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1

The differential effectiveness of psychosocial and biogenetic causal explanations in reducing negative attitudes toward "mental illness".  

PubMed

Given the apparent failure of the "mental illness is an illness like any other" approach to reducing negative stereotypes of people with mental health problems, the differential effects of biogenetic and psychosocial explanations of psychiatric symptoms were evaluated. Attitude measures were administered to young New Zealand adults before and after a video portraying a young man with psychotic symptoms followed by either biogenetic or psychosocial explanations. Consistent with previous studies, the "medical model" approach significantly increased perceptions of dangerousness and unpredictability. Following the psychosocial explanation there was a slight but statistically insignificant improvement in attitudes. Participants who knew users of psychiatric services, or who had used services themselves, had more positive attitudes than other participants. It is recommended that destigmatization programs minimize efforts to persuade the public that mental health problems are biogenetic illnesses, and focus instead on increasing exposure to users of mental health services. Further research is required to determine whether such exposure should include life histories, so as to highlight the psychosocial causes of mental health problems. PMID:12530335

Walker, Ian; Read, John

2002-01-01

2

Positive and negative associations underlying ambivalent attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two studies, we compared the strength of positive and negative associations of ambivalent attitudes to those of nonambivalent attitudes. In Study 1, results from an implicit association task showed that, in contrast to nonambivalent attitudes, ambivalent attitudes were characterized by strong positive and negative associations. In Study 2 responses to ambivalent attitude objects were faster following a positive as

Yaël de Liver; Joop van der Pligt; Daniël Wigboldus

2007-01-01

3

Negative attitudes toward masturbation in sex therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of masturbation in males and females as reported by Kinsey was cited as basic data to support Gagnon and Simon's theoretical conceptions of differences in the psychosexual development of males and females. The use of masturbation as treatment in sex therapy was reviewed. An inventory to measure negative attitudes toward masturbation was described, and four research studies supporting

Donald L. Mosher

1979-01-01

4

Correlates of negative attitudes toward homosexuals in heterosexual college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative attitudes toward homosexuals were assessed in 103 heterosexual college students. On the average, 17% of the sample agreed or strongly agreed with each of 40 negative statements about homosexuals. Cronbach's alpha and a principal components analysis indicated that the attitude scale was unidimensional. Methodological improvements were made in the assessment of the correlates of negative attitudes toward homosexuals. Such

Lawrence A. Kurdek

1988-01-01

5

Experimental Investigation into Influence of Negative Attitudes toward Robots  

E-print Network

Experimental Investigation into Influence of Negative Attitudes toward Robots on Human­Robot Robots, ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2­2, Hikaridai, Seika­cho, Soraku­28­20, Hakusan, Bunkyo­ku, Tokyo 112­8606, Japan suzukirt@h9.dion.ne.jp Abstract Negative attitudes toward robots

Kanda, Takayuki

6

Development of a measure of negative attitudes toward masturbation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the development of a new, 30-item measure of negative attitudes toward masturbation and the relationships between negative attitudes toward masturbation, sex guilt, and frequency of masturbation in 96 male and 102 female undergraduates. 4 male and 4 female Es administered the Sex Guilt subscale of the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory, a measure of sex experience by Brady and Levitt,

Paul R. Abramson; Donald L. Mosher

1975-01-01

7

Altered Attitudes of People toward Robots: Investigation through the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to measure what images, opinions, and at- titudes people have developed toward robots and how they can be changed, from scientic and engineering perspectives. This paper reports results of social research on Japanese peo- ple's attitudes toward robots by using ìthe Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale (NARS).î They revealed that attitudes toward robots differ depending on assumptions

Tatsuya Nomuray; Tomohiro Suzuki; Takayuki Kandaz; Kensuke Kato

8

The relation between gender and negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: Do gender role attitudes mediate this relation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether traditional gender role attitudes mediated the relation between gender and negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. One hundred and fifty-five heterosexual college students (59% female; 97% Caucasian) completed questionnaires that assessed their attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and their gender role attitudes. Although males reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than females, there

John G. Kerns; Mark A. Fine

1994-01-01

9

Believing Is Seeing: Fixation Duration Predicts Implicit Negative Attitudes  

PubMed Central

A prototypical finding of social cognition is that social experiences influence later performance even though those experiences are not introspectively available. Building on social cognition research on implicit attitudes, we evaluate whether ethnic category/attribute pairs influence eye movements during the Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz 1998). Results show that fixation duration predicted implicit attitudes such that when the category/attribute pairs disconfirmed one's implicit negative attitude fixation duration toward that pair increased. The present research provides evidence that eye movements and implicit processes inherent in the IAT are more broadly connected than previously thought. PMID:25133639

2014-01-01

10

On the Negative Attitude towards Left-Handedness of Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present study was aimed to determine the reasons behind negative attitude of some teachers to the left-handed writing of their pupils. Total of 745 primary school teachers of both sexes, mean age 34, Caucasians, citizens of the Republic Georgia, served as respondents in the study presented. Teachers were requested to answer in writing the…

Makashvili, Malkhaz; Taliashvili, Tamar

2009-01-01

11

Evaluation of Project Chrysalis: A School-based Intervention To Reduce Negative Consequences of Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative

Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.

2001-01-01

12

Estrogen patient package insert: medication acceptance despite negative attitudes  

SciTech Connect

We surveyed 100 women receiving short courses of estrogen post partum to suppress lactation. Thirty six had significant apprehension about estrogens, but took them. These women were significantly older and better educated and 92% of them were married. In contrast, only one third of the ''nonapprehensive'' women were married and they had significantly lower family incomes. More of the apprehensive women read the estrogen patient package insert (PPI) and almost 30% developed negative attitudes toward estrogens. The major concerns of these women reflected information in the PPI about cancer and thromboembolism. The reasons given for taking estrogens despite apprehension included the lower risk of short courses, assurance from physicians, nurses, or family members, and the desired therapeutic effect. These women should not be given the current estrogen PPI, which was designed to warn women of the risks of long-term estrogen use; a PPI should be written specifically for patients receiving short courses. Similar problems will arise with the PPIs for other medications that have different risks for different therapeutic indications.

Weintraub, M.; Glickstein, S.; Lasagna, L.

1981-08-01

13

Reduced negative affect response in female psychopaths  

PubMed Central

Studies that investigate the differences between high and low psychopathic persons in brain activity during emotional facial expression processing are rare and commonly focus on males. The current study assessed whether previously reported behavioral differences would be reflected in differential brain activity in a sample of female offenders. The participants included 23 female forensic inpatients with high and low scores on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). ERPs were recorded during presentation of emotional facial expressions (i.e., fear, angry, and happy). Results revealed no differences in N170, P3 and late positive potential components between groups, but a significant difference in N2 only for angry and fear facial expressions, with high psychopathic participants showing lower reactivity. This N2 effect was found to be related to Factor 2 but not Factor 1 of the PCL-R. In time frequency analysis, theta activity underlying N2 best reflected these differences. Findings in this female sample are consistent with a cortical deficit in processing facial expression of negative emotions in psychopathic men. In addition, differences in processing seem to appear relatively early. PMID:23896396

Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Angrilli, Alessandro; Calogero, Antonio; Harper, Jeremy; Olson, Lacy A.; Bernat, Edward

2013-01-01

14

Attitudes About Childlessness in the United StatesCorrelates of Positive, Neutral, and Negative Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study used cross-sectional analyses of the National Survey of Families and Households (1987-1988, 1992-1994) to examine attitudes about childlessness in the United States. It (a) assesses prevalence of positive, neutral, and negative attitudes about childlessness and (b) identifies the correlates of different attitudes in the population. About one fifth of adults disagreed with prescriptive norms that favor parenthood over

Tanya Koropeckyj-Cox; Gretchen Pendell

2007-01-01

15

Correlates of negative attitudes toward gay men: Sexism, male role norms, and male sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that heterosexual men are more negative toward gay men than women are on measures of attitudes toward homosexual behaviour and homosexual persons (Kite & Whitley, 1996). Gender differences in attitudes toward gay men's civil rights are less clear. No empirical studies, however, have investigated these findings with a scale that measures specifically these three attitudinal subcomponents. This

Michelle Davies

2004-01-01

16

Validity of the Butcher Treatment Planning Inventory as a Measure of Negative Treatment Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the validity of the Butcher Treatment Planning Inventory (BTPI) as a measure of negative expectations and attitudes toward counseling. Undergraduate students completed the BTPI, the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-Abbreviated Version, and the Expectations About Counseling-Brief Form during one…

Hatchett, Gregory T.

2007-01-01

17

Negative Affect in Victimized Children: The Roles of Social Withdrawal, Peer Rejection, and Attitudes Toward Bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the validity of mediating pathways in predicting self-assessed negative affect from shyness\\/social withdrawal, peer rejection, victimization by peers (overt and relational), and the attitude that aggression is legitimate and warranted. Participants were 296 3rd through 5th graders (156 girls, 140 boys) from 10 elementary schools. Self-report measures of victimization, attitudes, and negative affect, and a teacher-report measure

Edward J. Dill; Eric M. Vernberg; Peter Fonagy; Stuart W. Twemlow; Bridget K. Gamm

2004-01-01

18

Attitude basis, certainty, and challenge alignment: A case of negative brand publicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

By integrating research from attitude challenge matching and consumer alignment and judgment revision, the authors explore\\u000a how firms can position brands to insulate them from negative publicity and how consumers evaluate brands in reaction to such\\u000a publicity. They introduce an important moderator of brand evaluation revision, prior brand attitude certainty, and propose\\u000a that when negative publicity matches or “aligns” with

Chris Pullig; Richard G. Netemeyer; Abhijit Biswas

2006-01-01

19

Negativity bias in attitude learning: a possible indicator of vulnerability to emotional disorders?  

PubMed

Negativity biases, i.e., tendencies for negative features and interpretations to predominate over positive, are known to play a role in the etiology and maintenance of emotional disorders. Both depression and anxiety have been associated with such negative cognitive styles. Recently, Fazio, R.H., Eiser, J.R., and Shook, N.J. [(2004). Attitude formation through exploration: Valence asymmetries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 293-311] have observed similar valence asymmetries in the domain of attitude formation and generalization. The present research examined the possibility that the extent to which individuals display a learning bias in attitude formation is related to negative cognitive style and emotional disorder symptoms. Participants played a computer game that required learning whether novel stimuli produced positive or negative outcomes. Poorer learning was associated with more negative cognitive style, greater depression, and a tendency toward greater anxiety. Interestingly, these relations were most evident with respect to the learning of the positive stimuli, suggesting that an under-appreciation of positive objects and events may underlie vulnerability to emotional disorders. The potential value of various indices of negativity bias that can be assessed when examining attitude formation and generalization is discussed. PMID:17101116

Shook, Natalie J; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W

2007-06-01

20

Attitudes Toward Unprotected Anal Intercourse: Assessing HIV-Negative Gay or Bisexual Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV prevention programs and clinicians have a need to identify clients' attitudes toward unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This study reports on the development of the Unprotected Anal Intercourse Attitudes Inventory (UAI-AI), a multi-factorial measure designed to assess gay and bisexual men who are HIV-negative or untested. This self-report measure may be useful in helping both counselors and clients discuss the

Ariel Shidlo; Huso Yi; Boaz Dalit

2005-01-01

21

Do negative stimulant-related attitudes vary for prescription stimulants and cocaine among college students?  

PubMed

Nonmedical prescription stimulant use (NPS) has become an increasing problem for college students across the United States. Many engage in NPS due to the belief that their academic functioning will improve - a belief that rarely extends to other illicit stimulants. Because positive attitudes toward substances potentially predict the maintenance of current and future use, the aim of the current study was to directly compare attitudes toward different stimulants of abuse (prescription stimulants and cocaine) to ascertain whether attitudes were generally more positive as a function of both drug and drug user type. Ninety-one participants completed a brief attitudinal index assessing attitudes for both prescription stimulants and cocaine. Participants held stronger positive attitudes toward prescription stimulants than cocaine on a variety of items. NPS users reported more positive attitudes toward prescription stimulants than both nonusers and cocaine users. Nonusers reported more negative cocaine-related attitudes than cocaine users and polydrug users (users of both prescription stimulants and cocaine). Intervention programs may benefit from highlighting the negative consequences of NPS, particularly by way of comparisons to cocaine. Doing so may heighten awareness on the overlap of adverse outcomes resulting from use between these stimulants. PMID:24674296

Looby, Alison; Kassman, Kyle T; Earleywine, Mitch

2014-06-01

22

Altered Attitudes of People toward Robots: Investigation through the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to measure what images, opinions, and at- titudes people have developed toward robots and how they can be changed, from scientific and engineering perspectives. This paper reports results of social research on Japanese peo- ple's attitudes toward robots by using \\

Tatsuya Nomura; Tomohiro Suzuki; Takayuki Kanda; Kensuke Kato

23

My enemy's enemy is my friend: Why holding the same negative attitudes of others promotes closeness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holding the same negative, as compared to positive, attitudes about a third party has been shown to predict increased liking for a future interaction partner (Bosson, Johnson, Niederhoffer, & Swann, 2006). The current work extended past research by examining two possible mediators of this effect: perceptions of \\

Jonathan R Weaver

2009-01-01

24

HPV vaccine information in the blogosphere: how positive and negative blogs influence vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions.  

PubMed

This research examines the impact of exposure to online blogs about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. In a controlled experiment (N = 341), college students were exposed to either a negative blog post about the HPV vaccine or a positive one. Compared to the control group, participants who had viewed the negative blog perceived the vaccine as less safe, held more negative attitudes toward the vaccine, and had reduced intentions to receive the vaccine. In contrast, exposure to the positive blog did not alter any vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, or intentions. Implications of the findings for online vaccine risk communication are discussed. PMID:22452582

Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly

2012-01-01

25

Out-Group Mating Threat and Disease Threat Increase Implicit Negative Attitudes Toward the Out-Group Among Men  

PubMed Central

We investigated if perceiving an out-group as a threat to one's mating opportunities enhanced the implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of disease threat on the relationship between an out-group mating threat and implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In Experiment 1, an out-group mating threat led to stronger implicit negative out-group attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test, but only for men with high chronic perceived vulnerability to disease. No such effects were found among women. In Experiment 2, men in the out-group mating threat condition who were primed with disease prevalence showed significantly stronger implicit negative attitudes toward the out-group than controls. Findings are discussed with reference to the functional approach to prejudice and sex-specific motivational reactions to different out-group threats. PMID:21687447

Klavina, Liga; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.

2011-01-01

26

The Continuation of Prejudice: Addressing Negative Attitudes in Nurse Training and Continuing Professional Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of attitudes to ageing typically examine only explicit attitudes, treating attitude holders as a homogeneous group with regards to education levels. Implicit attitudes (i.e., the immediate attitudinal response before conscious processes amend that attitude to an explicit attitude) have been less commonly examined. The current study…

Nash, Paul; Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mayer, Peter

2014-01-01

27

Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

2012-01-01

28

Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People’s Republic of China. PMID:24368880

Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

2014-01-01

29

Sustainable ecological development reducing negative effects of road maintenance salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure traffic safety in winter, large amounts of technical salts (chlorides) are applied on roads. De?icing salts directly or indirectly contaminate the road environment and have a negative effect on the components of road environment. The analysis of the situation raises a question: how to ensure traffic safety in wintertime applying salts and achieve sustainable development. The article presents

Pranas Baltrenas; Agne Kazlauskiene

2009-01-01

30

Client violence and its negative impacts on work attitudes of child protection workers compared to community service workers.  

PubMed

This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers because of the unique characteristics of the roles they play. Results of the data, drawn from a sample of 413 child protection workers and community service workers, found that client violence was more prevalent against child protection workers and that the negative impacts of this violence on work attitudes were more clearly highlighted for child protection workers. Based on the results of this study, implications for preventing client violence and lessening its negative impacts on work attitudes of child protection workers were identified. PMID:21282121

Shin, Junseob

2011-11-01

31

Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expansion of attitude research has been concurrent with the growth of the adult education movement. Most attitude research to date has focused on attitudes toward controversial issues but recent formulations of the nature of attitudes emphasize that they exist in functional interdependence with other attitudinal, motivational, and value…

Kirchner, Corinne; Wilder, David S.

32

Influences of Trait Negative Affect and Situational Similarity on Correlation and Convergence of Work Attitudes and Job Stress Perceptions Across Two Jobs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Job attitude and work stressor measures were obtained from members of a large militaty reserve unit. Respondents workedpart-time at the unit and full-time in a different occupation in a separate organization. Correlations of corresponding job attitudes and perceived stressors across the two jobs were signtjicant,. but not of high magnitude. For both job stressors and work attitudes, trait negative affectivity

John Schaubroeck; Timothy A. Judge; Lewis A. Taylor

1998-01-01

33

Influences of trait negative affect and situational similarity on correlation and convergence of work attitudes and job stress perceptions across two jobs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Job attitude and work stressor measures were obtained from members of a large military reserve unit. Respondents worked part-time at the unit and full-time in a different occupation in a separate organization. Correlations of corresponding job attitudes and perceived stressors across the two jobs were significant,. but not of high magnitude. For both job stressors and work attitudes, trait negative

Lewis A. Taylor

1998-01-01

34

Measurement and Predictors of a Negative Attitude towards Statistics among LMU Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of the attitude towards statistics and the relationship between the attitude towards statistics and several\\u000a socio-demographic and educational factors was investigated in a survey on over 600 students of the Ludgwig-Maximilians-Universität\\u000a (LMU). The attitude towards statistics was measured by means of the Affect and Cognitive Competence scales of the Survey of\\u000a Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS, Schau et al.

Carolin Strobl; Friedrich Leisch; Christian Dittrich; Christian Seiler; Sandra Hackensperger

35

Attitudes toward mental illness: Recognition, desired social distance, expected burden and negative influence on mental health among Turkish freshmen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Attitudes toward three types of disorders and a normal subject portrayed in vignettes were assessed among university students. The variables assessed were: perception of mental illness in the vignettes; desired social distance; emotional and physical burden expected; and expected negative influence on one's mental health from association with the type of persons portrayed in the vignettes. Analysis revealed that,

Dogan Eker

1989-01-01

36

Educating Tomorrow's Men: Perceived School Support, Negative Youth Experiences, and Bravado Attitudes in African American Adolescent Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the association between negative youth experiences and bravado attitudes in African American urban males. In addition, an examination of positive factors, such as school social support, was examined to understand potential resilient pathways. Data were collected at two sites, a science and math center (n =…

Corprew, Charles S., III; Cunningham, Michael

2012-01-01

37

Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of how to improve elementary school students' writing focuses on teaching and explaining the literary element of a character's attitude. Considers the relationship between attitude, mood, and motive; includes suggested student activities related to attitude; and describes evaluation possibilities. (LRW)

Davis, Jonathan; Davis, Lisa

2000-01-01

38

Contact Reduces Transprejudice: A Study on Attitudes towards Transgenderism and Transgender Civil Rights in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between Hong Kong Chinese people's contact with transgender\\/transsexual (TG\\/TS) people and attitudes toward transgenderism and transgender civil rights, based on Allport's Contact Hypothesis. The term transprejudice is introduced to refer to the negative valuing, stereotyping and discriminatory treatment of TG\\/TS people. Data are presented from a population-based survey with a random sample of 856 Hong

Mark E. King; Sam Winter; Beverley Webster

2009-01-01

39

Reducing STD/HIV Stigmatizing Attitudes through Community Popular Opinion Leaders in Chinese Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes, and practices of risky sexual behavior. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus 1 campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community leaders to discuss these issues in everyday…

Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.

2012-01-01

40

Human attitudes towards herpetofauna: The influence of folklore and negative values on the conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background Human values and folklore of wildlife strongly influence the effectiveness of conservation efforts. These values and folklore may also vary with certain demographic characteristics such as gender, age, or education. Reptiles and amphibians are among the least appreciated of vertebrates and are victims of many negative values and wrong ideas resulting from the direct interpretation of folklore. We try to demonstrate how these values and folklore can affect the way people relate to them and also the possible conservation impacts on these animals. Methods A questionnaire survey distributed to 514 people in the district of Évora, Portugal, was used to obtain data regarding the hypothesis that the existence of wrong ideas and negative values contributes to the phenomenon of human-associated persecution of these animals. A structural equation model was specified in order to confirm the hypothesis about the possible relationships between the presence of perceptions and negative values about amphibians and reptiles and persecution and anti-conservation attitudes. Sociodemographic variables were also added. Results The results of the model suggest that the presence of folklore and negative values clearly predicts persecution and anti-conservation attitudes towards amphibians and reptiles. Also, the existence of folklore varies sociodemographically, but negative values concerning these animals are widespread in the population. Conclusions With the use of structural equation models, this work is a contribution to the study of how certain ideas and values can directly influence human attitudes towards herpetofauna and how they can be a serious conservation issue. PMID:22316318

2012-01-01

41

Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and…

Beevers, Christopher G.; Strong, David R.; Meyer, Bjorn; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Miller, Ivan R.

2007-01-01

42

Effects of Structured Cooperative Contact on Changing Negative Attitudes Toward Stigmatized Social Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contact hypothesis predicts that cooperative interaction with members of a disliked group results in increased liking for those members and generalizes to more positive attitudes toward the group. The authors sought to provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that contact affects attitude in part by eliciting a more positive portrait of the typical group member. Undergraduates participated in a

Donna M. Desforges; Charles G. Lord; Shawna L. Ramsey; Julie A. Mason; Marilyn D. Van Leeuwen; Sylvia C. West; Mark R. Lepper

1991-01-01

43

Differences in negativity bias probably underlie variation in attitudes toward change generally, not political ideology specifically.  

PubMed

Many of the characteristics cited in Hibbing et al.'s account are ineffective predictors of economic conservatism. However, these same characteristics are often associated with differences not only in social conservatism but also in religiousness and authoritarianism. Hibbing et al. may have offered a useful explanation of traditionalism and attitudes toward change across domains rather than of general political attitudes. PMID:24970442

Ludeke, Steven G; DeYoung, Colin G

2014-06-01

44

Reducing STD/HIV stigmatizing attitudes through community popular opinion leaders in Chinese markets  

PubMed Central

Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes and practices of risky sexual behavior and its consequences. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus one campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community popular opinion leaders to discuss these issues in everyday social venues. This study tested the effectiveness of such an approach on reducing HIV/AIDS stigma, across two years, from a sample of over 4500 market vendors, in three conditions. Results showed an increasing growth in market communication about intervention messages, and concomitant declines in stigmatizing attitudes, across time, with the greatest changes in community popular opinion leaders, significant changes in intervention non-opinion leaders, and little change in the control markets. PMID:24944433

Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2013-01-01

45

Attitudes toward Homosexuals among Students at a Canadian University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined attitudes toward homosexuals among 199 male and female students at a Canadian university. Attitudes toward gay men were more negative than attitudes toward lesbians. For male students, attitudes toward gay men improved with time spent at college, suggesting the influence of college in reducing antihomosexual prejudice. (SLD)

Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Hirt, Jessie; Sears, Alan

1999-01-01

46

Use of Negative Air Ionization for Reducing Bacterial Pathogens and Spores on Stainless Steel Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The use of chemicals in food plant sanitation for removing and killing microorganisms could be reduced by the use of alternative nonchemical interventions. Supercharged negative air ionizers have shown potential to effectively reduce airborne and surface microorganisms. In our earlier studies, a small chamber, controlled at 85% relative humidity and supercharged with a ?25 kV electrostatic space charge system

J. W. Arnold; D. H. Boothe; B. W. Mitchell

2004-01-01

47

Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour among HIV-positive and HIV-negative clients of a confidential HIV counselling and testing centre in Thailand.  

PubMed

Data are presented from HIV serodiagnoses and knowledge, attitude, and behavior questionnaire responses for 250 HIV-positive and 250 HIV-negative consecutive clients attending the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic in Bangkok, Thailand in 1993. The study was conducted to describe the clients, operation, and impact of the public HIV counseling and testing center. The men and women were of mean age 26-29 years in a range of 16-64 years. 16% overall were HIV-1-seropositive; 13% of men and 24% of women. 21% requested the HIV test in response to previous high-risk behavior, 20% felt sick, 18% were checking a previous HIV test result, 10% planned marriage or a new relationship, and 5% planned to have a baby. Heterosexual risk behavior was reported by 85% of clients, but only 1% reported male homosexual or IV drug use risk behavior. These behaviors were reported despite the existence among the sample of ample information about HIV transmission risks and AIDS prevention measures. An history of sexually transmitted disease, not using condoms, low education and salary levels, and being female were associated with HIV infection. Former negative HIV test results were associated with higher levels of condom use, while most clients expressed the intention to reduce their HIV risk behavior in response to either a positive or negative HIV test result. Most clients had caring attitudes toward people with HIV and AIDS. The authors note that sufficient demand exists for confidential HIV counseling and testing services in Thailand. Such services should be considered as a means of reducing HIV transmission in Asia, especially in areas of high HIV seroprevalence. PMID:7802986

Phanuphak, P; Müller, O; Sarangbin, S; Sittitrai, W

1994-09-01

48

Age and Skin Tone as Predictors of Positive and Negative Racial Attitudes in Hispanic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research suggests that both White children and minority children, including Hispanics, hold pro-White biases. Although doll studies have been a popular way of assessing racial attitudes among children, several methodological issues have made it challenging to interpret the results from these studies. Furthermore, past research has failed to…

Stokes-Guinan, Katie

2011-01-01

49

Predictors and Consequences of Negative Physician Attitudes Toward HIV-Infected Injection Drug Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We evaluated physicians' training, expe- rience, and practice characteristics and examined asso- ciations between their attitudes toward human immu- nodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons who are injection drug users (IDUs) and quality of care. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted among a probability sample of noninstitutionalized HIV- infected individuals in the United States and their main HIV care physicians. Physician and

Lin Ding; Bruce E. Landon; Ira B. Wilson; Mitchell D. Wong; Martin F. Shapiro; Paul D. Cleary

2005-01-01

50

Calibrating Attitude Scale with Negatively Worded Items Using PARELLA and Rating Scale Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important principle in constructing rating scales is to develop items that reflect various degrees of the "pro" (positive) and "contra" (negative) aspects of the trait being measured. Where both positive and negative items are pooled, they can be arranged in order along the trait continuum, but for classical and item response theory analysis,…

Lam, Peter; Foong, Yoke-Yeen

51

HPV Vaccine Information in the Blogosphere: How Positive and Negative Blogs Influence Vaccine-Related Risk Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the impact of exposure to online blogs about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. In a controlled experiment (N = 341), college students were exposed to either a negative blog post about the HPV vaccine or a positive one. Compared to the control group, participants who had viewed the negative

Xiaoli Nan; Kelly Madden

2012-01-01

52

Depressive Symptoms and Help-Negation among Chinese University Students in Taiwan: The Role of Gender, Anxiety and Help-Seeking Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extended the consideration of help-negation in regard to suicide to that of depressive symptoms in a large sample of 981 Chinese university students in Taiwan. The study examined the help-negation effects of depression and the impact of gender, anxiety, and help-seeking attitudes on that relationship. Chinese students, aged 17 to…

Chang, Hsiaowen

2014-01-01

53

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

54

Role of Telematics in Reducing the Negative Environmental Impact of Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With development of society increase the demand for the movement of people and goods. From years the transportation expand rapidly and is crucial to economic development. Unfortunately, it is also an economic sector with the most harmful effects on the environment. The various modes of transport in different extent impact negative on the environment, which depends mainly on the technical-operating conditions. The up-to-date telematics systems provide the transport industry a revolutionary opportunity to effectively manage. Appropriate use of these systems can help to substantially improve the efficiency of transport and its operating costs, in consequence lead to reduce the negative environmental impact of transport.

Mikulski, Jerzy; Kwa?ny, Aleksandra

55

The Effect of Positive and Negative Affect-Arousing Communications Upon Beliefs, Attitudes, Intentions, and Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment was performed to test two hypotheses. One was that there would be a curvilinear relationship between increased degrees of a negative communication and persuasion, and the other was that there would be a positive and linear relationship between a positive communication and persuasion. College undergraduate smokers and nonsmokers were…

Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.

56

University Students' Research Orientations: Do negative attitudes exist toward quantitative methods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines university social science and education students' views of research methodology, especially asking whether a negative research orientation towards quantitative methods exists. Finnish (n?=?196) and US (n?=?122) students answered a questionnaire concerning their views on quantitative, qualitative, empirical, and theoretical methods, their readiness to use quantitative and qualitative methods in their own research, and the difficulties they experienced

Mari Murtonen

2005-01-01

57

Thermostats with attitudes: A sociological analysis of assumptions underlying common approaches to reducing residential energy consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contributes to the emerging literature in the sociology of energy consumption by answering three important questions about the assumptions underlying popular approaches to reducing energy consumption behavior. The answers are gleaned from data on Wisconsin households gathered in 1998 and 1999. The first question has to do with the efficacy of a "cognitive fix" approach of attempting to change attitudes in hopes of changing behavior, and asks whether energy-related attitudes can predict actual energy savings. The results of a regression analysis of heating energy intensity revealed that a variable measuring respondents' attitudes toward energy conservation predict heating energy intensity, but the effect was overwhelmed by control variables for insulation and draftiness. These and other results offer some support for the cognitive fix approach of attitudinal change as a means of reducing energy consumption. The second question concerns a popular "technological fix" of subsidizing the replacement of manual thermostats with programmable ones, and asks whether programmable thermostats actually save significant home heating energy. The data show that households with programmable thermostats appear to use no less energy than do households with manual thermostats, and that it is behavioral norms, not the type of thermostat, that determine thermostat setting behavior. The results suggest strongly that in aggregate, the installation of programmable thermostats in residential households cannot be expected to deliver promised energy savings. The third question addressed is whether popular knowledge about global warming or the connection between energy use and global environmental change is growing, and if so, what is the likelihood that these prospective socio-cultural shifts might result in increased residential energy conservation. The analysis suggests that, compared to the findings of earlier studies, awareness of the environmental consequences of energy use is on the increase, but the likelihood that this growing awareness will lead to increased conservation appears to be minimal. In addition to answering the questions above, this work provides an example of how a comprehensive sociological approach to studying energy consumption can help inform our understanding of energy use in ways that earlier approaches could not.

Nevius, Monica Josefina

2001-12-01

58

Countermeasure for reducing post-flight orthostatic intolerance: Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) experiment E140  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigators have shown that after 1-2 weeks of bed rest ingestion of 1000 ml of a salt water solution during 4 hours of continuous exposure to 30 mm Hg of lower body negative pressure will protect plasma volume and orthostatic function for up to 24 hours. We hypothesize that a similar countermeasure will reduce the effects of fluid loss induced by headward fluid shift during space flight. The objective of this flight experiment is to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed countermeasure in reversing these effects on the cardiovascular system. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) involves exposing the legs and lower abdomen to reduced air pressure. The LBNP device is an air-tight chamber that seals the subject's waist to enclose the lower body. As used in this experiment, LBNP provides both the candidate treatment as well as the means of assessing the effectiveness of the treatment.

Charles, John B.

1993-01-01

59

Use of sexual intercourse to reduce negative affect as a prospective mediator of sexual revictimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased risk of adult sexual assault (ASA) among women who experienced child sexual abuse (CSA) is well established. The strategies these women use to reduce negative affect secondary to CSA, such as sexual contact, may mediate the link between CSA and later ASA. Two waves of data from a racially diverse sample (i.e., 46% Black, 46.1% White, 7.9% other) of

Holly K. Orcutt; M. Lynne Cooper; Marilyn Garcia

2005-01-01

60

Differentiating Hostile and Benevolent Sexist Attitudes Toward Positive and Negative Sexual Female Subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions of hostile and benevolent sexism toward a female character whose behavior was consistent with either a positive (i.e., chaste) or negative (i.e., promiscuous) sexual female subtype were examined. Consistent with the theory that benevolent and hostile sexism form complementary ideologies that serve to maintain and legitimize gender-based social hierarchies, men expressed increased hostile, but decreased benevolent,sexism toward a female

Chris G. Sibley; Marc Stewart Wilson

2004-01-01

61

Emotional event-related potentials are reduced if negative pictures presented at fixation are unattended.  

PubMed

Viewing of emotional pictures elicits two event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotional versus neutral pictures: an early posterior negativity (EPN) and a late positive potential (LPP). Because it is unresolved whether these indexes of emotional processing are reduced to task-irrelevant pictures at fixation, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture Set (IAPS) were shown at fixation together with 6 letters that surrounded the pictures. In separate tasks, participants were instructed to attend either the pictures or the letters. When the pictures were task relevant, results showed an EPN and LPP. In contrast, when the pictures were task irrelevant, the EPN was eliminated and the LPP reduced. Performance was high in both tasks (hit rates>87%), but somewhat better when the pictures were relevant. However, analyses showed no relationship between this performance difference and the differences in EPN and LPP between tasks. These results suggest that emotional processing of strong, negative pictures is sensitive to manipulations of attention even if the pictures are shown at fixation. PMID:21435375

Wiens, Stefan; Sand, Anders; Norberg, Joakim; Andersson, Per

2011-05-20

62

Reduced TCR signaling potential impairs negative selection but does not result in autoimmune disease  

PubMed Central

Negative selection and regulatory T (T reg) cell development are two thymus-dependent processes necessary for the enforcement of self-tolerance, and both require high-affinity interactions between the T cell receptor (TCR) and self-ligands. However, it remains unclear if they are similarly impacted by alterations in TCR signaling potential. We generated a knock-in allele (6F) of the TCR ? chain gene encoding a mutant protein lacking signaling capability whose expression is controlled by endogenous ? regulatory sequences. Although negative selection was defective in 6F/6F mice, leading to the survival of autoreactive T cells, 6F/6F mice did not develop autoimmune disease. We found that 6F/6F mice generated increased numbers of thymus-derived T reg cells. We show that attenuation of TCR signaling potential selectively impacts downstream signaling responses and that this differential effect favors Foxp3 expression and T reg cell lineage commitment. These results identify a potential compensatory pathway for the enforcement of immune tolerance in response to defective negative selection caused by reduced TCR signaling capability. PMID:22945921

Hwang, SuJin; Song, Ki-Duk; Lesourne, Renaud; Lee, Jan; Pinkhasov, Julia; Li, LiQi; El-Khoury, Dalal

2012-01-01

63

Gratitude orientation reduces death anxiety but not positive and negative affect.  

PubMed

This study aims at investigating whether a gratitude induction procedure can reduce death anxiety and promote emotional well-being. Ninety Chinese undergraduate students were randomly assigned into one of three experimental conditions: gratitude, hassle, and neutral. In each condition, participants were instructed to spend 15-20 minutes to reflect on past events and to write up to five events of the designated category. Subsequently, they responded to measures of death anxiety and affect. Results showed that those in the gratitude condition reported much lower death anxiety than those in the neutral or the hassle group. However, gratitude had no effect on positive or negative affect. The findings suggest that the effect of gratitude may be specific to death anxiety, which does not occur in the context of the enhancement of overall emotional well-being. PMID:23495538

Lau, Rosanna W L; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

64

Intergroup Contact and Minority-Language EducationReducing Language-Based Discrimination and Its Negative Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider two related approaches that may be important in the amelioration of language-based discrimination. The first focuses on the attitudes of the dominant-language group and applies recent perspectives on the intergroup contact theory to suggest ways of reducing prejudice among members of the dominant group. Research with White\\/Anglo children in California are used to show the potential benefits

Stephen C. Wright; Évelyne Bougie

2007-01-01

65

Bosutinib Reduces the Efficacy of Dasatinib in Triple-negative Breast Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive sub-type of breast cancer. Dasatinib and bosutinib are FDA-approved Src/Abl kinase inhibitor drugs. Dasatinib potently inhibits the proliferation of many TNBC cell lines. Material and Methods The cell viability/proliferation for a panel of 4 TNBC cell lines was measured by detection of cellular ATP levels and cell numbers directly determined by automated cell counting. Results Bosutinib (?1 ?M) had little to no inhibitory activity on cell viability/proliferation, while dasatinib-alone generated potent IC50 values of <100 nM. Combination treatment of cells with both dasatinib and bosutinib resulted in reduced efficacy of dasatinib in all four cell lines, with two of them displaying a dramatic loss of efficacy. Direct cell counting confirmed that bosutinib enhanced cell proliferation in the presence of dasatinib. Conclusion Bosutinib potently reduced the in vitro anti-proliferative efficacy of dasatinib in TNBC cell lines. We, thereby, report on a novel drug-induced loss in dasatinib sensitivity. PMID:24692691

TARPLEY, MIKE; ABDISSA, TEMESGEN T.; JOHNSON, GARY L.; SCOTT, JOHN E.

2014-01-01

66

Strategies to Reduce Negative Socialization in the First Years of Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transitioning into a new role can be difficult in any walk of life, and this is no different for physical educators entering a new teaching environment. In a new setting, a physical educator may go through a socialization process where beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and teaching philosophies are influenced. Teacher socialization research suggests…

Hushman, Glenn; Napper-Owens, Gloria

2012-01-01

67

The use of conditional inference to reduce prediction error--a mismatch negativity (MMN) study.  

PubMed

The brain uses regularities in the sound environment to build inference models predicting the most likely attributes of subsequent sounds. When the inference model fails, a prediction-error signal (the mismatch negativity or MMN) is generated. This study is designed to explore the capacity to use information about when a deviant sound will occur to switch between inference models in memory. We measured MMN generated to rare frequency, duration, intensity and spatial deviant sounds randomly occurring in a stream of identical repeating "standard" sounds. We then measured MMN to the same deviants in a linked sequence where deviants were paired-duration deviants followed an intensity change and spatial deviants followed a frequency change. To minimise prediction error, the brain should use the occurrence of the intensity and frequency deviant to prompt a change in the dominant inference ("expect-the-standard") to anticipate the characteristics of the linked deviant. Anticipation was quantified as the proportion decline in duration and spatial MMN in the linked versus random sequence. We report three main outcomes on a sample of 23 healthy adults: (1) a significant reduction in duration MMN amplitude in linked versus random sequence; (2) a subgroup of participants exhibited significant reduction in spatial MMN amplitude in linked versus random sequence; and (3) the capacity to anticipate a linked deviant (reduce MMN) was a related to performance on the Continuous Performance Task-Identical Pairs. The results are discussed with respect to a possible co-reliance of CPT-IP and inference models on the inferior frontal gyrus. PMID:20547170

Todd, Juanita; Robinson, Jennifer

2010-08-01

68

Right-frontal slow negative potentials evoked by occipital TMS are reduced in NREM sleep.  

PubMed

Occipital transcranial magnetic stimulation applied in a task-free experimental setup leads to enhanced relative negativity of frontally recorded evoked slow potentials under the influence of caffeine (Murd et al., 2010 [26]). We tested whether this increased negativity could be reversed when a similar magnetic stimulation is applied during quiet sleep where consciousness is absent. Consistently with the hypothesis, non-REM sleep led to relative more positive slow brain potentials, compared to wakefulness. This effect was lateralized to the right hemisphere. We conclude that TMS indeed elicits slow negative potentials in higher arousal states, but the effect has hemispheric specificity depending on how arousal is manipulated. PMID:21335058

Stamm, Mihkel; Aru, Jaan; Bachmann, Talis

2011-04-15

69

Changing Negative Attitudes toward Japanese and East Indian Canadians in Elementary School Children by Using Classical Conditioning Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children in grades 5-7 were shown emotionally ambiguous slides of Japanese and East Indian Canadians paired with positively evaluated words. There was no change in positive attitudes towards the less threatening group (Japanese), but a significant change toward the more threatening group (East Indians), the reverse of the findings of a previous…

Kehoe, John W.; And Others

1978-01-01

70

Family Violence and Juvenile Sex OffendingThe Potential Mediating Role of Psychopathic Traits and Negative Attitudes Toward Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile sex offenders were compared to other juvenile offenders in the degree of violence against women they witnessed in their families of origin. Poor impulse control, a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, and sexist attitudes toward women were tested as potential mediators of this relation. Participants were 70 incarcerated juvenile males, ages 13 to 18, from three offender categories: 23

ALICIA A. CAPUTO; PAUL J. FRICK; STANLEY L. BRODSKY

1999-01-01

71

Everybody Belongs: Changing Negative Attitudes toward Classmates with Disabilities. Garland Reference Library of Social Science. Critical Education Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides guidance to facilitate the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms, examining the concept of disability and attitudes toward disability. The book explains that the evil prosthesis of Captain Hook, the comical speech of Porky Pig, and the bumbling antics of Mr. Magoo are all examples of images in…

Shapiro, Arthur H.

72

Trait anxiety reduces affective fading for both positive and negative autobiographical memories  

PubMed Central

The affect associated with negative events fades faster than the affect associated with positive events (the Fading Affect Bias; the FAB). The research that we report examined the relation between trait anxiety and the FAB. Study 1 assessed anxiety using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; Studies 2 and 3 used the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Studies 1 and 2 used retrospective procedures to probe positive event memories and negative event memories while Study 3 used a diary procedure. The results of all 3 studies showed that increased anxiety was associated with both a lowered FAB and lower overall affect fading for both positive events and negative events. These results suggest that for people free of trait anxiety, the FAB reflects the operation of a healthy coping mechanism in autobiographical memory that is disrupted by trait anxiety.

Walker, W. Richard; Yancu, Cecile N.; Skowronski, John J.

2014-01-01

73

Efficacy of Creative Clay Work for Reducing Negative Mood: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clay work has long been used in art therapy to achieve therapeutic goals. However, little empirical evidence exists to document the efficacy of such work. The present study randomly assigned 102 adult participants to one of four conditions following induction of a negative mood: (a) handling clay with instructions to create a pinch pot, (b)…

Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Robbins, Steven J.

2012-01-01

74

Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers.  

PubMed

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (?1.5?h) smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode to the right supra-orbital area for 20?min with a current of 2.0?mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS) Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation. PMID:24065930

Xu, Jiansong; Fregni, Felipe; Brody, Arthur L; Rahman, Ardeshir S

2013-01-01

75

The Agree Predictor: A Mechanism For Reducing Negative Branch History Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deeply pipelined, superscalar processors require accurate branch prediction to achieve high performance. Two-level branch predictors have been shown to achieve high prediction accuracy. It has also been shown that branch interference is a major contributor to the number of branches mispredicted by two-level predictors. This paper presents a new method to reduce the interference problem called agree prediction, which reduces

E. Sprangle; R. S. Chappell; M. Alsup; Y. N. Patt

1997-01-01

76

Laparoscopy for questionable appendicitis: can it reduce the negative appendectomy rate?  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopy has been performed in 32 patients in whom the diagnosis of appendicitis was suspected, but in whom clinical findings were equivocal and insufficient to establish the diagnosis. These patients represented 13.6% of the total group of patients admitted with questionable appendicitis during this period. Fifty per cent of these 32 patients had unusual clinical features, such as a prolonged history of symptoms, significant intercurrent disease, prior treatment with antibiotics or steroids, etc. At laparoscopy, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made in 17 patients. Another disease was diagnosed in 8 patients, and 7 were judged to have no pathologic abnormalities. There were two false negative examinations and one false positive, but no ruptured appendices resulted. Twelve patients (37.5%) were spared operation by laparoscopy. The negative appendectomy rate was decreased from 10 to 1%. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6445178

Leape, L L; Ramenofsky, M L

1980-01-01

77

Improving intergroup attitudes and reducing stereotype threat: An integrated contact model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we develop an intergroup contact model of stereotype threat effects. We review research on improving intergroup relations and reducing stereotype threat. We then propose an integrated model that specifies the processes through which both actual and imagined intergroup contact reduce the impact of stereotypes on behaviour. We discuss support for this model and, drawing on social identity

Richard J. Crisp; Dominic Abrams

2008-01-01

78

Feeling Bad and Looking Worse: Negative Affect Is Associated with Reduced Perceptions of Face-Healthiness  

PubMed Central

Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N?=?20) or negative affectivity (N?=?20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger’s faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger’s face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

2014-01-01

79

Feeling bad and looking worse: negative affect is associated with reduced perceptions of face-healthiness.  

PubMed

Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N?=?20) or negative affectivity (N?=?20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger's faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger's face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

2014-01-01

80

The Agree Predictor: A Mechanism for Reducing Negative Branch History Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deeply pipelined, superscalar processors require accurate branch prediction to achieve high performance. Two-level branch predictors have been shown to achieve high prediction accuracy. It has also been shown that branch interference is a major contributor to the number of branches mispredicted by two-level predictors.This paper presents a new method to reduce the interference problem called agree prediction, which reduces the

Eric Sprangle; Robert S. Chappell; Mitch Alsup; Yale N. Patt

1997-01-01

81

Individualized antibiotic prophylaxis reduces surgical site infections by gram-negative bacteria in instrumented spinal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Surgical site infection (SSI) can be a challenging complication after posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation (PSFI).\\u000a An increasing rate of SSI by gram-negative bacteria (GNB) has been observed. Current guideline recommendations have not been\\u000a effective for preventing infection by these microorganisms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   Retrospective cohort study comparing two consecutive groups of patients undergoing PSFI at a single institution. Cohort A\\u000a includes

Susana Nunez-PereiraF; F. Pellisé; D. Rodríguez-Pardo; C. Pigrau; J. M. Sánchez; J. Bagó; C. Villanueva; E. Cáceres

82

The Effects of a Distracting N-Back Task on Recognition Memory Are Reduced by Negative Emotional Intensity  

PubMed Central

Memory performance is usually impaired when participants have to encode information while performing a concurrent task. Recent studies using recall tasks have found that emotional items are more resistant to such cognitive depletion effects than non-emotional items. However, when recognition tasks are used, the same effect is more elusive as recent recognition studies have obtained contradictory results. In two experiments, we provide evidence that negative emotional content can reliably reduce the effects of cognitive depletion on recognition memory only if stimuli with high levels of emotional intensity are used. In particular, we found that recognition performance for realistic pictures was impaired by a secondary 3-back working memory task during encoding if stimuli were emotionally neutral or had moderate levels of negative emotionality. In contrast, when negative pictures with high levels of emotional intensity were used, the detrimental effects of the secondary task were significantly attenuated. PMID:25330251

Buratto, Luciano G.; Pottage, Claire L.; Brown, Charity; Morrison, Catriona M.; Schaefer, Alexandre

2014-01-01

83

Examining Implicit Attitudes towards Exercisers with a Physical Disability  

PubMed Central

Background. Using measures of explicit attitudes, physical activity status has been established as a factor that reduces the stigma able-bodied people hold towards people with physical disabilities. This phenomenon is called the exerciser stereotype. However, whether the exerciser stereotype exists when using measures of implicit attitudes remains unknown. Objective. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of negative implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities and determine whether implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities were influenced by the exerciser stereotype. Methods. One hundred able-bodied participants (82 females, 18 males) completed two implicit association tests (IATs): the Disability-Attitudes IAT and the Disability-Activity IAT. The Disability-Attitudes IAT measured implicit attitudes towards people who were not disabled relative to disabled; the Disability-Activity IAT measured attitudes towards people with a physical disability who were active relative to inactive. Results. Results revealed that 83.8% of participants had negative implicit attitudes towards people with a disability. Participants held more positive attitudes towards active versus inactive people with a physical disability. Conclusions. The study findings indicate that the exerciser stereotype exists implicitly and may undermine negative attitudes towards people with physical disabilities. PMID:23710142

Dionne, Cassandra D.; Gainforth, Heather L.; O'Malley, Deborah A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

2013-01-01

84

Input Shaping With Negative Sequences for Reducing Vibrations in Flexible Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Input shaping by convolving system commands with impulse sequences has been shown to be an effective method of reducing residual vibrations in flexible systems [1, 3, 5, 6, 7]. The three-impulse sequence developed by Singer & Seering [6] extends the move duration by the period of the vibrational frequency while eliminating residual vibrations at that frequency. In Singer & Seering

B. Whitney Rappole; Neil C. Singer; Warren P. Seering

1993-01-01

85

Paranoid males have reduced lateralisation for processing of negative emotions: an investigation using the chimeric faces test.  

PubMed

Reduced strength of lateralisation in patients with schizophrenia has been reported in a number of studies. However the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. In this study, lateralisation for processing emotional faces was measured using the chimeric faces test and examined in relation to paranoia in a non-clinical sample. For males only, those with higher scores on a paranoia questionnaire had reduced lateralisation for processing negative facial emotion. For females there were no significant relationships. These findings suggest that atypical patterns of lateralisation for processing emotional stimuli may be implicated in, or associated with, increased levels of paranoia. PMID:23844655

Bourne, Victoria J; McKay, Ryan T

2014-01-01

86

Microwave oscillator with reduced phase noise by negative feedback incorporating microwave signals with suppressed carrier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillator configurations which reduce the effect of 1/f noise sources for both direct feedback and stabilized local oscillator (STALO) circuits are developed and analyzed. By appropriate use of carrier suppression, a small signal is generated which suffers no loss of loop phase information or signal-to-noise ratio. This small signal can be amplified without degradation by multiplicative amplifier noise, and can be detected without saturation of the detector. Together with recent advances in microwave resonator Qs, these circuit improvements will make possible lower phase noise than can be presently achieved without the use of cryogenic devices.

Dick, G. J.; Saunders, J.

1989-01-01

87

Reduced repetition suppression in the occipital visual cortex during repeated negative Chinese personality-trait word processing.  

PubMed

Reduced neural activation have been consistently observed during repeated items processing, a phenomenon termed repetition suppression. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how stimuli of emotional valence affects repetition suppression by adopting Chinese personality-trait words as materials. Seventeen participants were required to read the negative and neutral Chinese personality-trait words silently. And then they were presented with repeated and novel items during scanning. Results showed significant repetition suppression in the inferior occipital gyrus only for neutral personality-trait words, whereas similar repetition suppression in the left inferior temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus was revealed for both the word types. These results indicated common and distinct neural substrates during processing Chinese repeated negative and neutral personality-trait words. PMID:25251564

Qiao, Fuqiang; Zheng, Li; Li, Lin; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Qianfeng

2014-12-01

88

Reductive dechlorination reduces negative impact of PCBs on in vitro fertilization  

SciTech Connect

The variety of toxic effects ascribed to commercial PCB mixtures is likely because the individual congeners differ in their modes of toxicity and potencies. Similarly, a change in the congener composition of a PCB mixture due to reductive dechlorination by anaerobic microorganisms might be expected to alter the toxicological properties of that PCB mixture. In this study, Aroclors 1,242 and 1,254 were reductively dechlorinated using cultures of microorganisms from two different sites. The resulting dechlorination products and Aroclors were then tested for their effects on in vitro fertilization using mouse gametes. In general, percent fertilization increased with the extent of dechlorination. For example, fertilization in treatments with 10 {micro}g/ml of either Aroclor was only 40% of that in controls without Aroclor, but equal total molar concentrations of the dechlorination products produced by River Raisin microorganisms had no significant effect on fertilization. By this measure, therefore, the microbial dechlorination of PCBs appears to have a beneficial effect in reducing reproductive toxicity.

Chou, K.; Mousa, M.; Quensen, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

89

Understanding the Dynamics Behind the Relationship Between Exposure to Negative Consequences of Risky Sex on Entertainment Television and Emerging Adults' Safe-Sex Attitudes and Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social cognitive theory (SCT; Bandura, 1986) has established that people often are inhibited from engaging in a behavior when they observe models experience negative consequences for their actions. Thus, in the realm of sexual portrayals on television, a program that depicts consequences of risky intercourse should reduce the likelihood that a viewer would respond positively. In addition, SCT suggests that

Keli Finnerty-Myers

2011-01-01

90

Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers’ attitude and acceptance of these products.Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution

M. D. Guàrdia; L. Guerrero; J. Gelabert; P. Gou; J. Arnau

2006-01-01

91

Potential negative effects of perspective-taking efforts in the context of close relationships: increased bias and reduced satisfaction.  

PubMed

Three experiments demonstrated that trying to appreciate a close other's unique point of view (imagine-other perspective taking) increases the extent to which individuals overestimate their own transparency to the close other, that is, how many of their values, preferences, traits, and feelings are readily apparent to him or her. Trying to be objective and pay careful attention to cues from a close other, which inhibits perspective taking, instead had the opposite effect. Mediation analyses suggested that increased focus on the self as an object of evaluation contributed to the positive effect of imagine-other perspective taking on perceived transparency, and decreased focus on the self as an object of evaluation contributed to the negative effect of trying to be objective on these judgments. These effects on perceived transparency had important implications for relationship well-being: Enhanced perceived transparency of negative feelings prompted by imagine-other perspective taking during a back-and-forth exchange with a romantic partner led to systematic discrepancies between individuals' own and their partner's experience of the exchange and reduced relationship satisfaction; trying to be objective instead reduced perceived transparency and thereby increased satisfaction. Notably, initial closeness with another person enhanced rather than tempered the egocentric effects of perspective taking. Taken together, these results suggest that positive motivations to nurture a close relationship and be sensitive to a loved one might sometimes be better channeled toward paying closer attention to his or her behavior than toward perspective taking. PMID:23002955

Vorauer, Jacquie D; Sucharyna, Tamara A

2013-01-01

92

Sports ideology, attitudes toward women, and anti-homosexual attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work tests the associations of sports ideology with sexist and anti-homosexual attitudes in a sample of 304 college students. It was found that sports ideology is positively associated with sexist and anti-homosexual attitudes, but only among males. Among females only sexist attitudes were associated with negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians. Among males, the link of sports ideology

Joseph Harry

1995-01-01

93

Information and Attitudes toward Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of two movies, Like Other People and The Music Box, on attitudes as measured by the Attitudes toward Disabled Persons scale. Results indicated more negative attitudes were induced in pretested participants by Like Other People at initial post-test; however, more favorable attitudes were exhibited by participants six weeks later.…

Hafer, Marilyn; Narcus, Margery

1979-01-01

94

Synthesis of cobalt oxide-reduced graphene nanocomposite and its enhanced electrochemical properties as negative material for alkaline secondary battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A potential negative electrode material Co3O4@rGO is synthesized via a facile reflux condensation route. The electrochemical performances of Co3O4@rGO composite for alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries have been systemically investigated for the first time. The reduced-graphene can remarkably enhance the electrochemical activity of Co3O4 materials, leading to a notable improvement of discharge capacity, cycle stability and rate capability. Interestingly, the maximum discharge capacity of Co3O4@rGO-20 (additive amount of GO is 20 mg) electrode can reach 511.4 mAh g-1 with the capacity retention of 89.1% after 100 cycles at a discharge current of 100 mA g-1. A properly electrochemical reaction mechanism of Co3O4@rGO electrode is also constructed in detail.

Xu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaofeng; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

2014-12-01

95

Do attitudes towards immigrants matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse what are the consequences of such attitudes have on immigrants welfare. A well educated immigrant from a non developed country who lives in a municipality with strong negative attitudes earns less than what she would earn if she lived in a municipality where natives

Gisela Waisman; Birthe Larsen

2007-01-01

96

Do Attitudes Towards Immigrants Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse what are the consequences of such attitudes on immigrants' welfare. A well educated immigrant from a non developed country who lives in a municipality with strong negative attitudes earns less than what she would earn if she lived in a municpality where natives are

Gisela Waisman; Birthe Larsen

2008-01-01

97

ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS THEIR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN1  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Parents of 50 mentally retarded children were investigated for their attitudes towards their retarded children. Both the parents showed more negative attitudes toward their severely retarded child. In general mothers exhibited more negative attitude than the fathers. PMID:22058539

Rastogi, C. K.

1981-01-01

98

A Comparative Study of Attitudes Toward Homosexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes changes in attitudes toward homosexuality using 1986 and 1991 samples drawn from the same population. It was found that men expressed significantly greater negative attitudes toward homosexuality than did women; participants in the 1986 assessment expressed more anti-homosexuality attitudes than did participants in 1991; and rural respondents expressed more negative attitudes than did participants sampled on a

Trish Patte

1993-01-01

99

Simultaneous irrigation and negative pressure wound therapy enhances wound healing and reduces wound bioburden in a porcine model.  

PubMed

Infected foot wounds are one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and amputation among persons with diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate a new wound therapy system that employs negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with simultaneous irrigation therapy. For this study, we used a porcine model with full-thickness excisional wounds, inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wounds were treated for 21 days of therapy with either NPWT, NPWT with simultaneous irrigation therapy using normal saline or polyhexanide biguanide (PHMB) at low or high flow rates, or control. Data show that NPWT with either irrigation condition improved wound healing rates over control-treated wounds, yet did not differ from NPWT alone. NPWT improved bioburden over control-treated wounds. NPWT with simultaneous irrigation further reduced bioburden over control and NPWT-treated wounds; however, flow rate did not affect these outcomes. Together, these data show that NPWT with simultaneous irrigation therapy with either normal saline or PHMB has a positive effect on bioburden in a porcine model, which may translate clinically to improved wound healing outcomes. PMID:24134060

Davis, Kathryn; Bills, Jessica; Barker, Jenny; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence

2013-01-01

100

Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST: 37.8 plus or minus 1.9 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute). KES was significantly reduced by 30% in Con (PRE: 113 plus or minus 12; POST: 78 plus or minus 8 N-m), but was not different in EX (PRE: 126 plus or minus 25; POST: 115 plus or minus 25 N-m). The combination LBNPex and Rex during 60-d BR protects against cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning and may be efficacious countermeasure for prolonged space flight.

Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

2006-01-01

101

Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy using Lukosz bound apodization reduces pixel negativity at no resolution cost.  

PubMed

The quality of the reconstructed image in structured illumination microscopy (SIM) depends on various aspects of the image filtering process. To optimize the trade-off between resolution and ringing artifacts, which lead to negative intensities, we extend Lukosz-bound filtering to 3D SIM and derive the parametrization of the 3D SIM cut-off. We compare the use of the Lukosz-bound as apodization filter to triangular apodization and find a tenfold reduction in the most negative pixel value with a minimal resolution loss. We test this algorithm on experimental SIM images of tubulin filaments and DAPI stained DNA structure in cancer cells and find a substantial reduction in the most negative pixel value and the percentage of pixels with a negative value. This means that there is no longer a need to clip the final image to avoid these negative pixel values. PMID:24921819

Righolt, Christiaan H; Mai, Sabine; van Vliet, Lucas J; Stallinga, Sjoerd

2014-05-01

102

Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses improve oxidative status and reduce the negative effects of heat stress in sheep.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative and physiological status of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were housed in 1 of 2 climatic chambers (thermoneutral or heat stress) and offered either a control (10 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high antioxidant (100 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet. The sheep were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18-21°C and 26-30% relative humidity; and heat stress [HS]: 28-40°C and 40-50% relative humidity) for 2 wk in a single reversal design. After 1 wk of dietary treatment, animals in 1 chamber were subjected to HS for 1 wk, with the temperature being increased to 40°C between 0900 and 1700 h and then maintained at 28°C overnight. Those sheep in the TN group were maintained at 18 to 21°C. Physiological parameters were recorded 4 times a day (0900, 1300, 1700, and 2100 h) and blood samples were collected on d 1 and 7 of heat treatment. Plasma samples and red blood cell lysates were assayed for oxidative stress biomarkers. The thermal treatments were then reversed and the above measures repeated. All measured physiological parameters were elevated (P < 0.001) by thermal treatment. Respiration rate was lower during HS in sheep supplemented with antioxidants as indicated by a diet × temperature × time interaction (P = 0.010). There was 13% decline (P = 0.014) in feed intake of the unsupplemented animals during HS whereas the same was maintained in sheep supplemented with high doses of antioxidants. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites concentrations were reduced (114 vs. 85 units/dL; P < 0.005) while biological antioxidant potential tended to be increased (3,688 vs. 3,985 ?mol/L; P = 0.070) in heat stressed sheep supplemented with antioxidants. The oxidative stress index was 30% lower (P < 0.001) in supplemented sheep (2.16 ± 0.06 arbitrary units) during HS than in unsupplemented sheep (3.12 ± 0.08 arbitrary units). Plasma advanced oxidation protein products tended (P = 0.070) to decrease in antioxidant supplemented heat stressed sheep as compared to their unsupplemented counterparts. It was concluded that heat stress negatively affects the oxidative status of sheep along with the physiological responses and some of these affects can be ameliorated through dietary antioxidants supplementation at supranutritional concentrations. PMID:24894002

Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Leury, B J; Clarke, I J; Dunshea, F R

2014-08-01

103

P01.05. An Integrative Medical Group Appointment Model to Reduce Stress and Poor Body Attitude and to Achieve Healthy Behavioral Changes in Patients With Cancer  

PubMed Central

Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care, Supporting Behavioral Change Stress, poor body attitude, depression, inflammation, insulin resistance, obesity, sedentary lifestyles, and social isolation may all contribute to reduced survival in patients with cancer. In 2011, Sutter Medical Group launched a medical group appointment program for cancer patients in which patients meet with a physician (myself), a behaviorist, and a chaplain for 2 hours/week for 6 weeks to identify and address issues that may affect healing and survival. Topics covered include the impact of stress on the immune system, the importance of healthy nutrition and exercise to impede cancer cell growth and improve survival, and the role of spiritual approaches to assist with healing. Each session includes experiential exercises to help patients identify those practices that are most effective at helping them to reduce their experience of stress and anxiety. One of the weekly sessions is spent at our local food co-op with a professional chef to help patients begin to incorporate healing foods into their daily diet. Patients are encouraged to identify 2 goals for themselves at the beginning of the program and to work on behavioral change in those areas throughout the 6-week program. Mood scores, body attitude, and nutritional choices are identified at the beginning and at the end of the program with the intention of identifying the impact of this group model on these parameters.

2013-01-01

104

Predictors of Attitudes toward Childlessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed young adults' attitudes toward childlessness and identified certain factors which predict positive or negative attitudes toward childlessness. The author anticipated finding changes in attitudes because of recent social developments such as awareness of world overpopulation, availability of birth control methods, pressure for…

Spreadbury, Connie

105

A Longitudinal Study of Rape Attitude Correlates among College Men.  

E-print Network

??Research has linked rape victim-blaming attitudes (VBAs) with gender role stereotyping, negative peer attitudes towards women, and acceptance of interpersonal violence. The current study analyzed… (more)

Howe-Martin, Laura S.

2006-01-01

106

DEPRESSION STIGMA, RACE, AND TREATMENT SEEKING BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related attitudes and behaviors. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma mediated the relationship between public stigma and attitudes toward mental health treatment. Within group analyses indicated that the mediating effect of internalized stigma was significant for whites only. Among African Americans, internalized stigma did not mediate public stigma; it was directly related to attitudes toward mental health treatment. The internalization of stigma is key in the development of negative attitudes toward mental health treatment, and future research should focus on this aspect of stigma in both individual and community-based efforts to reduce stigma. PMID:21274407

Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F.

2011-01-01

107

Attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients: the role of culture and social contact.  

PubMed

Cosmetic surgery is increasingly popular globally, but how cosmetic surgery patients are socially evaluated is largely unknown. The present research documents attitudes toward these patients in multiple cultures (Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States). Across these cultures, attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients were predominantly negative: Participants ascribed more negative attributes to cosmetic surgery patients and found cosmetic surgery not acceptable. Also, participants in Hong Kong and Japan were not willing to form social relationships, particularly intimate ones, with these patients. These attitudes were less negative in the United States than in Hong Kong and Japan, partly because social contact, which reduced negativity in attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients, was more prevalent in the United States. These findings bear important implications for the subjective well-being of cosmetic surgery patients, who very often expect improvement in their social relationships through the surgery. PMID:22822685

Tam, Kim-Pong; Ng, Henry Kin-Shing; Kim, Young-Hoon; Yeung, Victoria Wai-Lan; Cheung, Francis Yue-Lok

2012-01-01

108

Desulfovirga adipica gen. nov., sp. nov., an adipate-degrading, Gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, mesophilic, Gram-negative bacterium was isolated from an anaerobic digestor for municipal wastewater. The bacterium degraded adipate in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur. (E)-2- Hexenedioate accumulated transiently in the degradation of adipate. (E)-2- Hexenedioate, (E)-3-hexenedioate, pyruvate, lactate, C1-C12 straight-chain fatty acids and C2-C10 straight-chain primary alcohols were also utilized as electron donors. 3-Phenylpropionate was oxidized

Kazuhiro Tanaka; Erko Stackebrandt; Shigehiro Tohyama; Tadashi Eguchi

109

Reduced neural activity of the prefrontal cognitive control circuitry during response inhibition to negative words in people with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in executive control and impairments in emotion processing. This study assessed the nature and extent of potential alterations in the neural substrates supporting the interaction between cognitive control mechanisms and emotion attribution processes in people with schizophrenia. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during a verbal emotional go/no-go task. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls responded to word stimuli of a prespecified emotional valence (positive, negative or neutral) while inhibiting responses to stimuli of a different valence. Results We enrolled 20 people with schizophrenia and 23 controls in the study. Healthy controls activated an extensive dorsal prefrontal–parietal network while inhibiting responses to negative words compared to neutral words, but showed deactivation of the midcingulate cortex while inhibiting responses to positive words compared to neutral words. People with schizophrenia failed to activate this network during response inhibition to negative words, whereas during response inhibition to positive words they did not deactivate the cingulate, but showed increased responsivity in the frontal cortex. Limitations Sample heterogeneity is characteristic of studies of schizophrenia and may have contributed to more variable neural responses in the patient sample despite the care taken to control for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion Our results showed that schizophrenia is associated with aberrant modulation of neural responses during the interaction between cognitive control and emotion processing. Failure of the frontal circuitry to regulate goal-directed behaviour based on emotion attributions may contribute to deficits in psychosocial functioning in daily life. PMID:22617625

Vercammen, Ans; Morris, Richard; Green, Melissa J.; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Carr, Vaughan J.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Weickert, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

110

Fearless Dominance and reduced feedback-related negativity amplitudes in a time-estimation task - Further neuroscientific evidence for dual-process models of psychopathy?  

PubMed Central

Dual-process models of psychopathy postulate two etiologically relevant processes. Their involvement in feedback processing and its neural correlates has not been investigated so far. Multi-channel EEG was collected while healthy female volunteers performed a time-estimation task and received negative or positive feedback in form of signs or emotional faces. The affective-interpersonal factor Fearless Dominance, but not Self-Centered Impulsivity, was associated with reduced feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitudes. This neural dissociation extends previous findings on the impact of psychopathy on feedback processing and further highlights the importance of distinguishing psychopathic traits and extending previous (neuroscientific) models of psychopathy. PMID:23607997

Schulreich, Stefan; Pfabigan, Daniela M.; Derntl, Birgit; Sailer, Uta

2013-01-01

111

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

112

Gender, Internet and computer attitudes and experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely assumed that participation by females on the Internet is hampered by their attitudes towards computers, which in turn is reflective of their attitudes towards new technology. Research generally supports that females have less overall experience with computers and are more likely than males to have negative attitudes towards computers. Although limited, research on Internet experiences and attitudes

P. Schumacher; J. Morahan-Martin

2001-01-01

113

Differences in Attitudes Toward Nudity in Advertising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated variations in attitudes toward female nudity and sex in advertising for several different market segments. More negative attitudes were found for females generally and females from smaller towns, who read more magazines, and watch more TV. Negative attitudes also were associated with younger males and males who attend church…

Alexander, M. Wayne; Judd, Ben B., Jr.

1986-01-01

114

Quantification of Gram-negative sulphate-reducing bacteria in rice field soil by 16S rRNA gene-targeted real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the quantification of Gram-negative sulphate reducers in rice fields, 11 real-time PCR assays were established targeting 16S rRNA genes combined with SybrGreen™ detection. Three of these assays were specific for the “main” groups, i.e. the Desulfovibrionaceae, the Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbus sp., whereas eight assays were developed for subgroups within the first two main groups. The detection limits of the

Stephan Stubner

2004-01-01

115

Reduced soil water availability did not protect two competing grassland species from the negative effects of increasing background ozone.  

PubMed

Two common (semi-) natural temperate grassland species, Dactylis glomerata and Ranunculus acris, were grown in competition and exposed to two watering regimes: well-watered (WW, 20-40% v/v) and reduced-watered (RW, 7.5-20% v/v) in combination with eight ozone treatments ranging from pre-industrial to predicted 2100 background levels. For both species there was a significant increase in leaf damage with increasing background ozone concentration. RW had no protective effect against increasing levels of ozone-induced senescence/injury. In high ozone, based on measurements of stomatal conductance, we propose that ozone influx into the leaves was not prevented in the RW treatment, in D. glomerata because stomata were a) more widely open than those in less polluted plants and b) were less responsive to drought. Total seasonal above ground biomass was not significantly altered by increased ozone; however, ozone significantly reduced root biomass in both species to differing amounts depending on watering regime. PMID:22420992

Wagg, Serena; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Wilkinson, Sally; Cooper, David; Davies, William J

2012-06-01

116

Understanding Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Food: The Role of Values and Attitude Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at gaining a better understanding of the nature of negative attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A sample of 250 students at the University of Tromsø responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes towards GM food, attitude strength, intention to buy such food, and their personal values. Values and attitude strength proved to be important constructs when

Pirjo Honkanen; Bas Verplanken

2004-01-01

117

Assessing the Structure of Prejudicial Attitudes: The Case of Attitudes Toward Homosexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies assessed the structure of attitudes toward homosexuals. In Study 1, Ss completed measures of stereotypes, symbolic beliefs, and affective associates as well as attitudes toward homosexuals. They also completed the right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) scale. The results revealed that (a) stereotypes did not provide a complete representation of attitudes, (b) RWA was negatively correlated with attitudes toward homosexuals, (c)

Geoffrey Haddock; Mark P. Zanna; Victoria M. Esses

1993-01-01

118

Hispanic and majority student attitudes toward forcible date rape as a function of differences in attitudes toward women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Less rejecting attitudes toward forcible date rape are related to more traditional attitudes toward women, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (G. J. Fischer, “College Student Attitudes Toward Forcible Date Rape. I. Cognitive Predictors,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1986, 15, 457–466). Does this relation reflect more traditional or more negative attitudes toward women? If the former, then an

Gloria J. Fischer

1987-01-01

119

LiF Reduces MICs of Antibiotics against Clinical Isolates of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem yet the development of new antibiotics has slowed to a trickle, giving rise to the use of combination therapy to eradicate infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined inhibitory effect of lithium fluoride (LiF) and commonly used antimicrobials on the growth of the following bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccoccus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The in vitro activities of ceftazidime, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, streptomycin, erythromycin, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, alone or combined with LiF were performed by microdilution method. MICs were determined visually following 18–20?h of incubation at 37°C. We observed reduced MICs of antibiotics associated with LiF ranging from two-fold to sixteen-fold. The strongest decreases of MICs observed were for streptomycin and erythromycin associated with LiF against Acinetobacter baumannii and Streptococcus pneumoniae. An eight-fold reduction was recorded for streptomycin against S. pneumoniae whereas an eight-fold and a sixteen-fold reduction were obtained for erythromycin against A. baumannii and S. pneumoniae. This suggests that LiF exhibits a synergistic effect with a wide range of antibiotics and is indicative of its potential as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy. PMID:22518143

Syed, H. C.; Ravaoarinoro, M.

2012-01-01

120

Application of municipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effects of saline water in Hordeum maritimum L.  

PubMed

The efficiency of composted municipal solid wastes (MSW) to reduce the adverse effects of salinity was investigated in Hordeum maritimum under greenhouse conditions. Plants were cultivated in pots filled with soil added with 0 and 40tha(-1) of MSW compost, and irrigated twice a week with tap water at two salinities (0 and 4gl(-1) NaCl). Harvests were achieved at 70 (shoots) and 130 (shoots and roots) days after sowing. At each cutting, dry weight (DW), NPK nutrition, chlorophyll, leaf protein content, Rubisco (ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) capacity, and contents of potential toxic elements were determined. Results showed that compost supply increased significantly the biomass production of non salt-treated plants (+80%). This was associated with higher N and P uptake in both shoots (+61% and +80%, respectively) and roots (+48% and +25%, respectively), while lesser impact was observed for K+. In addition, chlorophyll and protein contents as well as Rubisco capacity were significantly improved by the organic amendment. MSW compost mitigated the deleterious effect of salt stress on the plant growth, partly due to improved chlorophyll and protein contents and Rubisco capacity (-15%, -27% and -14%, respectively, in combined treatment, against -45%, -84% and -25%, respectively, in salt-stressed plants without compost addition), which presumably favoured photosynthesis and alleviated salt affect on biomass production by 21%. In addition, plants grown on amended soil showed a general improvement in their heavy metals contents Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ (in combined treatment: 190%, 53%, 168% and 174% in shoots and 183%, 42%, 42% and 114% in roots, respectively) but remained lower than phytotoxic values. Taken together, these findings suggest that municipal waste compost may be safely applied to salt-affected soils without adverse effects on plant physiology. PMID:18308562

Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Hafsi, Chokri; Rabhi, Mokded; Debez, Ahmed; Montemurro, Francesco; Abdelly, Chedly; Jedidi, Naceur; Ouerghi, Zeineb

2008-10-01

121

Effects of SBIRT Education and Training on Nursing Students' Attitudes Toward Working with Patients Who Use Alcohol and Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) can reduce alcohol use and negative outcomes in patients with risky substance use. However, negative attitudes that some healthcare professionals have toward patients who use substances are a barrier to implementing SBIRT. The University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing, in partnership with the Institute for Research, Education, and Training in Addictions (IRETA),

Kathryn Puskar; Heather J. Gotham; Lauren Terhorst; Holly Hagle; Ann Mitchell; Betty Braxter; Marie Fioravanti; Irene Kane; Kimberly S. Talcott; Gail R. Woomer; Helen K. Burns

2013-01-01

122

Instructional strategies to improve women's attitudes toward science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and

Phyllis Leary Newbill

2005-01-01

123

Negativity bias and basic values.  

PubMed

Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

Schwartz, Shalom H

2014-06-01

124

Evaluating the Effects of a Peer-Support Model: Reducing Negative Body Esteem and Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviours in Grade Eight Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss\\/weight gain behaviour, internalization

Carmen Thompson; Shelly Russell-Mayhew; Reana Saraceni

2012-01-01

125

Evaluating the effects of a peer-support model: reducing negative body esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in grade eight girls.  

PubMed

During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed. PMID:22364343

Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana

2012-01-01

126

Anti-Homosexual Attitudes in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduate college students (N = 173) enrolled in business or psychology classes were studied to investigate (1) predictors of anti-gay and lesbian attitudes and (2) two educational approaches for counteracting negative attitudes toward homosexuality. Students' gender and other demographic characteristics, gender role orientation, gender role attitudes, and personal history variables were employed as independent variables in a multiple regression analysis

Annie L. Cotten-Huston; Bradley M. Waite

1999-01-01

127

Adventure Learning: Competitive (Kiasu) Attitudes and Teamwork.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of adventure learning (n=345) was measured on teamwork attitudes that are moderated by two attitudes, using the Singaporean concept of kiasu. Higher Kiasu-negative attitudes (preventing others from getting ahead of oneself) were associated with more improved team task participation and social support. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)

Hwang, Alvin

2003-01-01

128

Expression of an exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene in Mesorhizobium spp. reduces the negative effects of salt stress in chickpea.  

PubMed

Our goal was to study the symbiotic performance of two Mesorhizobium ciceri strains, transformed with an exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene (acdS), in chickpea plants under salinity stress. The EE-7 (salt-sensitive) and G-55 (salt-tolerant) M. ciceri strains were transformed with an acdS gene present on plasmid pRKACC. Salinity significantly reduced the overall growth of plants inoculated with either wild-type strains. Although the growth of plants inoculated with either salt-sensitive or salt-tolerant strain was reduced under salinity, the salt-tolerant strain showed a higher ability to nodulate chickpea under salt stress compared with the salt-sensitive strain. The shoot dry weight was significantly higher in plants inoculated with the acdS-transformed salt-sensitive strain compared with the plants inoculated with the native strain in the presence of salt. The negative effects of salt stress were also reduced in nodulation when using acdS-transformed strains in comparison with the wild-type strains. Interestingly, by expressing the exogenous acdS gene, the salt-sensitive strain was able to induce nodules in the same extent as the salt-tolerant strain. Although preliminary, these results suggest that genetic modification of a Mesorhizobium strain can improve its symbiotic performance under salt stress and indicate that ACC deaminase can play an important role in facilitating plant-rhizobium interaction under salinity conditions. PMID:24152202

Brígido, Clarisse; Nascimento, Francisco X; Duan, Jin; Glick, Bernard R; Oliveira, Solange

2013-12-01

129

Effects of intergroup contact on attitudes of Chinese urban residents to migrant workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. One consequence of China's marketisation has been the emergence of a 'floating population'—rural Chinese who migrate to China's cities to work. Many urbanites have negative attitudes towards such migrants. To understand how these negative attitudes might be ameliorated, the paper employs Allport's influential contact hypothesis to investigate whether urbanite -migrant friendships affect attitudes. More negative attitudes were observed among

Ingrid Nielsen; Chris Nyland; Russell Smyth; Mingqiong Zhang; Cherrie Jiuhua Zhu

2006-01-01

130

Preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections and reducing HIV-stigmatizing attitudes in high-risk youth: Evaluation of a comprehensive community-based and peer-facilitated curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive prevention programs for youth are needed to reduce transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and address HIV-stigmatizing attitudes effectively. We evaluated a behavioral risk-reduction curriculum with high-risk youth in the United States. Participants in the five-session course were recruited through a community-based agency in San Diego, California. Participants completed a demographic survey and

Mana Luisa Zúñiga; Estela Blanco; Lizette M. Sanchez; Stephen P. Carroll; Alisa M. Olshefsky

2009-01-01

131

Health workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to drive proportions and associations. Results The majority of health workers had positive attitudes. However, nearly one third (30%) of health care workers had negative attitudes toward providing RH services to unmarried adolescents. Close to half (46.5%) of the respondents had unfavorable responses toward providing family planning to unmarried adolescents. About 13% of health workers agreed to setting up penal rules and regulations against adolescents that practice pre-marital sexual intercourse. The multivariate analysis indicated that being married (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 - 3.06), lower education level (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.99), being a health extension worker (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.43 - 4.35), lack of training on reproductive health services (OR 5.27; 95% CI 1.51 - 5.89) to be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward provision of sexual and reproductive services to adolescents. Conclusions The majority of the health workers had generally positive attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health to adolescents. However, a minority has displayed negatives attitudes. Such negative attitudes will be barriers to service utilization by adolescents and hampers the efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. We therefore call for a targeted effort toward alleviating negative attitudes toward adolescent-friendly reproductive health service and re-enforcing the positive ones. PMID:22943476

2012-01-01

132

Attitudes toward Children with Severe Burns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined reasons for negative attitudes toward children with severe burns by surveying 226 counseling and rehabilitation students. Results suggest that pessimistic expectations and negative attitudes built on conjecture are due to four sources: social standards of beauty, emotionality of the observer, reminders of personal vulnerability, and…

Holaday, Margot; Wolfson, Aaron

1997-01-01

133

Attitudes toward Counseling Clients: Subtle Stigmatization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although attitudes toward people who have sought psychological counseling have been characterized as negative and stigmatizing, research suggests the public holds no prejudice toward the mentally ill. To examine whether the apparent decrease in negative attitudes toward people involved in psychological treatment is more superficial than real, two…

Sibicky, Mark; Dovidio, John F.

134

Negative labeling and social exclusion of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the antiretroviral therapy era: insight from attitudes and behavioral intentions of female heads of households in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.  

PubMed

In the age of antiretroviral therapy (ART), unraveling specific aspects of stigma that impede uptake and adherence to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services and the complex intersections among them might enhance the efficacy of stigma-reduction interventions targeted at the general public. Few studies have described community stigma in high HIV prevalence regions of Mozambique where program scale-up has been concentrated, but fear of stigma persists as a barrier to HIV service uptake. Principal components analysis of attitudinal data from 3749 female heads of households surveyed in Zambézia Province was used to examine patterns of agreement with stigmatizing attitudes and behavior toward people living with HIV. Inferences were based on comparison of factor loadings and commonality estimates. Construct validity was established through correlations with levels of knowledge about HIV transmission and consistency with the labeling theory of stigma. Two unique domains of community stigma were observed: negative labeling and devaluation (NLD, ? = 0.74) and social exclusion (SoE, ? = 0.73). NLD is primarily an attitudinal construct, while SoE captures behavioral intent. About one-third of the respondents scored in the upper tertile of the NLD stigma scale (scale: 0-100 stigma points) and the equivalent was 41.3% in the SoE stigma scale. Consistent with literature, NLD and SoE stigma scores were inversely correlated with HIV transmission route knowledge. In item level analysis, fear of being labeled a prostitute/immoral and of negative family affect defined the nature of stigma in this sample. Thus, despite ART scale-up and community education about HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), NLD and SoE characterized the community stigma of HIV in this setting. Follow-up studies could compare the impact of these stigma domains on HIV services uptake, in order to inform domain-focused stigma-reduction interventions. PMID:24274172

Mukolo, Abraham; Blevins, Meridith; Hinton, Nicole; Victor, Bart; Vaz, Lara M E; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E

2014-01-01

135

Contents and Correlates of Whites' and Blacks' Racial Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whites' and Blacks' intergroup attitudes were examined across four samples. Participants wrote essays describing their racial attitudes that were later coded for recurring themes. Coding revealed that Whites and Blacks had similar positive themes, but diverged for negative themes. White participants' most frequently expressed negative attitudes were consistent with the tenets of modern racism theory (McConahay, 1986). These essay themes,

C. Vincent Spicer

2000-01-01

136

Negative allosteric modulation of the mGluR5 receptor reduces repetitive behaviors and rescues social deficits in mouse models of autism.  

PubMed

Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and fragile X syndrome were long thought to be medically untreatable, on the assumption that brain dysfunctions were immutably hardwired before diagnosis. Recent revelations that many cases of autism are caused by mutations in genes that control the ongoing formation and maturation of synapses have challenged this dogma. Antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5), which modulate excitatory neurotransmission, are in clinical trials for fragile X syndrome, a major genetic cause of intellectual disabilities. About 30% of patients with fragile X syndrome meet the diagnostic criteria for autism. Reasoning by analogy, we considered the mGluR5 receptor as a potential target for intervention in autism. We used BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice, an established model with robust behavioral phenotypes relevant to the three diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism--unusual social interactions, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors--to probe the efficacy of a selective negative allosteric modulator of the mGluR5 receptor, GRN-529. GRN-529 reduced repetitive behaviors in three cohorts of BTBR mice at doses that did not induce sedation in control assays of open field locomotion. In addition, the same nonsedating doses reduced the spontaneous stereotyped jumping that characterizes a second inbred strain of mice, C58/J. Further, GRN-529 partially reversed the striking lack of sociability in BTBR mice on some parameters of social approach and reciprocal social interactions. These findings raise the possibility that a single targeted pharmacological intervention may alleviate multiple diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism. PMID:22539775

Silverman, Jill L; Smith, Daniel G; Rizzo, Stacey J Sukoff; Karras, Michael N; Turner, Sarah M; Tolu, Seda S; Bryce, Dianne K; Smith, Deborah L; Fonseca, Kari; Ring, Robert H; Crawley, Jacqueline N

2012-04-25

137

Dominant negative mutant of Plasmodium?Rad51 causes reduced parasite burden in host by abrogating DNA double-strand break repair.  

PubMed

Malaria parasites survive through repairing a plethora of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) experienced during their asexual growth. In Plasmodium?Rad51 mediated homologous recombination (HR) mechanism and homology-independent alternative end-joining mechanism have been identified. Here we address whether loss of HR activity can be compensated by other DSB repair mechanisms. Creating a transgenic Plasmodium line defective in HR function, we demonstrate that HR is the most important DSB repair pathway in malarial parasite. Using mouse malaria model we have characterized the dominant negative effect of PfRad51(K143R) mutant on Plasmodium?DSB repair and host-parasite interaction. Our work illustrates that Plasmodium berghei harbouring the mutant protein (PfRad51(K143R) ) failed to repair DSBs as evidenced by hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agent. Mice infected with mutant parasites lived significantly longer with markedly reduced parasite burden. To better understand the effect of mutant PfRad51(K143R) on HR, we used yeast as a surrogate model and established that the presence of PfRad51(K143R) completely inhibited DNA repair, gene conversion and gene targeting. Biochemical experiment confirmed that very low level of mutant protein was sufficient for complete disruption of wild-type PfRad51 activity. Hence our work provides evidence that HR pathway of Plasmodium could be efficiently targeted to curb malaria. PMID:25145341

Roy, Nabamita; Bhattacharyya, Sunanda; Chakrabarty, Swati; Laskar, Shyamasree; Babu, Somepalli Mastan; Bhattacharyya, Mrinal Kanti

2014-10-01

138

Tamoxifen reduces P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance via inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in ER-negative human gastric cancer cells.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR), mediated by overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is a major problem limiting successful chemotherapy of gastric cancer. Tamoxifen (TAM), a triphenylethylene nonsteroidal antiestrogen agent, shows broad-spectrum antitumor properties. Emerging studies demonstrated that TAM could significantly reduce the MDR in a variety of human cancers. Here we investigated the effects and possible underlying mechanisms of action of TAM on the reversion of MDR in ER-negative human gastric cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that in MDR phenotype SGC7901/CDDP gastric cancer cells TAM dramatically lowered the IC50 of CDDP, 5-FU and ADM, increased the intracellular Rhodamine123 accumulation and induced G0/G1 phase arrest, while G2/M phase decreased accordingly. Furthermore, at the molecular level, TAM substantially decreased the expression of P-gp, p-Akt and the Akt-regulated downstream effectors such as p-GSK-3?, p-BAD, Bcl-XL and cyclinD1 proteins without affecting the expression of t-Akt, t-GSK-3?, t-BAD proteins in SGC7901/CDDP cells. Thus, our findings demonstrate that TAM reverses P-gp-mediated gastric cancer cell MDR via inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:24184201

Mao, Zonglei; Zhou, Jin; Luan, Junwei; Sheng, Weihua; Shen, Xiaochun; Dong, Xiaoqiang

2014-03-01

139

Tourism dependence and resident attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many rural communities view tourism as a major vehicle for addressing rural economic decline, but several empirical studies suggest that its growth can bring negative social impacts. One group of studies suggests a direct relationship between the level of tourism development in a community and the presence of negative resident attitudes toward it. This tourism dependence hypothesis is evaluated using

Michael D Smith; Richard S Krannich

1998-01-01

140

Words with Attitude Maarten Marx  

E-print Network

opinions more extensively elaborated, affecting a text's score more than negative opinions) #12;Author and false negatives cancel each other out; doesn't help for shorter texts n Longer texts yield scoresWords with Attitude Jaap Kamps Maarten Marx #12;Paper's Goal n Judge the emotive or affective

Fong, Sandiway

141

Antibiotic rotation strategies to reduce antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria in European intensive care units: study protocol for a cluster-randomized crossover controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Intensive care units (ICU) are epicenters for the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (ARGNB) because of high rates of antibiotic usage, rapid patient turnover, immunological susceptibility of acutely ill patients, and frequent contact between healthcare workers and patients, facilitating cross-transmission. Antibiotic stewardship programs are considered important to reduce antibiotic resistance, but the effectiveness of strategies such as, for instance, antibiotic rotation, have not been determined rigorously. Interpretation of available studies on antibiotic rotation is hampered by heterogeneity in implemented strategies and suboptimal study designs. In this cluster-randomized, crossover trial the effects of two antibiotic rotation strategies, antibiotic mixing and cycling, on the prevalence of ARGNB in ICUs are determined. Antibiotic mixing aims to create maximum antibiotic heterogeneity, and cycling aims to create maximum antibiotic homogeneity during consecutive periods. Methods/Design This is an open cluster-randomized crossover study of mixing and cycling of antibiotics in eight ICUs in five European countries. During cycling (9 months) third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems will be rotated during consecutive 6-week periods as the primary empiric treatment in patients suspected of infection caused by Gram-negative bacteria. During mixing (9 months), the same antibiotics will be rotated for each consecutive antibiotic course. Both intervention periods will be preceded by a baseline period of 4 months. ICUs will be randomized to consecutively implement either the mixing and then cycling strategy, or vice versa. The primary outcome is the ICU prevalence of ARGNB, determined through monthly point-prevalence screening of oropharynx and perineum. Secondary outcomes are rates of acquisition of ARGNB, bacteremia and appropriateness of therapy, length of stay in the ICU and ICU mortality. Results will be adjusted for intracluster correlation, and patient- and ICU-level variables of case-mix and infection-prevention measures using advanced regression modeling. Discussion This trial will determine the effects of antibiotic mixing and cycling on the unit-wide prevalence of ARGNB in ICUs. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01293071 December 2010. PMID:25011604

2014-01-01

142

Potentiated clinoptilolite: artificially enhanced aluminosilicate reduces symptoms associated with endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastritis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The cation exchanger, a potentiated clinoptilolite (Absorbatox™ 2.4D), is a synthetically enhanced aluminosilicate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible benefits of a potentiated clinoptilolite as a gastroprotective agent in reducing the severity of clinical symptoms and signs associated with 1) endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease (ENGORD) and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) medication. Methods and patients Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot studies, the ENGORD and NSAID studies, were conducted. After initial negative gastroscopy, a total of 25 patients suffering from ENGORD were randomized to receive either placebo capsules or 750 mg Absorbatox twice daily for 14 days. The NSAID study recruited 23 healthy patients who received orally either 1,500 mg Absorbatox or placebo three times daily, plus 500 mg naproxen twice daily. Patients underwent gastroscopic evaluation of their stomach linings prior to and on day 14 of the study. Gastric biopsies were obtained and evaluated via the upgraded Sydney system, whereas visible gastric events and status of the gastric mucosa were evaluated via a 0–3 rating scale. During both studies, patients recorded gastric symptoms in a daily symptom diary. Results In the ENGORD study, patients who received the potentiated clinoptilolite reported a significant reduction (P?0.05) in severity of symptoms including reduction in heartburn (44%), discomfort (54%), and pain (56%). Symptom-free days improved by 41% compared to the group who received placebo (not significant). This was over and above the benefits seen with the proton pump inhibitor. In the NSAID study, the reduction in gastric symptom severity was echoed in the group who received the potentiated clinoptilolite. Treatment with the potentiated clinoptilolite resulted in significant prevention (P?0.05) of mucosal erosion severity as graded by the gastroenterologist. Conclusion Absorbatox is a nonabsorbable aluminosilicate with potential gastroprotective benefits as it protected against ENGORD symptoms and NSAID-induced gastric events. The exact mechanism of action is not clear but may be due to its binding to hydrogen ions and biologically active amines and nitrates. PMID:25061329

Potgieter, Wilna; Samuels, Caroline Selma; Snyman, Jacques Rene

2014-01-01

143

The Predictive Utility of Attitudes toward Hookah Tobacco Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine associations between positive and negative attitudes and hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) outcomes among college students. Methods Among a random sample of University of Florida students (N=852), multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between positive and negative attitudes toward HTS. Results Positive attitudes were associated with adjusted odds of 4.32 (95% CI=3.20, 5.82) for current HTS, while negative attitudes were associated with lower adjusted odds for current smoking HTS (AOR=0.64, 95% CI=0.53, 0.76). Positive attitudes were also associated with adjusted odds of 9.31 (95% CI=6.77, 12.80) for intention for future hookah use. Conclusion Positive attitudes toward HTS were more strongly associated with HTS outcomes compared to negative attitudes. It may be particularly valuable for future research and interventions to focus on decreasing positive attitudes towards HTS. PMID:23985224

Barnett, Tracey E.; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Cook, Robert L.; Nuzzo, Erin; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

144

Gender differences and attitudes towards homosexuality.  

PubMed

The aim of this research is two-fold. First, it examined individuals' attitudes towards homosexuals in Singapore. Second, it also investigated whether gender differences in attitudes towards homosexuals exist. Respondents comprised 365 students and data were collected through the use of questionnaires. Results generally suggested that respondents harboured negative attitudes towards homosexuals. The prevalence of such ambivalent attitudes seemed to suggest that respondents were still generally quite conservative in their attitudes towards gender roles and homosexuality. Our findings also revealed that, generally, women reported that they were more comfortable in working closely with male homosexuals while the reverse was true for men. Implications of our findings were discussed. PMID:12521244

Lim, Vivien K G

2002-01-01

145

Implicit Self-Attitudes Predict Spontaneous Affect in Daily Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2 studies, the authors examined the degree to which implicit self-attitudes predicted people's spontaneous affective experiences in daily life. Across both studies, implicit attitudes toward the self (as measured by Implicit Association Tests) strongly predicted negative feeling states (as measured by computerized experience-sampling procedures), suggesting that implicit self-attitudes may be linked to changes in undifferentiated negative affect. Explicit attitudes

Tamlin Conner; Lisa Feldman Barrett

2005-01-01

146

Rasch rating scale analysis of the Attitudes Toward Research Scale.  

PubMed

College students may view research methods courses with negative attitudes, however, few studies have investigated this issue due to the lack of instruments that measure the students' attitudes towards research. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Attitudes Toward Research Scale using Rasch rating scale analysis. Assessment of attitudes toward research is essential to determine if students have negative attitudes towards research and assist instructors in better facilitation of learning research methods in their courses. The results of this study have shown that a thirty item Attitudes Toward Research Scale yielded scores with high person and item reliability. PMID:24950536

Papanastasiou, Elena C; Schumacker, Randall

2014-01-01

147

Changes in attitudes toward seeking mental health services: a 40-year cross-temporal meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Although rates of treatment seeking for mental health problems are increasing, this increase is driven primarily by antidepressant medication use, and a majority of individuals with mental health problems remain untreated. Helpseeking attitudes are thought to be a key barrier to mental health service use, although little is known about whether such attitudes have changed over time. Research on this topic is mixed with respect to whether helpseeking attitudes have become more or less positive. The aim of the current study was to help clarify this issue using a cross-temporal meta-analysis of scores on Fischer and Turner's (1970) helpseeking attitude measure among university students (N=6796) from 1968 to 2008. Results indicated that attitudes have become increasingly negative over time, r(44)=-0.53, p<0.01, with even stronger negative results when the data are weighted (w) for sample size and study variance, r(44)=-0.63, p<.001. This disconcerting finding may reflect the greater emphasis of Fischer and Turner's scale toward helpseeking for psychotherapy. Such attitudes may be increasingly negative as a result of the unintended negative effects of efforts in recent decades to reduce stigma and market biological therapies by medicalizing mental health problems. PMID:24486521

Mackenzie, Corey S; Erickson, Julie; Deane, Frank P; Wright, Michelle

2014-03-01

148

Attitude sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for controlling the attitude of a spacecraft is described. The device consists of two light sensors on a spacecraft that are mounted beneath a baffle which divides the light from a light source such as the sun or a star. The divided light reflects off of two reflective surfaces onto the two light sensors. When the spacecraft assumes its normal attitude, the baffle divides the light source into two equal parts, causing the two light sensors to produce equal outputs. When the light is equally detected, the stabilizing system is disconnected. Deviations from the normal attitude cause unequal distribution of the light source and energize the stabilizing system.

Newcomb, A. L., Jr.; Price, A. G. (inventors)

1973-01-01

149

Cognitive Predictors of Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol and Cocaine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…

Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

2003-01-01

150

Agonists and antagonists of GnRH-I and -II reduce metastasis formation by triple-negative human breast cancer cells in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasis to bone is a frequent problem of advanced breast cancer. Particularly breast cancers, which do not express estrogen\\u000a and progesterone receptors and which have no overexpression\\/amplification of the HER2-neu gene, so called triple-negative\\u000a breast cancers, are considered as very aggressive and possess a bad prognosis. About 60% of all human breast cancers and about\\u000a 74% of triple-negative breast cancers

Antje Schubert; Thomas Hawighorst; Günter Emons; Carsten Gründker

151

Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.

Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

2013-08-01

152

EMPIRICAL ARTICLE Weight Bias among Professionals Treating Eating Disorders: Attitudes about Treatment and Perceived Patient Outcomes  

E-print Network

Objective: This study aimed to assess weight bias among professionals who specialize in treating eating disorders and identify to what extent their weight biases are associated with attitudes about treating obese patients. Method: Participants were 329 professionals treating eating disorders, recruited through professional organizations that specialize in eating disorders. Participants completed anonymous, online self-report questionnaires, assessing their explicit weight bias, perceived causes of obesity, attitudes toward treating obese patients, perceptions of treatment compliance and success of obese patients, and perceptions of weight bias among other practitioners. Results: Negative weight stereotypes were present among some professionals treating eating disorders. Although professionals felt confident (289; 88%) and prepared (276; 84%) to provide treatment to obese patients, the majority (184; 56%) hadobservedotherprofessionalsintheir field making negative comments about obese patients, 42 % (138) believed that practitioners who treat eating disorders often have negative stereotypes about obese patients, 35 % (115) indicated that practitioners feel uncomfortable caring for obese patients, and 29 % (95) reported that their colleagues have negative attitudes toward obese patients. Compared to professionals with less weight bias, professionals with stronger weight bias were more likely to attribute obesity to behavioral causes, expressed more negative attitudes and frustrations about treating obese patients, and perceived poorer treatment outcomes for these patients. Discussion: Similar to other health disciplines, professionals treating eating disorders are not immune to weight bias. This has important implications for provision of clinical treatment with obese individuals and efforts to reduce weight bias in the eating disorders field. VC 2013 Wiley

Rebecca M. Puhl; Janet D. Latner; Kelly M. King; Joerg Luedicke

153

The Modification of Undesirable Attitudes and Classroom Behavior Through Constructive Use of Social Power in the School Peer Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student leadership program was implemented in an elementary school to increase the social value of constructive (appropriate) classroom behavior and to generate more positive pupil attitudes toward self and school. The specific aims of the intervention were to reduce the disruptive, negative behavior of some socially powerful students while…

Whitmore, Joanne Rand

154

Ambivalent sexism, attitudes towards menstruation and menstrual cycle-related symptoms.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between ambivalent sexism and beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation, and, in turn, to study the influence of these variables on menstrual cycle-related symptoms. One hundred and six Mexican women completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Questionnaire and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. The higher scores on benevolent sexism were associated with the most positive attitudes towards menstruation and also with the belief that a menstruating woman should or should not do some activities and that menstruation keeps women from their daily activities. The higher scores on hostile sexism were associated with rejection of menstruation as well as with feelings of embarrassment about it. Beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation predicted menstrual cycle-related symptoms related to negative affect, impaired concentration and behavioural changes, but did not predict somatic symptoms. These results will be useful to health professionals and advocates who want to change the negative expectations and stereotypes of premenstrual and menstrual women and reduce the sexism and negative attitudes towards women that are evident in Mexican culture. PMID:24990639

Marván, Ma Luisa; Vázquez-Toboada, Rocío; Chrisler, Joan C

2014-08-01

155

Library Automation: A Measure of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of the study described in this report indicate that the attitudes of library school students toward library automation were not changed significantly by a semester of relevant coursework. It has been hypothesized that these students would have a somewhat negative attitude toward automation, but that through relevant course instruction…

Molholt, Pat A.

156

Improving Student Attitudes and Performance in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for improving attitudes towards mathematics and problem solving in order to improve performance in these areas. The targeted population consists of two high school geometry classes. The school is located in a western suburb of a major mid-western city. The problems of negative attitudes towards mathematics and…

Olson, Kirsten Ann

157

Open and Positive Attitudes toward Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter argues that the most important thing for a nonnative English-speaking teacher is to have an open and positive attitude toward students. A teacher's willingness to work out problems with individual students, coupled with openness to students' ideas and criticism, should help improve students' negative attitudes toward…

Hsu, Chia-Fang

2014-01-01

158

Heterosexual Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However,

David A. Moskowitz; Gerulf Rieger; Michael E. Roloff

2010-01-01

159

Ideological asymmetry in the relationship between epistemic motivation and political attitudes.  

PubMed

Research on the psychological bases of political attitudes tends to dwell on the attitudes of conservatives, rarely placing a conscious thematic emphasis on what motivates liberals to adopt the attitudes they do. This research begins to address this imbalance by examining whether the need for cognitive closure is equally associated with conservatism in policy attitudes among those who broadly identify with the liberal and conservative labels. Counterintuitively, we predict and find that the need for closure is most strongly associated with policy conservatism among those who symbolically identify as liberals or for whom liberal considerations are made salient. In turn, we also find that the need for closure is associated with reduced ideological consistency in issue attitudes among liberal identifiers but not conservative identifiers. Although supportive of our predictions, these results run counter to a simple "rigidity of the right" hypothesis, which would predict a positive link between need for closure and policy conservatism regardless of ideological self-description, and the "ideologue" hypothesis, which would predict a positive link between these variables among conservative identifiers and a negative one among liberal identifiers. We discuss the implications these findings for understanding the motivations underlying liberals' and conservatives' attitudes and suggest that future research attend to the important distinction between ideology in the sense of symbolic identification with conservatism versus liberalism and ideology in the sense of an average tilt to the right or left in one's policy attitudes. PMID:22731763

Federico, Christopher M; Deason, Grace; Fisher, Emily L

2012-09-01

160

Differential effects of right wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation on outgroup attitudes and their mediation by threat from and competitiveness to outgroups.  

PubMed

A dual-process model of individual differences in prejudice proneness proposes that Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) and Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) will influence prejudice against particular outgroups through different motivational mechanisms. RWA should cause negative attitudes toward groups seen as threatening social control, order, cohesion, and stability, such as deviant groups, and negativity toward these groups should be mediated through perceived threat from them. SDO should cause negative attitudes toward groups that activate competitiveness over relative dominance and superiority, such as socially subordinate groups low in power and status, and negativity toward these groups should be mediated through competitiveness toward them. Findings from four student samples that assessed attitudes toward seven social groups selected as likely to vary systematically in social threat and social subordination supported these predictions. The findings have implications for reconciling intergroup and individual difference explanations of prejudice and for interventions to reduce prejudice. PMID:16702160

Duckitt, John

2006-05-01

161

Negatively-Marked MCQ Assessments That Reward Partial Knowledge Do Not Introduce Gender Bias Yet Increase Student Performance and Satisfaction and Reduce Anxiety  

PubMed Central

Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The ‘Single Answer’ (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the elimination answering methods in MCQ tests via rewarding partial and full knowledge. PMID:23437081

Bond, A. Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O. F.; Jones, D. Hugh; Restall, Colin J.; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

2013-01-01

162

Attitudes without objects: evidence for a dispositional attitude, its measurement, and its consequences.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive vs. negative attitudes, a trait termed the dispositional attitude. Across 4 studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual preexisting attitudes; (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits; and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the Big 5 and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. PMID:23586409

Hepler, Justin; Albarracín, Dolores

2013-06-01

163

Attitudes without Objects: Evidence for a Dispositional Attitude, its Measurement, and its Consequences  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive versus negative attitudes, a trait termed the Dispositional Attitude. Across four studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual pre-existing attitudes, (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits, and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the big-five and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. PMID:23586409

Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores

2013-01-01

164

INTERGENERATIONAL CONTACT, ATTITUDES, AND STEREOTYPES OF ADOLESCENTS AND OLDER PEOPLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contradictory findings characterize the literature on the efficacy of intergenerational programs that bring children and older persons together for joint activities to promote more positive attitudes and stereotypes. Nor is it clear whether cross-generational attitudes are negative to begin with. The research reported in this paper operationalized the constructs of attitudes and stereotypes by employing ideographic measures based on the

David S. Meshel; Richard P. MCGlynn

2004-01-01

165

Attitudes of Hispanics and Anglos Surrounding a Workforce Diversity Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in an organizational behavior course were surveyed concerning personal and collective self-esteem and discriminatory attitudes before and after a 16-week diversity intervention. After the intervention, Anglo women showed the most positive changes in attitudes, while Anglo men became more negative in attitudes toward women. Hispanics'…

Hood, Jacqueline N.; Muller, Helen J.; Seitz, Patricia

2001-01-01

166

A Survey of University Student Attitudes Toward the Language Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of college students' attitudes toward use of the language laboratory found that an initial positive attitude toward the laboratory in the first semester becomes more negative during the second semester, suggesting that new instructional materials are needed to maintain the initial favorable attitude toward the laboratory. (CB)

Bedford, David A.

1985-01-01

167

Attitudes of Prospective Primary School Teachers toward Gender Equity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine attitudes of prospective primary school teachers toward gender equity. The specific objectives were: (1) to find out their attitudes toward gender equity, that is, whether they were positive or negative; and (2) to compare the attitudes in terms of the following independent variables: gender, age, grade, type…

Aksu, Mualla Bilgin

2005-01-01

168

Teacher-Trainees Attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the attitudes of teacher trainees towards physical education (PE). It was hypothesised that teacher-trainees have negative attitudes towards PE. A total of 132 teacher trainees were randomly selected from a teacher Training College in Kenya completed a questionnaire adapted from Wear's attitude scale with equivalent forms.…

Gitonga, E. R.; Andanje, M.; Wanderi, P. M.; Bailasha, N.

2012-01-01

169

Results of Student Ratings: Does Faculty Attitude Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the correlation between ratings scores for faculty with positive attitudes toward student ratings and faculty with negative attitudes toward student ratings. The sample consisted of 70 faculty members at a teachers' college in Taiwan in 1999. Two instruments, the Attitude toward Student Ratings of Instruction Questionnaire…

Chang, Te-Sheng

170

Expressed Attitudes of Adolescents toward Marriage and Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examined attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While about one third expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage or had engaged in sex. The adolescents…

Martin, Paige D.; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

2003-01-01

171

Development and Assessment of Traditional and Innovative Media to Reduce Individual HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Attitudes and Beliefs in India  

PubMed Central

Although stigma is considered a major barrier to effective response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, there is a lack of evidence on effective interventions. This media intervention took place among key HIV-vulnerable communities in Southern India. Two HIV stigma videos were created using techniques from traditional film production and new media digital storytelling. A series of 16 focus group discussions were held in 4 rural and 4 urban sites in South India, with specific groups for sex workers, men who have sex with men, young married women, and others. Focus groups with viewers of the traditional film (8 focus groups, 80 participants) and viewers of the new media production (8 focus groups, 69 participants) revealed the mechanisms through which storyline, characters, and esthetics influence viewers’ attitudes and beliefs about stigma. A comparative pre-/post-survey showed that audiences of both videos significantly improved their stigma scores. We found that a simple illustrated video, produced on a limited budget by amateurs, and a feature film, produced with an ample budget by professionals, elicited similar responses from audiences and similar positive short-term outcomes on stigma. PMID:24350190

Catalani, Caricia; Castaneda, Diego; Spielberg, Freya

2013-01-01

172

A FLUCTUATING SALINITY REGIME MITIGATES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON THE ESTUARINE MACROALGA, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK. (R827637)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis...

173

A FLUCTUATING SALINITY REGIME MITIGATES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON THE ESTUARINE MACROALGA, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK. (R825381)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis...

174

Spatial assessment of attitudes toward tigers in Nepal.  

PubMed

In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal's Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person's position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges. PMID:23836312

Carter, Neil H; Riley, Shawn J; Shortridge, Ashton; Shrestha, Binoj K; Liu, Jianguo

2014-03-01

175

Negative Leadership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Senior leaders must have the moral courage to modify the behavior or eliminate negative leadership in the Army. If action is not taken immediately, negative leaders and their toxic leadership style will be taught to their subordinates, the future leaders ...

D. M. Oberlander

2013-01-01

176

Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Among Students at a Canadian University  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined attitudes toward homosexuals amonga broad selection of undergraduates (101 men, 98 women)attending a Canadian university, where a vast majorityof the students are from working- or middle-class families of European descent. Attitudes towardgay men were more negative than attitudes towardlesbians. Compared to Science or Business students,students in the faculties of Arts or Social Science had more positive attitudes toward

E. Glenn Schellenberg; Jessie Hirt; Alan Sears

1999-01-01

177

Attitudes toward homosexuality among U.S. residents of Mexican descent.  

PubMed

This study examined attitudes toward lesbians and gay men in a sample of northern California residents of Mexican descent (N = 616), using 3-item versions of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men (ATG) and Attitudes Toward Lesbians (ATL) scales presented simultaneously in Spanish and English. Males attitudes toward homosexual men were significantly more negative than females attitudes, whereas females expressed relatively negative attitudes toward lesbians. Overall, respondents expressing negative attitudes endorsed more traditional gender attitudes than respondents with positive attitudes, tended to be older and less educated, had more children, were more likely to belong to a fundamentalist religious denomination and to attend religious services frequently, were more conservative politically, and were less likely to have personal contact with gay people. Further analyses revealed that associations between attitudes and education, number of children, personal contact, and religious attendance occurred mainly among respondents who spoke and read English (rather than Spanish) or identified with U.S. culture (rather than Mexican culture). PMID:16817059

Herek, Gregory M; Gonzalez-Rivera, Milagritos

2006-05-01

178

Influence of contact with schizophrenia on implicit attitudes towards schizophrenia patients held by clinical residents  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with schizophrenia and their families have suffered greatly from stigmatizing effects. Although many efforts have been made to eradicate both prejudice and stigma, they still prevail even among medical professionals, and little is known about how contact with schizophrenia patients affects their attitudes towards schizophrenia. Methods We assessed the impact of the renaming of the Japanese term for schizophrenia on clinical residents and also evaluated the influence of contact with schizophrenia patients on attitudes toward schizophrenia by comparing the attitudes toward schizophrenia before and after a one-month clinical training period in psychiatry. Fifty-one clinical residents participated. Their attitudes toward schizophrenia were assessed twice, before and one month after clinical training in psychiatry using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as well as Link’s devaluation-discrimination scale. Results The old term for schizophrenia, “Seishin-Bunretsu-Byo”, was more congruent with criminal than the new term for schizophrenia, “Togo-Shitcho-Sho”, before clinical training. However, quite opposite to our expectation, after clinical training the new term had become even more congruent with criminal than the old term. There was no significant correlation between Link's scale and IAT effect. Conclusions Renaming the Japanese term for schizophrenia still reduced the negative images of schizophrenia among clinical residents. However, contact with schizophrenia patients unexpectedly changed clinical residents’ attitudes towards schizophrenia negatively. Our results might contribute to an understanding of the formation of negative attitudes about schizophrenia and assist in developing appropriate clinical training in psychiatry that could reduce prejudice and stigma concerning schizophrenia. PMID:23173747

2012-01-01

179

Noise screen for attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude control system comprising a controller and a noise screen device coupled to the controller. The controller is adapted to control an attitude of a vehicle carrying an actuator system that is adapted to pulse in metered bursts in order to generate a control torque to control the attitude of the vehicle in response to a control pulse. The noise screen device is adapted to generate a noise screen signal in response to the control pulse that is generated when an input attitude error signal exceeds a predetermined deadband attitude level. The noise screen signal comprises a decaying offset signal that when combined with the attitude error input signal results in a net attitude error input signal away from the predetermined deadband level to reduce further control pulse generation.

Rodden, John J. (Inventor); Stevens, Homer D. (Inventor); Hong, David P. (Inventor); Hirschberg, Philip C. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

180

Reduced resting potentials in dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers are secondary to NF-?B-dependent negative modulation of ouabain sensitive Na+-K+ pump activity.  

PubMed

To examine potential mechanisms for the reduced resting membrane potentials (RPs) of mature dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers, the Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibitor ouabain was added to freshly isolated nondystrophic and mdx fibers. Ouabain produced a 71% smaller depolarization in mdx fibers than in nondystrophic fibers, increased the [Na(+)](i) in nondystrophic fibers by 40%, but had no significant effect on the [Na(+)](i) of mdx fibers, which was approximately double that observed in untreated nondystrophic fibers. Western blots indicated no difference in total and phosphorylated Na(+)-K(+) ATPase catalytic ?1 subunit between nondystrophic and mdx muscle. Examination of the effects of the NF-?B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) indicated that direct application of the drug slowly hyperpolarized mdx fibers (7 mV in 90 min) but had no effect on nondystrophic fibers. Pretreatment with ouabain abolished this hyperpolarization, and pretreatment with PDTC restored ouabain-induced depolarization and reduced [Na(+)](i). Administration of an NF-?B inhibitor that utilizes a different mechanism for reducing nuclear NF-?B activation, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), also hyperpolarized mdx fibers. These results suggest that in situ Na(+)-K(+) pump activity is depressed in mature dystrophic fibers by NF-?B dependent modulators, and that this reduced pump activity contributes to the weakness characteristic of dystrophic muscle. PMID:21306738

Miles, M T; Cottey, E; Cottey, A; Stefanski, C; Carlson, C G

2011-04-15

181

Short-Duration Low-Direct-Current Electrical Field Treatment Is a Practical Tool for Considerably Reducing Counts of Gram-Negative Bacteria Entrapped in Gel Beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of a direct-current electrical field for very short times can serve as a practical nonthermal procedure to reduce or modify the microbial distribution in gel beads. The viability of Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens entrapped in alginate and agarose beads decreases as the field intensity and duration of electrical field increase. Gels consist of two components: a liquid and

R. Zvitov; C. Zohar-Perez; A. Nussinovitch

2004-01-01

182

Abstract Plants defend themselves against herbivores via resistance, which reduces damage, and tolerance, which minimizes the negative effects of damage. Theory  

E-print Network

Aspen � Compensation � Defoliation � Growth � Herbivory � Plant defense � Woody plant M. T. Stevens � D and tolerance are two principal forms of plant defense against herbivores. Plant resistance reduces herbivore plants are selected against. This cost­benefit dynamic may explain why genetic variation for defense

Waller, Donald M.

183

Pre and post-test differences between Vietnamese and Latino residents involved in a community policing experiment – Reducing fear of crime and improving attitudes towards the police  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address a persistent crime problem in a large, high crime apartment complex occupied by Latino and Vietnamese immigrants in Garden Grove, California, the local police department opened a storefront office. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact this community policing effort had on the residents of the complex in terms of reducing fear of crime and

Sam Torres; Ronald E. Vogel

2001-01-01

184

Human mesenchymal stem cells reduce mortality and bacteremia in gram-negative sepsis in mice in part by enhancing the phagocytic activity of blood monocytes  

PubMed Central

The potential therapeutic value of cell-based therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) has been reported in mouse models of polymicrobial peritoneal sepsis. However, the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of MSC have not been well defined. Therefore, we tested the therapeutic effect of intravenous bone marrow-derived human MSC in peritoneal sepsis induced by gram-negative bacteria. At 48 h, survival was significantly increased in mice treated with intravenous MSC compared with control mice treated with intravenous fibroblasts (3T3) or intravenous PBS. There were no significant differences in the levels of TNF-?, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, or IL-10 in the plasma. However, there was a marked reduction in the number of bacterial colony-forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the blood of MSC-treated mice compared with the 3T3 and PBS control groups. In addition, phagocytic activity was increased in blood monocytes isolated from mice treated with MSC compared with the 3T3 and PBS groups. Furthermore, levels of C5a anaphylotoxin were elevated in the blood of mice treated with MSC, a finding that was associated with upregulation of the phagocytosis receptor CD11b on monocytes. The phagocytic activity of neutrophils was not different among the groups. There was also an increase in alternately activated monocytes/macrophages (CD163- and CD206-positive) in the spleen of the MSC-treated mice compared with the two controls. Thus intravenous MSC increased survival from gram-negative peritoneal sepsis, in part by a monocyte-dependent increase in bacterial phagocytosis. PMID:22427530

Krasnodembskaya, Anna; Samarani, Gianluca; Song, Yuanlin; Zhuo, Hanjing; Su, Xiao; Lee, Jae-Woo; Gupta, Naveen; Petrini, Mario

2012-01-01

185

Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

Chang, Chingching

2012-01-01

186

Goal orientations and attitudes toward doping.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine if there is a relationship between attitudes toward doping and achievement goal orientations of athletes. Questionnaires from 830 athletes (including 263 females) were obtained. Athletes declared moderately positive attitudes, with attitude toward anti-doping controls as the strongest and attitude toward sanctions as the weakest. Females declared significantly more favourable attitudes than males. With respect to the relationship between goal orientations and attitudes toward doping, it was found that athletes who were high task/low ego oriented declared the most favourable attitudes, while athletes who were low task/high ego oriented declared the least favourable attitudes. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that ego orientation was significantly negatively related to, and task orientation was significantly positively related to attitudes toward doping. It means that with the increase in task orientation, attitudes toward doping became more favourable. The opposite can be said about the increase in ego orientation. It could be argued then, that creating a motivational climate which promotes task orientation (mastery climate) may aid anti-doping efforts. PMID:18214812

Sas-Nowosielski, K; Swiatkowska, L

2008-07-01

187

Examination of a multi-factorial model of body-related experiences during pregnancy: The relationships among physical symptoms, sleep quality, depression, self-esteem, and negative body attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate relationships among women's body attitudes, physical symptoms, self-esteem, depression, and sleep quality during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N=215) at 15–25 weeks gestation completed a questionnaire including four body image subscales assessing self-reported feeling fat, attractiveness, strength\\/fitness, and salience of weight and shape. Women reported on 29 pregnancy-related physical complaints, and completed the

Ekaterina Kamysheva; Helen Skouteris; Eleanor H. Wertheim; Susan J. Paxton; Jeannette Milgrom

2008-01-01

188

Evaluation of a school-based program designed to improve body image satisfaction, global self-esteem, and eating attitudes and behaviors: A replication study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life-skills promotion program designed to improve body image satisfaction and global self- esteem, while reducing negative eating attitudes and behaviors and feelings of perfectionism, all of which have been identified as predisposing factors to disordered eating. Method: A total of 258 girls with a mean age

Gail L. McVey; Ron Davis; Stacey Tweed; Brian F. Shaw

2004-01-01

189

Inhibiting aurora kinases reduces tumor growth and suppresses tumor recurrence after chemotherapy in patient-derived triple-negative breast cancer xenografts.  

PubMed

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) have an aggressive phenotype with a relatively high rate of recurrence and poor overall survival. To date, there is no approved targeted therapy for TNBCs. Aurora kinases act as regulators of mammalian cell division. They are important for cell-cycle progression and are frequently overexpressed or mutated in human tumors, including breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting Aurora kinases in preclinical models of human breast cancers using a pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases, AS703569. In vitro, AS703569 was tested in 15 human breast cancer cell lines. TNBC cell lines were more sensitive to AS703569 than were other types of breast cancer cells. Inhibition of proliferation was associated with cell-cycle arrest, aneuploidy, and apoptosis. In vivo, AS703569 administered alone significantly inhibited tumor growth in seven of 11 patient-derived breast cancer xenografts. Treatment with AS703569 was associated with a decrease of phospho-histone H3 expression. Finally, AS703569 combined to doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide significantly inhibited in vivo tumor recurrence, suggesting that Aurora kinase inhibitors could be used both in monotherapy and in combination settings. In conclusion, these data indicate that targeting Aurora kinases could represent a new effective approach for TNBC treatment. PMID:23012245

Romanelli, Angela; Clark, Anderson; Assayag, Franck; Chateau-Joubert, Sophie; Poupon, Marie-France; Servely, Jean-Luc; Fontaine, Jean-Jacques; Liu, Xiaohong; Spooner, Edward; Goodstal, Samantha; de Cremoux, Patricia; Bièche, Ivan; Decaudin, Didier; Marangoni, Elisabetta

2012-12-01

190

Attitudes toward Rape: Gender and Ethnic Differences across Asian and Caucasian College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined 302 Asian and Caucasian college students' attitudes towards rape victims and belief in rape myths. Results show significant differences between both groups. Asians more often endorsed negative attitudes toward rape victims than whites, and males endorsed more negative attitudes and more acceptance of rape myths than females. Results are…

Mori, Lisa; And Others

1995-01-01

191

High Radiation Dose May Reduce the Negative Effect of Large Gross Tumor Volume in Patients With Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the effect of radiation dose varies with gross tumor volume (GTV) in patients with stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 114 consecutive patients with medically inoperable stage I/II NSCLC treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy between 1992 and 2004. The median biologic equivalent dose (BED) was 79.2 Gy (range, 58.2-124.5 Gy). The median GTV was 51.8 cm{sup 3} (range, 2.1-727.8 cm{sup 3}). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant interaction between radiation dose and GTV (p < 0.001). In patients with BED {<=}79.2 Gy (n = 68), the OS medians for patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} and {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} were 18.2 and 23.9 months, respectively (p 0.015). If BED was >79.2 Gy (n = 46), no significant difference was found between GTV groups (p = 0.681). For patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the OS medians in those with BED >79.2 Gy and {<=}79.2 Gy were 30.4 and 18.2 months, respectively (p < 0.001). If GTV was {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the difference was no longer significant (p = 0.577). Conclusion: High-dose radiation is more important for patients with larger tumors and may be effective in reducing the adverse outcome associated with large GTV. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

Zhao Lujun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); West, Brady T. [Center for Statistical Consultation and Research, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lyons, Susan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cease, Kemp [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: Fengkong@med.umich.edu

2007-05-01

192

Dysfunctional attitudes in major depression. Changes with pharmacotherapy.  

PubMed

High levels of dysfunctional attitudes have been associated with greater severity of depression and poorer response to pharmacological treatment. The goal of our study was to examine this relationship and the changes in dysfunctional attitudes after treatment with fluoxetine, a relatively selective serotonin uptake inhibitor. Dysfunctional attitudes were evaluated with both the Cognitions Questionnaire (CQ) and the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) in 115 outpatients diagnosed as having major depressive disorder. After 8 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine, 67 of these patients again completed the DAS and the CQ. Dysfunctional attitudes were associated with depression severity both before and after treatment and decreased linearly with treatment of the depression. Negative thinking and dysfunctional attitudes, as measured by both DAS and CQ, were not predictive of the degree of improvement in depressive symptoms. These findings partly support a state-dependent interpretation of dysfunctional attitudes, and provide evidence of significant reductions in these attitudes after treatment with a serotonin uptake inhibitor. PMID:8277301

Fava, M; Bless, E; Otto, M W; Pava, J A; Rosenbaum, J F

1994-01-01

193

Attitudes toward euthanasia among Swedish medical students.  

PubMed

Attitudes toward euthanasia differ between individuals and populations, and in many studies the medical profession is more reluctant than the general public. Our goal was to explore medical students' attitude toward euthanasia. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions was answered anonymously by 165 first- and fifth-year medical students. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The students' arguments opposing euthanasia were based on opinions of 1. euthanasia being morally wrong, 2. fear of possible negative effects on society, 3. euthanasia causing strain on physicians and 4. doubts about the true meaning of requests of euthanasia from patients. Arguments supporting euthanasia were based on 1. patients' autonomy and 2. the relief of suffering, which could be caused by severe illnesses, reduced integrity, hopelessness, social factors and old age. There are several contradictions in the students' arguments and the results indicate a possible need for education focusing on the possibility of symptom control in palliative care and patients' perceived quality of life. PMID:17942500

Karlsson, Marit; Strang, Peter; Milberg, Anna

2007-10-01

194

When training boomerangs - Negative outcomes associated with Cockpit Resource Management programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Participants' self-reports and measures of attitudes regarding flightdeck management indicate that Cockpit Resource Management training is positively received and causes highly significant changes in attitudes regarding crew coordination and personal capabilities. However, a subset of participants react negatively to the training and show boomerangs (negative change) in attitudes. Explorations into the causes of this effect pinpoint personality factors and group dynamics as critical determinants of reactions to training and the magnitude and direction of attitude change.

Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

1989-01-01

195

Enhancing Physiotherapy Students' Attitudes toward Disabled People.  

PubMed

Negative or narrow attitudes toward the physically disabled can be detrimental to success in rehabilitation, yet programmes aimed at improving attitudes frequently fail. An 18 hour programme aimed at increasing first-year physiotherapy students' knowledge of the disabled and reasons for negative attitudes was evaluated. At course commencement when compared with an Australia-wide sample, students revealed more positive attitudes regarding the needs but not the characteristics of the disabled. At course completion students perceived the disabled as more similar to other people in their characteristics and needs. Students felt less ignorant about disability and exhibited more of a coping perspective: pitying and admiring the disabled less and fearing disability less. They still experienced guilt and discomfort regarding interaction. PMID:25025173

Gething, L; Westbrook, M

1983-04-01

196

Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward and Professional Interactions With People With Mental Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Health professionals frequently exhibit negative attitudes toward people with mental disorders. It is not known whether stigmatising attitudes among pharmacy students predict less positive attitudes toward consumer participation in decision-making about medications.Aims: (1) To assess the attitudes of pharmacy students toward people with schizophrenia, and (2) to determine whether stigma predicts less positive attitudes toward concordant medication counselling.Method: All

Daisy Volmer; Martin Mäesalu; J. Simon Bell

2008-01-01

197

High School Knowledge and Attitudes towards Thalassemia in Southeastern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objectives Thalassemia (thal) is the most single gene disorders in southeast of Iran. About one quarter of total Iranian new thal cases were born in the Sistan and Balouchistan province so the aim of this study is to assess knowledge level and attitudes towards thal in high school students in Zahedan, capital of Sistan and Balouchistan province in Iran. Study design Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Methods This study was conducted on 762 Zahedan high school boys and girls students in 2009. The structured questionnaires were completed by students which consisted of three parts, namely demographic characteristics, knowledge part by 20 multiple choice questions and attitude part by 9 questions. Results The results indicated that only 14.7% students had good knowledge, good knowledge towards thal was 16.2% in boys and 29.1% in girls (P-value<0.001), positive attitude was 76.7% in boys and 84.7% in girls (P-value<0.029). Negative attitude in students who were born in villages and cities were 33.3% and 20.7% respectively (P-value=0.04). Good knowledge level in experimental field studied was between 2-4-fold more than other field students. Students in the last year high school had more knowledge and more positive attitude. Students’ knowledge score had no significant relationship with father education level (P-value=0.11) but had considerable difference with mother educational level (P-value=0.03). Conclusions It is concluded that long term and target based programs are suggested for high school students and local population of Sistan and Balouchistan where the trend of family marriages is quite high. These programs would impart valuable education and improve knowledge of people towards thal being couples in pre-marriage period and then after becoming parents thereby reducing the effects of disease. PMID:24505548

Motaharitabar, Eisa; Erfannia, Leila; Dashipour, Alireza; Houshvar, Marziyeh

2014-01-01

198

The importance of shiftwork attitudes and ethics  

SciTech Connect

The author, a nuclear power plant operator at the Ginna pressurized water reactor, discusses the positive and negative aspects of 12-hour workshifts, the various schedules that have been developed to optimize performance during the 12-hour shifts, and the motivation required to prepare mentally and physically for the shift. A healthy work attitude is the best guarantee of high standards of performance whether the shift be of 8-, 10-, or 12-hour duration. This healthy work attitude will cause peers to improve their attitudes and attentiveness and strive to lift their own work levels to a higher standard.

Litzenberger, G. (Rochester Gas and Electric Corp., Ontario, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

199

The Effects of Sex in Television Drama Shows on Emerging Adults' Sexual Attitudes and Moral Judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the effects of exposure to sexual television content on emerging adults' sexual attitudes and moral judgments. One hundred and ten college freshmen were randomly assigned to view shows that portrayed either positive or negative consequences of sexual intercourse. Results indicate that exposure to shows that portray negative consequences of sex leads to more negative attitudes toward premarital

Keren Eyal; Dale Kunkel

2008-01-01

200

Negative necrotaxis.  

PubMed

We studied necrotaxis in several strains of protists and compared the reaction of living cells in the vicinity of cells killed by a ruby laser. Negative necrotaxis was observed for the unicellular green alga Euglena gracilis, whereas Chlamydomonas was shown to exhibit positive necrotaxis. The cellular colony Pandorina morum exhibited no reaction to the killing of nearby colonies. Both the colorless cryptomonad Chilomonas paramecium and the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis exhibited negative necrotaxis following the lysis of vitally stained specimens of their own species. They also exhibited negative necrotaxis following the lysis of Euglena cells. It was also demonstrated that the cellular content of Euglena cells lysed by heat or by a mechanical procedure acts as a repellent to intact Euglena cells. These results suggest that the negative necrotaxis provoked in Euglena by the laser irradiation is probably due to the chemotactic effect produced by the release of cell content in the extracellular medium. This cell content could, according to its chemical composition, act either as a repellent, an attractant, or be inactive. The sensitivity of cells (specific or nonspecific ion channels or chemoreceptors) are also of prime importance in the process. PMID:8400315

Ragot, R

1993-01-01

201

Attitudes Toward Computer Technology Between Nursing and Medical Educators  

PubMed Central

The results of this descriptive study indicated no significant difference between nursing and medical educators' attitudes toward computer technology. Demographic variables and usages of computer technology in educational and clinical practice environments were not significant. Previous experience with computer technology was significant but negatively correlated; whereas, education regarding computer technology was not. Word processing and record keeping in the education environment, however, were negatively correlated with attitudes. In the clinical environment, diagnosing was positively correlated, but patient assessment and network systems were negatively correlated with attitudes.

Harsanyi, Bennie E.; Kelsey, Clyde E.

1989-01-01

202

Perceived erotic value of homosexuality and sex?role attitudes as mediators of sex differences in heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on attitudes toward lesbians and gay men commonly shows that heterosexual women hold similar attitudes toward members of the two groups, whereas heterosexual men hold more negative attitudes toward gay men than toward lesbians. We tested the hypothesis that one reason for this sex difference is that heterosexual men attribute a high erotic value to lesbianism and that this

Laura A. Louderback; Bernard E. Whitley Jr

1997-01-01

203

Attitudes toward counseling among Asian Indians in the United States.  

PubMed

Research suggests that Asian Indian immigrants do not consider counseling as an option for problem resolution. This study examined attitudes toward counseling among 101 Asian Indians and predicted that Asian Indian immigrants would espouse negative attitudes toward counseling and thus dismiss counseling as a coping strategy, whereas second-generation immigrants would have more positive opinions. Perceived prestige, pride, and privacy were factors predicted to positively correlate with negative attitudes. Results from an attitude survey created by the authors suggest that Asian Indians reported more neutral or fairly positive attitudes toward counseling than were expected. Individuals who immigrated before 10 years of age responded with more positive attitudes to counseling than did those who immigrated at a later age. PMID:9458592

Panganamala, N R; Plummer, D L

1998-01-01

204

Social Work Educators’ Attitudes Toward Gay Men and Lesbians: A National Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 927 U.S. social work educators expressed limited negative attitudes toward lesbians and slightly more negative attitudes toward gay men in this cross-sectional, national study using standardized survey instruments with proven psychometric properties. Faculty most likely to express negative attitudes toward lesbians included those employed at a religiously affiliated university (whether sectarian or non-sectarian), identifying as African-American and

Susan D. Einbinder; Stephen Fiechter; Dennis A. Sheridan; Diane L. Miller

2012-01-01

205

Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n?=?500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (??=?0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (??=?0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (??=?0.19); also, both positive (??=?0.13) and negative (??=?-0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline. PMID:21336503

Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

2011-04-01

206

Young Men, Religion and Attitudes Towards  

E-print Network

This paper explains attitudes towards gays and lesbians, and explores the complex relationship of religiosity, youth, masculinity and support for gay rights. Based on a large, reliable and nationally representative study (n=1405) from PEW Center carried out in 2006, we estimate three logistic regression models predicting approval for gay marriage, gay adoption and gays in the military, which helps us to observe the differences. We conclude that while religiosity and fundamentalism negatively affect support for all three issues, the relationship varies by age and gender. Generally, young men do not show differences in their views of gay marriage, but men, especially religious, young men do show more negative attitudes than their

unknown authors

207

Framing (implicitly) matters: The role of religion in attitudes toward immigrants and Muslims in Denmark.  

PubMed

Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception. PMID:25231272

Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka

2014-12-01

208

Test Candidates' Attitudes and Their Relationship to Demographic and Experiential Variables: The Case of Overseas Trained Teachers in NSW, Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One measure of the impact of a high-stakes test is the attitudes that test takers hold towards it. It has been suggested that positive attitudes produce beneficial effects while real or anticipated negative experiences can result in the development of attitudes that erode confidence and potentially impact negatively on performance. This study…

Murray, Jill C.; Riazi, A. Mehdi; Cross, Judith L.

2012-01-01

209

Development of the gambling attitude scales: preliminary findings.  

PubMed

Social scientists recognize gambling as a universal phenomenon that occurs in a myriad of forms. Although gambling is often a harmless social activity. some participants become pathological gamblers. Given the negative consequences associated with pathological gambling, it is important to understand attitudes toward gambling because they typically represent a readiness to act. One hundred and seventy university students completed four gambling attitude scales constructed to measure general attitudes and attitudes toward gambling in casinos, betting on horse races, and playing the lottery. Results showed the scales to be internally consistent and to have short-term temporal stability. The most positive attitudes were shown toward playing the lottery and the least positive were shown toward betting on horse races. In general, men reported more positive attitudes than women. Positive attitudes toward gambling were related to a tendency toward risk taking. PMID:9783655

Kassinove, J I

1998-10-01

210

Medical Students' Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies from the USA have identified medical students as a major source of stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals. As data from Europe is scarce, medical students’ attitudes were investigated at the University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany. Design Cross-sectional survey containing an experimental manipulation consisting of a pair of vignettes depicting an obese and a normal weight 42-year-old woman, respectively. Vignettes were followed by the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), a semantic differential assessing weight related attitudes. In case of the overweight vignette a panel of questions on causal attribution for the overweight preceded administration of the FPS. Subjects 671 medical students were enrolled at the University of Leipzig from May to June 2011. Results The overweight vignette was rated significantly more negative than the normal weight vignette (mean FPS score 3.65±0.45 versus 2.54±0.38, p<0.001). A higher proportion of students had negative attitudes towards the overweight as compared to the normal weight individual (98.9% versus 53.7%, p<0.001). A “positive energy balance” was perceived as the most relevant cause for the overweight, followed by “negligent personality trait”, “societal and social environment” and “biomedical causes”. Attributing a “positive energy balance” or “negligent personality trait” as relevant cause for the overweight was positively associated with negative attitudes. Conclusion The results of this study confirm and complement findings from other countries, mainly the USA, and indicate that weight bias in the health care setting may be a global issue. Stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obesity are prevalent among a sample of medical students at the University of Leipzig. Negative attitudes arise on the basis of holding the individual accountable for the excess weight. They call for bringing the topic of overweight and obesity more into the focus of the medical curriculum and for enhancing medical students’ awareness of the complex aetiology of this health condition. PMID:23144850

Pantenburg, Birte; Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Schomerus, Georg; Konig, Hans-Helmut; Werner, Perla; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

2012-01-01

211

Time Attitude Profiles in Adolescents: Predicting Differences in Educational Outcomes and Psychological Wellbeing  

E-print Network

in adolescent samples have indicated negative relationshipsbivariate relationships to time attitudes in adolescents torelationship of gender and academic achievement to future outlook among African American adolescents.

Andretta, James Russell

2010-01-01

212

Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

2014-06-01

213

When feeling different pays off: how older adults can counteract negative age-related information.  

PubMed

Negative age stereotypes are pervasive and threaten older adults' self-esteem. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that differentiation from one's age group reduces the impact of negative age-related information on older adults' self-evaluation. In Experiment 1, older adults (N = 83, M = 71.9 years) were confronted with neutral or negative age-related information followed by a manipulation of self-differentiation. Experiment 2 (N = 44, M = 73.55 years) tested the moderating role of self-differentiation in the relationship of implicit attitudes toward older adults and implicit self-esteem. Results suggest that self-differentiation prevents the impact of negative age-related information on older adults' self-esteem. PMID:23957227

Weiss, David; Sassenberg, Kai; Freund, Alexandra M

2013-12-01

214

Context, engagement, and the (multiple) functions of negativity bias.  

PubMed

Hibbing and colleagues argue that political attitudes may be rooted in individual differences in negativity bias. Here, we highlight the complex, conditional nature of the relationship between negativity bias and ideology by arguing that the political impact of negativity bias should vary as a function of (1) issue domain and (2) political engagement. PMID:24970433

Federico, Christopher M; Johnston, Christopher D; Lavine, Howard G

2014-06-01

215

Examining Teachers' Attitudes toward a Required Environmental Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Requiring teachers to partake in environmental education (EE) may generate negative reactions since elementary teachers can be overloaded with meeting standards and student performance goals. This study explores teachers' attitudes toward a required EE program, Lagoon Quest. We compare attitudes among teachers with and without prior Lagoon Quest,…

Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.

2010-01-01

216

Automatically Determining Attitude Type and Force for Sentiment Analysis  

E-print Network

, including orientation (Positive or Negative), attitude type (whether Affect, Appreciation of inherent qual theory. 1 Introduction Recent years have seen a growing interest in non-topical text analysis, in which characterizations are sought of the opinions, feelings, and attitudes expressed in a text, rather than just

Sebastiani, Fabrizio

217

How children with facial differences are perceived by non-affected children and adolescents: perceiver effects on stereotypical attitudes.  

PubMed

Children with a facial difference are presumed to be at risk of social stigmatization. The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to assess the effect of facial differences on social perceptions by unaffected children and adolescents; and (2) to identify perceiver characteristics that predict stereotypical attitudes toward facial differences. Participants were 344 non-affected children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years. Participants rated digitally altered images of 12 children depicted either with or without a facial difference. Results show that participants attributed less favorable characteristics to children with a facial difference than to those without. Moreover, participants reported less willingness to interact with or befriend a child with a facial difference. Significant predictors of low discriminative attitudes were older participant age and previous contact with someone with a facial difference. Our data call attention to the need for public education programs targeted at reducing negative attitudes toward facial differences. PMID:23810827

Masnari, Ornella; Schiestl, Clemens; Weibel, Lisa; Wuttke, Franziska; Landolt, Markus A

2013-09-01

218

Clinical Treatment Provider Attitudes Toward Sexual Offender Management within an Outpatient Treatment Center : Treatment Provider Attitude Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study's foundation is based on research suggesting that the attitudes of clinicians regarding their clients have profound effects on therapeutic alliances, empathy, and staff burnouts, which may contribute to treatment barriers. Because professionally appropriate behavior often conceals stigma, misconceptions, and negative feelings that clinicians may have toward sexual offenders, an anonymous survey of attitudes, job burnout, and empathy

Dustan A. Barabas

2007-01-01

219

Medical students' attitudes toward gay men  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N?=?371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25?years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches. PMID:22873668

2012-01-01

220

Attitudes to colorectal cancer screening after reading the prevention information.  

PubMed

Some of the biggest barriers to increase colorectal cancer screening are negative attitudes to screening tests. These negative attitudes might be evoked through reading cancer prevention information and impede the decision to get screened. Forty-two adults aged ?50 years completed a 12-item attitude questionnaire after reading colorectal cancer prevention information. African-Americans perceived that others had higher cancer risk than themselves whereas Caucasians did not show the difference. Regardless of ethnicity and adherence to screening guidelines, no participants had strong feelings of fear and embarrassment. However, non-adherent Caucasians had higher anxiety than adherent Caucasians. The degree of negativity was not associated with intention to get screened in non-adherent participants. Adequate health literacy of participants may account for flat responses in negative attitudes. Further research in individuals with limited health literacy is recommended. Moreover, additional education about self-relevance of cancer risk is considered necessary to increase cancer awareness in African-Americans. PMID:21360028

Liu, Chiung-Ju; Fleck, Tara; Goldfarb, Joan; Green, Casey; Porter, Elizabeth

2011-12-01

221

Place Meaning and Attitudes toward Impacts on Marine Environments  

E-print Network

the postal/email survey described, identified how place attachment affected the relationship, identified by Stern et al. (1995), between the recreational visitors' environmental world view (EWV) and attitudes toward negative impacts on the reef ecosystem. I...

Wynveen, Christopher J.

2010-10-12

222

Attitudes of Dental Faculty toward Individuals with AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of one dental school's faculty concerning attitudes toward homosexual or heterosexual patients with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia found significant negative biases both toward individuals with AIDS and toward homosexuals. (MSE)

Cohen, Leonard A.; Grace, Edward G., Jr.

1989-01-01

223

"Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2008-01-01

224

The Influence of Social Institutions on African American Women's Sexual Values and Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few researchers have examined the sexual values and attitudes of African American women. Through the use of focus group interviews, this study examined how African American women's sexual values and attitudes were shaped by their experiences with certain social institutions. The researcher (MRA) found that the sexual values and attitudes of African American women were negatively influenced by their experiences

Mario Rouse-Amett; Jennie E. Long Dilworth; Dionne P. Stephens

2006-01-01

225

Evangelical Christian College Students and Attitudes toward Gay Rights: A California University Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research demonstrates that Evangelical Christians generally hold more negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and are less supportive of gay rights than the general U.S. population. To assess these attitudes, undergraduate students at an Evangelical Christian university in California (N = 319) completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay…

Wolff, Joshua R.; Himes, Heather L.; Kwon, Ellen Miller; Bollinger, Richard A.

2012-01-01

226

Relationship of Racial Identity and Gender-Role Attitudes to Black Women's Psychological Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants in this exploratory study were 78 Black female college students and 65 Black female nonstudents. Racial identity attitudes predicted mental health variables in both samples but were better predictors for nonstudents than for students. Preencounter attitudes were a negative predictor of general well-being and self-esteem for both groups and a positive predictor of depression in nonstudents. Encounter attitudes also

Carlton T. Pyant; Barbara J. Yanico

1991-01-01

227

Self-Defense, Sexism, and Etiological Beliefs: Predictors of Attitudes toward Gay and Lesbian Adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

While attitudes toward gay and lesbian civil rights issues have generally become more positive, attitudes regarding the rights of gay and lesbian couples to adopt children are relatively more negative. It is proposed that attitudes toward homosexual adoption are rooted in self-protective defense mechanisms, sexism, and beliefs about the etiology of sexual orientation. A sample of Introductory Psychology students was

B J Rye; Glenn J. Meaney

2010-01-01

228

Euthanasia: A National Survey of Attitudes toward Voluntary Termination of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study on the attitudes of adults related to the voluntary termination of life showed that those persons with favorable attitudes toward suicide were also favorable toward euthanasia. Religiosity was negatively associated with pro-euthanasia attitudes. Whites and males were more favorable toward euthanasia than Blacks and females. (Author)

Jorgenson, David E.; Neubecker, Ron C.

1980-01-01

229

The accuracy of dynamic attitude propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propagating attitude by integrating Euler's equation for rigid body motion has long been suggested for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) but until now has not been implemented. Because of limited Sun visibility, propagation is necessary for yaw determination. With the deterioration of the gyros, dynamic propagation has become more attractive. Angular rates are derived from integrating Euler's equation with a stepsize of 1 second, using torques computed from telemetered control system data. The environmental torque model was quite basic. It included gravity gradient and unshadowed aerodynamic torques. Knowledge of control torques is critical to the accuracy of dynamic modeling. Due to their coarseness and sparsity, control actuator telemetry were smoothed before integration. The dynamic model was incorporated into existing ERBS attitude determination software. Modeled rates were then used for attitude propagation in the standard ERBS fine-attitude algorithm. In spite of the simplicity of the approach, the dynamically propagated attitude matched the attitude propagated with good gyros well for roll and yaw but diverged up to 3 degrees for pitch because of the very low resolution in pitch momentum wheel telemetry. When control anomalies significantly perturb the nominal attitude, the effect of telemetry granularity is reduced and the dynamically propagated attitudes are accurate on all three axes.

Harvie, E.; Chu, D.; Woodard, M.

1990-01-01

230

Portuguese adolescents' attitudes toward sexual minorities: transphobia, homophobia, and gender role beliefs.  

PubMed

Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N?=?188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M?=?17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23153027

Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle

2012-01-01

231

Attitudes about Food  

E-print Network

Approximately 18% of adolescents are obese. Attitudes about Food is a cross sectional study that seeks to identify lifestyle factors associated with adolescent obesity such as fast food consumption, physical activity, attitudes about fast food...

Baker, Nicole Alexis

2012-10-19

232

Attitude computation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude computation facility for the control of unmanned satellite missions is reported. The system's major components include: the ability to transfer the attitude data from the control center to the attitude computer at a rate of 2400 bps; an attitude computation center which houses communications, closed circuit TV, graphics devices and a data evaluation area; and the use of interactive graphics devices to schedule jobs and to control program flow.

Werking, R. D.

1973-01-01

233

Psychology graduate students' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.  

PubMed

The extant literature concerning attitudes toward gay men and lesbians was reviewed, with a particular emphasis on the attitudes of mental health professionals. Seventy graduate students in a variety of psychology-related areas were surveyed about their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Findings from hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that after controlling for socially desirable responding, the only variable to predict negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians was endorsement of traditional gender roles. The results of this investigation were placed within a theoretical framework and then implications for training future mental health practitioners were discussed. PMID:17135132

Korfhage, Bethe A

2006-01-01

234

Negative Bodily Self in Suicide Attempters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study we investigated the relationship between suicidal behavior and aspects of bodily perception and parental care. Measures of bodily perception included measures of tactile sensitivity, body attitudes, and body experiences. Measures of parental care included parental bonding, negative and positive touch, and early maltreatment.…

Orbach, Israel; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Sheffer, Amir; Meged, Sorin; Har-Even, Dov; Stein, Daniel

2006-01-01

235

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents

Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti

2002-01-01

236

Cooperation Attitude in Negotiation Dialogs Nicole Novielli  

E-print Network

that was collected in the scope of a study about the effect of negotiation attitudes and time pressure on dialog (1997) analyzed the role of positive and negative affect in bargaining; van Kleef et al. (2004) investigated the interpersonal effects of anger and happiness on computer-mediated negotiation. In particular

Bari, Università degli Studi di

237

The importance of shiftwork attitudes and ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author, a nuclear power plant operator at the Ginna pressurized water reactor, discusses the positive and negative aspects of 12-hour workshifts, the various schedules that have been developed to optimize performance during the 12-hour shifts, and the motivation required to prepare mentally and physically for the shift. A healthy work attitude is the best guarantee of high standards of

Litzenberger

1992-01-01

238

Patients attitudes towards sleep disturbances during chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbances are among the most distressing symptoms in cancer: they often co-occur with fatigue, pain and psychological distress. Despite the negative impact on quality of life, patients rarely seek help for managing their sleep disturbances. This paper presents the results of a multicentre observational study on patients' attitudes towards their sleep problems. The study also investigates symptom correlates. Patients responded to a semi-structured interview and completed the following questionnaires: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Brief Fatigue Inventory; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life QLQ-C30 Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Four hundred and three cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Bad sleepers constituted 66% of the sample. Thirty-eight per cent of them had not turned to any professional to solve their sleep disturbances because they had various beliefs about the importance of the problem and the possibility to be treated. The main correlates of sleep disturbances were psychological distress, reduced physical functioning and reduced overall quality of life. In conclusion, there is a need to sensitise patients to actively search for a solution to their sleep disturbances so they can be solved along with other co-occurring symptoms. Doctors could also be encouraged to dedicate more attention to routinely asking cancer patients about eventual sleep disturbances. PMID:23947497

Romito, F; Cormio, C; De Padova, S; Lorusso, V; Berio, M A; Fimiani, F; Piattelli, A; Palazzo, S; Abram, G; Dudine, L; Guglielmi, A; Galise, I; Romito, S; Mattioli, V

2014-05-01

239

Student attitudes toward cadaveric dissection at a UK medical school.  

PubMed

A more humanistic approach toward dissection has emerged. However, student attitudes toward this approach are unknown and the influences on such attitudes are little understood. One hundred and fifty-six first-year medical students participated in a study examining firstly, attitudes toward the process of dissection and the personhood of the cadaver and secondly, the extent to which gender, anxiety, exposure to dissection, bereavement and prior experience of a dead body influenced these attitudes. Attitudes toward dissection were assessed by of levels of agreement toward eleven statements and by selection of adjectives describing possible feelings toward dissection. Students were asked about recent bereavement, whether they had seen a dead body prior to starting their course and exposure to dissection when completing the questionnaire. Validated instruments were used to measure disposition toward generalized anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and toward death anxiety (Collett-Lester Death Anxiety Scale). Between 60% and 94% of students held positive attitudes toward the process of dissection and over 70% of students selected 2 or fewer negative adjectives. Students' attitudes toward the personhood of the cadaver were more disparate. Disposition toward anxiety (particularly death anxiety), and exposure to dissection, influenced attitudes. Female gender and recent bereavement exerted a negative influence. Students with higher levels of anxiety experienced more negative feelings and those recently bereaved were less enthusiastic about dissection. Anticipation of dissection may be worse than reality. Sensitive preparation of students prior to entering the dissecting room for the first time may be beneficial. PMID:21656918

Quince, Thelma A; Barclay, Stephen I G; Spear, Michelle; Parker, Richard A; Wood, Diana F

2011-01-01

240

Personality, organizational stress, and attitudes toward work as prospective predictors of professional burnout in hospital nurses  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine to what extent personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), organizational stress, and attitudes toward work and interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work prospectively predict 3 components of burnout. Methods The study was carried out on 118 hospital nurses. Data were analyzed by a set of hierarchical regression analyses, in which personality traits, measures of organizational stress, and attitudes toward work, as well as interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work were included as predictors, while 3 indices of burnout were measured 4 years later as criteria variables. Results Personality traits proved to be significant but weak prospective predictors of burnout and as a group predicted only reduced professional efficacy (R2?=?0.10), with agreeableness being a single negative predictor. Organizational stress was positive, affective-normative commitment negative predictor, while continuance commitment was not related to any dimension of burnout. We found interactions between neuroticism as well as conscientiousness and organizational stress, measured as role conflict and work overload, on reduced professional efficacy (?NRCWO?=?-0.30; ßcRCWO?=?-0.26). We also found interactions between neuroticism and affective normative commitment (??=?0.24) and between openness and continuance commitment on reduced professional efficacy (??=?-0.23), as well as interactions between conscientiousness and continuance commitment on exhaustion. Conclusion Although contextual variables were strong prospective predictors and personality traits weak predictors of burnout, the results suggested the importance of the interaction between personality and contextual variables in predicting burnout. PMID:21853549

Hudek-Knezevic, Jasna; Kalebic Maglica, Barbara; Krapic, Nada

2011-01-01

241

The influence of authoritarian attitudes, gender role attitudes, and ethnic identity upon attitudes towards woman abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated attitudes towards woman abuse among South Asian Americans and European Americans adults (N = 151) grounded in feminist psychological theory. The expected predictors of attitudes towards woman abuse were gender role attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, gender, and ethnicity. Participants completed the Inventory of Attitudes towards Wife Beating (IBWB), the Attitudes towards Woman (AWS) scale, the Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA)

Suraiya Parwin Baluch

2004-01-01

242

Intervention Effectiveness in Reducing Prejudice against Transsexuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…

Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

2013-01-01

243

Interprofessional Collaboration and Turf Wars How Prevalent Are Hidden Attitudes?*  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Interprofessional collaboration in health care is believed to enhance patient outcomes. However, where professions have overlapping scopes of practice (eg, chiropractors and physical therapists), "turf wars" can hinder effective collaboration. Deep-rooted beliefs, identified as implicit attitudes, provide a potential explanation. Even with positive explicit attitudes toward a social group, negative stereotypes may be influential. Previous studies on interprofessional attitudes have mostly used qualitative research methodologies. This study used quantitative methods to evaluate explicit and implicit attitudes of physical therapy students toward chiropractic. Methods: A paper-and-pencil instrument was developed and administered to 49 individuals (students and faculty) associated with a Canadian University master's entry-level physical therapy program after approval by the Research Ethics Board. The instrument evaluated explicit and implicit attitudes toward the chiropractic profession. Implicit attitudes were determined by comparing response times of chiropractic paired with positive versus negative descriptors. Results: Mean time to complete a word association task was significantly longer (t = 4.75, p =.00) when chiropractic was associated with positive rather than negative words. Explicit and implicit attitudes were not correlated (r = 0.13, p =.38). Conclusions: While little explicit bias existed, individuals associated with a master's entry-level physical therapy program appeared to have a significant negative implicit bias toward chiropractic PMID:22778528

Chung, Chadwick L. R.; Manga, Jasmin; McGregor, Marion; Michailidis, Christos; Stavros, Demetrios; Woodhouse, Linda J.

2012-01-01

244

Attitude Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to ITHACO, Inc. satisfied a Goddard Space Flight Center demand for a low cost altitude control system for small spacecraft. The SBIR-sponsored work resulted in the T-Wheel, built specifically for altitude control of small and medium-sized spacecraft. Another product, the T-SCANWHEEL, reduces overall system cost, minimizes mass and power and enhances reliability with a mixture of altitude control and control capacity. Additionally, the Type E Wheel is built for use on medium to large spacecraft. Through July 1996, ITHACO had delivered or was under contract for 95 T-Wheel, T-SCANWHEEL, and Type E Wheel units.

1997-01-01

245

Best Practices for Measuring Students' Attitudes toward Learning Science  

PubMed Central

Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students’ learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students’ attitudes influence their learning. Students’ science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students’ attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students’ attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data. PMID:24297288

Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy

2013-01-01

246

Best practices for measuring students' attitudes toward learning science.  

PubMed

Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students' learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students' attitudes influence their learning. Students' science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students' attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students' attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data. PMID:24297288

Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy

2013-01-01

247

Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. PMID:23866038

Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

2013-08-01

248

Comparing project-based learning to direct instruction on students' attitude to learn science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.

Haugen, Marlen Ingvard

249

Perceived Threats and Latino Immigrant Attitudes: How White and African American College Students Respond to News Coverage of Latino Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 326 White and African American college respondents examined the relationship among perceptions of news coverage of Latino immigrants, perceived threats, and attitudes toward Latino immigrants. Perceived negative news images of Latino immigrants were associated with greater perceived threats, which were related to White and African American respondents' negative immigrant attitudes. Negative news perception also predicted unfavorable Latino

Yuki Fujioka

2011-01-01

250

Delinquency as a mediator of the relation between negative affectivity and adolescent alcohol use disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined mediators of the longitudinal relation between negative affectivity and the development of problematic drinking behavior in adolescent boys and girls. In the present study, 499 early adolescents completed inventories of negative affectivity, attitudes toward delinquency, personal delinquency, and affiliation with delinquent peers. Positive attitudes toward delinquency emerged as the most consistent mediator and strongly predicted drinking frequency

Gavin D. Shoal; Lauren C. Gudonis; Peter R. Giancola; Ralph E. Tarter

2007-01-01

251

The Effects of Dichotomous Attitudes toward Science on Interest and Conceptual Understanding in Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on students' attitudinal constructs in science education asserts that students hold dichotomous attitudes toward science (AS). For instance, studies from the Relevance of Science Education project reveal that students possess negative attitudes in terms of their favourableness toward school science, preference toward scientific careers, and emotional states toward science (negative intrinsic AS), despite their positive perception that science

Minkee Kim; Jinwoong Song

2009-01-01

252

Exploratory research in the measurement and modification of attitudes toward stuttering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies attempting to both measure and change stuttering stereotypes using semantic differential scales have indicated that clinicians' attitudes toward stuttering have been negative, robust, and resistant to change. This study measured changes in clinicians' attitudes after viewing either a factual video depicting the fluency-evoking effects of altered auditory feedback or an emotionally insightful video depicting the negative social consequences

Gregory J Snyder

2001-01-01

253

Attitudes Toward Cosmetic Surgery Patients: The Role of Culture and Social Contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmetic surgery is increasingly popular globally, but how cosmetic surgery patients are socially evaluated is largely unknown. The present research documents attitudes toward these patients in multiple cultures (Hong Kong, Japan, and the U.S.). Across these cultures, attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients were predominantly negative: Participants ascribed more negative attributes to cosmetic surgery patients and found cosmetic surgery not acceptable.

Kim-Pong Tam; Henry Kin-Shin Ng; Young-Hoon Kim; Victoria Wai-Lan Yeung; Francis Yue-Lok Cheung

2012-01-01

254

Negativity Bias, Negativity Dominance, and Contagion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that there is a general bias, based on both innate predispositions and experience, in animals and humans, to give greater weight to negative entities (e.g., events, objects, personal traits). This is manifested in 4 ways: (a) negative potency (negative entities are stronger than the equivalent positive entities), (b) steeper nega - tive gradients (the negativity of negative events

Paul Rozin; Edward B. Royzman

2001-01-01

255

Knowledge of HBV and HCV and individuals' attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues: a national cross-sectional study among a working population in Japan.  

PubMed

Prejudice and discrimination in the workplace regarding the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are increased by excess concerns due to a lack of relevant knowledge. Education to increase knowledge about HBV and HCV and their prevention could be the first step to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This study aimed to determine the association between the level of knowledge and negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues among the Japanese working population. An online anonymous nationwide survey involving about 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. The questionnaire consisted of knowledge of HBV and HCV, and attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues in the workplace. Knowledge was divided into three categories: "ensuring daily activities not to be infected"; "risk of infection"; and "characteristics of HBV/HCV hepatitis", based on the result of factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied. A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey: 36.0% reported they worried about the possibility of transmission of HBV and HCV from infected colleagues; 32.1% avoided contact with infected colleagues; and 23.7% had prejudiced opinions about HBV and HCV infection. The participants were classified into tertiles. A higher level of knowledge of HBV and HCV was significantly associated with these three negative attitudes (P for trend < 0.005). This study suggests that increasing knowledge may decrease individuals' negative attitudes towards HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. Thus, we should promote increased knowledge of HBV and HCV in stages to reduce negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. PMID:24086765

Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji

2013-01-01

256

Modular design attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

Chichester, F. D.

1984-01-01

257

Attitudes toward Animals: Th e Eff ect of Priming Th oughts of Human-Animal Similarities and Mortality Salience on the Evaluation of Companion Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human attitudes toward nonhuman animals are complex and quite contradictory. Th ey can range between extremely negative (animal cruelty) to positive (treating companion animals like human surrogates). Attitudes toward animals are especially negative when people think about human creatureliness and personal mortality. Th is paper investigates people's attitudes toward highly valued animals (companion animals). Th e research presented here tested

Ruth Beatson; Stephen Loughnan; Michael Halloran

258

Death-related attitudes of adolescent males and females  

Microsoft Academic Search

As society attempts to reduce sex stereotyping, it would be expected that male and female attitudes toward death would become similar. The purpose of this study was to measure various death-related attitudes of a group of adolescents and to determine if these attitudes remain sex related.A sample of 152 seventh, eighth, and ninth-grade males (N = 71) and females (N

A. Cordell Perkes; Roberta Schildt

1978-01-01

259

Maternal influences upon college women's attitudes toward women and work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used a 2-stage procedure with 86 female undergraduates to assess alternate hypotheses concerning women's tendency to devalue feminine professional competence. In the 1st hypothesis, the devaluations were viewed as the products of out group self-prejudice; it was predicted that women who devalue have negative attitudes toward the career role and associate it with negative personal and social consequences. The alternate

Grace K. Baruch

1972-01-01

260

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is the workhorse of real-time spacecraft attitude estimation. Since the group SO3 of rotation matrices has dimension three, most attitude determination EKFs use lower- dimensional attitude parameterizations than the nine-parameter attitude matrix itself. The fact that all three- parameter representations of SO3 are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to extended discussions of constraints and attitude representations in EKFs. The most successful EKF uses a nonsingular parameterization for the global attitude, which necessarily has more than three parameters, while employing a three-component representation for the attitude errors. This filter has become known as the Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter. These issues are now well understood, however, and the EKF has performed admirably in the vast majority of attitude determination applications. Nevertheless, poor performance or even divergence arising from the linearization implicit in the EKF has led to the development of nonlinear filters, most recently sigma point or unscented filters and particle filters.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

261

Nonmetropolitan consumers attitudes toward physician advertising.  

PubMed

The debate over whether physicians should be allowed to advertise their services has not yet included a consideration of consumer attitudes based upon empirical data. The results of a telephone survey of residents of a nonmetropolitan area reveal that the respondents are almost evenly divided between opposition to and support of physician advertising. Most respondents do not specify a reason for their position. Attitudes do not differ when several background variables, including residence, age, education, sex, usual source of care, and preferred source of care, are controlled. However, a significant negative association is observed between attitude toward physician advertising and length of residence. This finding suggests that if physician advertising is permitted it may have its greatest impact in areas with high rates of residential turnover. PMID:721962

Kviz, F J

1978-01-01

262

Negative Emissions Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

Day, Danny

2006-04-01

263

Does Viewing a Televised Execution Affect Attitudes Toward Capital Punishment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and ninety one registered California voters completed Peterson and Thurstone's Attitude Toward Capital Punishment scale. About half of the participants then viewed a videotape of two executions, and the other participants watched a nature film. All of the respondents then completed an alternative version of the capital punishment attitude scale. Significantly more viewers of the execution videotape reduced

GARY N. HOWELLS; KELLY A. FLANAGAN; VIVIAN HAGAN

1995-01-01

264

Prospective Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Children's Attitudes toward Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective elementary teachers hold preconceived ideas about elementary school students' attitudes toward mathematics. We found that there exists a gender bias with prospective teachers expecting girls to have negative attitudes toward mathematics and boys more likely to have positive attitudes toward mathematics. We found that these…

Schwartz, Catherine S.; Sinicrope, Rose

2013-01-01

265

Negative Mass Propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schrödinger's analysis of the Dirac equation gives a hint for the existence of negative masses hidden behind positive masses. But their use for propulsion by reducing the inertia of matter for example, in the limit of macroscopic bodied with zero rest mass, depends on a technical solution to free them from their imprisonment by positive masses. It appears that there are basically two ways this might be achieved: 1. By the application of strong electromagnetic or gravitational fields or by high particle energies. 2. By searching for places in the universe where nature has already done this separation, and from where the negative masses can be mined. The first of these two possibilities is for all practical means excluded, because if possible at all, it would depend on electromagnetic or gravitational fields with strength beyond what is technically attainable, or on extremely large likewise not attainable particle energies. With regard to the 2nd possibility, it has been observed that non-baryonic cold dark matter tends to accumulate near the center of galaxies, or places in the universe which have a large gravitational potential well. Because of the equivalence principle of general relativity, the attraction towards the center of a gravitational potential well, produced by a positive mass, is for negative masses the same as for positive masses, and large amounts of negative masses might have over billions of years been trapped in these gravitational potential wells. Now it just happens that the center of the moon is a potential well, not too deep that it cannot be reached by making a tunnel through the moon, not possible for the deeper potential well of the earth, where the temperature and pressure are too high. Making a tunnel through the moon, provided there is a good supply of negative mass, could revolutionize interstellar space flight. A sequence of thermonuclear shape charges would make such tunnel technically feasible.

Winterberg, F.

266

Direct marketing attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines empirically consumers' attitudes toward direct marketing using a sample of 354 consumers. The sample was randomly drawn from a large southern metropolitan area. The study instrument comprised items developed from literature sources. Respondents' evaluations of the items were obtained through in-home personal interviews. Underlying the study is the hypothesis that consumers' attitudes toward direct marketing are a

Daulatram Lund; Pradeep K. Korgaonkar

1995-01-01

267

Marine Attitude Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

268

Teachers' Attitudes toward Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the development and testing of measures of teachers' attitudes toward testing and appropriate use of tests. A random sample of 555 practicing teachers in Wyoming were surveyed by mail (81 percent response rate). Five subscales assessing attitudes toward use of classroom and standardized tests were identified: (1) standardized…

Green, Kathy E.; Stager, Susan F.

269

Persistent Attitudes and Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the impact of adolescent attitudes and behaviors - academic motivation as assessed by the child herself and behavioral problems as assessed by the mother or the teacher of the child at age 16 - on adult attitudes and behaviors including illegal drugs consumption, smoking, physical and mental health, criminal activity, political participation, self-confidence and opinions about the

Christoph T. Weiss

2012-01-01

270

Longitudinal analysis of attitudes toward wolves.  

PubMed

Understanding individual attitudes and how these predict overt opposition to predator conservation or direct, covert action against predators will help to recover and maintain them. Studies of attitudes toward wild animals rely primarily on samples of individuals at a single time point. We examined longitudinal change in individuals' attitudes toward gray wolves (Canis lupus). In the contiguous United States, amidst persistent controversy and opposition, abundances of gray wolves are at their highest in 60 years. We used mailed surveys to sample 1892 residents of Wisconsin in 2001 or 2004 and then resampled 656 of these individuals who resided in wolf range in 2009. Our study spanned a period of policy shifts and increasing wolf abundance. Over time, the 656 respondents increased agreement with statements reflecting fear of wolves, the belief that wolves compete with hunters for deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and inclination to poach a wolf. Endorsement of lethal control of wolves by the state and public hunting of wolves also increased. Neither the time span over which respondents reported exposure to wolves locally nor self-reported losses of domestic animals to wolves correlated with changes in attitude. We predict future increases in legal and illegal killing of wolves that may reduce their abundance in Wisconsin unless interventions are implemented to improve attitudes and behavior toward wolves. To assess whether interventions change attitudes, longitudinal studies like ours are needed. Análisis Longitudinal de las Actitudes Hacia Lobos. PMID:23293913

Treves, Adrian; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Shelley, Victoria

2013-04-01

271

Religiosity, AIDS, and sexuality knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of black South-African first-year university students.  

PubMed

This study investigated the association of religiosity with sexuality and AIDS knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of 1,817 black first-year students in South Africa. On a structured questionnaire, consenting students rated themselves on scales of religiosity, attitudes toward homosexuality, intrafamilial communication about contraception, AIDS attitudes, and AIDS knowledge. Negative attitudes toward homosexuality were significantly associated with negative attitudes towards AIDS, high knowledge of AIDS, and high religiosity. Religious commitment diminished propensity to engage in sexual intercourse and delayed age for onset of sexual intercourse. PMID:8643798

Nicholas, L; Durrheim, K

1995-12-01

272

Assisted suicide: factors affecting public attitudes.  

PubMed

Public support for assisted suicide has been growing despite the ethical questions raised by members of the medical profession. Previous research suggests that age, gender, experience, and religiosity are factors affecting individuals' attitudes. This study examines the effect of demographic and ideological factors, as well as individuals' caregiving experiences, on attitudes toward assisted suicide. Random-digit-dialing procedures produced a sample of 156 residents of Denton, Texas, in March 1998. T-tests were conducted to measure significance, while gamma values were used to measure level of association and percent reduction in error. The data indicate that age, gender, and caregiving experience were not significant predictors of attitudes. Situational factors, including whether a physician or friend/family member should assist and whether a child or a terminally ill patient experiencing no pain should receive assistance, all were highly significant and positively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. Respondents were most likely to support physician-assisted suicide for individuals experiencing no pain. The data also indicated that the depth of commitment to the beliefs that suffering has meaning, that life belongs to God, and that physician-assisted suicide is murder, were highly significant and negatively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. PMID:12557886

Worthen, L T; Yeatts, D E

273

Expressed attitudes of adolescents toward marriage and family life.  

PubMed

In the U.S., modifications in family structure and in attitudes concerning marriage and family life have been numerous. Areas such as sexual behavior and alternative living arrangements have become highly varied and nontraditional compared to past generations. This study examined the attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority of adolescents expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While only about a third of the adolescents expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage in sexual intercourse before marriage, or already have. Interestingly, about half of the adolescents held positive attitudes toward cohabitation. Lastly, the adolescents demonstrated a growing acceptance of premarital counseling and psychoeducational interventions regarding marriage and family life. PMID:14560887

Martin, Paige D; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

2003-01-01

274

Experiencing ownership over a dark-skinned body reduces implicit racial bias.  

PubMed

Previous studies have investigated how existing social attitudes towards other races affect the way we 'share' their bodily experiences, for example in empathy for pain, and sensorimotor mapping. Here, we ask whether it is possible to alter implicit racial attitudes by experimentally increasing self-other bodily overlap. Employing a bodily illusion known as the 'Rubber Hand Illusion', we delivered multisensory stimulation to light-skinned Caucasian participants to induce the feeling that a dark-skinned hand belonged to them. We then measured whether this could change their implicit racial biases against people with dark skin. Across two experiments, the more intense the participants' illusion of ownership over the dark-skinned rubber hand, the more positive their implicit racial attitudes became. Importantly, it was not the pattern of multisensory stimulation per se, but rather, it was the change in the subjective experience of body ownership that altered implicit attitudes. These findings suggest that inducing an overlap between the bodies of self and other through illusory ownership is an effective way to change and reduce negative implicit attitudes towards outgroups. PMID:23680793

Maister, Lara; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-08-01

275

Experiencing ownership over a dark-skinned body reduces implicit racial bias  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have investigated how existing social attitudes towards other races affect the way we ‘share’ their bodily experiences, for example in empathy for pain, and sensorimotor mapping. Here, we ask whether it is possible to alter implicit racial attitudes by experimentally increasing self-other bodily overlap. Employing a bodily illusion known as the ‘Rubber Hand Illusion’, we delivered multisensory stimulation to light-skinned Caucasian participants to induce the feeling that a dark-skinned hand belonged to them. We then measured whether this could change their implicit racial biases against people with dark skin. Across two experiments, the more intense the participants’ illusion of ownership over the dark-skinned rubber hand, the more positive their implicit racial attitudes became. Importantly, it was not the pattern of multisensory stimulation per se, but rather, it was the change in the subjective experience of body ownership that altered implicit attitudes. These findings suggest that inducing an overlap between the bodies of self and other through illusory ownership is an effective way to change and reduce negative implicit attitudes towards outgroups. PMID:23680793

Maister, Lara; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-01-01

276

Attitudes toward homosexuality: Preservation of sex morality or the double standard?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered a battery of psychological tests concerning sex roles, attitudes, and permissiveness to 47 male and 57 female university students and faculty, to study the sources of the nonhomosexual's attitudes toward homosexuality. The hypothesis that attitudes are determined by a need to preserve a double standard, i.e., to condemn the homosexual in order to reduce sex-role confusion, was confirmed.

A. P. MacDonald; Jim Huggins; Susan Young; Richard A. Swanson

1973-01-01

277

Predictors of Employee Deviance: The Relationship Between Bad Attitudes and Bad Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employee deviance is a serious problem for business owners. To reduce this problem, researchers have attempted to predict which employees are more likely to exhibit deviant behavior based on their attitudes. Although many researchers have successfully predicted various types of employee deviance from attitudes, very little information is available detailing which attitudes are more useful in predicting each type of

Aaron Bolin; Linette Heatherly

2001-01-01

278

Cross-sectional survey of attitudes and beliefs about back pain in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the prevalence of attitudes and beliefs about back pain in New Zealand and compare certain beliefs based on back pain history or health professional exposure. Design Population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Postal survey. Participants New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18?years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. Participants listed on the Electoral Roll with an overseas postal address were excluded. 602 valid responses were received. Measures Attitudes and beliefs about back pain were measured with the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ). The interaction between attitudes and beliefs and (1) back pain experience and (2) health professional exposure was investigated. Results The lifetime prevalence of back pain was reported as 87% (95% CI 84% to 90%), and the point prevalence as 27% (95% CI 24% to 31%). Negative views about the back and back pain were prevalent, in particular the need to protect the back to prevent injury. People with current back pain had more negative overall scores, particularly related to back pain prognosis. There was uncertainty about links between pain and injury and appropriate physical activity levels during an episode of back pain. Respondents had more positive views about activity if they had consulted a health professional about back pain. The beliefs of New Zealanders appeared to be broadly similar to those of other Western populations. Conclusions A large proportion of respondents believed that they needed to protect their back to prevent injury; we theorise that this belief may result in reduced confidence to use the back and contribute to fear avoidance. Uncertainty regarding what is a safe level of activity during an episode of back pain may limit participation. People experiencing back pain may benefit from more targeted information about the positive prognosis. The provision of clear guidance about levels of activity may enable confident participation in an active recovery. PMID:24859999

Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Stanley, James; Mathieson, Fiona; Melloh, Markus; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

2014-01-01

279

Doctors’ attitude towards people with mental illness in Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  It had been suggested that those more knowledgeable about mental illness are less likely to endorse negative or stigmatizing\\u000a attitudes. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of doctors in Nigeria towards the mentally ill.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Medical doctors (n = 312) from eight selected health institutions in Nigeria completed various questionnaires on knowledge and attitude towards\\u000a people with mental illness.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Beliefs in supernatural

Abiodun O. Adewuya; Ayotunde A. Oguntade

2007-01-01

280

Beyond bipolar conceptualizations and measures: the case of attitudes and evaluative space.  

PubMed

All organisms must be capable of differentiating hostile from hospitable stimuli to survive. Typically, this evaluative discrimination is conceptualized as being bipolar (hostile-hospitable). This conceptualization is certainly evident in the area of attitudes, where the ubiquitous bipolar attitude measure, by gauging the net affective predisposition toward a stimulus, treats positive and negative evaluative processes as equivalent, reciprocally activated, and interchangeable. Contrary to conceptualizations of this evaluative process as bipolar, recent evidence suggests that distinguishable motivational systems underlie assessments of the positive and negative significance of a stimulus. Thus, a stimulus may vary in terms of the strength of positive evaluative activation and the strength of negative evaluative activation it evokes. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects attitude neutrality or indifference, whereas high activation of positive and negative evaluative processes reflects attitude ambivalence. As such, attitudes can be represented more completely within a bivariate space than along a bipolar continuum. Evidence is reviewed showing that the positive and negative evaluative processes underlying many attitudes are distinguishable (stochastically and functionally independent), are characterized by distinct activation functions (positivity offset and negativity bias principles), are related differentially to attitude ambivalence (corollary of ambivalence asymmetries), have distinguishable antecedents (heteroscedacity principle), and tend to gravitate from a bivariate toward a bipolar structure when the underlying beliefs are the target of deliberation or a guide for behavior (principle of motivational certainty). The implications for society phenomena such as political elections and democratic structures are discussed. PMID:15647126

Cacioppo, J T; Gardner, W L; Berntson, G G

1997-01-01

281

Effectiveness of a first aid information video in reducing epilepsy-related stigma.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of a knowledge-based intervention in increasing levels of knowledge about epilepsy and reducing negative stereotypes toward people with epilepsy was examined. University psychology students (N=131) completed measures of knowledge of and familiarity with epilepsy and attitudes toward people with epilepsy before and after watching a first aid educational video. Results showed that the video was effective in both enhancing the level of knowledge of epilepsy and improving attitudes toward epilepsy. The video was rated highly on measures of acceptability. This study illustrates the effectiveness of using a simple, cost-effective educational intervention, with specific knowledge-based information incorporating the viewer's emotional involvement, to improve knowledge and reduce stigma regarding epilepsy in a targeted influential group. Presenting this first aid educational video to the public, specifically those who are most likely to encounter someone with epilepsy (e.g., teachers, future health professionals), may be particularly fruitful. PMID:20637706

Roberts, Rachel M; Farhana, H S Aida

2010-08-01

282

Running head: Attitudes to cloning  

E-print Network

Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. In all of the analyses therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than was reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be related to underlying values related to scientific progress rather than to age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion but the main themes were „interfering with nature ? and the „status of the embryo?, with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource or that the media reflect public discourse accurately. However, focus group responses did not simply reflect media coverage. Abstract word count: 293

unknown authors

283

Conflict and agreement in stakeholder attitudes: residents’ and hotel managers’ views of tourism impacts and forest-related tourism development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper probes differences in attitudes toward tourism impacts between two leading stakeholder groups in tourism, local residents and the managers of tourism facilities. It uses case study surveys of residents and managers in Belek, Antalya, Turkey. Differences in attitudes across seven main areas are investigated, including the positive and negative economic outcomes of tourism; positive and negative sociocultural impacts;

Yalç?n Kuvan; Perran Akan

2011-01-01

284

Conflict and agreement in stakeholder attitudes: residents’ and hotel managers’ views of tourism impacts and forest-related tourism development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper probes differences in attitudes toward tourism impacts between two leading stakeholder groups in tourism, local residents and the managers of tourism facilities. It uses case study surveys of residents and managers in Belek, Antalya, Turkey. Differences in attitudes across seven main areas are investigated, including the positive and negative economic outcomes of tourism; positive and negative sociocultural impacts;

Yalç?n Kuvan; Perran Akan

2012-01-01

285

Health Professionals' Attitudes and Emotions towards Working with Adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) and Mental Ill Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Mainstream mental health services are providing more care for individuals with an intellectual disability (ID); this has implications for staff and service users. Attitudes of staff towards people with ID in mental health services may be negative and negative staff attitudes may have a detrimental impact on service provision. Design: A…

Rose, N.; Kent, S.; Rose, J.

2012-01-01

286

Ew, that's icky: Assessing children's attitudes towards the insects of Connecticut  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated children's attitudes towards insects, focusing on how attitudes change from fascination to repulsion as the children age. This study involved 127 elementary students (grades 4-6) and 139 high school students (grades 9-12) from New Haven public schools. Students were administered Likert type surveys to evaluate their attitudes after viewing photos of 8 common insects of Connecticut; the butterfly, ladybug, dragonfly, ant, moth, cricket, beetle, and fly. Scores from elementary school students were compared with high school students to determine if attitudes towards insects became less favorable as the children age. The results were also analyzed to determine if attitudinal changes were consistent between girls and boys. It was found that elementary school students did not hold more negative attitudes than high school students, but girls did hold more negative attitudes towards insects than boys.

Weeks, Faith Jean-Ellen

287

Improving nutrient management practices in agriculture: The role of risk-based beliefs in understanding farmers' attitudes toward taking additional action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.

Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.

2014-08-01

288

Density functional study of the charge on Aun clusters (n=1-7) supported on a partially reduced rutile TiO2(110): Are all clusters negatively charged?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that small gold clusters supported on an oxide surface and adsorbed at the site of an oxygen vacancy are negatively charged. It has been suggested that this negative charge helps a gold cluster adsorb oxygen and weakens the O-O bond to make oxidation reactions more efficient. Given the fact that an oxygen vacancy is electron rich and that Au is a very electronegative element, the assumption that the Au cluster will take electron density from the vacancy is plausible. However, the density functional calculations presented here show that the situation is more complicated. The authors have used the Bader method to examine the charge redistribution when a Aun cluster (n=1-7) binds next to or at an oxygen vacancy on rutile TiO2(110). For the lowest energy isomers they find that Au1 and Au3 are negatively charged, Au5 and Au7 are positively charged, and Au2, Au4, and Au6 exchange practically no charge. The behavior of the Aun isomers having the second-lowest energy is also unexpected. Au2, Au3, Au5, and Au7 are negatively charged upon adsorption and very little charge is transferred when Au4 and Au6 are adsorbed. These observations can be explained in terms of the overlap between the frontier molecular orbitals of the gold cluster and the eigenstates of the support. Aun with even n becomes negatively charged when the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital has a lobe pointing in the direction of the oxygen vacancy or towards a fivefold coordinated Ti (5c-Ti) located in the surface layer; otherwise it stays neutral. Aun with odd n becomes negatively charged when the singly occupied molecular orbital has a lobe pointing in the direction of a 5c-Ti located at the vacancy site or in the surface layer, otherwise it donates electron density into the conduction band of rutile TiO2(110) becoming positively charged.

Chrétien, Steeve; Metiu, Horia

2007-03-01

289

Implicit attitudes and psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past 15 years have witnessed an ever-growing interest in the role of implicit attitudes in mental and health-related problems\\u000a and disorders. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to this research area. More specifically, the\\u000a following issues will be addressed: 1) Why do researchers consider implicit attitudes to be of interest? 2) In what way

Jorg Huijding

2006-01-01

290

Stages of Consistent Condom Use, Partner Intimacy, Condom Use Attitude, and Self-Efficacy in African-American Crack Cocaine Users  

PubMed Central

This study examined how condom use attitude, self-efficacy, and partner intimacy related to five stages of consistent condom use. Interview data were collected from sexually active, heterosexual, African-American crack cocaine smokers (N = 366). Dependent measures assessed both the participants’ own responses and their perceptions about their last sex partner’s own personal condom use attitude and participants’ condom use self-efficacy expectations. Partner intimacy was assessed both as a continuous attitudinal and as a discrete relationship measure. Less than 10% were classified as consistent condom users. Two thirds of inconsistent users were in the Precontemplation (PC) stage. The contemplation (C) and preparation (P) stages were equal among the remainder of the inconsistent condom users. Higher partner intimacy reduced modestly readiness for consistent condom use. The stage but not the intimacy group was related to the condom use attitudes and self-efficacy measures. Last partners’ perceived own negative attitudes were significantly related to the stages of consistent condom use and was especially low in the action (A) and maintenance (M) stages. Participants’ own negative attitudes were unrelated to the stages. Of the self-efficacy measures, both participants’ performance and situational condom use self-efficacies increased significantly after the PC stage and were highest in the P, A, and M stages. However, situational self-efficacy accounted for most of performance self-efficacy variance. In sum, consistent condom use was rare. A partner’s attitudes and the participants’ own situational self-efficacy expectations, rather than intimacy, determined the readiness to adopt consistent condom use. PMID:18574684

Pallonen, Unto E.; Timpson, Sandra C.; Ross, Michael W.

2010-01-01

291

Rural environmental attitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two frequent beliefs about rural environmental attitudes are examined conceptually and empirically: (1) the common conception that rural environmental concerns are expressed predominantly by wealthy community newcomers; and (2) the related position that long-time rural residents are hostile to the environmental cause. We argue conceptually, through the use of a 2×2 community matrix, that environmental attitudes are equally likely to be expressed by what we term “upper middle income newcomers,” “lower middle income newcomers,” “upper middle income locals,” and “lower middle income locals.” Empirically, we find that although wealthy newcomers express the strongest environmental attitudes in the community, their concerns represent only a small percentage of rural environmental attitudes consisting of respondents who make less than 40,000 a year in household income are over 40 years of age, possess less than a college education, and work in a nonprofessional occupation. This new category expresses environmental concerns at least equal to the rest of the community on three of four measures of environmental attitudes. The findings provide insight into the widespread and cross-sectional nature of rural environmental concern. The implication is that environmental groups will find significant sources of political support in rural communities, provided they craft their environmental message in a language consistent with rural attitudes and values. Things are gettin' bad fast. Easterners and environmentalists comin' down here from the big cities are tryin' to turn our way of life completely upside down. A western US rancher quoted in Krakauer (1991)

McBeth, Mark K.; Foster, Richard H.

1994-05-01

292

Venirepersons’s Attitudes Toward the Insanity Defense: Developing, Refining, and Validating a Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the prevalence and predictive strength of negative attitudes toward the insanity defense, we conducted three studies with 426 venirepersons to develop an understanding and a measure of public attitudes toward the insanity defense. In these studies, we developed, iteratively refined, and cross-validated the insanity defense attitude-revised (IDA-R) scale. The results suggest that IDAs are underpinned by one’s degree of

Jennifer L. Skeem; Jennifer Eno Louden; Jennee Evans

2004-01-01

293

Division I athletes' attitudes toward and preferences for male and female strength and conditioning coaches.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether male and female Division I team sport athletes prefer same-sex or opposite-sex strength and conditioning coaches. Participants included 476 (male = 275, female = 201) National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football, soccer, and volleyball athletes; the men were from football programs and the women were from soccer and volleyball programs. The Attitudes of Athletes toward Male versus Female Coaches Questionnaire was used to assess the attitudes and feelings of male and female athletes toward the gender of their strength coach (29). The results of a 2 x 2 multivariate analysis of variance (athlete gender x coach gender) revealed that the male athletes (all football players) were less comfortable with a female strength coach in all regards and preferred to have a male strength coach (p < 0.05). Female athletes did not have a gender preference, nor did they have any negative attitudes toward a strength coach. The women would be productive training with any qualified strength coach, whereas the men would prefer working with a male strength coach no matter how qualified the female coach might be. As a result of this study, one suggestion is for male athletes to be exposed to female strength coaches much earlier in their sport experience. This might help reduce gender bias later in their athletic careers. PMID:19528851

Magnusen, Marshall J; Rhea, Deborah J

2009-07-01

294

Stigma and hostility towards pregnant smokers: does individuating information reduce the effect?  

PubMed

Australia is at the forefront of tobacco control, yet 17% of Australian women smoke during pregnancy. Negative attitudes to smoking are intensified when the smoker is pregnant, consistent with a discourse that encourages surveillance of pregnant women. Such overt anti-smoking attitudes create a context which may make it difficult for pregnant smokers to seek assistance to stop. However, there is little evidence on the extent to which pregnant smokers are stigmatised by community members. We used vignettes to examine the degree of smoking-related stigma expressed by 595 Australian university students who rated a woman, described as a mother who was smoking or not, and pregnant or not. Further, we examined whether provision of individuating information reduced the degree of stigma. Mothers described as smokers were rated more negatively than those not, particularly if they were pregnant: smokers were perceived as unhealthy, and also as bad mothers. Provision of individuating information slightly reduced these effects. These findings support the view that smokers--particularly if pregnant--are subject to negative moral judgement. Our findings contribute to the ethical debate about stigma-inducing tobacco control efforts, and suggest that anti-smoking campaigns that contextualise smoking in pregnancy might reduce stigma and assist cessation. PMID:23343130

Wigginton, Britta; Lee, Christina

2013-01-01

295

College Students' Intentions to Seek Help for Suicidal Ideation: Accounting for the Help-Negation Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has identified a negative association between suicidal ideation and help-seeking, a phenomenon called "help-negation." Help-negation has been documented to occur for both professional and nonprofessional sources of help. In this study help-seeking attitudes, stigma concerns, and perceptions of social support were examined as…

Yakunina, Elena S.; Rogers, James R.; Waehler, Charles A.; Werth, James L., Jr.

2010-01-01

296

The reactions of young adult women to negative portrayals of females in film  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined reactions to and comprehension of negative portrayals of women in film. Participants were 92 women attending two small private colleges. In Phase I, participants completed: (a) the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES); (b) the Bem Sex Role Inventory (SBSRI), a measure of gender identity; (c) the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS), a measure of gender role attitudes; (d)

Mary Christine Fuller

1998-01-01

297

Implicit attitudes, emotions, and helping intentions of mental health workers toward their clients.  

PubMed

The attitudes of mental health care workers toward their clients may influence the quality of care they provide. There is growing recognition of the role of implicit attitudes in behavior toward people with stigmatized illnesses, such as mental illness, and of the need to measure these separately from explicit attitudes. Seventy-four mental health workers completed implicit and explicit measure of attitudes toward people with mental illness. The participants were also asked about their intention to help people with mental illness and their emotional reactions toward people with a mental illness. The findings show that the implicit attitudes of the health workers toward clients with a mental illness are somewhat negative despite the fact that their explicit attitudes are somewhat positive. Although both implicit and explicit attitudes predicted negative emotions, only implicit attitudes were related to helping intentions. This study highlights the association between implicit attitudes and behavioral intentions and confirms the importance of addressing implicit attitudes in mental health research. PMID:23689194

Brener, Loren; Rose, Grenville; von Hippel, Courtney; Wilson, Hannah

2013-06-01

298

Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality: Their Affective Orientation toward Sexuality and Sex Guilt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study sought to determine if a relationship existed between heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their feelings about their own sexuality, including sex guilt. High sex guilt proved to be related to negative attitudes toward homosexuals of both sexes. (Authors/PP)

Yarber, William L.; Yee, Bernadette

1983-01-01

299

Counselor Demographics, Ageist Attitudes, and Multicultural Counseling Competence among Counselors and Counselor Trainees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among counselors' self-reported multicultural counseling competence and their attitudes of the geriatric population. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between participants' attitudes of the geriatric population and their self-reported multicultural counseling…

McBride, Rebecca G.; Hays, Danica G.

2012-01-01

300

Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…

Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

2012-01-01

301

Effect of Drug and Alcohol Education on Attitudes of High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of 3-week alcohol and drug education course on attitudes about alcohol and drugs in ninth grade students (n=180). Results showed mean attitude score changed in desired direction after education indicating negative feelings toward drugs and alcohol use and abuse, polydrug use, dependency, social pressure, and media pressure and…

Lignell, Constance; Davidhizar, Ruth

1991-01-01

302

Attitudes Toward Women's Rights: Relationships with Social Dominance Orientation and Political Group Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the extent to whichattitudes toward women's rights are predicted by socialdominance orientation (SDO) and the political groupidentities socialist and capitalist. Respondents were 181 Australian undergraduates (54 males, 127females), most of whom were of European descent. Theresults of multiple regression analyses suggested thatSDO was the most consistent predictor of negative attitudes, although the extent to which itunderpins attitudes

Patrick C. L. Heaven

1999-01-01

303

Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive…

Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.

2010-01-01

304

Differential Sensitivity to Administration Format of Measures of Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Reluctance to reveal sensitive or socially undesirable attitudes has posed a problem for measurement of personal attributes such as attitudes toward older people. These have long been documented to be negative and likely arise both from fears of one's own aging and the modern societal emphasis on youth. In order to increase our knowledge…

Helmes, Edward; Campbell, Alistair

2010-01-01

305

Trapper Attitudes and Industrial Development on Registered Traplines in West-Central Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid industrial development can have unplanned consequences for the landscape and lead to conflicts among stakeholders. Impacts to traditional and subsistence-based land users can be significant, but have gone largely unexamined. We studied marten trapper attitudes toward industrial development and how these perceptions coincide with measurements of land-use activities in western Alberta, Canada. Sampled trappers had negative attitudes toward industrial

Shevenell M. Webb; Debra J. Davidson; Mark S. Boyce

2008-01-01

306

Relationships Between Exposure to Rap Music Videos and Attitudes Toward Relationships Among African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to (a) predict adversarial attitudes toward male-female relationships and (b) explore the relationships between traditional agents of socialization and personal acceptance of negative images in rap videos by African American adolescents. Participants completed psychosocial measures, viewed videos, and completed surveys about the videos. Higher levels of adversarial attitudes toward male-female relationships and exposure to

Yaphet Bryant

2008-01-01

307

Psychological Contract Breach and Job Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis of Age as a Moderator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age in the relation between psychological contract breach and the development of job attitudes. Based on affective events, social exchange, and lifespan theory, we hypothesized that (1) psychological contract breach would be related negatively to job attitudes, and (2) that age would moderate…

Bal, P. Matthijs; De Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Van Der Velde, Mandy E. G.

2008-01-01

308

Attitudes toward Individuals with Disabilities: Results of a Recent Survey and Implications of Those Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes toward individuals with disabilities are often negative and deleterious, resulting in decreased opportunity and chances at successful integration into the community for these individuals. The purpose of the current study was to investigate attitudes of a group of 129 individuals attending a state-wide conference aimed toward improving…

Goreczny, Anthony J.; Bender, Erin E.; Caruso, Guy; Feinstein, Celia S.

2011-01-01

309

Attitudes of Future Human Service Professionals: The Effects of Victim and Helper Qualities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the attitudes of future members in human service professions toward victims, based on the qualities effected by trauma victims and their helpers. Reports that the high-trauma and poorly adapted victims elicited more negative attitudes than did the low-trauma and well-adapted victims. (CMK)

Liebkind, Karmela; Eranen, Liisa

2001-01-01

310

Emotional openness as a predictor of college students' attitudes toward seeking psychological help  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fear of emotions is hypothesized to be a primary reason for individuals' negative attitudes toward seeking psychological treatment. This study examined the effects of emotional openness and other potential predictors of attitudes toward seeking psychological help in a sample of 311 college students. Results of simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that gender (male), perception of stigma, discomfort with emotions, and

Noboru Komiya; Glenn E. Good; Nancy B. Sherrod

2000-01-01

311

Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

2005-01-01

312

Associations between child development and women's attitudes to pregnancy and motherhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A woman's psychological state during pregnancy has been shown in previous research to be predictive of her adaptation to maternal functioning. Two hypotheses were examined: (a) women who have a negative attitude to pregnancy and motherhood have children who exhibit slower development at 2 years, compared with children of women who have more positive attitudes; (b) women with poor psychological

T. Deave

2005-01-01

313

Effect of western culture on women's attitudes to eating and perceptions of body shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The current study investigated the effect of culture on two factors implicated in the development of eating disorders, negative attitudes toward eating and dissatisfaction with body shape. Method: Hong Kong-born and Australian-born women from two Australian universities were surveyed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS). Results: Results showed no difference between the groups

Amelia J. Lake; Petra K. Staiger; Huguette Glowinski

2000-01-01

314

Attitudes of Arab Women Toward Different Patterns of Coping With Wife Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article documents a study conducted among 291 Arab women from Israel using a self administered questionnaire that examined their attitudes toward varying patterns of coping with wife abuse. The findings revealed that the more the participants were characterized by negative and traditional perceptions of women, stereotyped attitudes toward gender roles, high levels of religiosity, and strong orientations toward familism,

Muhammad M. Haj-Yahia

2002-01-01

315

Changing expectations: A longitudinal study of community attitudes toward a nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial and 5-year follow-up interviews were conducted with 213 residents of the host community for a nuclear power plant. The purpose was to determine possible changes in attitudes toward the plant and expectations about potential outcomes associated with construction. Large negative changes in attitudes toward the plant were noted and were accompanied most notably by decreased expectations of positive outcomes.

Joseph B. Hughey; John W. Lounsbury; Eric Sundstrom; Thomas J. Mattingly

1983-01-01

316

Attitudes and expectations about children with nontraditional and traditional gender roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sex behavior in boys generally is viewed more negatively than cross-sex behavior in girls. The two goals of this study were to assess attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and to explore possible causes for differential evaluations of tomboys and sissies. Eighty undergraduates completed questionnaires assessing their attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and their expectations for the future adult behavior of

Carol Lynn Martin

1990-01-01

317

Pornography, erotica, and attitudes toward women: The effects of repeated exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a widespread belief that pornography causes negative attitudes toward women, but tests of this belief are contradictory. A large body of research has studied the effect of violent pornography on behavior, but the effects of erotica and violence have often been confounded. Thus, the relationship between pornography and attitudes toward women was assessed in two correlational studies, and

Vernon R. Padgett; James A. Neal

1989-01-01

318

Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities at High School: Applying the Integrated Threat Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this work was to study attitudes toward people with disabilities from the viewpoint of the integrated threat theory of prejudice. This theory postulates that threat may cause negative attitudes toward a group and posits that such threat may come from different sources. To test this model, a study was carried out with high school…

Bustillos, Antonio; Silvan-Ferrero, Maria del Prado

2013-01-01

319

Korean Speech-Language Pathologists' Attitudes toward Stuttering According to Clinical Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there…

Lee, Kyungjae

2014-01-01

320

Young Girls' Eating Attitudes and Body Image DissatisfactionAssociations with Communication and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among communication, modeling, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescent girls were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 69 girls in fourth through sixth grade and their mothers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing familial and peer influences, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. Positive communication was significantly more frequent than negative communication;

Jessica C. Kichler; Janis H. Crowther

2009-01-01

321

Obesity in the News: Do Photographic Images of Obese Persons Influence Antifat Attitudes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

News coverage of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years, and research shows that media content may contribute to negative public attitudes toward obese people. However, no work has assessed whether photographic portrayals of obese people that accompany news stories affect attitudes. In the present study, the authors used a randomized experimental design to test whether viewing photographic portrayals of

Kimberly J. McClure; Rebecca M. Puhl; Chelsea A. Heuer

2011-01-01

322

Impacts of parental attitude towards sexual identity development on child's sexual identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, positive or negative impacts of different parental attitudes on children's sexual identity and character development have been presented. The general object of the research is to determine the impacts of parental attitude towards child's sexual identity development on the sexual identity development of the children during pre-school period. The research, for which the general scanning model is

Müberra Eser; Nadir Çeliköz

2009-01-01

323

Attitude Toward the Elderly, Fear of Death, and Work Preference of Baccalaureate Nursing Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging increases the proximity to death. It may be that fear of death has a negative impact on attitude toward the elderly. The previous research is inconclusive. A positive attitude toward the elderly in past studies was not found to be related to preference for working with this age group. In the present study of senior baccalaureate nursing students, no

Gerda E. Gomez; E. Anne Young; Efrain A. Gomez

1991-01-01

324

Adolescents' attitudes towards mental illness: relationship between components and sex differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a vignette format, components of attitudes towards mental illness were assessed in 413 high school students. The results suggest that while attitude components are generally not highly related, perceived severity of mental illness is positively related to attribution to physical causes, and negatively related to social acceptability. Beliefs in psychosocial etiology and psychosocial treatment correlate positively with optimistic beliefs

Ross M. G. Norman; Ashok K. Malla

1983-01-01

325

The Spanos Attitudes Toward Hypnosis Questionnaire: Psychometric Characteristics and Normative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Attitudes Toward Hypnosis Questionnaire (ATHQ) is a 14-item, self-report measure of positive versus negative attitudes about hypnosis. It is composed of three subscales identified via factor analysis: Positive Beliefs, Fearlessness, and Mental Stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalizability of the original factor structure of the ATHQ and to provide normative data based on a

Leonard S. Milling

2012-01-01

326

First Year Graduate Social Work Students' Knowledge of and attitude Toward Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined attitudes and knowledge of 96 first year MSW social work students toward older adults using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and the Facts on Aging Quiz II. Results suggest that the sample had limited previous contact with older adults and little knowledge about aging prior to admission. Students reported negative attitudes toward older adults on productivity,

Zvi D. Gellis; Susan Sherman; Frances Lawrance

2003-01-01

327

Attitudes of Speech and Language Therapists towards Stammering: 1985 and 2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Past research has indicated that speech and language therapists hold some negative attitudes towards people who stammer, their parents and the treatment of stammering. However, studies on attitudes towards stammering have predominantly focussed on therapists in the USA. Recent trends towards earlier intervention suggest that more…

Crichton-Smith, Isobel; Wright, Jannet; Stackhouse, Joy

2003-01-01

328

Learning to Love Math: Teaching Strategies that Change Student Attitudes and Get Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Has it ever seemed to you that some students are hardwired to dislike math? If so, then here's a book that explains how negative attitudes toward math get established in the brain and what you can do to turn those attitudes around. Math teacher and neurologist Judy Willis gives you over 50 strategies you can use right away in any grade level to:…

Willis, Judy

2010-01-01

329

Factors contributing to attitude exchange amongst preservice elementary teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has shown that elementary education majors often dislike science and lack confidence in their ability to teach it. This is an important problem because students who hold these attitudes are likely to avoid teaching science, or teach it poorly, when they become teachers. It is therefore necessary to identify preservice elementary teachers who hold negative attitudes towards science, and attempt to convert these attitudes to positive before they become teachers. This study was designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Four participants were individually interviewed. The transcripts indicated that attitude exchange had occurred for each of the four students. Each student described several features of the course that had a positive influence. These were of three main types: personal attributes of the tutor, specific teaching strategies, and external validation. It was proposed that many of the individual factors were effective because they represented either performance accomplishments or vicarious experience as defined by Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 1977, 191-215).

Palmer, David H.

2002-01-01

330

Fast Quaternion Attitude Estimation from Two Vector Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. Existing closed-form attitude estimates based on Wahba's optimality criterion for two arbitrarily weighted observations are somewhat slow to evaluate. This paper presents two new fast quaternion attitude estimation algorithms using two vector observations, one optimal and one suboptimal. The suboptimal method gives the same estimate as the TRIAD algorithm, at reduced computational cost. Simulations show that the TRIAD estimate is almost as accurate as the optimal estimate in representative test scenarios.

Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

331

Attitudes towards physical exercise in juvenile diabetics.  

PubMed

Contrary to our recommendations many juvenile diabetics are inactive and rather negative to physical exercise. We have tried to estimate the attitudes towards and motivation for regular physical exercise among juvenile diabetics by interviewing, giving questionnaires to and using a special attitude test. Different groups have been studied, the largest including 138 diabetics aged 1-21 years with age at onset between 1-16 years (7.3 +/- 4.0) and duration of diabetes 1-17 years (5.7 +/- 3.6). The results are somewhat divergent comparing different patient groups and when using different methods. Generally teenagers seem to be somewhat more negative. According to direct questions in questionnaires or interviews most patients seem to know that physical exercise is important and very few dislike this part of the treatment. However, the special attitude test reveals more mixed feelings. Many patients mean that is easy to be theoretically positive, but quite another thing to really exercise regularly. Too often physical exercise becomes a medicine instead of a natural pleasant habit. It is important that the hospital staff inform the patients without nagging, and then support and stimulate the patients, and give them adequate responsibility. PMID:6938110

Ludvigsson, J; Larsson, Y; Svensson, P G

1980-01-01

332

TGF-? induced TMEPAI/PMEPA1 inhibits canonical Smad signaling through R-Smad sequestration and promotes non-canonical PI3K/Akt signaling by reducing PTEN in triple negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

TMEPAI (transmembrane prostate androgen-induced) is amplified at genomic, transcript and protein levels in triple-negative breast cancers and promotes TGF-? dependent growth, motility and invasion. Tumor promotion by TMEPAI depends on two different but related actions on TGF-? signaling. Firstly, TMEPAI binds and sequesters regulatory Smads2/3 and thereby decreases growth suppressive signaling by TGF-?. Secondly, increased expression of TMEPAI decreases PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) abundance, and thereby increases TGF-? dependent tumor promotive PI3K/Akt signaling. These actions of TMEPAI give rise to increased cell proliferation and motility. Moreover, signaling alterations produced by high TMEPAI were associated with oncogenic Snail expression and lung metastases. Finally, an inverse correlation between TMEPAI and PTEN levels was confirmed in triple negative breast cancer tumor samples. Together, our findings suggest that TMEPAI has dually critical roles to promote TGF-? dependent cancer cell growth and metastasis. Thus, redirected TGF-? signaling through TMEPAI may play a pivotal role in TGF-? mediated tumor promotion. PMID:25352949

Singha, Prajjal K.; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Geng, Hui; Lan, Rongpei; Venkatachalam, Manjeri A.; Saikumar, Pothana

2014-01-01

333

Attitude Sensor Pseudonoise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even assuming perfect attitude sensors and gyros, sensor measurements on a vibrating spacecraft have apparent errors. These apparent sensor errors, referred to as pseudonoise, arise because gyro and sensor measurements are performed at discrete times. This paper explains the concept of pseudonoise, quantifies its behavior, and discusses the effect of vibrations that are nearly commensurate with measurement periods. Although pseudonoise does not usually affect attitude determination it does affect sensor performance evaluation. Attitude rates are usually computed from differences between pairs of accumulated angle measurements at different times and are considered constant in the periods between measurements. Propagation using these rates does not reproduce exact instantaneous spacecraft attitudes except at the gyro measurement times. Exact sensor measurements will therefore be inconsistent with estimates based on the propagated attitude. This inconsistency produces pseudonoise. The characteristics of pseudonoise were determined using a simple, one-dimensional model of spacecraft vibration. The statistical properties of the deviations of measurements from model truth were determined using this model and a range of different periods of sensor and rate measurements. This analysis indicates that the magnitude of pseudonoise depends on the ratio of the spacecraft vibration period to the time between gyro measurements and can be as much as twice the amplitude of the vibration. In cases where the vibration period and gyro or sensor measurement period are nearly commensurate, unexpected changes in pseudonoise occur.

Hashmall, Joseph A.; Lennox, Scott E.

2005-01-01

334

Perceptions of Parental Attitudes by Students Varying in Intellectual Ability and Educational Efficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results indicate that positive attitudes of parents are positively related to achievement while rejecting, inconsistent behavior is negatively associated. While some present findings support prior research, many are inconsistent with previous research. Other variables are suggested for further study. (CJ)

Stehbens, James A.; Carr, Donald L.

1970-01-01

335

Core Values Based Brand Building: Institutional Stakeholder's Attitudes towards the Texas A&M University Brand  

E-print Network

Research has indicated that positive and negative attitudes toward intercollegiate athletics can contribute to the perceptions of both congruency and incongruency with the established university mission and values. Core values are considered...

Hutchinson, Michael Daniel

2011-10-21

336

Fur Trappers' Attitudes toward the Upper Missouri Sioux, 1820-1860.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fur traders and trappers had very different views about and relationships with individual Indian tribes. Article discusses the historical context of hostile, negative attitudes held by the wild, White "mountain men" toward the Indians among whom they worked. (DS)

Strayer, Brian F.

1979-01-01

337

Body-tanning attitudes among female college students.  

PubMed

This study investigated the attitudes of body-tanning behaviors: suntanning, tanning bed, tanning spray, and sunless tanning product use. Data collected from 208 female college students (M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 2.0; M weight = 63.3 kg, SD = 2.0; M height = 165.9 cm, SD = 8.1) online. The questionnaire comprised four constructs: appearance-based, health-based, and emotion-based tanning attitudes, and body-tanning behaviors. Both appearance-based and emotion-based pro-tanning attitudes were associated with significantly higher body-tanning behaviors. However, health-based pro-tanning attitudes did not significantly affect body-tanning behaviors. The results from both UV- and non-UV exposure-related tanning behaviors provide future intervention strategies, such as establishing a positive body image without a tan and identifying negative emotional consequences as a result of tanning. PMID:24897909

Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Hur, Won-Moo

2014-04-01

338

Employing music exposure to reduce prejudice and discrimination.  

PubMed

Whereas previous research has mainly focused on negative effects of listening to music on intergroup attitudes and behavior, the present three experiments examined whether music exposure could reduce prejudice and discrimination. In fact, those participants who had listened to songs with pro-integration (relative to neutral) lyrics expressed less prejudice (Studies 1 and 3) and were less aggressive against (Study 2) and more helpful toward an outgroup member (Study 3). These effects were unaffected by song liking as well as mood and arousal properties of the songs employed, suggesting that it is indeed the pro-integration content of the lyrics that drives the effects. It is discussed to what extent music exposure could be employed to effectively reduce prejudice and discrimination in the real world. Aggr. Behav. 40:542-551, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24604768

Greitemeyer, Tobias; Schwab, Anne

2014-11-01

339

Functional attitude theories revisited: an ecological perspective on attitude change  

E-print Network

attitudes (and accordingly, behavior), differing though in object of discussion and type of appeal made. Attitude top- ics may lead naturally to certain types of arguments (e. g. , logical in the case of what the best antacid is, value... attitudes (and accordingly, behavior), differing though in object of discussion and type of appeal made. Attitude top- ics may lead naturally to certain types of arguments (e. g. , logical in the case of what the best antacid is, value...

Marsh, Kerry Lynn

2012-06-07

340

Attitudes of undergraduate health science students towards patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a long history of certain medical conditions being associated with stigma, stereotypes, and negative attitudes. Research has shown that such attitudes can have a detrimental effect on patients presenting with stigmatised medical conditions and can even flow on to impact their family. The objective of this study was to measure the attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in

Malcolm J Boyle; Brett Williams; Ted Brown; Andrew Molloy; Lisa McKenna; Elizabeth Molloy; Belinda Lewis

2010-01-01

341

Attitudes toward patients with sickle cell disease in a multicenter sample of emergency department providers.  

PubMed

Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) often seek care in the emergency department (ED) for pain associated with vaso-occlusive crises. Research has shown that negative provider attitudes serve as a barrier to care in this patient population. Our aim was to validate a survey that measures attitudes toward SCD patients among ED providers (nurses and physicians) and to compare differences in attitude scores between provider types. We administered the general perceptions about Sickle Cell Disease Patients Scale, previously validated among internal medicine providers, and the Medical Condition Regard Scale (MCRS) to ED nurses and physicians from two EDs. A total of 215 surveys were returned (63% response rate, 200 with attitude items completed). Three subscales were identified: Negative Attitudes, Uneasiness With Care, and Positive Attitudes. Cronbach's ?s exceeded 0.81 for each subscale. Mean (SD) scores for the Negative, Uneasiness, and Positive subscales and MCRS were 61.5 (20.3), 66.1 (17.1), 41.2 (17.8), and 42.2 (8.9), respectively. Compared with physicians, nurses had significantly higher mean Negative Attitude scores and lower Uneasiness scores. A slightly modified version of the general perceptions about Sickle Cell Disease Patients Scale appears to be a valid measure of ED provider attitudes toward SCD patients. Among ED providers, this scale identified a dimension not observed in research with the original instrument among internal medicine providers. Provider attitudes influence patient-provider interactions and quality of care. The scale we present here has major clinical implications, particularly for advanced practice nurses, who can use the scale not only to assess providers' attitudes toward SCD patients but also to determine the effectiveness of tailored interventions to improve those attitudes. PMID:25356894

Freiermuth, Caroline E; Haywood, Carlton; Silva, Susan; Cline, David M; Kayle, Mariam; Sullivan, Dori; Thornton, Victoria; Tanabe, Paula

2014-01-01

342

Prediction of attitudes towards restrictive AIDS policies: a structural equation modelling approach.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to test a prehypothesized structural equation model of predictors of attitudes towards restrictive AIDS policies. It was assumed that such attitudes ae under influence of both cognitive processes and more general attitudinal structures. The hypothesized model was tested against empirical data from a nation-wide survey of Norwegian adults, including 543 males and 577 females. The proposed model fit the data reasonably well. As expressed by total effect education was the most important predictor of AIS policy attitudes. However, the most notable findings appeared to be the strong direct effect exerted by attitudes towards minorities. Misinformation about AIDS transmission and sexual attitudes also exerted significant direct effects upon AIDS policy attitudes. The results clearly demonstrate that AIDS policy attitudes are not cognitively based alone but also reflect more general attitudinal structures. Thus choosing a strategy which is primarily based on increasing the flow of factual AIDS information in order to remedy casual contact beliefs, will not be sufficient to prevent stigmatized and negative AIDS attitudes. This is more evident in that beliefs about modes of AIDS transmission, as reported in this study, seem themselves to have a symbolic component. A perspective which includes the idea of the value expressive functions of AIDS related attitudes seem relevant. Consequently, educational strategies which directly address prejudiced attitudes towards minority groups may prove particularly appropriate in the prevention of stigmatized and restrictive AIDS attitudes. PMID:7747205

Kraft, P; Rise, J

1995-03-01

343

Did the pandemic have an impact on influenza vaccination attitude? a survey among health care workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Health care workers' (HCWs) influenza vaccination attitude is known to be negative. The H1N1 epidemic had started in mid 2009\\u000a and made a peak in October-November in Turkey. A national vaccination campaign began on November 2nd, 2009. Despite the diligent efforts of the Ministry of Health and NGOs, the attitudes of the media and politicians were mostly\\u000a negative. The aim

Bilgin Arda; Raika Durusoy; Tansu Yamazhan; O?uz Re?at Sipahi; Meltem Ta?bakan; Hüsnü Pullukçu; Esra Erdem; Sercan Ulusoy

2011-01-01

344

Uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control of artificial satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the context of a simple mechanical model the paper examines the movement of a satellite with respect to the center of masses under conditions of uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control. The equations of motion of the satellite take account of the gravitational and restorative aerodynamic moments. It is presumed that the aerodynamic moment is much larger than the gravitational, and the motion equations contain a large parameter. A two-parameter integrated surface of these equations is constructed in the form of formal series in terms of negative powers of the large parameter, describing the oscillations and rotations of the satellite about its lengthwise axis, approximately oriented along the orbital tangent. It is proposed to treat such movements as nominal undisturbed motions of the satellite under conditions of aerodynamic attitude control. A numerical investigation is made for the above integrated surface.

Sazonov, V. V.

1983-01-01

345

Attitude control compensator for flexible spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude control loop for a spacecraft uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for control about an axis. The spacecraft body has at least a primary mechanical resonance. The attitude sensors are collocated, or both on the rigid portion of the spacecraft. The flexure attributable to the resonance may result in instability of the system. A compensator for the control loop has an amplitude response which includes a component which rolls off beginning at frequencies below the resonance, and which also includes a component having a notch at a notch frequency somewhat below the resonant frequency. The phase response of the compensator tends toward zero at low frequencies, and tends toward -180.degree. as frequency increases toward the notch frequency. At frequencies above the notch frequency, the phase decreases from +180.degree., becoming more negative, and tending toward -90.degree. at frequencies far above the resonance frequency. Near the resonance frequency, the compensator phase is near zero.

Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

346

of Public Attitudes Energy & Environment  

E-print Network

.............................................................. 2 4. Public Attitudes toward Global Warming. Willingness to Pay to Solve Global Warming............................................................... 15 9 concerns.1 Goals of the surveys included collecting information about attitudes toward global warming

347

Instrument Attitude Precision Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

Juang, Jer-Nan

2004-01-01

348

On the Propositional Attitudes  

E-print Network

it is appropriately linked causally with what it denotes and that the name adequately picks out or describes its referent, then it follows that the person knows exactly what or whom it denotes. The idea here is that in order for it to be truly said that Holmes... of the relational sense of (17), consider the following sentence. (24) Holmes believes that someone is the murderer. 6 This is done in "Quantifiers and Propositional Attitudes". 7 See Kaplan's essay, "Quantifying In". ON THE PROPOSITIONAL ATTITUDES 143...

Coleman, Keith

1991-06-01

349

Got an Attitude Problem?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a Small Business Innovation Research grant from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Servo Corporation of America, Inc. built its Mini-Dual Sensor to provide attitude control for Earth-orbiting unmanned satellites. The sensor is an Earth horizon sensor that provides higher accuracy through the use of pyroelectric arrays and a patented radiance compensation scheme.This sensor gathers data with two pairs of lithium tantalate pyroelectric arrays that are positioned 90 degrees apart in the imaging plane. The Mini-Dual Earth Sensor is a high-accuracy sensor that could be used for attitude determination in future space missions.

1999-01-01

350

Attitudes in Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More than half of all students with learning disabilities (LD) receive science instruction in regular education classes. Because LD student numbers are increasing, the ability of classroom teachers to accommodate these students is being challenged. The success of inclusion depends on many factors, including the attitudes of professional educators and the quality of instruction they offer their students. This article presents the findings of a survey that was conducted to assess how teachers' attitudes about inclusion of learning disabled students affects their use of accommodations.

Biddle, Susan

2006-03-01

351

Towards Automating Spacecraft Attitude Sensor Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a view towards reducing cost and complexity for spacecraft early mission support at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), efforts are being made to automate the attitude sensor calibration process. This paper addresses one of the major components needed by such a system. The beneficiaries of an improved calibration process are missions that demand moderate to high precision attitude knowledge or that need to perform accurate attitude slews. Improved slew accuracy reduces the time needed for re-acquisition of fine-pointing after each attitude maneuver, Rapid target acquisition can be very important for astronomical targeting or for off-nadir surface feature targeting by Earth-oriented spacecraft. The normal sequence of on-orbit calibration starts with alignment calibration of the star trackers and possibly the Sun sensor. Their relative alignment needs to be determined using a sufficiently large data set so their fields of view are adequately sampled. Next, the inertial reference unit (IRU) is calibrated for corrections to its alignment and scale factors. The IRU biases are estimated continuously by the onboard attitude control system, but the IRU alignment and scale factors are usually determined on the ground using a batch-processing method on a data set that includes several slews sufficient to give full observability of all the IRU calibration parameters. Finally, magnetometer biases, alignment, and its coupling to the magnetic torquers are determined in order io improve momentum management and occasionally for use in the attitude determination system. The detailed approach used for automating calibrations will depend on whether the automated system resides on the ground or on the spacecraft with an ultimate goal of autonomous calibration. Current efforts focus on a ground-based system driving subsystems that could run either on the ground or onboard. The distinction is that onboard calibration should process the data sequentially rather than in a single large batch since onboard computer data storage is limited. Very good batch- processing calibration utilities have been developed and used extensively at NASA/GSFC for mission support but no sequential calibration utilities are available. To meet this need, this paper presents the mathematical description of a sequential IRU calibration system. The system has been tested using flight data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during a series of attitude slews. The paper also discusses the current state of the overall automated system and describes plans for adding sequential alignment calibration and other additions that will reduce the amount of analyst time and input.

Sedlak, Joseph; Welter, Gary; Ottenstein, Neil

2003-01-01

352

Attitudes towards chemistry among engineering students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attitudes towards chemistry of the engineering students enrolled in an introductory course at the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico were explored (n = 115). A mixed methodology was used in an exploratory-oriented research approach. The first stage consisted of the administration of a Likert scale attitudinal survey which was validated during the study's design process. The survey allowed collecting information about the participant's attitudes towards their personal opinion, their perspectives about peer's or relatives' opinion, relevant aspects of the discipline, and difficulty-increasing factors in the chemistry course. The scale internal reliability was measured in a pilot study with a convenience simple, obtaining an acceptable coefficient (Cronbach alpha = 0.731). Survey results evidenced a mainly neutral attitude towards the chemistry course, not highly negative or highly positive, in contrast with other studies in this field. On the other hand, the normality hypothesis was tested for the scores obtained by participants in the survey. Although the pilot study sample had an approximately normal distribution, the scores in obtained by the participants in the survey failed the normality test criteria. The second stage of the study was accomplished using a case study. Among the survey participants, some students were invited to in-depth interviews to elucidate the reasons why they have certain attitudes towards chemistry. Study time, instructor, motivation, term of study, and course schedule are the factors that interviewees agreed as contributors to success or failure in the chemistry course. Interview's participants emphasized that study time is determinant to pass the class. This methodological approach, quantitative followed by qualitative, was useful in describing the attitudes towards chemistry among university students of engineering.

Olivo Delgado, Carlos J.

353

Negative emotion and disordered eating among obese college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relationship between negative emotions, body dissatisfaction, exercise, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors among obese college students. It also examined whether there were gender differences in these variables. A total of 88 males and 102 females, who reported a BMI score above 30, completed a survey. Females reported higher levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction,

Jeanne L. Edman; Alayne Yates; Mara S. Aruguete; Kurt A. DeBord

2005-01-01

354

Assessing Causes of Teachers' Attitudes Toward Team Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of the following variables upon teachers' attitudes toward team teaching were examined: (1) teachers' adherence to normative values negatively aligned with team teaching, and (2) experiences encountered by teachers in implementing the innovation. Findings supported the hypothesis that teachers' values and implementive experiences are…

Seyfarth, John T.; Canady, Robert Lynn

1978-01-01

355

Age Differences in Alcohol and Cocaine Expectancies and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive and negative expectancies regarding the behavioral effects of alcohol and cocaine were assessed and used to predict attitudes toward their use across four age groups. Children and adolescents appeared to overgeneralize their beliefs about alcohol to a less familiar drug, cocaine, perceiving the effects of the two drugs similarly. Only…

Sigelman, Carol K.; Weir, Catherine; Davies, Elizabeth; Silk, Alyson

2002-01-01

356

Preferences of and Attitudes toward Treble Choral Ensembles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In choral ensembles, a pursuit where females far outnumber males, concern exists that females are being devalued. Attitudes of female choral singers may be negatively affected by the gender imbalance that exists in mixed choirs and by the placement of the mixed choir as the most select ensemble in a program. The purpose of this research was to…

Wilson, Jill M.

2012-01-01

357

Attitude learning through exploration: advice and strategy appraisals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes of attitude learning were investigated through a game requiring discrimination between good and bad objects, where feedback about object valence (involving gain or loss) is contingent on approach. Previous research demonstrates a preponderance of false-negative errors, with some good objects ('learning asymmetry') and most novel objects ('generalization asymmetry') being judged as bad, but provides no direct evidence concerning how

J. Richard Eiser; Natalie J. Shook; Russell H. Fazio

2007-01-01

358

THE TELEVISION PORTRAYALS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS AND RACIAL ATTITUDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television often portrays African Americans in unfavorable positions in comparison to Caucasians. Typically these unfavorable depictions reinforce negative stereotypes associated with African Americans. Research indicates that television portrayals can influence people's attitudes toward one another. A question left unanswered by current research: are mass-mediated images as influential at reversing or counteracting stereotypes as they are at reinforcing them? An experiment

JONI G. V. DUBRIEL

359

Environmental Attitudes in the Elementary Grades: A Bibliographic Essay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ecological or environmental programs integrated into science courses in the elementary grades can make children aware that they can have either a positive or a negative effect on their environment. The following bibliography was compiled from articles and dissertations on environmental education and children's awareness, attitudes, and perceptions…

Wagner, Elaine

360

Attitudes Toward Professional Foreign Players in Finnish Amateur Basketball  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of foreign professional players may influence the host country's sport culture. To determine the attitudes toward foreign professionals in various Finnish amateur basketball leagues, all clubs (n = 55) playing basketball in the three highest Finnish leagues were interviewed by mailed questionnaire. The results indicated that recruitment of foreign pros was held to effect negatively the team spirit

Kalevi Olin

1984-01-01

361

Changing Language Attitudes: The Stigmatisation of Khoekhoegowap in Namibia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language attitudes are long-term phenomena that tend to become more specific over generations. The stigmatization of Khoekhoegowap in Namibia shows how negative images of minority languages are generated by external forces, but also how these forces may be reinforced by corresponding internal forces. This article discusses the case of…

de V. Cluver, August D.

2000-01-01

362

Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

2009-01-01

363

Attitudes of Dental Hygiene Students toward Individuals with AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…

Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.

1992-01-01

364

Correctional Officers' Attitudes Toward AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined correctional officers' views and attitudes about working with inmates with AIDS. At three prisons in Texas, 153 correctional officers were administered the AIDS in Prison Scale, the AIDS Attitude Scale, an AIDS\\/HIV Knowledge Test, and a Homophobia Scale. Correctional officers who had more positive attitudes about people with AIDS, who were more knowledgeable about AIDS\\/HIV, and who

KATHERINE J. MAHAFFEY; DAVID K. MARCUS

1995-01-01

365

Student Attitudes toward the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Alberta Education study of student attitudes toward the handicapped described existing levels of student awareness and attitudes about handicapped persons and determined in 134 Alberta schools if attitudes could be changed through classroom presentations. The effectiveness of two programs were evaluated--Program 1, a handicapped person…

Baker, Peter J.; And Others

366

Public Attitudes Toward Water Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes toward water conservation were surveyed in seven northeastern Colorado communities to determine whether relationships exist between (1) attitudes and type of community or (2) attitudes and socioeconomic variables. The water conservation alternatives presented to these users included metering, price increases, restrictions on water use, restrictions on lawn size, controls on population growth, and reuse of treated wastewater for

J. Ernest Flack; Joanne Greenberg

1987-01-01

367

Negative ion generator  

DOEpatents

A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

Stinnett, R.W.

1984-05-08

368

Long-term administration of the TNF blocking drug Remicade (cV1q) to mdx mice reduces skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis, but negatively impacts cardiac function.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative skeletal muscle disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin (DYS). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis since short-term treatment of mdx mice with TNF blocking drugs proved beneficial; however, it is not clear whether long-term treatment will also improve long-term outcomes of fibrosis and cardiac health. In this investigation, short and long-term dosing studies were carried out using the TNF blocking drug Remicade and a variety of outcome measures were assessed. Here we show no demonstrable benefit to muscle strength or morphology with 10mg/kg or 20mg/kg Remicade; however, 3mg/kg produced positive strength benefits. Remicade treatment correlated with reductions in myostatin mRNA in the heart, and concomitant reductions in cardiac and skeletal fibrosis. Surprisingly, although Remicade treated mdx hearts were less fibrotic, reductions in LV mass and ejection fraction were also observed, and these changes coincided with reductions in AKT phosphorylation on threonine 308. Thus, TNF blockade benefits mdx skeletal muscle strength and fibrosis, but negatively impacts AKT activation, leading to deleterious changes to dystrophic heart function. These studies uncover a previously unknown relationship between TNF blockade and alteration of muscle growth signaling pathways. PMID:24844454

Ermolova, N V; Martinez, L; Vetrone, S A; Jordan, M C; Roos, K P; Sweeney, H L; Spencer, M J

2014-07-01

369

COBE nonspinning attitude propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft will exhibit complex attitude motion consisting of a spin rate of approximately -0.8 revolution per minute (rpm) about the x-axis and simultaneous precession of the spin axis at a rate of one revolution per orbit (rpo) about the nearly perpendicular spacecraft-to-Sun vector. The effect of the combined spinning and precession is to make accurate attitude propagation difficult and the 1-degree (3 sigma) solution accuracy goal problematic. To improve this situation, an intermediate reference frame is introduced, and the angular velocity divided into two parts. The nonspinning part is that which would be observed if there were no rotation about the X-axis. The spinning part is simply the X-axis component of the angular velocity. The two are propagated independently and combined whenever the complete attitude is needed. This approach is better than the usual one-step method because each of the two angular velocities look nearly constant in their respective reference frames. Since the angular velocities are almost constant, the approximations made in discrete time propagation are more nearly true. To demonstrate the advantages of this nonspinning method, attitude is propagated as outlined above and is then compared with the results of the one-step method. Over the 100-minute COBE orbit, the one-step error grows to several degrees while the nonspinning error remains negligible.

Chu, D.

1989-01-01

370

Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

371

Students' Attitudes Count  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' attitudes, interests, and values are enormously important to educators because affective dispositions are powerful predictors of students' subsequent behavior. A remarkably important way to judge schools can be gained by collecting evidence of important affective changes in groups of students over time.

Popham, W. James

2005-01-01

372

Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

373

Attitude Is Everything  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 10 years, college and university administrators have been embracing online learning as the next logical step in higher education, but not all faculty have been on board. Studies conducted by the Sloan Consortium, an association that promotes online learning, suggest that faculty attitudes have become a barrier to successful online…

Hunt, Jazelle

2009-01-01

374

Working memory and attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding leads to more positive

Eun Sook Jung; Norman Reid

2009-01-01

375

Attitude Surveys Document Sampler.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet presents results of a series of attitude surveys representing a variety of purposes, methods and defined publics. They range from a simple questionnaire prepared and mailed to a small group of key individuals by a public relations staff to scientifically derived surveys purchased from Louis Harris and Associates and other research…

Walker, Albert, Comp.

376

Attitudes towards euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are an infinite variety of attitudes to euthanasia, each individual response to the concept being influenced by many factors. Consequently there is a literature on the subject ranging from the popular article to papers in specialized journals. This study, however, has taken a well defined sample of people, inviting them to answer a questionnaire which was designed to elicit

C Winget; F T Kapp; R C Yeaworth

1977-01-01

377

Attitudes & Behaviors Associated with  

E-print Network

FIRST Program Susan Gerberich & Bruce Alexander School of Public Health #12;2 The "Rural Condition" Potential: driving simulation Goals: To understand differences between rural & urban residents in terms of attitudes valid responses Gender Female 36% Male 29% Age Young (18 ­ 29) 21% Middle (30 ­ 50) 32% Old (65+) 46

Minnesota, University of

378

Sexually transmitted diseases and condoms: high school students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours.  

PubMed

Researchers conducted a survey of 199 students enrolled 2 public high schools in Alberta in Canada to learn of their knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about condoms and their use. 41% were sexually active. 41% of these students did not or rarely used condoms. 44% had =or+ 3 partners. 61% of those with =or+ 3 partners used condoms and 56% with 1 partner used them. Knowledge of STDs and condom use stood high regardless of sex or sexual activity. 93% of the boys, 80% of the girls, 88% of sexually active and 87% of nonsexually active students stated it was their responsibility to carry condoms if they are sexually active. Moreover 96% of the boys, 78% of the girls, 81% of sexually active and 91% of nonsexually active students said they would use a condom during sexual intercourse. Nevertheless males and sexually active students did express some negative attitudes towards condoms, such as reduce sensation and interference with sexual spontaneity. Nonsexually active students tended to view condom use as a negative stigma (p.05). Most students claimed to be more likely to buy condoms from condom vending machines in the rest rooms than from stores (p.05). Sexual partners had the largest influence on students, especially sexually active students, to have or not have sexual intercourse followed by concerns about STDs, friends, and family. Further, the large majority of all students, especially females and sexually active students, said they would choose their sexual partner carefully because of the concern for AIDS and other STDs. They also tended to be monogamous and avoided high risk groups. In conclusion, no reliable differences occurred between attitudes towards condoms and use or nonuse of condoms to explain behavior. Future studies should be designed to center on factors that influence sexual behavior. PMID:1892493

Varnhagen, C K; Svenson, L W; Godin, A M; Johnson, L; Salmon, T

1991-01-01

379

Mexican beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and gender-role ideology in marriage.  

PubMed

One hundred and sixty-one Mexican respondents completed a questionnaire that measured beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and another that measured gender-role ideology in marriage (GRIMQ). The participants were divided into two groups according to the GRIMQ: "high machismo/marianismo" and "low machismo/marianismo" groups. The participants belonging to the first group showed the most negative attitudes toward hysterectomy. In this group, men showed more negative attitudes toward hysterctomy and were less likely than women to believe that hysterectomy has positive aspects. The findings are discussed in light of male dominance and female subordination that prevail in certain cultural groups of Mexico.xs. PMID:22577739

Marván, Ma Luisa; Quiros, Vanessa; López-Vázquez, Esperanza; Ehrenzweig, Yamilet

2012-01-01

380

Sentential Negation in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

Mowarin, Macaulay

2009-01-01

381

Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Families of suicidal youths are viewed as more psychologically disturbed than families of youths who die from other causes, and experience other comparatively negative reactions as well. Likewise, divorced families also are viewed more negatively than intact families. To see whether a combination of suicide plus divorce led adolescents have particularly negative views, 120 high school students read one of

Jeffie A. Gibson; Lillian M. Range; Howard N. Anderson

1987-01-01

382

The moral roots of environmental attitudes.  

PubMed

Americans' attitudes about the environment are highly polarized, but it is unclear why this is the case. We conducted five studies to examine this issue. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrated that liberals, but not conservatives, view the environment in moral terms and that this tendency partially explains the relation between political ideology and environmental attitudes. Content analyses of newspaper op-eds (Study 2a) and public-service announcements (Study 2b) found that contemporary environmental discourse is based largely on moral concerns related to harm and care, which are more deeply held by liberals than by conservatives. However, we found that reframing proenvironmental rhetoric in terms of purity, a moral value resonating primarily among conservatives, largely eliminated the difference between liberals' and conservatives' environmental attitudes (Study 3). These results establish the importance of moralization as a cause of polarization on environmental attitudes and suggest that reframing environmental discourse in different moral terms can reduce the gap between liberals and conservatives in environmental concern. PMID:23228937

Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb

2013-01-01

383

TRMM On Orbit Attitude Control System Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Attitude Control System (ACS) along with detailed in-flight performance results for each operational mode. The TRMM spacecraft is an Earth-pointed, zero momentum bias satellite launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Launched to provide a validation for poorly known rainfall data sets generated by global climate models, TRMM has demonstrated its utility by reducing uncertainties in global rainfall measurements by a factor of two. The ACS is comprised of Attitude Control Electronics (ACE), an Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), Digital Sun Sensors (DSS), Inertial Reference Units (IRU), Three Axis Magnetometers (TAM), Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS), Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTB), Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWA), Engine Valve Drivers (EVD) and thrusters. While in Mission Mode, the ESA provides roll and pitch axis attitude error measurements and the DSS provide yaw updates twice per orbit. In addition, the TAM in combination with the IRU and DSS can be used to provide pointing in a contingency attitude determination mode which does not rely on the ESA. Although the ACS performance to date has been highly successful, lessons were learned during checkout and initial on-orbit operation. This paper describes the design, on-orbit checkout, performance and lessons learned for the TRMM ACS.

Robertson, Brent; Placanica, Sam; Morgenstern, Wendy

1999-01-01

384

Improved negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, J.E.

1984-05-01

385

NEGATIVE EXTERNALITIES, COMPETITION AND CONSUMER CHOICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers sometimes make choices that impose greater external costs on those who do not make the same choice. This paper examines how the selectivity of negative externalities in such situations affects the competitive equilibrium and the desirability of an externality?reducing public policy. Selective negative externalities create network externalities, but outcomes may differ greatly from typical network effects. Price effects may

MATTHEW G. NAGLER

2011-01-01

386

EXPLAINING NEGATIVE RAPE VICTIM PERCEPTION: HOMOPHOBIA AND THE MALE RAPE VICTIM  

E-print Network

Previous research into rape victim blaming has often neglected to assess attitudes toward male victims. The present study was designed to redress this imbalance and specifically, investigate the role of homophobic attitudes in male rape victim perception. Men and women read a vignette describing an incident of rape and answered two questionnaires that assessed firstly, homophobic attitudes toward homosexual persons and secondly, their perception of the rape victim. Based on the literature, I formulated three hypotheses a) males will evaluate male victims more negatively than females b) males will exhibit higher levels of homophobia than females and c) high levels of homophobia will predict more negative victim perception, particularly for male participants. The data supported two of the three hypotheses. Firstly, men exhibited greater degrees of homophobia than women and secondly, men's homophobic attitudes were significantly correlated with negative male rape victim perception. The implications of these findings for the reporting of rape and post-rape adjustment of victims are discussed.

Irina Anderson

2004-01-01

387

Attitudes toward psychotropic medications among patients with chronic psychiatric disorders and their family caregivers  

PubMed Central

Aim: To examine attitudes towards psychotropic medications among patients with chronic psychiatric disorders as well as their family caregivers by using factor analysis. Materials and Methods: The study included 200 patients and their family caregivers with chronic psychiatric disorders who are attending the psychiatry outpatient services. A self-designed 18-item self-rated questionnaire was used to evaluate the attitude toward psychotropics and factor analysis was done to study the different models of attitudes. Results: In general both patients and caregivers had positive attitude toward the psychotropic medications and there was no significant difference between the patients and caregivers on the various items of the questionnaire assessing the attitude. Factor analysis of the questionnaire indicated that either two-factor or four-factor models explained the attitude of the patients and caregivers. In the two-factor model there was one positive and one negative attitude factor, whereas the four-factor model comprised of two positive and two negative attitude factors. The four-factor model of attitudes provided a more comprehensive solution to how attitudes might be formed among patients and their family caregivers. Factors one and four in the four-factor solution still reflected positive attitudes, but appeared to portray a risk-benefit approach, in which benefits such as the efficacy of psychotropic medications in treating mental illnesses and preventing relapse, and medications being better than other options were being contrasted with the risks of side effects and permanent damage or harm. Conclusion: Attitudes of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders and their caregivers toward psychotropic medications appear to be shaped by factors such as perceived efficacy or benefit from medicines, the necessity for taking treatment and concerns such as side effects, harm or expense.

Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Sharma, Aarti; Tyagi, Shikha

2014-01-01

388

Sexual behavior and attitudes of university students in Northern Ireland.  

PubMed

Two surveys of a Northern Ireland student sample were conducted in 1987 and 1988. A total of 419 female and 201 male subjects completed self-administered anonymous questionnaires concerning their behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards sex, AIDS, homosexuality, contraception, and relationships. Results indicated a relatively low level of sexual experience, and for those with experience, relatively few partners. The possible influences of gender and religiosity on sexual behavior and attitudes, in the context of Northern Ireland, are discussed. Subjects reported considerable variation in the amount of sex education, but the majority received little or none. This student sample held relatively conservative attitudes towards love, sex, and marriage and this was particularly true for females and for regular churchgoers. In addition, attitudes towards homosexuality were negative (particularly among regular churchgoers). Attitudes towards contraception were more positive than expected among Catholic subjects, and few indicated that they would refuse to use contraceptives on principle. Responses to items about AIDS were highly uniform, suggesting that much of the information made available to the public has been absorbed. However, the lack of uniformity of response to more general items about sex, relationships, and contraception may indicate that fundamental changes in sexual behavior are unlikely to be brought about by influencing a rather narrowly defined set of attitudes about AIDS. PMID:1610290

Sneddon, I; Kremer, J

1992-06-01

389

Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners to canine rabies in wukari metropolis, taraba state Nigeria.  

PubMed

Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using chi(2) analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89%) had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13%) knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5%) were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86%) did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44) than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50%) received anti rabies vaccine. Inadequate knowledge of some aspects of rabies, negative attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, the presence of rabies antigen in some dogs slaughtered for human consumption and low vaccination coverage in dogs are indicative of high risk of exposure of dog owners and dog meat processors to rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at dog owners to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure to rabies. PMID:25168987

Ameh, Veronica O; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Umoh, Jarlath U

2014-09-01

390

Reducing Media Viewing: Implications for Behaviorists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American children spend an average of 6 hours and 32 minutes each day using various forms of media. Research has suggested that this high level of exposure has a negative impact on children's attitudes and behaviors. For example, media violence increases aggression in children, especially video games which allows children to be the aggressor and…

Jason, Leonard A.; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Mesina, Anna

2005-01-01

391

Presupposition Processing and the (Re)activation of Negated Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negated words take longer to recognize than non-negated words following sentences with negation, suggesting that negated concepts are less active. The present experiments tested the possibility that this reduced activation would not persist beyond immediate testing. Experiment 1 used a probe task and materials similar to those used in previous…

Autry, Kevin S.; Levine, William H.

2014-01-01

392

Spacecraft methods and structures with enhanced attitude control that facilitates gyroscope substitutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and structures are provided that enhance attitude control during gyroscope substitutions by insuring that a spacecraft's attitude control system does not drive its absolute-attitude sensors out of their capture ranges. In a method embodiment, an operational process-noise covariance Q of a Kalman filter is temporarily replaced with a substantially greater interim process-noise covariance Q. This replacement increases the weight given to the most recent attitude measurements and hastens the reduction of attitude errors and gyroscope bias errors. The error effect of the substituted gyroscopes is reduced and the absolute-attitude sensors are not driven out of their capture range. In another method embodiment, this replacement is preceded by the temporary replacement of an operational measurement-noise variance R with a substantially larger interim measurement-noise variance R to reduce transients during the gyroscope substitutions.

Li, Rongsheng (Inventor); Kurland, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Dawson, Alec M. (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei A. (Inventor); Uetrecht, David S. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

393

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Using DNA-Fragmented Sperm in Mice Negatively Affects Embryo-Derived Embryonic Stem Cells, Reduces the Fertility of Male Offspring and Induces Heritable Changes in Epialleles  

PubMed Central

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in mice using DNA-fragmented sperm (DFS) has been linked to an increased risk of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities both in embryos and offspring. This study examines: whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from DFS-ICSI embryos reflect the abnormalities observed in the DFS-ICSI progeny; the effect of DFS-ICSI on male fertility; and whether DFS-ICSI induces epigenetic changes that lead to a modified heritable phenotype. DFS-ICSI-produced embryos showed a low potential to generate ESC lines. However, these lines had normal karyotype accompanied by early gene expression alterations, though a normal expression pattern was observed after several passages. The fertility of males in the DFS-ICSI and control groups was compared by mating test. Sperm quantity, vaginal plug and pregnancy rates were significantly lower for the DFS-ICSI-produced males compared to in vivo-produced mice, while the number of females showing resorptions was higher. The epigenetic effects of DFS-ICSI were assessed by analyzing the phenotype rendered by the Axin1Fu allele, a locus that is highly sensitive to epigenetic perturbations. Oocytes were injected with spermatozoa from Axin1Fu/+ mice and the DFS-ICSI-generated embryos were transferred to females. A significantly higher proportion of pups expressed the active kinky-tail epiallele in the DFS-ICSI group than the controls. In conclusion: 1) ESCs cannot be used as a model of DFS-ICSI; 2) DFS-ICSI reduces sperm production and fertility in the male progeny; and 3) DFS-ICSI affects the postnatal expression of a defined epigenetically sensitive allele and this modification may be inherited across generations. PMID:24743851

Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Pericuesta, Eva; Calero, Antonia; Ramirez, Miguel Angel; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso

2014-01-01

394

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection using DNA-fragmented sperm in mice negatively affects embryo-derived embryonic stem cells, reduces the fertility of male offspring and induces heritable changes in epialleles.  

PubMed

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in mice using DNA-fragmented sperm (DFS) has been linked to an increased risk of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities both in embryos and offspring. This study examines: whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from DFS-ICSI embryos reflect the abnormalities observed in the DFS-ICSI progeny; the effect of DFS-ICSI on male fertility; and whether DFS-ICSI induces epigenetic changes that lead to a modified heritable phenotype. DFS-ICSI-produced embryos showed a low potential to generate ESC lines. However, these lines had normal karyotype accompanied by early gene expression alterations, though a normal expression pattern was observed after several passages. The fertility of males in the DFS-ICSI and control groups was compared by mating test. Sperm quantity, vaginal plug and pregnancy rates were significantly lower for the DFS-ICSI-produced males compared to in vivo-produced mice, while the number of females showing resorptions was higher. The epigenetic effects of DFS-ICSI were assessed by analyzing the phenotype rendered by the Axin1Fu allele, a locus that is highly sensitive to epigenetic perturbations. Oocytes were injected with spermatozoa from Axin1Fu/+ mice and the DFS-ICSI-generated embryos were transferred to females. A significantly higher proportion of pups expressed the active kinky-tail epiallele in the DFS-ICSI group than the controls. In conclusion: 1) ESCs cannot be used as a model of DFS-ICSI; 2) DFS-ICSI reduces sperm production and fertility in the male progeny; and 3) DFS-ICSI affects the postnatal expression of a defined epigenetically sensitive allele and this modification may be inherited across generations. PMID:24743851

Ramos-Ibeas, Priscila; Calle, Alexandra; Fernández-González, Raúl; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Pericuesta, Eva; Calero, Antonia; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

2014-01-01

395

Clinicians’ attitudes to the employment of people with psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Negative staff attitudes have been cited as a factor in explaining the low rates of employment in people with psychosis. We\\u000a aimed to conduct the first systematic survey of staff attitudes in UK community mental health teams.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A questionnaire survey of clinicians working in community mental health teams in North London, UK.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Clinicians believed that many more people with psychosis

Steven Marwaha; Shanika Balachandra; Sonia Johnson

2009-01-01

396

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

397

Torque equilibrium attitudes for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All spacecraft orbiting in a low earth orbit (LEO) experience external torques due to environmental effects. Examples of these torques include those induced by aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and solar forces. It is the gravity-gradient and aerodynamic torques that produce the greatest disturbances to the attitude of a spacecraft in LEO, and large asymmetric spacecraft, such as the space station, are affected to a greater degree because the magnitude of the torques will, in general, be larger in proportion to the moments of inertia. If left unchecked, these torques would cause the attitude of the space station to oscillate in a complex manner and the resulting motion would destroy the micro-gravity environment as well as prohibit the orbiter from docking. The application of control torques will maintain the proper attitude, but the controllers have limited momentum capacity. When any controller reaches its limit, propellant must then be used while the device is reset to a zero or negatively-biased momentum state. Consequently, the rate at which momentum is accumulated is a significant factor in the amount of propellant used and the frequency of resupply necessary to operate the station. A torque profile in which the area curve for a positive torque is not equal to the area under the curve for a negative torque is 'biased,' and the consequent momentum build-up about that axis is defined as secular momentum because it continues to grow with time. Conversely, when the areas are equal, the momentum is cyclic and bounded. A Torque Equilibrium Attitude (TEA) is thus defined as an attitude at which the external torques 'balance' each other as much as possible, and which will result in lower momentum growth in the controllers. Ideally, the positive and negative external moments experienced by a spacecraft at the TEA would exactly cancel each other out and small cyclic control torques would be required only for precise attitude control. Over time, the only momentum build-up in the controllers would be due to electro-mechanical losses within the device. However, the atmospheric torques are proportional to the density of the atmosphere and the density varies with the orbital position, time of day, time of year, and the solar cycle. In addition, there are unmodeled disturbances and uncertainties in the mass and inertias. Therefore, there is no constant attitude that will completely balance the environmental torques and the dynamic TEA cannot be solved in closed form. The objective of this research was to determine a method to calculate a dynamic TEA such that the rate of momentum build-up in the controllers would be minimized and to implement this method in the MATRIX(x) simulation software by Integrated Systems, Inc.

Thompson, Roger C.

1993-01-01

398

Trends in attitudes toward people living with HIV, homophobia, and HIV transmission knowledge in Quebec, Canada (1996, 2002, and 2010).  

PubMed

People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ?50 years of age, <14 years of education, higher levels of homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups. PMID:22533309

Adrien, Alix; Beaulieu, Marianne; Leaune, Viviane; Perron, Michèle; Dassa, Clément

2013-01-01

399

Review Are ''implicit'' attitudes unconscious? q  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widespread assumption in recent research on attitudes is that self-reported (explicit) evaluations reflect conscious attitudes, whereas indirectly assessed (implicit) evaluations reflect unconscious attitudes. The present article reviews the available evidence regarding unconscious features of indirectly assessed ''implicit'' attitudes. Distinguishing between three different aspects of attitudes, we conclude that (a) people sometimes lack conscious awareness of the origin of their

Bertram Gawronski; Wilhelm Hofmann; Christopher J. Wilbur

400

Values of Catholic science educators: Their impact on attitudes of science teaching and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This quantitative study examined the associations between the values held by middle school science teachers in Catholic schools and their attitudes towards science teaching. A total of six value types were studied---theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious. Teachers can have negative, positive, or neutral attitudes towards their teaching that are linked to their teaching practices and student learning. These teachers' attitudes may affect their competence and have a subsequent impact on their students' attitudes and dispositions towards science. Of particular interest was the relationship between science teaching attitudes and religious values. A non-experimental research design was used to obtain responses from 54 teachers with two survey instruments, the Science Teaching Attitude Scale II and the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that political values were negatively associated with attitudes towards science teaching. Data collected were inconsistent with the existence of any measurable association between religious values and attitudes towards science teaching. This study implies that science teacher preparation programs should adopt a more contextual perspective on science that seeks to develop the valuation of science within a cultural context, as well as programs that enable teachers to identify the influence of their beliefs on instructional actions to optimize the impact of learning new teaching practices that may enhance student learning.

DeMizio, Joanne Greenwald

401

Positive and negative perfectionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research into perfectionism has focused on clinical populations resulting in a bias towards a negativistic, pathologically inclined conceptualization. The present study investigated the possibility of distinguishing aspects of perfectionism on the basis of perceived consequences, mirroring a behavioural distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. A 40-item questionnaire, designed to measure perfectionism defined in terms of both positive and negative

L. A. Terry-Short; R. Glynn Owens; P. D. Slade; M. E. Dewey

1995-01-01

402

Marital Attitude Trajectories Across Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study seeks to address the implicit assumption in the developmental literature that marital attitudes are static\\u000a by investigating how various marital attitudes might change across adolescence. Longitudinal change for three marital attitudes\\u000a in relation to family structure, educational aspirations, race and gender are examined. Utilizing a sample of 1,010 high school\\u000a students (53% male; 76% white) recruited from

Brian J. Willoughby

2010-01-01

403

The Influences of Inductive Instruction and Resources on Students' Attitudes toward Reading: Evidence from PISA 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The declining trend in the positive reading attitude of students' has concerned scholars. This paper aims to apply a 3-level hierarchical linear model to analyse how inductive instruction and resources influence both students' positive and negative attitudes towards reading. Approximately 470,000 15-year-old students, and their school…

Jhang, Fang-Hua

2014-01-01

404

THE ROLE OF SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS AND LIFESTYLE VARIABLES IN ATTITUDE AND THE DEMAND FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer resistance is a key barrier to the diffusion of genetically modified foods (GMFs). Several studies have shown that consumers in general have a negative attitude toward GMFs. Through analysis of a survey conducted in Israel, we find consumer attitudes toward GMFs to be context specific, differing based on the available alternatives. Consumers responded positively to genetically modified meats when

Amir Heiman; David R. Just; David Zilberman

2000-01-01

405

Attitudes toward the culturally different: the role of intercultural communication barriers, affective responses, consensual stereotypes, and perceived threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological impact of intercultural communication barriers on intergroup attitudes was examined by testing a model of global attitudes toward the culturally different. The prejudice literature has largely overlooked the role of intercultural communication and intercultural communication in determining people's evaluative orientation toward ethnolinguistic outgroups. Intercultural communication emotions (negative affect associated with perceived linguistic and cultural barriers) were investigated as

Julie Spencer-Rodgers; Timothy McGovern

2002-01-01

406

The Impact of PBL on the Students' Attitudes towards Science among Nine Graders in Hamza Independent School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A weak negative attitude towards learning science was noticed among the students in Qatar, a matter that was reflected on their achievement in national tests. To test if the use of PBL would improve the students' attitudes towards learning science, a sample of 25 nine graders from Hamza school were motivated to plan their own investigations and to…

Faris, Ahmed

2008-01-01

407

Gender attitudes, sexual power, HIV risk: a model for understanding HIV risk behavior of South African men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gender Attitudes-Power-Risk (GAPR) model of HIV risk behavior was tested using survey data collected from among 309 men who were attending STI services in a primary health care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Results showed that negative attitudes towards women were significantly positively associated with a high level of HIV risk behavior, and that endorsement of traditional male

Michelle R. Kaufman; Tamara Shefer; Mary Crawford; Leickness C. Simbayi; Seth C. Kalichman

2008-01-01

408

An Investigation of Nursing Staff Attitudes and Emotional Reactions towards Patients with Intellectual Disability in a General Hospital Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It has been suggested that inequalities in health care for people with intellectual disabilities may be partly explained by negative attitudes of health professionals. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes and emotional reactions reported by nursing staff working in general hospitals towards caring for patients with…

Lewis, Sharna; Stenfert-Kroese, Biza

2010-01-01

409

[Some tendencies in the attitude of persons in the youth-age in respect to nudism ("KFKK")].  

PubMed

Opinions of 291 persons (students of the faculty Biology/Chemistry) on their attitude to FKK ("Free-Body-Cult" similar nudism behavior) are discussed. Comparisons of affirmative, modified affirmative and negative answers with age and with attitude-categories show distinct tendencies. PMID:7446309

Schliephake, G

1980-01-01

410

The influence of individualism and collectivism on Internet pornography exposure, sexual attitudes, and sexual behavior among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined associations between individualism\\/collectivism and exposure to Internet pornography, sexual attitudes, and behaviors. Three parallel surveys of college students in Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Taipei show that collectivism correlated more strongly and negatively than individualism with exposure to Internet pornography, attitudes toward premarital and extramarital sex, and sexual permissive behavior. More importantly, our study found that more collectivistic

Ven-hwei Lo; Clement Y. K. So; Guoliang Zhang

2010-01-01

411

Does Gender Impact the Perception of Negative Information Related to Celebrity Endorsers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the effectiveness of celebrity endorsements by examining how a respondent's gender impacts identification with a celebrity spokesperson and the processing of negative information about that celebrity's behavior. The authors found that negative information is harmful to both celebrities’ reputations and sponsors’ brands across a variety of effectiveness measures. Gender congruency between consumers and celebrities did impact attitudes,

Steven M. Edwards; Carrie La Ferle

2009-01-01

412

On Negative Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Schwarzschild solution to the matter free, spherically symmetric Einstein equations has one free parameter, the mass. But the mass can be of any sign. What is the meaning of the negative mass solutions? The answer to this question for the case of a pure Schwarzschild negative mass black solution is still elusive, however, in this essay, we will consider negative mass solutions within a Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry. We show that there exist reasonable configurations of matter, bubbles of distributions of matter, that satisfy the dominant energy condition everywhere, that are nonsingular and well behaved everywhere, but correspond to the negative mass Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry outside the matter distribution. These negative mass bubbles could occur as the end state of a quantum tunneling transition.

Belletête, Jonathan; Paranjape, M. B.

2013-06-01

413

The relative importance of gender role attitudes to male and female attitudes toward lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that gender role attitudes, parental attitudes, authoritarianism, religiosity, contact with homosexuals, and exposure to educational influences are associated with attitudes toward homosexuals. Few studies have been conducted on attitudes toward lesbians specifically. This study investigated the pattern of predictors for male and female attitudes toward lesbians. The regression analysis on males revealed that gender role attitudes were

Bernie S. Newman

1989-01-01

414

Body Cathexis, Clothing Attitude, and Their Relations to Clothing and Shopping Behavior Among Male Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to segment male apparel consumers based on the interaction between body cathexis and clothing attitude and to investigate differences in clothing behavior, shopping behavior, and individual characteristics among the four groups identified by adapting Sirgy's self image\\/product-image congruity theory: (a) positive congruity, (b) positive incongruity, (c) negative congruity, and (d) negative incongruity. Data (n = 269)

Soyeon Shim; Antigone Kotsiopulos; Diane S. Knoll

1991-01-01

415

Using Implicit Bias Training to Improve Attitudes toward Women in STEM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implicit biases can foster negative attitudes and lead to damaging stereotypical behaviors. Stereotypes can negatively affect the education, hiring, promotion, and retention of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This study evaluated the impact of diversity training on university faculty (N=234) by assessing changes…

Jackson, Sarah M.; Hillard, Amy L.; Schneider, Tamera R.

2014-01-01

416

Effects of Disengagement Coping with HIV Risk on Unprotected Sex among HIV-Negative Gay Men in New York City  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined how disengagement coping with HIV risk mediated the association between internalized homophobia and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and how sexual encounters in public venues (public sex) and drug use moderated the association between disengagement coping and UAI among HIV-negative gay men. Disengagement coping included fatalistic beliefs about maintaining HIV-negative seronegative serostatus (fatalism), optimistic attitudes toward medical seriousness of HIV infection and reduced concern about HIV risk due to HAART (optimism), and negative affective states associated with sexual risk (anxiety). Design A survey was conducted among 285 HIV-negative gay men at an HIV prevention counseling program in New York City. Main Outcome Measures Sexual risk was defined as having had UAI with non-primary partners in the past six months. Results In addition to the positive association between internalized homophobia, disengagement coping, and UAI, fatalism mediated the association between internalized homophobia and UAI; and optimism mediated the association between anxiety and UAI. A significant moderation effect of public sex was found between fatalism and UAI. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of understanding disengagement coping as it affects sexual risk practices among HIV-negative gay men in the continuing epidemic. PMID:20230094

Yi, Huso; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Shidlo, Ariel

2009-01-01

417

School ethnic diversity and White students' civic attitudes in England.  

PubMed

The current paper focuses on White British students in lower secondary education and investigates the effect of school ethnic diversity on their levels of trust and inclusive attitudes towards immigrants. Use is made of panel data of the Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study (CELS) to explore these relationships. Ethnic diversity is measured with the proportion of students in a grade identifying with a minority. In agreement with contact theory, the paper initially finds a positive relation between diversity and inclusive attitudes on immigrants. However, this link disappears once controls for social background, gender and prior levels of the outcome are included in the model. This indicates that students with particular pre-enrolment characteristics have self-selected in diverse schools and that inclusive attitudes have stabilized before secondary education. Diversity further appears to have a negative impact on trust, irrespective of the number of controls added to the model. PMID:25432606

Janmaat, Jan Germen

2015-01-01

418

Kriging without negative weights  

SciTech Connect

Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

1987-08-01

419

Negative tandem mirror  

SciTech Connect

A tandem mirror configuration can be created by combining hot electron end cell plasmas with neutral beam pumping. A region of large negative potential formed in each end cell confines electrons in the central cell. The requirement of charge neutrality causes the central cell potential to become negative with respect to ground in order to confine ions as well as electrons. We discuss the method of producing and calculating the desired axial potential profile, and show the calculated axial potential profile and plasma parameters for a negative configuration of TMX-Upgrade.

Poulsen, P.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.; Grubb, D.P.; Jong, R.A.; Nexsen, W.E.; Porter, G.D.; Simonen, T.C.

1981-11-30

420

Changing gender role attitudes  

E-print Network

6. Changing gender role attitudes1 Jacqueline Scott In their introduction to the 1980 Women and Employment Survey, Martin and Roberts (1984) state that the previous 20 years had seen an explosion of interest in, and writings about, the changing... sex divide in terms of whether or not people favour a traditional gender divi- sion of labour. It clearly works in men’s favour if women are both con- tributing to the household income and maintaining their primary role for care of the home...

Scott, Jacqueline

2008-01-01

421

Simulation Gaming--A Device for Altering Attitudes about Sex Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article explores the value of simulation gaming for changing attitudes of gifted students concerning sex roles. Simulation gaming has considerable potential for reducing, altering, and changing attitudes concerning sex role limitations, since gaming involves devising plans and motivating appeals, in addition to role playing, negotiating,…

Hall, Eleanor G.

1979-01-01

422

Measuring Teacher Attitudes toward Instructional Technology: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the TAC and TAT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors present a confirmatory factor analysis of the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computers (TAC) and the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Information Technology (TAT) scales by Christensen and Knezek (1996, 1998) using large samples from three states. The TAC was reduced from 98 items and nine factors to 35 items and eight factors,…

Shattuck, Dominick; Corbell, Kristen A.; Osbourne, Jason W.; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Grable, Lisa Leonor

2011-01-01

423

Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Speaker Panels Lead to Attitude Change Among Heterosexual College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contact hypothesis (Allport, 1954) suggests that a speaker panel intervention may be effective in reducing prejudice toward sexual minorities among heterosexual individuals. Addressing methodological limitations of prior studies, the present study compared the effects of a speaker panel presentation versus a control condition in altering attitudes among 186 heterosexual university students. After controlling for context effects by collecting attitude

Paul Kwon; Daniela S. Hugelshofer

2012-01-01

424

Attitudes of Muslim physicians and nurses toward religious issues.  

PubMed

There is a growing body of evidence that suggests a positive role for religious involvement in physical and mental health. Studies have shown that attitudes of physicians toward religion affect their relationship with patients and their medical decisions, and in this way may ultimately affect treatment outcomes. Attitudes of nurses toward religion could also influence whether or not they address patients' unmet spiritual needs. To assess attitudes of physicians and nurses toward religion and how these attitudes vary by education level and demographic characteristics, a total of 800 physicians, medical students, and nurses from some of the largest hospitals in Tehran, Iran, were approached, of whom 720 completed questionnaires (148 nurses, 572 medical students and physicians). The survey questionnaire included the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL), Hoge Intrinsic Religiosity Scale, a brief measure of Negative Religious Coping (NRCOPE), and the brief Trust/Mistrust in God Scale. Religious attitudes and practices were compared between physicians (medical students and physicians) and nurses. Regression analysis revealed that except for intrinsic religiosity, physicians were not less religious than nurses on any other dimension of religiosity. Training level (year of training) was a predictor of religiosity, with those having less training being the most religious. The findings suggest that there are few religious differences between nurses and physicians in Iran. However, religiosity may become less as the training level increases. Lack of emphasis in training on the important role that religion plays in health care may result in a decrease in religious involvement and the development of negative attitudes toward religion over time (displaced by a focus on the technological aspects of health care). PMID:23690131

Hafizi, Sina; Koenig, Harold G; Arbabi, Mohammad; Pakrah, Mohammad; Saghazadeh, Amene

2014-10-01

425

Negation in the brain: modulating action representations.  

PubMed

Sentential negation is a universal syntactic feature of human languages that reverses the truth value expressed by a sentence. An intriguing question concerns what brain mechanisms underlie our ability to represent and understand the meaning of negative sentences. We approach this issue by investigating action-related language processing and the associated neural representations. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we measured brain activity in 18 healthy subjects during passive listening of sentences characterized by a factorial combination of polarity (affirmative vs. negative) and concreteness (action-related vs. abstract). Negation deactivated cortical areas and the left pallidum. Compared to abstract sentences, action-related sentences activated the left-hemispheric action-representation system. Crucially, the polarity by concreteness interactions showed that the activity within the action-representation system was specifically reduced for negative action-related vs. affirmative action-related sentences (compared to abstract sentences). Accordingly, functional integration within this system as measured by Dynamic Causal Modeling was specifically weaker for negative action-related than for affirmative action-related sentences. This modulation of action representations indicates that sentential negation transiently reduces the access to mental representations of the negated information. PMID:18771737

Tettamanti, Marco; Manenti, Rosa; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Falini, Andrea; Perani, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano F; Moro, Andrea

2008-11-01

426

The Role of Advocacy Organizations in Reducing Negative Externalities  

PubMed Central

An externality is a cost that a corporation’s actions impose on society. For example, a power plant may emit mercury, but might not pay for the cost of that pollution to the people living near the plant. It is possible to analyze a diverse range of problems of society in these terms, including the health effects of corporate practices, the unsustainability of manufacturing processes, and marketing of products contributing to environmental damage, and economic policies that maintain high levels of poverty due to effective lobbying by the business community. This paper examines the problem of externalities in terms of metacontingencies. Externalities continue precisely because there is no cost to the organizations for practices that impose these costs on third parties. The paper describes the cultural practices needed to influence governments are motivated to make corporations bear the true costs of their practices—costs that are currently imposed on others. PMID:20011073

Biglan, Anthony

2009-01-01

427

The Role of Advocacy Organizations in Reducing Negative Externalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An externality is a cost that a corporation's actions impose on society. For example, a power plant may emit mercury but might not pay for the cost of that pollution to the people living near the plant. It is possible to analyze a diverse range of problems of society in these terms, including the health effects of corporate practices, the…

Biglan, Anthony

2009-01-01

428

The Role of Advocacy Organizations in Reducing Negative Externalities.  

PubMed

An externality is a cost that a corporation's actions impose on society. For example, a power plant may emit mercury, but might not pay for the cost of that pollution to the people living near the plant. It is possible to analyze a diverse range of problems of society in these terms, including the health effects of corporate practices, the unsustainability of manufacturing processes, and marketing of products contributing to environmental damage, and economic policies that maintain high levels of poverty due to effective lobbying by the business community. This paper examines the problem of externalities in terms of metacontingencies. Externalities continue precisely because there is no cost to the organizations for practices that impose these costs on third parties. The paper describes the cultural practices needed to influence governments are motivated to make corporations bear the true costs of their practices-costs that are currently imposed on others. PMID:20011073

Biglan, Anthony

2009-07-01

429

No to negative data  

SciTech Connect

A frequent criticism in biology is that we don’t publish our negative data. As a result, the literature has become biased towards papers that favor specific hypotheses1. Some scientists have become so concerned about this trend that they have created journals dedicated to publishing negative results (e.g. the Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine). Personally, I don’t think they should bother. I say this because I believe negative results are not worth publishing. Rest assured that I do not include drug studies that show a lack of effectiveness towards a specific disease or condition. This type of finding is significant in a societal context, not a scientific one, and thus we all have a vested interest in seeing this type of result published. I am talking about a set of experimental results that fail to support a particular hypothesis. The problem with these types of negative results is that they don’t actually advance science. Science is a set of ideas that can be supported by observations. A negative result does not support any specific idea, but only tells you what isn’t right. Well, there are only a small number of potential hypotheses that are correct, but essentially an infinite number of ideas are not correct. I don’t want to waste my time reading a paper about what doesn’t happen, just about those things that do. I can remember a positive result because I can associate it with a specific concept. What do I do with a negative one? It is hard enough to following the current literature. A flood of negative results would make that task all but impossible

Wiley, H. S.

2008-04-01

430

People's opium? Religion andeconomic attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Max Weber, there has been an active debate on the impact of religion on people's economic attitudes. Much of the existing evidence, however, is based on cross-country studies in which this impact is confounded by differences in other institutional factors. We use the WorldValues Surveys to id entify the relationship between intensity of religious beliefs and economic attitudes, controlling

Luigi Guisoa; Paola Sapienzad; Luigi Zingalese

431

Teachers' Attitudes about Language Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the importance of several factors hypothesized to influence teachers' attitudes about language diversity (experience with language minority students, region of the country, formal training, graduate study, and grade level taught). Surveys of teachers from three states indicated that attitudes differed significantly by…

Byrnes, Deborah H.; Kiger, Gary; Manning, M. Lee

1997-01-01

432

Attitude control of a quadrotor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study includes altitude stabilization, hovering control any desired position and attitude control of quadrotor. Classically PD controller derived and applied to this system. Inverse dynamic control, feedback linearization control and sliding mode control methods have used to derive as nonlinear controllers. Linear and nonlinear control techniques applied to attitude control of this vehicle. Derived control methods have been performed

I. C. Dikmen; Aydemir Arisoy; H. Temeltas

2009-01-01

433

Grading Styles and Instructor Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined how instructor attitudes relate to grading behavior using two attitude instruments (ascription of responsibility and approval motivation) and resulting data collected from general education instructors at a midwestern comprehensive university. The results of the research show that approval motivation is significantly related…

Deboer, Betty V.; Anderson, Donna M.; Elfessi, Abdulaziz M.

2007-01-01

434

Women's attitudes toward forcible rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the attitudes of women with diverse back-grounds toward possible responses to an attempted sexual assault and also ascertained their beliefs about how society should handle a convicted rapist. Additionally, the role which the personality dimensions of assertiveness and internal-external expectancy play in shaping attitudes toward rape was investigated. Seventyseven women and 25 men were administered the Rathus

Alexander Tolor

1978-01-01

435

Consumers' Attitudes Toward Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the finding that there are not strong links between energy-related attitudes and behaviors such as conservation support and actions. Proposes that appropriate energy-related attitudes and beliefs may constitute a necessary but not sufficient condition for appropriate energy-related behaviors. (Author/MK)

Olsen, Marvin E.

1981-01-01

436

Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

2009-01-01

437

CCPPolicyBriefing Public Attitudes  

E-print Network

CCPPolicyBriefing June 2007 Survey of Public Attitudes to Price-Fixing and Cartel Enforcement to Price-Fixing and Cartel Enforcement in Britain BACKGROUND · Public attitudes are important to cartel offenders. · Authorities rely heavily on leniency programmes as cartels are difficult to detect; public

Feigon, Brooke

438

Developing Attitudes towards Science Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we describe the development of measures used to examine pupils' attitudes towards science. In particular, separate measures for attitudes towards the following areas were developed: learning science in school, practical work in science, science outside of school, importance of science, self-concept in science, and future…

Kind, Per; Jones, Karen; Barmby, Partick

2007-01-01

439

Environmental Attitude and Ecological Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…

Kaiser, Florian G.; And Others

440

Sexual Attitudes of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the sexual attitudes of college students at a western Kansas university. The independent variables employed were gender, family structure, family sex communication, age, and classification. The dependent variables were the following subscales of sexual attitudes: permissiveness, sex practices, communion, and…

Etchison, Marilyn G.

441

White Attitudes Toward Black Discrimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews several national surveys of white racial attitudes done between 1963 and 1974 by Harris and Associates, the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, and Potomac Associates, focusing on perceptions of discrimination and attitudes towards housing, jobs, education, the police, legislation, and reverse discrimination. (JM)

Austin, B. William

1976-01-01

442

Student attitudes to student debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of debt and attitudes towards debt were investigated in a sample of undergraduate students. Students were found to be a relatively low-income, high-debt group with relatively tolerant attitudes towards debt. Some of the variables that have been found to be associated with debt in general public samples were also found to have significant effects in the student group: these

Emma Davies; Stephen E. G. Lea

1995-01-01

443

Autonomous Attitude Sensor Calibration (ASCAL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, an approach to increase the degree of autonomy of flight software is proposed. We describe an enhancement of the Attitude Determination and Control System by augmenting it with self-calibration capability. Conventional attitude estimation and control algorithms are combined with higher level decision making and machine learning algorithms in order to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the problem.

Peterson, Chariya; Rowe, John; Mueller, Karl; Ziyad, Nigel

1998-01-01

444

College Students' Attitudes Toward Abortion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)

Maxwell, Joseph W.

1970-01-01

445

Attitude control system conceptual design for the GOES-N spacecraft series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attitude determination sensing and processing of the system are considered, and inertial reference units, star trackers, and beacons and landmarks are discussed as well as an extended Kalman filter and expected attitude-determination performance. The baseline controller is overviewed, and a spacecraft motion compensation (SMC) algorithm, disturbance environment, and SMC performance expectations are covered. Detailed simulation results are presented, and emphasis is placed on dynamic models, attitude estimation and control, and SMC disturbance accommmodation. It is shown that the attitude control system employing gyro/star tracker sensing and active three-axis control with reaction wheels is capable of maintaining attitude errors of 1.7 microrad or less on all axes in the absence of attitude disturbances, and that the sensor line-of-sight pointing errors can be reduced to 0.1 microrad by SMC.

Markley, F. L.; Bauer, F. H.; Deily, J. J.; Femiano, M. D.

1991-01-01

446

An integrated GPS attitude determination system for small satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation develops attitude determination methods based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) for small satellites. A GPS attitude receiver is used in combination with other sensors planned for a small, three-axis stabilized satellite called JAWS AT. The other attitude sensors include fiber optic gyros and digital sun sensors. The development of integrated attitude determination systems contributes to critical national technological objectives identified for small spacecraft. A recent study by the National Research Council addresses key technologies for small satellite programs. One of their principal recommendations was that, 'GPS in various combinations with other guidance components can determine position and attitude very accurately, probably at significantly reduced weight and cost.' The report also identifies specific potential benefits of integrating OPS with other sensors on small spacecraft. 'Combining GPS and an inertial measurement unit (with gyroscopes, accelerometers, or trackers) offers major advantages by bounding errors of the inertial set, providing exceptionally good long-term references and thereby ensuring precise, on-board navigation and, with appropriate complimentary techniques, providing a higher level of redundancy and/or accuracy for position, velocity, and attitude.' This dissertation develops algorithms that result in improved accuracy and redundancy through the development of complimentary techniques for combining GPS measurements with gyroscopes and sun sensors.

Chesley, Bruce Carl

1995-07-01

447

Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.  

PubMed

Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

2014-05-01

448

Attitude control schemes for the first recovery mission of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the attitude control schemes for the various phases such as acquisition, on-orbit, orbit maneuver, de-boost maneuvers and coast phases of the India's first recovery mission Space Capsule Recovery Experiment-I (SRE-1). During the on-orbit phase, the SRE was configured to point the negative roll axis to Sun. The attitude referencing of SRE-1 was based on dry tuned gyros with updates from the attitude determined using on-board Sun sensors and magnetometer. For attitude acquisition, attitude maneuvers and for providing the velocity corrections for de-orbiting operations; a set of eight thrusters grouped in functionally redundant blocks were used. The control scheme with thrusters was based on proportional derivative controller with a modulator. In order to ensure micro-gravity environment during the on-orbit payload operations a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based control scheme was designed to drive an orthogonal configuration of magnetic torquers which in turn produced three-axis control torque with the interaction of Earth's magnetic field. Proportional derivative control scheme with modulator was designed to track the steering commands during the velocity reduction as well as during the coasting phase of the de-orbiting operations. A novel thruster failure detection, isolation and reconfiguration scheme implemented on-board for the de-orbiting phase is also discussed in this paper.

Philip, N. K.; Chinnaponnu, V.; Krishnakumar, E.; Natarajan, P.; Agrawal, V. K.; Malik, N. K.

2009-01-01

449

Exploratory study to evaluate staff attitudes towards geriatric psychiatry.  

PubMed

This work is part of a larger study carried out at the Murray Royal and Murthly Hospitals within the Tayside Health District. The survey was concerned with staff attitudes towards geriatric psychiatry patients and shows that the nurses in these peripheral hospitals hold a positive attitude towards this area of nursing. These findings appear to contradict the popular opinion held throughout the nursing service, that the geriatric psychiatry nursing area is very unpopular with trained, untrained and learner nurses. In the study by Hooper [Nursing Times (1981) 77 37-40/43-44], anxiety levels among learners towards the geriatric nursing areas were found to be very high. This appears to correlate with Kogan [Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (1961) 62, 616-622], which summarized is as follows: Young subjects were imputed to have a more consistently negative view of old people.' By using a series of two precoded questionnaires that the subjects completed, an overview of staff attitudes towards the geriatric psychiatry areas was obtained. The hypothesis on which the study was based was as follows: that a negative view towards geriatric psychiatry would be found among the staff of the Murray Royal and Murthly Hospitals.' However, the findings of this study did not support the hypothesis on any counts and gave a highly positive attitude scale. PMID:6550063

Jones, R G; Galliard, P G

1983-01-01

450

[Knowledge, attitudes and practices among religious students concerning family planning].  

PubMed

To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices concerning family planning of students attending religious schools in Lebanon, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 450 male and female students. A validated structured questionnaire was completed by the students. The majority of the students (65%) had a moderate level of knowledge, males more than females, but females had more positive beliefs and attitudes. More females agreed with family planning programmes and methods than males, but 35% had a negative attitude to family planning; a significant percentage had negative attitudes to contraceptive methods based on their view that they are not allowed (haram) in Islam. Among the married students, less than 40% used a family planning method; of those, the majority used a female method. Religion plays an important role in the health behaviour of religious students. Religious leaders can therefore inhibit or promote family planning, which will affect the success of family planning programmes. Thus, they should be included in the development and promotion of family planning programmes. PMID:22891526

Karout, N; Altuwaijri, S

2012-07-01

451

Elementary teachers' attitudes toward science and the teaching of science and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine the relationship between teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and their perceptions of students' attitudes about Science and Technology (S&T), gender differences in students' patterns of S&T learning, and teachers' perceptions of scientists and S&T A sample of 50 grade 4 to 8 teachers completed an original questionnaire and 10 of those participants were subsequently interviewed. The quantitative results suggested that teachers that perceive their students' attitudes as positive and hold no prejudices about scientists or negative opinions about S&T tend to perceive no gender differences in students' attitudes. The qualitative analyses concerning teachers' beliefs about scientists/S&T principally confirmed all quantitative findings. The further exploration of the relationships between teachers' attitudes and their beliefs concerning scientists/S&T, however, indicated that the results are two-edged.

Haase, Rita P.

452

Children's attitudes toward people with AIDS in Puerto Rico: exploring stigma through drawings and stories.  

PubMed

AIDS stigma refers to prejudice and discrimination directed at people or groups perceived to have HIV/AIDS (Herek, 1999). Although AIDS stigma has been found in adolescent and adult populations, few researchers have explored it among children. Misconceptions about people with AIDS (PWA) might lead to negative attitudes toward PWA and obstruct HIV prevention efforts. The authors assessed 110 Puerto Rican children's attitudes toward PWA using drawings (n=65) and stories (n=45). Although participants held stigmatizing attitudes toward PWA across both methods, the approaches captured different beliefs and attitudes. Drawings depicted PWA as physically deteriorated and performing socially condemned behaviors, whereas stories describing PWA highlighted children's fear of contagion and death. Stigma toward PWA was more pronounced than toward other illnesses (e.g., cancer). The study highlights the importance of assessing children's attitudes through creative data collection procedures. PMID:17220395

González-Rivera, Milagritos; Bauermeister, José A

2007-02-01

453

Perception of drug addiction among Turkish university students: causes, cures, and attitudes.  

PubMed

In this paper, university students' beliefs about different causes of drug addiction and cures for it were investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA) with Causes of Drug Abuse Scale (CADAS) revealed four components: problems and coping, sensation seeking, social environment, and disposition. PCA with Cures for Drug Abuse Scale (CUDAS) produced four components: help seeking and avoidance, self-change, social activity, and change. Separate MANOVAs were performed and significant gender differences were found between two of CADAS' and three of CUDAS' components. Analysis on attitude scale revealed gender and drug main effects and an interaction effect. Men had more positive attitudes toward "drug" vignette. The most negative attitudes were found toward "heroin" vignette and the most positive attitudes were found toward the "cannabis" vignette. Results indicated that those who has known a drug user had more positive attitudes. PMID:15561444

Cirako?lu, Okan Cem; I?in, Güler

2005-01-01

454

Client and counselor attitudes toward the use of medications for treatment of opioid dependence.  

PubMed

Attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions were assessed for 376 counselors and 1,083 clients from outpatient, methadone, and residential drug treatment programs regarding four medications used to treat opiate dependence: methadone, buprenorphine, clonidine, and ibogaine. Attitudes, social norms, and intentions to use varied by treatment modality. Methadone clients and counselors had more positive attitudes toward the use of methadone, whereas their counterparts in residential and outpatient settings had neutral or negative assessments. Across modalities, attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions toward the use of buprenorphine were relatively neutral. Assessments of clonidine and ibogaine were negative for clients and counselors in all settings. Social normative influences were dominant across settings and medications in determining counselor and client intentions to use medications, suggesting that perceptions about beliefs of peers may play a critical role in use of medications to treat opiate dependence. PMID:17306729

Rieckmann, Traci; Daley, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E; Thomas, Cindy P; McCarty, Dennis

2007-03-01

455

An integrative review of nurse attitudes towards lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons have significant health disparities as compared to heterosexuals. Although the reasons for this are complex and multifactorial, one area of research has examined the real or perceived negative attitudes of health-care providers. This integrative review critically appraises and synthesizes data from 17 articles regarding nurses' attitudes towards LGBT patients. Every study analyzed showed some evidence of negative attitudes. However, the literature revealed major limitations, including a paucity of well-designed studies; a dearth of qualitative studies; inconsistent use of validated, reliable instruments; and a lack of measures examining attitudes towards lesbian, bisexual, and transgender persons. Increased knowledge in this area could lead to interventions to improve nurses' cultural competency; resource allocation to nursing research, education, and services related to LGBT health; and inclusion of more LGBT content in nursing curricula. PMID:23156190

Dorsen, Caroline

2012-09-01

456

Evaluating Attitudes towards Changes in Rural Landscape by Grazing Cattle on Abandoned Paddy Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearance of cattle grazing abandoned paddy fields can be used to evaluate attitudes towards this land-use change. The semantic differential (SD) method was used families of a university student to evaluate and compare attitudes towards five types of rural landscape: pasture, pasture grazed by cattle, rice paddy field, abandoned paddy field converted to pasture and abandoned paddy field converted to pasture grazed by cattle. Cattle grazing abandoned paddy fields were determined to have a positive effect on the landscape. However, all grazing cattle created a negative attitude because of the unclean appearance of the landscape. Grazing cattle at high stocking rates in small areas could create a negative attitude because of the oppressive appearance of the landscape. The acceptance of grazing cattle was lower if the animals ware newly introduced to the landscape.

Yasuhito, Kitai; Toshihiro, Hattori; Hiroshi, Takahashi

457

Seasat. Volume 4: Attitude determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Seasat project was a feasibility demonstration of the use of orbital remote sensing for global ocean observation. The satellite was launched in June 1978 and was operated successfully until October 1978. A massive electrical failure occurred in the power system, terminating the mission prematurely. The actual implementation of the Seasat Attitude Determination system and the contents of the attitude data files generated by that system are documented. The deviations from plan caused by the anomalous Sun interference with horizon sensors, inflight calibration of Sun sensor head 2 alignment and horizon sensor biomass, estimation of yaw interpolation parameters, Sun and horizon sensor error sources, and yaw interpolation accuracy are included. Examples are given of flight attitude data from all modes of the Orbital Attitude Control System, of the ground processing effects on attitude data, and of cold cloud effects on pitch, and roll data.

Treder, A. J.

1980-01-01

458

Changing attitudes and perceptions to hyperemesis gravidarum.  

PubMed

A small, but significant proportion of pregnant women (1% to 2% of all pregnancies), suffer from a severe form of nausea and vomiting, which is categorised as hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). The arbitrary definition, aetiology and management of HG, which leads to conflicting attitudes and beliefs among healthcare professionals, inevitably impacts on the woman's overall experience of the condition. It causes great distress and if medical and ward staff misunderstand the condition, it can increase rather than reduce the suffering of women. A structured review was designed, both to determine the attitude and beliefs held by healthcare professionals and to advance understanding of women's experiences in relation to HG. A comprehensive search of literature was carried out. Due to the nature of the study, all the relevant identified and included articles were qualitative, therefore narrative synthesis of the tabulated results was carried out. The findings are discussed under the following themes: the experiences of the women, the various attitudes of health professionals. How the relationship between patients and health professionals is in regard to the mother's satisfaction with care and treatment. In the absence of evidence for an effective treatment, it is crucial to try and understand this complex condition, and to expand the circle of support from family to healthcare professionals involved in looking after sufferers. PMID:14748124

Soltani, Hora; Taylor, Gillian M

2003-12-01

459

A Dynamic Attitude Measurement System Based on LINS  

PubMed Central

A dynamic attitude measurement system (DAMS) is developed based on a laser inertial navigation system (LINS). Three factors of the dynamic attitude measurement error using LINS are analyzed: dynamic error, time synchronization and phase lag. An optimal coning errors compensation algorithm is used to reduce coning errors, and two-axis wobbling verification experiments are presented in the paper. The tests indicate that the attitude accuracy is improved 2-fold by the algorithm. In order to decrease coning errors further, the attitude updating frequency is improved from 200 Hz to 2000 Hz. At the same time, a novel finite impulse response (FIR) filter with three notches is designed to filter the dither frequency of the ring laser gyro (RLG). The comparison tests suggest that the new filter is five times more effective than the old one. The paper indicates that phase-frequency characteristics of FIR filter and first-order holder of navigation computer constitute the main sources of phase lag in LINS. A formula to calculate the LINS attitude phase lag is introduced in the paper. The expressions of dynamic attitude errors induced by phase lag are derived. The paper proposes a novel synchronization mechanism that is able to simultaneously solve the problems of dynamic test synchronization and phase compensation. A single-axis turntable and a laser interferometer are applied to verify the synchronization mechanism. The experiments results show that the theoretically calculated values of phase lag and attitude error induced by phase lag can both match perfectly with testing data. The block diagram of DAMS and physical photos are presented in the paper. The final experiments demonstrate that the real-time attitude measurement accuracy of DAMS can reach up to 20? (1?) and the synchronization error is less than 0.2 ms on the condition of three axes wobbling for 10 min. PMID:25177802

Li, Hanzhou; Pan, Quan; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Juanni; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Xiangjun

2014-01-01

460

Negative Adult Influences and the Protective Effects of Role Models: A Study with Urban Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether role models (individuals adolescents look up to) contributed to the resilience of adolescents who\\u000a were exposed to negative nonparental adult influences. Our sample included 659 African American, ninth-grade adolescents.\\u000a We found that adolescents’ exposure to negative adult behavior was associated with increased externalizing, internalizing,\\u000a and substance using behaviors, as well as more negative school attitudes and behavior.

Noelle M. Hurd; Marc A. Zimmerman; Yange Xue

2009-01-01