessful in doing so on the reaction time-based test. This study assessed BIAT faking in a setting that aimed to resemble a situation in which participants want to hide their attempts to cheat. The two measures of attitude were differentially affected by the implicit incentive. Our findings provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT is relatively robust against spontaneous and naïve faking attempts. (B)IATs might be less prone to faking than implied by previous studies. PMID:25902142

  9. The effect of implicitly incentivized faking on explicit and implicit measures of doping attitude: when athletes want to pretend an even more negative attitude to doping.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) aims to measure participants' automatic evaluation of an attitude object and is useful especially for the measurement of attitudes related to socially sensitive subjects, e.g. doping in sports. Several studies indicate that IAT scores can be faked on instruction. But fully or semi-instructed research scenarios might not properly reflect what happens in more realistic situations, when participants secretly decide to try faking the test. The present study is the first to investigate IAT faking when there is only an implicit incentive to do so. Sixty-five athletes (22.83 years ± 2.45; 25 women) were randomly assigned to an incentive-to-fake condition or a control condition. Participants in the incentive-to-fake condition were manipulated to believe that athletes with lenient doping attitudes would be referred to a tedious 45-minute anti-doping program. Attitudes were measured with the pictorial doping brief IAT (BIAT) and with the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). A one-way MANOVA revealed significant differences between conditions after the manipulation in PEAS scores, but not in the doping BIAT. In the light of our hypothesis this suggests that participants successfully faked an exceedingly negative attitude to doping when completing the PEAS, but were unsuccessful in doing so on the reaction time-based test. This study assessed BIAT faking in a setting that aimed to resemble a situation in which participants want to hide their attempts to cheat. The two measures of attitude were differentially affected by the implicit incentive. Our findings provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT is relatively robust against spontaneous and naïve faking attempts. (B)IATs might be less prone to faking than implied by previous studies. PMID:25902142

  10. Educating Tomorrow's Men: Perceived School Support, Negative Youth Experiences, and Bravado Attitudes in African American Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corprew, Charles S., III; Cunningham, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between negative youth experiences and bravado attitudes in African American urban males. In addition, an examination of positive factors, such as school social support, was examined to understand potential resilient pathways. Data were collected at two sites, a science and math center (n =…

  11. Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Junseob

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

  12. Educating Tomorrow's Men: Perceived School Support, Negative Youth Experiences, and Bravado Attitudes in African American Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corprew, Charles S., III; Cunningham, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between negative youth experiences and bravado attitudes in African American urban males. In addition, an examination of positive factors, such as school social support, was examined to understand potential resilient pathways. Data were collected at two sites, a science and math center (n =

  13. External Insect Morphology: A Negative Factor in Attitudes toward Insects and Likelihood of Incorporation in Future Science Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated if the external morphology of an insect had a negative effect on United States (US) preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward insects and beliefs concerning the likelihood of incorporating insects into future science education settings. 270 US kindergarten through sixth grade preservice elementary teachers…

  14. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime

    PubMed Central

    Hubble, Kelly; Bowen, Katharine L.; Moore, Simon C.; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour. Methods Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed. Results Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed. Conclusions The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending. PMID:26121148

  15. The Role of Shame as a Mediator between Anti-Black Racial Identity Attitudes and Negative Affect in a Sample of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 168 African American undergraduates was surveyed to clarify past findings demonstrating a consistent relationship between endorsing negative attitudes about being African American and experiencing negative affect. Specifically, shame was tested as a mediator between participants' endorsement of preencounter attitudes (i.e., anti-Black…

  16. Human attitudes towards herpetofauna: The influence of folklore and negative values on the conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human values and folklore of wildlife strongly influence the effectiveness of conservation efforts. These values and folklore may also vary with certain demographic characteristics such as gender, age, or education. Reptiles and amphibians are among the least appreciated of vertebrates and are victims of many negative values and wrong ideas resulting from the direct interpretation of folklore. We try to demonstrate how these values and folklore can affect the way people relate to them and also the possible conservation impacts on these animals. Methods A questionnaire survey distributed to 514 people in the district of Évora, Portugal, was used to obtain data regarding the hypothesis that the existence of wrong ideas and negative values contributes to the phenomenon of human-associated persecution of these animals. A structural equation model was specified in order to confirm the hypothesis about the possible relationships between the presence of perceptions and negative values about amphibians and reptiles and persecution and anti-conservation attitudes. Sociodemographic variables were also added. Results The results of the model suggest that the presence of folklore and negative values clearly predicts persecution and anti-conservation attitudes towards amphibians and reptiles. Also, the existence of folklore varies sociodemographically, but negative values concerning these animals are widespread in the population. Conclusions With the use of structural equation models, this work is a contribution to the study of how certain ideas and values can directly influence human attitudes towards herpetofauna and how they can be a serious conservation issue. PMID:22316318

  17. Reducing STD/HIV Stigmatizing Attitudes through Community Popular Opinion Leaders in Chinese Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes, and practices of risky sexual behavior. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus 1 campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community leaders to discuss these issues in everyday…

  18. Reducing STD/HIV Stigmatizing Attitudes through Community Popular Opinion Leaders in Chinese Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes, and practices of risky sexual behavior. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus 1 campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community leaders to discuss these issues in everyday

  19. Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Strong, David R.; Meyer, Bjorn; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Miller, Ivan R.

    2007-01-01

    Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and…

  20. Anxiety and depression among African American women: The costs of strength and negative attitudes toward psychological help-seeking.

    PubMed

    Watson, Natalie N; Hunter, Carla D

    2015-10-01

    The Strong Black Woman (SBW) race-gender schema prompts African American women to use self-reliance and self-silence as coping strategies in response to stressors. Utilizing the coping strategies associated with the SBW race-gender schema could trigger anxiety and depression symptoms that may intensify when coupled with negative attitudes toward professional psychological help. The present study investigated whether African American women's endorsement of the SBW race-gender schema predicted increased symptoms of anxiety and depression and whether attitudes toward professional psychological help-seeking intensified psychological distress. Data were collected from 95 participants ranging in age from 18 to 65. Hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated significant main effects for the SBW race-gender schema and greater anxiety and depression, respectively. Greater indifference to stigma, 1 dimension of help-seeking attitudes, predicted lower levels of anxiety. African American women's attitudes toward professional help-seeking did not moderate the associations between endorsement of the SBW race-gender schema and anxiety or depression, respectively. Finally, endorsement of the SBW race-gender schema was inversely and significantly associated with 2 facets of help-seeking attitudes: (a) psychological openness and (b) help-seeking propensity. Taken together, these findings provide empirical support for the role of cultural factors, like the SBW race-gender schema, in African American women's experience of psychological distress and potential underutilization of mental health services. Future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25602466

  1. The Effectiveness of Peer Mediation on Reducing Middle School Violence and Negative Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigainero, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of peer mediation on reducing violence and negative behaviors in middle school students. Negative behaviors included various ways students disrupt learning and included tardiness, absenteeism and truancy as well as classroom distractions of all forms. Three middle schools all in the same school…

  2. Reducing STD/HIV stigmatizing attitudes through community popular opinion leaders in Chinese markets.

    PubMed

    Rice, Ronald E; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2012-12-01

    Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes and practices of risky sexual behavior and its consequences. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus one campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community popular opinion leaders to discuss these issues in everyday social venues. This study tested the effectiveness of such an approach on reducing HIV/AIDS stigma, across two years, from a sample of over 4500 market vendors, in three conditions. Results showed an increasing growth in market communication about intervention messages, and concomitant declines in stigmatizing attitudes, across time, with the greatest changes in community popular opinion leaders, significant changes in intervention non-opinion leaders, and little change in the control markets. PMID:24944433

  3. Reducing STD/HIV stigmatizing attitudes through community popular opinion leaders in Chinese markets

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes and practices of risky sexual behavior and its consequences. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus one campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community popular opinion leaders to discuss these issues in everyday social venues. This study tested the effectiveness of such an approach on reducing HIV/AIDS stigma, across two years, from a sample of over 4500 market vendors, in three conditions. Results showed an increasing growth in market communication about intervention messages, and concomitant declines in stigmatizing attitudes, across time, with the greatest changes in community popular opinion leaders, significant changes in intervention non-opinion leaders, and little change in the control markets. PMID:24944433

  4. A slow life history is related to a negative attitude towards cousin marriages: a study in three ethnic groups in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Buunk, Abraham P; Hoben, Ashley D

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about current attitudes towards cousin marriages. Using data from a rural population in the Mexican state of Oaxaca, the present research examined how life history was related to attitudes towards cousin marriages in various ethnic groups. Participants were 205 parents from three ethnic groups. i.e., Mestizos (people of mixed descent, n = 103), indigenous Mixtecs (n = 65), and Blacks (n = 35). Nearly all men in this study were farm workers or fishermen. Participants reported more negative than positive attitudes towards cousin marriage, and women reported more negative attitudes than did men. The main objection against marrying a cousin was that it is wrong for religious reasons, whereas the risk of genetic defects was considered relatively unimportant. Cousin marriage was not considered to contribute to the quality and unity of marriage and the family. The three ethnic groups did not differ in their attitude towards cousin marriages. However, a slower life history was related to a more negative attitude towards cousin marriages, especially among Blacks, less so among Mixtecs, and not at all among Mestizos. In addition, and independent of the effect of life history, with increasing levels of parental control over mate choice, the attitude towards cousin marriage was more positive, but among men the attitude was more negative the more religious they were. The results are discussed in the context of theorizing on life history theory and the benefits and costs of cousin marriages. PMID:23797964

  5. USE OF NEGATIVE ARI IONIZATION FOR REDUCING BACTERIAL PATHOGENS AND SPORES ON STAINLESS STEEL SURFACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of chemicals in food plant sanitation for removing and killing microorganisms could be reduced by the use of alternative non-chemical interventions. Negative air ionization is a new technology that has shown potential to effectively reduce airborne and surface microorganisms. Current studies...

  6. The influences of attitudes, beliefs and label information on perceptions of reduced-fat spread.

    PubMed

    Aaron, J I; Mela, D J; Evans, R E

    1994-02-01

    A sample of 101 consumers completed questionnaires assessing use, attitudes and beliefs with regard to full- and reduced-fat (FF and RF) spreads. In sensory tests, they rated liking of selected attributes and overall liking of a RF spread sample labelled as "reduced-fat spread 40% fat" or "full-fat margarine 80% fat". The amount spread onto bread was also determined. Other than an effect on likelihood of consumption, there were no consistent effects of label alone on any of these measures. However, analyses of sensory and hedonic ratings revealed consistent interactive effects of label information with consumer attitudes, beliefs, and (to a lesser degree) with the type of spread normally used. Eating restraint and body composition were generally unrelated to sensory ratings and response to label information. The overall effect of label information was to shift sensory judgments in a direction more consistent with an individual's beliefs; i.e., hedonic responses from subjects with more positive attitudes toward RF or FF spreads were significantly greater in the respective label condition. Given this potential differential influence of labelling, we recommend that consumer trials manipulating provision of information should include measures assessing subjects' attitudinal characteristics. PMID:8172488

  7. Young People and the Learning Partnerships Program: Shifting Negative Attitudes to Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…

  8. Age and Skin Tone as Predictors of Positive and Negative Racial Attitudes in Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes-Guinan, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Past research suggests that both White children and minority children, including Hispanics, hold pro-White biases. Although doll studies have been a popular way of assessing racial attitudes among children, several methodological issues have made it challenging to interpret the results from these studies. Furthermore, past research has failed to…

  9. Police use of handcuffs in the homeless population leads to long-term negative attitudes within this group.

    PubMed

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    The police interact with homeless individuals frequently. However, there has been relatively little research on the attitudes of homeless individuals towards the police, and how police interactions may impact these. This is important since the attitudes of homeless individuals can impact how often they report crimes, and how well they support police when they are investigating crimes in this population. We interviewed 213 homeless individuals in a single city, representing approximately 10% of the total homeless population. They were interviewed at either homeless shelters, or events held specifically for the homeless population. Of these individuals, 75% were male, and 47% had interacted with a police officer within the past month. Self-reports suggested that 60% had a drug and/or alcohol issue and 78% had a mental illness. We found a highly statistically significant difference between the group that had been handcuffed and/or arrested compared to those that had not. This was across multiple domains and included how the individual regarded the police in terms of their empathy and communication skills, and how much they trusted the police. These changes were long-term, and if a homeless individual had been arrested or handcuffed (and verbal reporting suggested that being handcuffed was the by far the most important factor) then these negative attitudes lasted at least 2 years. The primary conclusion from this study is that when police handcuff a homeless individual, this can lead to long-term negative views about the police across several domains that appear to be long lasting, and were linked to feelings of not being respected by the police. It is therefore proposed that police officers should be made aware of the potential long-term negative consequences of this single action, and that police forces should consider providing specific training to minimize any unnecessary overuse of handcuffs. PMID:26314889

  10. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People’s Republic of China. PMID:24368880

  11. Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

    2012-01-01

    Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Help-Negation among Chinese University Students in Taiwan: The Role of Gender, Anxiety and Help-Seeking Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hsiaowen

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the consideration of help-negation in regard to suicide to that of depressive symptoms in a large sample of 981 Chinese university students in Taiwan. The study examined the help-negation effects of depression and the impact of gender, anxiety, and help-seeking attitudes on that relationship. Chinese students, aged 17 to…

  13. Depressive Symptoms and Help-Negation among Chinese University Students in Taiwan: The Role of Gender, Anxiety and Help-Seeking Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hsiaowen

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the consideration of help-negation in regard to suicide to that of depressive symptoms in a large sample of 981 Chinese university students in Taiwan. The study examined the help-negation effects of depression and the impact of gender, anxiety, and help-seeking attitudes on that relationship. Chinese students, aged 17 to

  14. Aging is associated with positive responding to neutral information but reduced recovery from negative information

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Stacey M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Norris, Catherine J.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on aging and emotion suggest an increase in reported positive affect, a processing bias of positive over negative information, as well as increasingly adaptive regulation in response to negative events with advancing age. These findings imply that older individuals evaluate information differently, resulting in lowered reactivity to, and/or faster recovery from, negative information, while maintaining more positive responding to positive information. We examined this hypothesis in an ongoing study on Midlife in the US (MIDUS II) where emotional reactivity and recovery were assessed in a large number of respondents (N = 159) from a wide age range (3684 years). We recorded eye-blink startle magnitudes and corrugator activity during and after the presentation of positive, neutral and negative pictures. The most robust age effect was found in response to neutral stimuli, where increasing age is associated with a decreased corrugator and eyeblink startle response to neutral stimuli. These data suggest that an age-related positivity effect does not essentially alter the response to emotion-laden information, but is reflected in a more positive interpretation of affectively ambiguous information. Furthermore, older women showed reduced corrugator recovery from negative pictures relative to the younger women and men, suggesting that an age-related prioritization of well-being is not necessarily reflected in adaptive regulation of negative affect. PMID:20385664

  15. Role of Telematics in Reducing the Negative Environmental Impact of Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Jerzy; Kwaśny, Aleksandra

    With development of society increase the demand for the movement of people and goods. From years the transportation expand rapidly and is crucial to economic development. Unfortunately, it is also an economic sector with the most harmful effects on the environment. The various modes of transport in different extent impact negative on the environment, which depends mainly on the technical-operating conditions. The up-to-date telematics systems provide the transport industry a revolutionary opportunity to effectively manage. Appropriate use of these systems can help to substantially improve the efficiency of transport and its operating costs, in consequence lead to reduce the negative environmental impact of transport.

  16. Consumer attitudes, barriers, and meal satisfaction associated with sodium-reduced meal intake at worksite cafeterias

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. RESULTS Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P < 0.05). We found importance of needs in the following order: 1) 'menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). CONCLUSION Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias. PMID:26634054

  17. The Effect of Positive and Negative Affect-Arousing Communications Upon Beliefs, Attitudes, Intentions, and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.

    An experiment was performed to test two hypotheses. One was that there would be a curvilinear relationship between increased degrees of a negative communication and persuasion, and the other was that there would be a positive and linear relationship between a positive communication and persuasion. College undergraduate smokers and nonsmokers were…

  18. Prosocial attitudes and empathic behavior in emotional positive versus negative situations: brain response (ERPs) and source localization (LORETA) analysis.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Canavesio, Ylenia

    2013-03-01

    The present research firstly investigated the neural correlates (ERPs, event-related potentials) of attitudes to engage in prosocial-helping behaviors, and secondly, it analyzed the relation between these brain-based potentials and personal profile (high vs. low empathic profile). It was considered the subjects' behavior in response to specific emotional situations (positive vs. negative) in case it was required a possible prosocial intervention. Thirty-one subjects were invited to empathize with the emotional contexts (videotapes that reproduced two person's exchanges) and to decide whether to intervene or not to support these persons. BEES questionnaire for empathic behavior was submitted to the subjects after the experimental session. ERP acquisition and LORETA source analysis revealed a negative ongoing deflection (N200 effect) more prefrontally distributed (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) in response to prosocial intervention options mainly for negative and positive contexts. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between high-empathic profiles, intervention behaviors (higher frequency of interventions) and N200 amplitude (higher peak). These results highlight the role of emotions in prosocial behavior, since the N200 effect was considered a marker of the emotional significance of the interpersonal situation. Secondly, the empathic trait may explain the prosocial decisional processes: Higher empathic trait contributes to induce subject's intervention behavior which in turn appears to be directly related to the cortical responsiveness within the prefrontal areas. PMID:22976172

  19. Countermeasure for reducing post-flight orthostatic intolerance: Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) experiment E140

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    1993-01-01

    Investigators have shown that after 1-2 weeks of bed rest ingestion of 1000 ml of a salt water solution during 4 hours of continuous exposure to 30 mm Hg of lower body negative pressure will protect plasma volume and orthostatic function for up to 24 hours. We hypothesize that a similar countermeasure will reduce the effects of fluid loss induced by headward fluid shift during space flight. The objective of this flight experiment is to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed countermeasure in reversing these effects on the cardiovascular system. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) involves exposing the legs and lower abdomen to reduced air pressure. The LBNP device is an air-tight chamber that seals the subject's waist to enclose the lower body. As used in this experiment, LBNP provides both the candidate treatment as well as the means of assessing the effectiveness of the treatment.

  20. Thermostats with attitudes: A sociological analysis of assumptions underlying common approaches to reducing residential energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevius, Monica Josefina

    2001-12-01

    This dissertation contributes to the emerging literature in the sociology of energy consumption by answering three important questions about the assumptions underlying popular approaches to reducing energy consumption behavior. The answers are gleaned from data on Wisconsin households gathered in 1998 and 1999. The first question has to do with the efficacy of a "cognitive fix" approach of attempting to change attitudes in hopes of changing behavior, and asks whether energy-related attitudes can predict actual energy savings. The results of a regression analysis of heating energy intensity revealed that a variable measuring respondents' attitudes toward energy conservation predict heating energy intensity, but the effect was overwhelmed by control variables for insulation and draftiness. These and other results offer some support for the cognitive fix approach of attitudinal change as a means of reducing energy consumption. The second question concerns a popular "technological fix" of subsidizing the replacement of manual thermostats with programmable ones, and asks whether programmable thermostats actually save significant home heating energy. The data show that households with programmable thermostats appear to use no less energy than do households with manual thermostats, and that it is behavioral norms, not the type of thermostat, that determine thermostat setting behavior. The results suggest strongly that in aggregate, the installation of programmable thermostats in residential households cannot be expected to deliver promised energy savings. The third question addressed is whether popular knowledge about global warming or the connection between energy use and global environmental change is growing, and if so, what is the likelihood that these prospective socio-cultural shifts might result in increased residential energy conservation. The analysis suggests that, compared to the findings of earlier studies, awareness of the environmental consequences of energy use is on the increase, but the likelihood that this growing awareness will lead to increased conservation appears to be minimal. In addition to answering the questions above, this work provides an example of how a comprehensive sociological approach to studying energy consumption can help inform our understanding of energy use in ways that earlier approaches could not.

  1. HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes toward using an in-home rapid HIV test and associated factors among a sample of US HIV-negative and HIV-discordant male couples

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many MSM acquire HIV while in a same-sex relationship. Studies with gay male couples have demonstrated that relationship characteristics and testing behaviors are important to examine for HIV prevention. Recently, an in-home rapid HIV test (HT) has become available for purchase in the US. However, HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes toward using an HT, and whether characteristics of their relationship affect their use of HTs remain largely unknown. This information is relevant for development of HIV prevention interventions targeting at-risk HIV-negative and discordant male couples. Methods To assess HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes and associated factors toward using an HT, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was used to collect dyadic data from a national sample of 275 HIV-negative and 58 HIV-discordant gay male couples. Multivariate multilevel modeling was used to identify behavioral and relationship factors associated with 631 HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes toward using an HT. Results HIV-negative partnered men were “very likely” to use an HT. More positive attitudes toward using an HT were associated with being in a relationship of mixed or nonwhite race and with one or both men recently having had sex with a casual male partner. Less positive attitudes toward using an HT were associated with both partners being well educated, with greater resources (investment size) in the relationship, and with one or both men having a primary care provider. Conclusions These findings may be used to help improve testing rates via promotion of HTs among gay male couples. PMID:25668643

  2. The Peer Attitudes toward Children Who Stutter Scale: Reliability, Known Groups Validity, and Negativity of Elementary School-Age Children's Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langevin, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter (PATCS) scale (Langevin, M., & Hagler, P. (2004). Development of a scale to measure peer attitudes toward children who stutter. In A.K. Bothe (Ed.), Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: empirical bases and clinical applications (pp. 139-171). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum…

  3. Predictors of negative attitudes toward Indigenous Australians and a unit of study among undergraduate nursing students: A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Ramjan, Lucie; Hunt, Leanne; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-03-01

    Indigenous people are the most disadvantaged population within Australia. The Bachelor of Nursing program at a large university in Western Sydney embedded Indigenous health into the undergraduate teaching program. This paper reviews the negative responses received towards course content on evaluation of the Indigenous health unit and explores the predictors for the negative attitudes towards Indigenous Australians. Two surveys were used (baseline and follow-up) to: 1. Determine the main predictors for negative attitudes towards Indigenous people and; 2. Explore students' perceptions of the educational quality of the Indigenous health unit. The surveys allowed collection of socio-demographic, academic data and included the 18 item 'Attitude Toward Indigenous Australians' (ATIA) scale and open-ended responses. Students who were: 1. Overseas born, 2. Enrolment category: International student and; 3. Whose primary source of information about Indigenous Australians were the media and school were significantly more likely to have higher negative attitudes towards Indigenous Australians. Qualitative data revealed some unfavourable comments dismissing the value and educational quality of the content within the Indigenous health unit. Community engagement is paramount to enhancing the student experience. Movement away from media driven 'hype' to an educated perspective is necessary to create an accurate portrayal of the Indigenous community. PMID:26775166

  4. The Art of Living Together: Reducing Stereotyping and Prejudicial Attitudes through the Arab-Jewish Class Exchange Program (CEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Rony; Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Gelkopf, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a newly developed Arab-Jewish Class Exchange Program (CEP) in reducing stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes between Israeli-Jewish and Israeli-Palestinian children. The CEP builds on the core principles of contact theory and is designed to help participants cultivate empathy and tolerance toward the other.…

  5. The Art of Living Together: Reducing Stereotyping and Prejudicial Attitudes through the Arab-Jewish Class Exchange Program (CEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Rony; Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Gelkopf, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a newly developed Arab-Jewish Class Exchange Program (CEP) in reducing stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes between Israeli-Jewish and Israeli-Palestinian children. The CEP builds on the core principles of contact theory and is designed to help participants cultivate empathy and tolerance toward the other.

  6. Prefrontal Electrical Stimulation in Non-depressed Reduces Levels of Reported Negative Affects from Daily Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Adelaide; Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M.; Rea, Sara; Newstead, Simon A.; Roderick, Sian; Davis, Nick J.; Clement, R. Marc; Boy, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Negative emotional responses to the daily life stresses have cumulative effects which, in turn, impose wide-ranging negative constraints on emotional well being and neurocognitive performance (Kalueff and Nutt, 2007; Nadler et al., 2010; Charles et al., 2013). Crucial cognitive functions such as memory and problem solving, as well more short term emotional responses (e.g., anticipation of- and response to- monetary rewards or losses) are influenced by mood. The negative impact of these behavioral responses is felt at the individual level, but it also imposes major economic burden on modern healthcare systems. Although much research has been undertaken to understand the underlying mechanisms of depressed mood and design efficient treatment pathways, comparatively little was done to characterize mood modulations that remain within the boundaries of a healthy mental functioning. In one placebo-controlled experiment, we applied daily prefrontal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at five points in time, and found reliable improvements on self-reported mood evaluation. Using a new team of experimenters, we replicated this finding in an independent double-blinded placebo-controlled experiment and showed that stimulation over a shorter period of time (3 days) is sufficient to create detectable mood improvements. Taken together, our data show that repeated bilateral prefrontal tDCS can reduce psychological distress in non-depressed individuals. PMID:26973591

  7. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed

    Peacock, Stephanie J; Connors, Brendan M; Krkosek, Martin; Irvine, James R; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host-parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations. PMID:24352951

  8. Intranasal oxytocin administration is associated with enhanced endogenous pain inhibition and reduced negative mood states

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Burel R.; Anderson, Austen J. B.; Freeman, Emily L.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Robbins, Meredith T.; Ness, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined whether the administration of intranasal oxytocin was associated with pain sensitivity, endogenous pain inhibitory capacity, and negative mood states. Methods A total of 30 pain-free, young adults each completed three laboratory sessions on consecutive days. The first session (baseline) assessed ischemic pain sensitivity, endogenous pain inhibition via conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and negative mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). CPM was tested on the dominant forearm and ipsilateral masseter muscle using algometry (test stimulus) and the cold pressor task (conditioning stimulus; non-dominant hand). For the second and third sessions, participants initially completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and then self-administered a single (40IU/1mL) dose of intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized counter-balanced order. Thirty minutes post-administration, participants again completed the STAI and repeated assessments of ischemic pain sensitivity and CPM followed by the POMS. Results Findings demonstrated that ischemic pain sensitivity did not significantly differ across the three study sessions. CPM at the masseter, but not the forearm, was significantly greater following administration of oxytocin compared to placebo. Negative mood was also significantly lower following administration of oxytocin compared to placebo. Similarly, anxiety significantly decreased following administration of oxytocin but not placebo. Discussion This study incorporated a placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subjects crossover design with randomized administration of intranasal oxytocin and placebo. The data suggest that the administration of intranasal oxytocin may augment endogenous pain inhibitory capacity and reduce negative mood states including anxiety. PMID:25370147

  9. Negative infrared photocurrent response in layered WS{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Ratha, Satyajit; Rout, Chandra Sekhar E-mail: csrout@iitbbs.ac.in; Simbeck, Adam J.; Late, Dattatray J. E-mail: csrout@iitbbs.ac.in; Nayak, Saroj K.

    2014-12-15

    We report high performance IR photocurrent response of two-dimensional hybrid materials consisting of layered WS{sub 2} nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Comparative photocurrent response studies of WS{sub 2} nanosheets, RGO, and WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids were carried out by performing current-voltage (I-V) and time-dependent current measurements with a laser excitation source having a wavelength of 808 nm. The experimental investigations indicate that WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids show negative photocurrent response, whereas WS{sub 2} and RGO show positive photocurrent response. The negative photocurrent response of the WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids is explained using a band alignment diagram and attributed to a charge transfer mechanism between WS{sub 2} and RGO. This analysis is further corroborated by first-principles density functional calculations. The fabricated device based on WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids shows a photosensitivity R{sub λ} of about 6 AW{sup −1} and a quantum efficiency η of ∼924%, which demonstrates high sensitivity of the hybrid material towards IR detection. WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids are therefore promising candidates for potential applications in optoelectronic circuits and low cost, high performance, and reliable photodetectors.

  10. T-mod pathway, a reduced sequence for identification of gram-negative urinary tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Berlutti, F; Thaller, M C; Dainelli, B; Pezzi, R

    1989-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a reduced sequence of identification that includes T-mod medium, a selective and differential isolation medium which allows accurate presumptive identification of the most common gram-negative bacteria encountered in urine samples. The present study, performed on bacteria isolated from 1,762 independent urine samples, has shown that a few selected tests (lysine and ornithine decarboxylase, urease and trehalose fermentation tests) improve the identification accuracy of T-mod, making it possible both to identify the less frequent species and to prevent some misidentifications of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The proposed work flow agreed with conventional identification protocols to a 99.3% extent and allowed identification of 87.4% of the isolates directly from the primary plate, 11.4% after 1 to 3 additional tests, and 1.2% after an identification gallery. PMID:2768451

  11. Do experiences of racial discrimination predict cardiovascular disease among African American men? The moderating role of internalized negative racial group attitudes.

    PubMed

    Chae, David H; Lincoln, Karen D; Adler, Nancy E; Syme, S Leonard

    2010-09-01

    Studies examining associations between racial discrimination and cardiovascular health outcomes have been inconsistent, with some studies finding the highest risk of hypertension among African Americans who report no discrimination. A potential explanation of the latter is that hypertension and other cardiovascular problems are fostered by internalization and denial of racial discrimination. To explore this hypothesis, the current study examines the role of internalized negative racial group attitudes in linking experiences of racial discrimination and history of cardiovascular disease among African American men. We predicted a significant interaction between reported discrimination and internalized negative racial group attitudes in predicting cardiovascular disease. Weighted logistic regression analyses were conducted among 1216 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL; 2001-2003). We found no main effect of racial discrimination in predicting history of cardiovascular disease. However, agreeing with negative beliefs about Blacks was positively associated with cardiovascular disease history, and also moderated the effect of racial discrimination. Reporting racial discrimination was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease among African American men who disagreed with negative beliefs about Blacks. However, among African American men who endorsed negative beliefs about Blacks, the risk of cardiovascular disease was greatest among those reporting no discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination and the internalization of negative racial group attitudes are both risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African American men. Furthermore, the combination of internalizing negative beliefs about Blacks and the absence of reported racial discrimination appear to be associated with particularly poor cardiovascular health. Steps to address racial discrimination as well as programs aimed at developing a positive racial group identity may help to improve cardiovascular health among African American men. PMID:20659782

  12. Feedback enhances the positive effects and reduces the negative effects of multiple-choice testing.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew C; Roediger, Henry L

    2008-04-01

    Multiple-choice tests are used frequently in higher education without much consideration of the impact this form of assessment has on learning. Multiple-choice testing enhances retention of the material tested (the testing effect); however, unlike other tests, multiple-choice can also be detrimental because it exposes students to misinformation in the form of lures. The selection of lures can lead students to acquire false knowledge (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). The present research investigated whether feedback could be used to boost the positive effects and reduce the negative effects of multiple-choice testing. Subjects studied passages and then received a multiple-choice test with immediate feedback, delayed feedback, or no feedback. In comparison with the no-feedback condition, both immediate and delayed feedback increased the proportion of correct responses and reduced the proportion of intrusions (i.e., lure responses from the initial multiple-choice test) on a delayed cued recall test. Educators should provide feedback when using multiple-choice tests. PMID:18491500

  13. Hepatic glucose output in humans measured with labeled glucose to reduce negative errors

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.C.; Brown, G.; Matthews, D.R.; Turner, R.C. )

    1989-10-01

    Steele and others have suggested that minimizing changes in glucose specific activity when estimating hepatic glucose output (HGO) during glucose infusions could reduce non-steady-state errors. This approach was assessed in nondiabetic and type II diabetic subjects during constant low dose (27 mumol.kg ideal body wt (IBW)-1.min-1) glucose infusion followed by a 12 mmol/l hyperglycemic clamp. Eight subjects had paired tests with and without labeled infusions. Labeled infusion was used to compare HGO in 11 nondiabetic and 15 diabetic subjects. Whereas unlabeled infusions produced negative values for endogenous glucose output, labeled infusions largely eliminated this error and reduced the dependence of the Steele model on the pool fraction in the paired tests. By use of labeled infusions, 11 nondiabetic subjects suppressed HGO from 10.2 +/- 0.6 (SE) fasting to 0.8 +/- 0.9 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 after 90 min of glucose infusion and to -1.9 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 after 90 min of a 12 mmol/l glucose clamp, but 15 diabetic subjects suppressed only partially from 13.0 +/- 0.9 fasting to 5.7 +/- 1.2 at the end of the glucose infusion and 5.6 +/- 1.0 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 in the clamp (P = 0.02, 0.002, and less than 0.001, respectively).

  14. Clinicians’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juyan Julia; Patel, Sameer J.; Jia, Haomiao; Weisenberg, Scott A.; Furuya, E. Yoko; Kubin, Christine J.; Alba, Luis; Rhee, Kyu; Saiman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess how healthcare professionals caring for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) understand and use antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB). Design A knowledge, attitude and practice survey assessed ICU clinicians knowledge of antimicrobial resistance, confidence interpreting susceptibility testing, and beliefs regarding the impact of susceptibility testing on patient outcomes. Setting 16 ICUs affiliated with New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Participants Attending physicians and subspecialty residents with primary clinical responsibilities in adult or pediatric ICUs and infectious diseases (ID) subspecialists and clinical pharmacists. Methods Participants completed an anonymous electronic survey. Responses included 4-level Likert scales dichotomized for analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed using Generalized Estimating Equations logistic regression to account for correlation of respondents from the same ICU. Results The response rate was 51% (178/349 eligible participants) of whom 120 (67%) were ICU physicians. Those caring for adult patients were more knowledgeable about antimicrobial activity and more familiar with MDR-GNB infections. Only 33% and 12% of ICU physicians were familiar with standardized and specialized AST methods, respectively, but >95% believed AST improved patient outcomes. When adjusted for demographic and healthcare provider characteristics, those familiar with treatment of MDR-GNB bloodstream infections, those aware of resistance mechanisms, and those aware of AST methods were more confident they could interpret AST and/or request additional in vitro testing. Conclusions Our study uncovered knowledge gaps and educational needs that could serve as the foundation for future interventions. Familiarity with MDR-GNB increased overall knowledge and familiarity with AST increased confidence interpreting these results. PMID:23388362

  15. Strategies to Reduce Negative Socialization in the First Years of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Glenn; Napper-Owens, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Transitioning into a new role can be difficult in any walk of life, and this is no different for physical educators entering a new teaching environment. In a new setting, a physical educator may go through a socialization process where beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and teaching philosophies are influenced. Teacher socialization research suggests…

  16. Evaluation of a Workshop to Reduce Negative Perceptions of Statistics in Undergraduate Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Michelle; Neumann, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated whether a brief group workshop that combined psycho-education and learning strategies improved self-efficacy, attitudes, and anxiety regarding statistics in psychology students. The workshop was completed in Week 1 of a compulsory 1st-year psychology statistics course. Prior to the workshop, the attendees (n = 10) did not…

  17. Adolescents' attitudes toward schizophrenia, depression and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Arbanas, Goran

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare adolescents' attitudes toward schizophrenia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stigmatizing attitudes toward these three mental disorders were evaluated in 325 senior students from medical, commercial, and grammar high schools in Croatia using a 45-item questionnaire. Results indicated that stigmatizing attitudes toward PTSD were at the same level as attitudes toward depression and were less stigmatizing than were attitudes toward schizophrenia. Negative attitudes were the lowest among medical students. Gender differences existed only for attitudes toward depression. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PTSD were not as high as expected. All of the students believed mental disorders are different from other disorders. Specific knowledge of psychiatry has been shown to reduce stigma. The nonaddictive nature of psychotropic medications should receive greater emphasis when teaching psychiatry. PMID:18416274

  18. An investigation of negative affect, reactivity, and distress tolerance as predictors of disordered eating attitudes across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Juarascio, Adrienne S; Felton, Julia W; Borges, Allison M; Manasse, Stephanie M; Murray, Helen B; Lejuez, Carl W

    2016-06-01

    The current study examined internalizing symptoms, affect reactivity, and distress intolerance as prospective predictors of increases in eating disorder (ED)-attitudes during adolescence. Adolescents (n = 206) took part in a six-year longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology. Latent growth curve analysis was used to examine associations between predictors and later ED-attitudes. Distress intolerance and internalizing symptoms were associated with ED-attitudes at baseline, but did not predict increases over time. Affect reactivity, however, was significantly associated with increases in ED-attitudes over time. Baseline affect reactivity did not interact with baseline distress intolerance to predict increases in ED-attitudes; however higher baseline internalizing symptoms interacted with distress intolerance to predict increases in ED-attitudes across adolescence. These results are among the first to document that affect reactivity alone and the combined effect of high internalizing symptoms and high distress intolerance early in adolescence are risk factors for the later development of ED-attitudes. PMID:27018749

  19. The contact caveat: negative contact predicts increased prejudice more than positive contact predicts reduced prejudice.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Paolini, Stefania; Pedersen, Anne; Hornsey, Matthew J; Radke, Helena R M; Harwood, Jake; Rubin, Mark; Sibley, Chris G

    2012-12-01

    Contact researchers have largely overlooked the potential for negative intergroup contact to increase prejudice. In Study 1, we tested the interaction between contact quantity and valence on prejudice toward Black Australians (n = 1,476), Muslim Australians (n = 173), and asylum seekers (n = 293). In all cases, the association between contact quantity and prejudice was moderated by its valence, with negative contact emerging as a stronger and more consistent predictor than positive contact. In Study 2, White Americans (n = 441) indicated how much positive and negative contact they had with Black Americans on separate measures. Although both quantity of positive and negative contact predicted racism and avoidance, negative contact was the stronger predictor. Furthermore, negative (but not positive) contact independently predicted suspicion about Barack Obama's birthplace. These results extend the contact hypothesis by issuing an important caveat: Negative contact may be more strongly associated with increased racism and discrimination than positive contact is with its reduction. PMID:22941796

  20. Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.

    PubMed

    Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation. PMID:22148989

  1. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lodhia, Veema; Brock, Jon; Johnson, Blake W.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN) in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400). These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing. PMID:24688845

  2. A thermophilic gram-negative nitrate-reducing bacterium, Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens, exhibiting electricity generation capability.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian; Kobayashi, Hajime; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Wakayama, Tatsuki; Maeda, Haruo; Sato, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    To exploit the potential diversity of thermophilic exoelectrogens, two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were inoculated with thermophilic anaerobic digester sludge and operated at 55 °C without supplementing with exogenous redox mediator. The MFC generated a maximum power density of 823 mW m(-2) after 200 h of operation. Molecular phylogenetic analyses suggested that the microbial population on the anode was dominated by a species closely related to a thermophilic nitrate-reducing bacterium Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens, for which a strain (Yu37-1) has been isolated in pure culture. Thus, a pure culture of the C. nitroreducens strain Yu37-1 was inoculated into MFC to examine the electricity generation capability. Without an exogenous mediator, MFCs stably produced electricity with a maximum power density of 272 mW m(-2) for >400 h of operation. The MFC current recovered to the original level within few hours after medium replacement, suggesting that the electricity generation was caused by the anodic microorganisms. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that redox systems (E3 and Ec) with similar potentials (-0.14 and -0.17 V) made the main contributions to the exoelectrogenic activities of the sludge-derived consortium and C. nitroreducens Yu37-1, respectively. This study undertook the bioelectrochemical characterization of C. nitroreducens as the first example of a thermophilic Gram-negative exoelectrogen. PMID:24053548

  3. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lodhia, Veema; Brock, Jon; Johnson, Blake W; Hautus, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN) in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400). These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing. PMID:24688845

  4. Reduced Sensitivity to Prosodic Attitudes in Adults with Focal Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is a strong link between the right hemisphere and understanding emotional prosody in speech, there are few data on how the right hemisphere is implicated for understanding the emotive "attitudes" of a speaker from prosody. This report describes two experiments which compared how listeners with and without focal right hemisphere…

  5. Glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy reduces the negative impacts the proinflammatory response in the gut of calves with coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damage to the intestinal epithelium reduces nutrient absorption and animal growth, and can have negative long-term health effects on livestock. The intestinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) contributes to gut integrity, reduces inflammation, and improves nutrient absorption. The presen...

  6. Suspending in School Suspension?: Is ISS a Valid Means of Disciplinary Action to Reduce Negative Student Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahynes, Leron M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explored whether or not In School Suspensions (ISS) is effective in reducing student behavioral problems. Research was conducted with 6-8th grade students in a rural middle school in the upstate of South Carolina for the purposes of determining if ISS, in its current design a viable and effective method to reduce negative student…

  7. Urine testing for norcodeine, norhydrocodone, and noroxycodone facilitates interpretation and reduces false negatives.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Zichterman, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Cawthon, Beverly; Robert, Tim; Moser, Frank; Caplan, Yale H

    2010-05-20

    Urine drug testing of pain patients provides objective information to health specialists regarding patient compliance, diversion, and concurrent illicit drug use. Interpretation of urine test results for semi-synthetic opiates can be difficult because of complex biotransformations of parent drug to metabolites that are also available commercially and may be abused. Normetabolites such as norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone are unique metabolites that are not available commercially. Consequently, detection of normetabolite in specimens not containing parent drug, provides conclusive evidence that the parent drug was consumed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and patterns of the three normetabolites, norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone, in urine specimens of pain patients treated with opiates. Urine specimens were hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase and analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay for the presence of codeine, norcodeine, morphine, hydrocodone, norhydrocodone, hydromorphone, dihydrocodeine, oxycodone, noroxycodone, and oxymorphone. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for these analytes was 50ng/mL. The study was approved by an Institutional Review Board. Of the total specimens (N=2654) tested, 71.4% (N=1895) were positive (>or=LOQ) for one or more of the analytes. The prevalence (%) of positive results for codeine, hydrocodone and oxycodone was 1.2%, 26.1%, and 36.2%, respectively, and the prevalence of norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone was 0.5%, 22.1%, and 31.3%, respectively. For specimens containing normetabolite, the prevalence of norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone in the absence of parent drug was 8.6%, 7.8% and 9.4%, respectively. From one-third to two-thirds of these specimens also did not contain other metabolites that could have originated from the parent drug. Consequently, the authors conclude that inclusion of norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone is useful in interpretation of opiate drug source and reduces potential false negatives that would occur without tests for these unique metabolites. PMID:20036472

  8. Estrogen receptor β selective agonists reduce invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hinsche, Oliver; Girgert, Rainer; Emons, Günter; Gründker, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    Metastasis to bone is a frequent problem of advanced breast cancer. Particularly breast cancers, which do not express estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) and which have no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), so-called triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), are considered as very aggressive and have a poor prognosis. Recently we have shown that breast cancer cell invasion was dramatically increased when co-cultured with MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Using this model we have now analyzed whether estrogen receptor β (ERβ) plays a role in TNBC cell invasion in vitro. ERα and ERβ protein expression was analyzed using western blot analysis. Invasion was quantified by assessment of TNBC cell migration rate through an artificial basement membrane in a modified Boyden chamber during co-culture with MG63 osteoblast-like cells. The effects of ERβ agonist treatment on CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) protein expression during co-culture with MG64 cells was quantified using western blot analysis. Proliferation was measured using alamarBlue assay. TNBC cell lines HCC1806 and HCC1937 showed no ERα but high ERβ protein expression. Cell invasion of HCC1806 and HCC1937 TNBC cells was significantly increased when co-cultured with MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Treatment with ERβ selective estrogen agonists liquiritigenin and ERB-041 reduced the ability to invade a reconstituted basement membrane and to migrate in response to the cellular stimulus. During co-culture CXCR4 protein expression of TNBC cell lines HCC1806 and HCC1937 was significantly increased. Treatment with liquiritigenin resulted in a significant decrease of CXCR4 protein expression. Both ERβ agonists showed no effect on TNBC cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that ERβ plays a major role in TNBC invasion. Bone-directed invasion can be inhibited by ERβ agonists. PMID:25420519

  9. Food, mood, and attitude: reducing risk for eating disorders in college women.

    PubMed

    Franko, Debra L; Mintz, Laurie B; Villapiano, Mona; Green, Traci Craig; Mainelli, Dana; Folensbee, Lesley; Butler, Stephen F; Davidson, M Meghan; Hamilton, Emily; Little, Debbie; Kearns, Maureen; Budman, Simon H

    2005-11-01

    Food, Mood, and Attitude (FMA) is a CD-ROM prevention program developed to decrease risk for eating disorders in college women. Female 1st-year students (N = 240) were randomly assigned to the intervention (FMA) or control group. Equal numbers of students at risk and of low risk for developing an eating disorder were assigned to each condition. Participants in the FMA condition improved on all measures relative to controls. Significant 3-way interactions (Time x Condition x Risk Status) were found on measures of internalization of sociocultural attitudes about thinness, shape concerns, and weight concerns, indicating that at-risk participants in the intervention group improved to a greater extent than did low-risk participants. At follow-up, significantly fewer women in the FMA group reported overeating and excessive exercise relative to controls. PMID:16287402

  10. Clinician Attitudes, Screening Practices, and Interventions to Reduce Firearm-Related Injury.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Paul J D; Ameli, Jonathan; Carter, Patrick M; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Ranney, Megan L

    2016-01-01

    Firearm injury is a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the United States. We sought to systematically identify and summarize existing literature on clinical firearm injury prevention screening and interventions. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycInfo, and ClinicalTrials.gov for English-language original research (published 1992-2014) on clinical screening methods, patient-level firearm interventions, or patient/provider attitudes on the same. Unrelated studies were excluded through title, abstract, and full-text review, and the remaining articles underwent data abstraction and quality scoring. Of a total of 3,260 unique titles identified, 72 were included in the final review. Fifty-three articles examined clinician attitudes/practice patterns; prior training, experience, and expectations correlated with clinicians' regularity of firearm screening. Twelve articles assessed patient interventions, of which 6 were randomized controlled trials. Seven articles described patient attitudes; all were of low methodological quality. According to these articles, providers rarely screen or counsel their patients-even high-risk patients-about firearm safety. Health-care-based interventions may increase rates of safe storage of firearms for pediatric patients, suicidal patients, and other high-risk groups. Some studies show that training clinicians can increase rates of effective firearm safety screening and counseling. Patients and families are, for the most part, accepting of such screening and counseling. However, the current literature is, by and large, not high quality. Rigorous, large-scale, adequately funded studies are needed. PMID:26905894

  11. Everybody Belongs: Changing Negative Attitudes toward Classmates with Disabilities. Garland Reference Library of Social Science. Critical Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Arthur H.

    This book provides guidance to facilitate the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms, examining the concept of disability and attitudes toward disability. The book explains that the evil prosthesis of Captain Hook, the comical speech of Porky Pig, and the bumbling antics of Mr. Magoo are all examples of images in…

  12. Successes with Reversing the Negative Student Attitudes Developed in Typical Biology Classes for 8th and 10th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacieminoglu, Esme; Ali, Mohamed Moustafa; Oztas, Fulya; Yager, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare changes in attitudes of students about their study of biology in the classes thought by five biology teachers who experienced an Iowa Chautauqua workshop with and two non-Chautauqua teachers who had no experience with any professional development program. The results indicated that there are significant

  13. Successes with Reversing the Negative Student Attitudes Developed in Typical Biology Classes for 8th and 10th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacieminoglu, Esme; Ali, Mohamed Moustafa; Oztas, Fulya; Yager, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare changes in attitudes of students about their study of biology in the classes thought by five biology teachers who experienced an Iowa Chautauqua workshop with and two non-Chautauqua teachers who had no experience with any professional development program. The results indicated that there are significant…

  14. Trait anxiety reduces affective fading for both positive and negative autobiographical memories

    PubMed Central

    Walker, W. Richard; Yancu, Cecile N.; Skowronski, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The affect associated with negative events fades faster than the affect associated with positive events (the Fading Affect Bias; the FAB). The research that we report examined the relation between trait anxiety and the FAB. Study 1 assessed anxiety using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; Studies 2 and 3 used the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Studies 1 and 2 used retrospective procedures to probe positive event memories and negative event memories while Study 3 used a diary procedure. The results of all 3 studies showed that increased anxiety was associated with both a lowered FAB and lower overall affect fading for both positive events and negative events. These results suggest that for people free of trait anxiety, the FAB reflects the operation of a healthy coping mechanism in autobiographical memory that is disrupted by trait anxiety. PMID:25320653

  15. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. PMID:26780148

  16. Cavitation selectively reduces the negative-pressure phase of lithotripter shock pulses

    PubMed Central

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.; McAteer, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone, high-speed camera, and B-mode ultrasound showed attenuation of the trailing negative-pressure phase of a lithotripter shock pulse under conditions that favor generation of cavitation bubbles, such as in water with a high content of dissolved gas or at high pulse repetition rate where more cavitation nuclei persisted between pulses. This cavitation-mediated attenuation of the acoustic pulse was also observed to increase with increasing amplitude of source discharge potential, such that the negative-pressure phase of the pulse can remain fixed in amplitude even with increasing source discharge potential. PMID:19756170

  17. Personalized SC-IAT: a possible way of reducing the influence of societal views on assessments of implicit attitude toward smoking.

    PubMed

    Bardin, Brigitte; Perrissol, Stéphane; Py, Jacques; Launay, Céline; Escoubès, Florian

    2014-08-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is used to assess attitude beyond the limitations of explicit measurements. Nevertheless, the test requires opposition between two attitude objects and also measures an extra-personal dimension of attitude that may reflect associations shared collectively. The first limitation can be overcome by using a Single Category IAT and the second by a personalized version of IAT. This study compares attitudes to smoking measured using a Single Category IAT with a personalized version of the test. The results, collected from 111 students, showed that the Single Category IAT did not distinguish smokers from non-smokers; smokers had negative scores. The personalized version did distinguish smokers from non-smokers, and smokers' scores seem to be neutral. PMID:25153946

  18. The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

  19. Efficacy of Creative Clay Work for Reducing Negative Mood: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Robbins, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Clay work has long been used in art therapy to achieve therapeutic goals. However, little empirical evidence exists to document the efficacy of such work. The present study randomly assigned 102 adult participants to one of four conditions following induction of a negative mood: (a) handling clay with instructions to create a pinch pot, (b)

  20. Efficacy of Creative Clay Work for Reducing Negative Mood: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Robbins, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Clay work has long been used in art therapy to achieve therapeutic goals. However, little empirical evidence exists to document the efficacy of such work. The present study randomly assigned 102 adult participants to one of four conditions following induction of a negative mood: (a) handling clay with instructions to create a pinch pot, (b)…

  1. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiansong; Fregni, Felipe; Brody, Arthur L; Rahman, Ardeshir S

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (∼1.5 h) smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode to the right supra-orbital area for 20 min with a current of 2.0 mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS) Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation. PMID:24065930

  2. Laparoscopy for questionable appendicitis: can it reduce the negative appendectomy rate?

    PubMed Central

    Leape, L L; Ramenofsky, M L

    1980-01-01

    Laparoscopy has been performed in 32 patients in whom the diagnosis of appendicitis was suspected, but in whom clinical findings were equivocal and insufficient to establish the diagnosis. These patients represented 13.6% of the total group of patients admitted with questionable appendicitis during this period. Fifty per cent of these 32 patients had unusual clinical features, such as a prolonged history of symptoms, significant intercurrent disease, prior treatment with antibiotics or steroids, etc. At laparoscopy, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made in 17 patients. Another disease was diagnosed in 8 patients, and 7 were judged to have no pathologic abnormalities. There were two false negative examinations and one false positive, but no ruptured appendices resulted. Twelve patients (37.5%) were spared operation by laparoscopy. The negative appendectomy rate was decreased from 10 to 1%. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6445178

  3. Distinct neural systems underlying reduced emotional enhancement for positive and negative stimuli in early Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mistridis, Panagiota; Taylor, Kirsten I.; Kissler, Johanna M.; Monsch, Andreas U.; Kressig, Reto W.; Kivisaari, Sasa L.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional information is typically better remembered than neutral content, and previous studies suggest that this effect is subserved particularly by the amygdala together with its interactions with the hippocampus. However, it is not known whether amygdala damage affects emotional memory performance at immediate and delayed recall, and whether its involvement is modulated by stimulus valence. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent more distributed neocortical regions involved in e.g., autobiographical memory, also contribute to emotional processing. We investigated these questions in a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects the amygdala, hippocampus and neocortical regions. Healthy controls (n = 14), patients with AD (n = 15) and its putative prodrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 11) completed a memory task consisting of immediate and delayed free recall of a list of positive, negative and neutral words. Memory performance was related to brain integrity in region of interest and whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses. In the brain-behavioral analyses, the left amygdala volume predicted the immediate recall of both positive and negative material, whereas at delay, left and right amygdala volumes were associated with performance with positive and negative words, respectively. Whole-brain analyses revealed additional associations between left angular gyrus integrity and the immediate recall of positive words as well as between the orbitofrontal cortex and the delayed recall of negative words. These results indicate that emotional memory impairments in AD may be underpinned by damage to regions implicated in emotional processing as well as frontoparietal regions, which may exert their influence via autobiographical memories and organizational strategies. PMID:24478669

  4. Measuring Negative Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity in the German Population – Psychometric Properties and Reference Values for the German Short Version of the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Ruzanska, Ulrike; Sikorski, Claudia; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Obese individuals are often stigmatized and the psychosocial consequences of overweight and obesity are the subject of current research. To detect stigmatizing attitudes towards obese people, the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS) was developed in the USA in the early nineties. In addition, the 14-item short form of the FPS was constructed. The FPS belongs to the most commonly used instruments for measuring negative attitudes towards obese people because of its good psychometric properties. For the recently developed German short form of the FPS, however, the comprehensive investigation of the psychometric properties and the determination of reference values are still pending. Thus, the main objectives of this study were the evaluation of the psychometric quality of the scale as well as the calculation of reference values. Methods The study was based on a representative survey in the German general population. A sample of 1,657 subjects (18–94 years) was assessed via structured telephone interviews including the 14-item German version of the FPS. Descriptive statistics and inference-statistical analyses were conducted. Reference values in terms of percentage ranks were calculated. Results Substantial evidence for the reliability and validity of the German short version of the FPS was found. This study, for the first time in Germany, provides age-specific reference values for the German short form of the FPS allowing the interpretation of individual test scores. Conclusion Facing the far-reaching consequences of experienced stigmatization of obese individuals, these study results provide an important basis for further studies aiming at the investigation of negative attitudes towards overweight and obesity. PMID:25474195

  5. Implantation reduces the negative effects of bio-logging devices on birds.

    PubMed

    White, Craig R; Cassey, Phillip; Schimpf, Natalie G; Halsey, Lewis G; Green, Jonathan A; Portugal, Steven J

    2013-02-15

    Animal-borne logging or telemetry devices are widely used for measurements of physiological and movement data from free-living animals. For such measurements to be relevant, however, it is essential that the devices themselves do not affect the data of interest. A recent meta-analysis reported an overall negative effect of these devices on the birds that bear them, i.e. on nesting productivity, clutch size, nest initiation date, offspring quality, body condition, flying ability, foraging behaviours, energy expenditure and survival rate. Method of attachment (harness, collar, glue, anchor, implant, breast-mounted or tailmount) had no influence on the strength of these effects but anchored and implanted transmitters had the highest reported rates of device-induced mortality. Furthermore, external devices, but not internal devices, caused an increase in 'device-induced behaviour' (comfort behaviours such as preening, fluffing and stretching, and unrest activities including unquantifiable 'active' behaviours). These findings suggest that, with the exception of device-induced behaviour, external attachment is preferable to implantation. In the present study we undertake a meta-analysis of 183 estimates of device impact from 39 studies of 36 species of bird designed to explicitly compare the effects of externally attached and surgically implanted devices on a range of traits, including condition, energy expenditure and reproduction. In contrast to a previous study, we demonstrate that externally attached devices have a consistent detrimental effect (i.e. negative influences on body condition, reproduction, metabolism and survival), whereas implanted devices have no consistent effect. We also show that the magnitude of the negative effect of externally attached devices decreases with time. We therefore conclude that device implantation is preferable to external attachment, providing that the risk of mortality associated with the anaesthesia and surgery required for implantation can be mitigated. We recommend that studies employing external devices use devices that can be borne for long periods, and, wherever possible, deploy devices in advance of the time period of interest. PMID:23125345

  6. Feeling Bad and Looking Worse: Negative Affect Is Associated with Reduced Perceptions of Face-Healthiness

    PubMed Central

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger’s faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger’s face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

  7. Could shading reduce the negative impacts of drought on coffee? A morphophysiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavatte, Paulo C; Oliveira, Alvaro A G; Morais, Leandro E; Martins, Samuel C V; Sanglard, Lílian M V P; DaMatta, Fábio M

    2012-02-01

    Based on indirect evidence, it was previously suggested that shading could attenuate the negative impacts of drought on coffee (Coffea arabica), a tropical crop species native to shady environments. A variety (47) of morphological and physiological traits were examined in plants grown in 30-l pots in either full sunlight or 85% shade for 8 months, after which a 4-month water shortage was implemented. Overall, the traits showed weak or negligible responses to the light × water interaction, explaining less than 10% of the total data variation. Only slight variations in biomass allocation were observed in the combined shade and drought treatment. Differences in relative growth rates were mainly associated with physiological and not with morphological adjustments. In high light, drought constrained the photosynthetic rate through stomatal limitations with no sign of apparent photoinhibition; in low light, such constraints were apparently linked to biochemical factors. Sun-grown plants displayed osmotic adjustments, decreased tissue elasticities and improved long-term water use efficiencies, especially under drought. Regardless of the water availability, higher concentrations of lipids, total phenols, total soluble sugars and lignin were found in high light compared to shade conditions, in contrast to the effects on cellulose and hemicellulose concentrations. Proline concentrations increased in water-deprived plants, particularly those grown under full sun. Phenotypic plasticity was much higher in response to the light than to the water supply. Overall, shading did not alleviate the negative impacts of drought on the coffee tree. PMID:21939445

  8. The Effects of a Distracting N-Back Task on Recognition Memory Are Reduced by Negative Emotional Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Buratto, Luciano G.; Pottage, Claire L.; Brown, Charity; Morrison, Catriona M.; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Memory performance is usually impaired when participants have to encode information while performing a concurrent task. Recent studies using recall tasks have found that emotional items are more resistant to such cognitive depletion effects than non-emotional items. However, when recognition tasks are used, the same effect is more elusive as recent recognition studies have obtained contradictory results. In two experiments, we provide evidence that negative emotional content can reliably reduce the effects of cognitive depletion on recognition memory only if stimuli with high levels of emotional intensity are used. In particular, we found that recognition performance for realistic pictures was impaired by a secondary 3-back working memory task during encoding if stimuli were emotionally neutral or had moderate levels of negative emotionality. In contrast, when negative pictures with high levels of emotional intensity were used, the detrimental effects of the secondary task were significantly attenuated. PMID:25330251

  9. The effects of a distracting N-back task on recognition memory are reduced by negative emotional intensity.

    PubMed

    Buratto, Luciano G; Pottage, Claire L; Brown, Charity; Morrison, Catriona M; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Memory performance is usually impaired when participants have to encode information while performing a concurrent task. Recent studies using recall tasks have found that emotional items are more resistant to such cognitive depletion effects than non-emotional items. However, when recognition tasks are used, the same effect is more elusive as recent recognition studies have obtained contradictory results. In two experiments, we provide evidence that negative emotional content can reliably reduce the effects of cognitive depletion on recognition memory only if stimuli with high levels of emotional intensity are used. In particular, we found that recognition performance for realistic pictures was impaired by a secondary 3-back working memory task during encoding if stimuli were emotionally neutral or had moderate levels of negative emotionality. In contrast, when negative pictures with high levels of emotional intensity were used, the detrimental effects of the secondary task were significantly attenuated. PMID:25330251

  10. Glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy reduces negative effects of diarrhea on calf gut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damage to the intestinal epithelium caused by diarrhea reduces nutrient absorption and growth rate, and may have long-term effects on the young animal. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an intestinotropic hormone that improves gut integrity and nutrient absorption, and has antioxidant effects in th...

  11. Triple Negative Breast Cancers Have a Reduced Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    PubMed Central

    Andreis, Daniele; Bertoni, Ramona; Giardini, Roberto; Fox, Stephen B.; Broggini, Massimo; Bottini, Alberto; Zanoni, Vanessa; Bazzola, Letizia; Foroni, Chiara; Generali, Daniele; Damia, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair is a key determinant in the cellular response to therapy and tumor repair status could play an important role in tailoring patient therapy. Our goal was to evaluate the mRNA of 13 genes involved in different DNA repair pathways (base excision, nucleotide excision, homologous recombination, and Fanconi anemia) in paraffin embedded samples of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to luminal A breast cancer (LABC). Most of the genes involved in nucleotide excision repair and Fanconi Anemia pathways, and CHK1 gene were significantly less expressed in TNBC than in LABC. PARP1 levels were higher in TNBC than in LABC. In univariate analysis high level of FANCA correlated with an increased overall survival and event free survival in TNBC; however multivariate analyses using Cox regression did not confirm FANCA as independent prognostic factor. These data support the evidence that TNBCs compared to LABCs harbour DNA repair defects. PMID:23825533

  12. Reduced Immune Activation during Tenofovir-Emtricitabine Therapy in HIV-negative Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Mancilla, Jose R.; Meditz, Amie; Wilson, Cara; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Palmer, Brent E.; Lee, Eric J.; Gardner, Edward M.; Seifert, Sharon; Kerr, Becky; Bushman, Lane R.; MaWhinney, Samantha; Anderson, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated immune activation is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition. Tenofovir (TFV) has immunomodulatory properties in vitro, but how this extends in vivo remains unknown. Methods HIV-negative adults received daily co-formulated tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate (TDF) 300 mg/emtricitabine (FTC) 200 mg for 30 days followed by a 30-day washout. Markers of T-cell activation, inflammation and cytokines were measured before drug and on days 30 (on drug) and 60 (30-day washout). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA/pairwise comparisons. Intracellular disposition of TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) and FTC-triphosphate (FTC-TP) in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and monocytes was characterized, and the relationship with immune activation was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficient. Results T-cell activation was available in 19 participants. CD38/HLA-DR co-expression on CD8+ T-cells decreased from baseline to day 30 (3.97 vs. 2.71%;P=0.03) and day 60 (3.97 vs. 2.41%;P=0.008). Soluble CD27 decreased from baseline to day 60 (184.1 vs. 168.4 pg/ml;P=0.001). Cytokines and inflammation markers were not significantly different. TFV-DP and FTC-TP were approximately 4-fold higher in monocytes vs. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, but neither correlated with activation markers. Conclusions TDF/FTC therapy was associated with decreased T-cell activation in HIV-negative adults, which could contribute to the antiviral effect of pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:25763783

  13. Paranoid males have reduced lateralisation for processing of negative emotions: an investigation using the chimeric faces test.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Victoria J; McKay, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    Reduced strength of lateralisation in patients with schizophrenia has been reported in a number of studies. However the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. In this study, lateralisation for processing emotional faces was measured using the chimeric faces test and examined in relation to paranoia in a non-clinical sample. For males only, those with higher scores on a paranoia questionnaire had reduced lateralisation for processing negative facial emotion. For females there were no significant relationships. These findings suggest that atypical patterns of lateralisation for processing emotional stimuli may be implicated in, or associated with, increased levels of paranoia. PMID:23844655

  14. Quercetin regulates β-catenin signaling and reduces the migration of triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Thangavel, Chellappagounder; Liu, Yi; Shoyele, Sunday; Den, Robert B; Selvakumar, Ponniah; Lakshmikuttyamma, Ashakumary

    2016-05-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by a lack in estrogen, progesterone, and epidermal growth factor 2 receptors. TNBC exhibits most of the characteristics of basal-like and claudin-low breast cancer subtypes. The main contributor in the mortality of TNBC is due to the higher invasive and migratory ability of these tumor cells. Some plant flavonoids inhibit the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells and suppress cancer metastasis. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the flavonoid quercetin is effective in modulating the molecular signaling associated with EMT in TNBC. Our data indicated that quercetin can induce the expression of E-cadherin and also downregulate vimentin levels in TNBC. The ability of quercetin to modulate these EMT markers resulted in a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Quercetin-induced MET was linked with the alteration of nuclear localization of β-catenin and modulation of β-catenin target genes such as cyclin D1 and c-Myc. Furthermore, we observed that quercetin induced the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin by inhibiting the migratory ability of TNBC cells. These results suggested that quercetin may inhibit TNBC metastasis and also improve the therapeutic efficacy of existing chemotherapeutic drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25968914

  15. Microwave oscillator with reduced phase noise by negative feedback incorporating microwave signals with suppressed carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. J.; Saunders, J.

    1989-01-01

    Oscillator configurations which reduce the effect of 1/f noise sources for both direct feedback and stabilized local oscillator (STALO) circuits are developed and analyzed. By appropriate use of carrier suppression, a small signal is generated which suffers no loss of loop phase information or signal-to-noise ratio. This small signal can be amplified without degradation by multiplicative amplifier noise, and can be detected without saturation of the detector. Together with recent advances in microwave resonator Qs, these circuit improvements will make possible lower phase noise than can be presently achieved without the use of cryogenic devices.

  16. Examining Implicit Attitudes towards Exercisers with a Physical Disability

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Cassandra D.; Gainforth, Heather L.; O'Malley, Deborah A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Using measures of explicit attitudes, physical activity status has been established as a factor that reduces the stigma able-bodied people hold towards people with physical disabilities. This phenomenon is called the exerciser stereotype. However, whether the exerciser stereotype exists when using measures of implicit attitudes remains unknown. Objective. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of negative implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities and determine whether implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities were influenced by the exerciser stereotype. Methods. One hundred able-bodied participants (82 females, 18 males) completed two implicit association tests (IATs): the Disability-Attitudes IAT and the Disability-Activity IAT. The Disability-Attitudes IAT measured implicit attitudes towards people who were not disabled relative to disabled; the Disability-Activity IAT measured attitudes towards people with a physical disability who were active relative to inactive. Results. Results revealed that 83.8% of participants had negative implicit attitudes towards people with a disability. Participants held more positive attitudes towards active versus inactive people with a physical disability. Conclusions. The study findings indicate that the exerciser stereotype exists implicitly and may undermine negative attitudes towards people with physical disabilities. PMID:23710142

  17. Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Andrew; Haskell, Crystal; Robertson, Bernadette; Kennedy, David; Milne, Anthea; Wetherell, Mark

    2009-06-22

    The notion that chewing gum may relieve stress was investigated in a controlled setting. A multi-tasking framework which reliably evokes stress and also includes performance measures was used to induce acute stress in the laboratory. Using a randomised crossover design forty participants (mean age 21.98 years) performed on the multi-tasking framework at two intensities (on separate days) both while chewing and not chewing. Order of workload intensity and chewing conditions were counterbalanced. Before and after undergoing the platform participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Bond-Lader visual analogue mood scales, a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale and provided saliva samples for cortisol measurement. Baseline measures showed that both levels of the multi-tasking framework were effective in significantly reducing self-rated alertness, calmness and contentment while increasing self-rated stress and state anxiety. Cortisol levels fell during both levels of the stressor during the morning, reflecting the predominance of a.m. diurnal changes, but this effect was reversed in the afternoon which may reflect a measurable stress response. Pre-post stressor changes (Delta) for each measure at baseline were subtracted from Delta scores under chewing and no chewing conditions. During both levels of stress the chewing gum condition was associated with significantly better alertness and reduced state anxiety, stress and salivary cortisol. Overall performance on the framework was also significantly better in the chewing condition. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown but may involve improved cerebral blood flow and/or effects secondary to performance improvement during gum chewing. PMID:19268676

  18. Reductive dechlorination reduces negative impact of PCBs on in vitro fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, K.; Mousa, M.; Quensen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The variety of toxic effects ascribed to commercial PCB mixtures is likely because the individual congeners differ in their modes of toxicity and potencies. Similarly, a change in the congener composition of a PCB mixture due to reductive dechlorination by anaerobic microorganisms might be expected to alter the toxicological properties of that PCB mixture. In this study, Aroclors 1,242 and 1,254 were reductively dechlorinated using cultures of microorganisms from two different sites. The resulting dechlorination products and Aroclors were then tested for their effects on in vitro fertilization using mouse gametes. In general, percent fertilization increased with the extent of dechlorination. For example, fertilization in treatments with 10 {micro}g/ml of either Aroclor was only 40% of that in controls without Aroclor, but equal total molar concentrations of the dechlorination products produced by River Raisin microorganisms had no significant effect on fertilization. By this measure, therefore, the microbial dechlorination of PCBs appears to have a beneficial effect in reducing reproductive toxicity.

  19. The film festival “AUSNAHME|ZUSTAND” (State of Emergency)--do feature films and documentaries on mental health reduce stigma and influence help-seeking attitudes?

    PubMed

    Conrad, Ines; Schulze, Beate; Corrieri, Sandro; Heider, Dirk; Schomerus, Georg; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-12-30

    The study aims at evaluating the impact of the Germany-wide film festival “AUSNAHME|ZUSTAND” on social distance and help-seeking attitudes of the adolescent audience. The festival, on the subject of mental health, was staged for the second time, aiming to give a podium to the topic mental health and to inform and entertain an adolescent audience that has not been in close contact with the subject before. A pre-post test was carried out to look for the effect of feature films and documentaries on social distance of the audience towards people with mental illness and on the change in help-seeking attitudes. A total of 532 young people with a mean age of 15.6 were questioned during the film festival in Leipzig. As the results show, the effect on the viewers׳ social distance and their help-seeking attitudes strongly depend on the content of the feature films and documentaries. Two films improved attitudes – one both social distance and help-seeking, one only help-seeking. One film increased social distance, and two films did not affect either outcome. Age, gender, and knowing someone with mental health problems also turned out to be decisive factors influencing the development of social distance and help-seeking attitudes. Feature films or documentaries about mental illness can reduce social distance or influence help-seeking attitudes, but effects strongly depend on the particular film. PMID:25441016

  20. Video Games as a Means to Reduce Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Attitudes, Compliance, and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Walter R.; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P.; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J.; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a “brain fitness” game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants’ ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why. PMID:23378841

  1. Video games as a means to reduce age-related cognitive decline: attitudes, compliance, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a "brain fitness" game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants' ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why. PMID:23378841

  2. Attitudes to contralateral risk reducing mastectomy among breast and plastic surgeons in England.

    PubMed

    Basu, N N; Littlechild, S; Barr, L; Ross, G L; Evans, D G

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Rates of contralateral risk reducing mastectomy (CRRM) are rising despite a paucity of data to support this practice. Surgeons work as part of the multidisciplinary team (MDT). They may counsel women on these requests without the benefit of established guidelines or agreed protocol. This study assessed the practices and perceptions of breast and plastic surgeons in England on CRRM. Methods A postal questionnaire was sent to 455 breast and 364 plastic surgeons practising in England. Basic demographics, trends in CRRM, risk assessment, role of the MDT and knowledge base were assessed. Results The response rate among breast surgeons was 48.3% (220/455) and 12.6% (46/364) among plastic surgeons. Nearly half (44%) of the respondents felt there had been an increase in rates of CRRM over the last three years. Seventy-one per cent of those surveyed performed 1-5 CRRMs annually while sixteen per cent did not perform this procedure at all. A third (32%) of respondents correctly quoted their patients an annual risk of 0.5-0.7%. Funding was refused in 4% of cases and 43% of the surgeons felt that in the future they would have to apply to relevant clinical commissioning groups. Over half (58%) of all respondents reported that decisions for CRRM are always discussed in the MDT meeting but 6% stated that these cases are never discussed by the MDT. BRCA mutation was perceived as the main risk factor for contralateral breast cancer by 81% of respondents. Surgeons felt that women requested CRRM mainly to alleviate anxiety. The next most common reasons were carriage of BRCA mutation and a desire to have reconstructions match. Conclusions A wide variation of surgical practices and perceptions exist in assessing women for CRRM. Guidelines to standardise practices are required. PMID:26741657

  3. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  4. Can We Reduce Negative Blood Cultures With Clinical Scores and Blood Markers? Results From an Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Laukemann, Svenja; Kasper, Nina; Kulkarni, Prasad; Steiner, Deborah; Rast, Anna Christina; Kutz, Alexander; Felder, Susan; Haubitz, Sebastian; Faessler, Lukas; Huber, Andreas; Fux, Christoph A; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-12-01

    Only a small proportion of blood cultures routinely performed in emergency department (ED) patients is positive. Multiple clinical scores and biomarkers have previously been examined for their ability to predict bacteremia. Conclusive clinical validation of these scores and biomarkers is essential.This observational cohort study included patients with suspected infection who had blood culture sampling at ED admission. We assessed 5 clinical scores and admission concentrations of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocyte and white blood cell counts, the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), and the red blood cell distribution width (RDW). Two independent physicians assessed true blood culture positivity. We used logistic regression models with area under the curve (AUC) analysis.Of 1083 patients, 104 (9.6%) had positive blood cultures. Of the clinical scores, the Shapiro score performed best (AUC 0.729). The best biomarkers were PCT (AUC 0.803) and NLCR (AUC 0.700). Combining the Shapiro score with PCT levels significantly increased the AUC to 0.827. Limiting blood cultures only to patients with either a Shapiro score of ≥4 or PCT > 0.1 μg/L would reduce negative sampling by 20.2% while still identifying 100% of positive cultures. Similarly, a Shapiro score ≥3 or PCT >0.25 μg/L would reduce cultures by 41.7% and still identify 96.1% of positive blood cultures.Combination of the Shapiro score with admission levels of PCT can help reduce unnecessary blood cultures with minimal false negative rates.The study was registered on January 9, 2013 at the 'ClinicalTrials.gov' registration web site (NCT01768494). PMID:26656373

  5. Superior performance of asymmetric supercapacitor based on reduced graphene oxide-manganese carbonate as positive and sono-chemically reduced graphene oxide as negative electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Milan; Kumar, J. Sharath; Khanra, Partha; Samanta, Pranab; Koo, Hyeyoung; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kuila, Tapas

    2016-01-01

    A novel strategy to synthesize hierarchical rod like MnCO3 on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets by a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method is demonstrated. The chelating action of citric acid facilitates the formation a complex intermediate of Mn2+ and citrate ions, which finally results a 3D MnCO3/RGO (MRGO) composite with high electrical conductivity (˜1056 S m-1), good surface area (59 m2 g-1) and high pore volume (0.3 cm3 g-1). The specific capacitance (SC) of the MRGO composite is ˜1120 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 in three electrode system. An asymmetric device has been designed with MRGO as positive and sono-chemically reduced RGO (SRGO) as negative electrode material. The asymmetric device (MRGO//SRGO) shows the SC of ˜318 F g-1 (at 2 A g-1) and energy density of ˜113 W h kg-1 (at 1600 W kg-1). The true energy density (1.7 W h kg-1) has been calculated considering the total weight of the device. The MRGO//SRGO device can power a wall clock for ˜13 min after full charging. The Nyquist plot of the asymmetric cell has been simulated with Z-View software to measure the solution resistance, charge-transfer resistance and Warburg elements.

  6. Welfare effects of reduced milk production associated with Johne's disease on Johne's-positive versus Johne's-negative dairy operations.

    PubMed

    Losinger, Willard C

    2006-08-01

    An examination of the economic impacts of reduced milk production associated with Johne's disease on Johne's-positive and Johne's-negative dairy operations indicated that, if Johne's disease had not existed in US dairy cows in 1996, then the economic surplus of Johne's-negative operations would have been $600 million+/-$530 million lower, while the economic surplus of Johne's-positive operations would have been higher by $28 million+/-$79 million, which was not significantly different from zero. The data available for projecting changes in surplus were not sufficiently precise to allow an exact statement on whether Johne's-positive operations would have been better or worse off economically, in terms of the value received for producing more milk if they had not been affected by Johne's disease. The changes in producer surplus, based upon eliminating specific epidemiological risk factors for Johne's disease, were disaggregated between Johne's-positive dairy operations exposed to the risk factor and all other US dairy operations. Eliminating the risk factor of having any cows not born on the operation would have had a significant positive effect on the economic surplus of Johne's-positive operations that had any cows not born on the operation. PMID:16827950

  7. Synthesis of cobalt oxide-reduced graphene nanocomposite and its enhanced electrochemical properties as negative material for alkaline secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaofeng; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-12-01

    A potential negative electrode material Co3O4@rGO is synthesized via a facile reflux condensation route. The electrochemical performances of Co3O4@rGO composite for alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries have been systemically investigated for the first time. The reduced-graphene can remarkably enhance the electrochemical activity of Co3O4 materials, leading to a notable improvement of discharge capacity, cycle stability and rate capability. Interestingly, the maximum discharge capacity of Co3O4@rGO-20 (additive amount of GO is 20 mg) electrode can reach 511.4 mAh g-1 with the capacity retention of 89.1% after 100 cycles at a discharge current of 100 mA g-1. A properly electrochemical reaction mechanism of Co3O4@rGO electrode is also constructed in detail.

  8. miR-134 in extracellular vesicles reduces triple-negative breast cancer aggression and increases drug sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Claire; Martinez, Vanesa G.; Daly, Melissa; Rani, Sweta; Gallagher, William M.; Radomski, Marek W.; MacLeod, Roderick A.F.; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes (EVs) have relevance in cell-to-cell communication carrying pro-tumorigenic factors that participate in oncogenesis and drug resistance and are proposed to have potential as self-delivery systems. Advancing on our studies of EVs in triple-negative breast cancer, here we more comprehensively analysed isogenic cell line variants and their EV populations, tissues cell line variants and their EV populations, as well as breast tumour and normal tissues. Profiling 384 miRNAs showed EV miRNA content to be highly representative of their cells of origin. miRNAs most substantially down-regulated in aggressive cells and their EVs originated from 14q32. Analysis of miR-134, the most substantially down-regulated miRNA, supported its clinical relevance in breast tumours compared to matched normal breast tissue. Functional studies indicated that miR-134 controls STAT5B which, in turn, controls Hsp90. miR-134 delivered by direct transfection into Hs578Ts(i)8 cells (in which it was greatly down-regulated) reduced STAT5B, Hsp90, and Bcl-2 levels, reduced cellular proliferation, and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Delivery via miR-134-enriched EVs also reduced STAT5B and Hsp90, reduced cellular migration and invasion, and enhanced sensitivity to anti-Hsp90 drugs. While the differing effects achieved by transfection or EV delivery are likely to be, at least partly, due to specific amounts of miR-134 delivered by these routes, these EV-based studies identified miRNA-134 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic for breast cancer. PMID:26416415

  9. Reduced sensitivity to both positive and negative reinforcement in mice over-expressing the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Line, Samantha J; Barkus, Chris; Rawlings, Nancy; Jennings, Katie; McHugh, Stephen; Sharp, Trevor; Bannerman, David M

    2014-12-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) is believed to play a key role in both normal and pathological psychological states. Much previous data suggest that the s allele of the polymorphic regulatory region of the 5-HTT gene promoter is associated with reduced 5-HTT expression and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. In comparison, the l allele, which increases 5-HTT expression, is generally considered protective. However, recent data link this allele to both abnormal 5-HT signalling and psychopathic traits. Here, we studied the processing of aversive and rewarding cues in transgenic mice that over-express the 5-HTT (5-HTTOE mice). Compared with wild-type mice, 5-HTTOE mice froze less in response to both a tone that had previously been paired with footshock, and the conditioning context. In addition, on a decision-making T-maze task, 5-HTTOE mice displayed reduced preference for a larger, delayed reward and increased preference for a smaller, immediate reward, suggesting increased impulsiveness compared with wild-type mice. However, further inspection of the data revealed that 5-HTTOE mice displayed a relative insensitivity to reward magnitude, irrespective of delay. In contrast, 5-HTTOE mice appeared normal on tests of spatial working and reference memory, which required an absolute choice between options associated with either reward or no reward. Overall, the present findings suggest that 5-HTT over-expression results in a reduced sensitivity to both positive and negative reinforcers. Thus, these data show that increased 5-HTT expression has some maladaptive effects, supporting recent suggestions that l allele homozygosity may be a potential risk factor for disabling psychiatric traits. PMID:25283165

  10. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-01

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O3 increases of 5-27 ppb in India, 1-9 ppb in China, and 1-6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM2.5 increases of up to 2 μg m-3. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10-100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.

  11. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-06

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O₃) and fine particulate matter (PM₂̣₅) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O₃ increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM₂̣₅ increases of up to 2 μgm⁻³. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.

  12. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-06

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O₃) and fine particulate matter (PM₂̣₅) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth Systemmore » Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O₃ increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM₂̣₅ increases of up to 2 μgm⁻³. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.« less

  13. Negative allosteric modulation of the mGlu7 receptor reduces visceral hypersensitivity in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Rachel D; Golubeva, Anna V; O'Connor, Richard M; Kalinichev, Mikhail; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, exerts its effect through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Of these, group III mGlu receptors (mGlu 4, 6, 7, 8) are among the least studied due to a lack of pharmacological tools. mGlu7 receptors, the most highly conserved isoform, are abundantly distributed in the brain, especially in regions, such as the amygdala, known to be crucial for the emotional processing of painful stimuli. Visceral hypersensitivity is a poorly understood phenomenon manifesting as an increased sensitivity to visceral stimuli. Glutamate has long been associated with somatic pain processing leading us to postulate that crossover may exist between these two modalities. Moreover, stress has been shown to exacerbate visceral pain. ADX71743 is a novel, centrally penetrant, negative allosteric modulator of mGlu7 receptors. Thus, we used this tool to explore the possible involvement of this receptor in the mediation of visceral pain in a stress-sensitive model of visceral hypersensitivity, namely the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. ADX71743 reduced visceral hypersensitivity in the WKY rat as exhibited by increased visceral sensitivity threshold with concomitant reductions in total number of pain behaviours. Moreover, AD71743 increased total distance and distance travelled in the inner zone of the open field. These findings show, for what is to our knowledge, the first time, that mGlu7 receptor signalling plays a role in visceral pain processing. Thus, negative modulation of the mGlu7 receptor may be a plausible target for the amelioration of stress-induced visceral pain where there is a large unmet medical need. PMID:26844237

  14. Negative allosteric modulation of the mGlu7 receptor reduces visceral hypersensitivity in a stress-sensitive rat strain

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Rachel D.; Golubeva, Anna V.; O'Connor, Richard M.; Kalinichev, Mikhail; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, exerts its effect through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Of these, group III mGlu receptors (mGlu 4, 6, 7, 8) are among the least studied due to a lack of pharmacological tools. mGlu7 receptors, the most highly conserved isoform, are abundantly distributed in the brain, especially in regions, such as the amygdala, known to be crucial for the emotional processing of painful stimuli. Visceral hypersensitivity is a poorly understood phenomenon manifesting as an increased sensitivity to visceral stimuli. Glutamate has long been associated with somatic pain processing leading us to postulate that crossover may exist between these two modalities. Moreover, stress has been shown to exacerbate visceral pain. ADX71743 is a novel, centrally penetrant, negative allosteric modulator of mGlu7 receptors. Thus, we used this tool to explore the possible involvement of this receptor in the mediation of visceral pain in a stress-sensitive model of visceral hypersensitivity, namely the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. ADX71743 reduced visceral hypersensitivity in the WKY rat as exhibited by increased visceral sensitivity threshold with concomitant reductions in total number of pain behaviours. Moreover, AD71743 increased total distance and distance travelled in the inner zone of the open field. These findings show, for what is to our knowledge, the first time, that mGlu7 receptor signalling plays a role in visceral pain processing. Thus, negative modulation of the mGlu7 receptor may be a plausible target for the amelioration of stress-induced visceral pain where there is a large unmet medical need. PMID:26844237

  15. α-Synuclein Negatively Regulates PKCδ Expression to Suppress Apoptosis in Dopaminergic Neurons by Reducing p300 HAT Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Ghosh, Anamitra; Yang, Yongjie; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha

    2011-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that PKCδ, an important member of the novel PKC family, is a key oxidative stress-sensitive kinase that can be activated by caspase-3-dependent proteolytic cleavage to induce dopaminergic neuronal cell death. We now report a novel association between α-synuclein (αsyn), a protein associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s diseases (PD), and PKCδ, in which αsyn negatively modulates the p300 and NFκB dependent transactivation to down-regulate proapoptotic kinase PKCδ expression and thereby protects against apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Stable-expression human wild-type αsyn at physiological levels in dopaminergic neuronal cells resulted in an isoform-dependent transcriptional suppression of PKCδ expression without changes in the stability of mRNA and protein or DNA methylation. The reduction in PKCδ transcription was mediated, in part, through the suppression of constitutive NFκB activity targeted at two proximal PKCδ promoter κB sites. This occurred independently of NFκB/IκBα nuclear translocation, but was associated with decreased NFκB-p65 acetylation. Also, αsyn reduced p300 levels and its histone acetyl-transferase (HAT) activity, thereby contributing to diminished PKCδ transactivation. Importantly, reduced PKCδ and p300 expression also were observed within nigral dopaminergic neurons in αsyn transgenic mice. These findings expand the role of αsyn in neuroprotection by modulating the expression of the key proapoptotic kinase PKCδ in dopaminergic neurons. PMID:21307242

  16. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-05-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed. PMID:20587476

  17. Simultaneous irrigation and negative pressure wound therapy enhances wound healing and reduces wound bioburden in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kathryn; Bills, Jessica; Barker, Jenny; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Infected foot wounds are one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and amputation among persons with diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate a new wound therapy system that employs negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with simultaneous irrigation therapy. For this study, we used a porcine model with full-thickness excisional wounds, inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wounds were treated for 21 days of therapy with either NPWT, NPWT with simultaneous irrigation therapy using normal saline or polyhexanide biguanide (PHMB) at low or high flow rates, or control. Data show that NPWT with either irrigation condition improved wound healing rates over control-treated wounds, yet did not differ from NPWT alone. NPWT improved bioburden over control-treated wounds. NPWT with simultaneous irrigation further reduced bioburden over control and NPWT-treated wounds; however, flow rate did not affect these outcomes. Together, these data show that NPWT with simultaneous irrigation therapy with either normal saline or PHMB has a positive effect on bioburden in a porcine model, which may translate clinically to improved wound healing outcomes. PMID:24134060

  18. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST: 37.8 plus or minus 1.9 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute). KES was significantly reduced by 30% in Con (PRE: 113 plus or minus 12; POST: 78 plus or minus 8 N-m), but was not different in EX (PRE: 126 plus or minus 25; POST: 115 plus or minus 25 N-m). The combination LBNPex and Rex during 60-d BR protects against cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning and may be efficacious countermeasure for prolonged space flight.

  19. MYELOABLATIVE, BUT NOT REDUCED-INTENSITY, CONDITIONING OVERCOMES THE NEGATIVE EFFECT OF FLOW-CYTOMETRIC EVIDENCE OF LEUKEMIA IN AML

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Celalettin; Courville, Elizabeth; DeFor, Todd; Dolan, Michelle; Randall, Nicole; Yohe, Sophia; Bejanyan, Nelli; Warlick, Erica; Brunstein, Claudio; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Linden, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Stringent complete remission (CR) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) requires the absence of both morphologic and flow cytometric evidence of disease. We have previously shown that persistent AML detected by flow cytometry (FC+) before reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) was associated with significantly increased relapse, shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and poorer overall survival (OS), independent of morphologic blast count. We evaluated the effect of FC status on outcomes of alloHCT for AML after either myeloablative conditioning (MAC) or RIC regimens. In 203 patients (MAC, n=80 and RIC, n=123) with no morphologic evidence of persistent AML pre-transplant on marrow biopsy. The allografts included 130 umbilical cord blood (UCB) and 73 sibling donors. We performed central review of pre-transplant standard sensitivity flow cytometry to identify detectable FC+. Twenty-five patients were FC+, including 15 (18.7%) receiving MAC and 10 (8.1%) RIC alloHCT. Among RIC patients FC+ was associated with significantly inferior relapse, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) [multiple regression hazard ratio (HR) 3.8, (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.7–8.7), p<0.01 for relapse; HR 2.9, (95% CI: 1.4–5.9), p<0.01 for DFS, and HR 3.4 (95%CI: 1.7–7), p<0.01 for OS]. In contrast, FC+ status was not associated with relapse or decreased OS after MAC. These data suggest that MAC, but not RIC, overcomes the negative effect of pretransplant FC+ following sibling or UCB alloHCT. Therefore, a deeper pre-transplant leukemia-free state is preferred for those treated with RIC. PMID:26551635

  20. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills

    PubMed Central

    Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade. PMID:26379592

  1. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade. PMID:26379592

  2. Using online crowdsourcing to understand young adult attitudes toward expert-authored messages aimed at reducing hazardous alcohol consumption and to collect peer-authored messages.

    PubMed

    Kristan, Jeffrey; Suffoletto, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Text message delivered prevention interventions have the potential to improve health behaviors on a large scale, including reducing hazardous alcohol consumption in young adults. Online crowdsourcing can be used to efficiently develop relevant messages, but remains largely understudied. This study aims to use online crowdsourcing to evaluate young adult attitudes toward expert-authored messages and to collect peer-authored messages. We designed an online survey with four drinking scenarios and a demographic questionnaire. We made it available to people who reported age 18-25 years, residence in the US, and any lifetime alcohol consumption via the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. Participants rated 71 sample text messages on instrumental (helpful) and affective (interesting) attitude scales and generated their own messages. All messages were coded as informational, motivational, or strategy facilitating. We examined differences in attitudes by message type and by drinking status and sex. We surveyed 272 participants in 48 h, and 222 were included in analysis for a total participant payment cost of $178. Sample mean age was 23 years old, with 50 % being female, 65 % being of white race, and 78 % scored as hazardous drinkers. Informational messages were rated the most helpful, whereas motivational messages were rated the most interesting. Hazardous drinkers rated informational messages less helpful than non-hazardous drinkers. Men reported messages less helpful and interesting than women for most categories. Young adults authored 161 messages, with the highest proportion being motivational. Young adults had variable instrumental and affective attitudes toward expert-authored messages. They generated a substantial number of peer-authored messages that could enhance relevance of future alcohol prevention interventions. PMID:25729452

  3. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T.

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism. PMID:25738325

  4. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism. PMID:25738325

  5. Reduced sensitivity to neutral feedback versus negative feedback in subjects with mild depression: Evidence from event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Song, Xinxin; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoran; Li, Jiayi; Lin, Fengtong; Hu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Xinxin; Cui, Hewei; Wang, Wenmiao; Li, Hong; Cong, Fengyu; Roberson, Debi

    2015-11-01

    Many previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have linked the feedback related negativity (FRN) component with medial frontal cortex processing and associated this component with depression. Few if any studies have investigated the processing of neutral feedback in mildly depressive subjects in the normal population. Two experiments compared brain responses to neutral feedback with behavioral performance in mildly depressed subjects who scored highly on the Beck Depression Inventory (high BDI) and a control group with lower BDI scores (low BDI). In the first study, the FRN component was recorded when neutral, negative or positive feedback was pseudo-randomly delivered to the two groups in a time estimation task. In the second study, real feedback was provided to the two groups in the same task in order to measure their actual accuracy of performance. The results of experiment one (Exp. 1) revealed that a larger FRN effect was elicited by neutral feedback than by negative feedback in the low BDI group, but no significant difference was found between neutral condition and negative condition in the High BDI group. The present findings demonstrated that depressive tendencies influence the processing of neutral feedback in medial frontal cortex. The FRN effect may work as a helpful index for investigating cognitive bias in depression in future studies. PMID:26432379

  6. Enhancing Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter I. Reducing Negative Reactions through Desensitization and Cognitive Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, William P.; Yaruss, J. Scott; Quesal, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes several treatment strategies that clinicians can use to address negative affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions that school-age children who stutter may experience as part of their disorder. Specific strategies include desensitization to stuttering, cognitive restructuring, self-acceptance, purposeful self-disclosure,…

  7. P01.05. An Integrative Medical Group Appointment Model to Reduce Stress and Poor Body Attitude and to Achieve Healthy Behavioral Changes in Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care, Supporting Behavioral Change Stress, poor body attitude, depression, inflammation, insulin resistance, obesity, sedentary lifestyles, and social isolation may all contribute to reduced survival in patients with cancer. In 2011, Sutter Medical Group launched a medical group appointment program for cancer patients in which patients meet with a physician (myself), a behaviorist, and a chaplain for 2 hours/week for 6 weeks to identify and address issues that may affect healing and survival. Topics covered include the impact of stress on the immune system, the importance of healthy nutrition and exercise to impede cancer cell growth and improve survival, and the role of spiritual approaches to assist with healing. Each session includes experiential exercises to help patients identify those practices that are most effective at helping them to reduce their experience of stress and anxiety. One of the weekly sessions is spent at our local food co-op with a professional chef to help patients begin to incorporate healing foods into their daily diet. Patients are encouraged to identify 2 goals for themselves at the beginning of the program and to work on behavioral change in those areas throughout the 6-week program. Mood scores, body attitude, and nutritional choices are identified at the beginning and at the end of the program with the intention of identifying the impact of this group model on these parameters.

  8. Predictors of Attitudes toward Childlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreadbury, Connie

    The study assessed young adults' attitudes toward childlessness and identified certain factors which predict positive or negative attitudes toward childlessness. The author anticipated finding changes in attitudes because of recent social developments such as awareness of world overpopulation, availability of birth control methods, pressure for…

  9. Fearless Dominance and reduced feedback-related negativity amplitudes in a time-estimation task – Further neuroscientific evidence for dual-process models of psychopathy☆

    PubMed Central

    Schulreich, Stefan; Pfabigan, Daniela M.; Derntl, Birgit; Sailer, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Dual-process models of psychopathy postulate two etiologically relevant processes. Their involvement in feedback processing and its neural correlates has not been investigated so far. Multi-channel EEG was collected while healthy female volunteers performed a time-estimation task and received negative or positive feedback in form of signs or emotional faces. The affective-interpersonal factor Fearless Dominance, but not Self-Centered Impulsivity, was associated with reduced feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitudes. This neural dissociation extends previous findings on the impact of psychopathy on feedback processing and further highlights the importance of distinguishing psychopathic traits and extending previous (neuroscientific) models of psychopathy. PMID:23607997

  10. DEPRESSION STIGMA, RACE, AND TREATMENT SEEKING BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related attitudes and behaviors. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma mediated the relationship between public stigma and attitudes toward mental health treatment. Within group analyses indicated that the mediating effect of internalized stigma was significant for whites only. Among African Americans, internalized stigma did not mediate public stigma; it was directly related to attitudes toward mental health treatment. The internalization of stigma is key in the development of negative attitudes toward mental health treatment, and future research should focus on this aspect of stigma in both individual and community-based efforts to reduce stigma. PMID:21274407

  11. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Ritin; Rolley, John X.; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet. PMID:26051008

  12. Reducing Complexity: A Regularized Non-negative Matrix Approximation (NNMA) Approach to X-ray Spectromicroscopy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Rachel Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy combines microscopy and spectroscopy to provide rich information about the chemical organization of materials down to the nanoscale. But with richness also comes complexity: natural materials such as biological or environmental science specimens can be composed of complex spectroscopic mixtures of different materials. The challenge becomes how we could meaningfully simplify and interpret this information. Approaches such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis have been used in previous studies, but with some limitations that we will describe. This leads us to develop a new approach based on a development of non-negative matrix approximation (NNMA) analysis with both sparseness and spectra similarity regularizations. We apply this new technique to simulated spectromicroscopy datasets as well as a preliminary study of the large-scale biochemical organization of a human sperm cell. NNMA analysis is able to select major features of the sperm cell without the physically erroneous negative weightings or thicknesses in the calculated image which appeared in previous approaches.

  13. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African

  14. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  15. Pseudoinefficacy: negative feelings from children who cannot be helped reduce warm glow for children who can be helped

    PubMed Central

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Slovic, Paul; Mayorga, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In a great many situations where we are asked to aid persons whose lives are endangered, we are not able to help everyone. What are the emotional and motivational consequences of “not helping all”? In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that negative affect arising from children that could not be helped decreases the warm glow of positive feeling associated with aiding the children who can be helped. This demotivation from the children outside of our reach may be a form of “pseudoinefficacy” that is non-rational. We should not be deterred from helping whomever we can because there are others we are not able to help. PMID:26042058

  16. Fetal programming: excess prenatal testosterone reduces postnatal luteinizing hormone, but not follicle-stimulating hormone responsiveness, to estradiol negative feedback in the female.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Hirendra N; Manikkam, Mohan; Herkimer, Carol; Dell'Orco, James; Welch, Kathleen B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2005-10-01

    Exposure of female sheep fetuses to excess testosterone (T) during early to midgestation produces postnatal hypergonadotropism manifest as a selective increase in LH. This hypergonadotropism may result from reduced sensitivity to estradiol (E2) negative feedback and/or increased pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. We tested the hypothesis that excess T before birth reduces responsiveness of LH and FSH to E2 negative feedback after birth. Pregnant ewes were treated with T propionate (100 mg/kg in cotton seed oil) or vehicle twice weekly from d 30-90 gestation. Responsiveness to E2 negative feedback was assessed at 12 and 24 wk of age in the ovary-intact female offspring. Our experimental strategy was first to arrest follicular growth and reduce endogenous E2 by administering the GnRH antagonist (GnRH-A), Nal-Glu (50 microg/kg sc every 12 h for 72 h), and then provide a fixed amount of exogenous E2 via an implant. Blood samples were obtained every 20 min at 12 wk and every 10 min at 24 wk before treatment, during and after GnRH-A treatment both before and after E2 implant. GnRH-A ablated LH pulsatility, reduced FSH by approximately 25%, and E2 production diminished to near detection limit of assay at both ages in both groups. Prenatal T treatment produced a precocious and selective reduction in responsiveness of LH but not FSH to E2 negative feedback, which was manifest mainly at the level of LH/GnRH pulse frequency. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to excess T decreases postnatal responsiveness to E2 inhibitory feedback of LH/GnRH secretion to contribute to the development of hypergonadotropism. PMID:15976056

  17. Individual Differences in Implicit and Declared Self-Esteem as Predictors of Response to Negative Performance Evaluation: Validating Implicit Association Test as a Measure of Self-Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meagher, Brendan E.; Aidman, Eugene V.

    2004-01-01

    Differential and combined influence of implicit and explicit self-esteem (SE) on individual's response to negative feedback was examined in a controlled experiment. Sixty-three psychology undergraduates performed a simulated social interaction task, followed by an artificial negative feedback on their performance. Self-reported (explicit) SE was

  18. Pathways from childhood abuse to prospective revictimization: depression, sex to reduce negative affect, and forecasted sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Miron, Lynsey R; Orcutt, Holly K

    2014-11-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women's (N=541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants' response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants' estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming are discussed. PMID:25455965

  19. Polymorphism Analysis Reveals Reduced Negative Selection and Elevated Rate of Insertions and Deletions in Intrinsically Disordered Protein Regions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tahsin; Douglas, Gavin M.; Patel, Priyenbhai; Nguyen Ba, Alex N.; Moses, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered protein regions are abundant in eukaryotic proteins and lack stable tertiary structures and enzymatic functions. Previous studies of disordered region evolution based on interspecific alignments have revealed an increased propensity for indels and rapid rates of amino acid substitution. How disordered regions are maintained at high abundance in the proteome and across taxa, despite apparently weak evolutionary constraints, remains unclear. Here, we use single nucleotide and indel polymorphism data in yeast and human populations to survey the population variation within disordered regions. First, we show that single nucleotide polymorphisms in disordered regions are under weaker negative selection compared with more structured protein regions and have a higher proportion of neutral non-synonymous sites. We also confirm previous findings that nonframeshifting indels are much more abundant in disordered regions relative to structured regions. We find that the rate of nonframeshifting indel polymorphism in intrinsically disordered regions resembles that of noncoding DNA and pseudogenes, and that large indels segregate in disordered regions in the human population. Our survey of polymorphism confirms patterns of evolution in disordered regions inferred based on longer evolutionary comparisons. PMID:26047845

  20. Reduced soil water availability did not protect two competing grassland species from the negative effects of increasing background ozone.

    PubMed

    Wagg, Serena; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Wilkinson, Sally; Cooper, David; Davies, William J

    2012-06-01

    Two common (semi-) natural temperate grassland species, Dactylis glomerata and Ranunculus acris, were grown in competition and exposed to two watering regimes: well-watered (WW, 20-40% v/v) and reduced-watered (RW, 7.5-20% v/v) in combination with eight ozone treatments ranging from pre-industrial to predicted 2100 background levels. For both species there was a significant increase in leaf damage with increasing background ozone concentration. RW had no protective effect against increasing levels of ozone-induced senescence/injury. In high ozone, based on measurements of stomatal conductance, we propose that ozone influx into the leaves was not prevented in the RW treatment, in D. glomerata because stomata were a) more widely open than those in less polluted plants and b) were less responsive to drought. Total seasonal above ground biomass was not significantly altered by increased ozone; however, ozone significantly reduced root biomass in both species to differing amounts depending on watering regime. PMID:22420992

  1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate reduces bacterial contamination in goat colostrum without negative effects on immune passive transfer in goat kids.

    PubMed

    Morales-delaNuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Sánchez-Macías, D; Capote, J; Juste, M C; Castro, N; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Argüello, A

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a biocide on goat colostrum, 2 experiments were performed. In the first, 20 goat colostrum samples were divided into 3 aliquots. A different treatment was performed on each aliquot: pasteurization (56°C, 30 min) or addition of SDS to a final concentration of either 0.1 or 1% (36°C, 10 min). Immunoglobulin G and colony-forming units were evaluated before and after treatment. Both pasteurization and treatment with 1% SDS significantly reduced the colony-forming units in colostrum. Treatment with 0.1% SDS was not effective at reducing the colony-forming units in colostrum. The IgG concentration of pasteurized colostrum was significantly lower than that of untreated colostrum, whereas treatment with 1% SDS did not affect the colostrum IgG concentration. In the second experiment, the effects of SDS colostrum treatment on immune passive transfer were evaluated. Forty goat kids were fed either refrigerated colostrum or colostrum treated with 1% SDS twice daily for 2 d. Blood samples were obtained at birth and every day for 5 d. IgG, IgM, and IgA were measured in blood serum to monitor the passive immune transfer process. Creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, and aspartate transaminase were also monitored to evaluate the health of kids. No differences in serum IgG, IgM, IgA, creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, or aspartate transaminase levels were observed between groups. Our findings indicate that SDS is an efficient colostrum biocide that, unlike pasteurization, does not affect immune passive transfer or goat kid health. PMID:21183051

  2. Reducing Mathematics Anxiety with Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert L.; Harris, Jacqueline M.

    1987-01-01

    Student, teacher, and teaching causes of mathematics anxiety are discussed. Computer-assisted instruction can reduce mathematics anxieties due to lack of confidence, negative attitudes, teacher bias, authoritarian teaching, lack of variety, lack of relationship with the real world, emphasis on memorization or on speed, or computer phobia. (MNS)

  3. Artificial neural network modeling enhances risk stratification and can reduce downstream testing for patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, negative cardiac biomarkers, and normal ECGs.

    PubMed

    Isma'eel, Hussain A; Cremer, Paul C; Khalaf, Shaden; Almedawar, Mohamad M; Elhajj, Imad H; Sakr, George E; Jaber, Wael A

    2016-04-01

    Despite uncertain yield, guidelines endorse routine stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, unremarkable serial electrocardiograms, and negative troponin measurements. In these patients, outcome prediction and risk stratification models could spare unnecessary testing. This study therefore investigated the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) to improve risk stratification and prediction of MPI and angiographic results. We retrospectively identified 5354 consecutive patients referred from the emergency department for rest-stress MPI after serial negative troponins and normal ECGs. Patients were risk stratified according to thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) scores, ischemia was defined as >5 % reversible perfusion defect, and obstructive coronary artery disease was defined as >50 % angiographic obstruction. For ANN, the network architecture employed a systematic method where the number of neurons is changed incrementally, and bootstrapping was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the models. Compared to TIMI scores, ANN models provided improved discriminatory power. With regards to MPI, an ANN model could reduce testing by 59 % and maintain a 96 % negative predictive value (NPV) for ruling out ischemia. Application of an ANN model could also avoid 73 % of invasive coronary angiograms while maintaining a 98 % NPV for detecting obstructive CAD. An online calculator for clinical use was created using these models. The ANN models improved risk stratification when compared to the TIMI score. Our calculator could also reduce downstream testing while maintaining an excellent NPV, though further study is needed before the calculator can be used clinically. PMID:26626458

  4. Application of municipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effects of saline water in Hordeum maritimum L.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Hafsi, Chokri; Rabhi, Mokded; Debez, Ahmed; Montemurro, Francesco; Abdelly, Chedly; Jedidi, Naceur; Ouerghi, Zeineb

    2008-10-01

    The efficiency of composted municipal solid wastes (MSW) to reduce the adverse effects of salinity was investigated in Hordeum maritimum under greenhouse conditions. Plants were cultivated in pots filled with soil added with 0 and 40tha(-1) of MSW compost, and irrigated twice a week with tap water at two salinities (0 and 4gl(-1) NaCl). Harvests were achieved at 70 (shoots) and 130 (shoots and roots) days after sowing. At each cutting, dry weight (DW), NPK nutrition, chlorophyll, leaf protein content, Rubisco (ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) capacity, and contents of potential toxic elements were determined. Results showed that compost supply increased significantly the biomass production of non salt-treated plants (+80%). This was associated with higher N and P uptake in both shoots (+61% and +80%, respectively) and roots (+48% and +25%, respectively), while lesser impact was observed for K+. In addition, chlorophyll and protein contents as well as Rubisco capacity were significantly improved by the organic amendment. MSW compost mitigated the deleterious effect of salt stress on the plant growth, partly due to improved chlorophyll and protein contents and Rubisco capacity (-15%, -27% and -14%, respectively, in combined treatment, against -45%, -84% and -25%, respectively, in salt-stressed plants without compost addition), which presumably favoured photosynthesis and alleviated salt affect on biomass production by 21%. In addition, plants grown on amended soil showed a general improvement in their heavy metals contents Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ (in combined treatment: 190%, 53%, 168% and 174% in shoots and 183%, 42%, 42% and 114% in roots, respectively) but remained lower than phytotoxic values. Taken together, these findings suggest that municipal waste compost may be safely applied to salt-affected soils without adverse effects on plant physiology. PMID:18308562

  5. Attitudes toward embodied old age among Swedes.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Peter; Tornstam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Messages in the consumer culture are often youth oriented, aiming at the prevention of the bodily decay associated with biological aging. In gerontological discourses, this has been hypothesized to generate negative attitudes toward embodied aging and old age. Studies about general attitudes toward old age show that younger respondents have more negative attitudes than do older respondents, and gerontological discourses also hypothesize a gendered ageism, with especially negative attitudes toward elderly women. The empirical study of embodied aging among 1,250 Swedes aged 20-85 years contradicts these hypotheses. The results show rather positive attitudes toward embodied old age, especially among young and middle-aged respondents. Neither do the results unequivocally confirm the hypothesis of gendered ageism, which predicts considerably more negative attitudes toward old women than toward old men. One interpretation of the results is that, counter to many hypotheses, the consumer culture, with its new opportunities and roles for old people, may positively affect these attitudes. PMID:14533854

  6. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides formation in W. somnifera leaves. PMID:25809293

  7. Evaluating the effects of a peer-support model: reducing negative body esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in grade eight girls.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana

    2012-01-01

    During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed. PMID:22364343

  8. Application of a drainage film reduces fibroblast ingrowth into large-pored polyurethane foam during negative-pressure wound therapy in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Springer, Steffen; Abel, Martin; Wesarg, Falko; Ruth, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2013-01-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an advantageous treatment option in wound management to promote healing and reduce the risk of complications. NPWT is mainly carried out using open-cell polyurethane (PU) foams that stimulate granulation tissue formation. However, growth of wound bed tissue into foam material, leading to disruption of newly formed tissue upon dressing removal, has been observed. Consequently, it would be of clinical interest to preserve the positive effects of open-cell PU foams while avoiding cellular ingrowth. The study presented analyzed effects of NPWT using large-pored PU foam, fine-pored PU foam, and the combination of large-pored foam with drainage film on human dermal fibroblasts grown in a collagen matrix. The results showed no difference between the dressings in stimulating cellular migration during NPWT. However, when NPWT was applied using a large-pored PU foam, the fibroblasts continued to migrate into the dressing. This led to significant breaches in the cell layers upon removal of the samples after vacuum treatment. In contrast, cell migration stopped at the collagen matrix edge when fine-pored PU foam was used, as well as with the combination of PU foam and drainage film. In conclusion, placing a drainage film between collagen matrix and the large-pored PU foam dressing reduced the ingrowth of cells into the foam significantly. Moreover, positive effects on cellular migration were not affected, and the effect of the foam on tissue surface roughness in vitro was also reduced. PMID:23937617

  9. Knowledge of pathologically versus clinically negative lymph nodes is associated with reduced use of radioactive iodine post-thyroidectomy for low-risk papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruel, Ewa; Thomas, Samantha; Dinan, Michaela A; Perkins, Jennifer M; Roman, Sanziana A; Sosa, Julie Ann

    2016-06-01

    Cervical lymph node metastases are common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Clinically negative lymph nodes confer uncertainty about true lymph node status, potentially prompting empiric postoperative radioactive iodine (RAI) administration even in low-risk patients. We examined the association of clinically (cN0) versus pathologically negative (pN0) lymph nodes with utilization of RAI for low-risk PTC. Using the National Cancer Database 1998-2011, adults with PTC who underwent total thyroidectomy for Stage I/II tumors 1-4 cm were evaluated for receipt of RAI based on cN0 versus pN0 status. Cut-point analysis was conducted to determine the number of pN0 nodes associated with the greatest decrease in the odds of receipt of RAI. Survival models and multivariate analyses predicting RAI use were conducted separately for all patients and patients <45 years. 64,980 patients met study criteria; 39,778 (61.2 %) were cN0 versus 25,202 (38.8 %) pN0. Patients with pN0 nodes were more likely to have negative surgical margins and multifocal disease (all p < 0.001). The mean negative nodes reported in surgical pathology specimens was 4; ≥5 pathologically negative lymph nodes provided the best cut-point associated with reduced RAI administration (OR 0.91, CI 0.85-0.97). After multivariable adjustment, pN0 patients with ≥5 nodes examined were less likely to receive RAI compared to cN0 patients across all ages (OR 0.89, p < 0.001) and for patients aged <45 years (0R 0.86, p = 0.001). Patients with <5 pN0 nodes did not differ in RAI use compared to cN0 controls. Unadjusted survival was improved for pN0 versus cN0 patients across all ages (p < 0.001), but not for patients <45 years (p = 0.11); adjusted survival for all ages did not differ (p = 0.13). Pathological confirmation of negative lymph nodes in patients with PTC appears to influence the decision to administer postoperative RAI if ≥5 negative lymph nodes are removed. It is possible that fewer excised lymph nodes may be viewed by clinicians as incidentally resected and thus may suboptimally represent the true nodal status of the central neck. Further research is warranted to determine if there is an optimal number of lymph nodes that should be resected to standardize pathological diagnosis. PMID:26708045

  10. Understanding narrative effects: The role of discrete negative emotions on message processing and attitudes among low-income African American women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jina H.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Lai, Choi; Fu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the processes through which breast cancer narrative messages are effective by taking a functional approach. We explore how discrete negative emotions (i.e., sadness, fear, and anger) induced by breast cancer survivor stories affect African American women’s message processing, recall of message content, and attitudinal outcomes. Structural equation modeling was performed for narrative and informational versions of a breast cancer screening video shown to 409 low-income African American women ages 40 and older. The model was well fitted. Sadness enhanced the persuasive process, while fear inhibited it. Sadness also helped participants recall more message-relevant content, while fear inhibited recall. Anger was not related to the persuasive process. Implications of these findings for narrative research and application are discussed. PMID:24111724

  11. Kinetic analysis of human and canine P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport in MDR1-MDCK cell model: approaches to reduce false-negative substrate classification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibin; Wang, Ying; Hidalgo, Ismael J

    2013-09-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, MDR1-MDCK, are widely used as an in vitro model to classify compounds as human P-glycoprotein (hPgp) substrates or nonsubstrates. Because MDCK cells express endogenous canine Pgp (cPgp), which is prone to downregulation after transfection with hPgp, this situation could lead to false-negative classification of hPgp substrates. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that influence hPgp substrate classification in MDR1-MDCK model and to seek ways to reduce false classification. Three-compartment models were used to derive flux equations describing the drug transport processes; factors influencing hPgp substrate classification were evaluated by simulations. Pgp functionality was assessed by determining the bidirectional permeability of a series of test compounds. Expressions of hPgp and cPgp were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Kinetic model analysis revealed that the current net flux ratio calculation for hPgp substrate classification is influenced by endogenous cPgp expression as well as hPgp-cPgp expression ratio; the effect was more pronounced in low hPgp-cPgp region and diminished in high ratio region. On the basis of kinetic considerations, this study provides a rational experimental approach and appropriate mathematical corrections to minimize the potential occurrence of false-negative classification of new molecular entities. PMID:23558561

  12. Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

    Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding

  13. Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

    Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

  14. Personality Correlates of Student Attitudes to Microteaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargie, Owen D. W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) was used to test the existence of a relationship between attitudes to microteaching and personality of students. A correlation between extroversion and favorable attitude to microteaching, and a negative relationship between neuroticism and favorable attitude to microteaching is demonstrated; however, the…

  15. Construct Validation of Attitudes toward Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ric

    Attitude toward mathematics is often characterized as being either positive or negative, that is, essentially a one-dimensional phenomenon. This research was an investigation of construct validity for attitude toward mathematics. The Mathematics Attitude Scale developed by Aiken and Dreger (1961) was administered to 148 tenth graders. A principal…

  16. Evaluation of a national programme to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections: effects on consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Sonia E; Artist, Margaret A; Kehoe, Linda A; Fletcher, Miriam; Mackson, Judith M; Weekes, Lynn M

    2007-03-01

    The over-use of antibiotics, in particular, inappropriate use to treat upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), is a global public health concern. In an attempt to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs, and, in particular, to modify patient misconceptions about the effectiveness of antibiotics for URTIs, Australia's National Prescribing Service Ltd (NPS) has undertaken a comprehensive, multistrategic programme for health professionals and the community. Targeted strategies for the community, via the NPS common colds community campaign, commenced in 2000 and have been repeated annually during the winter months. Community strategies were closely integrated, using the same tagline, key messages and visual images, and were delivered in numerous settings including general practice, community pharmacy, child-care centres and community groups. Strategies included written information via newsletters and brochures, mass media activity using billboards, television, radio and magazines and small grants to promote local community education. The evaluation used multiple methods and data sources to measure process, impact and outcomes. Consistent with intervention messages, the integrated nationwide prescriber and consumer programme is associated with modest but consistent positive changes in consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour to the appropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs. These positive changes among the community are corroborated by a national decline in total antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in the community (from 23.08 million prescriptions in 1998-99 to 21.44 million in 2001-02) and, specifically, by a decline among the nine antibiotics commonly used for URTI such that by 2003 nationally 216,000 fewer prescriptions for URTI are written each year by general practitioners. PMID:17046966

  17. Space Station Attitude Control During Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth S.; McCants, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Evaluating the feasibility of planned robotic operations requires an analysis methodology and tools that can quickly assess proposed attitude control strategies. In this paper, an efficient approach to model the attitude dynamics of the Space Station during payload motion is presented. This approach is used to formulate an alternative numerical solution for torque equilibrium attitudes including the effect of payload velocity. It is also shown that a judicious choice of attitude command during robotic operations can substantially reduce peak attitude control momentum use.

  18. Attitudes toward Children with Severe Burns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holaday, Margot; Wolfson, Aaron

    1997-01-01

    Examined reasons for negative attitudes toward children with severe burns by surveying 226 counseling and rehabilitation students. Results suggest that pessimistic expectations and negative attitudes built on conjecture are due to four sources: social standards of beauty, emotionality of the observer, reminders of personal vulnerability, and…

  19. Aortic distensibility is reduced during intense lower body negative pressure and is related to low frequency power of systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Aaron A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Cote, Anita T; Drury, C Taylor; Warburton, Darren E R

    2013-03-01

    As sympathetic activity approximately doubles during intense lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of -60 mmHg or greater, we examined the relationship between surrogate markers of sympathetic activation and central arterial distensibility during severe LBNP. Eight participants were exposed to progressive 8-min stages of LBNP of increasing intensity (-20, -40, -60, and -80 mmHg), while recording carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV), stroke volume (SV), heart rate, and beat-by-beat blood pressure. The spectral power of low frequency oscillations in SBP (SBP(LF)) was used as a surrogate indicator of sympathetically modulated vasomotor modulation. Total arterial compliance (C) was calculated as C = SV/pulse pressure. Both cPWV and C were compared between baseline, 50 % of the maximally tolerated LBNP stage (LBNP(50)), and the maximum fully tolerated stage of LBNP (LBNP(max)). No change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) occurred over LBNP. An increase in cPWV (6.5 ± 2.2; 7.2 ± 1.4; 9.0 ± 2.5 m/s; P = 0.004) occurred during LBNP(max). Over progressive LBNP, SBP(LF) increased (8.5 ± 4.6; 9.3 ± 5.8; 16.1 ± 12.9 mmHg(2); P = 0.04) and C decreased significantly (18.3 ± 6.8; 14.3 ± 4.1; 11.6 ± 4.8 ml/mmHg × 10; P = 0.03). The mean correlation (r) between cPWV and SBP(LF) was 0.9 ± 0.03 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99). Severe LBNP increased central stiffness and reduced total arterial compliance. It appears that increased sympathetic vasomotor tone during LBNP is associated with reduced aortic distensibility in the absence of changes in MAP. PMID:22971725

  20. Extensive protein hydrolysate formula effectively reduces regurgitation in infants with positive and negative challenge tests for cow’s milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Y; De Greef, E

    2014-01-01

    Aim Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is treated using an elimination diet with an extensive protein hydrolysate. We explored whether a thickened or nonthickened version was best for infants with suspected CMPA, which commonly causes regurgitation/vomiting. Methods Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge test. We compared the efficacy of two casein extensive hydrolysates (eCH), a nonthickened version (NT-eCH) and a thickened version (T-eCH), using a symptom-based score covering regurgitation, crying, stool consistency, eczema, urticarial and respiratory symptoms. Results A challenge was performed in 52/72 infants with suspected CMPA and was positive in 65.4%. All confirmed CMPA cases tolerated eCH. The symptom-based score decreased significantly in all infants within a month, and the highest reduction was in those with confirmed CMPA. Regurgitation was reduced in all infants (6.4 ± 3.2–2.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.001), but fell more with the T-eCH (−4.2 ± 3.2 regurgitations/day vs. −3.0 ± 4.5, ns), especially in infants with a negative challenge (−3.9 ± 4.0 vs. −1.9 ± 3.4, ns). Conclusion eCH fulfilled the criteria for a hypoallergenic formula, and the NT-eCH and T-eCH formulas both reduced CMPA symptoms. The symptom-based score is useful for evaluating how effective dietary treatments are for CMPA. PMID:24575806

  1. An Audit-Based, Infectious Disease Specialist-Guided Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Profoundly Reduced Antibiotic Use Without Negatively Affecting Patient Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nilholm, Hannah; Holmstrand, Linnea; Ahl, Jonas; Mnsson, Fredrik; Odenholt, Inga; Tham, Johan; Melander, Eva; Resman, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Background.?Antimicrobial stewardship programs are increasingly implemented in hospital care. They aim to simultaneously optimize outcomes for individual patients with infections and reduce financial and health-associated costs of overuse of antibiotics. Few studies have examined the effects of antimicrobial stewardship programs in settings with low proportions of antimicrobial resistance, such as in Sweden. Methods.?An antimicrobial stewardship program was introduced during 5 months of 2013 in a department of internal medicine in southern Sweden. The intervention consisted of audits twice weekly on all patients given antibiotic treatment. The intervention period was compared with a historical control consisting of patients treated with antibiotics in the same wards in 2012. Studied outcome variables included 28-day mortality and readmission, length of hospital stay, and use of antibiotics. Results.?A reduction of 27% in total antibiotic use (2387 days of any antibiotic) was observed in the intervention period compared with the control period. The reduction was due to fewer patients started on antibiotics as well as to significantly shorter durations of antibiotic courses (P < .001). An earlier switch to oral therapy and a specific reduction in use of third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was also evident. Mortality, total readmissions, and lengths of stay in hospital were unchanged compared with the control period, whereas readmissions due to a nonresolved infection were fewer during the intervention of 2013. Conclusions.?This study demonstrates that an infectious disease specialist-guided antimicrobial stewardship program can profoundly reduce antibiotic use in a low-resistance setting with no negative effect on patient outcome. PMID:26380341

  2. Relationships Among Premenstrual Symptom Reports, Menstrual Attitudes, and Mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Lustyk, M. Kathleen B.; Gerrish, Winslow G.; Douglas, Haley; Bowen, Sarah; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2016-01-01

    The physical and affective symptoms of a broad range of conditions are improved following mindfulness-based practices. One set of symptoms that has yet to be explored through the lens of mindfulness, however, is that associated with the premenstruum. Also, given the relationships among negative attitudes towards menstruation and amplified symptom reporting, it is reasonable to expect that mindfulness qualities cultivated through practices aimed at dispelling negative anticipatory and judgmental thinking will moderate these relationships. Thus, in this study we examined interrelationships among premenstrual symptom severity reports (PMSR), menstrual attitudes, and mindfulness qualities in a sample of 127 women (age range 18–26 years). Results revealed several statistically significant positive relationships between menstrual attitudes and PMSR. Also, higher scores on measures of mindfulness were significantly associated with lower PMSR. Moderating effects revealed that mindfulness significantly buffered the relationships between menstrual attitudes and PMSR, specifically between: anticipation of menses onset and PMSR as well as anticipation of menses onset and premenstrual water retention. These results may offer the first empirical evidence of relationships among menstrual attitudes, PMSR, and mindfulness qualities. Results from this study align with the body of research showing that mindfulness is predictive of improved symptomatology and well-being across varied conditions. We conclude with discussion supporting the development of a mindfulness-based intervention aimed at reducing symptom severity in premenstrual symptom sufferers. PMID:27162560

  3. Changing Attitudes toward Handicapped Persons: A Review and Analysis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Joy

    1980-01-01

    Important factors in reducing negative attitudes toward handicapped persons appear to include consideration for the status of the handicapped person in relation to the nonhandicapped, allowance for sanctioned staring and other methods of discomfort reduction on the part of the nondisabled, and avoidance of inadvertent reinforcement of stereotypes.

  4. Attitude towards psychiatry among medical students.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ashish

    2012-10-01

    The proportion of medical graduates opting for psychiatry in career has been observed to be distinctly less compared to those choosing other specialties. The study was undertaken to find out the attitudes of newly entrant medical students towards psychiatry in comparison to other specialties. Sixty-two students of first year MBBS were administered a questionnaire to assess their attitudes towards various specialties. Only 1 student (1.5%) opted for psychiatry as a career choice, another 2 students (3%) considered it as a strong possibility, 71.5% negated psychiatry as a career choice. Students rated psychiatry significantly lower than other specialties in regards to financially rewarding, enjoyable and satisfying work, intellectually challenging, scientific basis, prestige among others, lifestyle. Psychiatry was also rated as poor on prospects of having a bright and interesting future. The present study suggests that new entrants in medical college harbour a negative attitude towards psychiatry, which has not changed over the last three to four decades. A conscious effort in trying to make psychiatry an active and interesting component of medical education and an improved portrayal of this field in society thereby reducing stigma associated with it would be of immense importance in generating interest in this field among newly entrant medical students. PMID:23738403

  5. Job attitudes.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D

    2012-01-01

    Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis. PMID:22129457

  6. The complexity and ambivalence of immigration attitudes: ambivalent stereotypes predict conflicting attitudes toward immigration policies.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Christine; Dobria, Ovidiu; Wetherell, Geoffrey

    2013-07-01

    Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy. PMID:23875857

  7. Myeloablative, but not Reduced-Intensity, Conditioning Overcomes the Negative Effect of Flow-Cytometric Evidence of Leukemia in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ustun, Celalettin; Courville, Elizabeth L; DeFor, Todd; Dolan, Michelle; Randall, Nicole; Yohe, Sophia; Bejanyan, Nelli; Warlick, Erica; Brunstein, Claudio; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Linden, Michael A

    2016-04-01

    Stringent complete remission (CR) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) requires the absence of both morphologic and flow cytometric evidence of disease. We have previously shown that persistent AML detected by flow cytometry (FC+) before reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) was associated with significantly increased relapse, shorter disease-free survival (DFS), and poorer overall survival (OS), independent of morphologic blast count. We evaluated the effect of FC status on outcomes of alloHCT for AML after either myeloablative conditioning (MAC) or RIC regimens in 203 patients (MAC, n = 80, and RIC, n = 123) with no morphologic evidence of persistent AML pretransplant on marrow biopsy. The allografts included 130 umbilical cord blood (UCB) and 73 sibling donors. We performed central review of pretransplant standard sensitivity FC to identify detectable FC+. Twenty-five patients were FC+, including 15 (18.7%) receiving MAC and 10 (8.1%) RIC alloHCT. Among RIC patients FC+ was associated with significantly inferior relapse, DFS, and OS (multiple regression HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.7 to 8.7; P < .01 for relapse; HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.9; P < .01 for DFS; and HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.7 to 7; P < .01 for OS). In contrast, FC+ status was not associated with relapse or decreased OS after MAC. These data suggest that MAC, but not RIC, overcomes the negative effect of pretransplant FC+ after sibling or UCB alloHCT. Therefore, a deeper pretransplant leukemia-free state is preferred for those treated with RIC. PMID:26551635

  8. Are Jamaicans really that stigmatizing? A comparison of mental health help-seeking attitudes.

    PubMed

    Jackson Williams, D

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a high level of stigma surrounding mental illness in the English-speaking Caribbean, limited knowledge about aetiology and scepticism about the effectiveness of treatment. Further, in spite of experiencing symptoms of distress, a growing body of literature has suggested that Caribbean nationals hold negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. It has been suggested that these attitudes may be even more negative than for other populations. This paper presents the results of two studies which sought to examine this assumption. It was hypothesized that Jamaicans would hold more negative attitudes toward seeking professional mental health services than samples from other populations. Data regarding attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were collected from 339 Jamaican adolescents. In study 1, a review of the literature was conducted. Three published studies that utilized the same measure of help-seeking attitudes, had a sample similar in age, and published their sample size, means and standard deviations, which were compared to the Jamaican sample. In study 2, data from the Jamaican sample were compared to a sample of African-American adolescents (n = 81). Results did not support the hypothesis. Jamaicans were generally found to be either similar or more positive in their attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. These encouraging results are discussed. Suggestions for improving education and reducing mental health stigma are presented. PMID:24756657

  9. The Sociocultural Context of Mexican-Origin Pregnant Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Teen Pregnancy and Links to Future Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Killoren, Sarah E; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-05-01

    Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers' lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents' cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents' pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes. PMID:26573862

  10. Stereotype threat among older employees: relationship with job attitudes and turnover intentions.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, Courtney; Kalokerinos, Elise K; Henry, Julie D

    2013-03-01

    Stereotype threat, or the belief that one may be the target of demeaning stereotypes, leads to acute performance decrements and reduced psychological well-being. The current research examined stereotype threat among older employees, a group that is the target of many negative stereotypes. Study 1 surveyed older workers in two different organizations regarding their experiences of stereotype threat, their job attitudes and work mental health, and their intentions to resign or retire. Across both samples, feelings of stereotype threat were related to more negative job attitudes and poorer work mental health. In turn, these negative job attitudes were associated with intentions to resign and (possibly) retire. In Study 2, younger and older employees were surveyed. The results indicated that only for older employees were feelings of stereotype threat negatively related to job attitudes, work mental health, and intentions to resign. The implications of these findings for understanding job attitudes and intentions among older workers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22924658

  11. Changes in attitudes toward seeking mental health services: a 40-year cross-temporal meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Corey S; Erickson, Julie; Deane, Frank P; Wright, Michelle

    2014-03-01

    Although rates of treatment seeking for mental health problems are increasing, this increase is driven primarily by antidepressant medication use, and a majority of individuals with mental health problems remain untreated. Helpseeking attitudes are thought to be a key barrier to mental health service use, although little is known about whether such attitudes have changed over time. Research on this topic is mixed with respect to whether helpseeking attitudes have become more or less positive. The aim of the current study was to help clarify this issue using a cross-temporal meta-analysis of scores on Fischer and Turner's (1970) helpseeking attitude measure among university students (N=6796) from 1968 to 2008. Results indicated that attitudes have become increasingly negative over time, r(44)=-0.53, p<0.01, with even stronger negative results when the data are weighted (w) for sample size and study variance, r(44)=-0.63, p<.001. This disconcerting finding may reflect the greater emphasis of Fischer and Turner's scale toward helpseeking for psychotherapy. Such attitudes may be increasingly negative as a result of the unintended negative effects of efforts in recent decades to reduce stigma and market biological therapies by medicalizing mental health problems. PMID:24486521

  12. Weight gain attitudes among pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; Nakashima, I; Andrews, D

    1993-07-01

    Maternal weight gain is the most important, manageable determinant of infant birth weight among adolescents. Negative attitudes toward weight gain may adversely affect maternal weight gain. We hypothesized that (a) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain are more common among younger pregnant adolescents, and (b) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain adversely affect adolescent maternal weight gain. The study subjects, 99, radially diverse, pregnant 13 through 18 year olds, completed the 18-item, Likert-format, Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale. Responses to the questionnaire indicated that most (83.8%) of the adolescents we interviewed had a positive attitude toward pregnancy weight gain when they entered prenatal care. Univariate analyses revealed that attitudes toward weight gain were unrelated to the respondents' ages but inversely related to their prepregnant weights (-0.16; p = 0.06) and the severity of their symptoms of depression (r = -0.26; p = 0.004). Attitudes toward weight gain were also directly related to their family support (r = 0.17; p = 0.06). Weight gain was significantly related to 4 of the 18 scale items but not to the total attitude scale score. We conclude that (a) the developmental task of formulating a positive body image does not foster more negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain among younger adolescents; (b) negative weight gain attitudes are most common among heavier adolescents, depressed adolescents, and adolescents who do not perceive their families as supportive; and (c) negative weight gain attitudes could adversely affect pregnancy weight gain. PMID:8399248

  13. Attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, A. L., Jr.; Price, A. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A device for controlling the attitude of a spacecraft is described. The device consists of two light sensors on a spacecraft that are mounted beneath a baffle which divides the light from a light source such as the sun or a star. The divided light reflects off of two reflective surfaces onto the two light sensors. When the spacecraft assumes its normal attitude, the baffle divides the light source into two equal parts, causing the two light sensors to produce equal outputs. When the light is equally detected, the stabilizing system is disconnected. Deviations from the normal attitude cause unequal distribution of the light source and energize the stabilizing system.

  14. Cognitive Predictors of Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol and Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…

  15. Reducing stigma toward seeking mental health treatment among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Saporito, J. M.; Ryan, C.; Teachman, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce explicit and implicit stigma-relevant attitudes toward mental illness and treatment-seeking and behavioural indicators of willingness to seek treatment. Methods Adolescents were randomly assigned to the experimental (education about mental illness and treatment involving psychoeducation and contact (via DVD) with an affected individual) or control intervention (education about tobacco). Results Findings suggest the stigma intervention was effective at reducing explicit but not implicit stigma-relevant attitudes. As hypothesized, participants receiving the experimental intervention reported less explicit stigma toward treatment and greater openness to personally seek treatment if they had also reported prior mental health treatment. Conclusions and Implications These findings support the potential for a brief educational intervention among adolescents to reduce negative attitudes toward mental health treatment, but raise questions about how to effectively address implicit stigma as well as the importance of translating stigma reduction into behavior changes. PMID:24286023

  16. Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

    2013-08-01

    Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.

  17. Overcoming Graduate Students' Negative Perceptions of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalayants, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been some attention in the literature to such issues as students' attitudes toward statistics, instructors are still constantly faced with the challenge to engage students; understand their perceptions, motivations, and interests; and deal with their reluctance and negative attitudes toward the field of statistics. The purpose…

  18. Patient Deception: Nursing Students' Beliefs and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Drew A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined nursing students' beliefs about indicators of deception and their attitudes toward patient deception. Fifty-eight participants from various nursing programs at a southwestern university completed a Detection of Deception Questionnaire and Attitudes Toward Patient Deception Scale. Findings indicated that nursing students have a number of inaccurate beliefs about deception and possess a number of negative attitudes toward patients who lie. Implications for nursing education are discussed. PMID:25783815

  19. Suicidality, hopelessness, and attitudes toward life and death in clinical and nonclinical adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cotton, C R; Range, L M

    1996-01-01

    To see if hopelessness and four attitudes (attraction to life and death and repulsion by life and death) account for the development of suicidality in children, 15 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and 84 middle and high school students, average age 15.2 years, took a four-item version of the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire, the Hopelessness Scale for Children (HSC), and the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale for Adolescents (MAST-A). Profiles on the four attitudes differentiated adolescents at risk for suicide from those not at risk. Suicidality was negatively related to Attraction to Death and positively related to Repulsion by Life, Attraction to Death, Repulsion by Death, and hopelessness. Hopelessness was negatively related to Attraction to Life, and positively related to Repulsion by Life and Repulsion by Death. The best predictors of suicidality were hopelessness and Repulsion by Life. Results imply that reducing feelings of rejection by their families might lessen suicidality in adolescents. PMID:10169709

  20. Biological Motion induced mu suppression is reduced in Early Psychosis (EP) patients with active negative symptoms and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Minichino, Amedeo; Singh, Fiza; Pineda, Jaime; Friederich, Elisabeth; Cadenhead, Kristin S

    2016-04-30

    There is evidence of genetic and neural system overlap in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Early Psychosis (EP). Five datasets were pooled to compare mu suppression index (MSI), a proxy of mirror neuron activity, in EP, high functioning ASD, and healthy subjects (HS). ASDs and EPs with "active" negative symptoms showed significant differences in mu suppression, in response to Biological Motion/point-light display animation, compared to HS. Preliminary findings suggest that similar neural network deficits in ASD and EP could be driven by the expression of negative symptoms in the latter group of patients. These findings may aid future studies on EP and ASD and facilitate the formulation of new hypotheses regarding their pathophysiology. PMID:26970656

  1. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help. Previous work established that this distinction—whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive—has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict. The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behavior of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup. Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced. The main results are that (1) behavior is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2) People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3) Groupness—the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being—is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it). In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate. PMID:26582994

  2. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it.

    PubMed

    Weisel, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help. Previous work established that this distinction-whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive-has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict. The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behavior of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup. Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced. The main results are that (1) behavior is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2) People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3) Groupness-the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being-is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it). In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate. PMID:26582994

  3. Open and Positive Attitudes toward Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chia-Fang

    2014-01-01

    This chapter argues that the most important thing for a nonnative English-speaking teacher is to have an open and positive attitude toward students. A teacher's willingness to work out problems with individual students, coupled with openness to students' ideas and criticism, should help improve students' negative attitudes toward…

  4. The Eden Alternative: Impact on Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosher, Richard B.; Robinson, Sherry

    2005-01-01

    Nursing homes as clinical sites for student learning have the potential to produce negative attitudes toward aging. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to determine the impact of the Eden Alternative on the attitudes of students toward elders residing in nursing homes. Prior to beginning implementation of the Eden Alternative, 61

  5. International Tourism, Ethnic Contact, and Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Yehuda; Ben-Ari, Rachel

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates a book about Egypt, designed to improve the ethnic attitudes of Israel tourists who were about to visit that country as a cognitive intervention. Reports that the intervention was successful only in moderating negative attitudinal changes, and that the intergroup contact provided by tourism does not guarantee positive attitude change.…

  6. Attitudes toward Embodied Old Age among Swedes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberg, Peter; Tornstam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Messages in the consumer culture are often youth oriented, aiming at the prevention of the bodily decay associated with biological aging. In gerontological discourses, this has been hypothesized to generate negative attitudes toward embodied aging and old age. Studies about general attitudes toward old age show that younger respondents have more…

  7. Understanding successful behaviour change: the role of intentions, attitudes to the target and motivations and the example of diet.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Karim, Lubna; Choudry, Abida; Brown, Kerry

    2007-06-01

    Although many attempts to change health behaviour fail, some individuals do show successful behaviour change. This study assessed the role of behavioural intentions, motivations and attitudes to the target in explaining successful changes in diet with a particular focus on positive and negative intentions and positive and negative attitudes. Participants (n=282) completed a questionnaire describing a recent change in eating behaviour (becoming a vegetarian, cutting out a food group, eating fewer calories), their intentions, their attitudes to the food being avoided, a range of motivations and their degree of success. The results showed that the three behaviour change groups differed in terms of their cognitions with those trying to eat fewer calories reporting less success in changing their behaviour. Successful vegetarianism was associated with a lower positive attitude; successfully cutting out a food group was related to ethical motivations, a lower positive attitude and greater positive and negative intentions, and reducing calorie intake was associated with greater positive intentions and a lower positive attitude. Therefore, success was associated with different cognitions depending upon the type of change being made, although cognitions such as 'I will eat more vegetables' and 'I no longer find high fat foods palatable' were consistently most predictive of success. Suggestions for the development of more effective interventions to change health behaviours are made. PMID:16971672

  8. Thai Negation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Samsul

    A study analyzed the structure of negative sentences in the Thai language, based on data gathered from two native speakers. It is shown that the Thai negative marker generally occurs between the noun phrase (subject) and the verb phrase in simple active sentences and in passive sentences. Negation of noun phrases is also allowed in Thai, with a

  9. Negative mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Richard T.

    2015-03-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given.

  10. Attitudes toward mental illness - 35 states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, 2007.

    PubMed

    2010-05-28

    Negative attitudes about mental illness often underlie stigma, which can cause affected persons to deny symptoms; delay treatment; be excluded from employment, housing, or relationships; and interfere with recovery. Understanding attitudes toward mental illness at the state level could help target initiatives to reduce stigma, but state-level data are scant. To study such attitudes, CDC analyzed data from the District of Columbia (DC), Puerto Rico, and the 35 states participating in the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (the most recent data available), which included two questions on attitudes toward mental illness. Most adults (88.6%) agreed with a statement that treatment can help persons with mental illness lead normal lives, but fewer (57.3%) agreed with a statement that people are generally caring and sympathetic to persons with mental illness. Responses to these questions differed by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and education level. Although most adults with mental health symptoms (77.6%) agreed that treatment can help persons with mental illness lead normal lives, fewer persons with symptoms (24.6%) believed that people are caring and sympathetic to persons with mental illness. This report provides the first state-specific estimates of these attitudes and provides a baseline for monitoring trends. Initiatives that can educate the public about how to support persons with mental illness and local programs and media support to decrease negative stereotypes of mental illness can reduce barriers for those seeking or receiving treatment for mental illness. PMID:20508592

  11. Development and Assessment of Traditional and Innovative Media to Reduce Individual HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Attitudes and Beliefs in India

    PubMed Central

    Catalani, Caricia; Castaneda, Diego; Spielberg, Freya

    2013-01-01

    Although stigma is considered a major barrier to effective response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, there is a lack of evidence on effective interventions. This media intervention took place among key HIV-vulnerable communities in Southern India. Two HIV stigma videos were created using techniques from traditional film production and new media digital storytelling. A series of 16 focus group discussions were held in 4 rural and 4 urban sites in South India, with specific groups for sex workers, men who have sex with men, young married women, and others. Focus groups with viewers of the traditional film (8 focus groups, 80 participants) and viewers of the new media production (8 focus groups, 69 participants) revealed the mechanisms through which storyline, characters, and esthetics influence viewers’ attitudes and beliefs about stigma. A comparative pre-/post-survey showed that audiences of both videos significantly improved their stigma scores. We found that a simple illustrated video, produced on a limited budget by amateurs, and a feature film, produced with an ample budget by professionals, elicited similar responses from audiences and similar positive short-term outcomes on stigma. PMID:24350190

  12. Attitudes without Objects: Evidence for a Dispositional Attitude, its Measurement, and its Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive versus negative attitudes, a trait termed the Dispositional Attitude. Across four studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual pre-existing attitudes, (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits, and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the big-five and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. PMID:23586409

  13. Attitudes toward Invertebrates: Are Educational "Bug Banquets" Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looy, Heather; Wood, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Scientists have used educational presentations and "bug banquets" to alter widespread negative attitudes toward invertebrates. In this article, the authors explore whether such presentations have a measurable affect on attitudes. Junior high, high school, and university students completed an attitude survey focusing on invertebrates in general and

  14. Teacher-Trainees Attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitonga, E. R.; Andanje, M.; Wanderi, P. M.; Bailasha, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the attitudes of teacher trainees towards physical education (PE). It was hypothesised that teacher-trainees have negative attitudes towards PE. A total of 132 teacher trainees were randomly selected from a teacher Training College in Kenya completed a questionnaire adapted from Wear's attitude scale with equivalent forms.…

  15. Attitudes toward Invertebrates: Are Educational "Bug Banquets" Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looy, Heather; Wood, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Scientists have used educational presentations and "bug banquets" to alter widespread negative attitudes toward invertebrates. In this article, the authors explore whether such presentations have a measurable affect on attitudes. Junior high, high school, and university students completed an attitude survey focusing on invertebrates in general and…

  16. Short-term antidepressant administration reduces negative self-referential processing in the medial prefrontal cortex in subjects at risk for depression.

    PubMed

    Di Simplicio, M; Norbury, R; Harmer, C J

    2012-05-01

    Depression has been associated with changes in responses within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during emotional information processing. Antidepressant drug treatment has been shown to modify neural responses in healthy volunteers early in treatment within similar circuitry. It is unclear, however, whether the same early effect occurs in depressed patients, before changes in mood. The current study therefore investigated the effects of 7-days administration of the selective serotonin-uptake inhibitor citalopram vs placebo in volunteers (n=29) at a high risk for the development of depression, using the personality phenotype of high neuroticism in a double-blind, between-groups design. On the last day of treatment, resting haemoperfusion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were acquired during a self-referential words categorisation task. A significant activation in a cluster of mPFC areas, including dorsal anterior cingulate and right orbitofrontal cortex was revealed, driven by decreased responses to the negative self-descriptors following citalopram compared with placebo, in the absence of any mood differences. These findings show a normalisation of neural abnormalities in- and at-risk population early in treatment, supporting the theory that antidepressants may indeed act by modifying specific neural dysfunctions correlated to negative cognitive biases. PMID:21358707

  17. An early Phase II randomised controlled trial testing the effect on persecutory delusions of using CBT to reduce negative cognitions about the self: The potential benefits of enhancing self confidence

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel; Pugh, Katherine; Dunn, Graham; Evans, Nicole; Sheaves, Bryony; Waite, Felicity; Černis, Emma; Lister, Rachel; Fowler, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Research has shown that paranoia may directly build on negative ideas about the self. Feeling inferior can lead to ideas of vulnerability. The clinical prediction is that decreasing negative self cognitions will reduce paranoia. Method Thirty patients with persistent persecutory delusions were randomised to receive brief CBT in addition to standard care or to standard care (ISRCTN06118265). The six session intervention was designed to decrease negative, and increase positive, self cognitions. Assessments at baseline, 8 weeks (posttreatment) and 12 weeks were carried out by a rater blind to allocation. The primary outcomes were posttreatment scores for negative self beliefs and paranoia. Secondary outcomes were psychological well-being, positive beliefs about the self, persecutory delusions, social comparison, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Results Trial recruitment and retention were feasible and the intervention highly acceptable to the patients. All patients provided follow-up data. Posttreatment there was a small reduction in negative self beliefs (Cohen's d = 0.24) and a moderate reduction in paranoia (d = 0.59), but these were not statistically significant. There were statistically significant improvements in psychological well-being (d = 1.16), positive beliefs about the self (d = 1.00), negative social comparison (d = 0.88), self-esteem (d = 0.62), and depression (d = 0.68). No improvements were maintained. No adverse events were associated with the intervention. Conclusions The intervention produced short-term gains consistent with the prediction that improving cognitions about the self will reduce persecutory delusions. The improvement in psychological well-being is important in its own right. We recommend that the different elements of the intervention are tested separately and that the treatment is lengthened. PMID:25468186

  18. Spatial assessment of attitudes toward tigers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Carter, Neil H; Riley, Shawn J; Shortridge, Ashton; Shrestha, Binoj K; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-03-01

    In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal's Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person's position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges. PMID:23836312

  19. Further experience with the Body Attitude Test.

    PubMed

    Probst, M; Van Coppenolle, H; Vandereycken, W

    1997-06-01

    The Body Attitude Test (BAT) questionnaire was specifically developed for the assessment of patients with eating disorders. To test its usefulness, the BAT was administered together with other self-report measures (Body Shape Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory, Body Attitude Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) in 69 anorectic, 26 bulimic patients and 165 female university students. The results indicate that the negative body attitude expressed on the BAT is related to other signs of negative body experience. The BAT differentiates between clinical and non-clinical subjects and between anorectics and bulimics. PMID:14655849

  20. Implicit Attitudes towards People with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Relationship with Explicit Attitudes, Social Distance, Emotions and Contact.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Implicit attitude research has expanded rapidly over the last decade and is seen as very promising as it counters biases present in much attitude research such as social desirability. However, most research in the area of intellectual disabilities has focused on explicit attitudes alone. This study examined implicit attitudes to this population and also examined their association with emotional reactions and contact, which have previously been found to have a significant influence on attitudes and stigma. A web based survey consisting of a single target Implicit Association Test, measures of explicit attitudes, social distance, and emotional reactions towards and contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities was completed by 326 adult UK residents. Implicit attitudes were not significantly associated with explicit attitudes, social distance or emotional reactions. Instead there were small to moderate associations between emotional reactions and explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes did not vary according to participants' level of contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities, type of the contact relationship (voluntary versus involuntary), gender or educational attainment. In contrast, these participant characteristics did affect explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities were somewhat negative and, unlike explicit attitudes and stigma, did not vary according to participant demographics or contact. As they may have a negative impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, implicit attitudes merit increased attention in research and interventions in the intellectual disabilities field. PMID:26366575

  1. Implicit Attitudes towards People with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Relationship with Explicit Attitudes, Social Distance, Emotions and Contact

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Implicit attitude research has expanded rapidly over the last decade and is seen as very promising as it counters biases present in much attitude research such as social desirability. However, most research in the area of intellectual disabilities has focused on explicit attitudes alone. This study examined implicit attitudes to this population and also examined their association with emotional reactions and contact, which have previously been found to have a significant influence on attitudes and stigma. A web based survey consisting of a single target Implicit Association Test, measures of explicit attitudes, social distance, and emotional reactions towards and contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities was completed by 326 adult UK residents. Implicit attitudes were not significantly associated with explicit attitudes, social distance or emotional reactions. Instead there were small to moderate associations between emotional reactions and explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes did not vary according to participants’ level of contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities, type of the contact relationship (voluntary versus involuntary), gender or educational attainment. In contrast, these participant characteristics did affect explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities were somewhat negative and, unlike explicit attitudes and stigma, did not vary according to participant demographics or contact. As they may have a negative impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, implicit attitudes merit increased attention in research and interventions in the intellectual disabilities field. PMID:26366575

  2. Do Online Comments Influence the Public's Attitudes Toward an Organization? Effects of Online Comments Based on Individuals' Prior Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kang Hoon; Lee, Moon J

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of reading different types of online comments about a company on people's attitude change based on individual's prior attitude toward the company. Based on Social Judgment Theory, several hypotheses were tested. The results showed that the effects of online comments interact with individuals' prior attitudes toward a corporation. People with a strong negative attitude toward a corporation were less influenced by other's online comments than people with a neutral attitude in general. However, people with a prior negative attitude were more affected by refutational two-sided comments than one-sided comments. The results suggest that the effects of user generated content should be studied in a holistic manner, not only by investigating the effects of online content itself, but also by examining how others' responses to the content shape or change individuals' attitudes based on their prior attitudes. PMID:25901633

  3. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane combined with subclinical chorioamnionitis negatively affects pregnancy outcomes by a mechanism associated with reduced levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HONGLI; WANG, LU; WANG, JING; HEI, JIANGRONG; RUAN, CAILIAN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether premature rupture of the fetal membrane, combined with subclinical chorioamnionitis, affects pregnancy outcomes. In addition, the association between premature rupture of the fetal membrane (PROM) and the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), an inactive proenzyme that can be activated by other factors or signals in humans, was examined. In total, 80 pregnant patients with PROM were classified into the experimental and control groups, according to their final placental pathological diagnosis results. The 40 patients in the experimental group suffered from subclinical chorioamnionitis, while the 40 patients in the control group exhibited no lesions of the placenta or fetal membrane. Tissue samples were collected and the total protein and mRNA were extracted for western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. ELISA was performed in order to detect the levels of MMP-2 in the serum of the two groups of patients. The rates of cesarean section, puerperal infection, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm incidence, placenta accreta, residual placental blood and stillbirth were all significantly higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-2 were reduced in the experimental group compared with the control group. ELISA results indicated that the serum MMP-2 concentrations were also reduced in the patients with PROM. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the PROM, combined with subclinical chorioamnionitis, significantly affected pregnancy outcomes and was associated with reduced levels of MMP-2. PMID:26622354

  4. Motion models in attitude estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D.; Wheeler, Z.; Sedlak, J.

    1994-01-01

    Attitude estimator use observations from different times to reduce the effects of noise. If the vehicle is rotating, the attitude at one time needs to be propagated to that at another time. If the vehicle measures its angular velocity, attitude propagating entails integrating a rotational kinematics equation only. If a measured angular velocity is not available, torques can be computed and an additional rotational dynamics equation integrated to give the angular velocity. Initial conditions for either of these integrations come from the estimation process. Sometimes additional quantities, such as gyro and torque parameters, are also solved for. Although the partial derivatives of attitude with respect to initial attitude and gyro parameters are well known, the corresponding partial derivatives with respect to initial angular velocity and torque parameters are less familiar. They can be derived and computed numerically in a way that is analogous to that used for the initial attitude and gyro parameters. Previous papers have demonstrated the feasibility of using dynamics models for attitude estimation but have not provided details of how each angular velocity and torque parameters can be estimated. This tutorial paper provides some of that detail, notably how to compute the state transition matrix when closed form expressions are not available. It also attempts to put dynamics estimation in perspective by showing the progression from constant to gyro-propagated to dynamics-propagated attitude motion models. Readers not already familiar with attitude estimation will find this paper an introduction to the subject, and attitude specialists may appreciate the collection of heretofore scattered results brought together in a single place.

  5. Noise screen for attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodden, John J. (Inventor); Stevens, Homer D. (Inventor); Hong, David P. (Inventor); Hirschberg, Philip C. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An attitude control system comprising a controller and a noise screen device coupled to the controller. The controller is adapted to control an attitude of a vehicle carrying an actuator system that is adapted to pulse in metered bursts in order to generate a control torque to control the attitude of the vehicle in response to a control pulse. The noise screen device is adapted to generate a noise screen signal in response to the control pulse that is generated when an input attitude error signal exceeds a predetermined deadband attitude level. The noise screen signal comprises a decaying offset signal that when combined with the attitude error input signal results in a net attitude error input signal away from the predetermined deadband level to reduce further control pulse generation.

  6. Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chingching

    2012-01-01

    In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

  7. Investigating Topic-Related Attitude: Effect on Reading and Remembering Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Hollingsworth, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    Explored the effect of topic-related attitudes on sixth graders' learning and remembering. Students in control, favorable-attitude, or unfavorable-attitude instruction groups heard neutral, positive, or negative passages read aloud. Results suggest experimentally created topic-related attitudes do not interfere with the immediate recall of…

  8. High coffee intake, but not caffeine, is associated with reduced estrogen receptor negative and postmenopausal breast cancer risk with no effect modification by CYP1A2 genotype.

    PubMed

    Lowcock, Elizabeth C; Cotterchio, Michelle; Anderson, Laura N; Boucher, Beatrice A; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Associations between caffeine and coffee consumption and breast cancer risk are uncertain, with studies suggesting inverse and null associations. Variation in cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), a gene responsible for caffeine metabolism, may modify these associations. Cases (n = 3,062) were recruited through the Ontario Cancer Registry and controls (n = 3,427) through random digit dialing. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between breast cancer risk and intakes of 7 caffeine-containing items and total caffeine, and examine whether a genetic variant in CYP1A2 (rs762551) modified these associations. Analyses were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER), menopausal, and smoking status. Generally, coffee and caffeine were not associated with breast cancer risk; however, a significant reduction in risk was observed with the highest category of coffee consumption [≥5 cups per day vs. never, multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (MVOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 0.98]. Variant rs762551 did not modify associations. In stratified analyses, high coffee intake was associated with reduced risk of ER- (MVOR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.92) and postmenopausal breast cancer (MVOR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.94). High coffee consumption, but not total caffeine, may be associated with reduced risk of ER- and postmenopausal breast cancers, independent of CYP1A2 genotype. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. PMID:23530639

  9. Stochasticity and bifurcations in a reduced model with interlinked positive and negative feedback loops of CREB1 and CREB2 stimulated by 5-HT.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lijie; Yang, Zhuoqin; Bi, Yuanhong

    2016-04-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element-binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors is crucial in regulating gene expression required for long-term memory (LTM) formation. Upon exposure of sensory neurons to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), CREB1 is activated via activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) intracellular signaling pathways, and CREB2 as a transcriptional repressor is relieved possibly via phosphorylation of CREB2 by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Song et al. [18] proposed a minimal model with only interlinked positive and negative feedback loops of transcriptional regulation by the activator CREB1 and the repressor CREB2. Without considering feedbacks between the CREB proteins, Pettigrew et al. [8] developed a computational model characterizing complex dynamics of biochemical pathways downstream of 5-HT receptors. In this work, to describe more simply the biochemical pathways and gene regulation underlying 5-HT-induced LTM, we add the important extracellular sensitizing stimulus 5-HT as well as the product Ap-uch into the Song's minimal model. We also strive to examine dynamical properties of the gene regulatory network under the changing concentration of the stimulus, [5-HT], cooperating with the varying positive feedback strength in inducing a high state of CREB1 for the establishment of long-term memory. Different dynamics including monostability, bistability and multistability due to coexistence of stable steady states and oscillations is investigated by means of codimension-2 bifurcation analysis. At the different positive feedback strengths, comparative analysis of deterministic and stochastic dynamics reveals that codimension-1 bifurcation with respect to [5-HT] as the parameter can predict diverse stochastic behaviors resulted from the finite number of molecules, and the number of CREB1 molecules more and more preferentially resides near the high steady state with increasing [5-HT], which contributes to long-term memory formation. PMID:26877074

  10. Inhibition of β2-adrenergic receptor reduces triple-negative breast cancer brain metastases: The potential benefit of perioperative β-blockade

    PubMed Central

    CHOY, CECILIA; RAYTIS, JOHN L.; SMITH, DAVID D.; DUENAS, MATTHEW; NEMAN, JOSH; JANDIAL, RAHUL; LEW, MICHAEL W.

    2016-01-01

    In response to recent studies, we investigated an association between perioperative β-blockade and breast cancer metastases. First, a retrospective study examining perioperative β-blocker use and cancer recurrence and metastases was conducted on 1,029 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery at the City of Hope Cancer Center between 2000 and 2010. We followed the clinical study and examined proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro of primary and brain-metastatic breast cancer cells in response to β2-activation and inhibition. We also investigated in vivo the metastatic potential of propranolol-treated metastatic cells. For stage II breast cancer patients, perioperative β-blockade was associated with decreased cancer recurrence using Cox regression analysis (hazard's ratio =0.51; 95% CI: 0.23–0.97; p=0.041). Triple-negative (TN) brain-metastatic cells were found to have increased β2-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein expression relative to TN primary cells. In response to β2-adrenergic receptor activation, TN brain-metastatic cells also exhibited increased cell proliferation and migration relative to the control. These effects were abrogated by propranolol. Propranolol decreased β2-adrenergic receptor-activated invasion. In vivo, propranolol treatment of TN brain-metastatic cells decreased establishment of brain metastases. Our results suggest that stress and corresponding β2-activation may promote the establishment of brain metastases of TN breast cancer cells. In addition, our data suggest a benefit to perioperative β-blockade during surgery-induced stress with respect to breast cancer recurrence and metastases. PMID:27035124

  11. The Effect of Attitude toward the Elderly on Behavior toward an Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

    Many people hold negative attitudes toward older adults, and these attitudes often are associated with negative behavior toward the old. To explore the behavioral correlates of attitudes toward the elderly, 105 male and female college students, with a mean age of 24.5 years, participated in a two-phase experiment. During phase one, all subjects

  12. Improving Attitudes Regarding the Elderly Population: The Effects of Information and Reinforcement for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Amie M.; Bowen, Anne M.

    2001-01-01

    Altering negative attitudes associated with ageism may be possible by giving people accurate information about older people in conjunction with reinforcement for change. This study, which involved 99 college students, supports the premise that negative attitudes toward older people are amenable; however, the new attitude may be lost without…

  13. Instructional strategies to improve women's attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbill, Phyllis Leary

    Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted for some students.

  14. Love attitudes and relationship experience.

    PubMed

    Hammock, Georgina; Richardson, Deborah South

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the association of love attitudes with the initiation, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships. Respondents completed the Love Attitudes Scale and a questionnaire designed to measure experiences at each stage of relationship development. Ludus was relevant to all stages of relationship development; ludic attitudes were associated with absence of concern for partner loyalty, short and uncommitted relationships, and positive feelings about relationship dissolution. Pragma was associated primarily with relationship initiation (i.e., selection of an appropriate partner). Agape and Mania were most apparent during maintenance, as evidenced by relationships with indicators of involvement and loyalty. Agape, Mania, and Eros related to negative emotions at the point of relationship dissolution. PMID:22017076

  15. When training boomerangs - Negative outcomes associated with Cockpit Resource Management programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Participants' self-reports and measures of attitudes regarding flightdeck management indicate that Cockpit Resource Management training is positively received and causes highly significant changes in attitudes regarding crew coordination and personal capabilities. However, a subset of participants react negatively to the training and show boomerangs (negative change) in attitudes. Explorations into the causes of this effect pinpoint personality factors and group dynamics as critical determinants of reactions to training and the magnitude and direction of attitude change.

  16. London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP): Exploring Negative and Null Effects of a Cluster-Randomised School-Intervention to Reduce School Exclusion—Findings from Protocol-Based Subgroup Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Cope, Aiden; Sutherland, Alex; Pilbeam, Liv; Murray, Aja Louise; Eisner, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents subgroup analyses from the London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP). LEIP was a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an intervention called Engage in Education-London (EiE-L) which aimed to reduce school exclusions in those at greatest risk of exclusion. Pupils in the control schools attended an hour-long employability seminar. Minimisation was used to randomly assign schools to treatment and control following baseline data collection. The study involved 36 schools (17 in treatment—373 pupils; 19 in control—369 pupils) with >28% free school meal eligibility across London and utilised on pupil self-reports, teacher reports as well as official records to assess the effectiveness of EiE-L. Due to multiple data sources, sample sizes varied according to analysis. Analyses of pre-specified subgroups revealed null and negative effects on school exclusion following the intervention. Our findings suggest that the design and implementation of EiE-L may have contributed to the negative outcomes for pupils in the treatment schools when compared to those in the control schools. These findings call into question the effectiveness of bolt-on short-term interventions with pupils, particularly those at the highest risk of school exclusion and when they are faced with multiple problems. This is especially pertinent given the possibility of negative outcomes. Trial Registration: Controlled Trials: ISRCTN23244695 PMID:27045953

  17. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention for enhancing adolescents' positive attitudes towards people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, George; Assimopoulos, Haris; Petanidou, Dimitra; Tzavara, Chara; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Tsiantis, John

    2012-01-01

    High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents' attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16–18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research. PMID:25478117

  18. Postlaunch calibration of spacecraft attitude instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W.; Hashmall, J.; Garrick, J.; Harman, R.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy of both onboard and ground attitude determination can be significantly enhanced by calibrating spacecraft attitude instruments (sensors) after launch. Although attitude sensors are accurately calibrated before launch, the stresses of launch and the space environment inevitably cause changes in sensor parameters. During the mission, these parameters may continue to drift requiring repeated on-orbit calibrations. The goal of attitude sensor calibration is to reduce the systematic errors in the measurement models. There are two stages at which systematic errors may enter. The first occurs in the conversion of sensor output into an observation vector in the sensor frame. The second occurs in the transformation of the vector from the sensor frame to the spacecraft attitude reference frame. This paper presents postlaunch alignment and transfer function calibration of the attitude sensors for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE).

  19. High School Knowledge and Attitudes towards Thalassemia in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Motaharitabar, Eisa; Erfannia, Leila; Dashipour, Alireza; Houshvar, Marziyeh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Thalassemia (thal) is the most single gene disorders in southeast of Iran. About one quarter of total Iranian new thal cases were born in the Sistan and Balouchistan province so the aim of this study is to assess knowledge level and attitudes towards thal in high school students in Zahedan, capital of Sistan and Balouchistan province in Iran. Study design Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Methods This study was conducted on 762 Zahedan high school boys and girls students in 2009. The structured questionnaires were completed by students which consisted of three parts, namely demographic characteristics, knowledge part by 20 multiple choice questions and attitude part by 9 questions. Results The results indicated that only 14.7% students had good knowledge, good knowledge towards thal was 16.2% in boys and 29.1% in girls (P-value<0.001), positive attitude was 76.7% in boys and 84.7% in girls (P-value<0.029). Negative attitude in students who were born in villages and cities were 33.3% and 20.7% respectively (P-value=0.04). Good knowledge level in experimental field studied was between 2-4-fold more than other field students. Students in the last year high school had more knowledge and more positive attitude. Students’ knowledge score had no significant relationship with father education level (P-value=0.11) but had considerable difference with mother educational level (P-value=0.03). Conclusions It is concluded that long term and target based programs are suggested for high school students and local population of Sistan and Balouchistan where the trend of family marriages is quite high. These programs would impart valuable education and improve knowledge of people towards thal being couples in pre-marriage period and then after becoming parents thereby reducing the effects of disease. PMID:24505548

  20. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  1. In triple negative breast tumor cells, PLC-β2 promotes the conversion of CD133high to CD133low phenotype and reduces the CD133-related invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Beyond its possible correlation with stemness of tumor cells, CD133/prominin1 is considered an important marker in breast cancer, since it correlates with tumor size, metastasis and clinical stage of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC), to date the highest risk breast neoplasia. Methods To study the correlation between the levels of CD133 expression and the biology of breast-derived cells, CD133low and CD133high cell subpopulations isolated from triple negative MDA-MB-231 cells were compared in terms of malignant properties and protein expression. Results High expression of CD133 characterizes cells with larger adhesion area, lower proliferation rate and reduced migration speed, indicative of a less undifferentiated phenotype. Conversely, when compared with CD133low cells, CD133high cells show higher invasive capability and increased expression of proteins involved in metastasis and drug-resistance of breast tumors. Among the signalling proteins examined, PLC-β2 expression inversely correlates with the levels of CD133 and has a role in inducing the CD133high cells to CD133low cells conversion, suggesting that, in TNBC cells, the de-regulation of this PLC isoform is responsible of the switch from an early to a mature tumoral phenotype also by reducing the expression of CD133. Conclusions Since CD133 plays a role in determining the invasiveness of CD133high cells, it may constitute an attractive target to reduce the metastatic potential of TNBC. In addition, our data showing that the forced up-regulation of PLC-β2 counteracts the invasiveness of CD133-positive MDA-MB-231 cells might contribute to identify unexplored key steps responsible for the TNBC high malignancy, to be considered for potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:24330829

  2. Ethnic and adoption attitudes among Guatemalan University students.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Judith L; González-Oliva, Ana Gabriela; Mylonas, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Intercountry adoptions from Guatemala were highly controversial, because of the large numbers of children being adopted to the USA, along with evidence of corruption and child theft. Since the implementation of the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption in 2008, Guatemala's central authority for adoption has prioritized domestic placements for children over intercountry adoption. A possible attitudinal barrier to domestic adoption in Guatemala-negative attitudes and prejudice against Indigenous people-was investigated through questionnaires measuring attitudes toward adoption and attitudes toward and social distance from the two major ethnic groups (Ladino and Indigenous). Guatemalan university students (N = 177, 61 % men) were recruited from basic required courses at a private university. Results showed that attitudes toward adoption in general were more favorable than toward interethnic adoption, with the most negative attitudes toward adoption of Ladino children by Indigenous parents. Multiple regression and analysis of covariance models revealed that female gender, experience with adoption and more positive attitudes about Indigenous persons were associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption. The findings imply that negative attitudes toward Indigenous persons are associated with negative attitudes toward adoption, and serve as barriers to promoting domestic adoption in Guatemala. PMID:26702374

  3. Exploring attitudes toward older workers among Australian employers: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Gringart, Eyal; Helmes, Edward; Speelman, Craig Paul

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that negative stereotyping is at the heart of age discrimination in not hiring older workers. As the aging of the population creates pressures to maintain older adults in the work force, it is important to gain knowledge of such stereotyping. A random sample of 128 hiring decision-makers across Australian industries responded to a questionnaire that was specifically developed to assess attitudes toward older workers. Results showed systematic negative stereotyping: Respondents indicated that they were unlikely to hire older workers. The likelihood of hiring significantly correlated with employers' attitudes. Specific attributes for which older workers were seen as inferior compared to younger workers included trainability, adaptability, creativity, and interest in new technology. The findings could inform policymakers and be utilized to develop interventions aimed to reduce hiring discrimination. PMID:16219595

  4. Self-attitudes and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, H B; Pokorny, A D

    1976-01-01

    Findings are reported concerning the hypothesized relationship between adoption of suicidal responses (ideation, threats, attempts) and antecedent negative self-attitudes. Data were provided by junior high school student (N = 3,148) responses to questionnaires administered three times at annual intervals. Antecedent negative self-attitudes were measured by a seven-item self-derogation scale at the first testing. Adoption of suicidal responses was indicated by earlier denial and subsequent affirmation of the response (self-reports). Findings indicate that suicidal behaviors are responses (whether or not subsequently continued) to experiences of negative self-attitudes in the more recent past. However, whether or not suicidal behaviors are related to self-derogating feelings in the more remote past can be seen as a function of a sex-social-class-mode of suicidal response interaction. PMID:1265814

  5. Understanding Associations Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Negative Consequences of Drinking: a Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Liu, HuiGuo; Kaplan, Lauren M

    2016-05-01

    We explored how neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) is related to negative consequences of drinking to explain why racial/ethnic minority group members are more at risk than Whites for adverse alcohol outcomes. We tested direct and indirect effects of neighborhood SES on alcohol problems and examined differences by gender and race. We used data from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys (N = 7912 drinkers aged 18 and older; 49 % female) linked with data from the 2000 Decennial Census in multivariate path models adjusting for individual demographics. In the full sample, neighborhood disadvantage had a significant direct path to increased negative consequences, with no indirect paths through depression, positive affect or pro-drinking attitudes. Neighborhood affluence had significant indirect paths to increased negative consequences through greater pro-drinking attitudes and increased heavy drinking. Subgroup analyses showed the indirect path from affluence to consequences held for White men, with no effects of neighborhood disadvantage. For racial/ethnic minority men, significant indirect paths emerged from both neighborhood disadvantage and affluence to increased consequences through greater pro-drinking attitudes and more heavy drinking. For minority women, there was an indirect effect of neighborhood affluence through reduced depression to fewer drinking consequences. There were limited neighborhood effects on alcohol outcomes for White women. Interventions targeting pro-drinking attitudes in both affluent and disadvantaged areas may help reduce alcohol-related problems among men. Initiatives to improve neighborhood conditions could enhance mental health of minority women and reduce alcohol-related health disparities. PMID:26898509

  6. Examination of a multi-factorial model of body-related experiences during pregnancy: the relationships among physical symptoms, sleep quality, depression, self-esteem, and negative body attitudes.

    PubMed

    Kamysheva, Ekaterina; Skouteris, Helen; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate relationships among women's body attitudes, physical symptoms, self-esteem, depression, and sleep quality during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N=215) at 15-25 weeks gestation completed a questionnaire including four body image subscales assessing self-reported feeling fat, attractiveness, strength/fitness, and salience of weight and shape. Women reported on 29 pregnancy-related physical complaints, and completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. In regressions, controlling for retrospective reports of body image, more frequent and intense physical symptoms were related to viewing the self as less strong/fit, and to poorer sleep quality and more depressive symptoms. In a multi-factorial model extending previous research, paths were found from sleep quality to depressive symptoms to self-esteem; self-esteem was found to be a mediator associated with lower scores on feeling fat and salience of weight and shape, and on higher perceived attractiveness. PMID:18463009

  7. Exploring the Impact of Toxic Attitudes and a Toxic Environment on the Veterinary Healthcare Team

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Irene C.; Coe, Jason B.; Adams, Cindy L.; Conlon, Peter D.; Sargeant, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to compare veterinarians’ and Registered Veterinary Technicians’ (RVT’s) perceptions of the veterinary healthcare team with respect to the impact of toxic attitudes and a toxic environment. Focus group interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and follow up probes were held with four veterinarian groups (23 companion animal veterinarians) and four Registered Veterinary Technician groups (26 RVTs). Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated both veterinarian and RVT participants felt team members with manifestations of toxic attitudes negatively impacted veterinary team function. These manifestations included people being disrespectful, being resistant to change, always wanting to be the “go to person,” avoiding conflict, and lacking motivation. When conflict was ignored, or when people with toxic attitudes were not addressed, a toxic environment often resulted. A toxic environment sometimes manifested when “broken communication and tension between staff members” occurred as a result of employees lacking confidence, skills, or knowledge not being managed properly. It also occurred when employees did not feel appreciated, when there was difficulty coping with turnover, and when there were conflicting demands. The presence of people manifesting a toxic attitude was a source of frustration for both veterinarian and RVT participants. Prompt and consistent attention to negative behaviors is recommended to reduce the development of a toxic environment. PMID:26779492

  8. Exploring the Impact of Toxic Attitudes and a Toxic Environment on the Veterinary Healthcare Team.

    PubMed

    Moore, Irene C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Sargeant, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to compare veterinarians' and Registered Veterinary Technicians' (RVT's) perceptions of the veterinary healthcare team with respect to the impact of toxic attitudes and a toxic environment. Focus group interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and follow up probes were held with four veterinarian groups (23 companion animal veterinarians) and four Registered Veterinary Technician groups (26 RVTs). Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated both veterinarian and RVT participants felt team members with manifestations of toxic attitudes negatively impacted veterinary team function. These manifestations included people being disrespectful, being resistant to change, always wanting to be the "go to person," avoiding conflict, and lacking motivation. When conflict was ignored, or when people with toxic attitudes were not addressed, a toxic environment often resulted. A toxic environment sometimes manifested when "broken communication and tension between staff members" occurred as a result of employees lacking confidence, skills, or knowledge not being managed properly. It also occurred when employees did not feel appreciated, when there was difficulty coping with turnover, and when there were conflicting demands. The presence of people manifesting a toxic attitude was a source of frustration for both veterinarian and RVT participants. Prompt and consistent attention to negative behaviors is recommended to reduce the development of a toxic environment. PMID:26779492

  9. Framing (implicitly) matters: the role of religion in attitudes toward immigrants and Muslims in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka

    2014-12-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception. PMID:25231272

  10. How Do Attitudes toward Mental Health Treatment Vary by Age, Gender, and Ethnicity/Race in Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jodi M.; Alegria, Margarita; Prihoda, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment in a national epidemiological sample. Young adults reported the most negative attitudes, as compared to older adults. Males reported more negative attitudes, as compared to females, a consistent finding in young adults. The gender difference was not consistent in Latinos…

  11. Test Candidates' Attitudes and Their Relationship to Demographic and Experiential Variables: The Case of Overseas Trained Teachers in NSW, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Jill C.; Riazi, A. Mehdi; Cross, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    One measure of the impact of a high-stakes test is the attitudes that test takers hold towards it. It has been suggested that positive attitudes produce beneficial effects while real or anticipated negative experiences can result in the development of attitudes that erode confidence and potentially impact negatively on performance. This study

  12. Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

    2014-06-01

    The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

  13. Leptin Reduces the Expression and Increases the Phosphorylation of the Negative Regulators of GLUT4 Traffic TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in Muscle of ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sáinz, Neira; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Lancha, Andoni; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-01-01

    Leptin improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Our goal was to determine whether proteins controlling GLUT4 traffic are altered by leptin deficiency and in vivo leptin administration in skeletal muscle of wild type and ob/ob mice. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were divided in three groups: control, leptin-treated (1 mg/kg/d) and leptin pair-fed ob/ob mice. Microarray analysis revealed that 1,546 and 1,127 genes were regulated by leptin deficiency and leptin treatment, respectively. Among these, we identified 24 genes involved in intracellular vesicle-mediated transport in ob/ob mice. TBC1 domain family, member 1 (Tbc1d1), a negative regulator of GLUT4 translocation, was up-regulated (P = 0.001) in ob/ob mice as compared to wild types. Importantly, leptin treatment reduced the transcript levels of Tbc1d1 (P<0.001) and Tbc1d4 (P = 0.004) in the leptin-treated ob/ob as compared to pair-fed ob/ob animals. In addition, phosphorylation levels of TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 were enhanced in leptin-treated ob/ob as compared to control ob/ob (P = 0.015 and P = 0.023, respectively) and pair-fed ob/ob (P = 0.036 and P = 0.034, respectively) mice. Despite similar GLUT4 protein expression in wild type and ob/ob groups a different immunolocalization of this protein was evidenced in muscle sections. Leptin treatment increased GLUT4 immunoreactivity in gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus sections of leptin-treated ob/ob mice. Moreover, GLUT4 protein detected in immunoprecipitates from TBC1D4 was reduced by leptin replacement compared to control ob/ob (P = 0.013) and pair-fed ob/ob (P = 0.037) mice. Our findings suggest that leptin enhances the intracellular GLUT4 transport in skeletal muscle of ob/ob animals by reducing the expression and activity of the negative regulators of GLUT4 traffic TBC1D1 and TBC1D4. PMID:22253718

  14. The Effects of Priming on Children's Attitudes toward Older Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoe, Sony; Davidson, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine younger (7-years-old) and older (10-years-old) children's attitudes toward older individuals following one type of five primes: positive prime, negative prime, elderly prime, grandparent prime, or neutral prime. Overall, children's attitudes on three tests--Apperception, Semantic Differential, and…

  15. Examining Teachers' Attitudes toward a Required Environmental Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Requiring teachers to partake in environmental education (EE) may generate negative reactions since elementary teachers can be overloaded with meeting standards and student performance goals. This study explores teachers' attitudes toward a required EE program, Lagoon Quest. We compare attitudes among teachers with and without prior Lagoon Quest,…

  16. Teenagers' Attitudes about Seeking Help from Telephone Crisis Services (Hotlines)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Greenberg, Ted; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lubell, Keri

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward the use of telephone crisis services (hotlines) among 519 adolescents in 9th through 12th grade mandatory health courses in six high schools in New York State. Few adolescents (2.1%) used hotlines and negative attitudes were stronger toward hotlines than they were toward other formal…

  17. Conditioning Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol, Smoking and Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Laura P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Classical conditioning procedures were used to change the attitudes and choice of social behavior of elementary and secondary students associated with drinking, smoking, and the use of drugs. The experimental group expressed more negative attitudes toward smoking and drinking and chose the use of drugs less frequently. (Author/BW)

  18. Attitudes of Visually Impaired Persons toward Cane Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainapel, S. F.

    1989-01-01

    Semistructured telephone interviews with 10 visually impaired adult cane users found that early negative attitudes of stigma were usually replaced by more positive attitudes and that there was a mean of 1 3/4 years between the onset of severe visual impairment and commencement of orientation and mobility training. (Author/DB)

  19. Differential Attitudes toward an Adult Education Program for Pharmacists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzan, Jeffrey A.; Jowdy, Albert W.

    1970-01-01

    The study measured post exposure attitude differences toward a series of continuing education programs for registered pharmacists. Analysis of variance revealed that hospital pharmacists held more negative general attitudes toward the series than community pharmacists. Graduation date (year since pharmacy school) showed no relationship to…

  20. Teenagers' Attitudes about Seeking Help from Telephone Crisis Services (Hotlines)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Greenberg, Ted; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lubell, Keri

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward the use of telephone crisis services (hotlines) among 519 adolescents in 9th through 12th grade mandatory health courses in six high schools in New York State. Few adolescents (2.1%) used hotlines and negative attitudes were stronger toward hotlines than they were toward other formal

  1. Intergenerational Contact, Attitudes, and Stereotypes of Adolescents and Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshel, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Contradictory findings characterize the literature on the efficacy of intergenerational programs that bring children and older persons together for joint activities to promote more positive attitudes and stereotypes. Nor is it clear whether cross-generational attitudes are negative to begin with. The research reported in this paper operationalized…

  2. Influence of Item Direction on Student Responses in Attitude Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Noma Jo; Grissom, Stephen

    To investigate the effects of wording in attitude test items, a five-point Likert-type rating scale was administered to 173 undergraduate education majors. The test measured attitudes toward college and self, and contained 38 positively-worded items. Thirty-eight negatively-worded items were also written to parallel the positive statements.…

  3. The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedkin, Noah E.

    2010-01-01

    The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude

  4. White Racial Identity and Attitudes toward People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciarra, Daniel; Chang, Tai; McLean, Ron; Wong, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This empirical study investigated the relationship between racial identity and attitudes toward people with disabilities. Results indicate that higher statuses of racial identity correlate positively while lower and more racist-oriented statuses correlate negatively with attitudes toward people with disabilities. The study supports the notion that…

  5. Visual attitude propagation for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawashdeh, Samir A.

    As electronics become smaller and more capable, it has become possible to conduct meaningful and sophisticated satellite missions in a small form factor. However, the capability of small satellites and the range of possible applications are limited by the capabilities of several technologies, including attitude determination and control systems. This dissertation evaluates the use of image-based visual attitude propagation as a compliment or alternative to other attitude determination technologies that are suitable for miniature satellites. The concept lies in using miniature cameras to track image features across frames and extracting the underlying rotation. The problem of visual attitude propagation as a small satellite attitude determination system is addressed from several aspects: related work, algorithm design, hardware and performance evaluation, possible applications, and on-orbit experimentation. These areas of consideration reflect the organization of this dissertation. A "stellar gyroscope" is developed, which is a visual star-based attitude propagator that uses relative motion of stars in an imager's field of view to infer the attitude changes. The device generates spacecraft relative attitude estimates in three degrees of freedom. Algorithms to perform the star detection, correspondence, and attitude propagation are presented. The Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) approach is applied to the correspondence problem to successfully pair stars across frames while mitigating falsepositive and false-negative star detections. This approach provides tolerance to the noise levels expected in using miniature optics and no baffling, and the noise caused by radiation dose on orbit. The hardware design and algorithms are validated using test images of the night sky. The application of the stellar gyroscope as part of a CubeSat attitude determination and control system is described. The stellar gyroscope is used to augment a MEMS gyroscope attitude propagation algorithm to minimize drift in the absence of an absolute attitude sensor. The stellar gyroscope is a technology demonstration experiment on KySat-2, a 1-Unit CubeSat being developed in Kentucky that is in line to launch with the NASA ELaNa CubeSat Launch Initiative. It has also been adopted by industry as a sensor for CubeSat Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS). KEYWORDS: Small Satellites, Attitude Determination, Egomotion Estimation, RANSAC, Image Processing.

  6. Medical students’ attitudes toward gay men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches. PMID:22873668

  7. Attitudes of Dental Faculty toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Leonard A.; Grace, Edward G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of one dental school's faculty concerning attitudes toward homosexual or heterosexual patients with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia found significant negative biases both toward individuals with AIDS and toward homosexuals. (MSE)

  8. Faculty Attitudes toward Male Revenue and Nonrevenue Student-Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Cathy McHugh; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study of attitudes of a random sample of faculty at a major, public, research university in the East indicated that faculty perceived male revenue and nonrevenue athletes negatively in situations dealing with athletic competence, special services, and recognition. (JPS)

  9. Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales

    PubMed Central

    Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term “euthanasia” influences people’s support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman’s Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term “euthanasia”, the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it. PMID:23908751

  10. Pull Out Negativity by Its Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFour, Rick; Burnette, Becky

    2002-01-01

    Principals are well-positioned to cultivate their schools' cultures. They must remain vigilant in rooting out the beginnings of negative culture, including such teacher attitudes and behaviors as not feeling responsible for student learning, preferring to work alone, wanting to protect their territory, and focusing on activity rather than results.…

  11. Negative Bodily Self in Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbach, Israel; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Sheffer, Amir; Meged, Sorin; Har-Even, Dov; Stein, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the relationship between suicidal behavior and aspects of bodily perception and parental care. Measures of bodily perception included measures of tactile sensitivity, body attitudes, and body experiences. Measures of parental care included parental bonding, negative and positive touch, and early maltreatment.…

  12. Negative Bodily Self in Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbach, Israel; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Sheffer, Amir; Meged, Sorin; Har-Even, Dov; Stein, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the relationship between suicidal behavior and aspects of bodily perception and parental care. Measures of bodily perception included measures of tactile sensitivity, body attitudes, and body experiences. Measures of parental care included parental bonding, negative and positive touch, and early maltreatment.

  13. Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwitt, Linda F.

    Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

  14. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own

  15. "Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward

  16. Evangelical Christian College Students and Attitudes toward Gay Rights: A California University Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Joshua R.; Himes, Heather L.; Kwon, Ellen Miller; Bollinger, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Research demonstrates that Evangelical Christians generally hold more negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and are less supportive of gay rights than the general U.S. population. To assess these attitudes, undergraduate students at an Evangelical Christian university in California (N = 319) completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay…

  17. "Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

  18. Evangelical Christian College Students and Attitudes toward Gay Rights: A California University Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Joshua R.; Himes, Heather L.; Kwon, Ellen Miller; Bollinger, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Research demonstrates that Evangelical Christians generally hold more negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and are less supportive of gay rights than the general U.S. population. To assess these attitudes, undergraduate students at an Evangelical Christian university in California (N = 319) completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay

  19. Euthanasia: A National Survey of Attitudes toward Voluntary Termination of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, David E.; Neubecker, Ron C.

    1980-01-01

    A study on the attitudes of adults related to the voluntary termination of life showed that those persons with favorable attitudes toward suicide were also favorable toward euthanasia. Religiosity was negatively associated with pro-euthanasia attitudes. Whites and males were more favorable toward euthanasia than Blacks and females. (Author)

  20. Predicting Educational Outcomes and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents Using Time Attitude Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

    2014-01-01

    Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…

  1. Regular and Special Educators: Handicap Integration Attitudes and Implications for Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Karen D.

    1985-01-01

    One-hundred twenty-eight regular and 133 special educators responded to a questionnaire on mainstreaming. The two groups were similiar in their attitudes. Regular educators displayed more negative attitudes, but the differences rarely reached significance. Group differences became more apparent when attitudes concerning specific handicapping…

  2. Perceptions, Attitudes, and Choosing to Study Foreign Languages in England: An Experimental Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Florentina; Marsden, Emma J.

    2014-01-01

    The declining interest in foreign languages in English-speaking countries has been attributed to negative societal attitudes and specific pupil attitudes and perceptions. While various initiatives have aimed to encourage language study, little research has systematically documented the relationship among perceptions, attitudes, and actually opting…

  3. Is Contact with People with Disabilities a Guarantee for Positive Implicit and Explicit Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Sascha; Grumm, Mandy; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the past 50 years research on attitudes toward people with disabilities has repeatedly revealed negative attitudes by predominantly using self-report measures. The main aim of the present contribution was to develop an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess implicit attitudes toward people with disabilities. For this purpose 47 university

  4. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own…

  5. Effect of the Challenger Experience on Elementary Children's Attitudes to Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Explores how the Challenger experience influenced over 655 elementary boys' and girls' general attitudes toward science and space during the five months after their visit by examining their responses to four different attitude scales. Discusses positive outcomes and negative effects of the Challenger experience on children's attitude toward…

  6. Socioeconomic inequalities in attitudes towards cancer: an international cancer benchmarking partnership study

    PubMed Central

    Quaife, Samantha L.; Winstanley, Kelly; Robb, Katie A.; Simon, Alice E.; Ramirez, Amanda J.; Forbes, Lindsay J.L.; Brain, Kate E.; Gavin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) differences in attitudes towards cancer have been implicated in the differential screening uptake and the timeliness of symptomatic presentation. However, the predominant emphasis of this work has been on cancer fatalism, and many studies focus on specific community subgroups. This study aimed to assess SES differences in positive and negative attitudes towards cancer in UK adults. A population-based sample of UK adults (n=6965, age≥50 years) completed the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer scale, including six belief items: three positively framed (e.g. ‘Cancer can often be cured’) and three negatively framed (e.g. ‘A cancer diagnosis is a death sentence’). SES was indexed by education. Analyses controlled for sex, ethnicity, marital status, age, self-rated health, and cancer experience. There were few education-level differences for the positive statements, and overall agreement was high (all>90%). In contrast, there were strong differences for negative statements (all Ps<0.001). Among respondents with lower education levels, 57% agreed that ‘treatment is worse than cancer’, 27% that cancer is ‘a death sentence’ and 16% ‘would not want to know if I have cancer’. Among those with university education, the respective proportions were 34, 17 and 6%. Differences were not explained by cancer experience or health status. In conclusion, positive statements about cancer outcomes attract near-universal agreement. However, this optimistic perspective coexists alongside widespread fears about survival and treatment, especially among less-educated groups. Health education campaigns targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged groups might benefit from a focus on reducing negative attitudes, which is not necessarily achieved by promoting positive attitudes. PMID:25734238

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in attitudes towards cancer: an international cancer benchmarking partnership study.

    PubMed

    Quaife, Samantha L; Winstanley, Kelly; Robb, Katie A; Simon, Alice E; Ramirez, Amanda J; Forbes, Lindsay J L; Brain, Kate E; Gavin, Anna; Wardle, Jane

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) differences in attitudes towards cancer have been implicated in the differential screening uptake and the timeliness of symptomatic presentation. However, the predominant emphasis of this work has been on cancer fatalism, and many studies focus on specific community subgroups. This study aimed to assess SES differences in positive and negative attitudes towards cancer in UK adults. A population-based sample of UK adults (n=6965, age≥50 years) completed the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer scale, including six belief items: three positively framed (e.g. 'Cancer can often be cured') and three negatively framed (e.g. 'A cancer diagnosis is a death sentence'). SES was indexed by education. Analyses controlled for sex, ethnicity, marital status, age, self-rated health, and cancer experience. There were few education-level differences for the positive statements, and overall agreement was high (all>90%). In contrast, there were strong differences for negative statements (all Ps<0.001). Among respondents with lower education levels, 57% agreed that 'treatment is worse than cancer', 27% that cancer is 'a death sentence' and 16% 'would not want to know if I have cancer'. Among those with university education, the respective proportions were 34, 17 and 6%. Differences were not explained by cancer experience or health status. In conclusion, positive statements about cancer outcomes attract near-universal agreement. However, this optimistic perspective coexists alongside widespread fears about survival and treatment, especially among less-educated groups. Health education campaigns targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged groups might benefit from a focus on reducing negative attitudes, which is not necessarily achieved by promoting positive attitudes. PMID:25734238

  8. The accuracy of dynamic attitude propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvie, E.; Chu, D.; Woodard, M.

    1990-01-01

    Propagating attitude by integrating Euler's equation for rigid body motion has long been suggested for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) but until now has not been implemented. Because of limited Sun visibility, propagation is necessary for yaw determination. With the deterioration of the gyros, dynamic propagation has become more attractive. Angular rates are derived from integrating Euler's equation with a stepsize of 1 second, using torques computed from telemetered control system data. The environmental torque model was quite basic. It included gravity gradient and unshadowed aerodynamic torques. Knowledge of control torques is critical to the accuracy of dynamic modeling. Due to their coarseness and sparsity, control actuator telemetry were smoothed before integration. The dynamic model was incorporated into existing ERBS attitude determination software. Modeled rates were then used for attitude propagation in the standard ERBS fine-attitude algorithm. In spite of the simplicity of the approach, the dynamically propagated attitude matched the attitude propagated with good gyros well for roll and yaw but diverged up to 3 degrees for pitch because of the very low resolution in pitch momentum wheel telemetry. When control anomalies significantly perturb the nominal attitude, the effect of telemetry granularity is reduced and the dynamically propagated attitudes are accurate on all three axes.

  9. NUSAT 1 attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talaga, Paul

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the methods for attitude determination using the static wide angle field of view sensors of NUSAT 1. Some supporting analysis and operational results are given. The system gives at best a crude attitude determination.

  10. Attitudes of case managers toward people with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Murray, M G; Steffen, J J

    1999-12-01

    Negative attitudes toward people who have serious mental illnesses held by mental health professionals threaten the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. In this study, attitudes held by case managers working within the public sector were investigated. Differences between supportive and intensive case managers were compared with community controls using the Opinions about Mental Illness Scale. The results showed a complex interplay among client level of functioning, type of case management approach, case management philosophy, and attitudes. Among other findings, intensive case managers held more authoritarian attitudes than did their supportive case manager counterparts. PMID:10863987

  11. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

  12. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przepiorka, Aneta M.; Blachnio, Agata; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Wozniak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes

  13. Gifted Adolescents' Attitudes toward Their Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Barbara; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Gifted adolescents (N=184) completed the Attitude Toward Giftedness Questionnaire. Results indicated they were positive about their giftedness but did not believe that others were positive, and that they viewed giftedness as positive for their personal growth and academic performance but negative for their social relations. (Author/DB)

  14. Thawing Staff Attitudes about a Frozen Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    1981-01-01

    Describes the strategies used by the Catalog Instruction Group at the university library which, in less than two months, managed to reverse negative staff attitudes and reach large numbers of library users with information about the combined card and microfiche catalog system. (RAA)

  15. Self-Attitudes and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Howard B.; Pokorny, Alex D.

    1976-01-01

    Findings are reported concerning the relationship between adoption of suicidal responses and antecedent negative self-attitudes. Junior high school student (N=3,148) responses to questionnaires administered three times at annual intervals. Indicated suicidal behaviors are responses (whether or not subsequently continued) to experiences of negative…

  16. Synthesis of 2D/2D Structured Mesoporous Co3O4 Nanosheet/N-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites as a Highly Stable Negative Electrode for Lithium Battery Applications.

    PubMed

    Sennu, Palanichamy; Kim, Hyo Sang; An, Jae Youn; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2015-08-01

    Mesoporous Co3O4 nanosheets (Co3 O4 -NS) and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach, and the N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composite is formulated through an infiltration procedure. Eventually, the obtained composites are subjected to various characterization techniques, such as XRD, Raman spectroscopy, surface area analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and TEM. The lithium-storage properties of N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composites are evaluated in a half-cell assembly to ascertain their suitability as a negative electrode for lithium-ion battery applications. The 2D/2D nanostructured mesoporous N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composite delivered a reversible capacity of about 1305 and 1501 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 80 mA g(-1) for the 1st and 50th cycles, respectively. Furthermore, excellent cyclability, rate capability, and capacity retention characteristics are noted for the N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composite. This improved performance is mainly related to the existence of mesoporosity and a sheet-like 2D hierarchical morphology, which translates into extra space for lithium storage and a reduced electron pathway. Also, the presence of N-rGO and carbon shells in Co3O4 -NS should not be excluded from such exceptional performance, which serves as a reliable conductive channel for electrons and act as synergistically to accommodate volume expansion upon redox reactions. Ex-situ TEM, impedance spectroscopy, and XPS, are also conducted to corroborate the significance of the 2D morphology towards sustained lithium storage. PMID:26033848

  17. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  18. The outcome of full-intensity and reduced-intensity conditioning matched sibling or unrelated donor transplantation in adults with Philadelphia chromosomenegative acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first and second complete remission

    PubMed Central

    Marks, David I.; Wang, Tao; Prez, Waleska S.; Antin, Joseph H.; Copelan, Edward; Gale, Robert Peter; George, Biju; Gupta, Vikas; Halter, Joerg; Khoury, H. Jean; Klumpp, Thomas R.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Lewis, Victor A.; McCarthy, Philip; Rizzieri, David A.; Sabloff, Mitchell; Szer, Jeff; Tallman, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and compared outcomes of 93 patients older than 16 years after RIC with 1428 patients receiving full-intensity conditioning for allografts using sibling and unrelated donors for Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first or second complete remission. RIC conditioning included busulfan 9 mg/kg or less (27), melphalan 150 mg/m2 or less (23), low-dose total body irradiation (TBI; 36), and others (7). The RIC group was older (median 45 vs 28 years, P < .001) and more received peripheral blood grafts (73% vs 43%, P < .001) but had similar other prognostic factors. The RIC versus full-intensity conditioning groups had slightly, but not significantly, less acute grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease (39% vs 46%) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (34% vs 42%), yet similar transplantation-related mortality. RIC led to slightly more relapse (35% vs 26%, P = .08) yet similar age-adjusted survival (38% vs 43%, P = .39). Multivariate analysis showed that conditioning intensity did not affect transplantation-related mortality (P = .92) or relapse risk (P = .14). Multivariate analysis demonstrated significantly improved overall survival with: Karnofsky performance status more than 80, first complete remission, lower white blood count, well-matched unrelated or sibling donors, transplantation since 2001, age younger than 30 years, and conditioning with TBI, but no independent impact of conditioning intensity. RIC merits further investigation in prospective trials of adult ALL. PMID:20404137

  19. Personality, organizational stress, and attitudes toward work as prospective predictors of professional burnout in hospital nurses

    PubMed Central

    Hudek-Knežević, Jasna; Kalebić Maglica, Barbara; Krapić, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Aim To examine to what extent personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), organizational stress, and attitudes toward work and interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work prospectively predict 3 components of burnout. Methods The study was carried out on 118 hospital nurses. Data were analyzed by a set of hierarchical regression analyses, in which personality traits, measures of organizational stress, and attitudes toward work, as well as interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work were included as predictors, while 3 indices of burnout were measured 4 years later as criteria variables. Results Personality traits proved to be significant but weak prospective predictors of burnout and as a group predicted only reduced professional efficacy (R2 = 0.10), with agreeableness being a single negative predictor. Organizational stress was positive, affective-normative commitment negative predictor, while continuance commitment was not related to any dimension of burnout. We found interactions between neuroticism as well as conscientiousness and organizational stress, measured as role conflict and work overload, on reduced professional efficacy (βNRCWO = -0.30; ßcRCWO = -0.26). We also found interactions between neuroticism and affective normative commitment (β = 0.24) and between openness and continuance commitment on reduced professional efficacy (β = -0.23), as well as interactions between conscientiousness and continuance commitment on exhaustion. Conclusion Although contextual variables were strong prospective predictors and personality traits weak predictors of burnout, the results suggested the importance of the interaction between personality and contextual variables in predicting burnout. PMID:21853549

  20. Attitude Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to ITHACO, Inc. satisfied a Goddard Space Flight Center demand for a low cost altitude control system for small spacecraft. The SBIR-sponsored work resulted in the T-Wheel, built specifically for altitude control of small and medium-sized spacecraft. Another product, the T-SCANWHEEL, reduces overall system cost, minimizes mass and power and enhances reliability with a mixture of altitude control and control capacity. Additionally, the Type E Wheel is built for use on medium to large spacecraft. Through July 1996, ITHACO had delivered or was under contract for 95 T-Wheel, T-SCANWHEEL, and Type E Wheel units.

  1. Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.

  2. Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training for Schizophrenia: Improvement in Functioning and Experiential Negative Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C.; McQuaid, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identifying treatments to improve functioning and reduce negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia is of high public health significance. Method In this randomized clinical trial, participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=149) were randomly assigned to cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) or an active goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC) control condition. CBSST combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem solving training to improve functioning and negative symptoms. GFSC was weekly supportive group therapy focused on setting and achieving functioning goals. Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS)), CBSST skill knowledge, positive and negative symptoms, depression, and defeatist performance attitudes. Results In mixed-effects regression models in intent-to-treat analyses, CBSST skill knowledge, functioning, amotivation/asociality negative symptoms and defeatist performance attitudes improved significantly more in CBSST relative to GFSC. In both treatment groups, comparable improvements were also found for positive symptoms and a performance-based measure of social competence. Conclusions The results suggest CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning and experiential negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and supportive group therapy that is actively focused on setting and achieving functioning goals can improve social competence and reduce positive symptoms. PMID:24911420

  3. Best Practices for Measuring Students’ Attitudes toward Learning Science

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students’ learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students’ attitudes influence their learning. Students’ science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students’ attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students’ attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data. PMID:24297288

  4. Awareness of Implicit Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

  5. Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

    2013-08-01

    Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. PMID:23866038

  6. Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Sebastian; Wolff, Wanja; Kissler, Johanna M.; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Direct assessment of attitudes toward socially sensitive topics can be affected by deception attempts. Reaction-time based indirect measures, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), are less susceptible to such biases. Neuroscientific evidence shows that deception can evoke characteristic ERP differences. However, the cerebral processes involved in faking an IAT are still unknown. We randomly assigned 20 university students (15 females, 24.65 ± 3.50 years of age) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design, requesting them to complete a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping without deception instruction, and with the instruction to fake positive and negative doping attitudes. Cerebral activity during BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Event-related potentials during faking revealed enhanced frontal and reduced occipital negativity, starting around 150 ms after stimulus presentation. Further, a decrease in the P300 and LPP components was observed. Source analyses showed enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus between 150 and 200 ms during faking, thought to reflect the suppression of automatic responses. Further, more activity was found for faking in the bilateral middle occipital gyri and the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Results indicate that faking reaction-time based tests alter brain processes from early stages of processing and reveal the cortical sources of the effects. Analyzing the EEG helps to uncover response patterns in indirect attitude tests and broadens our understanding of the neural processes involved in such faking. This knowledge might be useful for uncovering faking in socially sensitive contexts, where attitudes are likely to be concealed. PMID:26074798

  7. Comparing project-based learning to direct instruction on students' attitude to learn science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, Marlen Ingvard

    Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.

  8. Female Role Perception and Attitudes Toward Competence as Related to Activism in Housewives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Rhoda K.; Krooth, Diane M.

    This study explored the extent of negative attitudes toward success among housewives by means of objective and projective tests. Since married women with families constitute the majority of women over 25, the authors found it important to determine how prevalent negative attitudes toward personal achievement in women were among them. Fifty-three…

  9. Evidence-informed recommendations to reduce dissemination bias in clinical research: conclusions from the OPEN (Overcome failure to Publish nEgative fiNdings) project based on an international consensus meeting

    PubMed Central

    Meerpohl, Joerg J; Schell, Lisa K; Bassler, Dirk; Gallus, Silvano; Kleijnen, Jos; Kulig, Michael; La Vecchia, Carlo; Marušić, Ana; Ravaud, Philippe; Reis, Andreas; Schmucker, Christine; Strech, Daniel; Urrútia, Gerard; Antes, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Dissemination bias in clinical research severely impedes informed decision-making not only for healthcare professionals and patients, but also for funders, research ethics committees, regulatory bodies and other stakeholder groups that make health-related decisions. Decisions based on incomplete and biased evidence cannot only harm people, but may also have huge financial implications by wasting resources on ineffective or harmful diagnostic and therapeutic measures, and unnecessary research. Owing to involvement of multiple stakeholders, it remains easy for any single group to assign responsibility for resolving the problem to others. Objective To develop evidence-informed general and targeted recommendations addressing the various stakeholders involved in knowledge generation and dissemination to help overcome the problem of dissemination bias on the basis of previously collated evidence. Methods Based on findings from systematic reviews, document analyses and surveys, we developed general and targeted draft recommendations. During a 2-day workshop in summer 2013, these draft recommendations were discussed with external experts and key stakeholders, and refined following a rigorous and transparent methodological approach. Results Four general, overarching recommendations applicable to all or most stakeholder groups were formulated, addressing (1) awareness raising, (2) implementation of targeted recommendations, (3) trial registration and results posting, and (4) systematic approaches to evidence synthesis. These general recommendations are complemented and specified by 47 targeted recommendations tailored towards funding agencies, pharmaceutical and device companies, research institutions, researchers (systematic reviewers and trialists), research ethics committees, trial registries, journal editors and publishers, regulatory agencies, benefit (health technology) assessment institutions and legislators. Conclusions Despite various recent examples of dissemination bias and several initiatives to reduce it, the problem of dissemination bias has not been resolved. Tailored recommendations based on a comprehensive approach will hopefully help increase transparency in biomedical research by overcoming the failure to disseminate negative findings. PMID:25943371

  10. A dominant-negative F-box deleted mutant of E3 ubiquitin ligase, β-TrCP1/FWD1, markedly reduces myeloma cell growth and survival in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anjana; McCluskey, Brandon; Bhaskaran, Shylesh; Muñoz, Steve; Oyajobi, Babatunde O.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of multiple myeloma with bortezomib can result in severe adverse effects, necessitating the development of targeted inhibitors of the proteasome. We show that stable expression of a dominant-negative F-box deleted (ΔF) mutant of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, SCFβ-TrCP/FWD1, in murine 5TGM1 myeloma cells dramatically attenuated their skeletal engraftment and survival when inoculated into immunocompetent C57BL/KaLwRij mice. Similar results were obtained in immunodeficient bg-nu-xid mice, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of host recipient immune status. Bone marrow stroma offered no protection for 5TGM1-ΔF cells in cocultures treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF), indicating a cell-autonomous anti-myeloma effect. Levels of p100, IκBα, Mcl-1, ATF4, total and cleaved caspase-3, and phospho-β-catenin were elevated in 5TGM1-ΔF cells whereas cIAP was down-regulated. TNF also activated caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl-2, correlating with the enhanced susceptibility of 5TGM1-ΔF cells to apoptosis. Treatment of 5TGM1 tumor-bearing mice with a β-TrCP1/FWD1 inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), significantly reduced tumor burden in bone. PDTC also increased levels of cleaved Mcl-1 and caspase-3 in U266 human myeloma cells, correlating with our murine data and validating the development of specific β-TrCP inhibitors as an alternative therapy to nonspecific proteasome inhibitors for myeloma patients. PMID:26009993

  11. Effect of Attitude of Partner on Sex Role Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Sara E.; Muneses, Tricia

    This study examined whether the expressed attitudes of a male or female companion might influence a woman to report sex-role attitudes more conforming to her companion's attitudes. Forty female college students were paired with a male or female confederate who expressed either sexist attitudes or feminist attitudes. The pairs read and discussed a…

  12. Gender-based attitudes, HIV misconceptions and feelings towards marginalized groups are associated with stigmatization in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Shalini; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Heylen, Elsa; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2014-11-01

    Summary This study examined the association of gender-based attitudes, HIV misconceptions and community feelings for marginalized groups with stigmatizing responses towards people with HIV/AIDS in Mumbai, India. Participants included 546 men and women sampled in hospital settings during 2007-2008. Structured measures were used to assess avoidance intentions and denial of rights of people with HIV/AIDS. Mean age of participants was 32 years; 42% had less than 10 years of education. Higher HIV transmission misconceptions (β=0.47; p<0.001), more traditional gender attitudes (β=0.11; p<0.01) and more negative feelings towards HIV-positive people (β=0.23; p<0.001) were related to higher avoidance intentions. Endorsement of denial of rights was also significantly associated with higher transmission misconceptions (β=0.20; p<0.001), more traditional gender attitudes (β=0.33; p<0.001) and greater negative feelings towards HIV-positive people (β=0.12; p<0.05), as well as with a lower education level (β=-0.10; p<0.05). The feelings respondents had towards people with HIV/AIDS were more strongly correlated with their feelings towards those with other diseases (tuberculosis, leprosy) than with feelings they had towards those associated with 'immoral' behaviour (e.g. sex workers). Eliminating HIV transmission misconceptions and addressing traditional gender attitudes are critical for reducing HIV stigma in Indian society. PMID:24524379

  13. Patients’ and clinicians’ attitude towards long-acting depot antipsychotics in subjects with a first episode of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Theodoridou, Anastasia; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Kaiser, Stefan; Jäger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The acceptance and use of long-acting depot antipsychotics has been shown to be influenced by the attitudes of patients and clinicians. Depot treatment rates are low across countries and especially patients with first-episode psychosis are rarely treated with depot medication. The aim of this article was to review the literature on patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards long-acting depot antipsychotics in subjects with first-episode psychosis. Methods: A systematic search of Medline, Embase, PsycINF and Google Scholar was conducted. Studies were included if they reported original data describing patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards long-acting depot antipsychotic in subjects with first-episode psychosis. Results: Six studies out of a total of 503 articles met the inclusion criteria. Four studies conveyed a negative and two a positive opinion of clinicians toward depot medication. No systematic study directly addressed the attitude of patients with first-episode psychosis. Psychiatrists frequently presume that patients with first-episode psychosis would not accept depot medication and that depots are mostly eligible for chronic patients. Conclusions: Full information of all patients especially those with first episode psychosis in a therapeutic relationship that includes shared decision-making processes could reduce the negative image and stigmatization attached to depots. PMID:24167680

  14. Stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimia nervosa: the importance of knowledge and eating disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel Florence; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Massey, Robin; Mond, Jonathan M; Hay, Phillipa J; Rodgers, Bryan

    2015-04-01

    Widely held stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimic eating disorders may lead to self-blame and reduced treatment seeking. Knowledge and familiarity with mental disorders may help decrease associated stigma. However, these relationships are not well understood in bulimia nervosa (BN). A community sample of 1828 adults aged 18 to 70 years completed a survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward BN, knowledge and familiarity with the disorder, as well as levels of eating disorder symptoms. Knowledge of BN was negatively associated with three dimensions of stigmatization, personal responsibility (ρ = -0.28), unreliability (ρ = -0.19), and advantages of BN (ρ = -0.23). Familiarity revealed no association with stigmatization. Both men and women with high levels of eating disorder symptoms perceived BN as less serious than the participants with low levels of symptoms. Increasing community knowledge about bulimia may help mitigate stigmatization and perceived barriers to treatment. PMID:25751709

  15. Attributional Style and Negative Problem Solving in Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between spouses' (N=58) attributional styles for marital problems and their negative social reinforcement in a laboratory interaction procedure. Results indicated wives who attributed other couples' marital problems to undesirable personality traits or negative attitudes were more likely to verbally criticize their…

  16. Attributional Style and Negative Problem Solving in Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between spouses' (N=58) attributional styles for marital problems and their negative social reinforcement in a laboratory interaction procedure. Results indicated wives who attributed other couples' marital problems to undesirable personality traits or negative attitudes were more likely to verbally criticize their

  17. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

  18. Kalman Filter for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.

  19. Attitude Control Subsystem for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.

  20. Negative Emissions Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  1. Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to HIV transmission in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Han, Mei; Holzemer, William L

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe what nurses know about HIV/AIDS in the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Heilongjiang Province, China. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Only 7.9% of the nurse (n = 177) used condoms during their first experience of sexual intercourse. Eight-six percent of the nurses had been stuck by sharps while working, and 76% of them had been splashed by patient fluids. For 12 basic HIV/AIDS questions, the mean score was 6.66. The mean score is 6.28 for 9 HIV/AIDS attitude questions. Knowledge and attitude are negatively related (r = -0.215, p < 0.005). Training in reducing the risk for occupational exposures in this sample is important. Nurses who have a better understanding of HIV/AIDS prevention are more likely to have negative attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. This study suggests the necessity of increasing HIV/AIDS education for nurses, family members, friends, and all health care providers. PMID:15307930

  2. The Attitude of Iranian Nurses About Do Not Resuscitate Orders

    PubMed Central

    Mogadasian, Sima; Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Rahmani, Azad; Ferguson, Caleb; Pakanzad, Fermisk; Pakpour, Vahid; Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Do not resuscitate (DNR) orders are one of many challenging issues in end of life care. Previous research has not investigated Muslim nurses’ attitudes towards DNR orders. Aims: This study aims to investigate the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR orders and determine the role of religious sects in forming attitudes. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, 306 nurses from five hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS) in East Azerbaijan Province and three hospitals in Kurdistan province participated. Data were gathered by a survey design on attitudes on DNR orders. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software examining descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Participants showed their willingness to learn more about DNR orders and highlights the importance of respecting patients and their families in DNR orders. In contrast, in many key items participants reported their negative attitude towards DNR orders. There were statistical differences in two items between the attitude of Shiite and Sunni nurses. Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education. PMID:24600178

  3. Negative Mass Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    Schrödinger's analysis of the Dirac equation gives a hint for the existence of negative masses hidden behind positive masses. But their use for propulsion by reducing the inertia of matter for example, in the limit of macroscopic bodied with zero rest mass, depends on a technical solution to free them from their imprisonment by positive masses. It appears that there are basically two ways this might be achieved: 1. By the application of strong electromagnetic or gravitational fields or by high particle energies. 2. By searching for places in the universe where nature has already done this separation, and from where the negative masses can be mined. The first of these two possibilities is for all practical means excluded, because if possible at all, it would depend on electromagnetic or gravitational fields with strength beyond what is technically attainable, or on extremely large likewise not attainable particle energies. With regard to the 2nd possibility, it has been observed that non-baryonic cold dark matter tends to accumulate near the center of galaxies, or places in the universe which have a large gravitational potential well. Because of the equivalence principle of general relativity, the attraction towards the center of a gravitational potential well, produced by a positive mass, is for negative masses the same as for positive masses, and large amounts of negative masses might have over billions of years been trapped in these gravitational potential wells. Now it just happens that the center of the moon is a potential well, not too deep that it cannot be reached by making a tunnel through the moon, not possible for the deeper potential well of the earth, where the temperature and pressure are too high. Making a tunnel through the moon, provided there is a good supply of negative mass, could revolutionize interstellar space flight. A sequence of thermonuclear shape charges would make such tunnel technically feasible.

  4. Cockpit management attitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

  5. Male and Female College Presidents: Leadership Behaviors and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Karen J.; Tack, Martha W.

    A study on differences between the leadership behaviors and attitudes of male and female college presidents is presented. Women are rarely represented in top academic administrative positions in higher education. Reasons include sex discrimination, negative perceptions of them as administrators, and negative evaluation of their administrative…

  6. Children's Views on Aging: Their Attitudes and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sally; Faux, Robert; Larimer, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Examines childrens' (N=71) perceptions and attitudes about aging and older adults. Results indicate that children do not view aging negatively as adults assume. Children were positively affected by interactions with older adults, described physical signs of aging without judgment, and responded negatively to some of the unpleasant conditions…

  7. The Impact of College Student Money Attitudes on Credit Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Marguerite; Carpenter, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    Growing concern among academics, policymakers and educators to address credit abuse among college students prompts a need for greater understanding of the determinants of these negative behaviors. The present study investigates the impact of individuals' money attitudes on both negative and positive credit behaviors within a single empirical model…

  8. Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Teresita M.; Chan, Shu B.; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. Conclusion EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. PMID:25035760

  9. Sport fans: evaluating the consistency between implicit and explicit attitudes toward favorite and rival teams.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Jay L; Brown, Roderick O

    2014-04-01

    Sport fans often foster very positive attitudes for their favorite teams and less favorable attitudes for opponents. The current research was designed to evaluate the consistency that might exist between implicit and explicit measures of those attitudes. College students (24 women, 16 men) performed a version of the Implicit Association Test related to their favorite and rival teams. Participants also reported their attitudes for these teams explicitly, via self-report instruments. When responding to the IAT, participants' responses were faster when they paired positive words with concepts related to favorite teams and negative words with rival teams, indicating implicit favorability for favorite teams and implicit negativity for rival teams. This pattern of implicit favorability and negativity was consistent with what participants reported explicitly via self-report. The importance of evaluating implicit attitudes and the corresponding consistency with explicit attitudes are discussed. PMID:24897908

  10. Illness Attitudes Associated with Seasonal Depressive Symptoms: An Examination Using a Newly Developed Implicit Measure

    PubMed Central

    Young, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The Dual Vulnerability Model of seasonal depression posits that seasonal vegetative symptoms are due to a physiological vulnerability, but cognitive and mood symptoms are the result of negative appraisal of vegetative changes. In addition, rumination may be associated with stronger negative attitudes toward vegetative symptoms. This is the first study to examine implicit attitudes toward vegetative symptoms. We hypothesized that illness attitudes about fatigue moderate the relationship between the severity of vegetative symptoms and the severity of cognitive symptoms and that the illness attitudes are associated with rumination. This study also developed an implicit method to assess the appraisal of fatigue as indicating illness. Results supported both hypotheses. Illness attitudes toward fatigue moderated the relationship between vegetative symptoms and cognitive symptoms. Ruminative response style was positively associated with implicit illness attitudes towards fatigue. The study provides support for the role of negative appraisals of vegetative symptoms in the development of cognitive and mood seasonal depressive symptoms. PMID:26783456

  11. From Memory to Attitude: The Neurocognitive Process beyond Euthanasia Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta

    2016-01-01

    Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes. PMID:27088244

  12. Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badola, Ruchi; Barthwal, Shivani; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2012-01-01

    The ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems is well established and highlighted by studies establishing a correlation between the protective function of mangroves and the loss of lives and property caused by coastal hazards. Nevertheless, degradation of this ecosystem remains a matter of concern, emphasizing the fact that effective conservation of natural resources is possible only with an understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of local communities. In the present study, we examined the attitudes and perceptions of local communities towards mangrove forests through questionnaire surveys in 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. The sample villages were selected from 336 villages using hierarchical cluster analysis. The study revealed that local communities in the area had positive attitudes towards conservation and that their demographic and socio-economic conditions influenced people's attitudes. Local communities valued those functions of mangrove forests that were directly linked to their wellbeing. Despite human-wildlife conflict, the attitudes of the local communities were not altogether negative, and they were willing to participate in mangrove restoration. People agreed to adopt alternative resources if access to forest resources were curtailed. Respondents living near the forests, who could not afford alternatives, admitted that they would resort to pilfering. Hence, increasing their livelihood options may reduce the pressure on mangrove forests. In contrast with other ecosystems, the linkages of mangrove ecosystem services with local livelihoods and security are direct and tangible. It is therefore possible to develop strong local support for sustainable management of mangrove forests in areas where a positive attitude towards mangrove conservation prevails. The current debates on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and payment for ecosystem services provide ample scope for development of sustainable livelihood options for local communities from the conservation of critical ecosystems such as mangroves.

  13. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:25797499

  14. Teachers of the Deaf as Compared with Other Groups of Teachers: Attitudes toward People with Disabilities and Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampropoulou, Venetta; Padeliadu, Sussana

    1997-01-01

    A study examined and compared the attitudes of three groups of Greek teachers (n=290) working in different placements toward disability and inclusion. Teachers of students with deafness had a more favorable attitude than did other teachers toward people with disabilities, but their attitudes toward integration were the most negative. (Author/CR)

  15. Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Science "and" Religion among Sixth-Form Pupils: Dealing with Scientism and Creationism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth-form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude…

  16. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Children's Attitudes toward Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Catherine S.; Sinicrope, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Prospective elementary teachers hold preconceived ideas about elementary school students' attitudes toward mathematics. We found that there exists a gender bias with prospective teachers expecting girls to have negative attitudes toward mathematics and boys more likely to have positive attitudes toward mathematics. We found that these

  17. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Children's Attitudes toward Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Catherine S.; Sinicrope, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Prospective elementary teachers hold preconceived ideas about elementary school students' attitudes toward mathematics. We found that there exists a gender bias with prospective teachers expecting girls to have negative attitudes toward mathematics and boys more likely to have positive attitudes toward mathematics. We found that these…

  18. Exploring Aging Attitudes through a Puppet Making Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteland, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational programs often reduce ageism and stereotypical thinking. This author uses a mixed methods case study to investigate how attitudes may change when older adults and children participate in an intergenerational art project. The research question, "Is there a positive correlation in children's attitudes toward older adults and…

  19. Management Attitudes toward Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    In an attempt to discover management attitudes toward productivity, including management's views about worker attitudes and their motivation, managerial practices and organization, and possible changes to effect improvements in productivity, the United States Chamber of Commerce surveyed a sample of 1,870 top business executives across the country…

  20. Pornography and Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Douglas H.; Wehmer, Gerald

    1971-01-01

    The results indicate that a voluntary three hour exposure to erotic pictures, some of which have been defined as being legally obscene," does not lead to a change in a person's attitudes toward such materials or in attitudes toward their censorship. (Author)

  1. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  2. Transmission of social attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

    1986-01-01

    Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179

  3. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;

  4. Promoting Positive Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Schools have been preoccupied with pupils' attainment in recent years. Consequently there has been a risk of neglecting other important aspects of learning mathematics. One of these is pupils' attitudes and affective responses. In this article, the author discusses the impact of pupils' attitudes on their attainment in mathematics and the…

  5. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  6. Positive Attitude Toward Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethalto Community Unit District 8, IL.

    Project Positive Attitude Toward Learning (PATL) grew out of an identified need by the Bethalto Community Unit No. 8 schools to improve student self-concept and attitudes toward school. The basic approach used in project PATL is to change teacher behavior which, in turn, causes change to take place in student behavior. The mechanism for affecting…

  7. Assisted suicide: factors affecting public attitudes.

    PubMed

    Worthen, L T; Yeatts, D E

    Public support for assisted suicide has been growing despite the ethical questions raised by members of the medical profession. Previous research suggests that age, gender, experience, and religiosity are factors affecting individuals' attitudes. This study examines the effect of demographic and ideological factors, as well as individuals' caregiving experiences, on attitudes toward assisted suicide. Random-digit-dialing procedures produced a sample of 156 residents of Denton, Texas, in March 1998. T-tests were conducted to measure significance, while gamma values were used to measure level of association and percent reduction in error. The data indicate that age, gender, and caregiving experience were not significant predictors of attitudes. Situational factors, including whether a physician or friend/family member should assist and whether a child or a terminally ill patient experiencing no pain should receive assistance, all were highly significant and positively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. Respondents were most likely to support physician-assisted suicide for individuals experiencing no pain. The data also indicated that the depth of commitment to the beliefs that suffering has meaning, that life belongs to God, and that physician-assisted suicide is murder, were highly significant and negatively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. PMID:12557886

  8. Attitude Determination Using Two Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.

  9. Attitude Determination Using Two Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.

  10. Longitudinal analysis of attitudes toward wolves.

    PubMed

    Treves, Adrian; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Shelley, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Understanding individual attitudes and how these predict overt opposition to predator conservation or direct, covert action against predators will help to recover and maintain them. Studies of attitudes toward wild animals rely primarily on samples of individuals at a single time point. We examined longitudinal change in individuals' attitudes toward gray wolves (Canis lupus). In the contiguous United States, amidst persistent controversy and opposition, abundances of gray wolves are at their highest in 60 years. We used mailed surveys to sample 1892 residents of Wisconsin in 2001 or 2004 and then resampled 656 of these individuals who resided in wolf range in 2009. Our study spanned a period of policy shifts and increasing wolf abundance. Over time, the 656 respondents increased agreement with statements reflecting fear of wolves, the belief that wolves compete with hunters for deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and inclination to poach a wolf. Endorsement of lethal control of wolves by the state and public hunting of wolves also increased. Neither the time span over which respondents reported exposure to wolves locally nor self-reported losses of domestic animals to wolves correlated with changes in attitude. We predict future increases in legal and illegal killing of wolves that may reduce their abundance in Wisconsin unless interventions are implemented to improve attitudes and behavior toward wolves. To assess whether interventions change attitudes, longitudinal studies like ours are needed. Análisis Longitudinal de las Actitudes Hacia Lobos. PMID:23293913

  11. Religiosity, AIDS, and sexuality knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of black South-African first-year university students.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, L; Durrheim, K

    1995-12-01

    This study investigated the association of religiosity with sexuality and AIDS knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of 1,817 black first-year students in South Africa. On a structured questionnaire, consenting students rated themselves on scales of religiosity, attitudes toward homosexuality, intrafamilial communication about contraception, AIDS attitudes, and AIDS knowledge. Negative attitudes toward homosexuality were significantly associated with negative attitudes towards AIDS, high knowledge of AIDS, and high religiosity. Religious commitment diminished propensity to engage in sexual intercourse and delayed age for onset of sexual intercourse. PMID:8643798

  12. Attitudes to teaching mathematics: Further development of a measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relich, Joe; Way, Jenni; Martin, Andrew

    1994-07-01

    The evidence that a relationship exists between attitudes to teaching mathematics and the formation of positive attitudes to mathematics among pupils is somewhat tenuous. Nevertheless, there is a strong belief among pre-service teacher educators that positive attitudes need to be fostered in teacher education students, particularly for prospective primary school teachers. Unfortunately, the research evidence suggests that high proportions of pre-service teachers hold negative attitudes towards mathematics. Although many instruments measuring affect in areas such as self-concept, anxiety, etc. have appeared in the literature over the years, no comprehensive instrument on attitudes is available to help teacher educators monitor attitudinal changes among their pre-service student teachers to the teaching of mathematics. This research re-examines an earlier attempt to develop such an instrument in Australia (Nisbet, 1991) and posits an alternative and refined version.

  13. Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents of this guide present: (1) the three gasoline consumption-reducing options for which attitudes are to be explored; (2) exercises; and (3) appendices including an energy attitudes survey. (MR)

  14. The Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution Scale: A New Tool for Measuring Public Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Lia; Peled, Einat

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…

  15. Attitude control hardware and software for nanosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukaszynski, Pawel Grzegorz

    The analysis, verification and emulation of attitude control hardware for nanosatellite spacecraft is described. The overall focus is on hardware that pertains to a multitude of missions currently under development at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies - Space Flight Laboratory. The requirements for these missions push the boundaries of what is currently the accepted performance level of attitude control hardware. These new performance envelopes demand new acceptance test methods which must verify the performance of the attitude control hardware. In particular, reaction wheel and hysteresis rod actuators are the focus. Results of acceptance testing are further employed in post spacecraft integration for hardware emulation. This provides for a reduced mission cost as a function of reduced spare hardware. The overall approach provides a method of acceptance testing to new performance envelopes with the benefit of cost reduction with hardware emulation for simulations during post integration.

  16. The relationships among sex role orientation, egalitarianism, attitudes toward sexuality, and attitudes toward violence against women.

    PubMed

    Caron, S L; Carter, D B

    1997-10-01

    Relationships among U.S. college students' (N = 618) attitudes toward rape myths and their sex role orientation, affective responses to sexuality, sex role egalitarianism, and attitudes toward violence against women were investigated. Results indicated that men were more tolerant of rape, more likely to attribute blame for rape to the victim, and less negative in their views of rapists than women were. In addition, for men, but not for women, masculinity and femininity were predictive of rape attitudes and attributions of blame to rape victims. Positive attitudes toward sexuality were predictive of intolerance of rape for the total sample and for men, but not for women, and were predictive of perceptions of women as innocent victims of rape for both the total sample and the sexes separately. Attitudes toward pornography were unrelated to attitudes toward rape. Acceptance of violence against women and a lack of sexual egalitarianism were predictive of acceptance of rape myths. Androgynous, masculine, and feminine individuals were less tolerant of rape than undifferentiated persons were. PMID:9362143

  17. A Study of the Contemporary Racial Attitudes of Whites and African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, J. Blaine; Hines-Hudson, Bonetta M.

    1999-01-01

    Studied racial attitudes and patterns of interracial interaction of 260 White and African-American residents of a metropolitan area. Values of both groups were influenced powerfully by attitudes grounded in old racial stereotypes. Formal knowledge of African-American culture and history and racial interaction reduced stereotypical attitudes for

  18. GOES dynamic propagation of attitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Seidewitz, ED; Chu, Don; Rowe, John N.

    1988-01-01

    The spacecraft in the next series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-Next) are Earth pointing and have 5-year mission lifetimes. Because gyros can be depended on only for a few years of continuous use, they will be turned off during routine operations. This means attitude must, at times, be determined without benefit of gyros and, often, using only Earth sensor data. To minimize the interruption caused by dumping angular momentum, these spacecraft have been designed to reduce the environmental torque acting on them and incorporate an adjustable solar trim tab for fine adjustment. A new support requirement for GOES-Next is that of setting the solar trim tab. Optimizing its setting requires an estimate of the unbalanced torque on the spacecraft. These two requirements, determining attitude without gyros and estimating the external torque, are addressed by replacing or supplementing the gyro propagation with a dynamic one, that is, one that integrates the rigid body equations of motion. By processing quarter-orbit or longer batches, this approach takes advantage of roll-yaw coupling to observe attitude completely without Sun sensor data. Telemetered momentum wheel speeds are used as observations of the unbalanced external torques. GOES-Next provides a unique opportunity to study dynamic attitude propagation. The geosynchronous altitude and adjustable trim tab minimize the external torque and its uncertainty, making long-term dynamic propagation feasible. This paper presents the equations for dynamic propagation, an analysis of the environmental torques, and an estimate of the accuracies obtainable with the proposed method.

  19. GOES dynamic propagation of attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Seidewitz, Ed; Chu, Don; Rowe, John N.

    1988-09-01

    The spacecraft in the next series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-Next) are Earth pointing and have 5-year mission lifetimes. Because gyros can be depended on only for a few years of continuous use, they will be turned off during routine operations. This means attitude must, at times, be determined without benefit of gyros and, often, using only Earth sensor data. To minimize the interruption caused by dumping angular momentum, these spacecraft have been designed to reduce the environmental torque acting on them and incorporate an adjustable solar trim tab for fine adjustment. A new support requirement for GOES-Next is that of setting the solar trim tab. Optimizing its setting requires an estimate of the unbalanced torque on the spacecraft. These two requirements, determining attitude without gyros and estimating the external torque, are addressed by replacing or supplementing the gyro propagation with a dynamic one, that is, one that integrates the rigid body equations of motion. By processing quarter-orbit or longer batches, this approach takes advantage of roll-yaw coupling to observe attitude completely without Sun sensor data. Telemetered momentum wheel speeds are used as observations of the unbalanced external torques. GOES-Next provides a unique opportunity to study dynamic attitude propagation. The geosynchronous altitude and adjustable trim tab minimize the external torque and its uncertainty, making long-term dynamic propagation feasible. This paper presents the equations for dynamic propagation, an analysis of the environmental torques, and an estimate of the accuracies obtainable with the proposed method.

  20. Do extenuating circumstances influence African American women's attitudes toward suicide?

    PubMed

    Marion, Michelle S; Range, Lillian M

    2003-01-01

    African American women commit suicide less than other U.S. women and men, perhaps partly due to strong, anti-suicide attitudes. To see if suicide attitudes might be softened by extenuating circumstances such as terminal illness, 192 African American and European American women imagined themselves in one of four extenuating circumstances, then completed measures of suicide acceptability and religiosity. Both ethnic groups reported a greater likelihood of suicide when imagining depression, regardless of religiosity. Religiosity, but not extenuating circumstances, corresponded with negative attitudes toward suicide and physician assisted suicide. These African American and European American young women remained steadfastly against suicide, regardless of circumstance. PMID:12710539

  1. Beyond bipolar conceptualizations and measures: the case of attitudes and evaluative space.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, J T; Gardner, W L; Berntson, G G

    1997-01-01

    All organisms must be capable of differentiating hostile from hospitable stimuli to survive. Typically, this evaluative discrimination is conceptualized as being bipolar (hostile-hospitable). This conceptualization is certainly evident in the area of attitudes, where the ubiquitous bipolar attitude measure, by gauging the net affective predisposition toward a stimulus, treats positive and negative evaluative processes as equivalent, reciprocally activated, and interchangeable. Contrary to conceptualizations of this evaluative process as bipolar, recent evidence suggests that distinguishable motivational systems underlie assessments of the positive and negative significance of a stimulus. Thus, a stimulus may vary in terms of the strength of positive evaluative activation and the strength of negative evaluative activation it evokes. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects attitude neutrality or indifference, whereas high activation of positive and negative evaluative processes reflects attitude ambivalence. As such, attitudes can be represented more completely within a bivariate space than along a bipolar continuum. Evidence is reviewed showing that the positive and negative evaluative processes underlying many attitudes are distinguishable (stochastically and functionally independent), are characterized by distinct activation functions (positivity offset and negativity bias principles), are related differentially to attitude ambivalence (corollary of ambivalence asymmetries), have distinguishable antecedents (heteroscedacity principle), and tend to gravitate from a bivariate toward a bipolar structure when the underlying beliefs are the target of deliberation or a guide for behavior (principle of motivational certainty). The implications for society phenomena such as political elections and democratic structures are discussed. PMID:15647126

  2. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n = 500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (β = 0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (β = 0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (β = 0.19); also, both positive (β = 0.13) and negative (β = -0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline. PMID:21336503

  3. Older Adults Talk Technology: Technology Usage and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Mitzner, Tracy L.; Boron, Julie B.; Fausset, Cara Bailey; Adams, Anne E.; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Older adults (n = 113) participated in focus groups discussing their use of and attitudes about technology in the context of their home, work, and healthcare. Participants reported using a wide variety of technology items, particularly in their homes. Positive attitudes (i.e., likes) outnumbered negative attitudes (i.e., dislikes), suggesting that older adults perceive the benefits of technology use to outweigh the costs of such use. Positive attitudes were most frequently related to how the technology supported activities, enhanced convenience, and contained useful features. Negative attitudes were most frequently associated with technology creating inconveniences, unhelpful features, as well as security and reliability concerns. Given that older adults reported more positive than negative attitudes about the technologies they use, these results contradict stereotypes that older adults are afraid or unwilling to use technology. These findings also highlight the importance of perceived benefits of use and ease of use for models of technology acceptance. Emphasizing the benefits of technology in education and training programs may increase future technology adoption. PMID:20967133

  4. Attitude Design for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galal, Ken; Nickel, Craig; Sherman, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) satellite successfully completed its 148-day science investigation in a low-altitude, near-equatorial lunar orbit on April 18, 2014. The LADEE spacecraft was built, managed and operated by NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC). The Mission Operations Center (MOC) was located at Ames and was responsible for activity planning, command sequencing, trajectory and attitude design, orbit determination, and spacecraft operations. The Science Operations Center (SOC) was located at Goddard Space Flight Center and was responsible for science planning, data archiving and distribution. This paper details attitude design and operations support for the LADEE mission. LADEE's attitude design was shaped by a wide range of instrument pointing requirements that necessitated regular excursions from the baseline one revolution per orbit "Ram" attitude. Such attitude excursions were constrained by a number of flight rules levied to protect instruments from the Sun, avoid geometries that would result in simultaneous occlusion of LADEE's two star tracker heads, and maintain the spacecraft within its thermal and power operating limits. To satisfy LADEE's many attitude requirements and constraints, a set of rules and conventions was adopted to manage the complexity of this design challenge and facilitate the automation of ground software that generated pointing commands spanning multiple days of operations at a time. The resulting LADEE Flight Dynamics System (FDS) that was developed used Visual Basic scripts that generated instructions to AGI's Satellite Tool Kit (STK) in order to derive quaternion commands at regular intervals that satisfied LADEE's pointing requirements. These scripts relied heavily on the powerful "align and constrain" capability of STK's attitude module to construct LADEE's attitude profiles and the slews to get there. A description of the scripts and the attitude modeling they embodied is provided. One particular challenge analysts faced was in the design of LADEE maneuver attitudes. A flight rule requiring pre-maneuver verification of in-flight maneuver conditions by ground operators prior to burn execution resulted in the need to accommodate long periods in the maneuver attitude. This in turn complicated efforts to satisfy star tracker interference and communication constraints in lunar orbit. In response to this challenge, a graphical method was developed and used to survey candidate rotation angles about the thrust vector. This survey method is described and an example of its use on a particular LADEE maneuver is discussed. Finally, the software and methodology used to satisfy LADEE's attitude requirements are also discussed in the context of LADEE's overall activity planning effort. In particular, the way in which strategic schedules of instrument and engineering activities were translated into actual attitude profiles at the tactical level, then converted into precise quaternion commands to achieve those pointing goals is explained. In order to reduce the risk of time-consuming re-planning efforts, this process included the generation of long-term projections of constraint violation predictions for individual attitude profiles that could be used to establish keep-out time-frames for particular attitude profiles. The challenges experienced and overall efficacy of both the overall LADEE ground system and the attitude components of the Flight Dynamics System in meeting LADEE's varied pointing requirements are discussed.

  5. Panoramic attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, I. C.

    1976-01-01

    Each subassembly, design analysis, and final calibration data on all assemblies for the Panormic Attitude Sensor (PAS) are described. The PAS is used for course attitude determination on the International Ultraviolet Explorer Spacecraft (IUE). The PAS contains a sun sensor which is sensitive only to the sun's radiation and a mechanically scanned sensor which is sensitive to the earth, moon, and the sun. The signals from these two sensors are encoded and sent back in the telemetry data stream to determine the spacecraft attitude.

  6. Assessing Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, HIV/AIDS among University Students in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Haroun, Dalia; El Saleh, Ola; Wood, Lesley; Mechli, Rola; Al Marzouqi, Nada; Anouti, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Background The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is among the top two regions in the world with the fastest growing HIV epidemic. In this context, risks and vulnerability are high as the epidemic is on the rise with evidence indicating significantly increasing HIV prevalence, new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths. Objective The aim of the survey was to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS among a wide group of university students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods In a cross-sectional survey, a total sample of 2,294 students (406 male; 1,888 female) from four universities in three different Emirates in the UAE were approached to take part in the study. Students self-completed a questionnaire that was designed to measure their knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS. Results The overall average knowledge score of HIV.AIDS was 61%. Non-Emirati and postgraduates demonstrated higher levels of knowledge compared to Emirati and undergraduate students respectively. No significant differences between males and females; and marital status were found. Eighty-five percent of students expressed negative attitudes towards people living with HIV, with Emirati and single students significantly holding more negative attitudes compared to non-Emiratis and those that are married respectively. Conclusions The findings provide strong evidence that there is a need to advocate for appropriate National HIV/AIDS awareness raising campaigns in universities to reduce the gaps in knowledge and decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26913902

  7. Intergroup threat and outgroup attitudes: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Riek, Blake M; Mania, Eric W; Gaertner, Samuel L

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between intergroup threat and negative outgroup attitudes. We first qualitatively review the intergroup threat literature, describing the shift from competing theories toward more integrated approaches, such as the integrated threat theory (ITT; W. G. Stephan and Stephan, 2000). The types of threats discussed include: realistic threat, symbolic threat, intergroup anxiety, negative stereotypes, group esteem threat, and distinctiveness threat. We then conducted a quantitative meta-analysis examining the relationships between various intergroup threats and outgroup attitudes. The meta-analysis, involving 95 samples, revealed that 5 different threat types had a positive relationship with negative outgroup attitudes. Additionally, outgroup status moderated some of these relationships. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:17201592

  8. Ion Accelerator With Negatively Biased Decelerator Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1994-01-01

    Three-grid ion accelerator in which accelerator grid is biased at negative potential and decelerator grid downstream of accelerator grid biased at smaller negative potential. This grid and bias arrangement reduces frequency of impacts, upon accelerator grid, of charge-exchange ions produced downstream in collisions between accelerated ions and atoms and molecules of background gas. Sputter erosion of accelerator grid reduced.

  9. Translation as a Pedagogical Tool in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Qualitative Study of Attitudes and Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Niamh; Bruen, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature on language teaching reveals predominantly negative attitudes towards the use of translation in language teaching (TILT) (Cook, 2010). The purpose of this article is to explore the question of whether this negativity is reflected in the attitudes and behaviours of university lecturers engaged in language teaching as well

  10. Translation as a Pedagogical Tool in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Qualitative Study of Attitudes and Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Niamh; Bruen, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature on language teaching reveals predominantly negative attitudes towards the use of translation in language teaching (TILT) (Cook, 2010). The purpose of this article is to explore the question of whether this negativity is reflected in the attitudes and behaviours of university lecturers engaged in language teaching as well…

  11. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Results Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Conclusions Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved. PMID:21126368

  12. Parents' attitudes about children: associations with parental life histories and child-rearing quality.

    PubMed

    Daggett, J; O'Brien, M; Zanolli, K; Peyton, V

    2000-06-01

    This study examined relations among parents' perceptions of their childhood, attitudes about life, expectations for child behavior, attitudes about their child's behavior, and the child-rearing environment parents provide. Eighty mothers of 1- to 5-year-olds were interviewed about perceptions of receiving harsh parenting as children, current attitudes about life, developmental expectations, and views of intentionality and severity of their child's misbehavior. The home environment was measured using the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (R. H. Bradley & B. Caldwell, 1979) scale. Mothers who reported harsh parenting as children, negative attitudes about life, and unrealistic developmental expectations had negative attitudes about their own child. These attitudes were related to provision of lower quality home environments. Results support a constructivist approach to understanding parental social cognitions and behavior. PMID:10870289

  13. Ew, that's icky: Assessing children's attitudes towards the insects of Connecticut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Faith Jean-Ellen

    This study investigated children's attitudes towards insects, focusing on how attitudes change from fascination to repulsion as the children age. This study involved 127 elementary students (grades 4-6) and 139 high school students (grades 9-12) from New Haven public schools. Students were administered Likert type surveys to evaluate their attitudes after viewing photos of 8 common insects of Connecticut; the butterfly, ladybug, dragonfly, ant, moth, cricket, beetle, and fly. Scores from elementary school students were compared with high school students to determine if attitudes towards insects became less favorable as the children age. The results were also analyzed to determine if attitudinal changes were consistent between girls and boys. It was found that elementary school students did not hold more negative attitudes than high school students, but girls did hold more negative attitudes towards insects than boys.

  14. Defining attitude for science educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrigley, Robert L.; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.; Simpson, Ronald D.

    A distinct and complex definition of attitude is evolving within the literature. A mental readiness to respond and a correlational consistency between attitude and behavior - although controversial and in need of further study and analysis - remain viable subcomponents within the definition. Most agree that evaluation is the heartbeat of attitude. The impact of social influence on attitudes is becoming increasingly important. Attitudes are learned and not inherited.

  15. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  16. Attitude profile design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Attitude Profile Design (APD) Program was designed to be used as a stand-alone addition to the Simplex Computation of Optimum Orbital Trajectories (SCOOT). The program uses information from a SCOOT output file and the user defined attitude profile to produce time histories of attitude, angular body rates, and accelerations. The APD program is written in standard FORTRAN77 and should be portable to any machine that has an appropriate compiler. The input and output are through formatted files. The program reads the basic flight data, such as the states of the vehicles, acceleration profiles, and burn information, from the SCOOT output file. The user inputs information about the desired attitude profile during coasts in a high level manner. The program then takes these high level commands and executes the maneuvers, outputting the desired information.

  17. Attitudes towards euthanasia.

    PubMed Central

    Winget, C; Kapp, F T; Yeaworth, R C

    1977-01-01

    There are an infinite variety of attitudes to euthanasia, each individual response to the concept being influenced by many factors. Consequently there is a literature on the subject ranging from the popular article to papers in specialized journals. This study, however, has taken a well defined sample of people, inviting them to answer a questionnaire which was designed to elicit their attitudes to euthanasia in a way which could be analysed statistically. Nor surprisingly attitudes appeared to 'harden' as those answering the questionnaire grew more experienced in dealing with patients and also more professionally established. Thus it was found that of the seven groups questioned practising physicians showed more positive attitudes to euthanasia and their responses did not differ significantly from those of senior medical students. It is these groups which actually or potentially have to resolve the clinical dilemma posed by the dying patient. PMID:859163

  18. MME-based attitude dynamics identification and estimation for SAMPEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depena, Juan; Crassidis, John L.; Mcpartland, Michael D.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Mook, D. Joseph

    1994-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining optimal attitude estimation algorithms for spacecraft lacking attitude rate measurement devices (rate gyros), and then demonstrated using actual flight data from the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft. SAMPEX does not have on-board rate sensing, and relies on sun sensors and a three-axis magnetometer for attitude determination. Problems arise since typical attitude estimation is accomplished by filtering measurements of both attitude and attitude rates. Rates are nearly always sampled much more densely than are attitudes. Thus, the absence/loss of rate data normally reduces both the total amount of data available and the sampling density (in time) by a substantial fraction. As a result, the sensitivity of the estimates to model uncertainty and to measurement noise increases. In order to maintain accuracy in the attitude estimates, there is increased need for accurate models of the rotational dynamics. The proposed approach is based on the minimum model error (MME) optimal estimation strategy, which has been successfully applied to estimation of poorly modeled dynamic systems which are relatively sparsely and/or noisily measured. The MME estimates may be used to construct accurate models of the system dynamics (i.e. perform system model identification). Thus, an MME-based approach directly addresses the problems created by absence of attitude rate measurements.

  19. Stigmatizing attitudes towards people with pedophilia and their malleability among psychotherapists in training.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Sara; Philipp, Kathleen; Hoyer, Juergen

    2015-02-01

    Offering counseling and psychotherapy to patients with pedophilia is considered an essential part of sexual abuse prevention by many experts in the field. Yet, professionals' willingness to offer treatment might be compromised by stigmatizing attitudes towards these patients. In the present study, we developed and tested a 10-min online intervention (including educational material and a video about a person with pedophilia) to reduce stigma and increase motivation to work with this particular patient group. Psychotherapists in training were either assigned to the anti-stigma intervention group (n=68) or the control group (n=69) that received information about violence-free parenting. In the anti-stigma condition, agreement with the stereotypes controllability and dangerousness, anger, reduced pity and social distance were significantly reduced after the intervention, compared to the control group, while motivation to work with this group remained unchanged. The effects persisted, though slightly reduced in size, for perceived controllability, anger and social distance at follow-up. Our results suggest that stigmatizing attitudes, negative affective responses and social distance regarding people with pedophilia among psychotherapists in training can be positively influenced by a low-cost intervention. Practical implications of these findings for high quality health care and child sexual abuse prevention are discussed. PMID:25085206

  20. Improving nutrient management practices in agriculture: The role of risk-based beliefs in understanding farmers' attitudes toward taking additional action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.

    2014-08-01

    A recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.

  1. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Azeem Sultan; Malik, Raees

    2010-01-01

    Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to evil practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher's Exact Test). Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force. PMID:22737673

  2. Patients' attitudes to general practice registrars: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Andrew; Phillipson, Lyn; Reis, Samantha; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don

    2009-09-01

    With the population ageing, it is imperative for training practices to provide general practice registrars (GPRs) with sound experience in managing the health problems of older persons, especially chronic conditions. However, it is reported that a significant proportion of these patients will be resistant to consulting registrars, with concerns regarding disruption of continuity of care being a significant factor. The challenge for training practices is to identify approaches to engage registrars in the management of older patients whilst maintaining patient satisfaction. This paper presents a review of the literature on patient attitudes to GPRs to better understand the nature and magnitude of the challenge, and to identify important research gaps. Major electronic medical literature databases were searched for relevant articles using search terms including general practice, registrar, doctor-patient relationship, patient attitudes and elderly, for the period from January 1980 to March 2009. The studies were analysed by methodology, content and theme. A total of 15 studies were identified that directly addressed patients' attitudes to GPRs. Whilst there appeared to be an overall high acceptance of registrars by patients, increasing patient age was associated with more negative attitudes towards registrars, reduced trust and decreased satisfaction with communication. Presentations for chronic or emotional problems were associated with reduced willingness to consult registrars. Patients generally appreciated an ongoing involvement with their usual GP. These findings have implications for training practices and research directions. Demonstrating continuity of care through shared chronic disease management between supervisors and registrars is a possible model that meets registrars' training and patients' continuity needs. There is a need for quality research on the type and magnitude of problems affecting GPR encounters with older patients and, based on results from these studies, to create and assess models of registrar training involving older patients, that meet patients' needs for continuity of care. PMID:19849904

  3. Will you touch a dirty diaper? Attitudes towards disgust and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Markovitch, Noam; Netzer, Liat; Tamir, Maya

    2016-04-01

    Individuals differ in their willingness to engage with disgusting stimuli (e.g., dirty diapers). We propose that such differences are associated with attitudes towards disgust. Specifically, we predicted that people with less negative attitudes towards disgust (i.e., those who evaluate disgust less negatively) would be more willing to engage with disgusting stimuli. We asked participants to engage with disgusting stimuli in the laboratory and used two measures that assess behavioural and affective or cognitive components of attitudes towards disgust. As predicted, less negative attitudes towards disgust were associated with greater engagement with disgusting stimuli, above and beyond the current experience of disgust and the tendency to experience disgust. These findings stress the importance of attitudes towards emotions in understanding emotion-relevant behaviour. PMID:25810030

  4. Relationships between religiosity level and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among Turkish university students.

    PubMed

    Saraç, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between religiosity levels and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among freshmen university students in Turkey. The Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale-Short Form and the Religiosity Scale were administered to 91 male (M = 19.95, SD = 1.48 years) and 171 female (M = 19.23, SD = 1.28 years) students. The findings showed that male freshmen (M = 19.32, SD = 4.97) had more negative attitudes toward gay men than toward lesbians (M = 17.84, SD = 5.25), p = .000. In addition, attitudes of male freshmen were significantly more negative toward gay men (M =19.32, SD = 4.97) than females (M = 17.51, SD = 5.73), p = .012. Both male and female freshmen students who had higher levels of religiosity were found to have higher levels of negative attitudes toward both lesbians and gay men. PMID:25365111

  5. College Students' Intentions to Seek Help for Suicidal Ideation: Accounting for the Help-Negation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakunina, Elena S.; Rogers, James R.; Waehler, Charles A.; Werth, James L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has identified a negative association between suicidal ideation and help-seeking, a phenomenon called "help-negation." Help-negation has been documented to occur for both professional and nonprofessional sources of help. In this study help-seeking attitudes, stigma concerns, and perceptions of social support were examined as…

  6. University of Malaya dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning: implications for dental education.

    PubMed

    Nor, Nor Azlida M; Yusof, Zamros Y M; Shahidan, Mohd Noor F M

    2011-12-01

    The Ministry of Higher Education in Malaysia has called for the implementation of a soft skills module in all public universities in Malaysia. In response to this and as part of curriculum development efforts for a new integrated program for 2011, a study was undertaken to improve the University of Malaya (UM) Faculty of Dentistry's communication skills course. One of the study objectives was to investigate dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning and the association between their attitudes and demographic and education-related characteristics. A cross-sectional survey--using a self-administered twenty-four-item adapted Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) that contained both positive (PAS) and negative (NAS) attitude subscales--was carried out targeting all final-year dental students at the UM and the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). A total of 148 students completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 88.1 percent. Overall, UKM students had significantly more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning (PAS score: mean=48.69, SD=4.48, p<0.001) than UM students (mean=46.03, SD=4.22). There was no statistically significant difference in negative attitudes between the two groups. UKM students with more positive attitudes tended to be female (p<0.05). UM students with more negative attitudes perceived themselves as poor communicators (p<0.05), and UKM students with more negative attitudes tended to have poor English proficiency (p<0.05). This study found that both UM and UKM final-year dental students have positive and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. These attitudes were significantly associated with certain background and education-related attributes. Outcomes of this study served as a valuable guide in strengthening the communication skills course for the UM's new, integrated dental curriculum. PMID:22184601

  7. Measurement of Multicultural Attitudes of Teacher Trainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Mary B.; Sherman, Thomas M.

    1982-01-01

    The Multicultural Attitude Questionnaire, developed to measure multicultural attitudes of teacher trainees, was tested and found to be an effective tool in assessing and comparing student attitudes. (CJ)

  8. Predicted torque equilibrium attitude utilization for Space Station attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.; Robertson, Brent P.

    1990-01-01

    An approximate knowledge of the torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is shown to improve the performance of a control moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum management/attitude control law for Space Station Freedom. The linearized equations of motion are used in conjunction with a state transformation to obtain a control law which uses full state feedback and the predicted TEA to minimize both attitude excursions and CMG peak and secular momentum. The TEA can be computationally determined either by observing the steady state attitude of a 'controlled' spacecraft using arbitrary initial attitude, or by simulating a fixed attitude spacecraft flying in desired orbit subject to realistic environmental disturbance models.

  9. The impact of shiftwork on work--home conflict, job attitudes and health.

    PubMed

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Geurts, Sabine A E; Bakker, Arnold B; Euwema, Martin

    2004-07-15

    The present study was designed to test the impact of rotation and timing of shifts on work--home conflict, job attitudes, health and absenteeism among the military police. A total of 3122 employees participated in the study. Discriminant analysis was used to examine the relationships between rotation and timing of shifts on the one hand, and the outcome measures on the other. Whether employees had fixed dayshifts, fixed non-day shifts including weekends, or rotating shifts with or without weekends, could be predicted on the basis of the experienced work--home conflict, job attitudes, health and absenteeism. Each of the two parameters of shiftwork differentially affected the experience of the outcome measures. Rotation was most clearly related to unfavourable job attitudes (namely job satisfaction, cynicism, turnover intentions and professional efficacy), whereas timing was most clearly related to increased work--home conflict. The results suggest that fixed non-day shifts including weekends (i.e., during highly valuable times) should be avoided in order to minimize the conflict between work and home and that rotation rosters should be designed with a high degree of individualization and flexibility. These seem to be the most promising ways to reduce the negative consequences of shiftwork for employees, their families and organizations. PMID:15204274

  10. Attitudes toward Suicide Survivors as a Function of Survivors' Relationship to the Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Francoise M. T.; Cimbolic, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward suicide survivors among 60 participants responding to case histories describing suicide of either child, spouse, or parent. Subjects first read either suicide- or death-related materials. Suicide information did not affect attitudes toward survivors. Reactions to survivors were generally negative; children of victims were…

  11. The Relationship between Racial Attitudes and Social-Cognitive Development in Children: An Australian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black-Gutman, Dasia; Hickson, Fay

    1996-01-01

    Examined the racial attitudes of 122 Euro-Australian children toward Euro-, Asian, and Aboriginal Australians across the 5-/6-, 7-/9-, and 10-/12-year age groups. Found that the middle group had fewer negative attitudes toward Aborigines than the older and younger groups. Notes the influence of environmental and cognitive factors in the…

  12. Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…

  13. Affirmative Action Values and Attitudes among Some Midwestern Community College Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachary, Louis L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the methodology and findings of a study of the values and attitudes of community college personnel concerning affirmative action. Points to poor hiring records in rural areas, need for human relations training, negative attitudes among vocational personnel, sex bias, perceptions of racism, and high self-perceived liberality. (DMM)

  14. Student Attitudes toward AIDS and Homosexuality: The Effects of a Speaker with HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Hewitt-Gervais, Cynthia; Smith, Sherri; Fisher, Manda S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the impact of a speaker with HIV on students' (N=83) attitudes, knowledge, and affect. Results indicate that after training, those in the experimental group viewed people with HIV/AIDS in a more positive manner and experienced more positive and negative affect. Attitudes toward homosexuality and knowledge of HIV/AIDS did not change…

  15. Do Inquiring Minds Have Positive Attitudes? The Science Education of Preservice Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Morton, Karisma; Moore, Chelsea; Chimonidou, Antonia; LaBrake, Cynthis; Kopp, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Owing to their potential impact on students' cognitive and noncognitive outcomes, the negative attitudes toward science held by many elementary teachers are a critical issue that needs to be addressed. This study focuses on the science education of preservice elementary teachers with the goal of improving their attitudes "before" they…

  16. Impact of an Oncology Course on the Attitudes of Freshman Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Marilyn H.; And Others

    Previous attempts to change the prevailing negative attitudes of health professionals toward cancer and cancer patients have consisted mainly of elective courses for small groups of students at advanced levels of medical training. In order to develop more positive attitudes, the Cancer Coordinating Committee at the Medical College of Pennsylvania…

  17. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their

  18. The Effects of Dichotomous Attitudes toward Science on Interest and Conceptual Understanding in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minkee; Song, Jinwoong

    2009-01-01

    The literature on students' attitudinal constructs in science education asserts that students hold dichotomous attitudes toward science (AS). For instance, studies from the Relevance of Science Education project reveal that students possess negative attitudes in terms of their favourableness toward school science, preference toward scientific…

  19. Psychological correlates of help-seeking attitudes among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E F

    1994-10-01

    A self-report measure of attitudes about seeking help from adults for psychosocial problems was administered to approximately 200 children and adolescents. More negative help-seeking attitudes were associated with male gender, adolescence, depressive symptomotology, and lower self-efficacy. Implications for effective delivery of mental health services to at-risk youth are discussed. PMID:7847574

  20. Cognitive Styles and Socialized Attitudes of Men Who Batter: Where Should We Intervene?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisikovits, Zvi C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Attempted to differentiate among violent and nonviolent Israeli men (n=120) and predict their physical violence. Violent and nonviolent men could be differentiated primarily on basis of their attitudes and, to lesser degree, on basis of cognitions. Batterers' physical violence was significantly predicted by men's negative attitudes toward battered…

  1. An Analysis of Chinese High School Students' Attitudes toward Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Disabilities and negative attitudes toward individuals with disabilities permeate human history, from ancient Greece to modern society. The study of attitude toward disabilities, mostly in western countries, has provided information for the development of policy concerning the rights of individuals with disabilities. Complying with international…

  2. Counselor Demographics, Ageist Attitudes, and Multicultural Counseling Competence among Counselors and Counselor Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Rebecca G.; Hays, Danica G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among counselors' self-reported multicultural counseling competence and their attitudes of the geriatric population. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between participants' attitudes of the geriatric population and their self-reported multicultural counseling

  3. Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive…

  4. The Relationship among Attitudes, Behaviors, and Biomedical Measures of Adolescents "At Risk" for Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyanju, Matthew; Creswell, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A study monitoring health behaviors and attitudes of 93 adolescents considered at risk for cardiovascular disease revealed a greater than normal proportion of negative behaviors involving smoking, diet, alcohol abuse, and stress among subjects and a positive relationship among health status, health attitudes, and health behavior. (Author/CB)

  5. Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…

  6. A Survey of Natural Resource and National Parks Knowledge and Attitudes of Dominican Republic Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berroa, Juan Leonel Batista; Roth, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a study designed to ascertain the level of ecological knowledge and attitudes of citizens of the Dominican Republic regarding national parks and natural resources. Overall, the level of ecological knowledge was determined to be very low and attitudes toward parks and resources seemed to be negative. (CW)

  7. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  8. Do Inquiring Minds Have Positive Attitudes? The Science Education of Preservice Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Morton, Karisma; Moore, Chelsea; Chimonidou, Antonia; LaBrake, Cynthis; Kopp, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Owing to their potential impact on students' cognitive and noncognitive outcomes, the negative attitudes toward science held by many elementary teachers are a critical issue that needs to be addressed. This study focuses on the science education of preservice elementary teachers with the goal of improving their attitudes "before" they

  9. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

  10. The Effects of Dichotomous Attitudes toward Science on Interest and Conceptual Understanding in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minkee; Song, Jinwoong

    2009-01-01

    The literature on students' attitudinal constructs in science education asserts that students hold dichotomous attitudes toward science (AS). For instance, studies from the Relevance of Science Education project reveal that students possess negative attitudes in terms of their favourableness toward school science, preference toward scientific

  11. The Implicit Prejudiced Attitudes of Teachers: Relations to Teacher Expectations and the Ethnic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Linda; Denessen, Eddie; Hornstra, Lisette; Voeten, Marinus; Holland, Rob W.

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority students are at risk for school failure and show a heightened susceptibility to negative teacher expectancy effects. In the present study, whether the prejudiced attitudes of teachers relate to their expectations and the academic achievement of their students is examined. The prejudiced attitudes of 41 elementary school teachers

  12. Psychological Contract Breach and Job Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis of Age as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; De Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Van Der Velde, Mandy E. G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age in the relation between psychological contract breach and the development of job attitudes. Based on affective events, social exchange, and lifespan theory, we hypothesized that (1) psychological contract breach would be related negatively to job attitudes, and (2) that age would moderate…

  13. Drug Use and Attitudes Toward Social and Legal Aspects of Marijuana in a Large Metropolitan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Edward R.; Truss, Carroll V.

    1973-01-01

    Attitude toward marijuana shifted from strongly negative to strongly positive as frequency of marijuana use increased. With frequency of use controlled, attitude toward marijuana was even more favorable when other drugs had been tried, and also among students who were religiously inactive. (Author)

  14. Relationship between Recent Life Events, Social Supports, and Attitudes to Domestic Violence: Predictive Roles in Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guoping, Huang; Yalin, Zhang; Yuping, Cao; Momartin, Shakeh; Ming, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between recent life events, attitudes to domestic violence (DV), and DV behaviors among perpetrators of DV in China. A total of 600 participants were assessed for recent life events, psychological functioning, social support, and attitudes to DV. Results demonstrated that recent negative life…

  15. Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using

  16. Counselor Demographics, Ageist Attitudes, and Multicultural Counseling Competence among Counselors and Counselor Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Rebecca G.; Hays, Danica G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among counselors' self-reported multicultural counseling competence and their attitudes of the geriatric population. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between participants' attitudes of the geriatric population and their self-reported multicultural counseling…

  17. "Me and Maths": Towards a Definition of Attitude Grounded on Students' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Martino, Pietro; Zan, Rosetta

    2010-01-01

    The attitude construct is widely used by teachers and researchers in mathematics education. Often, however, teachers' diagnosis of a "negative attitude" is a causal attribution of students' failure, perceived as global and uncontrollable, rather than an accurate interpretation of students' behaviour, capable of steering future action. In order to

  18. An In-Service Teacher Education Program's Effect on Teacher Efficacy and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Loran E.; Fitch, Jenelle C.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in teacher efficacy and attitudes toward teaching were examined throughout a teacher education program as teachers worked to integrate new skills into their science curriculum. Correlation coefficients were calculated for the changes. Positive correlation was observed between changes in attitude and self-efficacy. Negative correlation was…

  19. Korean Speech-Language Pathologists' Attitudes toward Stuttering According to Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyungjae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there

  20. Korean Speech-Language Pathologists' Attitudes toward Stuttering According to Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyungjae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there…

  1. Attitudes of Speech and Language Therapists towards Stammering: 1985 and 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton-Smith, Isobel; Wright, Jannet; Stackhouse, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Background: Past research has indicated that speech and language therapists hold some negative attitudes towards people who stammer, their parents and the treatment of stammering. However, studies on attitudes towards stammering have predominantly focussed on therapists in the USA. Recent trends towards earlier intervention suggest that more…

  2. Comparison of Drug Attitudes of College Freshmen: Metropolitan Area Vs. University Community Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, William K.

    A "Social Attitude Questionnaire" was used to obtain anonymous replies from 481 University of Houston (U.H.) and 470 University of Georgia (U. Ga.) freshmen concerning drug use and related attitudes. Among the most significant results were: (1) more U.H. freshmen endorsed negative statements about their parents than did U. Ga. students; (2) the…

  3. Student Attitudes toward AIDS and Homosexuality: The Effects of a Speaker with HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Hewitt-Gervais, Cynthia; Smith, Sherri; Fisher, Manda S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the impact of a speaker with HIV on students' (N=83) attitudes, knowledge, and affect. Results indicate that after training, those in the experimental group viewed people with HIV/AIDS in a more positive manner and experienced more positive and negative affect. Attitudes toward homosexuality and knowledge of HIV/AIDS did not change

  4. Implicit Attitudes toward Children May Be Unrelated to Child Abuse Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Crouch, Julie L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore whether adults possess implicit attitudes toward children and whether those attitudes are especially negative among respondents who are high in child physical abuse (CPA) risk. Methods: The present study used an implicit evaluative priming procedure. In this procedure, participants were instructed to make decisions about the…

  5. Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities at High School: Applying the Integrated Threat Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustillos, Antonio; Silvan-Ferrero, Maria del Prado

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study attitudes toward people with disabilities from the viewpoint of the integrated threat theory of prejudice. This theory postulates that threat may cause negative attitudes toward a group and posits that such threat may come from different sources. To test this model, a study was carried out with high school…

  6. Age, gender, and the underutilization of mental health services: the influence of help-seeking attitudes.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, C S; Gekoski, W L; Knox, V J

    2006-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore age and gender differences in attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help, and to examine whether attitudes negatively influence intentions to seek help among older adults and men, whose mental health needs are underserved. To achieve these objectives 206 community-dwelling adults completed questionnaires measuring help-seeking attitudes, psychiatric symptomatology, prior help-seeking, and intentions to seek help. Older age and female gender were associated with more positive help-seeking attitudes in this sample, although age and gender interacted with marital status and education, and had varying influences on different attitude components. Age and gender also influenced intentions to seek professional psychological help. Women exhibited more favourable intentions to seek help from mental health professionals than men, likely due to their positive attitudes concerning psychological openness. Older adults exhibited more favourable intentions to seek help from primary care physicians than younger adults, a finding that was not explained by age differences in attitudes. Results from this study suggest that negative attitudes related to psychological openness might contribute to men's underutilization of mental health services. Help-seeking attitudes do not appear to be a barrier to seeking professional help among older adults, although their intentions to visit primary care physicians might be. These findings suggest the need for education to improve men's help-seeking attitudes and to enhance older adults' willingness to seek specialty mental health services. PMID:17050086

  7. Measuring implicit attitudes: A positive framing bias flaw in the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A

    2016-02-01

    How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26075407

  8. Implicit attitudes, emotions, and helping intentions of mental health workers toward their clients.

    PubMed

    Brener, Loren; Rose, Grenville; von Hippel, Courtney; Wilson, Hannah

    2013-06-01

    The attitudes of mental health care workers toward their clients may influence the quality of care they provide. There is growing recognition of the role of implicit attitudes in behavior toward people with stigmatized illnesses, such as mental illness, and of the need to measure these separately from explicit attitudes. Seventy-four mental health workers completed implicit and explicit measure of attitudes toward people with mental illness. The participants were also asked about their intention to help people with mental illness and their emotional reactions toward people with a mental illness. The findings show that the implicit attitudes of the health workers toward clients with a mental illness are somewhat negative despite the fact that their explicit attitudes are somewhat positive. Although both implicit and explicit attitudes predicted negative emotions, only implicit attitudes were related to helping intentions. This study highlights the association between implicit attitudes and behavioral intentions and confirms the importance of addressing implicit attitudes in mental health research. PMID:23689194

  9. Factors contributing to attitude exchange amongst preservice elementary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Previous research has shown that elementary education majors often dislike science and lack confidence in their ability to teach it. This is an important problem because students who hold these attitudes are likely to avoid teaching science, or teach it poorly, when they become teachers. It is therefore necessary to identify preservice elementary teachers who hold negative attitudes towards science, and attempt to convert these attitudes to positive before they become teachers. This study was designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Four participants were individually interviewed. The transcripts indicated that attitude exchange had occurred for each of the four students. Each student described several features of the course that had a positive influence. These were of three main types: personal attributes of the tutor, specific teaching strategies, and external validation. It was proposed that many of the individual factors were effective because they represented either performance accomplishments or vicarious experience as defined by Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 1977, 191-215).

  10. Fast Quaternion Attitude Estimation from Two Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. Existing closed-form attitude estimates based on Wahba's optimality criterion for two arbitrarily weighted observations are somewhat slow to evaluate. This paper presents two new fast quaternion attitude estimation algorithms using two vector observations, one optimal and one suboptimal. The suboptimal method gives the same estimate as the TRIAD algorithm, at reduced computational cost. Simulations show that the TRIAD estimate is almost as accurate as the optimal estimate in representative test scenarios.

  11. Attitudes toward intimate partner violence in dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Fincham, Frank D; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay

    2008-09-01

    Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on the scale. In Study 2 (N = 687), the obtained three-factor structure (Abuse, Control, Violence) is tested using confirmatory factor analysis, and it is shown to be concurrently related to assault in romantic relationships and to predict psychological aggression 14 weeks later. The findings are discussed in the context of how understanding and modifying attitudes assessed by the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised may improve interventions aimed at reducing intimate partner violence. PMID:18778162

  12. Attitude Sensor Pseudonoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Lennox, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    Even assuming perfect attitude sensors and gyros, sensor measurements on a vibrating spacecraft have apparent errors. These apparent sensor errors, referred to as pseudonoise, arise because gyro and sensor measurements are performed at discrete times. This paper explains the concept of pseudonoise, quantifies its behavior, and discusses the effect of vibrations that are nearly commensurate with measurement periods. Although pseudonoise does not usually affect attitude determination it does affect sensor performance evaluation. Attitude rates are usually computed from differences between pairs of accumulated angle measurements at different times and are considered constant in the periods between measurements. Propagation using these rates does not reproduce exact instantaneous spacecraft attitudes except at the gyro measurement times. Exact sensor measurements will therefore be inconsistent with estimates based on the propagated attitude. This inconsistency produces pseudonoise. The characteristics of pseudonoise were determined using a simple, one-dimensional model of spacecraft vibration. The statistical properties of the deviations of measurements from model truth were determined using this model and a range of different periods of sensor and rate measurements. This analysis indicates that the magnitude of pseudonoise depends on the ratio of the spacecraft vibration period to the time between gyro measurements and can be as much as twice the amplitude of the vibration. In cases where the vibration period and gyro or sensor measurement period are nearly commensurate, unexpected changes in pseudonoise occur.

  13. Psychiatrists׳ fear of death is associated with negative emotions toward borderline personality disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Shrira, Amit; Hermesh, Hagai; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Iancu, Iulian

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationship between psychiatrists׳ fear of death and negative emotions toward patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A survey (N=120) demonstrated that fear of death is associated with stronger negative attitudes toward BPD patients, after controlling for attitudes toward suicide. Our findings emphasize the importance of psychiatrists׳ awareness to their fear of death as a relevant factor for their emotions toward BPD patients. PMID:26184990

  14. Associations between adult attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Murphy, Paul DJ; Bailey, S Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. METHODS: A sample of undergraduate students (n=160) completed the Relationships Structures Questionnaire, which provides global ratings of adult attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance) by assessing attachment across four relationship targets (friend, mother, father and romantic partner). Attitudes regarding the acceptability of pain behaviour were assessed using male and female versions of the Appropriate Pain Behaviour Questionnaire (APBQ). RESULTS: Consistent with the hypothesis, attachment avoidance was negatively correlated with both APBQ-Female and APBQ-Male scores. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the attachment scales and the APBQ scales while statistically adjusting for sex and testing for interaction effects. The findings revealed complex relationships involving interaction effects that provided further support for the hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provided support for the hypothesis that attachment avoidance is associated with less accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. Additional research regarding the role of attachment and attitudes on responses to pain behaviour is warranted. PMID:21165372

  15. Fur Trappers' Attitudes toward the Upper Missouri Sioux, 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayer, Brian F.

    1979-01-01

    Fur traders and trappers had very different views about and relationships with individual Indian tribes. Article discusses the historical context of hostile, negative attitudes held by the wild, White "mountain men" toward the Indians among whom they worked. (DS)

  16. Enhancing imagined contact to reduce prejudice against people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    West, Keon; Holmes, Emily; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Four studies investigated the effect of imagining intergroup contact on prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that a neutral imagined contact task can have negative effects, compared to a control condition, even when paired with incidental positive information (Experiment 2). Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated, however, that an integrated positive imagined contact scenario does result in less intergroup anxiety and more positive attitudes, even toward this challenging group. Analyses of participants descriptions of the imagined interactions in and across the first three studies confirm that positive and high quality imagined contact is important for reducing prejudice, but failing to ensure that imagined contact is positive may have deleterious consequences. We emphasize the importance of investigating the quality of the imagined contact experience, and discuss the implications for using imagined contact as a prejudice-reducing intervention. PMID:26435686

  17. Employing music exposure to reduce prejudice and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Schwab, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Whereas previous research has mainly focused on negative effects of listening to music on intergroup attitudes and behavior, the present three experiments examined whether music exposure could reduce prejudice and discrimination. In fact, those participants who had listened to songs with pro-integration (relative to neutral) lyrics expressed less prejudice (Studies 1 and 3) and were less aggressive against (Study 2) and more helpful toward an outgroup member (Study 3). These effects were unaffected by song liking as well as mood and arousal properties of the songs employed, suggesting that it is indeed the pro-integration content of the lyrics that drives the effects. It is discussed to what extent music exposure could be employed to effectively reduce prejudice and discrimination in the real world. PMID:24604768

  18. Nature and operation of attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ajzen, I

    2001-01-01

    This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit. PMID:11148298

  19. [Negative symptoms: which antipsychotics?].

    PubMed

    Maurel, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    Treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia is a major issue and a challenge for the functional and social prognosis of the disease, to which they are closely linked. First- and second-generation antipsychotics allow a reduction of all negative symptoms. The hope of acting directly on primary negative symptoms with any antipsychotic is not supported by the literature. However, the effectiveness of first- and second-generation antipsychotics is demonstrated on secondary negative symptoms. PMID:26776390

  20. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  1. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It

  2. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  3. Visual Media, Attitude Formation, and Attitude Change in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermer, Joy

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of instruction on the attitudes of nurses focuses on a meta analysis of studies that examined effects of visual media in attitude formation or attitude change in nursing education. Criteria used to guide the selection of studies included are explained, and implications for instructional design are discussed. (76…

  4. Utilization of Attitude Maps in Evaluating Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral

    2008-01-01

    Various methods have been performed to identify teachers' attitudes towards assessment. Recognizing the idea that mapping is one of the most efficient tools, this study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of attitude maps in the evaluation of teachers' attitudes towards assessment. The instrument, composed of open-ended questions, was…

  5. Attitude control compensator for flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An attitude control loop for a spacecraft uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for control about an axis. The spacecraft body has at least a primary mechanical resonance. The attitude sensors are collocated, or both on the rigid portion of the spacecraft. The flexure attributable to the resonance may result in instability of the system. A compensator for the control loop has an amplitude response which includes a component which rolls off beginning at frequencies below the resonance, and which also includes a component having a notch at a notch frequency somewhat below the resonant frequency. The phase response of the compensator tends toward zero at low frequencies, and tends toward -180.degree. as frequency increases toward the notch frequency. At frequencies above the notch frequency, the phase decreases from +180.degree., becoming more negative, and tending toward -90.degree. at frequencies far above the resonance frequency. Near the resonance frequency, the compensator phase is near zero.

  6. Uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control of artificial satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sazonov, V. V.

    1983-01-01

    Within the context of a simple mechanical model the paper examines the movement of a satellite with respect to the center of masses under conditions of uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control. The equations of motion of the satellite take account of the gravitational and restorative aerodynamic moments. It is presumed that the aerodynamic moment is much larger than the gravitational, and the motion equations contain a large parameter. A two-parameter integrated surface of these equations is constructed in the form of formal series in terms of negative powers of the large parameter, describing the oscillations and rotations of the satellite about its lengthwise axis, approximately oriented along the orbital tangent. It is proposed to treat such movements as nominal undisturbed motions of the satellite under conditions of aerodynamic attitude control. A numerical investigation is made for the above integrated surface.

  7. Rural environmental attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeth, Mark K.; Foster, Richard H.

    1994-05-01

    Two frequent beliefs about rural environmental attitudes are examined conceptually and empirically: (1) the common conception that rural environmental concerns are expressed predominantly by wealthy community newcomers; and (2) the related position that long-time rural residents are hostile to the environmental cause. We argue conceptually, through the use of a 2×2 community matrix, that environmental attitudes are equally likely to be expressed by what we term “upper middle income newcomers,” “lower middle income newcomers,” “upper middle income locals,” and “lower middle income locals.” Empirically, we find that although wealthy newcomers express the strongest environmental attitudes in the community, their concerns represent only a small percentage of rural environmental attitudes consisting of respondents who make less than 40,000 a year in household income are over 40 years of age, possess less than a college education, and work in a nonprofessional occupation. This new category expresses environmental concerns at least equal to the rest of the community on three of four measures of environmental attitudes. The findings provide insight into the widespread and cross-sectional nature of rural environmental concern. The implication is that environmental groups will find significant sources of political support in rural communities, provided they craft their environmental message in a language consistent with rural attitudes and values. Things are gettin' bad fast. Easterners and environmentalists comin' down here from the big cities are tryin' to turn our way of life completely upside down. A western US rancher quoted in Krakauer (1991)

  8. Low cost Earth Attitude Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberati, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Giorgio; Verzegnassi, Fulvia

    2004-06-01

    A patent-pending, low-cost, moderate performance, Earth Attitude Sensor for LEO satellites is described in this paper. The paper deals with the system concepts, the technology adopted and the simulation results. The sensor comprises three or four narrow field of view mini telescopes pointed towards the Earth edge to detect and measure the variation of the off-nadir angle of the Earth-to-black sky transition using thermopile detectors suitably placed in the foci of the optical min telescopes. The system's innovation consists in the opto-mechanical configuration adopted that is sturdy and has no moving parts being, thus, inherently reliable. In addition, with a view to reducing production costs, the sensor does without hi-rel and is instead mainly based on COTS parts suitably chosen. Besides it is flexible and can be adapted to perform attitude measurement onboard spacecraft flying in orbits other than LEO with a minimum of modifications to the basic design. At present the sensor is under development by IMT and OptoService.

  9. Parental Childrearing Attitudes as Correlates of Father Involvement During Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Greving, Karissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Using daily diary data to document involvement with infants at 6 – 8 months of age (n = 142) and 6 months later (n = 95), we examined relations between reported childrearing attitudes and resident fathers' relative (as compared to mothers') involvement with children. Fathers' authoritarian views related negatively to their relative involvement on weekdays, and this relation held over time for caregiving and playing activities. Mothers' protective attitudes had concurrent negative associations with fathers' relative weekend involvement. Findings suggest that fathers' authoritarian and mothers' protective attitudes relate to how parenting responsibilities are shared within families and may be detrimental to how much fathers become, or choose to become, directly involved in the care of their infants in comparison to mothers. PMID:18174913

  10. Attitude stability of spinning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Some problems of attitude stability of spinning satellites are treated in a rigorous manner. With certain restrictions, linearized stability analysis correctly predicts the attitude stability of spinning satellites, even in the critical cases of the Liapunov-Poincare stability theory.

  11. Satellite attitude control simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debra, D. B.; Powell, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Work was conducted to develop an extremely low drift rate gyroscope and a very precise star tracker. A proposed relativity satellite will measure very accurately the theoretically predicted 'relativistic' precession of the gyroscope relative to an inertial reference frame provided by the star tracker. Aspects of precision spinning attitude control are discussed together with questions of gyro operation, and the hopping mode for lunar transportation. For the attitude control system of the lunar hopper, a number of control laws were investigated. The studies indicated that some suboptimal controls should be adequate for the system.

  12. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  13. Countering antivaccination attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek; Hummel, John E.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Three times as many cases of measles were reported in the United States in 2014 as in 2013. The reemergence of measles has been linked to a dangerous trend: parents refusing vaccinations for their children. Efforts have been made to counter people’s antivaccination attitudes by providing scientific evidence refuting vaccination myths, but these interventions have proven ineffective. This study shows that highlighting factual information about the dangers of communicable diseases can positively impact people’s attitudes to vaccination. This method outperformed alternative interventions aimed at undercutting vaccination myths. PMID:26240325

  14. Attitude towards physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Frau, Jessica; Coghe, G; Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Cadeddu, B; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a long-lasting neurological disease with onset in young adult age. Patients with MS are less active than healthy people, and their sedentary lifestyle might lead to secondary diseases or worsening of symptoms, disability and quality of life. In the study, we evaluated the attitude of physical activity (PA) of a group of MS patients and the differences in practice PA before and after the diagnosis. A randomly recruited group of patients with MS fulfilled a questionnaire about their attitudes towards PA before the onset and after the diagnosis of the disease. Clinical and demographic data were recorded. Out of 118 patients, 37 % practiced PA only before the diagnosis, 9 % only after and 52 % during both periods. After the diagnosis, 64 % of participants noted some negative differences in PA, in particular less physical resistance and worsening of symptoms, and 38 % stopped PA. However, patients referred benefits from PA after diagnosis. Individual exercises rather than group activities were preferred after diagnosis. Only 26 % of patients knew that adapted PA existed and the differences between adapted PA and classic physiotherapy. We observed a reduction in the practice of PA in patients after the diagnosis of MS, in particular for disease-related reasons. Nevertheless, active patients referred benefits from PA. It is important to know the point of view of patients towards developing individualized training programs. In this way, it could be possible to achieve more benefits from PA and reduce the negative effects. PMID:25648109

  15. HIV Prevention Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk for African Americans: The Influence of Community-Level Stigma and Psychological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Allecia E.; Dovidio, John F.; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T.

    2013-01-01

    Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans’ condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma—Whites’ attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites’ attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites’ attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites’ attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites’ attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants’ values and needs, which may reduce African Americans’ mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites’ attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed along with public health implications. PMID:24507916

  16. HIV prevention interventions to reduce sexual risk for African Americans: the influence of community-level stigma and psychological processes.

    PubMed

    Reid, Allecia E; Dovidio, John F; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T

    2014-02-01

    Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans' condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma-Whites' attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites' attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites' attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites' attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites' attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants' values and needs, which may reduce African Americans' mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites' attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed along with public health implications. PMID:24507916

  17. Attitudes towards chemistry among engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivo Delgado, Carlos J.

    The attitudes towards chemistry of the engineering students enrolled in an introductory course at the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico were explored (n = 115). A mixed methodology was used in an exploratory-oriented research approach. The first stage consisted of the administration of a Likert scale attitudinal survey which was validated during the study's design process. The survey allowed collecting information about the participant's attitudes towards their personal opinion, their perspectives about peer's or relatives' opinion, relevant aspects of the discipline, and difficulty-increasing factors in the chemistry course. The scale internal reliability was measured in a pilot study with a convenience simple, obtaining an acceptable coefficient (Cronbach alpha = 0.731). Survey results evidenced a mainly neutral attitude towards the chemistry course, not highly negative or highly positive, in contrast with other studies in this field. On the other hand, the normality hypothesis was tested for the scores obtained by participants in the survey. Although the pilot study sample had an approximately normal distribution, the scores in obtained by the participants in the survey failed the normality test criteria. The second stage of the study was accomplished using a case study. Among the survey participants, some students were invited to in-depth interviews to elucidate the reasons why they have certain attitudes towards chemistry. Study time, instructor, motivation, term of study, and course schedule are the factors that interviewees agreed as contributors to success or failure in the chemistry course. Interview's participants emphasized that study time is determinant to pass the class. This methodological approach, quantitative followed by qualitative, was useful in describing the attitudes towards chemistry among university students of engineering.

  18. Neonatal nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward caring for cocaine-exposed infants and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, M A; Marecki, M; Wooldridge, P J; Sherman, L M

    1996-03-01

    The knowledge, attitudes, and backgrounds of 215 nurses employed in the nurseries of six hospitals were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. The nurses' attitudes toward the mothers of cocaine-addicted infants were found to be generally negative and/or judgmental and their knowledge to be low. More experience with nursing cocaine-addicted infants and greater acuity of the neonatal unit in which the nurse worked correlated with more positive attitudes toward the infants but not toward their mothers. Knowledge and attitude correlated positively with formal education, inservice education, and self-education, but the correlations were weak. PMID:8699370

  19. Negative symptoms: psychopathological models.

    PubMed Central

    Ananth, J; Djenderdjian, A; Shamasunder, P; Costa, J; Herrera, J; Sramek, J

    1991-01-01

    The psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia have been broadly divided into positive and negative symptom groups. Even though there is no definitive consensus, psychomotor agitation, motor excitement, hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder constitute positive and psychomotor retardation, amotivation, apathy and decreased emotional expression are grouped into negative symptoms. The negative symptoms have been reported to appear late in the course of the illness and resistant to treatment with neuroleptics. While these claims have not been substantiated, the current interest on negative symptoms is related to the fact that many nonfunctioning institutionalized as well as ambulatory schizophrenics manifest negative symptoms. As chronic psychiatric beds have become scarce, many patients with negative symptoms who were harbored in the chronic mental hospitals have been released to the community care and some of these patients live on the streets. Thus their visibility has challenged psychiatry to focus its efforts on the etiology and treatment of negative symptoms. PMID:2049366

  20. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, N.

    2015-01-01

    Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants’ ratings (n = 1778) regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements) and from participants’ opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements). Participants’ responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001). Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001). Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care. PMID:26698307

  1. Multilingualism and Language Attitudes: Local versus Immigrant Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibarraran, Amaia; Lasagabaster, David; Sierra, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Spain took in more immigrants than any other European country in 2005, a fact which has had a clear impact on the education system. This paper examines the language attitudes held by 125 local or autochtonous (42.4%) and immigrant (57.6%) students in the Basque Country. The results showed that both groups of students held rather negative attitudes…

  2. The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedkin, Noah E.

    2010-01-01

    The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude…

  3. Attitudes of Faculty in Tennessee Community Colleges toward Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Robert G.; Franke, Dorothy N.

    1982-01-01

    A study of randomly selected faculty at Tennessee's public community colleges concluded: 50.8 percent of respondents favor collective bargaining, sense of power is negatively correlated with attitudes toward collective bargaining, and five demographic variables (political opinion, religion, race, sex, organizational membership) are significantly…

  4. Age Differences in Alcohol and Cocaine Expectancies and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.; Weir, Catherine; Davies, Elizabeth; Silk, Alyson

    2002-01-01

    Positive and negative expectancies regarding the behavioral effects of alcohol and cocaine were assessed and used to predict attitudes toward their use across four age groups. Children and adolescents appeared to overgeneralize their beliefs about alcohol to a less familiar drug, cocaine, perceiving the effects of the two drugs similarly. Only…

  5. Validation of the Attitudes toward Intellectual Disability--ATTID Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, D.; Crocker, A. G.; Beaulieu-Bergeron, R.; Caron, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) continue to experience major obstacles towards social, educational and vocational integration. Negative attitudes toward persons with ID has remained relevant over time and has led to discrimination and stigma. Objective: The present study describes the development of a new questionnaire

  6. Attitudes of Mathematics and Language Teachers towards New Educational Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmannova, Marie; Novotna, Jarmila; Hadj-Moussova, Zuzana

    2003-01-01

    The paper brings the results of research into affective barriers lying at the base of negative attitudes of mathematics and language teachers towards new educational trends, i.e. the teaching of mathematics in the English language in monolingual Czech secondary school classrooms. To find blocks to the use of new approaches the method of unfinished…

  7. Environmental Attitudes in the Elementary Grades: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elaine

    Ecological or environmental programs integrated into science courses in the elementary grades can make children aware that they can have either a positive or a negative effect on their environment. The following bibliography was compiled from articles and dissertations on environmental education and children's awareness, attitudes, and perceptions…

  8. Preferences of and Attitudes toward Treble Choral Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    In choral ensembles, a pursuit where females far outnumber males, concern exists that females are being devalued. Attitudes of female choral singers may be negatively affected by the gender imbalance that exists in mixed choirs and by the placement of the mixed choir as the most select ensemble in a program. The purpose of this research was to…

  9. Parental Childrearing Attitudes as Correlates of Father Involvement during Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Greving, Karissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Using daily diary data to document involvement with infants at 6-8 months of age (n = 142) and 6 months later (n = 95), we examined relations between reported childrearing attitudes and resident fathers' relative (as compared to mothers') involvement with children. Fathers' authoritarian views related negatively to their relative involvement on

  10. Attitude Change in Bilingual Education: The Case of Brunei Darussalam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghadessy, Mohsen; Nicol, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Compares scores of primary and secondary school students in Brunei Darussalam in relation to their attitudes toward teachers, learning processes, language arts, mathematics, and reading and comprehension ability in English. Results indicate both positive and negative correlations among five dependent variables and significant differences between…

  11. Racial Differences in Eating Disorder Attitudes, Cigarette, and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granner, Michelle L.; Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed black and white college women regarding their eating disorder attitudes and use of cigarettes and alcohol. Black women used substances significantly less than whites. Substance use related to eating disorder symptoms. Women at highest risk of eating disorders reported highest levels of substance use. Negative affect reduction and weight…

  12. College Students' Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: Implications for Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenbaum, Rhona; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined whether human sexuality and general health courses were negatively affecting college students'"moral fiber," hypothesizing that there would be no differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors before and after taking the courses. Questionnaires indicated the only change was that students had more positive safer sex behaviors…

  13. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  14. Validation of the Attitudes toward Intellectual Disability--ATTID Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, D.; Crocker, A. G.; Beaulieu-Bergeron, R.; Caron, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) continue to experience major obstacles towards social, educational and vocational integration. Negative attitudes toward persons with ID has remained relevant over time and has led to discrimination and stigma. Objective: The present study describes the development of a new questionnaire…

  15. The Teacher Attitudes toward Homeless Students Scale: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jessica J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest there are roughly 1.6 million homeless children and this number is growing (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2011). This trend is particularly worrisome given that homeless children face a number of obstacles within society and education, not the least of which is negative teacher attitudes (Swick, 2000; U.S.…

  16. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes

  17. Attitudes of Dental Hygiene Students toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.

    1992-01-01

    At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…

  18. Elementary School Students' Attitude toward Science and Related Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacieminoglu, Esme

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide studies have revealed an important issue in that an increasing percentage of students within the X-Y age group are not interested in science. Many students, especially females, have negative feelings and attitudes toward science, which discourages them from continuing with scientific inquiries. There are limited studies related to the…

  19. Impact of Training on Attitudes of Older Paraprofessionals Toward Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Rosalie A.

    With the increased use of paraprofessionals as service providers to the elderly, and indication in current literature that negative attitudes toward the aged are reflected in treatment received, the need for specialized training in geriatrics is apparent. A true-false 54-item questionnaire concerning older people's social, economic, physical and…

  20. Roma Pupils' Attitudes Towards Education--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Munda, Milanka

    2015-01-01

    When analysing the reasons behind the academic underachievement of Roma pupils, some teachers suggest that Roma people do not value education and that Roma children have negative attitudes towards school. With increasing frequency, Roma pupils from low socio-economic backgrounds are being researched and the research primarily adopts the…

  1. Women's knowledge and attitudes regarding alcohol consumption in pregnancy: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol exposure in pregnancy is a common and modifiable risk factor for poor pregnancy and child outcomes. Alcohol exposure in pregnancy can cause a range of physical and neurodevelopmental problems in the child including the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). In order to improve prevention strategies, we sought to describe the knowledge and attitudes of women of childbearing age regarding alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its effects on the fetus. Methods We conducted a national cross-sectional survey via computer assisted telephone interview of 1103 Australian women aged 18 to 45 years. Participants were randomly selected from the Electronic White Pages. Pregnant women were not eligible to participate. Quotas were set for age groups and a minimum of 100 participants per state to ensure a national sample reflecting the population. The questionnaire was based on a Health Canada survey with additional questions constructed by the investigators. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations with participants' knowledge and attitudes. Results Of women surveyed, 61.5% had heard about effects of alcohol on the fetus and 55.3% had heard of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Although 92.7% agreed alcohol can affect the unborn child, 16.2% did not agree that the disabilities could be lifelong. Most women agreed that pregnant women should not drink alcohol (80.2%) and 79.2% reported having negative feelings towards pregnant women drinking alcohol. Women with higher education levels were more likely to know the effects of alcohol consumption in pregnancy (adjusted OR 5.62; 95% CI 3.20 to 9.87) but education level and knowledge were not associated with attitude. Conclusions There was a disjunction between knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol consumption in pregnancy. These findings will assist in developing effective health promotion campaigns to reduce fetal alcohol exposure and subsequent fetal damage. PMID:20727217

  2. Marital Attitude Trajectories across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study seeks to address the implicit assumption in the developmental literature that marital attitudes are static by investigating how various marital attitudes might change across adolescence. Longitudinal change for three marital attitudes in relation to family structure, educational aspirations, race and gender are examined.…

  3. Literacy Education, Equity, and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Christine H.; Harste, Jerome C.; Shockley, Caroline J.

    2007-01-01

    The word "attitude" has different meanings. While some educators wish their students had less attitude, others are looking for ways to help students develop the kind of questioning, critical attitude that will allow them to interrogate and rethink what they already know or take for granted. This article describes a teacher education program that…

  4. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  5. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  6. Attitude of Saudi Arabian adults towards consanguineous marriage

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Omar A.; Al-Shaia, Walaa A.; Al-Hamam, Abdulaziz A.; Al-Marzoug, Hala M.; Ahmed, Anwar E.; Bagha, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on the attitudes of Saudi adults towards consanguinity is scarce. The study aimed to explore the attitudes towards consanguinity and its associations with socio-demographic characteristics in a sample of Saudi adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 386 outpatient waiting-area attendees at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City-Riyadh were included. Participants were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics, attitude towards consanguinity and the reasons behind this. Results: The positive attitude towards consanguinity among the study respondents was 48.1% with 95% confidence interval (42.91–53.33%). Social and traditional culture (59.9%) were found to be the predominant reasons for favoring consanguinity in Saudi Arabia. Evidence against a positive attitude towards consanguinity was noted in respondents who received medical information about consanguinity versus those who had not received medical information (42.3% vs. 57%, p-value = 0.008). According to the multivariate logistic model, the odds of a positive attitude towards consanguinity were 2 times higher for males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.147, 4.290) and 4.1 times higher in respondents in consanguineous marriages (aOR: 4.1; 95% CI: 2.350, 7.156). The odds of a positive attitude towards consanguinity were 50% less in respondents who received health information on consanguinity compared to those who had not received health information about consanguinity (aOR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.253, 0.863). Conclusion: One in every two Saudi adults favors consanguinity however, Saudi men and women differ in their attitudes towards consanguinity. Receiving health information on consanguinity was associated with a negative attitude towards this practice. PMID:26835408

  7. Values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbaco, K. S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of Values Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, Values and Education. Generally, most of the values were taught by the teachers. All of the values were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for values taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, valuing life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for values learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, valuing life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, values were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. Values can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between values taught by the teachers and values learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; values taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach values; values learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even he/she did not learned values in his/her mathematics class.

  8. Attitude Surveys Document Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert, Comp.

    This packet presents results of a series of attitude surveys representing a variety of purposes, methods and defined publics. They range from a simple questionnaire prepared and mailed to a small group of key individuals by a public relations staff to scientifically derived surveys purchased from Louis Harris and Associates and other research…

  9. Learning from Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Domingos S. L.

    2004-12-01

    From 1985 to 1989, I worked at the Kapteyn Laboratory - which is part of the Astronomy Faculty of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands - on my doctoral thesis project. During the whole period Prof. Hugo van Woerden was the Chairman of the Laboratory. From my recollections of that time I tell here three episodes in which Prof. van Woerden's attitudes are put in focus.

  10. Maternal Attitudes. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnischfeger, Annegret; Wiley, David E.

    This paper discusses ways in which maternal attitudes may serve as mediating variables linking social class characteristics of the family to the socialization of children. Reference is made to the Family Problem Scale (Ernhart and Loevinger) which provides a psychological characterization of social class levels on five dimensions or subscales:…

  11. The right attitude.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    Setting explicit standards for the behaviour of nurses is one of the ten priorities for action identified by Nursing Standard's Care campaign. Some employers are turning to customer care models in an attempt to ensure that staff always exhibit the right attitude. Others are asking nurses to take a pledge to deliver quality care. PMID:22808596

  12. Working Memory and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

  13. Graduate Statistics: Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Robert L.; Broadston, Pamela M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes toward statistics of graduate students who used a computer program as part of the instruction, which allowed for an individualized, self-paced, student-centered, activity-based course. The twelve sections involved in this study were offered in the spring and fall 2001, spring and fall 2002, spring and fall…

  14. Attitude Is Everything

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jazelle

    2009-01-01

    In the past 10 years, college and university administrators have been embracing online learning as the next logical step in higher education, but not all faculty have been on board. Studies conducted by the Sloan Consortium, an association that promotes online learning, suggest that faculty attitudes have become a barrier to successful online…

  15. Thoughts on Attitude Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Norman

    2006-01-01

    Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner…

  16. Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

  17. Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

    This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

  18. Nurses' Attitudes toward Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Maude H.; Robinson, Beverly H.

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether nurses' attitudes toward suicide are based on clinical specialty, age, and degree completed. Findings from 184 nurses revealed no significant differences between clinical specialty groups. Age and degree were significant only on Right to Die scale. Older nurses and those with advanced degrees were more likely to agree with…

  19. Perspective Taking to Improve Attitudes towards International Teaching Assistants: The Role of National Identification and Prior Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohar, Uttara; Appiah, Osei

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate students negatively evaluate international TAs in universities across the U.S. Using the social identity framework a perspective-taking intervention is proposed to improve undergraduate students' attitudes towards International TAs. Students (n?=?143) were randomly assigned to receive target-focused or self-focused perspective-taking…

  20. Mexican beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and gender-role ideology in marriage.

    PubMed

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Quiros, Vanessa; López-Vázquez, Esperanza; Ehrenzweig, Yamilet

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-one Mexican respondents completed a questionnaire that measured beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and another that measured gender-role ideology in marriage (GRIMQ). The participants were divided into two groups according to the GRIMQ: "high machismo/marianismo" and "low machismo/marianismo" groups. The participants belonging to the first group showed the most negative attitudes toward hysterectomy. In this group, men showed more negative attitudes toward hysterctomy and were less likely than women to believe that hysterectomy has positive aspects. The findings are discussed in light of male dominance and female subordination that prevail in certain cultural groups of Mexico.xs. PMID:22577739