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1

Effects of Negative Information about Aging on Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated effect of negative information about aging on attitudes of 30 undergraduate students. Found negative financial information about aging had no effect on mildly negative attitudes toward older adults, but significantly lowered optimistic attitudes toward one's own future life as an older adult. An overview of aging following negative

Kremer, John F.

1988-01-01

2

Correlates of Chilean Adolescents’ Negative Attitudes Toward Cigarettes: The Role of Gender, Peer, Parental, and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. Results: For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Conclusion: Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls’ but not boys’ attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking. PMID:22157230

Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

2012-01-01

3

Dysfunctional attitudes, stress, and negative emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined several hypotheses relating to the proposed moderating effect of dysfunctional attitudes on the relationship between stressful events and mood disturbance. Participants in Study 1 completed the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Daily Hassles Scale. As predicted, dysfunctional attitudes significantly moderated the relationship between the reported frequency of microstressors and dysphoria. Study 2 extended

Nicholas A. Kuiper; L. Joan Olinger; Rod A. Martin

1988-01-01

4

Altered Attitudes of People toward Robots: Investigation through the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to measure what images, opinions, and at- titudes people have developed toward robots and how they can be changed, from scientic and engineering perspectives. This paper reports results of social research on Japanese peo- ple's attitudes toward robots by using ìthe Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale (NARS).î They revealed that attitudes toward robots differ depending on assumptions

Tatsuya Nomuray; Tomohiro Suzuki; Takayuki Kandaz; Kensuke Kato

5

Comparative analysis of positive and negative attitudes toward statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.

Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

2015-02-01

6

Believing Is Seeing: Fixation Duration Predicts Implicit Negative Attitudes  

PubMed Central

A prototypical finding of social cognition is that social experiences influence later performance even though those experiences are not introspectively available. Building on social cognition research on implicit attitudes, we evaluate whether ethnic category/attribute pairs influence eye movements during the Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz 1998). Results show that fixation duration predicted implicit attitudes such that when the category/attribute pairs disconfirmed one's implicit negative attitude fixation duration toward that pair increased. The present research provides evidence that eye movements and implicit processes inherent in the IAT are more broadly connected than previously thought. PMID:25133639

2014-01-01

7

Changing Teachers' Negative Attitudes Toward Persons With Intellectual Disabilities.  

PubMed

The current study aims at changing teachers' negative attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities. The intervention is based on the argument that providing information is not sufficient to achieve lasting change of attitudes toward people with disabilities, and that contact is required as an additional element to show positive results. A pretest-posttest intervention was conducted using three conditions: (a) cognitive intervention, (b) cognitive and behavioral intervention involving contact with the target group, and (c) no-intervention control. The participants comprised 18 teachers, with 6 teachers in each group. Following baseline assessments of attitudes, attitude change was measured immediately following the intervention and at a follow-up 12 weeks postintervention. The cognitive intervention provided information about intellectual disability and challenged stereotypic conceptions about persons with intellectual disabilities. The behavioral intervention involved being engaged in work with and training persons with intellectual disabilities in sheltered workshops. The results showed that the cognitive intervention alone did not result in significant changes in attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities. However, the combined cognitive-behavioral intervention resulted in greater attitude change than the no-intervention condition, both immediately postintervention and at a 12-week follow-up. The findings are discussed with regard to models of attitude change. The study concludes with some recommendations for teacher training programs to be attended to. PMID:25488181

Hassanein, Elsayed Elshabrawy Ahmed

2014-12-01

8

On the Negative Attitude towards Left-Handedness of Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present study was aimed to determine the reasons behind negative attitude of some teachers to the left-handed writing of their pupils. Total of 745 primary school teachers of both sexes, mean age 34, Caucasians, citizens of the Republic Georgia, served as respondents in the study presented. Teachers were requested to answer in writing the…

Makashvili, Malkhaz; Taliashvili, Tamar

2009-01-01

9

Negative CPOE attitudes correlate with diminished power in the workplace.  

PubMed

Power changes have been identified as a frequent and unintended consequence of the implementation of computerized physician order entry (CPOE). However, no previous study has described the degree or direction of power change, or even confirmed that such a relationship exists. Using a validated, standardized instrument for measuring personal power, we collected data from 276 healthcare workers in two different hospitals before and after implementation of CPOE. We identified a significant correlation between power perceptions and attitudes toward CPOE. Examining the direction of change by healthcare position, we found that the power perception values decreased for all positions and that attitudes toward CPOE varied based on use of the system. Understanding the relationship between power and CPOE is the first step in enabling systems developers to change the direction of power changes from negative to positive. PMID:18998842

Bartos, Christa E; Butler, Brian S; Penrod, Louis E; Fridsma, Douglas B; Crowley, Rebecca S

2008-01-01

10

Neural Correlates of Attitude Change Following Positive and Negative Advertisements  

PubMed Central

Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour. PMID:19503749

Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

2009-01-01

11

Competitive disadvantage makes attitudes towards rape less negative.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape. PMID:22947990

Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine

2011-01-01

12

Changing negative attitudes towards persons with physical disabilities: an experimental intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was designed and tested to change negative attitudes towards the physically disabled. A pre-post-test intervention was conducted including three conditions: (a) cognitive inter- vention; (b) cognitive and behavioural intervention involving equal-status contact with the target group; (c) no-intervention control. The sample consisted of 70 ninth grade students. Following base- line assessments of attitudes, attitude change was measured

BARBARA KRAHE ´; Colette Altwasser

2006-01-01

13

Correlates of negative attitudes toward gay men: Sexism, male role norms, and male sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that heterosexual men are more negative toward gay men than women are on measures of attitudes toward homosexual behaviour and homosexual persons (Kite & Whitley, 1996). Gender differences in attitudes toward gay men's civil rights are less clear. No empirical studies, however, have investigated these findings with a scale that measures specifically these three attitudinal subcomponents. This

Michelle Davies

2004-01-01

14

Negative Affect in Victimized Children: The Roles of Social Withdrawal, Peer Rejection, and Attitudes Toward Bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the validity of mediating pathways in predicting self-assessed negative affect from shyness\\/social withdrawal, peer rejection, victimization by peers (overt and relational), and the attitude that aggression is legitimate and warranted. Participants were 296 3rd through 5th graders (156 girls, 140 boys) from 10 elementary schools. Self-report measures of victimization, attitudes, and negative affect, and a teacher-report measure

Edward J. Dill; Eric M. Vernberg; Peter Fonagy; Stuart W. Twemlow; Bridget K. Gamm

2004-01-01

15

Negativity bias in attitude learning: a possible indicator of vulnerability to emotional disorders?  

PubMed

Negativity biases, i.e., tendencies for negative features and interpretations to predominate over positive, are known to play a role in the etiology and maintenance of emotional disorders. Both depression and anxiety have been associated with such negative cognitive styles. Recently, Fazio, R.H., Eiser, J.R., and Shook, N.J. [(2004). Attitude formation through exploration: Valence asymmetries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 293-311] have observed similar valence asymmetries in the domain of attitude formation and generalization. The present research examined the possibility that the extent to which individuals display a learning bias in attitude formation is related to negative cognitive style and emotional disorder symptoms. Participants played a computer game that required learning whether novel stimuli produced positive or negative outcomes. Poorer learning was associated with more negative cognitive style, greater depression, and a tendency toward greater anxiety. Interestingly, these relations were most evident with respect to the learning of the positive stimuli, suggesting that an under-appreciation of positive objects and events may underlie vulnerability to emotional disorders. The potential value of various indices of negativity bias that can be assessed when examining attitude formation and generalization is discussed. PMID:17101116

Shook, Natalie J; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W

2007-06-01

16

Do negative stimulant-related attitudes vary for prescription stimulants and cocaine among college students?  

PubMed

Nonmedical prescription stimulant use (NPS) has become an increasing problem for college students across the United States. Many engage in NPS due to the belief that their academic functioning will improve - a belief that rarely extends to other illicit stimulants. Because positive attitudes toward substances potentially predict the maintenance of current and future use, the aim of the current study was to directly compare attitudes toward different stimulants of abuse (prescription stimulants and cocaine) to ascertain whether attitudes were generally more positive as a function of both drug and drug user type. Ninety-one participants completed a brief attitudinal index assessing attitudes for both prescription stimulants and cocaine. Participants held stronger positive attitudes toward prescription stimulants than cocaine on a variety of items. NPS users reported more positive attitudes toward prescription stimulants than both nonusers and cocaine users. Nonusers reported more negative cocaine-related attitudes than cocaine users and polydrug users (users of both prescription stimulants and cocaine). Intervention programs may benefit from highlighting the negative consequences of NPS, particularly by way of comparisons to cocaine. Doing so may heighten awareness on the overlap of adverse outcomes resulting from use between these stimulants. PMID:24674296

Looby, Alison; Kassman, Kyle T; Earleywine, Mitch

2014-06-01

17

Altered Attitudes of People toward Robots: Investigation through the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to measure what images, opinions, and at- titudes people have developed toward robots and how they can be changed, from scientific and engineering perspectives. This paper reports results of social research on Japanese peo- ple's attitudes toward robots by using \\

Tatsuya Nomura; Tomohiro Suzuki; Takayuki Kanda; Kensuke Kato

18

Ambient Lighting Interventions REDUCE Negative Behaviors by 83% &  

E-print Network

Ambient Lighting Interventions REDUCE Negative Behaviors by 83% & INCREASE Positive Behaviors by 90; - and improve the quality of life for all residents and caregivers. Ambient Light Comparisons in similar

California at Davis, University of

19

Xenophobia: Understanding the Roots and Consequences of Negative Attitudes toward Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current xenophobic cultural environment in the United States makes it imperative that psychologists understand the nature of xenophobia and recognize its consequences. This article explores sociological, social psychological, and multicultural research to examine the causes of negative attitudes toward immigrants. Xenophobia is presented as a…

Yakushko, Oksana

2009-01-01

20

Out-Group Mating Threat and Disease Threat Increase Implicit Negative Attitudes Toward the Out-Group Among Men  

PubMed Central

We investigated if perceiving an out-group as a threat to one's mating opportunities enhanced the implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of disease threat on the relationship between an out-group mating threat and implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In Experiment 1, an out-group mating threat led to stronger implicit negative out-group attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test, but only for men with high chronic perceived vulnerability to disease. No such effects were found among women. In Experiment 2, men in the out-group mating threat condition who were primed with disease prevalence showed significantly stronger implicit negative attitudes toward the out-group than controls. Findings are discussed with reference to the functional approach to prejudice and sex-specific motivational reactions to different out-group threats. PMID:21687447

Klavina, Liga; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.

2011-01-01

21

Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

2012-01-01

22

The Peer Attitudes toward Children Who Stutter (PATCS) Scale: An Evaluation of Validity, Reliability and the Negativity of Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Persistent calls for school-based education about stuttering necessitate a better understanding of peer attitudes toward children who stutter and a means to measure outcomes of such educational interventions. Langevin and Hagler in 2004 developed the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter scale (PATCS) to address these needs and…

Langevin, Marilyn; Kleitman, Sabina; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

2009-01-01

23

Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians.  

PubMed

Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M?=?31.42, SD?=?16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically to different types of meat. PMID:25312749

Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate

2015-01-01

24

External Insect Morphology: A Negative Factor in Attitudes toward Insects and Likelihood of Incorporation in Future Science Education Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated if the external morphology of an insect had a negative effect on United States (US) preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward insects and beliefs concerning the likelihood of incorporating insects into future science education settings. 270 US kindergarten through sixth grade preservice elementary teachers…

Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

2012-01-01

25

Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

Shin, Junseob

2011-01-01

26

Homosexual threat, negative attitudes toward masturbation, sex guilt, and males' sexual and affective reactions to explicit sexual films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective sexual arousal and affective responses of 215 undergraduate males to films of masturbatory, homosexual, and heterosexual behavior were studied as a function of personality differences in negative attitudes toward masturbation, homosexual threat, and sex guilt. The film of heterosexual behavior elicited more subjective sexual arousal and less disgust, anger, shame, depression, and guilt than did the films of male

Donald L. Mosher; Kevin E. OGrady

1979-01-01

27

Bad Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negative attitudes students bring to class can obstruct teaching and learning. These attitudes can be traced to ideas of selfism advanced by modern philosophers. Discusses why students are not learning, examining sources of opposing values and how to recognize obstructive attitudes. Presents suggestions for handling negative attitudes that…

Ruggiero, Vincent Ryan

2000-01-01

28

Measurement and Predictors of a Negative Attitude towards Statistics among LMU Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of the attitude towards statistics and the relationship between the attitude towards statistics and several\\u000a socio-demographic and educational factors was investigated in a survey on over 600 students of the Ludgwig-Maximilians-Universität\\u000a (LMU). The attitude towards statistics was measured by means of the Affect and Cognitive Competence scales of the Survey of\\u000a Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS, Schau et al.

Carolin Strobl; Friedrich Leisch; Christian Dittrich; Christian Seiler; Sandra Hackensperger

29

Suburban attitudes toward policies aimed at reducing solo driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies that are aimed at discouraging commuters from solo driving have become a part of overall efforts to improve air quality and reduce traffic congestion. Since driving alone is the overwhelming choice of employed residents in US metropolitan areas, the political acceptability of proposed policy changes plays a role in their success. The 1992 Orange County (CA) Annual Survey asked

Mark Baldassare; Sherry Ryan; Cheryl Katz

1998-01-01

30

Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale  

E-print Network

of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale Christopher G. Beevers University of Texas at Austin David R. Strong Brown for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively

Beevers, Christopher

31

Human attitudes towards herpetofauna: The influence of folklore and negative values on the conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background Human values and folklore of wildlife strongly influence the effectiveness of conservation efforts. These values and folklore may also vary with certain demographic characteristics such as gender, age, or education. Reptiles and amphibians are among the least appreciated of vertebrates and are victims of many negative values and wrong ideas resulting from the direct interpretation of folklore. We try to demonstrate how these values and folklore can affect the way people relate to them and also the possible conservation impacts on these animals. Methods A questionnaire survey distributed to 514 people in the district of Évora, Portugal, was used to obtain data regarding the hypothesis that the existence of wrong ideas and negative values contributes to the phenomenon of human-associated persecution of these animals. A structural equation model was specified in order to confirm the hypothesis about the possible relationships between the presence of perceptions and negative values about amphibians and reptiles and persecution and anti-conservation attitudes. Sociodemographic variables were also added. Results The results of the model suggest that the presence of folklore and negative values clearly predicts persecution and anti-conservation attitudes towards amphibians and reptiles. Also, the existence of folklore varies sociodemographically, but negative values concerning these animals are widespread in the population. Conclusions With the use of structural equation models, this work is a contribution to the study of how certain ideas and values can directly influence human attitudes towards herpetofauna and how they can be a serious conservation issue. PMID:22316318

2012-01-01

32

Sustainable ecological development reducing negative effects of road maintenance salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure traffic safety in winter, large amounts of technical salts (chlorides) are applied on roads. De?icing salts directly or indirectly contaminate the road environment and have a negative effect on the components of road environment. The analysis of the situation raises a question: how to ensure traffic safety in wintertime applying salts and achieve sustainable development. The article presents

Pranas Baltrenas; Agne Kazlauskiene

2009-01-01

33

Columbia University study shows breastfeeding reduced risk for ER/PR-negative breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Breast-feeding reduces the risk for estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer, according to a study conducted at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health.

34

Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and…

Beevers, Christopher G.; Strong, David R.; Meyer, Bjorn; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Miller, Ivan R.

2007-01-01

35

Differences in negativity bias probably underlie variation in attitudes toward change generally, not political ideology specifically.  

PubMed

Many of the characteristics cited in Hibbing et al.'s account are ineffective predictors of economic conservatism. However, these same characteristics are often associated with differences not only in social conservatism but also in religiousness and authoritarianism. Hibbing et al. may have offered a useful explanation of traditionalism and attitudes toward change across domains rather than of general political attitudes. PMID:24970442

Ludeke, Steven G; DeYoung, Colin G

2014-06-01

36

Reducing STD/HIV stigmatizing attitudes through community popular opinion leaders in Chinese markets  

PubMed Central

Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes and practices of risky sexual behavior and its consequences. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus one campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community popular opinion leaders to discuss these issues in everyday social venues. This study tested the effectiveness of such an approach on reducing HIV/AIDS stigma, across two years, from a sample of over 4500 market vendors, in three conditions. Results showed an increasing growth in market communication about intervention messages, and concomitant declines in stigmatizing attitudes, across time, with the greatest changes in community popular opinion leaders, significant changes in intervention non-opinion leaders, and little change in the control markets. PMID:24944433

Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2013-01-01

37

Learning to dislike alcohol: conditioning negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol and its effect on drinking behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Since implicit attitudes toward alcohol play an important role in drinking behavior, a possible way to obtain a behavioral\\u000a change is changing these implicit attitudes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  This study examined whether a change in implicit attitudes and in drinking behavior can be achieved via evaluative conditioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition and a control condition. In the experimental condition,

Katrijn Houben; Remco C. Havermans; Reinout W. Wiers

2010-01-01

38

Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and develop a briefer version of the scale. Using DAS-A

Christopher G. Beevers; David R. Strong; Björn Meyer; Paul A. Pilkonis; Ivan W. Miller

2007-01-01

39

Short-term clinical stability and lack of insight are associated with a negative attitude towards antipsychotic treatment at discharge in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Purpose The primary aim of this study was to assess the range of attitudes towards antipsychotic treatment at hospital discharge in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The secondary aim was to analyze the relationship between patients’ attitudes and sociodemographic and clinical parameters. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study with a sample of patients admitted due to acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or a manic episode was conducted. Attitude towards pharmacological treatment at discharge was assessed with the 10-item Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10). Logistic regression was used to determine significant variables associated with attitude to medication. Results Eighty-six patients were included in the study. The mean age was 43.1 years (standard deviation [SD] 12.1), and 55.8% were males. Twenty-six percent of the patients presented a negative attitude towards antipsychotic treatment (mean DAI-10 score of ?4.7, SD 2.7). Most of them had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Multivariate analysis showed that poor insight into illness and a greater number of previous acute episodes was significantly associated with a negative attitude towards medication at discharge (odds ratio 1.68 and 1.18, respectively). Conclusion Insight and clinical stability prior to admission were related to patients’ attitude towards antipsychotic treatment at hospital discharge among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The identification of factors related to the attitude towards medication would offer an improved opportunity for clinicians to select patients eligible for prophylactic adherence-focused interventions. PMID:22969293

Medina, Esteban; Salvà, Joan; Ampudia, Rubén; Maurino, Jorge; Larumbe, Juan

2012-01-01

40

Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People’s Republic of China. PMID:24368880

Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

2014-01-01

41

The Effectiveness of Peer Mediation on Reducing Middle School Violence and Negative Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of peer mediation on reducing violence and negative behaviors in middle school students. Negative behaviors included various ways students disrupt learning and included tardiness, absenteeism and truancy as well as classroom distractions of all forms. Three middle schools all in the same school…

Cigainero, Lorraine

2009-01-01

42

Emotional event-related potentials are reduced if negative pictures presented at fixation are unattended  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewing of emotional pictures elicits two event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotional versus neutral pictures: an early posterior negativity (EPN) and a late positive potential (LPP). Because it is unresolved whether these indexes of emotional processing are reduced to task-irrelevant pictures at fixation, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture Set (IAPS) were shown at fixation together with 6

Stefan Wiens; Anders Sand; Joakim Norberg; Per Andersson

2011-01-01

43

Psychological Motives Versus Health Concerns: Predicting Smoking Attitudes and Promoting Antismoking Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes findings from 2 studies of smoking attitudes and behavior among Taiwanese adolescents. In the first, a survey, the motivations to gain positive external rewards, enhance positive internal affect, and reduce negative internal affect were all found to predict positive attitudes toward smoking, the intention to smoke, and actual smoking behavior. Concern for short-term health consequences was negatively

Chingching Chang

2009-01-01

44

USE OF NEGATIVE ARI IONIZATION FOR REDUCING BACTERIAL PATHOGENS AND SPORES ON STAINLESS STEEL SURFACES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of chemicals in food plant sanitation for removing and killing microorganisms could be reduced by the use of alternative non-chemical interventions. Negative air ionization is a new technology that has shown potential to effectively reduce airborne and surface microorganisms. Current studies...

45

Thermostats with attitudes: A sociological analysis of assumptions underlying common approaches to reducing residential energy consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contributes to the emerging literature in the sociology of energy consumption by answering three important questions about the assumptions underlying popular approaches to reducing energy consumption behavior. The answers are gleaned from data on Wisconsin households gathered in 1998 and 1999. The first question has to do with the efficacy of a "cognitive fix" approach of attempting to change attitudes in hopes of changing behavior, and asks whether energy-related attitudes can predict actual energy savings. The results of a regression analysis of heating energy intensity revealed that a variable measuring respondents' attitudes toward energy conservation predict heating energy intensity, but the effect was overwhelmed by control variables for insulation and draftiness. These and other results offer some support for the cognitive fix approach of attitudinal change as a means of reducing energy consumption. The second question concerns a popular "technological fix" of subsidizing the replacement of manual thermostats with programmable ones, and asks whether programmable thermostats actually save significant home heating energy. The data show that households with programmable thermostats appear to use no less energy than do households with manual thermostats, and that it is behavioral norms, not the type of thermostat, that determine thermostat setting behavior. The results suggest strongly that in aggregate, the installation of programmable thermostats in residential households cannot be expected to deliver promised energy savings. The third question addressed is whether popular knowledge about global warming or the connection between energy use and global environmental change is growing, and if so, what is the likelihood that these prospective socio-cultural shifts might result in increased residential energy conservation. The analysis suggests that, compared to the findings of earlier studies, awareness of the environmental consequences of energy use is on the increase, but the likelihood that this growing awareness will lead to increased conservation appears to be minimal. In addition to answering the questions above, this work provides an example of how a comprehensive sociological approach to studying energy consumption can help inform our understanding of energy use in ways that earlier approaches could not.

Nevius, Monica Josefina

2001-12-01

46

An active control method to reduce the effect of negative damping in disk brake system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel approach to reduce the effect of negative damping that causes brake noise is proposed by applying an active force control (AFC) based strategy to a two degree-of-freedom model of a disk brake system. At first, the disc brake model is simulated and analyzed using a closed loop pure PID controller. Later, it is integrated with

Sayed-Mahdi Hashemi-Dehkordi; Musa Mailah; A. R. A. Bakar

2009-01-01

47

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

48

Prediction of Human Behavior in Human--Robot Interaction Using Psychological Scales for Anxiety and Negative Attitudes Toward Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

When people interact with communication robots in daily life, their attitudes and emotions toward the robots affect their behavior. From the perspective of robotics design, we need to investigate the influences of these attitudes and emotions on human-robot interaction. This paper reports our empirical study on the relationships between people's attitudes and emotions, and their behavior toward a robot. In

Tatsuya Nomura; Takayuki Kanda; Tomohiro Suzuki; Kiyotaka Kato

2008-01-01

49

"Treating" prejudice: an exposure-therapy approach to reducing negative reactions toward stigmatized groups.  

PubMed

One of the ways in which therapists treat anxiety disorders is to expose patients to a fear-evoking stimulus within a safe environment before encouraging more positive stimulus-related thoughts. In the study reported here, we adapted these psychotherapeutic principles of exposure therapy to test the hypothesis that imagining a positive encounter with a member of a stigmatized group would be more likely to promote positive perceptions when it was preceded by an imagined negative encounter. The results of three experiments targeting a range of stigmatized groups (adults with schizophrenia, gay men, and British Muslims) supported this hypothesis. Compared with purely positive interventions, interventions in which a single negative encounter was imagined just prior to imagining a positive encounter resulted in significantly reduced prejudice. Furthermore, reduced anxiety uniquely derived from the mixed-valence imagery task statistically explained enhanced intentions to engage positively with the previously stigmatized group in the future. PMID:23019142

Birtel, Michèle D; Crisp, Richard J

2012-01-01

50

Countermeasure for reducing post-flight orthostatic intolerance: Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) experiment E140  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigators have shown that after 1-2 weeks of bed rest ingestion of 1000 ml of a salt water solution during 4 hours of continuous exposure to 30 mm Hg of lower body negative pressure will protect plasma volume and orthostatic function for up to 24 hours. We hypothesize that a similar countermeasure will reduce the effects of fluid loss induced by headward fluid shift during space flight. The objective of this flight experiment is to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed countermeasure in reversing these effects on the cardiovascular system. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) involves exposing the legs and lower abdomen to reduced air pressure. The LBNP device is an air-tight chamber that seals the subject's waist to enclose the lower body. As used in this experiment, LBNP provides both the candidate treatment as well as the means of assessing the effectiveness of the treatment.

Charles, John B.

1993-01-01

51

Fairness Reduces the Negative Effects of Organizational Politics on Turnover Intentions, Citizenship Behavior and Job Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses from 150 employees revealed that procedural justice reduced the negative effects of perceptions of covert, self-serving political behaviors (e.g., going along with others), but not overt political behaviors (e.g., tearing others down to build up self) on turnover intentions. Both procedural and interactional justice moderated effects of covert, but not overt political behaviors, on OCB beneficial to the organization;

Zinta S. Byrne

2005-01-01

52

Use of sexual intercourse to reduce negative affect as a prospective mediator of sexual revictimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased risk of adult sexual assault (ASA) among women who experienced child sexual abuse (CSA) is well established. The strategies these women use to reduce negative affect secondary to CSA, such as sexual contact, may mediate the link between CSA and later ASA. Two waves of data from a racially diverse sample (i.e., 46% Black, 46.1% White, 7.9% other) of

Holly K. Orcutt; M. Lynne Cooper; Marilyn Garcia

2005-01-01

53

Do experiences of racial discrimination predict cardiovascular disease among African American Men? The moderating role of internalized negative racial group attitudes  

PubMed Central

Studies examining associations between racial discrimination and cardiovascular health outcomes have been inconsistent, with some studies finding the highest risk of hypertension among African Americans who report no discrimination. A potential explanation of the latter is that hypertension and other cardiovascular problems are fostered by internalization and denial of racial discrimination. To explore this hypothesis, the current study examines the role of internalized negative racial group attitudes in linking experiences of racial discrimination and history of cardiovascular disease among African American men. We predicted a significant interaction between reported discrimination and internalized negative racial group attitudes in predicting cardiovascular disease. Weighted logistic regression analyses were conducted among 1216 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL; 2001– 2003). We found no main effect of racial discrimination in predicting history of cardiovascular disease. However, agreeing with negative beliefs about Blacks was positively associated with cardiovascular disease history, and also moderated the effect of racial discrimination. Reporting racial discrimination was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease among African American men who disagreed with negative beliefs about Blacks. However, among African American men who endorsed negative beliefs about Blacks, the risk of cardiovascular disease was greatest among those reporting no discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination and the internalization of negative racial group attitudes are both risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African American men. Furthermore, the combination of internalizing negative beliefs about Blacks and the absence of reported racial discrimination appear to be associated with particularly poor cardiovascular health. Steps to address racial discrimination as well as programs aimed at developing a positive racial group identity may help to improve cardiovascular health among African American men. PMID:20659782

Lincoln, Karen D; Adler, Nancy E; Syme, S. Leonard

2010-01-01

54

Racial and Gender Differences in Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Longitudinal Associations with Coital Debut  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeDelay of sexual debut is an important strategy in reducing the risk of negative adolescent health outcomes. Race and gender are known to be related to sexual behavior and outcomes, but little is known about how these characteristics affect sexual attitudes. This article examines differences in coital and pregnancy attitudes by gender and race, the influence of attitudes on transition

Juanita J. Cuffee; Denise D. Hallfors; Martha W. Waller

2007-01-01

55

A Simple Strategy for Reducing False Negatives in Calling Variants from Single-Cell Sequencing Data  

PubMed Central

Due to the growth of interest in single-cell genomics, computational methods for distinguishing true variants from artifacts are highly desirable. While special attention has been paid to false positives in variant or mutation calling from single-cell sequencing data, an equally important but often neglected issue is that of false negatives derived from allele dropout during the amplification of single cell genomes. In this paper, we propose a simple strategy to reduce the false negatives in single-cell sequencing data analysis. Simulation results show that this method is highly reliable, with an error rate of 4.94×10-5, which is orders of magnitude lower than the expected false negative rate (~34%) estimated from a single-cell exome dataset, though the method is limited by the low SNP density in the human genome. We applied this method to analyze the exome data of a few dozen single tumor cells generated in previous studies, and extracted cell specific mutation information for a small set of sites. Interestingly, we found that there are difficulties in using the classical clonal model of tumor cell growth to explain the mutation patterns observed in some tumor cells. PMID:25876174

Ji, Cong; Miao, Zong; He, Xionglei

2015-01-01

56

Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?  

PubMed

The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host-parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations. PMID:24352951

Peacock, Stephanie J; Connors, Brendan M; Krkosek, Martin; Irvine, James R; Lewis, Mark A

2014-02-01

57

The attitude changing model and its application to the designing and development of training programmes to reduce risk behaviour in driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  This article reviews how the concept of attitude is taken into account in order to reduce driving accidents through training\\u000a programmes. The review of different theories, approaches and models shows how it has been moving towards an attitude changing\\u000a model to reduce accidents. The article includes the development of the basis of what could be the training\\/educational programmes\\u000a addressed to

Mercè Jariot García; Josep Montané Capdevila

2009-01-01

58

Negative infrared photocurrent response in layered WS2/reduced graphene oxide hybrids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report high performance IR photocurrent response of two-dimensional hybrid materials consisting of layered WS2 nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Comparative photocurrent response studies of WS2 nanosheets, RGO, and WS2/RGO hybrids were carried out by performing current-voltage (I-V) and time-dependent current measurements with a laser excitation source having a wavelength of 808 nm. The experimental investigations indicate that WS2/RGO hybrids show negative photocurrent response, whereas WS2 and RGO show positive photocurrent response. The negative photocurrent response of the WS2/RGO hybrids is explained using a band alignment diagram and attributed to a charge transfer mechanism between WS2 and RGO. This analysis is further corroborated by first-principles density functional calculations. The fabricated device based on WS2/RGO hybrids shows a photosensitivity R? of about 6 AW-1 and a quantum efficiency ? of ˜924%, which demonstrates high sensitivity of the hybrid material towards IR detection. WS2/RGO hybrids are therefore promising candidates for potential applications in optoelectronic circuits and low cost, high performance, and reliable photodetectors.

Ratha, Satyajit; Simbeck, Adam J.; Late, Dattatray J.; Nayak, Saroj K.; Rout, Chandra Sekhar

2014-12-01

59

Underpinnings of Attitudes Toward Immigration Karina Pedroza & Dr. Cynthia Willis-Esqueda  

E-print Network

, t indicates p Anti-Defamation League Blind Patriotism Perceived Threat .625*** Negative result in anti-immigrant sentiment Participants · 71 (50 female, 21 male) students at the University makers and educators to reduce anti-immigrant attitudes. Future Work · Determine if negative attitudes

Farritor, Shane

60

Judgmental Bias in the Rating of Attitude Statements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Judges holding divergent attitudes rated two sets of statements regarding uses of water reclaimed from sewage. Results showed a close linear relationship between item scale values obtained from positive and negative attitudinal groups, and a somewhat reduced rating range for judges holding unfavorable personal attitudes toward reuse. (Author/RC)

Bruvold, William H.

1975-01-01

61

Hepatic glucose output in humans measured with labeled glucose to reduce negative errors  

SciTech Connect

Steele and others have suggested that minimizing changes in glucose specific activity when estimating hepatic glucose output (HGO) during glucose infusions could reduce non-steady-state errors. This approach was assessed in nondiabetic and type II diabetic subjects during constant low dose (27 mumol.kg ideal body wt (IBW)-1.min-1) glucose infusion followed by a 12 mmol/l hyperglycemic clamp. Eight subjects had paired tests with and without labeled infusions. Labeled infusion was used to compare HGO in 11 nondiabetic and 15 diabetic subjects. Whereas unlabeled infusions produced negative values for endogenous glucose output, labeled infusions largely eliminated this error and reduced the dependence of the Steele model on the pool fraction in the paired tests. By use of labeled infusions, 11 nondiabetic subjects suppressed HGO from 10.2 +/- 0.6 (SE) fasting to 0.8 +/- 0.9 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 after 90 min of glucose infusion and to -1.9 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 after 90 min of a 12 mmol/l glucose clamp, but 15 diabetic subjects suppressed only partially from 13.0 +/- 0.9 fasting to 5.7 +/- 1.2 at the end of the glucose infusion and 5.6 +/- 1.0 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 in the clamp (P = 0.02, 0.002, and less than 0.001, respectively).

Levy, J.C.; Brown, G.; Matthews, D.R.; Turner, R.C. (Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford (England))

1989-10-01

62

Everybody Belongs: Changing Negative Attitudes toward Classmates with Disabilities. Garland Reference Library of Social Science. Critical Education Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides guidance to facilitate the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms, examining the concept of disability and attitudes toward disability. The book explains that the evil prosthesis of Captain Hook, the comical speech of Porky Pig, and the bumbling antics of Mr. Magoo are all examples of images in…

Shapiro, Arthur H.

63

Family Violence and Juvenile Sex OffendingThe Potential Mediating Role of Psychopathic Traits and Negative Attitudes Toward Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile sex offenders were compared to other juvenile offenders in the degree of violence against women they witnessed in their families of origin. Poor impulse control, a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, and sexist attitudes toward women were tested as potential mediators of this relation. Participants were 70 incarcerated juvenile males, ages 13 to 18, from three offender categories: 23

ALICIA A. CAPUTO; PAUL J. FRICK; STANLEY L. BRODSKY

1999-01-01

64

Strategies to Reduce Negative Socialization in the First Years of Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transitioning into a new role can be difficult in any walk of life, and this is no different for physical educators entering a new teaching environment. In a new setting, a physical educator may go through a socialization process where beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and teaching philosophies are influenced. Teacher socialization research suggests…

Hushman, Glenn; Napper-Owens, Gloria

2012-01-01

65

Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.  

PubMed

Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation. PMID:22148989

Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul

2012-04-01

66

The contact caveat: negative contact predicts increased prejudice more than positive contact predicts reduced prejudice.  

PubMed

Contact researchers have largely overlooked the potential for negative intergroup contact to increase prejudice. In Study 1, we tested the interaction between contact quantity and valence on prejudice toward Black Australians (n = 1,476), Muslim Australians (n = 173), and asylum seekers (n = 293). In all cases, the association between contact quantity and prejudice was moderated by its valence, with negative contact emerging as a stronger and more consistent predictor than positive contact. In Study 2, White Americans (n = 441) indicated how much positive and negative contact they had with Black Americans on separate measures. Although both quantity of positive and negative contact predicted racism and avoidance, negative contact was the stronger predictor. Furthermore, negative (but not positive) contact independently predicted suspicion about Barack Obama's birthplace. These results extend the contact hypothesis by issuing an important caveat: Negative contact may be more strongly associated with increased racism and discrimination than positive contact is with its reduction. PMID:22941796

Barlow, Fiona Kate; Paolini, Stefania; Pedersen, Anne; Hornsey, Matthew J; Radke, Helena R M; Harwood, Jake; Rubin, Mark; Sibley, Chris G

2012-12-01

67

Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN) in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400). These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing. PMID:24688845

Lodhia, Veema; Brock, Jon; Johnson, Blake W.

2014-01-01

68

Reduced sense of agency in chronic schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms.  

PubMed

Self-disturbances in schizophrenia have been regarded as a fundamental vulnerability marker for this disease, and have begun to be studied from the standpoint of an abnormal "sense of agency (SoA)" in cognitive neuroscience. To clarify the nature of aberrant SoA in schizophrenia, it needs to be investigated in various clinical subtypes and stages. The residual type of chronic schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms (NS) has never been investigated for SoA. Accordingly, we investigated SoA by an original agency attribution task in NS-predominant schizophrenia, and evaluated the dynamic interplay between the predictive and postdictive components of SoA in the optimal cue integration framework. We studied 20 patients with NS-predominant schizophrenia, and compared with 30 patients with paranoid-type schizophrenia and 35 normal volunteers. NS-predominant schizophrenia showed markedly diminished SoA compared to normal controls and paranoid-type schizophrenia, indicating a completely opposite direction in agency attribution compared with excessive SoA demonstrated in paranoid-type schizophrenia. Reduced SoA was detected in experimental studies of schizophrenia for the first time. According to the optimal cue integration framework, these results indicate that there was no increase in compensatory contributions of the postdictive processes despite the existence of inadequate predictions, contrary to the exaggerated postdictive component in paranoid-type schizophrenia. PMID:23680465

Maeda, Takaki; Takahata, Keisuke; Muramatsu, Taro; Okimura, Tsukasa; Koreki, Akihiro; Iwashita, Satoru; Mimura, Masaru; Kato, Motoichiro

2013-10-30

69

Measuring Negative Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity in the German Population – Psychometric Properties and Reference Values for the German Short Version of the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS)  

PubMed Central

Objective Obesity is one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Obese individuals are often stigmatized and the psychosocial consequences of overweight and obesity are the subject of current research. To detect stigmatizing attitudes towards obese people, the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS) was developed in the USA in the early nineties. In addition, the 14-item short form of the FPS was constructed. The FPS belongs to the most commonly used instruments for measuring negative attitudes towards obese people because of its good psychometric properties. For the recently developed German short form of the FPS, however, the comprehensive investigation of the psychometric properties and the determination of reference values are still pending. Thus, the main objectives of this study were the evaluation of the psychometric quality of the scale as well as the calculation of reference values. Methods The study was based on a representative survey in the German general population. A sample of 1,657 subjects (18–94 years) was assessed via structured telephone interviews including the 14-item German version of the FPS. Descriptive statistics and inference-statistical analyses were conducted. Reference values in terms of percentage ranks were calculated. Results Substantial evidence for the reliability and validity of the German short version of the FPS was found. This study, for the first time in Germany, provides age-specific reference values for the German short form of the FPS allowing the interpretation of individual test scores. Conclusion Facing the far-reaching consequences of experienced stigmatization of obese individuals, these study results provide an important basis for further studies aiming at the investigation of negative attitudes towards overweight and obesity. PMID:25474195

Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Ruzanska, Ulrike; Sikorski, Claudia; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

2014-01-01

70

Improving intergroup attitudes and reducing stereotype threat: An integrated contact model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we develop an intergroup contact model of stereotype threat effects. We review research on improving intergroup relations and reducing stereotype threat. We then propose an integrated model that specifies the processes through which both actual and imagined intergroup contact reduce the impact of stereotypes on behaviour. We discuss support for this model and, drawing on social identity

Richard J. Crisp; Dominic Abrams

2008-01-01

71

The application of negative angle protective pin in reducing lightning shielding failure on overhead transmission line in a mountainous area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro-geometric (EGM) model is now the most popular method for the shielding failure flash-over rate (SFFOR) calculation. In this paper, the Lightning protection theory of the negative angle protective pin is studied on basis of this method, and Installing the negative angle protective pin on the hillside or the peak of the 35 kV transmission line in order to reduce

Chao-wen Dong; Min Xu; Yang-wei Ou

2010-01-01

72

The film festival “AUSNAHME|ZUSTAND” (State of Emergency)--do feature films and documentaries on mental health reduce stigma and influence help-seeking attitudes?  

PubMed

The study aims at evaluating the impact of the Germany-wide film festival “AUSNAHME|ZUSTAND” on social distance and help-seeking attitudes of the adolescent audience. The festival, on the subject of mental health, was staged for the second time, aiming to give a podium to the topic mental health and to inform and entertain an adolescent audience that has not been in close contact with the subject before. A pre-post test was carried out to look for the effect of feature films and documentaries on social distance of the audience towards people with mental illness and on the change in help-seeking attitudes. A total of 532 young people with a mean age of 15.6 were questioned during the film festival in Leipzig. As the results show, the effect on the viewers? social distance and their help-seeking attitudes strongly depend on the content of the feature films and documentaries. Two films improved attitudes – one both social distance and help-seeking, one only help-seeking. One film increased social distance, and two films did not affect either outcome. Age, gender, and knowing someone with mental health problems also turned out to be decisive factors influencing the development of social distance and help-seeking attitudes. Feature films or documentaries about mental illness can reduce social distance or influence help-seeking attitudes, but effects strongly depend on the particular film. PMID:25441016

Conrad, Ines; Schulze, Beate; Corrieri, Sandro; Heider, Dirk; Schomerus, Georg; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

2014-12-30

73

Reduced mismatch negativity in posttraumatic stress disorder: A compensatory mechanism for chronic hyperarousal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mismatch Negativity (MMN) is yet poorly understood in the context of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, e.g. [Morgan 3rd, C.A., Grillon, C., 1999. Abnormal mismatch negativity in women with sexual assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 45, 827–832.]). PTSD symptoms like hyperarousal, emotional pressure and avoidance may interfere with pre-attentive sensory processing. We tested this in an optimized MMN design [Näätänen,

Hans Menning; Annika Renz; Jan Seifert; Andreas Maercker

2008-01-01

74

The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

2011-01-01

75

How to reduce the negative psychological impact of MRSA isolation on patients.  

PubMed

MRSA is contagious and difficult to treat, and the isolation of infected patients is recommended by the Department of Health. However, isolation can have a negative psychological impact on patients and is controversial. This literature review explores the effects of isolation based on three themes: isolation environment and psychological impact; stigma of MRSA; and nursing care. PMID:21086832

Jones, Donna

76

Efficacy of Creative Clay Work for Reducing Negative Mood: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clay work has long been used in art therapy to achieve therapeutic goals. However, little empirical evidence exists to document the efficacy of such work. The present study randomly assigned 102 adult participants to one of four conditions following induction of a negative mood: (a) handling clay with instructions to create a pinch pot, (b)…

Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Robbins, Steven J.

2012-01-01

77

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Reduces Negative Affect but Not Cigarette Craving in Overnight Abstinent Smokers  

PubMed Central

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (?1.5?h) smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode to the right supra-orbital area for 20?min with a current of 2.0?mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS) Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension–anxiety, depression–dejection, and confusion–bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation. PMID:24065930

Xu, Jiansong; Fregni, Felipe; Brody, Arthur L.; Rahman, Ardeshir S.

2013-01-01

78

The Effects of a Distracting N-Back Task on Recognition Memory Are Reduced by Negative Emotional Intensity  

PubMed Central

Memory performance is usually impaired when participants have to encode information while performing a concurrent task. Recent studies using recall tasks have found that emotional items are more resistant to such cognitive depletion effects than non-emotional items. However, when recognition tasks are used, the same effect is more elusive as recent recognition studies have obtained contradictory results. In two experiments, we provide evidence that negative emotional content can reliably reduce the effects of cognitive depletion on recognition memory only if stimuli with high levels of emotional intensity are used. In particular, we found that recognition performance for realistic pictures was impaired by a secondary 3-back working memory task during encoding if stimuli were emotionally neutral or had moderate levels of negative emotionality. In contrast, when negative pictures with high levels of emotional intensity were used, the detrimental effects of the secondary task were significantly attenuated. PMID:25330251

Buratto, Luciano G.; Pottage, Claire L.; Brown, Charity; Morrison, Catriona M.; Schaefer, Alexandre

2014-01-01

79

Feeling Bad and Looking Worse: Negative Affect Is Associated with Reduced Perceptions of Face-Healthiness  

PubMed Central

Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N?=?20) or negative affectivity (N?=?20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger’s faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger’s face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

2014-01-01

80

Psychological motives versus health concerns: predicting smoking attitudes and promoting antismoking attitudes.  

PubMed

This article describes findings from 2 studies of smoking attitudes and behavior among Taiwanese adolescents. In the first, a survey, the motivations to gain positive external rewards, enhance positive internal affect, and reduce negative internal affect were all found to predict positive attitudes toward smoking, the intention to smoke, and actual smoking behavior. Concern for short-term health consequences was negatively associated with these outcomes (although concern for long-term consequences was not). In the 2nd study, smokers responded more defensively to ad messages arguing against psychological rewards from smoking than to health-consequence messages, and actually had more positive attitudes toward their own smoking behavior after viewing the antirewards ads. In contrast, nonsmokers responded more favorably to ads arguing against the psychological rewards of smoking than to ads highlighting health consequences, and also strengthened their antismoking attitudes after exposure to the ads that downplayed psychological rewards. Implications for antismoking campaigns are discussed. PMID:19204853

Chang, Chingching

2009-01-01

81

Implantation reduces the negative effects of bio-logging devices on birds.  

PubMed

Animal-borne logging or telemetry devices are widely used for measurements of physiological and movement data from free-living animals. For such measurements to be relevant, however, it is essential that the devices themselves do not affect the data of interest. A recent meta-analysis reported an overall negative effect of these devices on the birds that bear them, i.e. on nesting productivity, clutch size, nest initiation date, offspring quality, body condition, flying ability, foraging behaviours, energy expenditure and survival rate. Method of attachment (harness, collar, glue, anchor, implant, breast-mounted or tailmount) had no influence on the strength of these effects but anchored and implanted transmitters had the highest reported rates of device-induced mortality. Furthermore, external devices, but not internal devices, caused an increase in 'device-induced behaviour' (comfort behaviours such as preening, fluffing and stretching, and unrest activities including unquantifiable 'active' behaviours). These findings suggest that, with the exception of device-induced behaviour, external attachment is preferable to implantation. In the present study we undertake a meta-analysis of 183 estimates of device impact from 39 studies of 36 species of bird designed to explicitly compare the effects of externally attached and surgically implanted devices on a range of traits, including condition, energy expenditure and reproduction. In contrast to a previous study, we demonstrate that externally attached devices have a consistent detrimental effect (i.e. negative influences on body condition, reproduction, metabolism and survival), whereas implanted devices have no consistent effect. We also show that the magnitude of the negative effect of externally attached devices decreases with time. We therefore conclude that device implantation is preferable to external attachment, providing that the risk of mortality associated with the anaesthesia and surgery required for implantation can be mitigated. We recommend that studies employing external devices use devices that can be borne for long periods, and, wherever possible, deploy devices in advance of the time period of interest. PMID:23125345

White, Craig R; Cassey, Phillip; Schimpf, Natalie G; Halsey, Lewis G; Green, Jonathan A; Portugal, Steven J

2013-02-15

82

Reduced iron ordered moment and negative TC-pressure coefficient in iron-arsenide superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The striped antiferromagnetic phase of iron-arsenides is investigated by the density functional calculations including Coulomb repulsion. Two low moment solutions with m ? 0.4 ?B and m ? 1.0 ?B have been found from calculations. The electronic structures indicate that the low moment states originate in the strong orbital hybridization between antiferromagnetic Fe neighbors. Therefore, the geometry of FeAs4 tetrahedron, which is characterized by a parameter of hAs/a, is crucial to the low moment states. We show that the puzzling negative TC-pressure coefficient of iron-arsenides can be consistently explained by the obtained low moment states.

Liu, Guo-Qiang

2015-03-01

83

Factors influencing young adults’ attitudes and knowledge of late-life sexuality among older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Although sexuality is valued throughout the lifespan, older women's sexual expression can be influenced by physical, mental and social factors, including attitudes and stereotypes held by younger generations. By gaining an understanding of what influences negative attitudes toward sexuality and beliefs about sexual consent capacity, the stigma associated with sexuality in late life may be reduced.Method: Using vignette methodology

Rebecca S. Allen; Kathryn N. Petro; Laura L. Phillips

2009-01-01

84

Personal and societal attitudes to disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research addresses theoretical and conceptual frameworks dealing with the formation and change of attitudes, cognitive dissonance, positive and negative prejudice, the concept of “spread”, overt and covert attitudes and their formation, and the nexus between attitudes and behavior toward disability. Two attitude scales—the interaction with disabled persons and the scale of attitudes toward disabled persons—are reviewed and results of

Simon Darcy

2005-01-01

85

Glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy reduces negative effects of diarrhea on calf gut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Damage to the intestinal epithelium caused by diarrhea reduces nutrient absorption and growth rate, and may have long-term effects on the young animal. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an intestinotropic hormone that improves gut integrity and nutrient absorption, and has antioxidant effects in th...

86

Mycorrhizal fungi reduce the negative effects of nitrogen enrichment on plant community structure in dune grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) inputs to ecosystems have increased worldwide, often leading to large changes in plant community structure and reducing plant diversity. Yet, the interaction of increased N availability with other factors that determine plant community composition, are still poorly understood. Here, we test whether the impact of N addition on plant communities depends on the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

MARCEL G. A. VA; S EBASTIAAN V ERKADE

2008-01-01

87

Does change process healthiness reduce the negative effects of organizational change on the psychosocial work environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate whether the detrimental effects of organizational change on the psychosocial work environment are reduced by the “healthiness” of change processes. This includes the management's awareness that the change may be experienced differently by various individuals and groups (diversity); availability of the manager during the process; the degree to which conflicts are resolved constructively; and the

Sturle D. Tvedt; Per Øystein Saksvik; Kjell Nytrø

2009-01-01

88

Effects of an intervention to reduce insecticide exposure on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude: a quasi-experimental study in Shogun orange farmers in Krabi Province, Thailand  

PubMed Central

An intervention to reduce insecticide exposure in Shogun orange farmers was implemented in Krabi Province, Thailand. Intervention effects on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude were evaluated in a quasi-experimental study in two farms about 20 kilometers (km) apart. The intervention was conducted at one farm; the other served as control. The study included 42 and 50 farmers at the intervention and control farms, respectively. The intervention included several components, including didactic instruction, practical demonstrations, use of a fluorescent tracer, and continuing guidance on insecticide use via a small, specially trained group within the overall intervention group. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first such intervention in Thailand. Knowledge and attitude were measured at baseline (pre-intervention), and at 2 and 5 months after the intervention (follow-up 1 and follow-up 2, respectively). Intervention effects were assessed with linear mixed models, specified to enable testing of effects at each follow-up time. The intervention was associated with substantial and statistically significant improvements in both knowledge score and attitude score (P < 0.001 for each score at each follow-up time). Intervention-related improvements in knowledge score and attitude score were equivalent to about 27% and 14% of baseline mean knowledge and attitude scores, respectively. Intervention-related benefits were similar at both follow-up times. Findings were similar before and after adjustment for covariates. These findings increase confidence that well-designed interventions can reduce farmers’ insecticide exposure in Thailand and elsewhere. In future research, it would be desirable to address long-term intervention effects on farmers’ health and quality of life. PMID:24082797

Boonyakawee, Paisit; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Chapman, Robert S

2013-01-01

89

Reduced promoter methylation and increased expression of CSPG4 negatively influences survival of HNSCC patients.  

PubMed

Proteoglycans are often overexpressed in tumors and can be found on several normal and neoplastic stem cells. In this study, we analyzed in-depth the role of CSPG4 in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Analysis of CSPG4 in a homogeneous study sample of HPV-negative stage IVa HNSCCs revealed overexpression of protein and mRNA levels in a subgroup of HNSCC tumors and a significant association of high CSPG4 protein levels with poor survival. This could be validated in three publicly available microarray datasets. As a potential cause for upregulated CSPG4 expression, we identified DNA hypomethylation in a CpG-island of the promoter region. Accordingly, we found an inverse correlation of methylation and patient outcome. Finally, CSPG4 re-expression was achieved by demethylating treatment of highly methylated HNSCC cell lines establishing a direct link between methylation and CSPG4 expression. In conclusion, we identified CSPG4 as a novel biomarker in HNSCC on several biological levels and established a causative link between DNA methylation and CSPG4 protein and mRNA expression. PMID:24740185

Warta, Rolf; Herold-Mende, Christel; Chaisaingmongkol, Jittiporn; Popanda, Odilia; Mock, Andreas; Mogler, Carolin; Osswald, Florian; Herpel, Esther; Küstner, Sabine; Eckstein, Volker; Plass, Christoph; Plinkert, Peter; Schmezer, Peter; Dyckhoff, Gerhard

2014-12-01

90

Reducing False Negative Reads in RFID Data Streams Using an Adaptive Sliding-Window Approach  

PubMed Central

Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D. M.; Vermaak, Herman

2012-01-01

91

Microwave oscillator with reduced phase noise by negative feedback incorporating microwave signals with suppressed carrier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillator configurations which reduce the effect of 1/f noise sources for both direct feedback and stabilized local oscillator (STALO) circuits are developed and analyzed. By appropriate use of carrier suppression, a small signal is generated which suffers no loss of loop phase information or signal-to-noise ratio. This small signal can be amplified without degradation by multiplicative amplifier noise, and can be detected without saturation of the detector. Together with recent advances in microwave resonator Qs, these circuit improvements will make possible lower phase noise than can be presently achieved without the use of cryogenic devices.

Dick, G. J.; Saunders, J.

1989-01-01

92

Attitudes and attitude change.  

PubMed

Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints. PMID:20809791

Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina

2011-01-01

93

Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress.  

PubMed

The notion that chewing gum may relieve stress was investigated in a controlled setting. A multi-tasking framework which reliably evokes stress and also includes performance measures was used to induce acute stress in the laboratory. Using a randomised crossover design forty participants (mean age 21.98 years) performed on the multi-tasking framework at two intensities (on separate days) both while chewing and not chewing. Order of workload intensity and chewing conditions were counterbalanced. Before and after undergoing the platform participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Bond-Lader visual analogue mood scales, a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale and provided saliva samples for cortisol measurement. Baseline measures showed that both levels of the multi-tasking framework were effective in significantly reducing self-rated alertness, calmness and contentment while increasing self-rated stress and state anxiety. Cortisol levels fell during both levels of the stressor during the morning, reflecting the predominance of a.m. diurnal changes, but this effect was reversed in the afternoon which may reflect a measurable stress response. Pre-post stressor changes (Delta) for each measure at baseline were subtracted from Delta scores under chewing and no chewing conditions. During both levels of stress the chewing gum condition was associated with significantly better alertness and reduced state anxiety, stress and salivary cortisol. Overall performance on the framework was also significantly better in the chewing condition. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown but may involve improved cerebral blood flow and/or effects secondary to performance improvement during gum chewing. PMID:19268676

Scholey, Andrew; Haskell, Crystal; Robertson, Bernadette; Kennedy, David; Milne, Anthea; Wetherell, Mark

2009-06-22

94

Reductive dechlorination reduces negative impact of PCBs on in vitro fertilization  

SciTech Connect

The variety of toxic effects ascribed to commercial PCB mixtures is likely because the individual congeners differ in their modes of toxicity and potencies. Similarly, a change in the congener composition of a PCB mixture due to reductive dechlorination by anaerobic microorganisms might be expected to alter the toxicological properties of that PCB mixture. In this study, Aroclors 1,242 and 1,254 were reductively dechlorinated using cultures of microorganisms from two different sites. The resulting dechlorination products and Aroclors were then tested for their effects on in vitro fertilization using mouse gametes. In general, percent fertilization increased with the extent of dechlorination. For example, fertilization in treatments with 10 {micro}g/ml of either Aroclor was only 40% of that in controls without Aroclor, but equal total molar concentrations of the dechlorination products produced by River Raisin microorganisms had no significant effect on fertilization. By this measure, therefore, the microbial dechlorination of PCBs appears to have a beneficial effect in reducing reproductive toxicity.

Chou, K.; Mousa, M.; Quensen, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

95

Predictors of Attitudes toward Childlessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed young adults' attitudes toward childlessness and identified certain factors which predict positive or negative attitudes toward childlessness. The author anticipated finding changes in attitudes because of recent social developments such as awareness of world overpopulation, availability of birth control methods, pressure for…

Spreadbury, Connie

96

DEPRESSION STIGMA, RACE, AND TREATMENT SEEKING BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related attitudes and behaviors. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma mediated the relationship between public stigma and attitudes toward mental health treatment. Within group analyses indicated that the mediating effect of internalized stigma was significant for whites only. Among African Americans, internalized stigma did not mediate public stigma; it was directly related to attitudes toward mental health treatment. The internalization of stigma is key in the development of negative attitudes toward mental health treatment, and future research should focus on this aspect of stigma in both individual and community-based efforts to reduce stigma. PMID:21274407

Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F.

2011-01-01

97

Synthesis of cobalt oxide-reduced graphene nanocomposite and its enhanced electrochemical properties as negative material for alkaline secondary battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A potential negative electrode material Co3O4@rGO is synthesized via a facile reflux condensation route. The electrochemical performances of Co3O4@rGO composite for alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries have been systemically investigated for the first time. The reduced-graphene can remarkably enhance the electrochemical activity of Co3O4 materials, leading to a notable improvement of discharge capacity, cycle stability and rate capability. Interestingly, the maximum discharge capacity of Co3O4@rGO-20 (additive amount of GO is 20 mg) electrode can reach 511.4 mAh g-1 with the capacity retention of 89.1% after 100 cycles at a discharge current of 100 mA g-1. A properly electrochemical reaction mechanism of Co3O4@rGO electrode is also constructed in detail.

Xu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaofeng; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

2014-12-01

98

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

99

Negative correlation between oral malodour and numbers and activities of sulphate-reducing bacteria in the human mouth.  

PubMed

The majority of cases of oral malodour are thought to be due to bacterial activities in the mouth, but many of the bacterial species responsible have not been identified. Volatile sulphide compounds have been proposed as constituents of oral malodour. Therefore, the relation between intensity of odour and numbers of bacteria in the mouth that are sulphide-producing from sulphate was investigated. Numbers of such dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulphide reduction rates were evaluated in samples from different oral sites in relation to measures of oral malodour. Results showed that sulphate-reducing bacterial numbers and activities were negatively correlated with malodour, as determined by organoleptic assessment and measurement with a sulphide-monitoring instrument, the Halimeter. The data indicate that sulphide produced by oral SRB may not be an important contributor to oral malodour. A rather poor correlation was observed between Halimetric and organoleptic values, indicating that these methods may measure different aspects of oral malodour intensity. PMID:10459778

Willis, C L; Gibson, G R; Holt, J; Allison, C

1999-08-01

100

Reduced sensitivity to both positive and negative reinforcement in mice over-expressing the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter.  

PubMed

The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) is believed to play a key role in both normal and pathological psychological states. Much previous data suggest that the s allele of the polymorphic regulatory region of the 5-HTT gene promoter is associated with reduced 5-HTT expression and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. In comparison, the l allele, which increases 5-HTT expression, is generally considered protective. However, recent data link this allele to both abnormal 5-HT signalling and psychopathic traits. Here, we studied the processing of aversive and rewarding cues in transgenic mice that over-express the 5-HTT (5-HTTOE mice). Compared with wild-type mice, 5-HTTOE mice froze less in response to both a tone that had previously been paired with footshock, and the conditioning context. In addition, on a decision-making T-maze task, 5-HTTOE mice displayed reduced preference for a larger, delayed reward and increased preference for a smaller, immediate reward, suggesting increased impulsiveness compared with wild-type mice. However, further inspection of the data revealed that 5-HTTOE mice displayed a relative insensitivity to reward magnitude, irrespective of delay. In contrast, 5-HTTOE mice appeared normal on tests of spatial working and reference memory, which required an absolute choice between options associated with either reward or no reward. Overall, the present findings suggest that 5-HTT over-expression results in a reduced sensitivity to both positive and negative reinforcers. Thus, these data show that increased 5-HTT expression has some maladaptive effects, supporting recent suggestions that l allele homozygosity may be a potential risk factor for disabling psychiatric traits. PMID:25283165

Line, Samantha J; Barkus, Chris; Rawlings, Nancy; Jennings, Katie; McHugh, Stephen; Sharp, Trevor; Bannerman, David M

2014-12-01

101

Differences in Attitudes Toward Nudity in Advertising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated variations in attitudes toward female nudity and sex in advertising for several different market segments. More negative attitudes were found for females generally and females from smaller towns, who read more magazines, and watch more TV. Negative attitudes also were associated with younger males and males who attend church…

Alexander, M. Wayne; Judd, Ben B., Jr.

1986-01-01

102

Attitudes Toward Desegregation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the turbulence of the late sixties, attitudes of white Americans towards desegregation continued to change almost as though nothing was happening. Even though there is some evidence in the National Opinion Research Center data of a negative reaction to black militancy, this negative reaction has not impeded the increase in proportion of…

Greeley, Andrew M.; Sheatsley, Paul B.

103

Attitude toward advertising through sport: A theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important goal of advertising is designing effective campaigns that foster favorable attitudes toward a product. Attitude toward a product is influenced by one's attitude toward an advertisement. Previous research examining attitude toward advertising in general and in specific mediums (e.g., TV and online) has found that consumers’ attitudes toward advertising have become increasingly negative. The researchers propose that sport

Do Young Pyun; Jeffrey D. James

2011-01-01

104

Large birth size does not reduce negative latent effects of harsh environments across life stages in two coral species.  

PubMed

When juveniles must tolerate harsh environments early in life, the disproportionate success of certain phenotypes across multiple early life stages will dramatically influence adult community composition and dynamics. In many species, large offspring have a higher tolerance for stressful environments than do smaller conspecifics (parental effects). However, we have a poor understanding of whether the benefits of increased parental investment carry over after juveniles escape harsh environments or progress to later life stages (latent effects). To investigate whether parental effects and latent effects interactively influence offspring success, we determined the degree to which latent effects of harsh abiotic conditions are mediated by offspring size in two stony coral species. Larvae of both species were sorted by size class and exposed to relatively high-temperature or low-salinity conditions. Survivorship was quantified for six days in these stressful environments, after which surviving larvae were placed in ambient conditions and evaluated for their ability to settle and metamorphose. We subsequently assessed long-term post-settlement survival of one species in its natural environment. Following existing theory, we expected that, within and between species, larger offspring would have a higher tolerance for harsh environmental conditions than smaller offspring. We found that large size did enhance offspring performance in each species. However, large offspring size within a species did not reduce the proportional, negative latent effects of harsh larval environments. Furthermore, the coral species that produces larger offspring was more, not less, prone to negative latent effects. We conclude that, within species, large offspring size does not increase resistance to latent effects. Comparing between species, we conclude that larger offspring size does not inherently confer greater robustness, and we instead propose that other life history characteristics such as larval duration better predict the tolerance of offspring to harsh and variable abiotic conditions. Additionally, when considering how stressful environments influence offspring performance, studies that only evaluate direct effects may miss crucial downstream (latent) effects on juveniles that have significant consequences for long-term population dynamics. PMID:24279268

Hartmann, Aaron C; Marhaver, Kristen L; Chamberland, Valérie F; Sandin, Stuart A; Vermeij, Mark J A

2013-09-01

105

Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST: 37.8 plus or minus 1.9 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute). KES was significantly reduced by 30% in Con (PRE: 113 plus or minus 12; POST: 78 plus or minus 8 N-m), but was not different in EX (PRE: 126 plus or minus 25; POST: 115 plus or minus 25 N-m). The combination LBNPex and Rex during 60-d BR protects against cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning and may be efficacious countermeasure for prolonged space flight.

Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

2006-01-01

106

Understanding Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Food: The Role of Values and Attitude Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at gaining a better understanding of the nature of negative attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A sample of 250 students at the University of Tromsø responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes towards GM food, attitude strength, intention to buy such food, and their personal values. Values and attitude strength proved to be important constructs when

Pirjo Honkanen; Bas Verplanken

2004-01-01

107

[Use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Surgical Incisions (Prevena™) after Surgery of Pectus Deformities Reduces Wound Complications.  

PubMed

Introduction: Pectus surgery can lead to postoperative wound complications in some cases. The purpose of this study is to determine whether preventive negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) could reduce wound complications after open pectus surgery. Material and Methods: 100 patients after open procedure for the treatment of pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum in the years 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively analysed. 50 patients treated with Prevena™ (KCI Medical Products GmbH, Wiesbaden, Germany) were compared with 50 patients whose wounds were covered with OPSITE® film (Smith & Nephew, Hamburg, Germany). Wound closure was performed following a standard procedure as well as the placement of subcutaneous drains. Therefore two comparable groups of patients were formed and analysed by standardised parameters. The wound dressing was placed epicutaneously immediately after wound closure in the operating room and removed after 5 days in each case. Follow-ups were performed immediately after removal of the wound dressing, at the time of discharge from hospital as well as 6 and 12 weeks after operation. The wounds were checked for tenderness, pain, secretion, redness and fistulas. Results: The Prevena group showed 10?% wound complications which needed operative treatment, whereas the OPSITE group showed complications in 24?%. Some patients who were treated with Prevena showed superficial skin lesions at the rim of the foam and the film. All of these lesions healed well. Conclusion: Treating wounds postoperatively with preventive measures (NPWT) showed a remarkable reduction of wound complications following open pectus surgery whereas statistically the difference was not significant (p?=?0.074). PMID:24647815

Simon, K; Schulz-Drost, M; Besendörfer, M; Carbon, R T; Schulz-Drost, S

2014-03-19

108

Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.  

PubMed

Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism. PMID:25738325

Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

2015-03-01

109

Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses improve oxidative status and reduce the negative effects of heat stress in sheep.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative and physiological status of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were housed in 1 of 2 climatic chambers (thermoneutral or heat stress) and offered either a control (10 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high antioxidant (100 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet. The sheep were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18-21°C and 26-30% relative humidity; and heat stress [HS]: 28-40°C and 40-50% relative humidity) for 2 wk in a single reversal design. After 1 wk of dietary treatment, animals in 1 chamber were subjected to HS for 1 wk, with the temperature being increased to 40°C between 0900 and 1700 h and then maintained at 28°C overnight. Those sheep in the TN group were maintained at 18 to 21°C. Physiological parameters were recorded 4 times a day (0900, 1300, 1700, and 2100 h) and blood samples were collected on d 1 and 7 of heat treatment. Plasma samples and red blood cell lysates were assayed for oxidative stress biomarkers. The thermal treatments were then reversed and the above measures repeated. All measured physiological parameters were elevated (P < 0.001) by thermal treatment. Respiration rate was lower during HS in sheep supplemented with antioxidants as indicated by a diet × temperature × time interaction (P = 0.010). There was 13% decline (P = 0.014) in feed intake of the unsupplemented animals during HS whereas the same was maintained in sheep supplemented with high doses of antioxidants. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites concentrations were reduced (114 vs. 85 units/dL; P < 0.005) while biological antioxidant potential tended to be increased (3,688 vs. 3,985 ?mol/L; P = 0.070) in heat stressed sheep supplemented with antioxidants. The oxidative stress index was 30% lower (P < 0.001) in supplemented sheep (2.16 ± 0.06 arbitrary units) during HS than in unsupplemented sheep (3.12 ± 0.08 arbitrary units). Plasma advanced oxidation protein products tended (P = 0.070) to decrease in antioxidant supplemented heat stressed sheep as compared to their unsupplemented counterparts. It was concluded that heat stress negatively affects the oxidative status of sheep along with the physiological responses and some of these affects can be ameliorated through dietary antioxidants supplementation at supranutritional concentrations. PMID:24894002

Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Leury, B J; Clarke, I J; Dunshea, F R

2014-08-01

110

Individual Differences in Implicit and Declared Self-Esteem as Predictors of Response to Negative Performance Evaluation: Validating Implicit Association Test as a Measure of Self-Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential and combined influence of implicit and explicit self-esteem (SE) on individual's response to negative feedback was examined in a controlled experiment. Sixty-three psychology undergraduates performed a simulated social interaction task, followed by an artificial negative feedback on their performance. Self-reported (explicit) SE was…

Meagher, Brendan E.; Aidman, Eugene V.

2004-01-01

111

Serbian Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitudes of 72 Serbian teachers towards the inclusion of children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) in mainstream schools; they were asked to complete "My Thinking About Inclusion Questionnaire" (Stoiber, Goettinger, & Goetz, 1998). It was found that Serbian teachers held overall slightly negative attitudes towards…

Kalyva, Efrosini; Gojkovic, Dina; Tsakiris, Vlastaris

2007-01-01

112

Effects of labeling and interpersonal contact upon attitudes towards schizophrenia: implications for reducing mental illness stigma in urban China  

PubMed Central

Purpose As mental illness stigma contributes to poor outcomes for schizophrenia in China, locating strategies to reduce public stigma is imperative. It is currently unknown whether diagnostic labeling and contact with different help-seeking sources increase or decrease public stigma in China. Further, it remains unresolved whether prior personal contact acts to reduce stigma in this context. Advancing understanding of these processes may facilitate stigma-reduction strategies. Methods We administered an experimental vignette randomly assigning one of four labeling conditions to respondents to assess social distance towards a psychotic vignette individual in a sample of 160 Northern, urban Chinese community respondents. Results As expected, respondents given a “non-psychiatric, indigenous label” + “lay help-seeking” condition endorsed the least social distance. Unexpectedly, the labeling condition with a “psychiatric diagnostic label” + “lay help-seeking” condition elicited the greatest social distance. Unlike Western studies, personal contact did not independently decrease community stigma. However, prior contact reduced social distance to a greater extent in the labeling condition with a “non-psychiatric, indigenous label” + “lay help-seeking” condition when compared with all other labeling conditions. Conclusion The results indicate that cultural idioms do provide some protection from stigma, but only among respondents who are already familiar with what mental illness is. Our finding that the condition that depicted untreated psychosis elicited the greatest amount of stigma, while the “treated psychosis” condition was viewed relatively benignly in China, suggests that improved access to mental health services in urban China has the potential to decrease public stigma via labeling mechanisms. PMID:22075964

Lo, Graciete; WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J.; Singla, Daisy R.; Link, Bruce G.; Phillips, Michael R.

2013-01-01

113

Fearless Dominance and reduced feedback-related negativity amplitudes in a time-estimation task – Further neuroscientific evidence for dual-process models of psychopathy?  

PubMed Central

Dual-process models of psychopathy postulate two etiologically relevant processes. Their involvement in feedback processing and its neural correlates has not been investigated so far. Multi-channel EEG was collected while healthy female volunteers performed a time-estimation task and received negative or positive feedback in form of signs or emotional faces. The affective-interpersonal factor Fearless Dominance, but not Self-Centered Impulsivity, was associated with reduced feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitudes. This neural dissociation extends previous findings on the impact of psychopathy on feedback processing and further highlights the importance of distinguishing psychopathic traits and extending previous (neuroscientific) models of psychopathy. PMID:23607997

Schulreich, Stefan; Pfabigan, Daniela M.; Derntl, Birgit; Sailer, Uta

2013-01-01

114

Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

115

Anti-Homosexual Attitudes in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduate college students (N = 173) enrolled in business or psychology classes were studied to investigate (1) predictors of anti-gay and lesbian attitudes and (2) two educational approaches for counteracting negative attitudes toward homosexuality. Students' gender and other demographic characteristics, gender role orientation, gender role attitudes, and personal history variables were employed as independent variables in a multiple regression analysis

Annie L. Cotten-Huston; Bradley M. Waite

1999-01-01

116

Effectiveness of counselling on the attitudes of mothers towards their children with intellectual disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mothers of children with intellectual disability have more negative attitudes towards them compared with mothers' of normally developing children. If attitudes of mothers are negative, psychological intervention for their children may be less effective. The primary aim of this study was to compare the attitudes of mothers before and after psychological counselling to change their negative attitudes. Thirty-two mothers of

Coumaravelou Saravanan; Karuppannan Rangaswamy

2012-01-01

117

Dominant-Negative c-Jun Promotes Neuronal Survival by Reducing BIM Expression and Inhibiting Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sympathetic neurons require nerve growth factor for survival and die by apoptosis in its absence. Key steps in the death pathway include c-Jun activation, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. Here, we show that neurons rescued from NGF withdrawal–induced apoptosis by expression of dominant-negative c-Jun do not release cytochrome c from their mitochondria. Furthermore, we find that the mRNA

Jonathan Whitfield; Stephen J Neame; Luc Paquet; Ora Bernard; Jonathan Ham

2001-01-01

118

Resistance to Endotoxin Shock and Reduced Dissemination of Gram-Negative Bacteria in CD14Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endotoxin shock is the result of activation of the immune system by endotoxin\\/LPS, a component of Gram-negative bacteria. CD14, a GPI-anchored glycoprotein expressed strongly by monocyte\\/macrophages, is one of several receptors for endotoxin\\/LPS. The role of CD14 in bacterial-induced and LPS-induced shock was tested in CD14-deficient mice produced by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. CD14-deficient mice were found to

Alain Haziot; Enza Ferrero; Frank Köntgen; Naoki Hijiya; Shunsuke Yamamoto; Jack Silver; Colin L Stewart; Sanna M Goyert

1996-01-01

119

Attitudes towards Gypsy Travellers.  

PubMed

Gypsy Travellers often experience wide-ranging inequalities, associated with poor access to health services and education, discrimination, and health professionals' lack of understanding of the cultural identity and health needs of their community. This article explores nurses' attitudes to Gypsy Travellers, and discusses how overcoming bias and negativity can help address the health needs of this community. PMID:22046670

Francis, Gill

120

Negativity bias and basic values.  

PubMed

Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

Schwartz, Shalom H

2014-06-01

121

Job attitudes.  

PubMed

Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis. PMID:22129457

Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D

2012-01-01

122

Reduced soil water availability did not protect two competing grassland species from the negative effects of increasing background ozone.  

PubMed

Two common (semi-) natural temperate grassland species, Dactylis glomerata and Ranunculus acris, were grown in competition and exposed to two watering regimes: well-watered (WW, 20-40% v/v) and reduced-watered (RW, 7.5-20% v/v) in combination with eight ozone treatments ranging from pre-industrial to predicted 2100 background levels. For both species there was a significant increase in leaf damage with increasing background ozone concentration. RW had no protective effect against increasing levels of ozone-induced senescence/injury. In high ozone, based on measurements of stomatal conductance, we propose that ozone influx into the leaves was not prevented in the RW treatment, in D. glomerata because stomata were a) more widely open than those in less polluted plants and b) were less responsive to drought. Total seasonal above ground biomass was not significantly altered by increased ozone; however, ozone significantly reduced root biomass in both species to differing amounts depending on watering regime. PMID:22420992

Wagg, Serena; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Wilkinson, Sally; Cooper, David; Davies, William J

2012-06-01

123

The Predictive Utility of Attitudes toward Hookah Tobacco Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine associations between positive and negative attitudes and hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) outcomes among college students. Methods Among a random sample of University of Florida students (N=852), multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between positive and negative attitudes toward HTS. Results Positive attitudes were associated with adjusted odds of 4.32 (95% CI=3.20, 5.82) for current HTS, while negative attitudes were associated with lower adjusted odds for current smoking HTS (AOR=0.64, 95% CI=0.53, 0.76). Positive attitudes were also associated with adjusted odds of 9.31 (95% CI=6.77, 12.80) for intention for future hookah use. Conclusion Positive attitudes toward HTS were more strongly associated with HTS outcomes compared to negative attitudes. It may be particularly valuable for future research and interventions to focus on decreasing positive attitudes towards HTS. PMID:23985224

Barnett, Tracey E.; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Cook, Robert L.; Nuzzo, Erin; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

124

Four questions on European consumers’ attitudes toward the use of genetic modification in food production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four questions on European consumers’ attitudes to the use of genetic modification (GM) in food production are posed and answered: (1) how negative are consumer attitudes to GM applications in food production? (2) How do these attitudes affect perception of and preference for products involving GM applications? (3) How deeply rooted are these attitudes? (4) Will the attitudes change due

Klaus G. Grunert; Lone Bredahl; Joachim Scholderer

2003-01-01

125

Implicit Self-Attitudes Predict Spontaneous Affect in Daily Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2 studies, the authors examined the degree to which implicit self-attitudes predicted people's spontaneous affective experiences in daily life. Across both studies, implicit attitudes toward the self (as measured by Implicit Association Tests) strongly predicted negative feeling states (as measured by computerized experience-sampling procedures), suggesting that implicit self-attitudes may be linked to changes in undifferentiated negative affect. Explicit attitudes

Tamlin Conner; Lisa Feldman Barrett

2005-01-01

126

Negative labeling and social exclusion of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the antiretroviral therapy era: insight from attitudes and behavioral intentions of female heads of households in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.  

PubMed

In the age of antiretroviral therapy (ART), unraveling specific aspects of stigma that impede uptake and adherence to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services and the complex intersections among them might enhance the efficacy of stigma-reduction interventions targeted at the general public. Few studies have described community stigma in high HIV prevalence regions of Mozambique where program scale-up has been concentrated, but fear of stigma persists as a barrier to HIV service uptake. Principal components analysis of attitudinal data from 3749 female heads of households surveyed in Zambézia Province was used to examine patterns of agreement with stigmatizing attitudes and behavior toward people living with HIV. Inferences were based on comparison of factor loadings and commonality estimates. Construct validity was established through correlations with levels of knowledge about HIV transmission and consistency with the labeling theory of stigma. Two unique domains of community stigma were observed: negative labeling and devaluation (NLD, ? = 0.74) and social exclusion (SoE, ? = 0.73). NLD is primarily an attitudinal construct, while SoE captures behavioral intent. About one-third of the respondents scored in the upper tertile of the NLD stigma scale (scale: 0-100 stigma points) and the equivalent was 41.3% in the SoE stigma scale. Consistent with literature, NLD and SoE stigma scores were inversely correlated with HIV transmission route knowledge. In item level analysis, fear of being labeled a prostitute/immoral and of negative family affect defined the nature of stigma in this sample. Thus, despite ART scale-up and community education about HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), NLD and SoE characterized the community stigma of HIV in this setting. Follow-up studies could compare the impact of these stigma domains on HIV services uptake, in order to inform domain-focused stigma-reduction interventions. PMID:24274172

Mukolo, Abraham; Blevins, Meridith; Hinton, Nicole; Victor, Bart; Vaz, Lara M E; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E

2014-01-01

127

In triple negative breast tumor cells, PLC-?2 promotes the conversion of CD133high to CD133low phenotype and reduces the CD133-related invasiveness  

PubMed Central

Background Beyond its possible correlation with stemness of tumor cells, CD133/prominin1 is considered an important marker in breast cancer, since it correlates with tumor size, metastasis and clinical stage of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC), to date the highest risk breast neoplasia. Methods To study the correlation between the levels of CD133 expression and the biology of breast-derived cells, CD133low and CD133high cell subpopulations isolated from triple negative MDA-MB-231 cells were compared in terms of malignant properties and protein expression. Results High expression of CD133 characterizes cells with larger adhesion area, lower proliferation rate and reduced migration speed, indicative of a less undifferentiated phenotype. Conversely, when compared with CD133low cells, CD133high cells show higher invasive capability and increased expression of proteins involved in metastasis and drug-resistance of breast tumors. Among the signalling proteins examined, PLC-?2 expression inversely correlates with the levels of CD133 and has a role in inducing the CD133high cells to CD133low cells conversion, suggesting that, in TNBC cells, the de-regulation of this PLC isoform is responsible of the switch from an early to a mature tumoral phenotype also by reducing the expression of CD133. Conclusions Since CD133 plays a role in determining the invasiveness of CD133high cells, it may constitute an attractive target to reduce the metastatic potential of TNBC. In addition, our data showing that the forced up-regulation of PLC-?2 counteracts the invasiveness of CD133-positive MDA-MB-231 cells might contribute to identify unexplored key steps responsible for the TNBC high malignancy, to be considered for potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:24330829

2013-01-01

128

Cognitive Predictors of Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol and Cocaine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…

Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

2003-01-01

129

Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.

Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

2013-08-01

130

The Modification of Undesirable Attitudes and Classroom Behavior Through Constructive Use of Social Power in the School Peer Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student leadership program was implemented in an elementary school to increase the social value of constructive (appropriate) classroom behavior and to generate more positive pupil attitudes toward self and school. The specific aims of the intervention were to reduce the disruptive, negative behavior of some socially powerful students while…

Whitmore, Joanne Rand

131

Youth Leadership Program for Changing Self-Image and Attitude Toward People With Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society has a negative attitude toward people with intellectual disabilities or psychiatric disabilities. It is well documented that they are subjected to prejudice, stigma, and negative attitudes (Di Giulio, 2003; Finger, 1994). Professional literature indicates that information about disabilities and encounters with persons with disabilities can change negative attitudes (Carter, Hughes, Copeland, & Breen, 2001; Krajewski & Flaherty, 2000). This

Ronen Cohen; Dana Roth; Alan York; Shimshon Neikrug

2012-01-01

132

Attitude estimation using GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The validity of an algorithm using GPS carrier Doppler phase measurements for determining the attitude in three dimensions (heading, pitch, and roll) of a space platform that also is undergoing attitude variation is assessed via a simulation. The space platform is taken to revolve in a circular orbit appropriate for the Space Station and Shuttle. It is shown that the multipath effects are potentially the dominant source of error in carrier Doppler phase measurements. A model for the multipath phase errors is presented, and ways to reduce the effects are studied. Preliminary 1-sigma error in heading, pitch, and roll using a 5-meter antenna separation is indicated to be 0.015 deg, which compares favorably with the performance of earth sensors currently used for spacecraft attitude measurements.

Rath, J.; Ward, P.

133

Public awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The general public's responses to people with intellectual disabilities influence the likely success or failure of policies aimed at increasing their social inclusion. The present paper provides a review of general population based research into awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability published in English between 1990 and mid-2011. An electronic search using PsycINFO and Web of Science plus a hand search of the literature was completed. Most of the 75 studies identified consisted of descriptive surveys of attitudes. They tend to conclude that age, educational attainment and prior contact with someone with an intellectual disability predict attitudes, while the effect of gender is inconsistent. Eight studies examined lay knowledge about intellectual disability and beliefs about its causation in a range of cultural contexts. The impact of interventions designed to improve attitudes or awareness was examined by 12 studies. The evidence is limited by the fact that it is mostly based on relatively small unrepresentative samples and cross-sectional designs. It is concluded that overall, high quality research into general population attitudes to intellectual disability is limited. Public knowledge of intellectual disability and causal beliefs are particularly under-researched areas. There is a notable absence of well designed evaluations of efforts to reduce misconceptions about intellectual disability and tackle negative attitudes. Areas for future research are noted, including the need for well designed studies that consider awareness, attitudes and beliefs in relation to stigma theory. PMID:21798712

Scior, Katrina

2011-01-01

134

Ambivalent sexism, attitudes towards menstruation and menstrual cycle-related symptoms.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between ambivalent sexism and beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation, and, in turn, to study the influence of these variables on menstrual cycle-related symptoms. One hundred and six Mexican women completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Questionnaire and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. The higher scores on benevolent sexism were associated with the most positive attitudes towards menstruation and also with the belief that a menstruating woman should or should not do some activities and that menstruation keeps women from their daily activities. The higher scores on hostile sexism were associated with rejection of menstruation as well as with feelings of embarrassment about it. Beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation predicted menstrual cycle-related symptoms related to negative affect, impaired concentration and behavioural changes, but did not predict somatic symptoms. These results will be useful to health professionals and advocates who want to change the negative expectations and stereotypes of premenstrual and menstrual women and reduce the sexism and negative attitudes towards women that are evident in Mexican culture. PMID:24990639

Marván, Ma Luisa; Vázquez-Toboada, Rocío; Chrisler, Joan C

2014-08-01

135

Open and Positive Attitudes toward Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter argues that the most important thing for a nonnative English-speaking teacher is to have an open and positive attitude toward students. A teacher's willingness to work out problems with individual students, coupled with openness to students' ideas and criticism, should help improve students' negative attitudes toward…

Hsu, Chia-Fang

2014-01-01

136

THE EDEN ALTERNATIVE: IMPACT ON STUDENT ATTITUDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing homes as clinical sites for student learning have the potential to produce negative attitudes toward aging. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to determine the impact of the Eden Alternative on the attitudes of students toward elders residing in nursing homes. Prior to beginning implementation of the Eden Alternative, 61 students completed the Health Professional

Richard B. Rosher; Sherry Robinson

2005-01-01

137

Modulation of facial mimicry by attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current experiment explored the influence of attitudes on facial reactions to emotional faces. The participants’ attitudes (positive, neutral, and negative) towards three types of characters were manipulated by written reports. Afterwards participants saw happy, neutral, and sad facial expressions of the respective characters while their facial muscular reactions (M. Corrugator supercilii and M. Zygomaticus major) were recorded electromyografically. Results

Katja U. Likowski; Andreas Mühlberger; Beate Seibt; Paul Pauli; Peter Weyers

2008-01-01

138

Extensive protein hydrolysate formula effectively reduces regurgitation in infants with positive and negative challenge tests for cow’s milk allergy  

PubMed Central

Aim Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is treated using an elimination diet with an extensive protein hydrolysate. We explored whether a thickened or nonthickened version was best for infants with suspected CMPA, which commonly causes regurgitation/vomiting. Methods Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge test. We compared the efficacy of two casein extensive hydrolysates (eCH), a nonthickened version (NT-eCH) and a thickened version (T-eCH), using a symptom-based score covering regurgitation, crying, stool consistency, eczema, urticarial and respiratory symptoms. Results A challenge was performed in 52/72 infants with suspected CMPA and was positive in 65.4%. All confirmed CMPA cases tolerated eCH. The symptom-based score decreased significantly in all infants within a month, and the highest reduction was in those with confirmed CMPA. Regurgitation was reduced in all infants (6.4 ± 3.2–2.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.001), but fell more with the T-eCH (?4.2 ± 3.2 regurgitations/day vs. ?3.0 ± 4.5, ns), especially in infants with a negative challenge (?3.9 ± 4.0 vs. ?1.9 ± 3.4, ns). Conclusion eCH fulfilled the criteria for a hypoallergenic formula, and the NT-eCH and T-eCH formulas both reduced CMPA symptoms. The symptom-based score is useful for evaluating how effective dietary treatments are for CMPA. PMID:24575806

Vandenplas, Y; De Greef, E

2014-01-01

139

Reducing stigma toward seeking mental health treatment among adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce explicit and implicit stigma-relevant attitudes toward mental illness and treatment-seeking and behavioural indicators of willingness to seek treatment. Methods Adolescents were randomly assigned to the experimental (education about mental illness and treatment involving psychoeducation and contact (via DVD) with an affected individual) or control intervention (education about tobacco). Results Findings suggest the stigma intervention was effective at reducing explicit but not implicit stigma-relevant attitudes. As hypothesized, participants receiving the experimental intervention reported less explicit stigma toward treatment and greater openness to personally seek treatment if they had also reported prior mental health treatment. Conclusions and Implications These findings support the potential for a brief educational intervention among adolescents to reduce negative attitudes toward mental health treatment, but raise questions about how to effectively address implicit stigma as well as the importance of translating stigma reduction into behavior changes. PMID:24286023

Saporito, J. M.; Ryan, C.; Teachman, B. A.

2012-01-01

140

Attitudes without Objects: Evidence for a Dispositional Attitude, its Measurement, and its Consequences  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive versus negative attitudes, a trait termed the Dispositional Attitude. Across four studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual pre-existing attitudes, (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits, and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the big-five and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. PMID:23586409

Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores

2013-01-01

141

Prejudice or Ambivalence? Attitudes Toward Persons with Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward persons with disabilities are often assumed to be negative and prejudiced. This assumption is shared by researchers with different theoretical perspectives and is usually based on quantitative empirical studies. The assumption of attitudes as prejudiced is questioned in this article. Based on a review of attitude research the argument is developed that most research is based on a

Mårten Söder

1990-01-01

142

Edward Said and Interfaith Attitudes of Christian Missionaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative interfaith attitudes are a major stumbling block to interfaith relations. This article raises awareness of stereotypical attitudes that commonly occur in Christian missionary discourse. The author utilizes Edward Said’s critique of Western concepts of the Orient as a touchstone for evaluating contrasting interfaith attitudes among Christian missionaries at the turn of the 20th century. Although ideally situated for interfaith

Eric N. Newberg

2011-01-01

143

Attitudes toward Invertebrates: Are Educational "Bug Banquets" Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists have used educational presentations and "bug banquets" to alter widespread negative attitudes toward invertebrates. In this article, the authors explore whether such presentations have a measurable affect on attitudes. Junior high, high school, and university students completed an attitude survey focusing on invertebrates in general and…

Looy, Heather; Wood, John R.

2006-01-01

144

Changing Attitudes: A Strategy for Motivating Students To Learn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the main cause of many students' disinclination to learn is attitude, it follows that the most important educational reform is the restoration of attitudes favorable to learning. This book and its companion workbook are intended to assist teachers in that goal. It helps teachers understand and appraise the negative attitudes that are all too…

Ruggiero, Vincent Ryan

145

Urban middle-school students' attitudes toward a defined science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that urban students and students of color have exceptionally negative attitudes toward school science and their futures in that field as compared with white students and nonurban students. In this paper we summarize research findings on students' attitudes toward science. We note that most of the studies of students' attitudes toward science that have been conducted

Zacharias Zacharia; Angela Calabrese Barton

2004-01-01

146

The use of core needle biopsy as first-line in diagnosis of thyroid nodules reduces false negative and inconclusive data reported by fine-needle aspiration  

PubMed Central

Background The reported reliability of core needle biopsy (CNB) is high in assessing thyroid nodules after inconclusive fine-needle aspiration (FNA) attempts. However, first-line use of CNB for nodules considered at risk by ultrasonography (US) has yet to be studied. The aim of this study were: 1) to evaluate the potential merit of using CNB first-line instead of conventional FNA in thyroid nodules with suspicious ultrasonographic features; 2) to compare CNB and FNA as a first-line diagnostic procedure in thyroid lesions at higher risk of cancer. Methods Seventy-seven patients with a suspicious-appearing, recently discovered solid thyroid nodule were initially enrolled as study participants. No patients had undergone prior thyroid fine-needle aspiration/biopsy. Based on study design, all patients were proposed to undergo CNB as first-line diagnostic aspiration, while those patients refusing to do so underwent conventional FNA. Results Five patients refused the study, and a total of 31 and 41 thyroid nodules were subjected to CNB and FNA, respectively. At follow-up, the overall rate of malignancy was of 80% (CNB, 77%; FNA, 83%). However, the diagnostic accuracy of CNB (97%) was significantly (P?negative (N?=?1), indeterminate (N?=?2) or not adequate (N?=?1) samples. Conclusions CNB can reduce the false negative and inconclusive results of conventional FNA and should be considered a first-line method in assessing solid thyroid nodules at high risk of malignancy. PMID:24661377

2014-01-01

147

Aortic distensibility is reduced during intense lower body negative pressure and is related to low frequency power of systolic blood pressure.  

PubMed

As sympathetic activity approximately doubles during intense lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of -60 mmHg or greater, we examined the relationship between surrogate markers of sympathetic activation and central arterial distensibility during severe LBNP. Eight participants were exposed to progressive 8-min stages of LBNP of increasing intensity (-20, -40, -60, and -80 mmHg), while recording carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV), stroke volume (SV), heart rate, and beat-by-beat blood pressure. The spectral power of low frequency oscillations in SBP (SBP(LF)) was used as a surrogate indicator of sympathetically modulated vasomotor modulation. Total arterial compliance (C) was calculated as C = SV/pulse pressure. Both cPWV and C were compared between baseline, 50 % of the maximally tolerated LBNP stage (LBNP(50)), and the maximum fully tolerated stage of LBNP (LBNP(max)). No change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) occurred over LBNP. An increase in cPWV (6.5 ± 2.2; 7.2 ± 1.4; 9.0 ± 2.5 m/s; P = 0.004) occurred during LBNP(max). Over progressive LBNP, SBP(LF) increased (8.5 ± 4.6; 9.3 ± 5.8; 16.1 ± 12.9 mmHg(2); P = 0.04) and C decreased significantly (18.3 ± 6.8; 14.3 ± 4.1; 11.6 ± 4.8 ml/mmHg × 10; P = 0.03). The mean correlation (r) between cPWV and SBP(LF) was 0.9 ± 0.03 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99). Severe LBNP increased central stiffness and reduced total arterial compliance. It appears that increased sympathetic vasomotor tone during LBNP is associated with reduced aortic distensibility in the absence of changes in MAP. PMID:22971725

Phillips, Aaron A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Cote, Anita T; Drury, C Taylor; Warburton, Darren E R

2013-03-01

148

Do Online Comments Influence the Public's Attitudes Toward an Organization? Effects of Online Comments Based on Individuals' Prior Attitudes.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effects of reading different types of online comments about a company on people's attitude change based on individual's prior attitude toward the company. Based on Social Judgment Theory, several hypotheses were tested. The results showed that the effects of online comments interact with individuals' prior attitudes toward a corporation. People with a strong negative attitude toward a corporation were less influenced by other's online comments than people with a neutral attitude in general. However, people with a prior negative attitude were more affected by refutational two-sided comments than one-sided comments. The results suggest that the effects of user generated content should be studied in a holistic manner, not only by investigating the effects of online content itself, but also by examining how others' responses to the content shape or change individuals' attitudes based on their prior attitudes. PMID:25901633

Sung, Kang Hoon; Lee, Moon J

2015-05-19

149

INFERENCE OF ATTITUDES FROM NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN TWO CHANNELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 DEGREES OF ATTITUDE (I.E., POSITIVE, NEUTRAL, AND NEGATIVE) IN FACIAL EXPRESSION WERE EACH COMBINED WITH 3 DEGREES OF ATTITUDE COMMUNICATED VOCALLY. THE VOCAL COMMUNICATIONS OF ATTITUDE WERE SUPERIMPOSED ON A NEUTRAL WORD. IN PREPARING THE 2-COMPONENT COMMUNICATIONS, THE COMPONENTS WERE SELECTED SO THAT THE DEGREE OF POSITIVE ATTITUDE COMMUNICATED FACIALLY WAS EQUIVALENT TO THAT COMMUNICATED VOCALLY-I.E., THE INDEPENDENT EFFECTS

ALBERT MEHRABIAN; SUSAN R. FERRIS

1967-01-01

150

Dominant negative mutant of Plasmodium?Rad51 causes reduced parasite burden in host by abrogating DNA double-strand break repair.  

PubMed

Malaria parasites survive through repairing a plethora of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) experienced during their asexual growth. In Plasmodium?Rad51 mediated homologous recombination (HR) mechanism and homology-independent alternative end-joining mechanism have been identified. Here we address whether loss of HR activity can be compensated by other DSB repair mechanisms. Creating a transgenic Plasmodium line defective in HR function, we demonstrate that HR is the most important DSB repair pathway in malarial parasite. Using mouse malaria model we have characterized the dominant negative effect of PfRad51(K143R) mutant on Plasmodium?DSB repair and host-parasite interaction. Our work illustrates that Plasmodium berghei harbouring the mutant protein (PfRad51(K143R)) failed to repair DSBs as evidenced by hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agent. Mice infected with mutant parasites lived significantly longer with markedly reduced parasite burden. To better understand the effect of mutant PfRad51(K143R) on HR, we used yeast as a surrogate model and established that the presence of PfRad51(K143R) completely inhibited DNA repair, gene conversion and gene targeting. Biochemical experiment confirmed that very low level of mutant protein was sufficient for complete disruption of wild-type PfRad51 activity. Hence our work provides evidence that HR pathway of Plasmodium could be efficiently targeted to curb malaria. PMID:25145341

Roy, Nabamita; Bhattacharyya, Sunanda; Chakrabarty, Swati; Laskar, Shyamasree; Babu, Somepalli Mastan; Bhattacharyya, Mrinal Kanti

2014-10-01

151

Malignant Memories: Effect of a Shooting in the Workplace on School Personnel's Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Post-disaster surveys of elementary school personnel examined the effects of a shooting incident on attitudes toward self, family, workplace, community, and social issues. Specific attitudes were associated with specific preexisting personality and familial variables. Results revealed more positive than negative attitudes. Positive self attitudes

Schwarz, Eitan D.; Kowalski, Janice M.

1993-01-01

152

Antibiotic rotation strategies to reduce antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria in European intensive care units: study protocol for a cluster-randomized crossover controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Intensive care units (ICU) are epicenters for the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (ARGNB) because of high rates of antibiotic usage, rapid patient turnover, immunological susceptibility of acutely ill patients, and frequent contact between healthcare workers and patients, facilitating cross-transmission. Antibiotic stewardship programs are considered important to reduce antibiotic resistance, but the effectiveness of strategies such as, for instance, antibiotic rotation, have not been determined rigorously. Interpretation of available studies on antibiotic rotation is hampered by heterogeneity in implemented strategies and suboptimal study designs. In this cluster-randomized, crossover trial the effects of two antibiotic rotation strategies, antibiotic mixing and cycling, on the prevalence of ARGNB in ICUs are determined. Antibiotic mixing aims to create maximum antibiotic heterogeneity, and cycling aims to create maximum antibiotic homogeneity during consecutive periods. Methods/Design This is an open cluster-randomized crossover study of mixing and cycling of antibiotics in eight ICUs in five European countries. During cycling (9 months) third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems will be rotated during consecutive 6-week periods as the primary empiric treatment in patients suspected of infection caused by Gram-negative bacteria. During mixing (9 months), the same antibiotics will be rotated for each consecutive antibiotic course. Both intervention periods will be preceded by a baseline period of 4 months. ICUs will be randomized to consecutively implement either the mixing and then cycling strategy, or vice versa. The primary outcome is the ICU prevalence of ARGNB, determined through monthly point-prevalence screening of oropharynx and perineum. Secondary outcomes are rates of acquisition of ARGNB, bacteremia and appropriateness of therapy, length of stay in the ICU and ICU mortality. Results will be adjusted for intracluster correlation, and patient- and ICU-level variables of case-mix and infection-prevention measures using advanced regression modeling. Discussion This trial will determine the effects of antibiotic mixing and cycling on the unit-wide prevalence of ARGNB in ICUs. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01293071 December 2010. PMID:25011604

2014-01-01

153

Potentiated clinoptilolite: artificially enhanced aluminosilicate reduces symptoms associated with endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastritis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The cation exchanger, a potentiated clinoptilolite (Absorbatox™ 2.4D), is a synthetically enhanced aluminosilicate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible benefits of a potentiated clinoptilolite as a gastroprotective agent in reducing the severity of clinical symptoms and signs associated with 1) endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease (ENGORD) and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) medication. Methods and patients Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot studies, the ENGORD and NSAID studies, were conducted. After initial negative gastroscopy, a total of 25 patients suffering from ENGORD were randomized to receive either placebo capsules or 750 mg Absorbatox twice daily for 14 days. The NSAID study recruited 23 healthy patients who received orally either 1,500 mg Absorbatox or placebo three times daily, plus 500 mg naproxen twice daily. Patients underwent gastroscopic evaluation of their stomach linings prior to and on day 14 of the study. Gastric biopsies were obtained and evaluated via the upgraded Sydney system, whereas visible gastric events and status of the gastric mucosa were evaluated via a 0–3 rating scale. During both studies, patients recorded gastric symptoms in a daily symptom diary. Results In the ENGORD study, patients who received the potentiated clinoptilolite reported a significant reduction (P?0.05) in severity of symptoms including reduction in heartburn (44%), discomfort (54%), and pain (56%). Symptom-free days improved by 41% compared to the group who received placebo (not significant). This was over and above the benefits seen with the proton pump inhibitor. In the NSAID study, the reduction in gastric symptom severity was echoed in the group who received the potentiated clinoptilolite. Treatment with the potentiated clinoptilolite resulted in significant prevention (P?0.05) of mucosal erosion severity as graded by the gastroenterologist. Conclusion Absorbatox is a nonabsorbable aluminosilicate with potential gastroprotective benefits as it protected against ENGORD symptoms and NSAID-induced gastric events. The exact mechanism of action is not clear but may be due to its binding to hydrogen ions and biologically active amines and nitrates. PMID:25061329

Potgieter, Wilna; Samuels, Caroline Selma; Snyman, Jacques Renè

2014-01-01

154

The Relationships Among Sex Role Orientation, Egalitarianism, Attitudes Toward Sexuality, and Attitudes Toward Violence Against Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among U.S. college students' (N = 618) attitudes toward rape myths and their sex role orientation, affective responses to sexuality, sex role egalitarianism, and attitudes toward violence against women were investigated. Results indicated that men were more tolerant of rape, more likely to attribute blame for rape to the victim, and less negative in their views of rapists than

Sandra L. Caron; D. Bruce Carter

1997-01-01

155

Overcoming Graduate Students' Negative Perceptions of Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there has been some attention in the literature to such issues as students' attitudes toward statistics, instructors are still constantly faced with the challenge to engage students; understand their perceptions, motivations, and interests; and deal with their reluctance and negative attitudes toward the field of statistics. The purpose…

Lalayants, Marina

2012-01-01

156

Curriculum and Instruction To Reduce Racial Conflict. ERIC/CUE Digest No. 64.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multicultural education, anti-racist education, and conflict resolution are curriculum-based approaches to reducing racial conflict. Since the 1930s, attempts have been made to develop curricula to change negative racial attitudes and encourage appreciation for people of all races. In the 1980s, multicultural education has focused on the unique…

Mitchell, Vernay

157

Restricting Portrayals of Film Violence to Reduce the Likelihood of Negative Effects in Viewers: Did the Framers of the Motion Picture Production Code Get It Right?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent social scientific research into the potential negative effects of viewing media violence has focused on the context in which violence is depicted and found that some ways of depicting violence may carry greater risks of negative effects for viewers than others. When this research is compared to the Motion Picture Production Code's restrictions on depictions of film violence, there

Joel Timmer

2011-01-01

158

Instructional strategies to improve women's attitudes toward science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted for some students.

Newbill, Phyllis Leary

159

Understanding attitudes toward people with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Understanding attitudes of the public toward people with Down syndrome is important because negative attitudes might create barriers to social integration, which can affect their success and quality of life. We used data from two 2008 U.S. surveys (HealthStyles(c) survey of adults 18 years or older and YouthStyles(c) survey of youth ages 9-18) that asked about attitudes toward people with Down syndrome, including attitudes toward educational and occupational inclusion and toward willingness to interact with people with Down syndrome. Results showed that many adults continue to hold negative attitudes toward people with Down syndrome: A quarter of respondents agreed that students with Down syndrome should go to special schools, nearly 30% agreed that including students with Down syndrome in typical educational settings is distracting, and 18% agreed that persons with Down syndrome in the workplace increase the chance for accidents. Negative attitudes were also held by many youth: 30% agreed that students with Down syndrome should go to separate schools, 27% were not willing to work with a student with Down syndrome on a class project, and nearly 40% indicated they would not be willing to spend time with a student with Down syndrome outside of school. Among both adult and youth, female sex and respondents with previous relationships with people with Down syndrome were consistently associated with more positive attitudes. These results may be helpful in the development of educational materials about Down syndrome and in guiding policies on educational and occupational inclusion. PMID:20803641

Pace, Jill E; Shin, Mikyong; Rasmussen, Sonja A

2010-09-01

160

Agonists and antagonists of GnRH-I and -II reduce metastasis formation by triple-negative human breast cancer cells in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasis to bone is a frequent problem of advanced breast cancer. Particularly breast cancers, which do not express estrogen\\u000a and progesterone receptors and which have no overexpression\\/amplification of the HER2-neu gene, so called triple-negative\\u000a breast cancers, are considered as very aggressive and possess a bad prognosis. About 60% of all human breast cancers and about\\u000a 74% of triple-negative breast cancers

Antje Schubert; Thomas Hawighorst; Günter Emons; Carsten Gründker

161

Dysfunctional attitudes in major depression. Changes with pharmacotherapy.  

PubMed

High levels of dysfunctional attitudes have been associated with greater severity of depression and poorer response to pharmacological treatment. The goal of our study was to examine this relationship and the changes in dysfunctional attitudes after treatment with fluoxetine, a relatively selective serotonin uptake inhibitor. Dysfunctional attitudes were evaluated with both the Cognitions Questionnaire (CQ) and the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) in 115 outpatients diagnosed as having major depressive disorder. After 8 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine, 67 of these patients again completed the DAS and the CQ. Dysfunctional attitudes were associated with depression severity both before and after treatment and decreased linearly with treatment of the depression. Negative thinking and dysfunctional attitudes, as measured by both DAS and CQ, were not predictive of the degree of improvement in depressive symptoms. These findings partly support a state-dependent interpretation of dysfunctional attitudes, and provide evidence of significant reductions in these attitudes after treatment with a serotonin uptake inhibitor. PMID:8277301

Fava, M; Bless, E; Otto, M W; Pava, J A; Rosenbaum, J F

1994-01-01

162

Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward and Professional Interactions With People With Mental Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Health professionals frequently exhibit negative attitudes toward people with mental disorders. It is not known whether stigmatising attitudes among pharmacy students predict less positive attitudes toward consumer participation in decision-making about medications.Aims: (1) To assess the attitudes of pharmacy students toward people with schizophrenia, and (2) to determine whether stigma predicts less positive attitudes toward concordant medication counselling.Method: All

Daisy Volmer; Martin Mäesalu; J. Simon Bell

2008-01-01

163

Postlaunch calibration of spacecraft attitude instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of both onboard and ground attitude determination can be significantly enhanced by calibrating spacecraft attitude instruments (sensors) after launch. Although attitude sensors are accurately calibrated before launch, the stresses of launch and the space environment inevitably cause changes in sensor parameters. During the mission, these parameters may continue to drift requiring repeated on-orbit calibrations. The goal of attitude sensor calibration is to reduce the systematic errors in the measurement models. There are two stages at which systematic errors may enter. The first occurs in the conversion of sensor output into an observation vector in the sensor frame. The second occurs in the transformation of the vector from the sensor frame to the spacecraft attitude reference frame. This paper presents postlaunch alignment and transfer function calibration of the attitude sensors for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE).

Davis, W.; Hashmall, J.; Garrick, J.; Harman, R.

164

Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Science "and" Religion among Sixth-Form Pupils: Dealing with Scientism and Creationism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth-form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude

Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.

2010-01-01

165

Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n?=?500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (??=?0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (??=?0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (??=?0.19); also, both positive (??=?0.13) and negative (??=?-0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline. PMID:21336503

Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

2011-04-01

166

An early Phase II randomised controlled trial testing the effect on persecutory delusions of using CBT to reduce negative cognitions about the self: The potential benefits of enhancing self confidence  

PubMed Central

Background Research has shown that paranoia may directly build on negative ideas about the self. Feeling inferior can lead to ideas of vulnerability. The clinical prediction is that decreasing negative self cognitions will reduce paranoia. Method Thirty patients with persistent persecutory delusions were randomised to receive brief CBT in addition to standard care or to standard care (ISRCTN06118265). The six session intervention was designed to decrease negative, and increase positive, self cognitions. Assessments at baseline, 8 weeks (posttreatment) and 12 weeks were carried out by a rater blind to allocation. The primary outcomes were posttreatment scores for negative self beliefs and paranoia. Secondary outcomes were psychological well-being, positive beliefs about the self, persecutory delusions, social comparison, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Results Trial recruitment and retention were feasible and the intervention highly acceptable to the patients. All patients provided follow-up data. Posttreatment there was a small reduction in negative self beliefs (Cohen's d = 0.24) and a moderate reduction in paranoia (d = 0.59), but these were not statistically significant. There were statistically significant improvements in psychological well-being (d = 1.16), positive beliefs about the self (d = 1.00), negative social comparison (d = 0.88), self-esteem (d = 0.62), and depression (d = 0.68). No improvements were maintained. No adverse events were associated with the intervention. Conclusions The intervention produced short-term gains consistent with the prediction that improving cognitions about the self will reduce persecutory delusions. The improvement in psychological well-being is important in its own right. We recommend that the different elements of the intervention are tested separately and that the treatment is lengthened. PMID:25468186

Freeman, Daniel; Pugh, Katherine; Dunn, Graham; Evans, Nicole; Sheaves, Bryony; Waite, Felicity; ?ernis, Emma; Lister, Rachel; Fowler, David

2014-01-01

167

Glycoprotein gE-negative pseudorabies virus has a reduced capability to infect second- and third-order neurons of the olfactory and trigeminal routes in the porcine central nervous system.  

PubMed

We investigated the spread of glycoprotein gE (gE)-negative pseudorabies virus (PRV) and its rescued 'wild-type' strain into and within the central nervous system (CNS) of 3- and 10-week-old pigs. This is the first study that demonstrates PRV invasion of the porcine CNS via the synaptically linked neurons of the olfactory and trigeminal routes and that demonstrates the role of gE in this invasion. After intranasal inoculation with high doses of virus, gE-negative PRV replicated less efficiently in peripheral tissues. The titres of the gE-negative virus in the oropharyngeal mucosa, olfactory epithelium, draining lymph nodes and trigeminal ganglion were approximately 100-fold lower in 3-week-old pigs and 10-fold lower in 10-week-old pigs than titres of the 'wild-type' virus. In contrast to the 'wild-type' virus, titres of the gE-negative virus were very low or undetectable in the olfactory bulb, brain stem and other tissues of the CNS. Viral antigen of rescued 'wild-type' PRV and of gE-negative PRV was detected immunohistochemically in the olfactory epithelium and in neurons of the trigeminal ganglion, and also in the olfactory and trigeminal axons leading towards the CNS. But, in contrast to 'wild-type' virus, no viral antigen of the gE-negative virus was detected in second- or third-order neurons in the olfactory bulb or in the brain stem. We conclude that gE-negative PRV can infect first-order neurons of the olfactory and trigeminal routes and is able to spread via their axons towards the CNS. Yet, gE-negative PRV has a greatly reduced capacity to infect second- or third-order neurons. Finally, we report lateral spread of 'wild-type' PRV in the trigeminal ganglion, i.e. nonsynaptic transport from neuron to neuron. Possible mechanisms that could explain the reduced levels of the gE-negative virus in the CNS are discussed. PMID:7964619

Mulder, W A; Jacobs, L; Priem, J; Kok, G L; Wagenaar, F; Kimman, T G; Pol, J M

1994-11-01

168

When training boomerangs - Negative outcomes associated with Cockpit Resource Management programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Participants' self-reports and measures of attitudes regarding flightdeck management indicate that Cockpit Resource Management training is positively received and causes highly significant changes in attitudes regarding crew coordination and personal capabilities. However, a subset of participants react negatively to the training and show boomerangs (negative change) in attitudes. Explorations into the causes of this effect pinpoint personality factors and group dynamics as critical determinants of reactions to training and the magnitude and direction of attitude change.

Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

1989-01-01

169

Framing (implicitly) matters: the role of religion in attitudes toward immigrants and Muslims in Denmark.  

PubMed

Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception. PMID:25231272

Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka

2014-12-01

170

Cueing Common Ecological Behaviors to Increase Environmental Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A major obstacle for promoting sustainable (e.g. ecological) consumer behaviors is people’s negative attitude towards these. \\u000a We tested the potential of a persuasion technique for improving these attitudes. We propose that cueing ecological behaviors\\u000a people usually engage in, increases the accessibility of previously performed ecological behavior in the memory.  As several\\u000a theories suggest attitudes are inferred from previous behavior, we

Gert Cornelissen; Mario Pandelaere; Luk Warlop

2006-01-01

171

A FLUCTUATING SALINITY REGIME MITIGATES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON THE ESTUARINE MACROALGA, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK. (R825381)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis...

172

A FLUCTUATING SALINITY REGIME MITIGATES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON THE ESTUARINE MACROALGA, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK. (R827637)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis...

173

Negative mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given.

Hammond, Richard T.

2015-03-01

174

Medical Students’ Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies from the USA have identified medical students as a major source of stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals. As data from Europe is scarce, medical students’ attitudes were investigated at the University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany. Design Cross-sectional survey containing an experimental manipulation consisting of a pair of vignettes depicting an obese and a normal weight 42-year-old woman, respectively. Vignettes were followed by the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), a semantic differential assessing weight related attitudes. In case of the overweight vignette a panel of questions on causal attribution for the overweight preceded administration of the FPS. Subjects 671 medical students were enrolled at the University of Leipzig from May to June 2011. Results The overweight vignette was rated significantly more negative than the normal weight vignette (mean FPS score 3.65±0.45 versus 2.54±0.38, p<0.001). A higher proportion of students had negative attitudes towards the overweight as compared to the normal weight individual (98.9% versus 53.7%, p<0.001). A “positive energy balance” was perceived as the most relevant cause for the overweight, followed by “negligent personality trait”, “societal and social environment” and “biomedical causes”. Attributing a “positive energy balance” or “negligent personality trait” as relevant cause for the overweight was positively associated with negative attitudes. Conclusion The results of this study confirm and complement findings from other countries, mainly the USA, and indicate that weight bias in the health care setting may be a global issue. Stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obesity are prevalent among a sample of medical students at the University of Leipzig. Negative attitudes arise on the basis of holding the individual accountable for the excess weight. They call for bringing the topic of overweight and obesity more into the focus of the medical curriculum and for enhancing medical students’ awareness of the complex aetiology of this health condition. PMID:23144850

Pantenburg, Birte; Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Schomerus, Georg; König, Hans-Helmut; Werner, Perla; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

2012-01-01

175

Attitudes toward Rape Victims: Effects of Gender and Professional Status.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upper-class undergraduates (n=740) beginning graduate students in counseling (n=78) and mental health professionals (n=45) were surveyed regarding attitudes toward rape victims. Results show that male undergraduates had the most negative attitudes toward rape victims, and female professionals the most favorable. Male participants held more…

White, Bradley H.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson

1999-01-01

176

The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude

Friedkin, Noah E.

2010-01-01

177

Differential Attitudes toward an Adult Education Program for Pharmacists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study measured post exposure attitude differences toward a series of continuing education programs for registered pharmacists. Analysis of variance revealed that hospital pharmacists held more negative general attitudes toward the series than community pharmacists. Graduation date (year since pharmacy school) showed no relationship to…

Kotzan, Jeffrey A.; Jowdy, Albert W.

1970-01-01

178

Control of bovine virus diarrhoea at the herd level: reducing the risk of false negatives in the detection of persistently infected cattle.  

PubMed

The need to detect and eliminate cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is key to the control of BVD and has been shown to be very effective in eradicating BVDV from infected herds. However, because of pitfalls in the detection procedures, some PI animals can be missed and, as a result, are not identified and removal is delayed. The high prevalence of BVDV in cattle populations in some countries (such as Belgium and neighbouring countries) means there is a high risk of reinfection of a herd from which BVDV has been eradicated. Based on both practical experience and a literature study, this review considers those points that are critical to minimising the number of false negatives in the detection of PI cattle. PMID:19157928

Laureyns, Jozef; Ribbens, Stefaan; de Kruif, Aart

2010-04-01

179

Using problem-solving skills training to reduce negative affectivity in mothers of children with newly diagnosed cancer: report of a multisite randomized trial.  

PubMed

Mothers of children with cancer experience significant distress associated with their children's diagnosis and treatment. The efficacy of problem-solving skills training (PSST), a cognitive-behavioral intervention based on problem-solving therapy, was assessed among 430 English- and Spanish-speaking mothers of recently diagnosed patients. Participants were randomized to usual psychosocial care (UPC; n=213) or UPC plus 8 sessions of PSST (PSST; n=217). Compared with UPC mothers, PSST mothers reported significantly enhanced problem-solving skills and significantly decreased negative affectivity. Although effects were largest immediately after PSST, several differences in problem-solving skills and distress levels persisted to the 3-month follow-up. In general, efficacy for Spanish-speaking mothers exceeded that for English-speaking mothers. Findings also suggest young, single mothers profit most from PSST. PMID:15796635

Sahler, Olle Jane Z; Fairclough, Diane L; Phipps, Sean; Mulhern, Raymond K; Dolgin, Michael J; Noll, Robert B; Katz, Ernest R; Varni, James W; Copeland, Donna R; Butler, Robert W

2005-04-01

180

A painful reminder: the role of level and salience of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance.  

PubMed

In his seminal book, L. Festinger (1957) emphasized the role of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance. This study (N = 308) explored whether people's use of dissonance reduction strategies differs as a function of level of attitude importance and whether the personal importance of an attitude is salient. Results showed that level and salience of attitude importance interacted to affect high-choice (HC) participants' tendency to use attitude change and trivialization to reduce dissonance. When HC participants were not reminded of the personal importance of their attitude (i.e., it was not salient), they changed their attitudes equally irrespective of attitude importance, but engaged in greater trivialization with increasing levels of importance. In contrast, when attitude importance was salient, HC participants changed their attitudes less with increasing attitude importance and showed no evidence of trivializing under any level of importance. PMID:19106082

Starzyk, Katherine B; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Soryal, Ashley S; Fanning, Jessie J

2009-01-01

181

Attitudes of Dental Faculty toward Individuals with AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of one dental school's faculty concerning attitudes toward homosexual or heterosexual patients with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia found significant negative biases both toward individuals with AIDS and toward homosexuals. (MSE)

Cohen, Leonard A.; Grace, Edward G., Jr.

1989-01-01

182

Place Meaning and Attitudes toward Impacts on Marine Environments  

E-print Network

the postal/email survey described, identified how place attachment affected the relationship, identified by Stern et al. (1995), between the recreational visitors' environmental world view (EWV) and attitudes toward negative impacts on the reef ecosystem. I...

Wynveen, Christopher J.

2010-10-12

183

Faculty Attitudes toward Male Revenue and Nonrevenue Student-Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of attitudes of a random sample of faculty at a major, public, research university in the East indicated that faculty perceived male revenue and nonrevenue athletes negatively in situations dealing with athletic competence, special services, and recognition. (JPS)

Engstrom, Cathy McHugh; And Others

1995-01-01

184

Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales  

PubMed Central

The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term “euthanasia” influences people’s support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman’s Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term “euthanasia”, the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it. PMID:23908751

Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

2011-01-01

185

Medical students’ attitudes toward gay men  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N?=?371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25?years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches. PMID:22873668

2012-01-01

186

Perceptions, Attitudes, and Choosing to Study Foreign Languages in England: An Experimental Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The declining interest in foreign languages in English-speaking countries has been attributed to negative societal attitudes and specific pupil attitudes and perceptions. While various initiatives have aimed to encourage language study, little research has systematically documented the relationship among perceptions, attitudes, and actually opting…

Taylor, Florentina; Marsden, Emma J.

2014-01-01

187

"Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2008-01-01

188

Euthanasia: A National Survey of Attitudes toward Voluntary Termination of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study on the attitudes of adults related to the voluntary termination of life showed that those persons with favorable attitudes toward suicide were also favorable toward euthanasia. Religiosity was negatively associated with pro-euthanasia attitudes. Whites and males were more favorable toward euthanasia than Blacks and females. (Author)

Jorgenson, David E.; Neubecker, Ron C.

1980-01-01

189

An Examination of Attitudes toward Disabilities among College Students: Rural and Urban Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey and three measures of attitudes toward disabilities were completed by 391 undergraduate and graduate students in human services fields (62 percent in nursing). Groups categorized by size of home community generally were similar in attitudes, except that rural-origin students had more negative attitudes on two factors: derogatory…

Palmer, Glen A.; Redinius, Patrick L.; Tervo, Raymond C.

2000-01-01

190

Help or Hindrance? Religion’s Impact on Gender Inequality in Attitudes and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper investigates the effect of religiosity on attitudes toward gender equality using World Values Survey data. Results indicate that religiosity is strongly correlated with gender inequitable attitudes across countries. Further, OLS, TSLS, and 3SLS regression estimates reveal that gender inequitable attitudes are associated with negative effects on seven measures of gender equality of well-being and public policy. No

Stephanie Seguino

2011-01-01

191

Predicting Educational Outcomes and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents Using Time Attitude Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

2014-01-01

192

A Qualitative Study of Asian International Students' Attitudes toward African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study was designed to gather information, using focus groups, about Asian international students' experiences with and attitudes toward African Americans, to identify the sources of these attitudes, and to discover methods that would address negative attitudes that Asian students might have towards African American students.…

Talbot, Donna M.; Geelhoed, Robyn J.; Ninggal, Mohd. Tajudin Hj.

1999-01-01

193

Evangelical Christian College Students and Attitudes toward Gay Rights: A California University Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research demonstrates that Evangelical Christians generally hold more negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and are less supportive of gay rights than the general U.S. population. To assess these attitudes, undergraduate students at an Evangelical Christian university in California (N = 319) completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay…

Wolff, Joshua R.; Himes, Heather L.; Kwon, Ellen Miller; Bollinger, Richard A.

2012-01-01

194

Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes

Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

2009-01-01

195

Evangelical Christian College Students and Attitudes Toward Gay Rights: A California University Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research demonstrates that Evangelical Christians generally hold more negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and are less supportive of gay rights than the general U.S. population. To assess these attitudes, undergraduate students at an Evangelical Christian university in California (N = 319) completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (ATLG) scale (Herek, 1984, 1998) and other demographic and religiosity

Joshua R. Wolff; Heather L. Himes; Ellen Miller Kwon; Richard A. Bollinger

2012-01-01

196

A Key to the Future: The Attitudes and Values of Adolescent Europeans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on original empirical data collected from adolescents in Europe (N = 9003) this paper focuses the lifeworlds of young people. It analyses negative and positive patterns of attitude and combines them with further concepts: personal life perspectives, various key values and political attitudes. Technically, the attitude towards Europe acts as…

Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Kay, William K.

2009-01-01

197

The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own…

Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

2009-01-01

198

Attitudes of Hispanic, Black, and Caucasion University Students Toward Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes of 309 Anglo, Spanish American, and Black American subjects toward mental illness were investigated. Both the Black and Hispanic college students had significantly higher Authoritarianism scores and Blacks had higher Social Restrictiveness scores on the Opinions about Mental Illness Scale, indicating more negative attitudes toward mental patients. Benevolence scores, indicating a paternalistic attitude toward the mentally ill, were

Rosario Silva de Crane; Charles D. Spielberger

1981-01-01

199

A general geometric theory of attitude determination from directional sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general geometric theory of spacecraft attitude determination from external reference direction sensors was presented. Outputs of different sensors are reduced to two kinds of basic directional measurements. Errors in these measurement equations are studied in detail. The partial derivatives of measurements with respect to the spacecraft orbit, the spacecraft attitude, and the error parameters form the basis for all orbit and attitude determination schemes and error analysis programs and are presented in a series of tables. The question of attitude observability is studied with the introduction of a graphical construction which provides a great deal of physical insight. The result is applied to the attitude observability of the IMP-8 spacecraft.

Fang, B. T.

1976-01-01

200

Body appreciation and attitudes toward menstruation.  

PubMed

Menstruation is an important function of the female body, yet it has rarely been included in research on body image. As women's attitudes toward menstruation are so often negative, this study was designed to examine whether women with positive body image would have more positive attitudes toward menstruation. Seventy-two American women, ages 18-45 years, were recruited online to complete the Body Appreciation Scale (Avalos et al., 2005) and the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Scale (Marván et al., 2006) and to answer some questions about their interest in menstrual suppression. Linear regressions showed that higher scores on body appreciation predicted more positive attitudes toward and beliefs about menstruation, but were not related to interest in menstrual suppression. Our findings may be useful in designing interventions to increase women's comfort with their bodies and bodily functions. PMID:25462885

Chrisler, Joan C; Marván, Maria Luisa; Gorman, Jennifer A; Rossini, Meghan

2015-01-01

201

Attitudes towards prisoners, as reported by prison inmates, prison employees and college students  

PubMed Central

Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Results The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Conclusion The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated. PMID:17480213

Kjelsberg, Ellen; Skoglund, Tom Hilding; Rustad, Aase-Bente

2007-01-01

202

Negative Influence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter is all about negative numbers, and how to deal with them. They're not all that difficult to understand, but for some reason people get just a little uptight when they see computations involving negative numbers. I'm guessing that the apprehension results from the view that negative numbers mean there are more rules to follow--rules you don't necessarily understand. Well, we'll try and correct that.

William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

2006-01-01

203

Socioeconomic inequalities in attitudes towards cancer: an international cancer benchmarking partnership study  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic status (SES) differences in attitudes towards cancer have been implicated in the differential screening uptake and the timeliness of symptomatic presentation. However, the predominant emphasis of this work has been on cancer fatalism, and many studies focus on specific community subgroups. This study aimed to assess SES differences in positive and negative attitudes towards cancer in UK adults. A population-based sample of UK adults (n=6965, age?50 years) completed the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer scale, including six belief items: three positively framed (e.g. ‘Cancer can often be cured’) and three negatively framed (e.g. ‘A cancer diagnosis is a death sentence’). SES was indexed by education. Analyses controlled for sex, ethnicity, marital status, age, self-rated health, and cancer experience. There were few education-level differences for the positive statements, and overall agreement was high (all>90%). In contrast, there were strong differences for negative statements (all Ps<0.001). Among respondents with lower education levels, 57% agreed that ‘treatment is worse than cancer’, 27% that cancer is ‘a death sentence’ and 16% ‘would not want to know if I have cancer’. Among those with university education, the respective proportions were 34, 17 and 6%. Differences were not explained by cancer experience or health status. In conclusion, positive statements about cancer outcomes attract near-universal agreement. However, this optimistic perspective coexists alongside widespread fears about survival and treatment, especially among less-educated groups. Health education campaigns targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged groups might benefit from a focus on reducing negative attitudes, which is not necessarily achieved by promoting positive attitudes. PMID:25734238

Quaife, Samantha L.; Winstanley, Kelly; Robb, Katie A.; Simon, Alice E.; Ramirez, Amanda J.; Forbes, Lindsay J.L.; Brain, Kate E.; Gavin, Anna

2015-01-01

204

Socioeconomic inequalities in attitudes towards cancer: an international cancer benchmarking partnership study.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic status (SES) differences in attitudes towards cancer have been implicated in the differential screening uptake and the timeliness of symptomatic presentation. However, the predominant emphasis of this work has been on cancer fatalism, and many studies focus on specific community subgroups. This study aimed to assess SES differences in positive and negative attitudes towards cancer in UK adults. A population-based sample of UK adults (n=6965, age?50 years) completed the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer scale, including six belief items: three positively framed (e.g. 'Cancer can often be cured') and three negatively framed (e.g. 'A cancer diagnosis is a death sentence'). SES was indexed by education. Analyses controlled for sex, ethnicity, marital status, age, self-rated health, and cancer experience. There were few education-level differences for the positive statements, and overall agreement was high (all>90%). In contrast, there were strong differences for negative statements (all Ps<0.001). Among respondents with lower education levels, 57% agreed that 'treatment is worse than cancer', 27% that cancer is 'a death sentence' and 16% 'would not want to know if I have cancer'. Among those with university education, the respective proportions were 34, 17 and 6%. Differences were not explained by cancer experience or health status. In conclusion, positive statements about cancer outcomes attract near-universal agreement. However, this optimistic perspective coexists alongside widespread fears about survival and treatment, especially among less-educated groups. Health education campaigns targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged groups might benefit from a focus on reducing negative attitudes, which is not necessarily achieved by promoting positive attitudes. PMID:25734238

Quaife, Samantha L; Winstanley, Kelly; Robb, Katie A; Simon, Alice E; Ramirez, Amanda J; Forbes, Lindsay J L; Brain, Kate E; Gavin, Anna; Wardle, Jane

2015-05-01

205

Attitudes about Food  

E-print Network

Approximately 18% of adolescents are obese. Attitudes about Food is a cross sectional study that seeks to identify lifestyle factors associated with adolescent obesity such as fast food consumption, physical activity, attitudes about fast food...

Baker, Nicole Alexis

2012-10-19

206

Adenovirus-mediated expression of dominant negative fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1 in thyroid cells blocks FGF effects and reduces goitrogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

Levels of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and its receptor, FGFR1, are elevated in goiter, but whether this is a direct effect of TSH is unknown. We have determined the regulation of FGF-2 and FGFR1 synthesis by TSH in a rat thyroid cell line (FRTL5) and have used a replication-defective adenovirus (RAd) expressing dominant negative FGFR1 (RAdDN-FGFR1) to examine the role of FGFR signaling in vitro and in goiter induced in mice. TSH induced FGF-2 and increased the expression of FGFR1 in FRTL5 cells. Infection of TSH-stimulated FRTL5 cells with RAdDN-FGFR1 inhibited growth and prevented FGF-2-mediated inhibition of (125)I uptake. Similar effects were found in primary cultures of human thyroid follicular cells. For in vivo experiments, male BALB/c mice were injected systemically with RAdDN-FGFR1 or RAd encoding green fluorescent protein, and goiter was simultaneously induced. Mouse thyroid follicles were shown to be transduced with RAd encoding green fluorescent protein. Circulating TSH was elevated comparably in the two groups. In the RAdDN-FGFR1-injected animals, goiter induced over 14 d was significantly smaller, and the vascular volume increase seen in goiter was also diminished. We conclude that the FGF axis is important in thyroid growth and that RAdDN-FGFR1 effectively blocks FGF actions, offering a means to control goitrogenesis. PMID:12970326

Davies, Emma L; Ramsden, James D; Cocks, Helen; Searle, Peter F; Watkinson, John C; Ueno, Hikaru; Logan, Ann; Franklyn, Jayne A; Mautner, Vivien; Eggo, Margaret C

2003-09-01

207

Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

2013-01-01

208

Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Poland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes

Przepiorka, Aneta M.; Blachnio, Agata; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Wozniak, Tomasz

2013-01-01

209

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents

Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2002-01-01

210

Patients attitudes towards sleep disturbances during chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbances are among the most distressing symptoms in cancer: they often co-occur with fatigue, pain and psychological distress. Despite the negative impact on quality of life, patients rarely seek help for managing their sleep disturbances. This paper presents the results of a multicentre observational study on patients' attitudes towards their sleep problems. The study also investigates symptom correlates. Patients responded to a semi-structured interview and completed the following questionnaires: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Brief Fatigue Inventory; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life QLQ-C30 Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Four hundred and three cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Bad sleepers constituted 66% of the sample. Thirty-eight per cent of them had not turned to any professional to solve their sleep disturbances because they had various beliefs about the importance of the problem and the possibility to be treated. The main correlates of sleep disturbances were psychological distress, reduced physical functioning and reduced overall quality of life. In conclusion, there is a need to sensitise patients to actively search for a solution to their sleep disturbances so they can be solved along with other co-occurring symptoms. Doctors could also be encouraged to dedicate more attention to routinely asking cancer patients about eventual sleep disturbances. PMID:23947497

Romito, F; Cormio, C; De Padova, S; Lorusso, V; Berio, M A; Fimiani, F; Piattelli, A; Palazzo, S; Abram, G; Dudine, L; Guglielmi, A; Galise, I; Romito, S; Mattioli, V

2014-05-01

211

Personality, organizational stress, and attitudes toward work as prospective predictors of professional burnout in hospital nurses  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine to what extent personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), organizational stress, and attitudes toward work and interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work prospectively predict 3 components of burnout. Methods The study was carried out on 118 hospital nurses. Data were analyzed by a set of hierarchical regression analyses, in which personality traits, measures of organizational stress, and attitudes toward work, as well as interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work were included as predictors, while 3 indices of burnout were measured 4 years later as criteria variables. Results Personality traits proved to be significant but weak prospective predictors of burnout and as a group predicted only reduced professional efficacy (R2?=?0.10), with agreeableness being a single negative predictor. Organizational stress was positive, affective-normative commitment negative predictor, while continuance commitment was not related to any dimension of burnout. We found interactions between neuroticism as well as conscientiousness and organizational stress, measured as role conflict and work overload, on reduced professional efficacy (?NRCWO?=?-0.30; ßcRCWO?=?-0.26). We also found interactions between neuroticism and affective normative commitment (??=?0.24) and between openness and continuance commitment on reduced professional efficacy (??=?-0.23), as well as interactions between conscientiousness and continuance commitment on exhaustion. Conclusion Although contextual variables were strong prospective predictors and personality traits weak predictors of burnout, the results suggested the importance of the interaction between personality and contextual variables in predicting burnout. PMID:21853549

Hudek-Kneževi?, Jasna; Kalebi? Maglica, Barbara; Krapi?, Nada

2011-01-01

212

Best Practices for Measuring Students’ Attitudes toward Learning Science  

PubMed Central

Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students’ learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students’ attitudes influence their learning. Students’ science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students’ attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students’ attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data. PMID:24297288

Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy

2013-01-01

213

Comparing project-based learning to direct instruction on students' attitude to learn science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.

Haugen, Marlen Ingvard

214

Awareness of Implicit Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

2013-01-01

215

Attitudes of Heterosexual Students toward Their Gay Male and Lesbian Peers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines heterosexual college students' (N=224) stereotypical negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Results indicate that participants reported more negative attitudes toward both gay male and lesbian peers than toward students whose sexual orientation was not disclosed in social, academic, and family situations. Implications of these…

Engstrom, Catherine McHugh; Sedlacek, William

1997-01-01

216

Short-term Prophylactic Tamoxifen Reduces Incidence of Antiestrogen-resistant/Estrogen Receptor-positive/Progesterone Receptor-negative Mammary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Although many estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers are effectively treated with selective estrogen-receptor modulators and down-regulators (SERMs/SERDs), some are highly resistant. Resistance is more likely if primary cancers are devoid of progesterone receptors (PR-) or have high levels of growth factor activity. In this study, a transgenic mouse line that expresses the growth factor TGF? (NRL-TGF? mice) and that develops ER+/PR- mammary tumors was used to assess the possible effects of 1) therapeutic delivery of the SERM, tamoxifen, or SERD, ICI I82,780 (ICI), on growth of established tumors and 2) short-term prophylactic tamoxifen administration on initial development of new mammary tumors. To determine the therapeutic effects of tamoxifen and ICI on growth of established tumors, mice were exposed to three weeks of drug treatment. Neither drug influenced tumor growth or glandular pathology. To determine if early prophylactic tamoxifen could alter tumorigenesis, a 60 day tamoxifen treatment was initiated in 8-week old mice. Compared to placebo treated mice, tamoxifen reduced tumor incidence by 50% and significantly decreased the degree of mammary hyperplasia. Prophylactic tamoxifen also significantly extended the life span of tumor-free mice. These data show that in this mouse model established ER+/PR- mammary tumors are resistant to SERM/SERD treatment but the development of new mammary tumors can be prevented by an early course of tamoxifen. This study validates the utility of NRL-TGF? mice for 1) identifying candidate biomarkers of efficacious tamoxifen chemoprevention and 2) modeling the evolution of tamoxifen resistance. PMID:19401525

Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.; Skildum, Andrew J.; Zhdankin, Olga; Greene, Amy L.; Regal, Ronald R.; Kundel, Katherine D.; Kundel, Donald W.

2009-01-01

217

High Radiation Dose May Reduce the Negative Effect of Large Gross Tumor Volume in Patients With Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the effect of radiation dose varies with gross tumor volume (GTV) in patients with stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 114 consecutive patients with medically inoperable stage I/II NSCLC treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy between 1992 and 2004. The median biologic equivalent dose (BED) was 79.2 Gy (range, 58.2-124.5 Gy). The median GTV was 51.8 cm{sup 3} (range, 2.1-727.8 cm{sup 3}). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant interaction between radiation dose and GTV (p < 0.001). In patients with BED {<=}79.2 Gy (n = 68), the OS medians for patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} and {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} were 18.2 and 23.9 months, respectively (p 0.015). If BED was >79.2 Gy (n = 46), no significant difference was found between GTV groups (p = 0.681). For patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the OS medians in those with BED >79.2 Gy and {<=}79.2 Gy were 30.4 and 18.2 months, respectively (p < 0.001). If GTV was {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the difference was no longer significant (p = 0.577). Conclusion: High-dose radiation is more important for patients with larger tumors and may be effective in reducing the adverse outcome associated with large GTV. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

Zhao Lujun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); West, Brady T. [Center for Statistical Consultation and Research, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lyons, Susan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cease, Kemp [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: Fengkong@med.umich.edu

2007-05-01

218

Efficacy and safety of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy for reducing the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy (the Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Damage control laparotomy, or abbreviated initial laparotomy followed by temporary abdominal closure (TAC), intensive care unit resuscitation, and planned re-laparotomy, is frequently used to manage intra-abdominal bleeding and contamination among critically ill or injured adults. Animal data suggest that TAC techniques that employ negative pressure to the peritoneal cavity may reduce the systemic inflammatory response and associated organ injury. The primary objective of this study is to determine if use of a TAC dressing that affords active negative pressure peritoneal therapy, the ABThera Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System, reduces the extent of the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy for intra-abdominal sepsis or injury as compared to a commonly used TAC method that provides potentially less efficient peritoneal negative pressure, the Barker’s vacuum pack. Methods/Design The Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial will be a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Adults will be intraoperatively allocated to TAC with either the ABThera or Barker’s vacuum pack after the decision has been made by the attending surgeon to perform a damage control laparotomy. The study will use variable block size randomization. On study days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28, blood will be collected. Whenever possible, peritoneal fluid will also be collected at these time points from the patient’s abdomen or TAC device. Luminex technology will be used to quantify the concentrations of 65 mediators relevant to the inflammatory response in peritoneal fluid and plasma. The primary endpoint is the difference in the plasma concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 at 24 and 48 h after TAC dressing application. Secondary endpoints include the differential effects of these dressings on the systemic concentration of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, collective peritoneal and systemic inflammatory mediator profiles, postoperative fluid balance, intra-abdominal pressure, and several patient-important outcomes, including organ dysfunction measures and mortality. Discussion Results from this study will improve understanding of the effect of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy after damage control laparotomy on the inflammatory response. It will also gather necessary pilot information needed to inform design of a multicenter trial comparing clinical outcomes among patients randomized to TAC with the ABThera versus Barker’s vacuum pack. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier http://www.clicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01355094 PMID:23680127

2013-01-01

219

Practitioner attitudes towards patients in forensic mental health settings.  

PubMed

Scotland has a national programme to improve mental health and well-being and addressing stigma among mental health practitioners is a priority. This study explores practitioner attitudes towards patients in medium and low secure forensic mental health settings through qualitative and quantitative approaches. Two questionnaires were used with nursing staff. A qualitative questionnaire asked participants to list examples of positive and negative practice and anti-discriminatory and discriminatory attitudes towards patients within forensic services. A quantitative questionnaire then asked participants to answer questions about a hypothetical man with schizophrenia called Harry. The overall balance of responses was more positive than negative in the qualitative results, particularly regarding patient rights, empowerment and control. However, there were a significant minority of negative attitudes in relation to recovery pessimism and desire for social distance. This was supported by the quantitative results where practitioners showed high stigma scores for avoidance and segregation. There were no significant differences in attitudes between medium and low secure settings. However overall, males reported more negative attitudes in relation to blame and avoidance and younger participants demonstrated more negative attitudes than older participants in relation to fear and danger. The implications for addressing stigma are discussed in relation to the wider national anti-stigma campaign and forensic services specifically. PMID:21050337

Lammie, C; Harrison, T E; Macmahon, K; Knifton, L

2010-10-01

220

Patients’ and clinicians’ attitude towards long-acting depot antipsychotics in subjects with a first episode of psychosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The acceptance and use of long-acting depot antipsychotics has been shown to be influenced by the attitudes of patients and clinicians. Depot treatment rates are low across countries and especially patients with first-episode psychosis are rarely treated with depot medication. The aim of this article was to review the literature on patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards long-acting depot antipsychotics in subjects with first-episode psychosis. Methods: A systematic search of Medline, Embase, PsycINF and Google Scholar was conducted. Studies were included if they reported original data describing patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards long-acting depot antipsychotic in subjects with first-episode psychosis. Results: Six studies out of a total of 503 articles met the inclusion criteria. Four studies conveyed a negative and two a positive opinion of clinicians toward depot medication. No systematic study directly addressed the attitude of patients with first-episode psychosis. Psychiatrists frequently presume that patients with first-episode psychosis would not accept depot medication and that depots are mostly eligible for chronic patients. Conclusions: Full information of all patients especially those with first episode psychosis in a therapeutic relationship that includes shared decision-making processes could reduce the negative image and stigmatization attached to depots. PMID:24167680

Theodoridou, Anastasia; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Kaiser, Stefan; Jäger, Matthias

2013-01-01

221

Stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimia nervosa: the importance of knowledge and eating disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

Widely held stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimic eating disorders may lead to self-blame and reduced treatment seeking. Knowledge and familiarity with mental disorders may help decrease associated stigma. However, these relationships are not well understood in bulimia nervosa (BN). A community sample of 1828 adults aged 18 to 70 years completed a survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward BN, knowledge and familiarity with the disorder, as well as levels of eating disorder symptoms. Knowledge of BN was negatively associated with three dimensions of stigmatization, personal responsibility (? = -0.28), unreliability (? = -0.19), and advantages of BN (? = -0.23). Familiarity revealed no association with stigmatization. Both men and women with high levels of eating disorder symptoms perceived BN as less serious than the participants with low levels of symptoms. Increasing community knowledge about bulimia may help mitigate stigmatization and perceived barriers to treatment. PMID:25751709

Rodgers, Rachel Florence; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Massey, Robin; Mond, Jonathan M; Hay, Phillipa J; Rodgers, Bryan

2015-04-01

222

Attitudes toward Animals: Th e Eff ect of Priming Th oughts of Human-Animal Similarities and Mortality Salience on the Evaluation of Companion Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human attitudes toward nonhuman animals are complex and quite contradictory. Th ey can range between extremely negative (animal cruelty) to positive (treating companion animals like human surrogates). Attitudes toward animals are especially negative when people think about human creatureliness and personal mortality. Th is paper investigates people's attitudes toward highly valued animals (companion animals). Th e research presented here tested

Ruth Beatson; Stephen Loughnan; Michael Halloran

223

Attitude Control Subsystem for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.

Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

1996-01-01

224

Kalman Filter for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.

Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.

2008-01-01

225

Modular design attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

Chichester, F. D.

1984-01-01

226

Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to HIV transmission in northeastern China.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe what nurses know about HIV/AIDS in the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Heilongjiang Province, China. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Only 7.9% of the nurse (n = 177) used condoms during their first experience of sexual intercourse. Eight-six percent of the nurses had been stuck by sharps while working, and 76% of them had been splashed by patient fluids. For 12 basic HIV/AIDS questions, the mean score was 6.66. The mean score is 6.28 for 9 HIV/AIDS attitude questions. Knowledge and attitude are negatively related (r = -0.215, p < 0.005). Training in reducing the risk for occupational exposures in this sample is important. Nurses who have a better understanding of HIV/AIDS prevention are more likely to have negative attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. This study suggests the necessity of increasing HIV/AIDS education for nurses, family members, friends, and all health care providers. PMID:15307930

Chen, Wei-Ti; Han, Mei; Holzemer, William L

2004-07-01

227

The Attitude of Iranian Nurses About Do Not Resuscitate Orders  

PubMed Central

Background: Do not resuscitate (DNR) orders are one of many challenging issues in end of life care. Previous research has not investigated Muslim nurses’ attitudes towards DNR orders. Aims: This study aims to investigate the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR orders and determine the role of religious sects in forming attitudes. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, 306 nurses from five hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS) in East Azerbaijan Province and three hospitals in Kurdistan province participated. Data were gathered by a survey design on attitudes on DNR orders. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software examining descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Participants showed their willingness to learn more about DNR orders and highlights the importance of respecting patients and their families in DNR orders. In contrast, in many key items participants reported their negative attitude towards DNR orders. There were statistical differences in two items between the attitude of Shiite and Sunni nurses. Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education. PMID:24600178

Mogadasian, Sima; Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Rahmani, Azad; Ferguson, Caleb; Pakanzad, Fermisk; Pakpour, Vahid; Heidarzadeh, Hamid

2014-01-01

228

Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. Conclusion EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. PMID:25035760

Hogan, Teresita M.; Chan, Shu B.; Hansoti, Bhakti

2014-01-01

229

Cockpit management attitudes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

Helmreich, R. L.

1984-01-01

230

Sport fans: evaluating the consistency between implicit and explicit attitudes toward favorite and rival teams.  

PubMed

Sport fans often foster very positive attitudes for their favorite teams and less favorable attitudes for opponents. The current research was designed to evaluate the consistency that might exist between implicit and explicit measures of those attitudes. College students (24 women, 16 men) performed a version of the Implicit Association Test related to their favorite and rival teams. Participants also reported their attitudes for these teams explicitly, via self-report instruments. When responding to the IAT, participants' responses were faster when they paired positive words with concepts related to favorite teams and negative words with rival teams, indicating implicit favorability for favorite teams and implicit negativity for rival teams. This pattern of implicit favorability and negativity was consistent with what participants reported explicitly via self-report. The importance of evaluating implicit attitudes and the corresponding consistency with explicit attitudes are discussed. PMID:24897908

Wenger, Jay L; Brown, Roderick O

2014-04-01

231

The Impact of College Student Money Attitudes on Credit Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing concern among academics, policymakers and educators to address credit abuse among college students prompts a need for greater understanding of the determinants of these negative behaviors. The present study investigates the impact of individuals' money attitudes on both negative and positive credit behaviors within a single empirical model…

Moore, Marguerite; Carpenter, Jason M.

2009-01-01

232

Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems is well established and highlighted by studies establishing a correlation between the protective function of mangroves and the loss of lives and property caused by coastal hazards. Nevertheless, degradation of this ecosystem remains a matter of concern, emphasizing the fact that effective conservation of natural resources is possible only with an understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of local communities. In the present study, we examined the attitudes and perceptions of local communities towards mangrove forests through questionnaire surveys in 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. The sample villages were selected from 336 villages using hierarchical cluster analysis. The study revealed that local communities in the area had positive attitudes towards conservation and that their demographic and socio-economic conditions influenced people's attitudes. Local communities valued those functions of mangrove forests that were directly linked to their wellbeing. Despite human-wildlife conflict, the attitudes of the local communities were not altogether negative, and they were willing to participate in mangrove restoration. People agreed to adopt alternative resources if access to forest resources were curtailed. Respondents living near the forests, who could not afford alternatives, admitted that they would resort to pilfering. Hence, increasing their livelihood options may reduce the pressure on mangrove forests. In contrast with other ecosystems, the linkages of mangrove ecosystem services with local livelihoods and security are direct and tangible. It is therefore possible to develop strong local support for sustainable management of mangrove forests in areas where a positive attitude towards mangrove conservation prevails. The current debates on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and payment for ecosystem services provide ample scope for development of sustainable livelihood options for local communities from the conservation of critical ecosystems such as mangroves.

Badola, Ruchi; Barthwal, Shivani; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2012-01-01

233

Conflicting attitudes to corneal and organ donation: a study of nurses' attitudes to organ donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for transplantable organs and tissues is steadily increasing and action is necessary to improve the organ and tissue donation rates. Previous research has suggested that nurses have a substantial influence on the rates of donation in the clinical area. Nurses (N = 150) were asked to complete a number of measures to assess positive and negative attitudes towards

Bridie Kent; R. Glynn Owens

1995-01-01

234

Intervention Effectiveness in Reducing Prejudice against Transsexuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…

Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

2013-01-01

235

The Attitude-Behavior Discrepancy in Medical Decision Making  

PubMed Central

Background: In medical practice, the dissatisfaction of patients about medical decisions made by doctors is often regarded as the fuse of doctor-patient conflict. However, a few studies have looked at why there are such dissatisfactions. Objectives: This experimental study aimed to explore the discrepancy between attitude and behavior within medical situations and its interaction with framing description. Patients and Methods: A total of 450 clinical undergraduates were randomly assigned to six groups and investigated using the classic medical decision making problem, which was described either in a positive or a negative frame (2) × decision making behavior\\attitude to risky plan\\attitude to conservative plan (3). Results: A discrepancy between attitude and behavior did exist in medical situations. Regarding medical dilemmas, if the mortality rate was described, subjects had a significant tendency to choose a conservative plan (t = 3.55, P < 0.01) yet if the survival rate was described, there was no such preference (t = -1.48, P > 0.05). However, regardless of the plan chosen by the doctor, the subjects had a significant opposing attitude (P < .05). Framing description had a significant impact on both decision making behavior and attitude (t behavior = -3.24, P < 0.01?t attitude to surgery = 4.08?P < 0.01?t attitude to radiation = -2.15?P < 0.05). Conclusions: A discrepancy of attitude-behavior does exist in medical situations. The framing of a description has an impact on medical decision-making.

He, Fei; Li, Dongdong; Cao, Rong; Zeng, Juli; Guan, Hao

2014-01-01

236

Prospective Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Children's Attitudes toward Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective elementary teachers hold preconceived ideas about elementary school students' attitudes toward mathematics. We found that there exists a gender bias with prospective teachers expecting girls to have negative attitudes toward mathematics and boys more likely to have positive attitudes toward mathematics. We found that these…

Schwartz, Catherine S.; Sinicrope, Rose

2013-01-01

237

A dominant-negative p38 MAPK mutant and novel selective inhibitors of p38 MAPK reduce insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes without affecting GLUT4 translocation.  

PubMed

Participation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) in insulin-induced glucose uptake was suggested using pyridinylimidazole p38 inhibitors (e.g. SB203580). However, the role of p38 in insulin action remains controversial. We further test p38 participation in glucose uptake using a dominant-negative p38 mutant and two novel pharmacological p38 inhibitors related to but different from SB203580. We present the structures and activities of the azaazulene pharmacophores A291077 and A304000. p38 kinase activity was inhibited in vitro by A291077 and A304000 (IC(50) = 0.6 and 4.7 microm). At higher concentrations A291077 but not A304000 inhibited JNK2alpha (IC(50) = 3.5 microm). Pretreatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes expressing GLUT4myc (L6-GLUT4myc myotubes) with A291077, A304000, SB202190, or SB203580 reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by 50-60%, whereas chemical analogues inert toward p38 were ineffective. Expression of an inducible, dominant-negative p38 mutant in 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface, immunodetected on plasma membrane lawns of 3T3-L1 adipocytes or on intact L6-GLUT4myc myotubes, was not altered by chemical or molecular inhibition of p38. We propose that p38 contributes to enhancing GLUT4 activity, thereby increasing glucose uptake. In addition, the azaazulene class of inhibitors described will be useful to decipher cellular actions of p38 and JNK. PMID:12393894

Somwar, Romel; Koterski, Sandra; Sweeney, Gary; Sciotti, Richard; Djuric, Stevan; Berg, Cathy; Trevillyan, James; Scherer, Philipp E; Rondinone, Christina M; Klip, Amira

2002-12-27

238

The Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution Scale: A New Tool for Measuring Public Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…

Levin, Lia; Peled, Einat

2011-01-01

239

Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents of this guide present: (1) the three gasoline consumption-reducing options for which attitudes are to be explored; (2) exercises; and (3) appendices including an energy attitudes survey. (MR)

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

240

Professional Attitudes and Behaviors: The \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although professionalism is an elusive concept, it is defined by sets of attitudes and behaviors specific to professions. Further defining and describing these professional attitudes and behaviors - the \\

Dana Purkerson Hammer

241

Longitudinal analysis of attitudes toward wolves.  

PubMed

Understanding individual attitudes and how these predict overt opposition to predator conservation or direct, covert action against predators will help to recover and maintain them. Studies of attitudes toward wild animals rely primarily on samples of individuals at a single time point. We examined longitudinal change in individuals' attitudes toward gray wolves (Canis lupus). In the contiguous United States, amidst persistent controversy and opposition, abundances of gray wolves are at their highest in 60 years. We used mailed surveys to sample 1892 residents of Wisconsin in 2001 or 2004 and then resampled 656 of these individuals who resided in wolf range in 2009. Our study spanned a period of policy shifts and increasing wolf abundance. Over time, the 656 respondents increased agreement with statements reflecting fear of wolves, the belief that wolves compete with hunters for deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and inclination to poach a wolf. Endorsement of lethal control of wolves by the state and public hunting of wolves also increased. Neither the time span over which respondents reported exposure to wolves locally nor self-reported losses of domestic animals to wolves correlated with changes in attitude. We predict future increases in legal and illegal killing of wolves that may reduce their abundance in Wisconsin unless interventions are implemented to improve attitudes and behavior toward wolves. To assess whether interventions change attitudes, longitudinal studies like ours are needed. Análisis Longitudinal de las Actitudes Hacia Lobos. PMID:23293913

Treves, Adrian; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Shelley, Victoria

2013-04-01

242

Attitudes to teaching mathematics: Further development of a measurement instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evidence that a relationship exists between attitudes to teaching mathematics and the formation of positive attitudes to mathematics among pupils is somewhat tenuous. Nevertheless, there is a strong belief among pre-service teacher educators that positive attitudes need to be fostered in teacher education students, particularly for prospective primary school teachers. Unfortunately, the research evidence suggests that high proportions of pre-service teachers hold negative attitudes towards mathematics. Although many instruments measuring affect in areas such as self-concept, anxiety, etc. have appeared in the literature over the years, no comprehensive instrument on attitudes is available to help teacher educators monitor attitudinal changes among their pre-service student teachers to the teaching of mathematics. This research re-examines an earlier attempt to develop such an instrument in Australia (Nisbet, 1991) and posits an alternative and refined version.

Relich, Joe; Way, Jenni; Martin, Andrew

1994-07-01

243

Attitudes of college music students towards noise in youth culture.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of a hearing loss prevention program within a college may be dependent on attitudes among students majoring in music. The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of music majors toward noise and to compare them to students not majoring in music. Participants ( N = 467) filled out a questionnaire designed to assess attitudes toward noise in youth culture and attitudes toward influencing their sound environment. Results showed that students majoring in music have a healthier attitude toward sound compared to students not majoring in music. Findings also showed that music majors are more aware and attentive to noise in general, likely to perceive sound that may be risky to hearing as something negative, and are more likely to carry out behaviors to decrease personal exposure to loud sounds. Due to these differences, music majors may be more likely than other students to respond to and benefit from a hearing loss prevention program. PMID:19265253

Chesky, Kris; Pair, Marla; Lanford, Scott; Yoshimura, Eri

2009-01-01

244

Attitudes toward homosexuality: Preservation of sex morality or the double standard?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered a battery of psychological tests concerning sex roles, attitudes, and permissiveness to 47 male and 57 female university students and faculty, to study the sources of the nonhomosexual's attitudes toward homosexuality. The hypothesis that attitudes are determined by a need to preserve a double standard, i.e., to condemn the homosexual in order to reduce sex-role confusion, was confirmed.

A. P. MacDonald; Jim Huggins; Susan Young; Richard A. Swanson

1973-01-01

245

Attitude control hardware and software for nanosatellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis, verification and emulation of attitude control hardware for nanosatellite spacecraft is described. The overall focus is on hardware that pertains to a multitude of missions currently under development at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies - Space Flight Laboratory. The requirements for these missions push the boundaries of what is currently the accepted performance level of attitude control hardware. These new performance envelopes demand new acceptance test methods which must verify the performance of the attitude control hardware. In particular, reaction wheel and hysteresis rod actuators are the focus. Results of acceptance testing are further employed in post spacecraft integration for hardware emulation. This provides for a reduced mission cost as a function of reduced spare hardware. The overall approach provides a method of acceptance testing to new performance envelopes with the benefit of cost reduction with hardware emulation for simulations during post integration.

Lukaszynski, Pawel Grzegorz

246

Marine Attitude Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

247

Transmission of social attitudes.  

PubMed Central

Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179

Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

1986-01-01

248

Lifespan Attitudes toward Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…

Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert

249

Negative symptoms in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Clinical heterogeneity is a confound common to all of schizophrenia research. Deficit schizophrenia has been proposed as a homogeneous disease entity within the schizophrenia syndrome. Utilizing the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) has allowed the definition of a subgroup dominated by persistent clusters of negative symptoms. While a number of studies have appeared over the years examining the electrophysiological correlates of the cluster of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, only a few studies have actually focused on the deficit syndrome (DS). PubMed as well as MEDLINE were searched for all reports indexed for "negative symptoms" or "deficit syndrome" and one of the following electrophysiology assessment tools: electroencephalography (EEG), evoked potentials (EPs), or polysomnography (PSG). While this line of research is evidently in its infancy, two significant trends emerge. First, spectral EEG studies link increased slow wave activity during wakefulness to the prevalence of negative symptoms. Secondly, sleep studies point to an association between decrease in slow wave sleep and prevalence of negative symptoms. Several studies also indicate a relationship of negative symptoms with reduced alpha activity. A host of other abnormalities--including sensory gating and P300 attenuation--are less consistently reported. Two studies specifically addressed electrophysiology of the DS. Both studies provided evidence suggesting that the DS may be a separate disease entity and not simply a severe form of schizophrenia. PMID:23428787

Boutros, Nash N; Mucci, Armida; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Tandon, Rajiv

2014-04-01

250

GOES dynamic propagation of attitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spacecraft in the next series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-Next) are Earth pointing and have 5-year mission lifetimes. Because gyros can be depended on only for a few years of continuous use, they will be turned off during routine operations. This means attitude must, at times, be determined without benefit of gyros and, often, using only Earth sensor data. To minimize the interruption caused by dumping angular momentum, these spacecraft have been designed to reduce the environmental torque acting on them and incorporate an adjustable solar trim tab for fine adjustment. A new support requirement for GOES-Next is that of setting the solar trim tab. Optimizing its setting requires an estimate of the unbalanced torque on the spacecraft. These two requirements, determining attitude without gyros and estimating the external torque, are addressed by replacing or supplementing the gyro propagation with a dynamic one, that is, one that integrates the rigid body equations of motion. By processing quarter-orbit or longer batches, this approach takes advantage of roll-yaw coupling to observe attitude completely without Sun sensor data. Telemetered momentum wheel speeds are used as observations of the unbalanced external torques. GOES-Next provides a unique opportunity to study dynamic attitude propagation. The geosynchronous altitude and adjustable trim tab minimize the external torque and its uncertainty, making long-term dynamic propagation feasible. This paper presents the equations for dynamic propagation, an analysis of the environmental torques, and an estimate of the accuracies obtainable with the proposed method.

Markley, F. Landis; Seidewitz, ED; Chu, Don; Rowe, John N.

1988-01-01

251

Attitudes of dentists and dental patients toward advertising.  

PubMed

Twenty years ago, Hite, Bellizzi, and Andrus (1988) examined the attitudes of dentists and consumers toward advertising. This study re-examines those attitudes to see if significant differences still exist. Based on a sample of dentists and consumers, significant differences were found. While attitude of dentists toward advertising is not as negative as it was 20 years ago, their views still tend to lag behind that of consumers. Further, the marketing tools used by dentists today are not consistent with what is seen by consumers and what consumers view as effective. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19042517

Clow, Kenneth E; Stevens, Robert E; McConkey, C; Loudon, David L

2007-01-01

252

Beyond bipolar conceptualizations and measures: the case of attitudes and evaluative space.  

PubMed

All organisms must be capable of differentiating hostile from hospitable stimuli to survive. Typically, this evaluative discrimination is conceptualized as being bipolar (hostile-hospitable). This conceptualization is certainly evident in the area of attitudes, where the ubiquitous bipolar attitude measure, by gauging the net affective predisposition toward a stimulus, treats positive and negative evaluative processes as equivalent, reciprocally activated, and interchangeable. Contrary to conceptualizations of this evaluative process as bipolar, recent evidence suggests that distinguishable motivational systems underlie assessments of the positive and negative significance of a stimulus. Thus, a stimulus may vary in terms of the strength of positive evaluative activation and the strength of negative evaluative activation it evokes. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects attitude neutrality or indifference, whereas high activation of positive and negative evaluative processes reflects attitude ambivalence. As such, attitudes can be represented more completely within a bivariate space than along a bipolar continuum. Evidence is reviewed showing that the positive and negative evaluative processes underlying many attitudes are distinguishable (stochastically and functionally independent), are characterized by distinct activation functions (positivity offset and negativity bias principles), are related differentially to attitude ambivalence (corollary of ambivalence asymmetries), have distinguishable antecedents (heteroscedacity principle), and tend to gravitate from a bivariate toward a bipolar structure when the underlying beliefs are the target of deliberation or a guide for behavior (principle of motivational certainty). The implications for society phenomena such as political elections and democratic structures are discussed. PMID:15647126

Cacioppo, J T; Gardner, W L; Berntson, G G

1997-01-01

253

Teachers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality.  

PubMed

Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers' and other professionals' attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy between likely behavior and personal values was significantly greater in women, those who hold religious beliefs, churchgoers and people without any gay or lesbian acquaintances. Approximately 88% of the teachers showed no type of prejudiced attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women. The experience of proximity to gay men and/or lesbian women reduces not only the discrepancy between personal values and likely behavior but also the presence of homophobic prejudice. It would be advisable to expand specific teacher training in the subject of sexual diversity in order to reduce prejudicial attitudes, thus fostering non-stereotyped knowledge of homosexuality. PMID:20480684

Pérez-Testor, Carles; Behar, Julia; Davins, Montse; Conde Sala, José Luís; Castillo, José A; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, Elisabeth; Segarra, Sabina

2010-05-01

254

Older Adults Talk Technology: Technology Usage and Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Older adults (n = 113) participated in focus groups discussing their use of and attitudes about technology in the context of their home, work, and healthcare. Participants reported using a wide variety of technology items, particularly in their homes. Positive attitudes (i.e., likes) outnumbered negative attitudes (i.e., dislikes), suggesting that older adults perceive the benefits of technology use to outweigh the costs of such use. Positive attitudes were most frequently related to how the technology supported activities, enhanced convenience, and contained useful features. Negative attitudes were most frequently associated with technology creating inconveniences, unhelpful features, as well as security and reliability concerns. Given that older adults reported more positive than negative attitudes about the technologies they use, these results contradict stereotypes that older adults are afraid or unwilling to use technology. These findings also highlight the importance of perceived benefits of use and ease of use for models of technology acceptance. Emphasizing the benefits of technology in education and training programs may increase future technology adoption. PMID:20967133

Mitzner, Tracy L.; Boron, Julie B.; Fausset, Cara Bailey; Adams, Anne E.; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph

2010-01-01

255

Low cost attitude sensors for spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of two-low cost attitude sensors developed with existing technology, but with emphasis directed to reducing the unit costs without compromising reliability or quality. The solar aspect sensor was developed to determine the angle of the sun with respect to the optical axis of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Experiment Package. Using sensor readings updated every

S. Auer; F. O. von Bun

1990-01-01

256

Cavitation processes and negative pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular dynamics simulations of a Lennard–Jones fluid under negative pressure are carried out to investigate the inception of vapor phase in the liquid (i.e., cavitation) and properties of liquid under negative pressure. The pressure of the system is reduced by uniform system expansion. In the case of larger expansion ratios, the nuclei of bubbles immediately appear, whereas finite waiting time

Tomoyuki Kinjo; Mitsuhiro Matsumoto

1998-01-01

257

Panoramic attitude sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each subassembly, design analysis, and final calibration data on all assemblies for the Panormic Attitude Sensor (PAS) are described. The PAS is used for course attitude determination on the International Ultraviolet Explorer Spacecraft (IUE). The PAS contains a sun sensor which is sensitive only to the sun's radiation and a mechanically scanned sensor which is sensitive to the earth, moon, and the sun. The signals from these two sensors are encoded and sent back in the telemetry data stream to determine the spacecraft attitude.

Meek, I. C.

1976-01-01

258

Translation as a Pedagogical Tool in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Qualitative Study of Attitudes and Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature on language teaching reveals predominantly negative attitudes towards the use of translation in language teaching (TILT) (Cook, 2010). The purpose of this article is to explore the question of whether this negativity is reflected in the attitudes and behaviours of university lecturers engaged in language teaching as well…

Kelly, Niamh; Bruen, Jennifer

2015-01-01

259

Ew, that's icky: Assessing children's attitudes towards the insects of Connecticut  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated children's attitudes towards insects, focusing on how attitudes change from fascination to repulsion as the children age. This study involved 127 elementary students (grades 4-6) and 139 high school students (grades 9-12) from New Haven public schools. Students were administered Likert type surveys to evaluate their attitudes after viewing photos of 8 common insects of Connecticut; the butterfly, ladybug, dragonfly, ant, moth, cricket, beetle, and fly. Scores from elementary school students were compared with high school students to determine if attitudes towards insects became less favorable as the children age. The results were also analyzed to determine if attitudinal changes were consistent between girls and boys. It was found that elementary school students did not hold more negative attitudes than high school students, but girls did hold more negative attitudes towards insects than boys.

Weeks, Faith Jean-Ellen

260

MME-based attitude dynamics identification and estimation for SAMPEX  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for obtaining optimal attitude estimation algorithms for spacecraft lacking attitude rate measurement devices (rate gyros), and then demonstrated using actual flight data from the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft. SAMPEX does not have on-board rate sensing, and relies on sun sensors and a three-axis magnetometer for attitude determination. Problems arise since typical attitude estimation is accomplished by filtering measurements of both attitude and attitude rates. Rates are nearly always sampled much more densely than are attitudes. Thus, the absence/loss of rate data normally reduces both the total amount of data available and the sampling density (in time) by a substantial fraction. As a result, the sensitivity of the estimates to model uncertainty and to measurement noise increases. In order to maintain accuracy in the attitude estimates, there is increased need for accurate models of the rotational dynamics. The proposed approach is based on the minimum model error (MME) optimal estimation strategy, which has been successfully applied to estimation of poorly modeled dynamic systems which are relatively sparsely and/or noisily measured. The MME estimates may be used to construct accurate models of the system dynamics (i.e. perform system model identification). Thus, an MME-based approach directly addresses the problems created by absence of attitude rate measurements.

Depena, Juan; Crassidis, John L.; Mcpartland, Michael D.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Mook, D. Joseph

1994-01-01

261

Improving nutrient management practices in agriculture: The role of risk-based beliefs in understanding farmers' attitudes toward taking additional action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.

Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.

2014-08-01

262

Stigmatizing attitudes towards people with pedophilia and their malleability among psychotherapists in training.  

PubMed

Offering counseling and psychotherapy to patients with pedophilia is considered an essential part of sexual abuse prevention by many experts in the field. Yet, professionals' willingness to offer treatment might be compromised by stigmatizing attitudes towards these patients. In the present study, we developed and tested a 10-min online intervention (including educational material and a video about a person with pedophilia) to reduce stigma and increase motivation to work with this particular patient group. Psychotherapists in training were either assigned to the anti-stigma intervention group (n=68) or the control group (n=69) that received information about violence-free parenting. In the anti-stigma condition, agreement with the stereotypes controllability and dangerousness, anger, reduced pity and social distance were significantly reduced after the intervention, compared to the control group, while motivation to work with this group remained unchanged. The effects persisted, though slightly reduced in size, for perceived controllability, anger and social distance at follow-up. Our results suggest that stigmatizing attitudes, negative affective responses and social distance regarding people with pedophilia among psychotherapists in training can be positively influenced by a low-cost intervention. Practical implications of these findings for high quality health care and child sexual abuse prevention are discussed. PMID:25085206

Jahnke, Sara; Philipp, Kathleen; Hoyer, Juergen

2015-02-01

263

Spacecraft Attitude Representations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

Markley, F. Landis

1999-01-01

264

Venirepersons’s Attitudes Toward the Insanity Defense: Developing, Refining, and Validating a Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the prevalence and predictive strength of negative attitudes toward the insanity defense, we conducted three studies with 426 venirepersons to develop an understanding and a measure of public attitudes toward the insanity defense. In these studies, we developed, iteratively refined, and cross-validated the insanity defense attitude-revised (IDA-R) scale. The results suggest that IDAs are underpinned by one’s degree of

Jennifer L. Skeem; Jennifer Eno Louden; Jennee Evans

2004-01-01

265

Relationships between religiosity level and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among Turkish university students.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationships between religiosity levels and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among freshmen university students in Turkey. The Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale-Short Form and the Religiosity Scale were administered to 91 male (M = 19.95, SD = 1.48 years) and 171 female (M = 19.23, SD = 1.28 years) students. The findings showed that male freshmen (M = 19.32, SD = 4.97) had more negative attitudes toward gay men than toward lesbians (M = 17.84, SD = 5.25), p = .000. In addition, attitudes of male freshmen were significantly more negative toward gay men (M =19.32, SD = 4.97) than females (M = 17.51, SD = 5.73), p = .012. Both male and female freshmen students who had higher levels of religiosity were found to have higher levels of negative attitudes toward both lesbians and gay men. PMID:25365111

Saraç, Leyla

2015-04-01

266

Airship attitude tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered\\u000a in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input\\/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based\\u000a on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds\\u000a of the uncertainties. Using the input\\/output feedback

Xiao-liang Wang; Xue-xiong Shan

2006-01-01

267

Rural environmental attitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two frequent beliefs about rural environmental attitudes are examined conceptually and empirically: (1) the common conception that rural environmental concerns are expressed predominantly by wealthy community newcomers; and (2) the related position that long-time rural residents are hostile to the environmental cause. We argue conceptually, through the use of a 2×2 community matrix, that environmental attitudes are equally likely to be expressed by what we term “upper middle income newcomers,” “lower middle income newcomers,” “upper middle income locals,” and “lower middle income locals.” Empirically, we find that although wealthy newcomers express the strongest environmental attitudes in the community, their concerns represent only a small percentage of rural environmental attitudes consisting of respondents who make less than 40,000 a year in household income are over 40 years of age, possess less than a college education, and work in a nonprofessional occupation. This new category expresses environmental concerns at least equal to the rest of the community on three of four measures of environmental attitudes. The findings provide insight into the widespread and cross-sectional nature of rural environmental concern. The implication is that environmental groups will find significant sources of political support in rural communities, provided they craft their environmental message in a language consistent with rural attitudes and values. Things are gettin' bad fast. Easterners and environmentalists comin' down here from the big cities are tryin' to turn our way of life completely upside down. A western US rancher quoted in Krakauer (1991)

McBeth, Mark K.; Foster, Richard H.

1994-05-01

268

Change my body, change my mind: the effects of illusory ownership of an outgroup hand on implicit attitudes toward that outgroup  

PubMed Central

The effect of multisensory-induced changes on body-ownership and self-awareness using bodily illusions has been well established. More recently, experimental manipulation of bodily illusions have been combined with social cognition tasks to investigate whether changes in body-ownership can in turn change the way we perceive others. For example, experiencing ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand reduces implicit bias against dark-skin groups. Several studies have also shown that processing of skin color and facial features play an important role in judgements of racial typicality and racial categorization independently and in an additive manner. The present study aimed at examining whether using multisensory stimulation to induce feelings of body-ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand would lead to an increase in positive attitudes toward black faces. We here show, that the induced ownership of a body-part of a different skin color affected the participants’ implicit attitudes when processing facial features, in addition to the processing of skin color shown previously. Furthermore, when the levels of pre-existing attitudes toward black people were taken into account, the effect of the rubber hand illusion on the post-stimulation implicit attitudes was only significant for those participants who had a negative initial attitude toward black people, with no significant effects found for those who had positive initial attitudes toward black people. Taken together, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that the representation of the self and its relation to others, as given to us by body-related multisensory processing, is critical in maintaining but also in changing social attitudes. PMID:24454301

Farmer, Harry; Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

2014-01-01

269

Learning to Love Math: Teaching Strategies that Change Student Attitudes and Get Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Has it ever seemed to you that some students are hardwired to dislike math? If so, then here's a book that explains how negative attitudes toward math get established in the brain and what you can do to turn those attitudes around. Math teacher and neurologist Judy Willis gives you over 50 strategies you can use right away in any grade level to:…

Willis, Judy

2010-01-01

270

A Survey of Natural Resource and National Parks Knowledge and Attitudes of Dominican Republic Citizens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a study designed to ascertain the level of ecological knowledge and attitudes of citizens of the Dominican Republic regarding national parks and natural resources. Overall, the level of ecological knowledge was determined to be very low and attitudes toward parks and resources seemed to be negative. (CW)

Berroa, Juan Leonel Batista; Roth, Robert E.

1990-01-01

271

Korean Speech-Language Pathologists' Attitudes toward Stuttering According to Clinical Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there…

Lee, Kyungjae

2014-01-01

272

Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

2012-01-01

273

Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities at High School: Applying the Integrated Threat Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this work was to study attitudes toward people with disabilities from the viewpoint of the integrated threat theory of prejudice. This theory postulates that threat may cause negative attitudes toward a group and posits that such threat may come from different sources. To test this model, a study was carried out with high school…

Bustillos, Antonio; Silvan-Ferrero, Maria del Prado

2013-01-01

274

Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…

Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

2012-01-01

275

Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive…

Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.

2010-01-01

276

Differential causal roles of Dysfunctional Attitudes and Automatic Thoughts in depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research tested an integrated model derived form Beck's cognitive theory of depression. The integrated model postulated dysfunctional attitudes as a cognitive moderator and automatic thoughts as a cognitive mediator in the relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms. In Study 1, 355 undergraduates completed the Life Experiences Survey, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the

Seok-Man Kwon; Tian P. S. Oei

1992-01-01

277

Induced Mood Change and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Remitted Bipolar I Affective Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the possibility that, in remitted bipolar I affective disorder, dysfunctional attitudes are mood-state dependent. Participants were 120 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder, remitted unipolar depression, or no history of affective disorder. The Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS; Weissman, 1979) was completed before and after positive or negative mood challenge. Following mood increase, the bipolar group changed significantly

Kim Wright; Dominic Lam; Imogen Newsom-Davis

2005-01-01

278

The Implicit Prejudiced Attitudes of Teachers: Relations to Teacher Expectations and the Ethnic Achievement Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnic minority students are at risk for school failure and show a heightened susceptibility to negative teacher expectancy effects. In the present study, whether the prejudiced attitudes of teachers relate to their expectations and the academic achievement of their students is examined. The prejudiced attitudes of 41 elementary school teachers were assessed via self-report and an Implicit Association Test. Teacher

Linda van den Bergh; Eddie Denessen; Lisette Hornstra; Marinus Voeten; Rob W. Holland

2010-01-01

279

Comparison of Drug Attitudes of College Freshmen: Metropolitan Area Vs. University Community Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A "Social Attitude Questionnaire" was used to obtain anonymous replies from 481 University of Houston (U.H.) and 470 University of Georgia (U. Ga.) freshmen concerning drug use and related attitudes. Among the most significant results were: (1) more U.H. freshmen endorsed negative statements about their parents than did U. Ga. students; (2) the…

Boardman, William K.

280

First Year Graduate Social Work Students' Knowledge of and attitude Toward Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined attitudes and knowledge of 96 first year MSW social work students toward older adults using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and the Facts on Aging Quiz II. Results suggest that the sample had limited previous contact with older adults and little knowledge about aging prior to admission. Students reported negative attitudes toward older adults on productivity,

Zvi D. Gellis; Susan Sherman; Frances Lawrance

2003-01-01

281

Drug use and attitudes toward social and legal aspects of marijuana in a large metropolitan university  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the responses of 788 students at a large metropolitan university on an anonymous questionnaire concerning marihuana. Ss' attitude toward marihuana shifted from strongly negative to strongly positive as frequency of marihuana use increased. With frequency of use controlled, attitude toward marihuana was even more favorable when other drugs had been tried, and also among Ss who were religiously inactive.

Edward R. Martino; Carroll V. Truss

1973-01-01

282

Development and Validation of Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes towards Sexual Health among University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a questionnaire on attitudes towards sexual health and validate it on a sample of medical and non-medical students and adult women. Methods For the purpose of constructing a Likert-type scale, four medical students generated 130 statements re- flecting clearly positive or negative attitudes towards sexual health. The scale had five scoring points (1 - strongly disagree, 2 -

Nina Nemèiæ; Sandra Novak; Ivana Novosel; Ozren Kronja; Darko Hren

283

Attitudes and expectations about children with nontraditional and traditional gender roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sex behavior in boys generally is viewed more negatively than cross-sex behavior in girls. The two goals of this study were to assess attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and to explore possible causes for differential evaluations of tomboys and sissies. Eighty undergraduates completed questionnaires assessing their attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and their expectations for the future adult behavior of

Carol Lynn Martin

1990-01-01

284

Attitudes of Heterosexual Students toward Their Gay Male and Lesbian Peers. Research Report #3-95.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined heterosexual college students attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, and in what types of situations were negative feelings expressed toward gay men and lesbians. A random sample of 224 residence hall students at the University of Maryland College Park completed the Situational Attitude Scale Sexual Orientation Survey, which…

Engstrom, Catherine McHugh; Sedlacek, William E.

285

A Survey of Knowledge and Attitudes about HIV and AIDS among Medical Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have found that a significant number of medical students harbor attitudes that have a negative impact on their willingness to care for persons who are HIV positive or have AIDS. To assess current HIV and AIDS knowledge and attitudes, the authors administered a 25-item survey tailored for medical professionals to 63 preclinical medical students. Respondents' mean score on the

J. Stephen McDaniel; Lisa M. Carlson; Nancy J. Thompson; David W. Purcell

1995-01-01

286

Attitudes Toward Women's Rights: Relationships with Social Dominance Orientation and Political Group Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the extent to whichattitudes toward women's rights are predicted by socialdominance orientation (SDO) and the political groupidentities socialist and capitalist. Respondents were 181 Australian undergraduates (54 males, 127females), most of whom were of European descent. Theresults of multiple regression analyses suggested thatSDO was the most consistent predictor of negative attitudes, although the extent to which itunderpins attitudes

Patrick C. L. Heaven

1999-01-01

287

Psychological Contract Breach and Job Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis of Age as a Moderator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age in the relation between psychological contract breach and the development of job attitudes. Based on affective events, social exchange, and lifespan theory, we hypothesized that (1) psychological contract breach would be related negatively to job attitudes, and (2) that age would moderate…

Bal, P. Matthijs; De Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Van Der Velde, Mandy E. G.

2008-01-01

288

An Analysis of Chinese High School Students' Attitudes toward Persons with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disabilities and negative attitudes toward individuals with disabilities permeate human history, from ancient Greece to modern society. The study of attitude toward disabilities, mostly in western countries, has provided information for the development of policy concerning the rights of individuals with disabilities. Complying with international…

Yu, Zhang

2013-01-01

289

Attitudes toward Research of African-American Graduate Students as a Function of Locality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that many graduate students have negative attitudes toward research. However, studies in this area have primarily involved white populations, and little is known about the attitudes toward research of African American students, despite the fact that the latter tend to attain lower levels of achievement in research methodology…

Richardson, Dianne; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

290

Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

2005-01-01

291

Organizational Politics, Job Attitudes, and Work Outcomes: Exploration and Implications for the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to promote understanding of employees' reactions to organizational politics. The relationship between perception of organizational politics, job attitudes, and several other work outcomes was examined among 303 public sector employees in Israel. Perception of organizational politics was found to have had a negative relationship with job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction and organizational commitment), a positive relationship with

Eran Vigoda

2000-01-01

292

Age of the emergence of negative attitudes toward strabismus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Strabismus impacts a variety of psychosocial variables in both children and adults. Poor self-esteem, lack of confidence, altered interpersonal relationships, and difficulty with employment procurement have been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the age at which children perceive strabismus in dolls and to evaluate their reactions. Methods: Three identical dolls were altered so that one

Evelyn A. Paysse; Eric A. Steele; Kathryn M. Brady McCreery; Kirk R. Wilhelmus; David K. Coats

2001-01-01

293

Examining Negative Attitudes toward Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details an investigation into onscreen marking (OSM) in Hong Kong--where paper-based marking (PBM) is being phased out, to be completely superseded by OSM. It is a specific follow-up to a larger study (Coniam, 2009a) involving 30 raters who had previously rated English language essay scripts on screen in the 2007 Hong Kong Certificate…

Coniam, David

2009-01-01

294

Chinese nursing students' attitudes toward traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined Chinese nursing students' attitudes toward and use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Survey questionnaires were distributed to 439 nursing students, 263 of whom (60%) returned them. Of the respondents, 92% had used TCM, while 48% had used TCM at least once during the previous year. Forty-five percent of respondents reported positive attitudes toward TCM use, 52% had neutral attitudes, and only 3% reported negative attitudes. The majority of respondents (76%) reported no change in their attitude toward TCM after studying nursing. Mean scores related to the adequacy of the current curriculum in TCM training and the state of respondents' TCM knowledge were generally low. Of the respondents who had used TCM during the past year, the most common use was for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common type of TCM used by respondents was herbal tea or soup. Final-year nursing students were more likely to have used TCM during the previous year, report they would like more courses on TCM, and consult Western medicine physicians before using TCM; they were also less likely to develop more negative attitudes toward TCM after studying nursing. PMID:16722501

Hon, Kam-lun Ellis; Twinn, Sheila F; Leung, Ting F; Thompson, David R; Wong, Yin; Fok, Tai F

2006-05-01

295

Viewpoint Carbon-negative biofuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current Kyoto-based approaches to reducing the earth's greenhouse gas problem involve looking for ways to reduce emissions. But these are palliative at best, and at worst will allow the problem to get out of hand. It is only through sequestration of atmospheric carbon that the problem can be solved. Carbon-negative biofuels represent the first potentially huge assault on the problem,

John A. Mathews

296

Core Values Based Brand Building: Institutional Stakeholder's Attitudes towards the Texas A&M University Brand  

E-print Network

Research has indicated that positive and negative attitudes toward intercollegiate athletics can contribute to the perceptions of both congruency and incongruency with the established university mission and values. Core values are considered...

Hutchinson, Michael Daniel

2011-10-21

297

Associations between adult attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. METHODS: A sample of undergraduate students (n=160) completed the Relationships Structures Questionnaire, which provides global ratings of adult attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance) by assessing attachment across four relationship targets (friend, mother, father and romantic partner). Attitudes regarding the acceptability of pain behaviour were assessed using male and female versions of the Appropriate Pain Behaviour Questionnaire (APBQ). RESULTS: Consistent with the hypothesis, attachment avoidance was negatively correlated with both APBQ-Female and APBQ-Male scores. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the attachment scales and the APBQ scales while statistically adjusting for sex and testing for interaction effects. The findings revealed complex relationships involving interaction effects that provided further support for the hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provided support for the hypothesis that attachment avoidance is associated with less accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. Additional research regarding the role of attachment and attitudes on responses to pain behaviour is warranted. PMID:21165372

McWilliams, Lachlan A; Murphy, Paul DJ; Bailey, S Jeffrey

2010-01-01

298

Sports Ideology, Attitudes toward Women, and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the associations of sports ideology with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes in a sample of 304 college students. It was found that sports ideology is positively associated with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes but only among males. Reciprocal causal influences between sexist attitudes and sports ideology are discussed. (SLD)

Harry, Joseph

1995-01-01

299

Uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control of artificial satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the context of a simple mechanical model the paper examines the movement of a satellite with respect to the center of masses under conditions of uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control. The equations of motion of the satellite take account of the gravitational and restorative aerodynamic moments. It is presumed that the aerodynamic moment is much larger than the gravitational, and the motion equations contain a large parameter. A two-parameter integrated surface of these equations is constructed in the form of formal series in terms of negative powers of the large parameter, describing the oscillations and rotations of the satellite about its lengthwise axis, approximately oriented along the orbital tangent. It is proposed to treat such movements as nominal undisturbed motions of the satellite under conditions of aerodynamic attitude control. A numerical investigation is made for the above integrated surface.

Sazonov, V. V.

1983-01-01

300

Attitude control compensator for flexible spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude control loop for a spacecraft uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for control about an axis. The spacecraft body has at least a primary mechanical resonance. The attitude sensors are collocated, or both on the rigid portion of the spacecraft. The flexure attributable to the resonance may result in instability of the system. A compensator for the control loop has an amplitude response which includes a component which rolls off beginning at frequencies below the resonance, and which also includes a component having a notch at a notch frequency somewhat below the resonant frequency. The phase response of the compensator tends toward zero at low frequencies, and tends toward -180.degree. as frequency increases toward the notch frequency. At frequencies above the notch frequency, the phase decreases from +180.degree., becoming more negative, and tending toward -90.degree. at frequencies far above the resonance frequency. Near the resonance frequency, the compensator phase is near zero.

Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

301

Attitudes towards individuals with disabilities as measured by the implicit association test: a literature review.  

PubMed

Research investigating attitudes towards individuals with disabilities has largely focused on self-reported explicit attitudes. Given that factors such as social desirability may influence explicit attitudes, researchers have developed tools which instead assess less consciously controllable implicit attitudes. Considering research on implicit attitudes thus seems pertinent. A review of studies measuring implicit attitudes towards individuals with physical disabilities (visual, motor or hearing) or intellectual disabilities via the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was carried out. Systematic searches of PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Scopus and Web of Science databases identified relevant articles published between January 2000 and September 2012. Seventeen articles (reporting on 18 studies that employed the IAT) were identified. These investigated implicit attitudes towards individuals with; physical disabilities (N=13), intellectual disabilities (N=3), both physical and intellectual disabilities (N=1), and 'unspecified disabilities' (N=1). Across all studies, moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes were found and there was little to no association between explicit and implicit attitudes. Individuals' beliefs about the controllability of their future, sensitivity to the concept of disease, and contact with individuals with disabilities appear to be associated with implicit attitudes. A consistent pattern of moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes towards individuals with disabilities was evident. These studies provide a starting point, but methodological issues related to sampling and the employed IATs limit the generalizability of these results. Further research investigating implicit attitudes towards specific disability types, with a wider subject pool are necessary as well as further investigation of factors that contribute to these attitudes. PMID:24316588

Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina

2014-02-01

302

Attitudes toward and approaches to learning first-year university mathematics.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship for 180 undergraduate students enrolled in a first-year university calculus course between attitudes toward mathematics and approaches to learning mathematics using the Mathematics Attitude Scale and the Approaches to Learning Mathematics Questionnaire, respectively. Regression analyses indicated that scores for the Mathematics Attitude Scale were negatively related to scores for the Surface Approach and accounted for 10.4% of the variance and scores for the Mathematics Attitude Scale were positively related to scores for the Deep Approach to learning mathematics and accounted for 31.7% of the variance. PMID:17037652

Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Hammoudi, Lakhdar

2006-08-01

303

Towards Automating Spacecraft Attitude Sensor Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a view towards reducing cost and complexity for spacecraft early mission support at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), efforts are being made to automate the attitude sensor calibration process. This paper addresses one of the major components needed by such a system. The beneficiaries of an improved calibration process are missions that demand moderate to high precision attitude knowledge or that need to perform accurate attitude slews. Improved slew accuracy reduces the time needed for re-acquisition of fine-pointing after each attitude maneuver, Rapid target acquisition can be very important for astronomical targeting or for off-nadir surface feature targeting by Earth-oriented spacecraft. The normal sequence of on-orbit calibration starts with alignment calibration of the star trackers and possibly the Sun sensor. Their relative alignment needs to be determined using a sufficiently large data set so their fields of view are adequately sampled. Next, the inertial reference unit (IRU) is calibrated for corrections to its alignment and scale factors. The IRU biases are estimated continuously by the onboard attitude control system, but the IRU alignment and scale factors are usually determined on the ground using a batch-processing method on a data set that includes several slews sufficient to give full observability of all the IRU calibration parameters. Finally, magnetometer biases, alignment, and its coupling to the magnetic torquers are determined in order io improve momentum management and occasionally for use in the attitude determination system. The detailed approach used for automating calibrations will depend on whether the automated system resides on the ground or on the spacecraft with an ultimate goal of autonomous calibration. Current efforts focus on a ground-based system driving subsystems that could run either on the ground or onboard. The distinction is that onboard calibration should process the data sequentially rather than in a single large batch since onboard computer data storage is limited. Very good batch- processing calibration utilities have been developed and used extensively at NASA/GSFC for mission support but no sequential calibration utilities are available. To meet this need, this paper presents the mathematical description of a sequential IRU calibration system. The system has been tested using flight data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during a series of attitude slews. The paper also discusses the current state of the overall automated system and describes plans for adding sequential alignment calibration and other additions that will reduce the amount of analyst time and input.

Sedlak, Joseph; Welter, Gary; Ottenstein, Neil

2003-01-01

304

Breastfeeding in Bolivia – information and attitudes  

PubMed Central

Background The main objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the attitudes of the mother and her family towards breastfeeding and the actual feeding pattern in a Bolivian population. A second objective was to study the relationship between breastfeeding information, specified according to source and timing, and feeding pattern. Methods Cross-sectional interviews with 420–502 Bolivian mothers with an infant less than or equal to 1 year of age. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding, use of prelacteal food and/or colostrum were the main outcome measures. Results The attitudes of the mother, her partner (the infant's father) and the infant's grandmother towards breastfeeding did not influence the infant feeding pattern. Women who had received breastfeeding information from health care personnel before birth or on the maternity ward breastfed exclusively for a longer duration (adjusted p = 0.0233) and avoided prelacteal food to a greater extent (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval for adjusted odds ratio (95% CI AOR) = 0.23–0.72). Information from a doctor before birth or on the maternity ward was associated with less use of prelacteal food (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI AOR = 0.31–0.93), an increased use of colostrum (AOR = 3.30; 95% CI AOR = 1.16–9.37), but was not linked to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p = 0.1767). Conclusion The current study indicates that breastfeeding information delivered by health care personnel in a non-trial setting may affect the infant feeding pattern including the use of prelacteal foods and colostrum. There was no evidence that the attitudes of the mother, or the infant's father or grandmother influenced actual feeding behavior. The lack of a "negative or neutral attitude" towards breastfeeding in the participants of the current study does, however, diminish the chances to link attitude to feeding behavior. PMID:12769829

Ludvigsson, Jonas F

2003-01-01

305

Instrument Attitude Precision Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

Juang, Jer-Nan

2004-01-01

306

Got an Attitude Problem?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a Small Business Innovation Research grant from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Servo Corporation of America, Inc. built its Mini-Dual Sensor to provide attitude control for Earth-orbiting unmanned satellites. The sensor is an Earth horizon sensor that provides higher accuracy through the use of pyroelectric arrays and a patented radiance compensation scheme.This sensor gathers data with two pairs of lithium tantalate pyroelectric arrays that are positioned 90 degrees apart in the imaging plane. The Mini-Dual Earth Sensor is a high-accuracy sensor that could be used for attitude determination in future space missions.

1999-01-01

307

Attitudes of Dental Hygiene Students toward Individuals with AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…

Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.

1992-01-01

308

A Study of Environmental Awareness and Attitudes in Ibadan, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity and the natural environment have suffered a huge negative impact around the world as a result of excessive exploitation by humans and the often short-sighted economic policies of national governments. Some scientists have asserted that the resolution of this problem may lie in a proper examination and understanding of human knowledge of, and attitudes towards, the environment. In this

Charles A. Ogunbode; Kate Arnold

2012-01-01

309

Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

2009-01-01

310

The Protestant work ethic, religious beliefs, and homonegative attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the Protestant Work Ethic (PWE) on negative attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women (homonegativity). The influence of religious beliefs and the notion of homosexuality as a choice were also examined in combination with PWE in regards to homonegativity. Previous research suggested that those who subscribe to the PWE

Kendra M. Malcomnson; Andrew N. Christopher; Trisha Franzen; Barbara J. Keyes

2006-01-01

311

Racial Differences in Eating Disorder Attitudes, Cigarette, and Alcohol Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed black and white college women regarding their eating disorder attitudes and use of cigarettes and alcohol. Black women used substances significantly less than whites. Substance use related to eating disorder symptoms. Women at highest risk of eating disorders reported highest levels of substance use. Negative affect reduction and weight…

Granner, Michelle L.; Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.

2001-01-01

312

The Teacher Attitudes toward Homeless Students Scale: Development and Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent estimates suggest there are roughly 1.6 million homeless children and this number is growing (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2011). This trend is particularly worrisome given that homeless children face a number of obstacles within society and education, not the least of which is negative teacher attitudes (Swick, 2000; U.S.…

Brown, Jessica J.

2012-01-01

313

Age Differences in Alcohol and Cocaine Expectancies and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive and negative expectancies regarding the behavioral effects of alcohol and cocaine were assessed and used to predict attitudes toward their use across four age groups. Children and adolescents appeared to overgeneralize their beliefs about alcohol to a less familiar drug, cocaine, perceiving the effects of the two drugs similarly. Only…

Sigelman, Carol K.; Weir, Catherine; Davies, Elizabeth; Silk, Alyson

2002-01-01

314

Values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of Values Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, Values and Education. Generally, most of the values were taught by the teachers. All of the values were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for values taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, valuing life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for values learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, valuing life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, values were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. Values can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between values taught by the teachers and values learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; values taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach values; values learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even he/she did not learned values in his/her mathematics class.

Limbaco, K. S. A.

2015-03-01

315

Marital Attitude Trajectories across Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study seeks to address the implicit assumption in the developmental literature that marital attitudes are static by investigating how various marital attitudes might change across adolescence. Longitudinal change for three marital attitudes in relation to family structure, educational aspirations, race and gender are examined.…

Willoughby, Brian J.

2010-01-01

316

Slovakian Students' Attitudes toward Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' attitudes toward science significantly alter their achievement in science. Therefore, identification and influence of attitudes became to be an essential part of educational research. This study has been initiated by the idea that; research in students' attitudes toward science often involves science in general, but particular disciplines like biology or chemistry have been overlooked. Thus, this study is about

Pavol Prokop; Gaye Tuncer

2007-01-01

317

Modeling resident attitudes toward tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous analyses have been performed to identify resident attitudes toward tourism. This article extends the subject by introducing a broad, synthetic conceptual model of attitudes. Using data from a survey, two sets of specific models derived from this general one are evaluated using structural equation modeling (e.g., LISREL). The value-attitude models indicate that the strength of resident values regarding economic

Rebecca L. Johnson

1997-01-01

318

Attitude Assessment in Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes construction of an attitude scale and its use in assessing attitudes of college students in relation to the discovery method of teaching. Study revealed that attitudes can be changed by training which involves working with children in real classrooms. (PS)

Bollen, F. A.

1972-01-01

319

Love Attitudes and Relationship Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the association of love attitudes with the initiation, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships. Respondents completed the Love Attitudes Scale and a questionnaire designed to measure experiences at each stage of relationship development. Ludus was relevant to all stages of relationship development; ludic attitudes were associated with absence of concern for partner loyalty, short and uncommitted relationships,

Georgina Hammock; Deborah South Richardson

2011-01-01

320

Correctional Officers' Attitudes Toward AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined correctional officers' views and attitudes about working with inmates with AIDS. At three prisons in Texas, 153 correctional officers were administered the AIDS in Prison Scale, the AIDS Attitude Scale, an AIDS\\/HIV Knowledge Test, and a Homophobia Scale. Correctional officers who had more positive attitudes about people with AIDS, who were more knowledgeable about AIDS\\/HIV, and who

KATHERINE J. MAHAFFEY; DAVID K. MARCUS

1995-01-01

321

Effects of yaw and pitch motion on model attitude measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamic effects of angular motion in yaw and pitch on model attitude measurements in which inertial sensors were used during wind tunnel tests. A technique is developed to reduce the error caused by these effects. The analysis shows that a 20-to-1 reduction in model attitude measurement error caused by angular motion is possible with this technique.

Tcheng, Ping; Tripp, John S.; Finley, Tom D.

1995-01-01

322

Attitude toward Child Abuse among Mothers Referring Health Centers of Tabriz  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Parental attitude is an important factor in prediction of child abuse. Awareness of people's attitudes is important in the prediction of their behavior and controlling it. This study was conducted to determine the mothers' attitudes toward child abuse. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 261 mothers referred to the 13 health centers of Tabriz with children aged 2-12, they were selected by a multistage method and their attitudes were assessed using a questionnaire within 2 months. Higher score were representing more negative attitudes. Results: The results showed that the mean score of total attitude toward child abuse was significantly higher than the middle and was significantly associated with mothers' educational level, employment status, attendance status, number of children they have, and economic status. Conclusion: The results showed that although the mothers' attitudes toward child abuse were negative, because of the relationship between mothers' attitudes with their demographic characteristics, it is necessary to enhance mothers' quality of life, and their social and spiritual support to improve their attitudes and prevent the child abuse.

Jabraeili, Mahnaz; Asadollahi, Maliheh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohhammad; Hallaj, Marzieh

2015-01-01

323

How encompassing is the effect of negativity bias on political conservatism?  

PubMed

We argue that the political effects of negativity bias are narrower than Hibbing et al. suggest. Negativity bias reliably predicts social, but not economic, conservatism, and its political effects often vary across levels of political engagement. Thus the role of negativity bias in broad ideological conflict depends on the strategic packaging of economic and social attitudes by political elites. PMID:24970443

Malka, Ariel; Soto, Christopher J

2014-06-01

324

A "Frightening" Public Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews conclusions about public attitudes toward science and technology drawn by the director of the National Science Foundation, John B. Slaughter, from a recent survey conducted by the National Science Foundation. Slaughter's comments about the United States' slowing rate of investment in research and development are also included. (SR)

USA Today, 1982

1982-01-01

325

Parental Attitudes and Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores on the Parental Attitudes Research Instrument and on Rotter's Internality-Externality Scale were compared for 28 lower class black mothers of high risk infants and 34 mothers of same-age infants from the general population of a Southern University town. (GO)

Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

1976-01-01

326

Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

327

Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

Tracy Dietz

328

Attitude Is Everything  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 10 years, college and university administrators have been embracing online learning as the next logical step in higher education, but not all faculty have been on board. Studies conducted by the Sloan Consortium, an association that promotes online learning, suggest that faculty attitudes have become a barrier to successful online…

Hunt, Jazelle

2009-01-01

329

Attitudes, Behavior, and Employability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the findings of three studies related to the effects of schooling on the employability development of youth. The first two studies described investigate determinants of attitudes and misbehavior in high school that are presumed to affect labor market outcomes later. The third study is presented as a complement to the first…

Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Dorsten, Linda Eberst

330

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

331

Academics, Activities, Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Oklahoma high school is striving to integrate activities, attitudes, and academics. The school broadens curriculum by involving students in its performance, governance, service, and instruction via sports activities, job-related organizations, course-related clubs, membership groups, and school-service and government clubs open to all students.…

Lannert, Grace

2000-01-01

332

Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

333

The Illness Attitude Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) were developed by Robert Kellner as a clinimetric index for measuring hypochondriacal fears and beliefs (worry about illness, concerns about pain, health habits, hypochondriacal beliefs, thanatophobia, disease phobia, bodily preoccupations, treatment experience and effects of symptoms). The IAS have been extensively used in the past two decades, but there has been no comprehensive review

Laura Sirri; Silvana Grandi; Giovanni A. Fava

2008-01-01

334

Words with attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional notion of word meaning used in natural language processing is literal or lexical meaning as used in dictionaries and lexicons. This relatively objective notion of lexical meaning is different from more subjective notions of emotive or affective meaning. Our aim is to come to grips with subjective aspects of meaning expressed in written texts, such as the attitudes

Jaap Kamps; Maarten Marx

2002-01-01

335

Science Center and Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project team gathered data with the assistance of Recreational and Cultural Organization of Mashhad Municipality, Organization of Mashhad Municipality and Science and Astronomy Science Center of Mashhad Municipality, Khorasan Razavi, Islamic Republic of Iran. This paper discusses the effect of science center on attitude of students who visit…

Daneshamooz, Saeed; Alamolhodaei, Hassan; Darvishian, Saeed; Daneshamooz, Soniya

2013-01-01

336

The four undergraduate years. Changes in weight, eating attitudes, and depression.  

PubMed

Weight, eating attitudes, and depression were assessed in male and female students over the 4 years of university attendance, and the relation of weight changes to eating attitudes and depression was explored using self-report measures (Restraint Scale, EDI, CES-D) collected at six time points during the university years. Results showed that, in general, weight increased between year one and year four of university attendance for both men and women, with men gaining an average of 4.1 kg and women gaining an average of 3.2 kg. Weight gain was associated with increased body dissatisfaction and negative eating attitudes among women, whereas weight loss was associated with decreased negative eating attitudes. Well-being and eating attitudes of men who gained weight did not differ, either initially or at year four, from those of men who remained weight stable, whereas men who lost weight reported higher negative eating attitudes both initially and at year four. Weight gain, therefore, appears to be associated with negative outcomes, including greater preoccupation with eating and weight, for women, but not for men, while weight loss improves the attitudes only of women. PMID:23764239

Girz, Laura; Polivy, Janet; Provencher, Veronique; Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Pratt, Michael W; Mark Pancer, S; Birnie-Lefcovitch, Shelly; Adams, Gerald R

2013-10-01

337

Impact of work experience placements on school students’ attitude towards mental illness  

PubMed Central

Aims and method Research shows that 16- to 19-year-olds express the greatest level of negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of work experience placements in influencing secondary-school students’ attitudes towards mental illness and career choices. The Adolescent Attitude Towards Mental Illness questionnaire measured and assessed the adolescents’ attitude changes. Pre- and post-evaluation questionnaires assessed changes in their career choices. Results There was a statistically significant change in the adolescents’ attitudes, especially regarding categorical thinking and perceptions that people with mental illness are violent and out of control. There was also a positive shift in their career choices towards options in the field of mental health. Clinical implications Work experience placements can have a positive impact on secondary-school students’ attitudes towards mental illness and may improve the level of student recruitment into the field of psychiatry. PMID:25237537

Kennedy, Vanathi; Belgamwar, Ravindra B.

2014-01-01

338

The Time for Doing is Not the Time for Change: Effects of General Action and Inaction Goals on Attitude Retrieval and Attitude Change  

PubMed Central

Implicit in many informal and formal principles of psychological change is the understudied assumption that change requires either an active approach or an inactive approach. This issue was systematically investigated by comparing the effects of general action goals and general inaction goals on attitude change. As prior attitudes facilitate preparation for an upcoming persuasive message, general action goals were hypothesized to facilitate conscious retrieval of prior attitudes and therefore hinder attitude change to a greater extent than general inaction goals. Experiment 1 demonstrated that action primes (e.g., “go,” “energy”) yielded faster attitude report than inaction primes (e.g., “rest,” “still”) among participants who were forewarned of an upcoming persuasive message. Experiment 2 showed that the faster attitude report identified in Experiment 1 was localized on attitudes towards a message topic participants were prepared to receive. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 showed that, compared to inaction primes, action primes produced less attitude change and less argument scrutiny in response to a counterattitudinal message on a previously forewarned topic. Experiment 6 confirmed that the effects of the primes on attitude change were due to differential attitude retrieval. That is, when attitude expression was induced immediately after the primes, action and inaction goals produced similar amounts of attitude change. In contrast, when no attitude expression was induced after the prime, action goals produced less attitude change than inaction goals. Finally, Experiment 7 validated the assumption that these goal effects can be reduced or reversed when the goals have already been satisfied by an intervening task. PMID:21639651

Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M.

2011-01-01

339

TRMM On Orbit Attitude Control System Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Attitude Control System (ACS) along with detailed in-flight performance results for each operational mode. The TRMM spacecraft is an Earth-pointed, zero momentum bias satellite launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Launched to provide a validation for poorly known rainfall data sets generated by global climate models, TRMM has demonstrated its utility by reducing uncertainties in global rainfall measurements by a factor of two. The ACS is comprised of Attitude Control Electronics (ACE), an Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), Digital Sun Sensors (DSS), Inertial Reference Units (IRU), Three Axis Magnetometers (TAM), Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS), Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTB), Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWA), Engine Valve Drivers (EVD) and thrusters. While in Mission Mode, the ESA provides roll and pitch axis attitude error measurements and the DSS provide yaw updates twice per orbit. In addition, the TAM in combination with the IRU and DSS can be used to provide pointing in a contingency attitude determination mode which does not rely on the ESA. Although the ACS performance to date has been highly successful, lessons were learned during checkout and initial on-orbit operation. This paper describes the design, on-orbit checkout, performance and lessons learned for the TRMM ACS.

Robertson, Brent; Placanica, Sam; Morgenstern, Wendy

1999-01-01

340

HIV prevention interventions to reduce sexual risk for African Americans: the influence of community-level stigma and psychological processes.  

PubMed

Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans' condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma-Whites' attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites' attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites' attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites' attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites' attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants' values and needs, which may reduce African Americans' mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites' attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed along with public health implications. PMID:24507916

Reid, Allecia E; Dovidio, John F; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T

2014-02-01

341

HIV Prevention Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk for African Americans: The Influence of Community-Level Stigma and Psychological Processes  

PubMed Central

Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans’ condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma—Whites’ attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites’ attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites’ attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites’ attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites’ attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants’ values and needs, which may reduce African Americans’ mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites’ attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed along with public health implications. PMID:24507916

Reid, Allecia E.; Dovidio, John F.; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T.

2013-01-01

342

Attitudes toward psychotropic medications among patients with chronic psychiatric disorders and their family caregivers  

PubMed Central

Aim: To examine attitudes towards psychotropic medications among patients with chronic psychiatric disorders as well as their family caregivers by using factor analysis. Materials and Methods: The study included 200 patients and their family caregivers with chronic psychiatric disorders who are attending the psychiatry outpatient services. A self-designed 18-item self-rated questionnaire was used to evaluate the attitude toward psychotropics and factor analysis was done to study the different models of attitudes. Results: In general both patients and caregivers had positive attitude toward the psychotropic medications and there was no significant difference between the patients and caregivers on the various items of the questionnaire assessing the attitude. Factor analysis of the questionnaire indicated that either two-factor or four-factor models explained the attitude of the patients and caregivers. In the two-factor model there was one positive and one negative attitude factor, whereas the four-factor model comprised of two positive and two negative attitude factors. The four-factor model of attitudes provided a more comprehensive solution to how attitudes might be formed among patients and their family caregivers. Factors one and four in the four-factor solution still reflected positive attitudes, but appeared to portray a risk-benefit approach, in which benefits such as the efficacy of psychotropic medications in treating mental illnesses and preventing relapse, and medications being better than other options were being contrasted with the risks of side effects and permanent damage or harm. Conclusion: Attitudes of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders and their caregivers toward psychotropic medications appear to be shaped by factors such as perceived efficacy or benefit from medicines, the necessity for taking treatment and concerns such as side effects, harm or expense. PMID:25288840

Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Sharma, Aarti; Tyagi, Shikha

2014-01-01

343

Acculturation and suicide attitudes: a study of perceptions about suicide among a sample of Ghanaian immigrants in the United States.  

PubMed

To investigate whether a relationship exists between acculturation and attitudes about suicide, 81 Ghanaian immigrants living in the U.S. who responded to a mail inquiry were selected to participate in the current study. This particular immigrant sample was chosen because although they represent a rapidly growing group in the U.S., they have been rarely studied. Respondents consisted of 42 women and 36 men (3 did not identify their sex), with a mean age of 29.5 yr. (SD = 10.6). Participants completed measures of acculturation and attitudes about suicide. Results indicated significant correlations between length of residency in the United States and negative suicide attitudes, and also between psychological acculturation and negative suicide attitudes. No significant relationship was found between behavioral acculturation and suicide attitudes. Furthermore, length of residency was a stronger predictor of suicide attitudes than other subjective measures of acculturation. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:17037483

Eshun, Sussie

2006-08-01

344

Spacecraft methods and structures with enhanced attitude control that facilitates gyroscope substitutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and structures are provided that enhance attitude control during gyroscope substitutions by insuring that a spacecraft's attitude control system does not drive its absolute-attitude sensors out of their capture ranges. In a method embodiment, an operational process-noise covariance Q of a Kalman filter is temporarily replaced with a substantially greater interim process-noise covariance Q. This replacement increases the weight given to the most recent attitude measurements and hastens the reduction of attitude errors and gyroscope bias errors. The error effect of the substituted gyroscopes is reduced and the absolute-attitude sensors are not driven out of their capture range. In another method embodiment, this replacement is preceded by the temporary replacement of an operational measurement-noise variance R with a substantially larger interim measurement-noise variance R to reduce transients during the gyroscope substitutions.

Li, Rongsheng (Inventor); Kurland, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Dawson, Alec M. (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei A. (Inventor); Uetrecht, David S. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

345

Effects of Image–Issue and Positive–Negative Scene Orders in Broadcast News  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of image–issue scene orders and positive–negative scene orders in a broadcast news story on viewers’ memory, attitudes, and voting intention are examined. The 2 different orders of image–issue and positive–negative scenes are independent variables, whereas free recall, recognition memory, attitudes toward candidates, and voting intention are the dependent variables for this study. An experiment with broadcast news stories

Yun Jung Choi; Jong Hyuk Lee

2007-01-01

346

The attitude accuracy consequences of on-orbit calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude sensors by the Flight Dynamics Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science mission of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) requires attitude solutions with uncertainties of 27, 16.7, 16.7 arcseconds (3 sigma) around the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, respectively. The primary input to the attitude determination process is provided by two NASA standard fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) and a Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) 2. The attitude determination requirements approach the limits attainable with the FHSTs and DRIRU. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designed and executed calibration procedures that far exceeded the extent and the data volume of any other FDF-supported mission. The techniques and results of this attempt to obtain attitude accuracies at the limit of sensor capability and the results of analysis of the factors that limit the attitude accuracy are the primary subjects of this paper. The success of the calibration effort is judged by the resulting measurement residuals and comparisons between ground- and onboard-determined attitudes. The FHST star position residuals have been reduced to less tha 4 arcsec per axis -- a value that appears to be limited by the sensor capabilities. The FDF ground system uses a batch least-squares estimator to determine attitude. The EUVE onboard computer (OBC) uses an extended Kalman filter. Currently, there are systematic differences between the two attitude solutions that occasionally exceed the mission requirements for 3 sigma attitude uncertainty. Attempts to understand and reduce these differences are continuing.

Hashmall, J.; Davis, W.; Harman, R.

1993-01-01

347

The attitude accuracy consequences of on-orbit calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude sensors by the Flight Dynamics Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science mission of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) requires attitude solutions with uncertainties of 27, 16.7, 16.7 arcseconds (3 sigma) around the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, respectively. The primary input to the attitude determination process is provided by two NASA standard fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) and a Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) 2. The attitude determination requirements approach the limits attainable with the FHSTs and DRIRU. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designed and executed calibration procedures that far exceeded the extent and the data volume of any other FDF-supported mission. The techniques and results of this attempt to obtain attitude accuracies at the limit of sensor capability and the results of analysis of the factors that limit the attitude accuracy are the primary subjects of this paper. The success of the calibration effort is judged by the resulting measurement residuals and comparisons between ground- and onboard-determined attitudes. The FHST star position residuals have been reduced to less tha 4 arcsec per axis -- a value that appears to be limited by the sensor capabilities. The FDF ground system uses a batch least-squares estimator to determine attitude. The EUVE onboard computer (OBC) uses an extended Kalman filter. Currently, there are systematic differences between the two attitude solutions that occasionally exceed the mission requirements for 3 sigma attitude uncertainty. Attempts to understand and reduce these differences are continuing.

Hashmall, J.; Davis, W.; Harman, R.

348

An Intervention to Increase Positive Attitudes and Address Misconceptions About Australian Muslims: A Call for Education and Open Mindedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes a nine-week anti-prejudice intervention targeting attitudes towards Australian Muslims at a Western Australian university in 2008 using data from 19 Psychology students. Quantitative results found a marginal increase in reported positive attitudes towards Australian Muslims, together with a significant reduction in the reporting of negative media-related beliefs. Using a thematic analysis on reported attitudes and beliefs

Anne Aly; Anne Al; Lisa Hartley; Craig McGarty

2009-01-01

349

An exploratory study assessing relations of demographic characteristics with police recruits' attitudes toward abuse of children and abusive parents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess the relationships of demographic characteristics with attitudes toward abusive parents and abused children in a convenience sample of 183 police recruits. Police academy training staff invited recruits to complete a questionnaire which contained three vignettes and a 36-item questionnaire that depicted child neglect, sexual abuse, physical abuse, and demographic information. Analysis of responses showed that African Americans and Latinos reported more negative attitudes of anger, disgust, sadness, and discomfort toward an abusive parent than the Euro-American group. Women reported more negative attitudes toward an abused child and also more positive attitudes of sympathy and caring toward an abused child. Results partially support previous research suggesting demographic characteristics influence report of attitudes toward abusive parents and abused children. These findings about the influence of demographic characteristics on positive and negative emotional reactions toward abusive parents and abused children add to the literature. PMID:18175484

Patterson, George T

2007-10-01

350

Torque equilibrium attitudes for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All spacecraft orbiting in a low earth orbit (LEO) experience external torques due to environmental effects. Examples of these torques include those induced by aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and solar forces. It is the gravity-gradient and aerodynamic torques that produce the greatest disturbances to the attitude of a spacecraft in LEO, and large asymmetric spacecraft, such as the space station, are affected to a greater degree because the magnitude of the torques will, in general, be larger in proportion to the moments of inertia. If left unchecked, these torques would cause the attitude of the space station to oscillate in a complex manner and the resulting motion would destroy the micro-gravity environment as well as prohibit the orbiter from docking. The application of control torques will maintain the proper attitude, but the controllers have limited momentum capacity. When any controller reaches its limit, propellant must then be used while the device is reset to a zero or negatively-biased momentum state. Consequently, the rate at which momentum is accumulated is a significant factor in the amount of propellant used and the frequency of resupply necessary to operate the station. A torque profile in which the area curve for a positive torque is not equal to the area under the curve for a negative torque is 'biased,' and the consequent momentum build-up about that axis is defined as secular momentum because it continues to grow with time. Conversely, when the areas are equal, the momentum is cyclic and bounded. A Torque Equilibrium Attitude (TEA) is thus defined as an attitude at which the external torques 'balance' each other as much as possible, and which will result in lower momentum growth in the controllers. Ideally, the positive and negative external moments experienced by a spacecraft at the TEA would exactly cancel each other out and small cyclic control torques would be required only for precise attitude control. Over time, the only momentum build-up in the controllers would be due to electro-mechanical losses within the device. However, the atmospheric torques are proportional to the density of the atmosphere and the density varies with the orbital position, time of day, time of year, and the solar cycle. In addition, there are unmodeled disturbances and uncertainties in the mass and inertias. Therefore, there is no constant attitude that will completely balance the environmental torques and the dynamic TEA cannot be solved in closed form. The objective of this research was to determine a method to calculate a dynamic TEA such that the rate of momentum build-up in the controllers would be minimized and to implement this method in the MATRIX(x) simulation software by Integrated Systems, Inc.

Thompson, Roger C.

1993-01-01

351

The Pet Attitude Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It was the intention of the authors that this chapter be a resource of test and measures for the reader. The name of the Pet\\u000a Attitude Scale (PAS) (Templer, Salter, Dickey, Baldwin, & Veleber, 1981), apparently the first published scale that measures\\u000a human–animal bonding, reflects the fact that it was developed three decades ago. If it were constructed today, it

Donald I. Templer; Hiroko Arikawa

352

Pew Global Attitudes Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most social scientists will tell you that it is fairly hard to get any type of meaningful sense of public opinion on any number of important issues, so it is with great interest that the Scout Report has found the website of the Pew Global Attitudes Project. With principal funding from The Pew Charitable Trusts, the Global Attitudes Project was created with the intent to gauge public attitudes toward globalization, democracy, and a number of other crucial issues. To accomplish this task, they have conducted over 90,000 interviews in 50 countries over the past few years. So far, their work has yielded a number of intriguing reports which deal with subjects such as Islamic extremism, the war in Iraq, and prosperity in China. Visitors can view all of these reports on the site, and also take a look at the datasets used to craft each report. Finally, visitors can elect to sign up to receive email updates when new reports are released.

353

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

354

Values of Catholic science educators: Their impact on attitudes of science teaching and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This quantitative study examined the associations between the values held by middle school science teachers in Catholic schools and their attitudes towards science teaching. A total of six value types were studied---theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious. Teachers can have negative, positive, or neutral attitudes towards their teaching that are linked to their teaching practices and student learning. These teachers' attitudes may affect their competence and have a subsequent impact on their students' attitudes and dispositions towards science. Of particular interest was the relationship between science teaching attitudes and religious values. A non-experimental research design was used to obtain responses from 54 teachers with two survey instruments, the Science Teaching Attitude Scale II and the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that political values were negatively associated with attitudes towards science teaching. Data collected were inconsistent with the existence of any measurable association between religious values and attitudes towards science teaching. This study implies that science teacher preparation programs should adopt a more contextual perspective on science that seeks to develop the valuation of science within a cultural context, as well as programs that enable teachers to identify the influence of their beliefs on instructional actions to optimize the impact of learning new teaching practices that may enhance student learning.

DeMizio, Joanne Greenwald

355

Middle school students’ attitudes toward physical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine middle school students’ attitudes toward physical education using an attitude instrument grounded in attitude theory. In addition, this investigation also sought to ascertain if gender and grade level influence student attitudes toward the subject matter. Participants for this study were 995 students from grades 6 to 8. A previously validated attitude instrument

Prithwi Raj Subramaniam; Stephen Silverman

2007-01-01

356

The Importance of Attitudes in Statistics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People forget what they do not use. But attitudes "stick." Our article emphasizes the importance of students' attitudes toward statistics. We examine 15 surveys that purport to assess these attitudes and then describe the "Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics," a commonly used attitude survey. We present our conceptual model of Students'…

Ramirez, Caroline; Schau, Candace; Emmioglu, Esma

2012-01-01

357

Youth leadership program for changing self-image and attitude toward people with disabilities.  

PubMed

Society has a negative attitude toward people with intellectual disabilities or psychiatric disabilities. It is well documented that they are subjected to prejudice, stigma, and negative attitudes (Di Giulio, 2003; Finger, 1994). Professional literature indicates that information about disabilities and encounters with persons with disabilities can change negative attitudes (Carter, Hughes, Copeland, & Breen, 2001; Krajewski & Flaherty, 2000). This study accompanied 164 9th-grade students from various junior high schools throughout Israel. Half of the students participated in an integration program for changing attitudes toward persons with disabilities, and the other half served as the control group. The research examined the existence and the degree of relationship between participation in the program, changes in attitudes toward people with disabilities, and self-image. The research findings pointed to a positive change in attitudes of the participants of the program in comparison with the control group, resulting mainly from personal contact with people with disabilities. No relationship was found between levels of self-image of the research group and attitudes toward people with disabilities. PMID:22900740

Cohen, Ronen; Roth, Dana; York, Alan; Neikrug, Shimshon

2012-01-01

358

Embodiment, agency, and attitude change.  

PubMed

Attitude embodiment effects occur when the position or movement of a person's physical body changes the way the person evaluates an object. The present research investigated whether attitude embodiment effects depend more on biomechanical factors or on inferential cues to causal agency. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that actual movements of the physical body are not necessary to create attitude embodiment effects when inferential cues imply agency for another person's physical movements. Experiment 3 showed that actual movements of the physical body are not sufficient to create attitude embodiment effects when inferential cues imply nonagency for those movements. In all 3 experiments, inferential cues to agency played a more important role in attitude embodiment effects than did actual agency, suggesting that theories of embodiment and attitude embodiment need to consider inferential cues to agency alongside biomechanical mechanisms. PMID:19968412

Taylor, Cheryl A; Lord, Charles G; Bond, Charles F

2009-12-01

359

Study of attitude of interns toward psychiatry: A survey of a tertiary level hospital in Ahmedabad  

PubMed Central

Background: Worldwide, multiple studies demonstrate a negative attitude of interns toward psychiatry. Scenario in Gujarat state has never been looked upon. The objective of this study is to identify the situation in this region by studying the attitude of interns toward various areas of psychiatry and to study the gender differences if any. Materials and Methods: For study, all 122 interns who attended psychiatry posting for the 1st time in their internship, over a period of 8 months were approached amongst which 100 (56 males and 44 females) consented to be a part. Attitude was measured with 30 items attitude toward psychiatry (ATP 30) questionnaire on the 1st day of their posting. The data thus collected were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Result: The results showed a neutral to the negative attitude in major areas of psychiatry. Most neutral responses were seen regarding contribution of psychiatric hospitals in the treatment, regarding psychiatric patients considered to be interesting and psychiatry enabling people to have rewarding relationships. Negative attitude toward areas on scientific information in psychiatry and psychotherapy's validity were obtained. While attitude was positive in areas of psychiatric knowledge and teaching, but female interns were lagging behind their male counterparts. Psychiatric treatment lessens worries and psychiatric illness should be considered at par with other medical illnesses, were most common positively viewed attitude. Conclusion: Interns overall shared a neutral to negative ATP. Adequate rectification is required in existing medical curriculum, and more exposure to the subject is essential to improve the attitude of interns toward mental health PMID:25788804

Parikh, Nimesh C.; Sharma, Prateek S.; Chaudhary, Pradhyuman J.; Gandhi, Hitendra A.; Banwari, Girish H.

2014-01-01

360

THE ROLE OF SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS AND LIFESTYLE VARIABLES IN ATTITUDE AND THE DEMAND FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer resistance is a key barrier to the diffusion of genetically modified foods (GMFs). Several studies have shown that consumers in general have a negative attitude toward GMFs. Through analysis of a survey conducted in Israel, we find consumer attitudes toward GMFs to be context specific, differing based on the available alternatives. Consumers responded positively to genetically modified meats when

Amir Heiman; David R. Just; David Zilberman

2000-01-01

361

The Influences of Inductive Instruction and Resources on Students' Attitudes toward Reading: Evidence from PISA 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The declining trend in the positive reading attitude of students' has concerned scholars. This paper aims to apply a 3-level hierarchical linear model to analyse how inductive instruction and resources influence both students' positive and negative attitudes towards reading. Approximately 470,000 15-year-old students, and their school…

Jhang, Fang-Hua

2014-01-01

362

The Impact of PBL on the Students' Attitudes towards Science among Nine Graders in Hamza Independent School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A weak negative attitude towards learning science was noticed among the students in Qatar, a matter that was reflected on their achievement in national tests. To test if the use of PBL would improve the students' attitudes towards learning science, a sample of 25 nine graders from Hamza school were motivated to plan their own investigations and to…

Faris, Ahmed

2008-01-01

363

Attitudes and Student Perceptions: Their Measure and Relationship to Performance in Elementary Algebra, Intermediate Algebra, College Algebra, and Technical Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between student self-perception/attitude variables and final grades in selected College of DuPage (IL) mathematics courses. Finds nearly 55 percent of the students with neutral or negative attitudes toward mathematics; over 70 percent rating their ability average or poor; and no statistically significant relationship…

Eldersveld, Paul; Baughman, David

1986-01-01

364

An Investigation of Nursing Staff Attitudes and Emotional Reactions towards Patients with Intellectual Disability in a General Hospital Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It has been suggested that inequalities in health care for people with intellectual disabilities may be partly explained by negative attitudes of health professionals. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes and emotional reactions reported by nursing staff working in general hospitals towards caring for patients with…

Lewis, Sharna; Stenfert-Kroese, Biza

2010-01-01

365

High School?Aged Youths' Attitudes Toward their Peers with Disabilities: the role of school and student interpersonal Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative peer attitudes are generally recognised as being a major barrier to full social inclusion at school for children and youth with disabilities. The present study examined the attitudes of 1,872 grade nine high school students in Ontario, Canada toward their peers with disabilities. A bioecological perspective and a structural equation modeling approach were adopted to investigate how various aspects

Janette McDougall; David J. DeWit; Gillian King; Linda T. Miller; Steve Killip

2004-01-01

366

The Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Political Orientation on the Sex Role Attitudes of College Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of gender, race, religion, and political orientation on 4 sex role measures among 556 first-year college students. Liberals as compared to conservatives and Jews as compared to Protestants were less traditional in their attitudes toward female sexuality, less accepting of male dominance and negative attitudes toward homosexuality,…

Lottes, Ilsa L.; Kuriloff, Peter J.

1992-01-01

367

Attitudes toward the culturally different: the role of intercultural communication barriers, affective responses, consensual stereotypes, and perceived threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological impact of intercultural communication barriers on intergroup attitudes was examined by testing a model of global attitudes toward the culturally different. The prejudice literature has largely overlooked the role of intercultural communication and intercultural communication in determining people's evaluative orientation toward ethnolinguistic outgroups. Intercultural communication emotions (negative affect associated with perceived linguistic and cultural barriers) were investigated as

Julie Spencer-Rodgers; Timothy McGovern

2002-01-01

368

Using the Internet to Facilitate Positive Attitudes of College Students Toward Aging and Working with Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published data suggest that a preponderance of negative attitudes toward the elderly and insufficient knowledge of aging may be the primary reasons that geriatrics is not the primary choice of employment for nurses. This study measured attitude changes toward the elderly as a result of participation by nursing, gerontology and health science students in an intergenerational reciprocal service-learning program. Using

Frieda R. Butler; Heibatollah Baghi

2008-01-01

369

Automated Attitude Sensor Calibration: Progress and Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes ongoing work a NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to improve the quality of spacecraft attitude sensor calibration and reduce costs by automating parts of the calibration process. The new calibration software can autonomously preview data quality over a given time span, select a subset of the data for processing, perform the requested calibration, and output a report. This level of automation is currently being implemented for two specific applications: inertial reference unit (IRU) calibration and sensor alignment calibration. The IRU calibration utility makes use of a sequential version of the Davenport algorithm. This utility has been successfully tested with simulated and actual flight data. The alignment calibration is still in the early testing stage. Both utilities will be incorporated into the institutional attitude ground support system.

Sedlak, Joseph; Hashmall, Joseph

2004-01-01

370

Body Cathexis, Clothing Attitude, and Their Relations to Clothing and Shopping Behavior Among Male Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to segment male apparel consumers based on the interaction between body cathexis and clothing attitude and to investigate differences in clothing behavior, shopping behavior, and individual characteristics among the four groups identified by adapting Sirgy's self image\\/product-image congruity theory: (a) positive congruity, (b) positive incongruity, (c) negative congruity, and (d) negative incongruity. Data (n = 269)

Soyeon Shim; Antigone Kotsiopulos; Diane S. Knoll

1991-01-01

371

ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS EFFECT FREQUENCY OF EATING OUT IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI DELTA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Attitudes and beliefs reflecting cultural values can have a positive or negative influence on eating behaviors. Eating out may negatively affect diet quality. In a representative sample of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) consisting of 1601 African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) adults, the aim wa...

372

Using Implicit Bias Training to Improve Attitudes toward Women in STEM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implicit biases can foster negative attitudes and lead to damaging stereotypical behaviors. Stereotypes can negatively affect the education, hiring, promotion, and retention of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This study evaluated the impact of diversity training on university faculty (N=234) by assessing changes…

Jackson, Sarah M.; Hillard, Amy L.; Schneider, Tamera R.

2014-01-01

373

Genetic Testing in Psychiatry: A Review of Attitudes and Beliefs  

PubMed Central

The advent of genetic testing for psychiatric conditions raises difficult questions about when and how the tests should be used. Development of policies regarding these issues may be informed in a variety of ways by the views of key stakeholders: patients, family members, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Here we review empirical studies of attitudes towards genetic testing among these groups. Patients and family members show strong interest in diagnostic and predictive genetic testing, and to a considerable extent psychiatrists share their enthusiasm. Prenatal test utilization seems likely to depend both on parental views on abortion and the seriousness of the disorder. Parents show a surprising degree of interest in predictive testing of children, even when there are no preventive interventions available. Many persons report themselves ready to alter their lifestyles and plans for marriage and family in response to test results. Respondents also fear negative consequences, from discrimination to being unable to cope with knowledge of their “genetic fate.” Empirical studies of beliefs about genetic testing suggest tests are likely to be embraced widely, but the studies have methodologic limitations, reducing the certainty of their conclusions, and indicating a need for further research with more representative samples. PMID:22168293

Lawrence, Ryan E; Appelbaum, Paul S.

2012-01-01

374

Caring for the elderly: changing perceptions and attitudes.  

PubMed

The aging population is currently one of the main issues facing international health care systems. It is a recognized fact that with advancing age, the likelihood of developing health problems and chronic disease will increase and the demand for health care resources will escalate. This will impact hospitals and long-term care facilities. Our young nurses of the future will be faced with the challenging task of caring for this elderly population. A review of the literature revealed that nursing students have a negative attitude toward the elderly. This may be affected by personal beliefs, values, culture, experience, or observations. Their perceived attitudes toward the gerontology field will make it difficult to recruit the nurses required in this area. This article will explore these issues and examine the role of all health care professionals to help change their attitudes and develop a more positive relationship to meet the needs of this unique population. PMID:16504848

Lovell, Marge

2006-03-01

375

Introduction into quaternions for spacecraft attitude representation  

E-print Network

Introduction into quaternions for spacecraft attitude representation Dipl. -Ing. Karsten-forward and practical introduction to quaternion operation and calculation for rigid-body attitude representation other attitude representation parameters are summarized. The quaternion computation rules are supported

Berlin,Technische Universität

376

Attitudes toward Online Availability of US Public Records Sean A. Munson*  

E-print Network

of the US Pacific Northwest on their awareness of and attitudes towards online access to political campaign accessibility of these records exists, along with a precautionary indication that such open access may reduce in the US Pacific Northwest regarding their awareness of and attitudes toward the online accessibility

Munson, Sean A.

377

Parental and School Effects on Children's Political Attitudes in Northern Ireland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent research has suggested that intergroup contacts with out-group members can both reduce prejudice and is associated with attitude change. Aim: This study extends prior work in Northern Ireland to examine parental and schooling effects on children's attitudes in a post-conflict environment. Sample: A large-scale cross-sectional…

Stringer, Maurice; Irwing, Paul; Giles, Melanie; McClenahan, Carol; Wilson, Ronnie; Hunter, John

2010-01-01

378

Exploring stakeholders’ attitudes and beliefs regarding behaviors that prevent the spread of invasive species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists’ attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six belief barriers to changing leisure behaviors. These are the attitudes

Gwenn Prinbeck; Denise Lach; Samuel Chan

2011-01-01

379

Attitudes and Attitude Change in Special Education: Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve papers address issues of attitudes towards handicapped persons. The authors were invited to summarize and critically evaluate the literature in their area of expertise, including their own research. Contributions touch on measurement and methodological issues as well as other topics. The following papers are included: "Attitudes and…

Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

380

An integrated GPS attitude determination system for small satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation develops attitude determination methods based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) for small satellites. A GPS attitude receiver is used in combination with other sensors planned for a small, three-axis stabilized satellite called JAWS AT. The other attitude sensors include fiber optic gyros and digital sun sensors. The development of integrated attitude determination systems contributes to critical national technological objectives identified for small spacecraft. A recent study by the National Research Council addresses key technologies for small satellite programs. One of their principal recommendations was that, 'GPS in various combinations with other guidance components can determine position and attitude very accurately, probably at significantly reduced weight and cost.' The report also identifies specific potential benefits of integrating OPS with other sensors on small spacecraft. 'Combining GPS and an inertial measurement unit (with gyroscopes, accelerometers, or trackers) offers major advantages by bounding errors of the inertial set, providing exceptionally good long-term references and thereby ensuring precise, on-board navigation and, with appropriate complimentary techniques, providing a higher level of redundancy and/or accuracy for position, velocity, and attitude.' This dissertation develops algorithms that result in improved accuracy and redundancy through the development of complimentary techniques for combining GPS measurements with gyroscopes and sun sensors.

Chesley, Bruce Carl

1995-07-01

381

Operational support for Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) attitude sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has several sensors that can provide observations for attitude determination: star trackers, Sun sensors (gimbaled as well as fixed), magnetometers, Earth sensors, and gyroscopes. The accuracy of these observations is important for mission success. Analysts on the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) UARS Attitude task monitor these data to evaluate the performance of the sensors taking corrective action when appropriate. Monitoring activities range from examining the data during real-time passes to constructing long-term trend plots. Increasing residuals (differences) between the observed and expected quantities is a prime indicator of sensor problems. Residual increases may be due to alignment shifts and/or degradation in sensor output. Residuals from star tracker data revealed and anomalous behavior that contributes to attitude errors. Compensating for this behavior has significantly reduced the attitude errors. This paper discusses the methods used by the FDF UARS attitude task for maintenance of the attitude sensors, including short- and long-term monitoring, trend analysis, and calibration methods, and presents the results obtained through corrective action.

Lee, M.; Garber, A.; Lambertson, M.; Raina, P.; Underwood, S.; Woodruff, C.

1994-01-01

382

Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.  

PubMed

Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

2014-05-01

383

Students' attitudes towards science and science learning in an introductory undergraduate biology course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education strives to cultivate individuals who understand scientific concepts as well as the nature of science and science learning. This study focused on the potential benefits of the flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning. Our study investigated changes in and effects of students' attitudes towards science and science learning in a flipped introductory biology course at the University of Massachusetts Boston. We used The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Biology to assess students' attitudes at pre and post-instruction. We investigated the effect of a flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning by measuring the impact of different teaching approaches (flipped vs. traditional lecture). Following the prior literature, we hypothesized that there would be a negative shift in students' attitudes over the semester in the traditional classroom and that this negative shift would not occur in the flipped. Our results showed there was no significant difference in the shift of students' attitudes between the traditional and flipped sections. We also examined the relationship between students' attitudes and academic performance. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between students' attitudes and their academic performance, as measured by exam average. In support of the prior literature, we found a significant positive correlation. Finally, we examined whether the relationship between students' attitudes and performance was mediated by learning behavior. Specifically, we considered if students with more favorable attitudes solved more on-line problems correctly and whether this aspect of problem solving was associated with greater achievement. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between attitudes and problem solving behavior as well as problem solving behavior and achievement. We did not find a significant correlation between attitudes and this aspect of problem solving behavior, however there was a correlation between problem solving behavior and achievement. Our results indicate attitudes towards science and science learning may play a role in undergraduate students' learning achievement. However, we were not able to show that those effects were mediated through problem solving behavior, nor did we show that the flipped classroom by itself was sufficient to enhance these attitudes.

Floro, Nicole

384

Attitudes toward individuals with disabilities: results of a recent survey and implications of those results.  

PubMed

Attitudes toward individuals with disabilities are often negative and deleterious, resulting in decreased opportunity and chances at successful integration into the community for these individuals. The purpose of the current study was to investigate attitudes of a group of 129 individuals attending a state-wide conference aimed toward improving quality of life of persons with disabilities. Overall, participants' attitudes were positive toward persons with disabilities. There were statistically significant age and gender related attitudinal differences, with women and younger adults generally voicing more favorable attitudes than men and older adults. Future research needs to sample a diverse population, including persons from a variety of fields as well as persons with disabilities, to examine the range of attitudes that might exist. PMID:21458951

Goreczny, Anthony J; Bender, Erin E; Caruso, Guy; Feinstein, Celia S

2011-01-01

385

Elementary teachers' attitudes toward science and the teaching of science and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine the relationship between teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and their perceptions of students' attitudes about Science and Technology (S&T), gender differences in students' patterns of S&T learning, and teachers' perceptions of scientists and S&T A sample of 50 grade 4 to 8 teachers completed an original questionnaire and 10 of those participants were subsequently interviewed. The quantitative results suggested that teachers that perceive their students' attitudes as positive and hold no prejudices about scientists or negative opinions about S&T tend to perceive no gender differences in students' attitudes. The qualitative analyses concerning teachers' beliefs about scientists/S&T principally confirmed all quantitative findings. The further exploration of the relationships between teachers' attitudes and their beliefs concerning scientists/S&T, however, indicated that the results are two-edged.

Haase, Rita P.

2009-10-01

386

Teachers' attitudes towards proof of mathematical results in the secondary school curriculum: The case of zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated teachers' attitudes towards proofs in the secondary school mathematics curriculum. The study was motivated by a desire to fill a gap existing in the literature in relation to teachers' attitudes towards proofs. Thirty-four secondary school mathematics teachers' responses to a Likert type questionnaire and interviews were summarised using the five themes of utility, positive attitudes, methods of proof, negative attitudes, and suitability of level of students to perform proofs. The teachers expressed neutral attitudes on technology as a method of proof and disagreed that verbal proof was a valid method for proving the viability of mathematical claims. The implications of the results are discussed using the context of Zimbabwean classrooms with a view to promote debate on how teachers could implement learner-centred reform.

Nyaumwe, Lovemore; Buzuzi, George

2007-12-01

387

Attitudes toward medication and the clinical variables in schizophrenia: Structural equation models  

PubMed Central

Objective: Our study uses data from a large clinical trial to further dissect the contributors attitude toward antipsychotic medication measured with the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) in schizophrenia. Method: A total of 227 consecutive outpatients (140 males, 87 females) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder according to DSM-IV criteria were evaluated. Structural equation models (SEM) were used to examine the relationship between attitudes toward medication as measured with the DAI and clinical variables assessed by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Results: Among four models, the data better fit a model in which attitudes toward medication (DAI-30) was predicted by PANSS Positive and Insight measures, and GAF (goodness-of-fit = 0.99). Conclusion: The data best fit a model where the most complex interaction of insight measures and positive symptoms does predict attitudes toward medication. PMID:19936173

Rossi, Alessandro; Pacifico, Roberta; Stratta, Paolo

2009-01-01

388

Are all negative consequences truly negative? Assessing variations among college students' perceptions of alcohol related consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brief feedback sessions have been shown to reduce alcohol consumption in college student samples. However, these feedback sessions show mixed results in reducing negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Because the discussion of alcohol consequences is a component of feedback sessions, it was seen as important to evaluate the degree to which college students perceive these consequences as negative. The present

Kimberly A. Mallett; Rachel L. Bachrach; Rob Turrisi

2008-01-01

389

Ethnicity, gender socialization, and children’s attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to assess whether children’s attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women differ in relation to their ethnic backgrounds, and whether ethnic differences are a result of perceived differential gender socialization practices. Data were collected from children in eight Dutch elementary schools by means of a paper-and-pencil questionnaire administered in the classroom. All children (mean age 11.47; N = 229) lived in the Netherlands; 50.2% had non-Western and 49.8% Western ethnic backgrounds. Children with non-Western ethnic backgrounds reported more negative attitudes towards gays and lesbians. These children perceived more parental pressure to behave in accordance with their gender and showed more negative attitudes towards gender-nonconforming behaviour by peers. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that cultural differences in attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women are partly mediated by differentially perceived parental pressure to behave in accordance with their gender. PMID:23162164

Bos, Henny M.W.; Picavet, Charles; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

2011-01-01

390

Client and counselor attitudes toward the use of medications for treatment of opioid dependence.  

PubMed

Attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions were assessed for 376 counselors and 1,083 clients from outpatient, methadone, and residential drug treatment programs regarding four medications used to treat opiate dependence: methadone, buprenorphine, clonidine, and ibogaine. Attitudes, social norms, and intentions to use varied by treatment modality. Methadone clients and counselors had more positive attitudes toward the use of methadone, whereas their counterparts in residential and outpatient settings had neutral or negative assessments. Across modalities, attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions toward the use of buprenorphine were relatively neutral. Assessments of clonidine and ibogaine were negative for clients and counselors in all settings. Social normative influences were dominant across settings and medications in determining counselor and client intentions to use medications, suggesting that perceptions about beliefs of peers may play a critical role in use of medications to treat opiate dependence. PMID:17306729

Rieckmann, Traci; Daley, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E; Thomas, Cindy P; McCarty, Dennis

2007-03-01

391

Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

2012-01-01

392

Gender and attitudes toward work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some differences between men and women regarding their attitudes to work and the implications of those attitudes regarding counselling. The subjects were 300 Polish students (150 men and 150 women) and 306 German students. The study is part of a larger collaborative research program conducted in 43 countries by Lynn (1991). The results are presented against the

Alicja Maurer; Barbara Oszustowicz; Ryszard Stocki

1994-01-01

393

Residents' attitudes toward tourism development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, tourism has been playing a more significant role in the economies of several African countries, including Ghana. The purpose of the paper is to examine attitudes of residents of two of its towns toward tourism development. Factor analysis of scaled items measuring their attitudes resulted in seven tourism-related factors: social interaction with tourists, beneficial cultural influences, welfare

Victor Teye; Ercan Sirakaya; Sevil F. Sönmez

2002-01-01

394

Environmental Attitude and Ecological Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…

Kaiser, Florian G.; And Others

395

Factors that influence dental students' attitudes about older adults.  

PubMed

Our study considered dental students' general attitudes towards older persons using the Aging Semantic Differential. The influence of age, gender, cohort, education, and academic exposure on general attitudes towards older adults was evaluated using a total of 328 dental students across all four years of academic standing. Students were assessed in the fall and spring semesters. The results showed differential responding on the four subscales, with slight positive ratings on the autonomy, acceptability, and integrity subscales and a slight negative rating for instrumentality. Females expressed more negative attitudes than their male counterparts, with no age differences. There was also no significant impact from a specific, didactic educational component offered to the fourth-year students. However, the fourth-year students were the only group to show positive changes across the full academic year. The results suggest that general attitudes can be changed, but didactic (classroom) forms of education alone are insufficient to meaningfully modify students' perceptions of the elderly. Exposure to older adults in a clinical setting appears to be a critical element, as the fourth-year students received much greater exposure to older patients and more intensified interface with their mentors. PMID:19126770

Nochajski, Thomas H; Waldrop, Deborah P; Davis, Elaine L; Fabiano, Jude A; Goldberg, Louis J

2009-01-01

396

Nursing attitudes toward patients with substance use disorders in pain.  

PubMed

The problem of inadequate pain management in hospitals is well documented. Patients who have substance use disorders (SUD) have many medical problems and are often in pain as a result of these problems. Nurses often lack knowledge of appropriate treatment of both pain and SUD, and have been identified as having negative attitudes toward patients with SUD. The negative attitudes may affect the quality of care delivered to patients with problems of pain and SUD. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore nurses' attitudes toward hospitalized patients with SUD who are in pain, to expand the knowledge about nurses' attitudes and interactions with patients with SUD in pain, and to generate theory that will contribute to a greater understanding of the problem. Grounded theory methodology was used to interview hospital-based nurses who work with patients with SUD who are in pain. Individual interviews, using a semistructured interview guide, were conducted with 14 nurses who worked with this population. Additionally, an expert addictions nurse was interviewed at the end of the study to validate the findings. Interviews were analyzed and coded with the use of grounded theory concepts. A model illustrating the categories and their relationships was developed based on the theory generated as a result of the study. The implications for nursing practice, education, research, and policy are discussed. PMID:24602434

Morgan, Betty D

2014-03-01

397

A dynamic attitude measurement system based on LINS.  

PubMed

A dynamic attitude measurement system (DAMS) is developed based on a laser inertial navigation system (LINS). Three factors of the dynamic attitude measurement error using LINS are analyzed: dynamic error, time synchronization and phase lag. An optimal coning errors compensation algorithm is used to reduce coning errors, and two-axis wobbling verification experiments are presented in the paper. The tests indicate that the attitude accuracy is improved 2-fold by the algorithm. In order to decrease coning errors further, the attitude updating frequency is improved from 200 Hz to 2000 Hz. At the same time, a novel finite impulse response (FIR) filter with three notches is designed to filter the dither frequency of the ring laser gyro (RLG). The comparison tests suggest that the new filter is five times more effective than the old one. The paper indicates that phase-frequency characteristics of FIR filter and first-order holder of navigation computer constitute the main sources of phase lag in LINS. A formula to calculate the LINS attitude phase lag is introduced in the paper. The expressions of dynamic attitude errors induced by phase lag are derived. The paper proposes a novel synchronization mechanism that is able to simultaneously solve the problems of dynamic test synchronization and phase compensation. A single-axis turntable and a laser interferometer are applied to verify the synchronization mechanism. The experiments results show that the theoretically calculated values of phase lag and attitude error induced by phase lag can both match perfectly with testing data. The block diagram of DAMS and physical photos are presented in the paper. The final experiments demonstrate that the real-time attitude measurement accuracy of DAMS can reach up to 20? (1?) and the synchronization error is less than 0.2 ms on the condition of three axes wobbling for 10 min. PMID:25177802

Li, Hanzhou; Pan, Quan; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Juanni; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Xiangjun

2014-01-01

398

A Dynamic Attitude Measurement System Based on LINS  

PubMed Central

A dynamic attitude measurement system (DAMS) is developed based on a laser inertial navigation system (LINS). Three factors of the dynamic attitude measurement error using LINS are analyzed: dynamic error, time synchronization and phase lag. An optimal coning errors compensation algorithm is used to reduce coning errors, and two-axis wobbling verification experiments are presented in the paper. The tests indicate that the attitude accuracy is improved 2-fold by the algorithm. In order to decrease coning errors further, the attitude updating frequency is improved from 200 Hz to 2000 Hz. At the same time, a novel finite impulse response (FIR) filter with three notches is designed to filter the dither frequency of the ring laser gyro (RLG). The comparison tests suggest that the new filter is five times more effective than the old one. The paper indicates that phase-frequency characteristics of FIR filter and first-order holder of navigation computer constitute the main sources of phase lag in LINS. A formula to calculate the LINS attitude phase lag is introduced in the paper. The expressions of dynamic attitude errors induced by phase lag are derived. The paper proposes a novel synchronization mechanism that is able to simultaneously solve the problems of dynamic test synchronization and phase compensation. A single-axis turntable and a laser interferometer are applied to verify the synchronization mechanism. The experiments results show that the theoretically calculated values of phase lag and attitude error induced by phase lag can both match perfectly with testing data. The block diagram of DAMS and physical photos are presented in the paper. The final experiments demonstrate that the real-time attitude measurement accuracy of DAMS can reach up to 20? (1?) and the synchronization error is less than 0.2 ms on the condition of three axes wobbling for 10 min. PMID:25177802

Li, Hanzhou; Pan, Quan; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Juanni; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Xiangjun

2014-01-01

399

TGF-? induced TMEPAI/PMEPA1 inhibits canonical Smad signaling through R-Smad sequestration and promotes non-canonical PI3K/Akt signaling by reducing PTEN in triple negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

TMEPAI (transmembrane prostate androgen-induced) is amplified at genomic, transcript and protein levels in triple-negative breast cancers and promotes TGF-? dependent growth, motility and invasion. Tumor promotion by TMEPAI depends on two different but related actions on TGF-? signaling. Firstly, TMEPAI binds and sequesters regulatory Smads2/3 and thereby decreases growth suppressive signaling by TGF-?. Secondly, increased expression of TMEPAI decreases PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) abundance, and thereby increases TGF-? dependent tumor promotive PI3K/Akt signaling. These actions of TMEPAI give rise to increased cell proliferation and motility. Moreover, signaling alterations produced by high TMEPAI were associated with oncogenic Snail expression and lung metastases. Finally, an inverse correlation between TMEPAI and PTEN levels was confirmed in triple negative breast cancer tumor samples. Together, our findings suggest that TMEPAI has dually critical roles to promote TGF-? dependent cancer cell growth and metastasis. Thus, redirected TGF-? signaling through TMEPAI may play a pivotal role in TGF-? mediated tumor promotion. PMID:25352949

Singha, Prajjal K.; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Geng, Hui; Lan, Rongpei; Venkatachalam, Manjeri A.; Saikumar, Pothana

2014-01-01

400

Reducing Media Viewing: Implications for Behaviorists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American children spend an average of 6 hours and 32 minutes each day using various forms of media. Research has suggested that this high level of exposure has a negative impact on children's attitudes and behaviors. For example, media violence increases aggression in children, especially video games which allows children to be the aggressor and…

Jason, Leonard A.; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Mesina, Anna

2005-01-01

401

Seasat. Volume 4: Attitude determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Seasat project was a feasibility demonstration of the use of orbital remote sensing for global ocean observation. The satellite was launched in June 1978 and was operated successfully until October 1978. A massive electrical failure occurred in the power system, terminating the mission prematurely. The actual implementation of the Seasat Attitude Determination system and the contents of the attitude data files generated by that system are documented. The deviations from plan caused by the anomalous Sun interference with horizon sensors, inflight calibration of Sun sensor head 2 alignment and horizon sensor biomass, estimation of yaw interpolation parameters, Sun and horizon sensor error sources, and yaw interpolation accuracy are included. Examples are given of flight attitude data from all modes of the Orbital Attitude Control System, of the ground processing effects on attitude data, and of cold cloud effects on pitch, and roll data.

Treder, A. J.

1980-01-01

402

Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process.  

PubMed

Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change. PMID:17430368

Svensen, Erling; Neset, Gunnar; Eriksen, Hege R

2007-04-01

403

[Children's attitudes regarding health care and perception of pain: the mediating role of medical fears].  

PubMed

This study sought to contribute to a better understanding of children's attitudes and opinions regarding health care, mainly in terms of medical procedures, institutions and the efficacy of health professionals. The sample included 381 children, recruited from different schools in Lisbon. The more negative attitudes were attributed to institutions, while positive attitudes were related to the efficacy of health professionals. Medical procedures were considered less painful compared to potential day-to-day accidents. Higher levels of pain were reported by children of the female sex and by children during the primary education phase. Medical fears mediated the relationship between the perception of pain and children's attitudes with respect to health care. Higher levels of pain perception were seen to be related to more negative attitudes regarding health care. However, this relationship was diminished when children's fears about medical issues were contemplated. In conclusion, a translated instrument to assess children's attitudes regarding health care is needed, as it may even contribute to the development of intervention programs within the scope of the promotion of attitudes towards health care. PMID:25014287

Fernandes, Sara Costa; Arriaga, Patrícia; Esteves, Francisco

2014-07-01

404

Presupposition Processing and the (Re)activation of Negated Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negated words take longer to recognize than non-negated words following sentences with negation, suggesting that negated concepts are less active. The present experiments tested the possibility that this reduced activation would not persist beyond immediate testing. Experiment 1 used a probe task and materials similar to those used in previous…

Autry, Kevin S.; Levine, William H.

2014-01-01

405

An experimental study of the effectiveness of negative political advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative advertising has become an important factor in political campaign communication. Although previous research has suggested possible boomerang effects from such advertising, this experimental study of negative newspaper and television advertising by an “independent” sponsor shows that negative advertising reduces the image evaluation of the targeted politician. While the negative effect was greater for those in the political party opposite

Lynda Lee Kaid; John Boydston

1987-01-01

406

Progress of Negative Ions in Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

Negative ion beams are assuming increasing significance in the field of controlled fusion research. The first generation of large high current negative ion sources has now operated successfully on the JT-60U tokamak for some years, producing negative ions of hydrogen or deuterium at energies up to 400 keV for conversion to several megawatts of neutrals which are used for plasma heating and current drive. We report an unexpected intensification phenomenon, and some of the improvements made or planned. In the realm of inertial confinement fusion, interest has grown in the use of heavy negative ion driver beams formed from halogens such as bromine, iodine, or chlorine. We discuss the advantages of negative ions as heavy ion fusion drivers, and assess the technical feasibility of a halogen negative beam system. We also discuss the potential for photodetaching the negative ions to produce atomically neutral beams and reduce beam space charge effects within the target chamber.

Grisham, L.R. [Princeton Univ. Plasma Physics Lab., P.O. Box 451, Princeton, N. J. 08543 (United States); Umeda, N.; Kawai, M.; Kuriyama, M.; Ohga, T.; Yamamoto, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka-Machi, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

2003-08-26

407

Relationships Among Premenstrual Symptom Reports, Menstrual Attitudes, and Mindfulness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and affective symptoms of a broad range of conditions are improved following mindfulness-based practices. One\\u000a set of symptoms that has yet to be explored through the lens of mindfulness, however, is that associated with the premenstruum.\\u000a Also, given the relationships among negative attitudes towards menstruation and amplified symptom reporting, it is reasonable\\u000a to expect that mindfulness qualities cultivated

M. Kathleen B. Lustyk; Winslow G. Gerrish; Haley Douglas; Sarah Bowen; G. Alan Marlatt

2011-01-01

408

Naming, Reference, and Sense: Theoretical and Practical Attitudes at Odds  

E-print Network

to adjudicate between what might in the end be fundamentally irreconcilable attitudes. References [1] Gottlob Frege. "On Sense and Reference", Zeitschrift vol. 100 (1892). [21 Saul Kripke. Naming and Necessity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 1972... with answering the first question in the negative is that one then has trouble explaining how name-to-name identity claims (such as "Hesperous is Phosphorous") can have real cognitive and empirical content. Frege argued that if names have only reference...

Norman, Andrew

409

Changes in Attitudes, Intentions, and Behaviors toward Tobacco and Marijuana during U.S. Students’ First Year of College  

PubMed Central

Tobacco and marijuana are commonly used by college students and have negative health effects. The purpose of this study was to understand how students’ attitudes, intentions, and behaviors toward tobacco and marijuana change during freshman year and to examine how attitude and intention predict use of these substances. 275 college students completed phone interviews before and after their freshman year. The identical interviews assessed students’ attitudes, intentions, and behaviors toward both substances. Attitudes and intentions increased significantly. 12.2% of participants initiated tobacco use and 13.5% initiated marijuana use. Only intention predicted tobacco initiation, while both attitude and intention predicted marijuana initiation. Overall, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors changed significantly toward favored use. Predictors of use varied by substance, suggesting that different prevention approaches may be beneficial. PMID:24761133

Stewart, Mara W; Moreno, Megan A

2013-01-01

410

Effects of Disengagement Coping with HIV Risk on Unprotected Sex among HIV-Negative Gay Men in New York City  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined how disengagement coping with HIV risk mediated the association between internalized homophobia and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and how sexual encounters in public venues (public sex) and drug use moderated the association between disengagement coping and UAI among HIV-negative gay men. Disengagement coping included fatalistic beliefs about maintaining HIV-negative seronegative serostatus (fatalism), optimistic attitudes toward medical seriousness of HIV infection and reduced concern about HIV risk due to HAART (optimism), and negative affective states associated with sexual risk (anxiety). Design A survey was conducted among 285 HIV-negative gay men at an HIV prevention counseling program in New York City. Main Outcome Measures Sexual risk was defined as having had UAI with non-primary partners in the past six months. Results In addition to the positive association between internalized homophobia, disengagement coping, and UAI, fatalism mediated the association between internalized homophobia and UAI; and optimism mediated the association between anxiety and UAI. A significant moderation effect of public sex was found between fatalism and UAI. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of understanding disengagement coping as it affects sexual risk practices among HIV-negative gay men in the continuing epidemic. PMID:20230094

Yi, Huso; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Shidlo, Ariel

2009-01-01

411

Negative-ion states  

SciTech Connect

In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

Compton, R.N.

1982-01-01

412

Structured adaptive attitude control applied on a Myriade simulation benchmark  

E-print Network

, allowing the convergence from the separation state to the mission state, the orbit control, and the safe of Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) modes has been reduced, so that generic architectures now typically consist of three modes (safehold, mission and orbit control mode). In the same time the software

413

The Effect of Gaming on Attendance and Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the effect of gaming as an approach to reducing employee absenteeism. A longitudinal study in a small manufacturing plant, showed significant improvement in employee attitude and cooperation due to the opportunity for communication. Operant conditioning also resulted in somewhat lower absenteeism and tardiness. (Author/JAC)

Carlson, John G.; Hill, Kenneth D.

1982-01-01

414

Attitude Makes a Difference Max Irsik DVM, MAB  

E-print Network

practices throughout the production system will also improve the disposition of cattle and reduce differences in feedlot performance and carcass quality traits existed between cattle classified as docileAttitude Makes a Difference Max Irsik DVM, MAB Beef Cattle Extension Veterinarian University

Watson, Craig A.

415

Simulation of microsatellite attitude using Kalman filtering in orbit results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the various steps of the design and the implementation of the new reduced model of the extended Kalman filter (EKF) for small Euler angles on the Algerian microsatellite (Alsat-1). A specific implementation of the EKF is proposed to extract attitude and body rate in a circular low earth orbit (LEO) with a boom deployed for passive pitch

A. M. Si Mohammed; M. Benyettou; A. Boudjemai; Y. Hashida; M. N. Sweeting

2008-01-01

416

Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

2014-01-01

417

The brief sexual attitudes scale.  

PubMed

The measurement of sexual attitudes is important, and ease of scale usability is one key aspect of measurement. This paper details three studies conducted to develop a briefer and thus more efficient version of the multidimensional Sexual Attitudes Scale (43 items). The first two studies (I and II) employed existing data sets to develop a 23-item version of the Sexual Attitudes Scale, using exploratory factor analysis in Study I and confirmatory factor analysis in Study II. The same four subscales of Permissiveness, Birth Control (formerly called Sexual Practices), Communion, and Instrumentality were retained in the 23-item measure, called the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale. Study III was a prospective data collection using only the 23 items composing the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale. The four subscales were hypothesized to correlate with a number of relationship measures in predictable ways. Results indicated that the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale is a reliable and valid measure of the four sexual attitudes, and has strong psychometric properties. It should be effective and efficient for both research and clinical uses. PMID:16817070

Hendrick, Clyde; Hendrick, Susan S; Reich, Darcy A

2006-02-01

418

Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

Markley, F. Landis

2003-01-01

419

Neuroanatomy Predicts Individual Risk Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W.; Glimcher, Paul W.

2014-01-01

420

Sentential Negation in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

Mowarin, Macaulay

2009-01-01

421

Social activities, self-efficacy, game attitudes, and game addiction.  

PubMed

This study examines whether social activities with parents, online and offline social self-efficacy, and attitudes toward gaming are associated with the degree of game addiction among adolescents. Using data from a survey of 600 middle- and high-school students in South Korea, we tested the relationships of personal characteristics (grade point average and time spent on gaming each day), social self-efficacy (both on- and offline), general social activities (with parents, friends, and teachers), gaming activities with parents, and attitudes toward gaming (those of self, parents, friends, and teachers) with the degree of game addiction. In addition, we conducted ANOVA tests to determine the differences among three groups: non-addicts (NA), possible (mild or moderate) addicts (PA), and Internet addicts (IA). The results show that social self-efficacy in the real world (offline) was negatively related with the degree of game addiction, whereas social self-efficacy in the virtual world (online) indicated a positive association. Social activities with parents are negatively associated with game addiction, although no relationship is found between gaming activities with parents and game addiction. Parental attitude toward gaming has a negative relationship with the addiction. Results and implications are discussed. PMID:21067285

Jeong, Eui Jun; Kim, Doo Hwan

2011-04-01

422

Health workers’ attitudes toward immigrant patients: a cross-sectional survey in primary health care services  

PubMed Central

Background Health workers’ attitudes toward immigrant patients influence behaviour, medical decisions, quality of care and health outcomes. Despite the increasing number of immigrant patients in health services and the potential influence of health workers’ attitudes, there is little research in this area. This study aimed to examine attitudes of different health workers’ groups toward immigrant patients and to identify the associated factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 400 health workers from primary health care services in the Lisbon region, Portugal. Among those, 320 completed a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used for the evaluation of data. Results Most participants did not agree that immigrant patients tend to behave like victims, but about half considered that some are aggressive and dangerous. Doctors and nurses showed more positive attitudes than office workers. Among doctors, the older ones reported less positive attitudes compared to the younger ones. Health workers who have less daily contact with immigrants revealed more positive attitudes. Most participants evaluated their knowledge and competencies to work with immigrants as moderate or low. Conclusions Although health workers reveal positive attitudes, this study reinforces the need to develop strategies that prevent negative attitudes and stereotyping in health services. Efforts should be made to improve workers’ competencies to deal with culturally diverse populations, in order to promote quality of health care and obtain positive health outcomes among immigrant populations. PMID:22776316

2012-01-01

423

Middle School Students' Attitudes toward Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine middle school students' attitudes toward physical education using an attitude instrument grounded in attitude theory. In addition, this investigation also sought to ascertain if gender and grade level influence student attitudes toward the subject matter. Participants for this study were 995 students from…

Subramaniam, Prithwi Raj; Silverman, Stephen

2007-01-01

424

Endurance of Undergraduate Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study assessed undergraduate attitudes toward older adults and attitude endurance 3 to 18 months after aging coursework. Survey respondents included 349 students who took an aging elective and 430 comparison students. Aging-elective students indicated more positive attitudes than comparison students. Attitudes did not vary…

Funderburk, Brooke; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Storms, Lene Levy; Solomon, David H.

2006-01-01

425

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

426

Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

2012-01-01

427

ATTITUDE FILTERING ON SO(3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method is presented for the simultaneous estimation of the attitude of a spacecraft and an N-vector of bias parameters. This method uses a probability distribution function defined on the Cartesian product of SO(3), the group of rotation matrices, and the Euclidean space W N .The Fokker-Planck equation propagates the probability distribution function between measurements, and Bayes s formula incorporates measurement update information. This approach avoids all the issues of singular attitude representations or singular covariance matrices encountered in extended Kalman filters. In addition, the filter has a consistent initialization for a completely unknown initial attitude, owing to the fact that SO(3) is a compact space.

Markley, F. Landis

2005-01-01

428

Measuring attitude with a gradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static attitude estimation and dynamic attitude estimation are used to describe a gradiometer composed of a number of accelerometers that are used to measure a combination of the local gravity gradient and instrument rotation effects. After a series of measures to isolate the gradient, a global mesh of measurements can be obtained that determine the planetary external gravity potential. Orbital and spacecraft models are developed to determine if, when the gravity potential is known, the same measurements, unsupported by any other information can be used to infer the spacecraft attitude.

Sonnabend, David; Born, George H.

1994-01-01

429

Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Teacher Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the teacher's guide to accompany the student guide which together comprise one of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. This unit is concerned with the attitude of people toward gasoline shortages and different steps the government could take to reduce gasoline consumption. Through the exercises, part of which make…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

430

Obesity in the news: do photographic images of obese persons influence antifat attitudes?  

PubMed

News coverage of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years, and research shows that media content may contribute to negative public attitudes toward obese people. However, no work has assessed whether photographic portrayals of obese people that accompany news stories affect attitudes. In the present study, the authors used a randomized experimental design to test whether viewing photographic portrayals of an obese person in a stereotypical or unflattering way (versus a nonstereotypical or flattering portrayal) could increase negative attitudes about obesity, even when the content of an accompanying news story is neutral. The authors randomly assigned 188 adult participants to read a neutral news story about the prevalence of obesity that was paired with 1 of 4 photographic portrayals of an obese adult (or no photograph). The authors subsequently assessed attitudes toward obese people using the Fat Phobia Scale. Participants in all conditions expressed a moderate level of fat phobia (M = 3.83, SD = 0.58). Results indicated that participants who viewed the negative photographs expressed more negative attitudes toward obese people than did those who viewed the positive photographs. Implications of these findings for the media are discussed, with emphasis on increasing awareness of weight bias in health communication and journalistic news reporting. PMID:21181601

McClure, Kimberly J; Puhl, Rebecca M; Heuer, Chelsea A

2011-04-01

431

Further support for the role of dysfunctional attitudes in models of real-world functioning in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

According to A.T. Beck and colleagues' cognitive formulation of poor functioning in schizophrenia, maladaptive cognitive appraisals play a key role in the expression and persistence of negative symptoms and associated real-world functioning deficits. They provided initial support for this model by showing that dysfunctional attitudes are elevated in schizophrenia and account for significant variance in negative symptoms and subjective quality of life. The current study used structural equation modeling to further evaluate the contribution of dysfunctional attitudes to outcome in schizophrenia. One hundred eleven outpatients and 67 healthy controls completed a Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, and patients completed a competence measure of functional capacity, clinical ratings of negative symptoms, and interview-based ratings of real-world functioning. Patients reported higher defeatist performance beliefs than controls and these were significantly related to lower functional capacity, higher negative symptoms, and worse community functioning. Consistent with Beck and colleagues' formulation, modeling analyses indicated a significant indirect pathway from functional capacity-->dysfunctional attitudes-->negative symptoms-->real-world functioning. These findings support the value of dysfunctional attitudes for understanding the determinants of outcome in schizophrenia and suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting these attitudes may facilitate functional recovery. PMID:20006849

Horan, William P; Rassovsky, Yuri; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

2010-06-01

432

Further Support For the Role of Dysfunctional Attitudes in Models of Real-World Functioning in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

According to A.T. Beck and colleagues’ cognitive formulation of poor functioning in schizophrenia, maladaptive cognitive appraisals play a key role in the expression and persistence of negative symptoms and associated real-world functioning deficits. They provided initial support for this model by showing that dysfunctional attitudes are elevated in schizophrenia and account for significant variance in negative symptoms and subjective quality of life. The current study used structural equation modeling to further evaluate the contribution of dysfunctional attitudes to outcome in schizophrenia. One hundred eleven outpatients and 67 healthy controls completed a dysfunctional attitudes scale, and patients completed a competence measure of functional capacity, clinical ratings of negative symptoms, and interview-based ratings of real-world functioning. Patients reported higher defeatist performance beliefs than controls and these were significantly related to lower functional capacity, higher negative symptoms, and worse community functioning. Consistent with Beck and colleagues’ formulation, modeling analyses indicated a significant indirect pathway from functional capacity ? dysfunctional attitudes ? negative symptoms ? real world functioning. These findings support the value of dysfunctional attitudes for understanding the determinants of outcome in schizophrenia and suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting these attitudes may facilitate functional recovery. PMID:20006849

Horan, William P.; Rassovsky, Yuri; Kern, Robert S.; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Green, Michael F.

2012-01-01

433

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

434

Improved negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, J.E.

1984-05-01

435

Sexual harassment: factors affecting attitudes and perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The overall findings suggest that while attitudes and perceptions of sexual harassment are related, they also differ, in that\\u000a attitudes require value judgments to be made of behavior. This explains the high relationship between attitudes to sexual\\u000a harassment and attitudes regarding gender role stereotypes. Sexist attitudes are associated with acceptance of sexual harassment.\\u000a The impact of age and occupation on

Danielle Foulis; Marita P. McCabe

1997-01-01

436

NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND DEPRESSION  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study examines the differences between the prevalence of negative symptoms in schizophrenia and Major depression, diagnosed according to RDC, using Andreasen's Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, SANS. Global ratings of affective flattening, alogia, avolition and inattention were significantly higher in schizophrenics whereas anhedonia - asociality were seen as commonly in depressives also. Most negative symptoms were more common in schizophrenics. Awareness of these symptoms and reduced sexual interests were significantly more in depression. Some symptoms were common in both groups. The results indicate that negative symptoms though commonly seen in depressives also, are more frequent in schizophrenic patients. PMID:21927110

Chaturvedi, S.K.; Rao, G. Prasad; Mathai, P. John; Sarmukaddam, S.; Gopinath, P.S.

1985-01-01

437

Sexuality Attitudes of Black Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed sexuality attitudes of black middle-class sample (N=124) concerning communication regarding sexuality information, adolescent contraception, adolescent pregnancy, nonmarital intercourse, responsibility for contraception and pregnancy, abortion, pornography, and masturbation. Results suggest that participants were well-informed, moderate,…

Timberlake, Constance A.; Carpenter, Wayne D.

1990-01-01

438

Young people's attitudes about violence   

E-print Network

Men’s violence against women is a global social problem and an enduring human rights issue. Feminist research and activism has maintained that to challenge and prevent men’s violence against women, changing attitudes and behaviour are key...

Lombard, Nancy

439

Leadership Style: Attitudes and Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses significant differences between the Grid and Situational leadership styles. Examines the difference between attitudes and behaviors, gives examples, and explores the relationship between self-perception and leadership style. (CT)

Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Kenneth H.

1982-01-01

440

Scottish Social Attitudes - Survey 2004   

E-print Network

This report sets out the results of questions on family matters in the Scottish Social Attitudes Survey 2004. This part of the survey canvassed public views and knowledge on a range of family-related issues including marriage, cohabitation...

Wassoff, Fran; Martin, Claudia

441

Videomicroscopy and Improved Student Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The improvement in student attitudes as the result of the use of videomicroscopy in the science classroom at the elementary, secondary, and college levels is discussed. The results of published research studies are reviewed. (CW)

Fedak, John; And Others

1990-01-01

442

Space borne attitude measurement units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inertial and opticoinertial attitude reference units are characterized, and the design and test results of the system being developed for the SPOT spacecraft are presented. The general characteristics of the strapdown gyroscope configuration are reviewed, and the classical gyro packages used in OTS, ECS, TC1, TVSAT, and TDF1 are described. The present SPOT inertial platform, consisting of six gyrometer/thermal regulator/adapter units in a dodecahedral configuration, is shown to provide complete roll, pitch, and yaw information with accuracy sufficient for the short run. The hardware and software of the advanced unit, which uses optical sensors to make absolute attitude corrections for the long run, are discussed. Attitude information from inertial and optical systems is optimally mixed by a microprocessor employing a nonstationary sixth-order Kalman filter. A simulation test using the breadboard prototype indicates the feasibility of the approach and the broad applicability of the attitude-measurement package once it is perfected.

Amieux, J. C.; Muller, G.

443

Public Attitudes to Technological Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

Marshall, Eliot

1979-01-01

444

College Student Attitudes Toward Marijuana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaire attempts to determine attitudes in effort to learn how students perceive danger, or lack of it, in the use of marihuana. Tabulated responses are presented, and while no conclusions are drawn several interpretations are suggested. (Author/CJ)

Amo, Michael F.; Bittner, John R.

1970-01-01

445

Public Attitudes Toward Nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 3909 respondents to an Internet survey questionnaire provide the first insights into public perceptions of nanotechnology. Quantitative analysis of statistics about agreement and disagreement with two statements, one positive and the other negative, reveals high levels of enthusiasm for the potential benefits of nanotechnology and little concern about possible dangers. The respondents mentally connect nanotechnology with the space

William Sims Bainbridge; Wilson Boulevard

2002-01-01

446

Attitudes toward Science (ATS): An Examination of Scientists' and Native Americans' Cultural Values and ATS and Their Effect on Action Priorities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science has been identified as a crucial element in the competitiveness and sustainability of America in the global economy. American citizens, especially minority populations, however, are not pursuing science education or careers. Past research has implicated ‘attitudes toward science’ as an important factor in the public’s participation in science. I applied Ajzen’s (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior to attitudes toward science to predict science-related sustainability-action intentions and evaluated whether scientists and Native Americans differed in their general attitudes toward science, cultural values, and specific beliefs about science. Analyses revealed that positive attitude toward science and the cultural value of individualism predicted intentions to engage with science-related sustainability actions. Unexpectedly, scientists and Native Americans did not differ in their cultural values or positive attitude toward science. However, Natives Americans held significantly more negative attitude toward science than scientists. Implications for science education and attitudes towards science theory and application are discussed.

Murry, Adam T.

447

Integrated inertial stellar attitude sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated inertial stellar attitude sensor for an aerospace vehicle includes a star camera system, a gyroscope system, a controller system for synchronously integrating an output of said star camera system and an output of said gyroscope system into a stream of data, and a flight computer responsive to said stream of data for determining from the star camera system output and the gyroscope system output the attitude of the aerospace vehicle.

Brady, Tye M. (Inventor); Kourepenis, Anthony S. (Inventor); Wyman, Jr., William F. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

448

Attitude identification for SCOLE using two infrared cameras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm is presented that incorporates real time data from two infrared cameras and computes the attitude parameters of the Spacecraft COntrol Lab Experiment (SCOLE), a lab apparatus representing an offset feed antenna attached to the Space Shuttle by a flexible mast. The algorithm uses camera position data of three miniature light emitting diodes (LEDs), mounted on the SCOLE platform, permitting arbitrary camera placement and an on-line attitude extraction. The continuous nature of the algorithm allows identification of the placement of the two cameras with respect to some initial position of the three reference LEDs, followed by on-line six degrees of freedom attitude tracking, regardless of the attitude time history. A description is provided of the algorithm in the camera identification mode as well as the mode of target tracking. Experimental data from a reduced size SCOLE-like lab model, reflecting the performance of the camera identification and the tracking processes, are presented. Computer code for camera placement identification and SCOLE attitude tracking is listed.

Shenhar, Joram

1991-01-01

449

Attitude determination and control for the Radarsat spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radarsat is a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite that will provide remote sensing for a number of commercial and research uses. Spar Aerospace is building the radar equipment module and solar array. Ball Aerospace Systems Group is building the bus module, to provide command, telemetry, attitude control, propulsion and power management. The Radarsat Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) is described, including detail on the attitude determination and control algorithms. The ACS provides operational flexibility with cross-strapped redundant components and by allowing modification of the flight software by table upload. Limited autonomy is provided by automatic selection of the best attitude determination method for the given complement of active sensors and by automatic control mode transitions based on performance metrics. The attitude control algorithm provides independent (decoupled) control about three orthogonal, non-principal axes while maintaining internal momentum biases for persistent torque cancellation and safe-hold mode stabilization. System parameters may be adjusted by table upload, based on on-orbit experience, to reduce control effort.

Mohl, James B.; Dieter, Rebecca J.; Muckle, Alexander M.

450

Students' Attitudes Toward Gene Technology: Deconstructing a Construct  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergent technologies are commonly characterized as involving cutting-edge developments while lacking wide-scale public implementation. Although currently prevalent in many applications, gene technology is often considered emergent in that the science changes so rapidly. Science educators at all levels of formal education are faced with a unique challenge of facilitating student understanding of gene technology (in comparison with more established content) as well as integrating some of the more controversial socioscientific aspects of such content into the curricula. Much of the literature regarding student understanding of biotechnology has focused on development of student attitudes toward the field and the impact of this on their learning. However, there has, of yet, been no unifying framework in the literature regarding what is meant by attitudes toward gene technology. This article reviews the current scholarship (38 empirical studies published between 1990 and 2011) on the measurement of student attitudes toward biotechnology in order to highlight major themes present within the literature. Items from all reviewed studies were collected, coded, and sorted for construction of a comprehensive instrument representing the conceptualizations of attitudes toward gene technology in all 38 studies. Factor analytic techniques were used as a tool to reduce and categorize measurement items. Results provided a framework of five factors that help describe student attitudes toward biotechnology across all the studies. This emergent framework of factors is proposed as a useful means to standardize the discourse in future research.

Gardner, Grant E.; Troelstrup, Angelique

2015-01-01

451

Negative acoustic index metamaterial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic metamaterials utilizing periodic deep subwavelength resonators can attain negative acoustic properties unavailable in nature. We have developed a negative acoustic index metamaterial for water that combines Helmholtz and rod-spring resonators to control effective bulk modulus and mass density, respectively. Effective properties extracted from full-wave simulations of our metamaterial show that negative real components of bulk modulus and density occur simultaneously, resulting in a negative real component of the acoustic index. Experimental measurements on a sample of this metamaterial confirm that the real components of the acoustic index and bulk modulus attain negative values, but the density does not become negative. The primary causes of this are identified and potential solutions are presented.

Fok, L.; Zhang, X.

2011-06-01

452

NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS IN DEPRESSION  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Negative symptoms have been assessed in 34 cases of major depression (ROC) using the scale for assessment of negative symptoms. Negative symptoms were found to be quite frequently observed in these cases; common negative symptoms were inability to enjoy recreational interests and activities (76%), feelings of anhedonia (64.7%) and physical anergia (55.9%). Poverty of speech was found to be more in younger patients (P < .001). Avolition was seen more frequently in unmarried (P < .05) patients. No other signiticant correlation was noticed between demographic variables and negative symptoms. The implications of evaluating negative symptoms systematically in depressives are for future research especially for prognostication, treatment responses and classification of depression based on such symptoms. PMID:21927088

Chaturvedi, Santosh K.; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev

1985-01-01

453

Prevalence and predictive factors of stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV in the remote villages on the Maroni River in French Guiana.  

PubMed

The Maroni basin, an isolated region which lies between Suriname and French Guiana, has been affected by the HIV epidemic 10 years after coastal French Guiana. However, the rise in HIV prevalence was sharp with a prevalence exceeding 1% within 10 years. Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWHIV) or "suspected to have HIV" is rampant as reported by health professionals or non-governmental organisations. The objective of this article is to present the first quantitative data from the general population of this region on stigma towards people living with HIV. Data were collected in 2012 by a structured questionnaire among a random sample of 896 individuals residing in remote villages on the Maroni River. Proportion comparisons between the Maroni sample and the sample from the general population on the coastline in 2011 were conducted. Simple and multivariate logistic regression models were used to predict stigmatising attitudes. For all situations involving PLWHIV, the proportion of negative attitudes was significantly higher on the Maroni than in coastal French Guiana (p < 0.001). Findings indicate that the different levels of knowledge, erroneous beliefs and poor situation (not having electricity in one's home; not having French health insurance) were associated with stigmatising attitudes. The present data could help both sides coordinate interventions both at the individual level by improving knowledge and at the community level to change norms in order to reduce stigma and discrimination aiming for increased impact. PMID:25078678

van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Jolivet, Anne; Flamand, Claude; Pigeon, Perrine; Caudal, Johanna; Lydié, Nathalie; Halfen, Sandrine; Goerger-Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Nacher, Mathieu

2015-01-01

454

Negative Ion Density Fronts  

SciTech Connect

Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

Igor Kaganovich

2000-12-18

455

Negative ion density fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te?Ti). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma without negative ions, is usually thin so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero—forming a negative ion density front. Theoretical, experimental, and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow) are reviewed. During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in the analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly nonisothermal plasmas.

Kaganovich, Igor

2001-05-01

456

Tangential attitude theory validated  

SciTech Connect

The following conclusions appear to be reasonable from the restudy of the way the bit-reamerknuckle joint assembly works in drainhole drilling and the success of the balanced-cut reamer design: The tangential attitude theory provides a rational way to explain the cause of curvature for this BHA, and may be the best explanation for other angle-building assemblies as well. Side forces on the bit are not a factor controlling curvature in this BHA and may not be a factor (except for deflection effects) for other angle building assemblies as well. The establishment of a moment on the bit from non-uniform hardness of the rock beneath appears to be the most likely way the formation can influence the curvature of the hole. The preferential cut of the overgauge reamer controls the precision of the angle build for this BHA. The preferential cut can be limited by bottom hole assembly design. The loads from the bit moment appear to be counter-intuitive but field performance validates the calculations. This assembly is unaffected by hole angle in its capability and precision, even in the 90/sup 0/ range.

Holbert, D.R.

1983-08-01

457

Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through autoclitic functions. That is, verbal communities reinforce (a) reporting general rather than specific attitudes and beliefs, (b) presentation of intraverbals as if they were tacts, and (c) presentation of beliefs as if they were attitudes. Consistency among and between attitudes, beliefs, and behavior is also contingent upon the reinforcing practices of verbal communities. Thus, attitudes and beliefs can be studied as social behavior rather than as private, cognitive processes. PMID:22478181

Guerin, Bernard

1994-01-01

458

Mental Health Stigma, Self-Concealment, and Help-Seeking Attitudes among Asian American and European American College Students with No Help-Seeking Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined whether mental health stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward people with a psychological disorder) and self-concealment are unique predictors of help-seeking attitudes in Asian American and European American college students with no history of seeking professional psychological services. The Asian American group had…

Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S.

2011-01-01

459

Identifying and relating nurses' attitudes toward computer use.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to measure nurses' attitudes toward computer use based on an adaptation of Vroom's expectancy theory, and identify variables that may correlate with these attitudes. Content validity and reliability for internal consistency were determined for the developed attitude questionnaire. Nurses' individual characteristics and computer-use satisfaction, beliefs, and motivation were correlated. Data analysis revealed that nurses' attitudes were significantly related (satisfaction to beliefs, r = 0.783, p less than 0.001; satisfaction to motivation, r = 0.598, p less than 0.001; and beliefs to motivation r = 0.651, p less than 0.001), supporting the model based on Vroom's expectancy theory. Computer knowledge significantly related to computer-use beliefs (r = 0.229, p less than 0.05). Length of computer experience (r = -0.265, p less than 0.05) and nursing experience (r = -0.239, p less than 0.05) related negatively to nurses' computer-use satisfaction. PMID:1933661

Burkes, M

1991-01-01

460

Family practice physicians' beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding obesity.  

PubMed

This study examined 318 family practice physicians' beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding obese patients. Most physicians surveyed were aware of the health effects of obesity and that normal weight is important to the health of their patients. Beliefs, attitudes, and practices differed significantly based on the physicians' sex, weight, years in practice, and belief that counseling patients on weight loss is professionally gratifying and that most obese patients can lose significant amounts of weight. A notable number of respondents held negative or stereotypical attitudes toward obese patients (i.e., obese patients lack self-control, are lazy and sad). The most commonly recommended weight loss techniques were decreasing caloric consumption (92 percent), participating in Weight Watchers (84 percent), consulting a dietitian/nutritionist (76 percent), and aerobic exercise (75 percent). The two sources of weight control information most frequently cited were past experience (73 percent) and medical journals (71 percent). The results of this survey indicate that there is considerable room for improvement in the beliefs, attitudes, and practices of family physicians regarding obese patients. PMID:3452374

Price, J H; Desmond, S M; Krol, R A; Snyder, F F; O'Connell, J K

1987-01-01