Sample records for reduce negative attitudes

  1. Correlates of Chilean Adolescents’ Negative Attitudes Toward Cigarettes: The Role of Gender, Peer, Parental, and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. Results: For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Conclusion: Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls’ but not boys’ attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking. PMID:22157230

  2. Comparative analysis of positive and negative attitudes toward statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-02-01

    Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.

  3. Changing teachers' negative attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Elsayed Elshabrawy Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    The current study aims at changing teachers' negative attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities. The intervention is based on the argument that providing information is not sufficient to achieve lasting change of attitudes toward people with disabilities, and that contact is required as an additional element to show positive results. A pretest-posttest intervention was conducted using three conditions: (a) cognitive intervention, (b) cognitive and behavioral intervention involving contact with the target group, and (c) no-intervention control. The participants comprised 18 teachers, with 6 teachers in each group. Following baseline assessments of attitudes, attitude change was measured immediately following the intervention and at a follow-up 12 weeks postintervention. The cognitive intervention provided information about intellectual disability and challenged stereotypic conceptions about persons with intellectual disabilities. The behavioral intervention involved being engaged in work with and training persons with intellectual disabilities in sheltered workshops. The results showed that the cognitive intervention alone did not result in significant changes in attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities. However, the combined cognitive-behavioral intervention resulted in greater attitude change than the no-intervention condition, both immediately postintervention and at a 12-week follow-up. The findings are discussed with regard to models of attitude change. The study concludes with some recommendations for teacher training programs to be attended to. PMID:25488181

  4. Reducing the Negative Effects of Large Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Daniel L.; Trautvetter, Sara

    This report presents an overview of recent efforts to promote small schools by first reviewing the rationale for small schools based on recent studies linking school size and various educational outcomes, followed by arguments supporting larger schools. Succeeding sections explore the following four ways to reduce the negative effects of school…

  5. Validity of the Butcher Treatment Planning Inventory as a Measure of Negative Treatment Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the Butcher Treatment Planning Inventory (BTPI) as a measure of negative expectations and attitudes toward counseling. Undergraduate students completed the BTPI, the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-Abbreviated Version, and the Expectations About Counseling-Brief Form during one…

  6. The Impact of Negative Attitudes toward Computers on Employees' Satisfaction and Commitment within a Small Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Audrey J.; Sprinkle, Jodi

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 29 employees at a real estate office revealed that one-third still felt incompetent with computers despite generally positive attitudes toward them. A correlation appears to exist between frustration with computers and job satisfaction, although negative attitudes toward computers and job performance appear unrelated to organizational…

  7. The effects of dysphoria and personality on negative self-referent attitudes and perceptions of the attitudes of others.

    PubMed

    Beshai, Shadi; Prentice, Jennifer L; Swan, Jennifer L; Dobson, Keith S

    2015-07-01

    The cognitive model of depression posits that depressed individuals harbor more dysfunctional self-referent attitudes, but little is known about how depressed individuals perceive the attitudes and perceptions of others in their social arena. This study examined whether dysphoric individuals perceive others to hold equally negative attitudes about themselves, and whether such perceptions depend on sociotropic (i.e., highly invested in social approval and relationship success) and autonomous (i.e., highly invested in vocational or academic achievement and goal attainment) personality styles. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 197) was recruited, and after the assessment of their depression symptoms and personality style, participants read vignettes that described negative scenarios, and imagined that these scenarios occurred to themselves or the general university student. After reading each vignette, participants also rated their agreement with a number of statements that assessed dysfunctional attitudes. Results indicated that elevated dysphoria (i.e., showing signs of depression) scores were positively associated with dysfunctional self-referent attitudes. Further, moderational analyses examining the interaction of sociotropy and dysphoria did not support the hypothesis that individuals higher on dysphoria and sociotropy were less likely to perceive others as harboring negative attitudes about themselves in comparison to those with elevated dysphoria and lower levels of sociotropy. Last, individuals showing elevated dysphoria and higher scores on subdomains of autonomy were more likely to perceive others as exhibiting negative attitudes about themselves than those with low levels of the trait. These findings, their implications, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are further discussed. PMID:25975576

  8. The role of dysfunctional attitudes in models of negative symptoms and functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Thomas; Roesch, Scott; Granholm, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is associated with negative symptoms and poor real world functioning in schizophrenia. Dysfunctional attitudes (e.g., "If I fail partly, it is as bad as being a complete failure") have been found to mediate these relationships between neurocognition and negative symptoms and functioning. In this study, these relationships were examined in 179 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder using structural equation modeling. Defeatist attitudes were found to mediate the relationship between neurocognition and negative symptoms but not the relationships between neurocognition and performance-based or self-reported functioning. A full model with the best fit showed mediation between neurocognition and self-reported functioning through two different pathways: One from neurocognition to functional skill capacity to real-world functioning, and a second from neurocognition to defeatist attitudes to negative symptoms to real-world functioning. These results may implicate skill deficits and defeatist attitudes as a separate treatment targets for negative symptoms and functioning in schizophrenia. PMID:24924405

  9. Xenophobia: Understanding the Roots and Consequences of Negative Attitudes toward Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    The current xenophobic cultural environment in the United States makes it imperative that psychologists understand the nature of xenophobia and recognize its consequences. This article explores sociological, social psychological, and multicultural research to examine the causes of negative attitudes toward immigrants. Xenophobia is presented as a…

  10. Effects of Positive and Negative Audience Response on Actors' Nonverbal Performance Behavior and on Their Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perky, Sandra Dutreau

    Five actors were videotaped and audiotaped during 12 performances, in order to identify variables and to observe actors' behaviors and attitudes in positive, negative, and "unclaqued" audience response conditions. Audience response was effected by actors trained in nonverbal cues and placed in the audience as "claquers," to subtly influence…

  11. Reducing the Negative Effects of Large Schools. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Daniel L.; DeRoberto, Thomas; Trautvetter, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This document reviews recent efforts to promote small schools. The rationale for small schools is discussed, drawing on recent studies linking school size and various outcomes. Arguments for large schools are considered, followed by an examination of four ways to reduce the negative effects of school size--build smaller schools, utilize satellite…

  12. Attitudes to reducing violence towards women: punishment or prevention?

    PubMed

    Martin, J L; O'Shea, M L; Romans, S E; Anderson, J C; Mullen, P E

    1993-04-14

    A random community survey on the prevalence and correlation of sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood was conducted to canvass the attitudes of abused and nonabused women in reducing physical and sexual violence. A postal questionnaire was given to 3000 women under age 65 seeking basic demographic, health, and abuse information. 73% of those under 65 years responded. Results showed that over one-third of these 73% reported some form of sexual abuse; 204 reported childhood sexual abuse; 208 reported sexual assault after age 16; and 191 had both child and sexual abuse experiences. It also showed that in reducing violence in the community, education was the most favored approach, followed by increased punishment of the offender. Women who experienced sexual abuse during their childhood were more likely to advocate measures other than punishment, while those rural women without formal qualifications and were not abused were more likely to advocate increased punishment or made no comment. In conclusion, victims of sexual assault prefer prevention rather than punishment. PMID:8474726

  13. The effect of a negative mood priming challenge on dysfunctional attitudes, explanatory style, and explanatory flexibility.

    PubMed

    Fresco, David M; Heimberg, Richard G; Abramowitz, Adrienne; Bertram, Tara L

    2006-06-01

    Ninety-seven undergraduates, 48 of whom had a history of self-reported major depression, completed measures of mood and cognitive style (e.g. explanatory style, explanatory flexibility, dysfunctional attitudes) prior to and directly after a negative mood priming challenge that consisted of listening to sad music and thinking about an upsetting past event. Eighteen of the previously depressed participants endorsed baseline levels of depression, explanatory style for negative events, and dysfunctional attitudes higher than levels reported by never depressed participants or euthymic participants with a history of depression. All three groups (never depressed participants, dysphoric participants with a history of depression, euthymic participants with a history of depression) demonstrated increases in dysphoria and dysfunctional attitudes in response to the negative mood priming challenge. Dysphoric participants with a history of depression, but not the other two groups, evidenced modest increases in explanatory style following the negative mood priming challenge. Finally, euthymic participants with a history of depression, but not the other two groups, evidenced drops in explanatory flexibility. Findings from the present study suggest that the cognitive theories of depression may benefit from examining both cognitive content and cognitive flexibility when assessing risk for depression. PMID:16719978

  14. Out-Group Mating Threat and Disease Threat Increase Implicit Negative Attitudes Toward the Out-Group Among Men

    PubMed Central

    Klavina, Liga; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated if perceiving an out-group as a threat to one's mating opportunities enhanced the implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of disease threat on the relationship between an out-group mating threat and implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In Experiment 1, an out-group mating threat led to stronger implicit negative out-group attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test, but only for men with high chronic perceived vulnerability to disease. No such effects were found among women. In Experiment 2, men in the out-group mating threat condition who were primed with disease prevalence showed significantly stronger implicit negative attitudes toward the out-group than controls. Findings are discussed with reference to the functional approach to prejudice and sex-specific motivational reactions to different out-group threats. PMID:21687447

  15. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  16. The Continuation of Prejudice: Addressing Negative Attitudes in Nurse Training and Continuing Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Paul; Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mayer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Measures of attitudes to ageing typically examine only explicit attitudes, treating attitude holders as a homogeneous group with regards to education levels. Implicit attitudes (i.e., the immediate attitudinal response before conscious processes amend that attitude to an explicit attitude) have been less commonly examined. The current study…

  17. Relationship Between Attitudes and Evaluative Space: A Critical Review, With Emphasis on the Separability of Positive and Negative Substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Cacioppo; Gary G. Berntson

    1994-01-01

    Evaluative processes refer to the operations by which organisms discriminate threatening from nurturant environments. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects neutrality, whereas high activation of such processes reflects maximal conflict. Attitudes, an important class of manifestations of evaluative processes, have traditionally been conceptualized as falling along a bipolar dimension, and the positive and negative

  18. The Effect of Implicitly Incentivized Faking on Explicit and Implicit Measures of Doping Attitude: When Athletes Want to Pretend an Even More Negative Attitude to Doping

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) aims to measure participants’ automatic evaluation of an attitude object and is useful especially for the measurement of attitudes related to socially sensitive subjects, e.g. doping in sports. Several studies indicate that IAT scores can be faked on instruction. But fully or semi-instructed research scenarios might not properly reflect what happens in more realistic situations, when participants secretly decide to try faking the test. The present study is the first to investigate IAT faking when there is only an implicit incentive to do so. Sixty-five athletes (22.83 years ± 2.45; 25 women) were randomly assigned to an incentive-to-fake condition or a control condition. Participants in the incentive-to-fake condition were manipulated to believe that athletes with lenient doping attitudes would be referred to a tedious 45-minute anti-doping program. Attitudes were measured with the pictorial doping brief IAT (BIAT) and with the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). A one-way MANOVA revealed significant differences between conditions after the manipulation in PEAS scores, but not in the doping BIAT. In the light of our hypothesis this suggests that participants successfully faked an exceedingly negative attitude to doping when completing the PEAS, but were unsuccessful in doing so on the reaction time-based test. This study assessed BIAT faking in a setting that aimed to resemble a situation in which participants want to hide their attempts to cheat. The two measures of attitude were differentially affected by the implicit incentive. Our findings provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT is relatively robust against spontaneous and naïve faking attempts. (B)IATs might be less prone to faking than implied by previous studies. PMID:25902142

  19. Homosexual threat, negative attitudes toward masturbation, sex guilt, and males' sexual and affective reactions to explicit sexual films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Mosher; Kevin E. OGrady

    1979-01-01

    Subjective sexual arousal and affective responses of 215 undergraduate males to films of masturbatory, homosexual, and heterosexual behavior were studied as a function of personality differences in negative attitudes toward masturbation, homosexual threat, and sex guilt. The film of heterosexual behavior elicited more subjective sexual arousal and less disgust, anger, shame, depression, and guilt than did the films of male

  20. Reducing STD/HIV Stigmatizing Attitudes through Community Popular Opinion Leaders in Chinese Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes, and practices of risky sexual behavior. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus 1 campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community leaders to discuss these issues in everyday…

  1. Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Strong, David R.; Meyer, Bjorn; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Miller, Ivan R.

    2007-01-01

    Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and…

  2. Reducing STD/HIV stigmatizing attitudes through community popular opinion leaders in Chinese markets

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes and practices of risky sexual behavior and its consequences. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus one campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community popular opinion leaders to discuss these issues in everyday social venues. This study tested the effectiveness of such an approach on reducing HIV/AIDS stigma, across two years, from a sample of over 4500 market vendors, in three conditions. Results showed an increasing growth in market communication about intervention messages, and concomitant declines in stigmatizing attitudes, across time, with the greatest changes in community popular opinion leaders, significant changes in intervention non-opinion leaders, and little change in the control markets. PMID:24944433

  3. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime

    PubMed Central

    Hubble, Kelly; Bowen, Katharine L.; Moore, Simon C.; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour. Methods Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed. Results Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed. Conclusions The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending. PMID:26121148

  4. Age and Skin Tone as Predictors of Positive and Negative Racial Attitudes in Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes-Guinan, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Past research suggests that both White children and minority children, including Hispanics, hold pro-White biases. Although doll studies have been a popular way of assessing racial attitudes among children, several methodological issues have made it challenging to interpret the results from these studies. Furthermore, past research has failed to…

  5. Young People and the Learning Partnerships Program: Shifting Negative Attitudes to Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Help-Negation among Chinese University Students in Taiwan: The Role of Gender, Anxiety and Help-Seeking Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hsiaowen

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the consideration of help-negation in regard to suicide to that of depressive symptoms in a large sample of 981 Chinese university students in Taiwan. The study examined the help-negation effects of depression and the impact of gender, anxiety, and help-seeking attitudes on that relationship. Chinese students, aged 17 to…

  7. Thermostats with attitudes: A sociological analysis of assumptions underlying common approaches to reducing residential energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevius, Monica Josefina

    2001-12-01

    This dissertation contributes to the emerging literature in the sociology of energy consumption by answering three important questions about the assumptions underlying popular approaches to reducing energy consumption behavior. The answers are gleaned from data on Wisconsin households gathered in 1998 and 1999. The first question has to do with the efficacy of a "cognitive fix" approach of attempting to change attitudes in hopes of changing behavior, and asks whether energy-related attitudes can predict actual energy savings. The results of a regression analysis of heating energy intensity revealed that a variable measuring respondents' attitudes toward energy conservation predict heating energy intensity, but the effect was overwhelmed by control variables for insulation and draftiness. These and other results offer some support for the cognitive fix approach of attitudinal change as a means of reducing energy consumption. The second question concerns a popular "technological fix" of subsidizing the replacement of manual thermostats with programmable ones, and asks whether programmable thermostats actually save significant home heating energy. The data show that households with programmable thermostats appear to use no less energy than do households with manual thermostats, and that it is behavioral norms, not the type of thermostat, that determine thermostat setting behavior. The results suggest strongly that in aggregate, the installation of programmable thermostats in residential households cannot be expected to deliver promised energy savings. The third question addressed is whether popular knowledge about global warming or the connection between energy use and global environmental change is growing, and if so, what is the likelihood that these prospective socio-cultural shifts might result in increased residential energy conservation. The analysis suggests that, compared to the findings of earlier studies, awareness of the environmental consequences of energy use is on the increase, but the likelihood that this growing awareness will lead to increased conservation appears to be minimal. In addition to answering the questions above, this work provides an example of how a comprehensive sociological approach to studying energy consumption can help inform our understanding of energy use in ways that earlier approaches could not.

  8. Hamiltonian Composite Dynamics Can Almost Always Lead To Negative Reduced Dynamics

    E-print Network

    James M. McCracken

    2013-09-10

    Complete positivity is a ubiquitous assumption in the study of quantum systems interacting with the environment, despite repeated efforts to point out that the assumption is not empirically justified. It will be shown that Hamiltonian evolution of a quantum system and its environment can be negative (i.e.\\ not completely positive) in the energy basis, by showing that such evolution is {\\it almost always} negative for given initial conditions. Ignoring or "correcting" experimental data that is not completely positive may cause the loss of important information regarding system-environment correlations and coupling. A relationship between the negativity of an evolution and the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian will be shown, and experimental verification of negative reduced dynamics will be proposed.

  9. Reduced recollective memory about negative items in high trait anxiety individuals: An ERP study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Midori Inaba; Hideki Ohira

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether trait anxiety reduce the contribution of episodic retrieval to recognizing negative words. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses in anxious individuals were measured during an exclusion recognition task to compare with a previous report about control participants (Inaba et al., 2007). At test, participants were asked to respond “old” when an item had been included in a

  10. Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

    2012-01-01

    Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

  11. An active control method to reduce the effect of negative damping in disk brake system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sayed-Mahdi Hashemi-Dehkordi; Musa Mailah; A. R. A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to reduce the effect of negative damping that causes brake noise is proposed by applying an active force control (AFC) based strategy to a two degree-of-freedom model of a disk brake system. At first, the disc brake model is simulated and analyzed using a closed loop pure PID controller. Later, it is integrated with

  12. The Effect of Positive and Negative Affect-Arousing Communications Upon Beliefs, Attitudes, Intentions, and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.

    An experiment was performed to test two hypotheses. One was that there would be a curvilinear relationship between increased degrees of a negative communication and persuasion, and the other was that there would be a positive and linear relationship between a positive communication and persuasion. College undergraduate smokers and nonsmokers were…

  13. University Students' Research Orientations: Do Negative Attitudes Exist toward Quantitative Methods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines university social science and education students' views of research methodology, especially asking whether a negative research orientation towards quantitative methods exists. Finnish (n = 196) and US (n = 122) students answered a questionnaire concerning their views on quantitative, qualitative, empirical, and theoretical…

  14. Aging is associated with positive responding to neutral information but reduced recovery from negative information

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Stacey M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Norris, Catherine J.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on aging and emotion suggest an increase in reported positive affect, a processing bias of positive over negative information, as well as increasingly adaptive regulation in response to negative events with advancing age. These findings imply that older individuals evaluate information differently, resulting in lowered reactivity to, and/or faster recovery from, negative information, while maintaining more positive responding to positive information. We examined this hypothesis in an ongoing study on Midlife in the US (MIDUS II) where emotional reactivity and recovery were assessed in a large number of respondents (N = 159) from a wide age range (36–84 years). We recorded eye-blink startle magnitudes and corrugator activity during and after the presentation of positive, neutral and negative pictures. The most robust age effect was found in response to neutral stimuli, where increasing age is associated with a decreased corrugator and eyeblink startle response to neutral stimuli. These data suggest that an age-related positivity effect does not essentially alter the response to emotion-laden information, but is reflected in a more positive interpretation of affectively ambiguous information. Furthermore, older women showed reduced corrugator recovery from negative pictures relative to the younger women and men, suggesting that an age-related prioritization of well-being is not necessarily reflected in adaptive regulation of negative affect. PMID:20385664

  15. The Peer Attitudes toward Children Who Stutter Scale: Reliability, Known Groups Validity, and Negativity of Elementary School-Age Children's Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langevin, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter (PATCS) scale (Langevin, M., & Hagler, P. (2004). Development of a scale to measure peer attitudes toward children who stutter. In A.K. Bothe (Ed.), Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: empirical bases and clinical applications (pp. 139-171). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum…

  16. Countermeasure for reducing post-flight orthostatic intolerance: Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) experiment E140

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    1993-01-01

    Investigators have shown that after 1-2 weeks of bed rest ingestion of 1000 ml of a salt water solution during 4 hours of continuous exposure to 30 mm Hg of lower body negative pressure will protect plasma volume and orthostatic function for up to 24 hours. We hypothesize that a similar countermeasure will reduce the effects of fluid loss induced by headward fluid shift during space flight. The objective of this flight experiment is to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed countermeasure in reversing these effects on the cardiovascular system. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) involves exposing the legs and lower abdomen to reduced air pressure. The LBNP device is an air-tight chamber that seals the subject's waist to enclose the lower body. As used in this experiment, LBNP provides both the candidate treatment as well as the means of assessing the effectiveness of the treatment.

  17. Transport behavior and negative magnetoresistance in chemically reduced graphene oxide nanofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-Wei; Lin, H. E.; Lin, Huang-De; Chen, K. Y.; Tu, Kun-Hua; Chen, C. W.; Chen, Ju-Ying; Liu, Cheng-Hua; Liang, C.-T.; Chen, Y. F.

    2011-08-01

    The electron transport behavior in chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets with different thicknesses of 2, 3, and 5 nm was investigated. The four-probe method for the sheet resistance (RS) measurement on the intensively reduced graphene oxide samples indicates an Arrhenius characteristic of the electron transport at zero magnetic field B = 0, consistent with previous experimental results on well-reduced GO samples. The anticipated variable range hopping (VRH) transport of electrons in a two-dimensional electron system at low temperatures was not observed. The measured RS of the rGO samples are below 52 k?/square at room temperature. With the application of a magnetic field up to 4 T, negative magnetoresistance in the Mott VRH regime was observed. The magnetotransport features support a model based on the spin-coupling effect from the vacancy-induced midgap states that facilitate the Mott VRH conduction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

  18. The dominant negative LQT2 mutation A561V reduces wild-type HERG expression.

    PubMed

    Kagan, A; Yu, Z; Fishman, G I; McDonald, T V

    2000-04-14

    HERG(1) K(+) channel mutations are responsible for one form of dominantly inherited long QT syndrome (LQT). Some LQT mutations exert a dominant negative effect on wild-type current expression. To investigate mechanisms of dominant-negative behavior, we co-expressed wild-type HERG with the A561V mutant in mammalian cells. Transfection with various cDNA ratios produced HERG K(+) current densities that approached a predicted binomial distribution where mutant and wild-type subunits co-assemble in a tetramer with nearly complete dominance. Using C terminus myc-tagged wild-type HERG we specifically followed the mutant's effect on full-length wild-type HERG protein expression. Co-expression with A561V reduced the abundance of full-length wild-type HERG protein comparable to the current reduction. Reduction of wild-type protein was due to decreased synthesis and increased turnover. Conditions facilitating protein folding (growth at 30 degrees C, or in 10% glycerol) resulted in partial rescue from the dominant effect, as did the 26 S proteosome inhibitor ALLN. Thus, for A561V, dominant negative effects result from assembly of wild-type subunits with mutant very early in production leading to rapid recognition of mutant channels and targeting for proteolysis. These results establish protein misfolding, cellular proofreading, and bystander involvement as contributing mechanisms for dominant effects in LQT2. PMID:10753933

  19. A Simple Strategy for Reducing False Negatives in Calling Variants from Single-Cell Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Cong; Miao, Zong; He, Xionglei

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growth of interest in single-cell genomics, computational methods for distinguishing true variants from artifacts are highly desirable. While special attention has been paid to false positives in variant or mutation calling from single-cell sequencing data, an equally important but often neglected issue is that of false negatives derived from allele dropout during the amplification of single cell genomes. In this paper, we propose a simple strategy to reduce the false negatives in single-cell sequencing data analysis. Simulation results show that this method is highly reliable, with an error rate of 4.94×10-5, which is orders of magnitude lower than the expected false negative rate (~34%) estimated from a single-cell exome dataset, though the method is limited by the low SNP density in the human genome. We applied this method to analyze the exome data of a few dozen single tumor cells generated in previous studies, and extracted cell specific mutation information for a small set of sites. Interestingly, we found that there are difficulties in using the classical clonal model of tumor cell growth to explain the mutation patterns observed in some tumor cells. PMID:25876174

  20. A comparison of HIV\\/AIDS-related stigma in four countries: Negative attitudes and perceived acts of discrimination towards people living with HIV\\/AIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Becky L. Genberg; Zdenek Hlavka; Kelika A. Konda; Suzanne Maman; Suwat Chariyalertsak; Alfred Chingono; Jessie Mbwambo; Precious Modiba; Heidi Van Rooyen; David D. Celentano

    2009-01-01

    HIV\\/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination have a substantial impact on people living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLHA). The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the associations of two constructs of HIV\\/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (negative attitudes towards PLHA and perceived acts of discrimination towards PLHA) with previous history of HIV testing, knowledge of antiretroviral therapies (ARVs) and communication regarding HIV\\/AIDS and

  1. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Stephanie J.; Connors, Brendan M.; Krkošek, Martin; Irvine, James R.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host–parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations. PMID:24352951

  2. Clinicians’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juyan Julia; Patel, Sameer J.; Jia, Haomiao; Weisenberg, Scott A.; Furuya, E. Yoko; Kubin, Christine J.; Alba, Luis; Rhee, Kyu; Saiman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess how healthcare professionals caring for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) understand and use antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB). Design A knowledge, attitude and practice survey assessed ICU clinicians knowledge of antimicrobial resistance, confidence interpreting susceptibility testing, and beliefs regarding the impact of susceptibility testing on patient outcomes. Setting 16 ICUs affiliated with New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Participants Attending physicians and subspecialty residents with primary clinical responsibilities in adult or pediatric ICUs and infectious diseases (ID) subspecialists and clinical pharmacists. Methods Participants completed an anonymous electronic survey. Responses included 4-level Likert scales dichotomized for analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed using Generalized Estimating Equations logistic regression to account for correlation of respondents from the same ICU. Results The response rate was 51% (178/349 eligible participants) of whom 120 (67%) were ICU physicians. Those caring for adult patients were more knowledgeable about antimicrobial activity and more familiar with MDR-GNB infections. Only 33% and 12% of ICU physicians were familiar with standardized and specialized AST methods, respectively, but >95% believed AST improved patient outcomes. When adjusted for demographic and healthcare provider characteristics, those familiar with treatment of MDR-GNB bloodstream infections, those aware of resistance mechanisms, and those aware of AST methods were more confident they could interpret AST and/or request additional in vitro testing. Conclusions Our study uncovered knowledge gaps and educational needs that could serve as the foundation for future interventions. Familiarity with MDR-GNB increased overall knowledge and familiarity with AST increased confidence interpreting these results. PMID:23388362

  3. Negative infrared photocurrent response in layered WS2/reduced graphene oxide hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratha, Satyajit; Simbeck, Adam J.; Late, Dattatray J.; Nayak, Saroj K.; Rout, Chandra Sekhar

    2014-12-01

    We report high performance IR photocurrent response of two-dimensional hybrid materials consisting of layered WS2 nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Comparative photocurrent response studies of WS2 nanosheets, RGO, and WS2/RGO hybrids were carried out by performing current-voltage (I-V) and time-dependent current measurements with a laser excitation source having a wavelength of 808 nm. The experimental investigations indicate that WS2/RGO hybrids show negative photocurrent response, whereas WS2 and RGO show positive photocurrent response. The negative photocurrent response of the WS2/RGO hybrids is explained using a band alignment diagram and attributed to a charge transfer mechanism between WS2 and RGO. This analysis is further corroborated by first-principles density functional calculations. The fabricated device based on WS2/RGO hybrids shows a photosensitivity R? of about 6 AW-1 and a quantum efficiency ? of ˜924%, which demonstrates high sensitivity of the hybrid material towards IR detection. WS2/RGO hybrids are therefore promising candidates for potential applications in optoelectronic circuits and low cost, high performance, and reliable photodetectors.

  4. Maternal Attitude Toward Pregnancy and the Risk of Neonatal Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad N. Bustan; Ann L. Coker

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Reduced options for fertility control over the past decade have increased the rates of unwanted pregnancy. We evaluated whether a woman's negative attitude toward her pregnancy increased the risk of perinatal mortality, in a large, prospective cohort study. METHODS. The association between attitude toward the pregnancy and perinatal mortality was evaluated in a longitudinal cohort study of 8823 married,

  5. Judgmental Bias in the Rating of Attitude Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruvold, William H.

    1975-01-01

    Judges holding divergent attitudes rated two sets of statements regarding uses of water reclaimed from sewage. Results showed a close linear relationship between item scale values obtained from positive and negative attitudinal groups, and a somewhat reduced rating range for judges holding unfavorable personal attitudes toward reuse. (Author/RC)

  6. Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2006-07-01

    Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers' attitude and acceptance of these products. Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution of NaCl by six different mixtures of KCl (0-50%) and K-lactate (0-50%) and the control (22g NaCl/kg) was determined by 98 consumers. The preference of the previous best two treatments was compared to the batch control by 279 consumers. In general consumers had a positive attitude towards low salt meat products, being higher for women than for men. Women showed stronger ideas and higher Perceived Control on the Behaviour towards reduced sodium meat products than men. Smokers showed lower intense beliefs than non-smokers. Consumers with a basic level of education were more affected by what other people important for them thought they should do. The final model obtained using the Theory of Planned Behaviour showed a good predictive capacity (R(2)=0.60) and a good internal consistency. Regarding the acceptability study, batches with substitution levels of 50% and 40% by K-lactate, showed lower overall acceptance than the control batch. Significant differences in acceptability were found regarding the gender and place of residence of the consumers. The preference study showed no differences between the batch control and batches with 50% KCl and 40% KCl + 10% of K-lactate substitution levels. According to these results and from a sensorial point of view, it is possible to reduce NaCl content in small calibre fermented sausages by 50% and obtain a product acceptable for consumers. PMID:22062487

  7. Strategies to Reduce Negative Socialization in the First Years of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Glenn; Napper-Owens, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Transitioning into a new role can be difficult in any walk of life, and this is no different for physical educators entering a new teaching environment. In a new setting, a physical educator may go through a socialization process where beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and teaching philosophies are influenced. Teacher socialization research suggests…

  8. Examining Implicit Attitudes towards Exercisers with a Physical Disability

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Cassandra D.; Gainforth, Heather L.; O'Malley, Deborah A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Using measures of explicit attitudes, physical activity status has been established as a factor that reduces the stigma able-bodied people hold towards people with physical disabilities. This phenomenon is called the exerciser stereotype. However, whether the exerciser stereotype exists when using measures of implicit attitudes remains unknown. Objective. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of negative implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities and determine whether implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities were influenced by the exerciser stereotype. Methods. One hundred able-bodied participants (82 females, 18 males) completed two implicit association tests (IATs): the Disability-Attitudes IAT and the Disability-Activity IAT. The Disability-Attitudes IAT measured implicit attitudes towards people who were not disabled relative to disabled; the Disability-Activity IAT measured attitudes towards people with a physical disability who were active relative to inactive. Results. Results revealed that 83.8% of participants had negative implicit attitudes towards people with a disability. Participants held more positive attitudes towards active versus inactive people with a physical disability. Conclusions. The study findings indicate that the exerciser stereotype exists implicitly and may undermine negative attitudes towards people with physical disabilities. PMID:23710142

  9. A resprouter herb reduces negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeders after fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raventós, José; Wiegand, Thorsten; Maestre, Fernando T.; de Luis, Martín

    2012-01-01

    Plant communities are often composed of species belonging to different functional groups, but relatively few studies to date have explicitly linked their spatial structure to the outcome of the interaction among them. We investigated if mortality of seeder species during their establishment after fire is influenced by the proximity of the resprouter herb Brachypodium retusum. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean shrubland (00°39' W; 38°43' N), 40 km northwest of Alicante (Spain) with Ulex parviflorus, Cistus albidus, Helianthemum marifolium, and Ononis fruticosa as dominant obligate seeder species and a herbaceous layer is dominated by the resprouter B. retusum. We followed the fate of mapped seedlings and the biomass of B. retusum one, two, three and nine years after an experimental fire. We used point pattern analyses to evaluate the spatial pattern of mortality of seeder species at these years in relation to the biomass of B. retusum. We hypothesize that B. retusum may initially have a positive impact on seeder survival. We implemented this hypothesis as a point process model that maintains the overall number of dead seeder plants, but seeder survival varied proportionally to the biomass of B. retusum in its neighborhood. We then contrasted this hypothesis with a previous analysis based on a random mortality hypothesis. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that proximity of B. retusum reduced the mortality of seeder plants at their establishment phase (i.e., 2 yrs after fire). However, we found no evidence that B. retusum influenced seeder mortality when plants grow to maturity. We also found that, under the more stressful conditions (fire + erosion scenario), B. retusum had a lower impact on the performance of seeder species. Our results suggest that B. retusum may reduce negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeder plants during the first years after fire.

  10. Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.

    PubMed

    Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation. PMID:22148989

  11. Family Violence and Juvenile Sex OffendingThe Potential Mediating Role of Psychopathic Traits and Negative Attitudes Toward Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALICIA A. CAPUTO; PAUL J. FRICK; STANLEY L. BRODSKY

    1999-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders were compared to other juvenile offenders in the degree of violence against women they witnessed in their families of origin. Poor impulse control, a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, and sexist attitudes toward women were tested as potential mediators of this relation. Participants were 70 incarcerated juvenile males, ages 13 to 18, from three offender categories: 23

  12. Urine testing for norcodeine, norhydrocodone, and noroxycodone facilitates interpretation and reduces false negatives.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Zichterman, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Cawthon, Beverly; Robert, Tim; Moser, Frank; Caplan, Yale H

    2010-05-20

    Urine drug testing of pain patients provides objective information to health specialists regarding patient compliance, diversion, and concurrent illicit drug use. Interpretation of urine test results for semi-synthetic opiates can be difficult because of complex biotransformations of parent drug to metabolites that are also available commercially and may be abused. Normetabolites such as norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone are unique metabolites that are not available commercially. Consequently, detection of normetabolite in specimens not containing parent drug, provides conclusive evidence that the parent drug was consumed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and patterns of the three normetabolites, norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone, in urine specimens of pain patients treated with opiates. Urine specimens were hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase and analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay for the presence of codeine, norcodeine, morphine, hydrocodone, norhydrocodone, hydromorphone, dihydrocodeine, oxycodone, noroxycodone, and oxymorphone. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for these analytes was 50ng/mL. The study was approved by an Institutional Review Board. Of the total specimens (N=2654) tested, 71.4% (N=1895) were positive (>or=LOQ) for one or more of the analytes. The prevalence (%) of positive results for codeine, hydrocodone and oxycodone was 1.2%, 26.1%, and 36.2%, respectively, and the prevalence of norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone was 0.5%, 22.1%, and 31.3%, respectively. For specimens containing normetabolite, the prevalence of norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone in the absence of parent drug was 8.6%, 7.8% and 9.4%, respectively. From one-third to two-thirds of these specimens also did not contain other metabolites that could have originated from the parent drug. Consequently, the authors conclude that inclusion of norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone is useful in interpretation of opiate drug source and reduces potential false negatives that would occur without tests for these unique metabolites. PMID:20036472

  13. Estrogen receptor ? selective agonists reduce invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hinsche, Oliver; Girgert, Rainer; Emons, Günter; Gründker, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    Metastasis to bone is a frequent problem of advanced breast cancer. Particularly breast cancers, which do not express estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and progesterone receptor (PR) and which have no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), so-called triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), are considered as very aggressive and have a poor prognosis. Recently we have shown that breast cancer cell invasion was dramatically increased when co-cultured with MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Using this model we have now analyzed whether estrogen receptor ? (ER?) plays a role in TNBC cell invasion in vitro. ER? and ER? protein expression was analyzed using western blot analysis. Invasion was quantified by assessment of TNBC cell migration rate through an artificial basement membrane in a modified Boyden chamber during co-culture with MG63 osteoblast-like cells. The effects of ER? agonist treatment on CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) protein expression during co-culture with MG64 cells was quantified using western blot analysis. Proliferation was measured using alamarBlue assay. TNBC cell lines HCC1806 and HCC1937 showed no ER? but high ER? protein expression. Cell invasion of HCC1806 and HCC1937 TNBC cells was significantly increased when co-cultured with MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Treatment with ER? selective estrogen agonists liquiritigenin and ERB-041 reduced the ability to invade a reconstituted basement membrane and to migrate in response to the cellular stimulus. During co-culture CXCR4 protein expression of TNBC cell lines HCC1806 and HCC1937 was significantly increased. Treatment with liquiritigenin resulted in a significant decrease of CXCR4 protein expression. Both ER? agonists showed no effect on TNBC cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that ER? plays a major role in TNBC invasion. Bone-directed invasion can be inhibited by ER? agonists. PMID:25420519

  14. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Ritin; Rolley, John X.; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet. PMID:26051008

  15. Measuring Negative Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity in the German Population – Psychometric Properties and Reference Values for the German Short Version of the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Ruzanska, Ulrike; Sikorski, Claudia; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Obese individuals are often stigmatized and the psychosocial consequences of overweight and obesity are the subject of current research. To detect stigmatizing attitudes towards obese people, the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS) was developed in the USA in the early nineties. In addition, the 14-item short form of the FPS was constructed. The FPS belongs to the most commonly used instruments for measuring negative attitudes towards obese people because of its good psychometric properties. For the recently developed German short form of the FPS, however, the comprehensive investigation of the psychometric properties and the determination of reference values are still pending. Thus, the main objectives of this study were the evaluation of the psychometric quality of the scale as well as the calculation of reference values. Methods The study was based on a representative survey in the German general population. A sample of 1,657 subjects (18–94 years) was assessed via structured telephone interviews including the 14-item German version of the FPS. Descriptive statistics and inference-statistical analyses were conducted. Reference values in terms of percentage ranks were calculated. Results Substantial evidence for the reliability and validity of the German short version of the FPS was found. This study, for the first time in Germany, provides age-specific reference values for the German short form of the FPS allowing the interpretation of individual test scores. Conclusion Facing the far-reaching consequences of experienced stigmatization of obese individuals, these study results provide an important basis for further studies aiming at the investigation of negative attitudes towards overweight and obesity. PMID:25474195

  16. Trait anxiety reduces affective fading for both positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Walker, W Richard; Yancu, Cecile N; Skowronski, John J

    2014-01-01

    The affect associated with negative events fades faster than the affect associated with positive events (the Fading Affect Bias; the FAB). The research that we report examined the relation between trait anxiety and the FAB. Study 1 assessed anxiety using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; Studies 2 and 3 used the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Studies 1 and 2 used retrospective procedures to probe positive event memories and negative event memories while Study 3 used a diary procedure. The results of all 3 studies showed that increased anxiety was associated with both a lowered FAB and lower overall affect fading for both positive events and negative events. These results suggest that for people free of trait anxiety, the FAB reflects the operation of a healthy coping mechanism in autobiographical memory that is disrupted by trait anxiety. PMID:25320653

  17. Cavitation selectively reduces the negative-pressure phase of lithotripter shock pulses.

    PubMed

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Bailey, Michael R; Pishchalnikova, Irina V; Williams, James C; McAteer, James A

    2005-11-01

    Measurements using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone, high-speed camera, and B-mode ultrasound showed attenuation of the trailing negative-pressure phase of a lithotripter shock pulse under conditions that favor generation of cavitation bubbles, such as in water with a high content of dissolved gas or at high pulse repetition rate where more cavitation nuclei persisted between pulses. This cavitation-mediated attenuation of the acoustic pulse was also observed to increase with increasing amplitude of source discharge potential, such that the negative-pressure phase of the pulse can remain fixed in amplitude even with increasing source discharge potential. PMID:19756170

  18. Cavitation selectively reduces the negative-pressure phase of lithotripter shock pulses

    PubMed Central

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.; McAteer, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone, high-speed camera, and B-mode ultrasound showed attenuation of the trailing negative-pressure phase of a lithotripter shock pulse under conditions that favor generation of cavitation bubbles, such as in water with a high content of dissolved gas or at high pulse repetition rate where more cavitation nuclei persisted between pulses. This cavitation-mediated attenuation of the acoustic pulse was also observed to increase with increasing amplitude of source discharge potential, such that the negative-pressure phase of the pulse can remain fixed in amplitude even with increasing source discharge potential. PMID:19756170

  19. Ethnic Stereotypic Attitudes among Israeli Children: Two Intervention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Hallis, Dana

    2000-01-01

    Examined stereotypic attitudes of Israeli children toward Arab and Jewish children and their alteration with two 6-week classroom intervention programs. Found that Jewish children held more negative stereotypes toward Arab than toward Jewish children. Found that both textual and audiovisual programs reduced negative Arab stereotypes in comparison…

  20. Distinct neural systems underlying reduced emotional enhancement for positive and negative stimuli in early Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mistridis, Panagiota; Taylor, Kirsten I.; Kissler, Johanna M.; Monsch, Andreas U.; Kressig, Reto W.; Kivisaari, Sasa L.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional information is typically better remembered than neutral content, and previous studies suggest that this effect is subserved particularly by the amygdala together with its interactions with the hippocampus. However, it is not known whether amygdala damage affects emotional memory performance at immediate and delayed recall, and whether its involvement is modulated by stimulus valence. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent more distributed neocortical regions involved in e.g., autobiographical memory, also contribute to emotional processing. We investigated these questions in a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects the amygdala, hippocampus and neocortical regions. Healthy controls (n = 14), patients with AD (n = 15) and its putative prodrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 11) completed a memory task consisting of immediate and delayed free recall of a list of positive, negative and neutral words. Memory performance was related to brain integrity in region of interest and whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses. In the brain-behavioral analyses, the left amygdala volume predicted the immediate recall of both positive and negative material, whereas at delay, left and right amygdala volumes were associated with performance with positive and negative words, respectively. Whole-brain analyses revealed additional associations between left angular gyrus integrity and the immediate recall of positive words as well as between the orbitofrontal cortex and the delayed recall of negative words. These results indicate that emotional memory impairments in AD may be underpinned by damage to regions implicated in emotional processing as well as frontoparietal regions, which may exert their influence via autobiographical memories and organizational strategies. PMID:24478669

  1. Apolipoprotein CI stimulates the response to lipopolysaccharide and reduces mortality in Gram-negative sepsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimmy F. P. Berbee; Caroline C. van der Hoogt; Robert Kleemann; Emile F. Schippers; Richard L. Kitchens; Jaap T. van Dissel; Irma A. J. M. Bakker-Woudenberg; Louis M. Havekes; Patrick C. N. Rensen

    2006-01-01

    Gram-negative sepsis is a major death cause in intensive care units. Accumulating evidence indicates the protective role of plasma lipoproteins such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in sepsis. It has recently been shown that septic HDL is almost depleted from apolipoprotein CI (apoCI), suggesting that apoCI may be a protective factor in sepsis. Sequence analysis revealed that apoCI possesses a highly

  2. Zinc in a Combination with Magnesium Helps Reducing Negative Effects of Heat Stress in Quails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Kucuk

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether zinc (Zn) along with magnesium (Mg) is effective in alleviating the\\u000a negative effects of heat stress in Japanese quails. One hundred and twenty 10-day-old healthy Japanese quails were randomly\\u000a assigned to four treatment groups, three replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal

  3. Feeling Bad and Looking Worse: Negative Affect Is Associated with Reduced Perceptions of Face-Healthiness

    PubMed Central

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N?=?20) or negative affectivity (N?=?20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger’s faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger’s face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

  4. Feeling bad and looking worse: negative affect is associated with reduced perceptions of face-healthiness.

    PubMed

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N?=?20) or negative affectivity (N?=?20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger's faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger's face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

  5. Understanding the Dynamics Behind the Relationship Between Exposure to Negative Consequences of Risky Sex on Entertainment Television and Emerging Adults' Safe-Sex Attitudes and Intentions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keli Finnerty-Myers

    2011-01-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT; Bandura, 1986) has established that people often are inhibited from engaging in a behavior when they observe models experience negative consequences for their actions. Thus, in the realm of sexual portrayals on television, a program that depicts consequences of risky intercourse should reduce the likelihood that a viewer would respond positively. In addition, SCT suggests that

  6. Video games as a means to reduce age-related cognitive decline: attitudes, compliance, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a "brain fitness" game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants' ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why. PMID:23378841

  7. Video Games as a Means to Reduce Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Attitudes, Compliance, and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Walter R.; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P.; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J.; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a “brain fitness” game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants’ ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why. PMID:23378841

  8. Glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy reduces negative effects of diarrhea on calf gut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damage to the intestinal epithelium caused by diarrhea reduces nutrient absorption and growth rate, and may have long-term effects on the young animal. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an intestinotropic hormone that improves gut integrity and nutrient absorption, and has antioxidant effects in th...

  9. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  10. Reducing False Negative Reads in RFID Data Streams Using an Adaptive Sliding-Window Approach

    PubMed Central

    Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D. M.; Vermaak, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

  11. Ban on triazine herbicides likely to reduce but not negate relative benefits of GMHT maize cropping.

    PubMed

    Perry, J N; Firbank, L G; Champion, G T; Clark, S J; Heard, M S; May, M J; Hawes, C; Squire, G R; Rothery, P; Woiwod, I P; Pidgeon, J D

    2004-03-18

    The UK Farm-Scale Evaluations (FSE) compared the effects on biodiversity of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) spring-sown crops with conventional crop management. The FSE reported larger weed abundance under GMHT management for fodder maize, one of three crops studied. Increased seed production may be important for the long-term persistence of these arable weeds and may benefit invertebrates, small mammals and seed-eating birds. In three-quarters of FSE maize fields, growers used atrazine on the conventionally managed half, reflecting contemporary commercial practice. Withdrawal of the triazine herbicides atrazine, simazine and cyanazine from approved lists of EU chemicals could therefore reduce or even reverse the reported benefits of GMHT maize. Here we analyse effects of applications of triazine herbicides in conventional maize regimes on key indicators, using FSE data. Weed abundances were decreased greatly relative to all other regimes whenever atrazine was applied before weeds emerged. Here, we forecast weed abundances in post-triazine herbicide regimes. We predict weed abundances under future conventional herbicide management to be considerably larger than that for atrazine used before weeds emerged, but still smaller than for the four FSE sites analysed that used only non-triazine herbicides. Our overall conclusion is that the comparative benefits for arable biodiversity of GMHT maize cropping would be reduced, but not eliminated, by the withdrawal of triazines from conventional maize cropping. PMID:15001990

  12. Personal and societal attitudes to disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The research addresses theoretical and conceptual frameworks dealing with the formation and change of attitudes, cognitive dissonance, positive and negative prejudice, the concept of “spread”, overt and covert attitudes and their formation, and the nexus between attitudes and behavior toward disability. Two attitude scales—the interaction with disabled persons and the scale of attitudes toward disabled persons—are reviewed and results of

  13. PRIOR HORMONAL TREATMENT, BUT NOT SEXUAL EXPERIENCE, REDUCES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF RESTRAINT ON FEMALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Uphouse, Lynda; Hiegel, Cindy; Adams, Sarah; Murillo, Vanessa; Martinez, Monique

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were designed to determine if prior sexual experience reduced the negative effect of mild stress on female sexual behavior. In the first experiment, ovariectomized rats were hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone for 3 consecutive weeks during which they received 6 mating experiences in a male's home cage or received no sexual experience. The next week, females were primed with 10 ?g estradiol benzoate two days before a 5 min restraint. Both groups were resistant to the negative effects of the stressor. In the second experiment, females received 0, 1, 2, or 3 weeks of 10 ?g estradiol benzoate and were restrained on the fourth week after priming with 10 ?g estradiol benzoate. Rats without prior hormonal priming showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint but prior priming with estradiol benzoate reduced this effect. In the third experiment, rats received 3 weeks of hormonal priming with estradiol benzoate and progesterone with or without sexual experience. An additional group received no sexual experience or hormonal priming. Females were then given a 3-week hormone vacation before testing in the restraint paradigm. All groups showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint. The fourth experiment was identical to the third except that sexual experience in the male's cage and in a pacing apparatus were compared. There was no effect of either type of sexual experience on the response to restraint. Possible mechanisms responsible for effects of prior hormonal priming are presented and the absence of an effect of sexual experience is discussed in comparison to findings in male rats. PMID:24172220

  14. ?-Synuclein Negatively Regulates PKC? Expression to Suppress Apoptosis in Dopaminergic Neurons by Reducing p300 HAT Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Ghosh, Anamitra; Yang, Yongjie; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha

    2011-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that PKC?, an important member of the novel PKC family, is a key oxidative stress-sensitive kinase that can be activated by caspase-3-dependent proteolytic cleavage to induce dopaminergic neuronal cell death. We now report a novel association between ?-synuclein (?syn), a protein associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s diseases (PD), and PKC?, in which ?syn negatively modulates the p300 and NF?B dependent transactivation to down-regulate proapoptotic kinase PKC? expression and thereby protects against apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Stable-expression human wild-type ?syn at physiological levels in dopaminergic neuronal cells resulted in an isoform-dependent transcriptional suppression of PKC? expression without changes in the stability of mRNA and protein or DNA methylation. The reduction in PKC? transcription was mediated, in part, through the suppression of constitutive NF?B activity targeted at two proximal PKC? promoter ?B sites. This occurred independently of NF?B/I?B? nuclear translocation, but was associated with decreased NF?B-p65 acetylation. Also, ?syn reduced p300 levels and its histone acetyl-transferase (HAT) activity, thereby contributing to diminished PKC? transactivation. Importantly, reduced PKC? and p300 expression also were observed within nigral dopaminergic neurons in ?syn transgenic mice. These findings expand the role of ?syn in neuroprotection by modulating the expression of the key proapoptotic kinase PKC? in dopaminergic neurons. PMID:21307242

  15. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-01

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O3 increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM2.5 increases of up to 2 ?g m?3. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.

  16. Attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients: the role of culture and social contact.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kim-Pong; Ng, Henry Kin-Shing; Kim, Young-Hoon; Yeung, Victoria Wai-Lan; Cheung, Francis Yue-Lok

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is increasingly popular globally, but how cosmetic surgery patients are socially evaluated is largely unknown. The present research documents attitudes toward these patients in multiple cultures (Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States). Across these cultures, attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients were predominantly negative: Participants ascribed more negative attributes to cosmetic surgery patients and found cosmetic surgery not acceptable. Also, participants in Hong Kong and Japan were not willing to form social relationships, particularly intimate ones, with these patients. These attitudes were less negative in the United States than in Hong Kong and Japan, partly because social contact, which reduced negativity in attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients, was more prevalent in the United States. These findings bear important implications for the subjective well-being of cosmetic surgery patients, who very often expect improvement in their social relationships through the surgery. PMID:22822685

  17. Attitude Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norland, Emmalou

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of assessing camp staff attitudes, the nature of attitudes, and how attitudes are formed. Recommends Likert scales as effective in measuring the direction and strength of an attitude, identifying the object of an attitude, and detecting how an attitude was formed. Provides guidelines for developing a Likert scale and…

  18. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  19. Simultaneous irrigation and negative pressure wound therapy enhances wound healing and reduces wound bioburden in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kathryn; Bills, Jessica; Barker, Jenny; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Infected foot wounds are one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and amputation among persons with diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate a new wound therapy system that employs negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with simultaneous irrigation therapy. For this study, we used a porcine model with full-thickness excisional wounds, inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wounds were treated for 21 days of therapy with either NPWT, NPWT with simultaneous irrigation therapy using normal saline or polyhexanide biguanide (PHMB) at low or high flow rates, or control. Data show that NPWT with either irrigation condition improved wound healing rates over control-treated wounds, yet did not differ from NPWT alone. NPWT improved bioburden over control-treated wounds. NPWT with simultaneous irrigation further reduced bioburden over control and NPWT-treated wounds; however, flow rate did not affect these outcomes. Together, these data show that NPWT with simultaneous irrigation therapy with either normal saline or PHMB has a positive effect on bioburden in a porcine model, which may translate clinically to improved wound healing outcomes. PMID:24134060

  20. Internalized societal attitudes moderate the impact of weight stigma on avoidance of exercise.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Novak, Sarah A

    2011-04-01

    Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts. PMID:20948515

  1. Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses improve oxidative status and reduce the negative effects of heat stress in sheep.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Leury, B J; Clarke, I J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative and physiological status of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were housed in 1 of 2 climatic chambers (thermoneutral or heat stress) and offered either a control (10 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high antioxidant (100 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet. The sheep were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18-21°C and 26-30% relative humidity; and heat stress [HS]: 28-40°C and 40-50% relative humidity) for 2 wk in a single reversal design. After 1 wk of dietary treatment, animals in 1 chamber were subjected to HS for 1 wk, with the temperature being increased to 40°C between 0900 and 1700 h and then maintained at 28°C overnight. Those sheep in the TN group were maintained at 18 to 21°C. Physiological parameters were recorded 4 times a day (0900, 1300, 1700, and 2100 h) and blood samples were collected on d 1 and 7 of heat treatment. Plasma samples and red blood cell lysates were assayed for oxidative stress biomarkers. The thermal treatments were then reversed and the above measures repeated. All measured physiological parameters were elevated (P < 0.001) by thermal treatment. Respiration rate was lower during HS in sheep supplemented with antioxidants as indicated by a diet × temperature × time interaction (P = 0.010). There was 13% decline (P = 0.014) in feed intake of the unsupplemented animals during HS whereas the same was maintained in sheep supplemented with high doses of antioxidants. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites concentrations were reduced (114 vs. 85 units/dL; P < 0.005) while biological antioxidant potential tended to be increased (3,688 vs. 3,985 ?mol/L; P = 0.070) in heat stressed sheep supplemented with antioxidants. The oxidative stress index was 30% lower (P < 0.001) in supplemented sheep (2.16 ± 0.06 arbitrary units) during HS than in unsupplemented sheep (3.12 ± 0.08 arbitrary units). Plasma advanced oxidation protein products tended (P = 0.070) to decrease in antioxidant supplemented heat stressed sheep as compared to their unsupplemented counterparts. It was concluded that heat stress negatively affects the oxidative status of sheep along with the physiological responses and some of these affects can be ameliorated through dietary antioxidants supplementation at supranutritional concentrations. PMID:24894002

  2. Attitudes: How Parental Attitudes May Influence Classroom Instructional Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konzal, Jean L.

    When parents develop negative attitudes towards new practices, powerful resistance may develop and new instructional practices may disappear. This paper examines: (1) how parental attitudes towards new classroom instructional practices influence the introduction and continuation of these practices in a school; (2) the impact of the widening gap…

  3. Effects of labeling and interpersonal contact upon attitudes towards schizophrenia: implications for reducing mental illness stigma in urban China

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Graciete; WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J.; Singla, Daisy R.; Link, Bruce G.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As mental illness stigma contributes to poor outcomes for schizophrenia in China, locating strategies to reduce public stigma is imperative. It is currently unknown whether diagnostic labeling and contact with different help-seeking sources increase or decrease public stigma in China. Further, it remains unresolved whether prior personal contact acts to reduce stigma in this context. Advancing understanding of these processes may facilitate stigma-reduction strategies. Methods We administered an experimental vignette randomly assigning one of four labeling conditions to respondents to assess social distance towards a psychotic vignette individual in a sample of 160 Northern, urban Chinese community respondents. Results As expected, respondents given a “non-psychiatric, indigenous label” + “lay help-seeking” condition endorsed the least social distance. Unexpectedly, the labeling condition with a “psychiatric diagnostic label” + “lay help-seeking” condition elicited the greatest social distance. Unlike Western studies, personal contact did not independently decrease community stigma. However, prior contact reduced social distance to a greater extent in the labeling condition with a “non-psychiatric, indigenous label” + “lay help-seeking” condition when compared with all other labeling conditions. Conclusion The results indicate that cultural idioms do provide some protection from stigma, but only among respondents who are already familiar with what mental illness is. Our finding that the condition that depicted untreated psychosis elicited the greatest amount of stigma, while the “treated psychosis” condition was viewed relatively benignly in China, suggests that improved access to mental health services in urban China has the potential to decrease public stigma via labeling mechanisms. PMID:22075964

  4. Resistance to Endotoxin Shock and Reduced Dissemination of Gram-Negative Bacteria in CD14Deficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Haziot; Enza Ferrero; Frank Köntgen; Naoki Hijiya; Shunsuke Yamamoto; Jack Silver; Colin L Stewart; Sanna M Goyert

    1996-01-01

    Endotoxin shock is the result of activation of the immune system by endotoxin\\/LPS, a component of Gram-negative bacteria. CD14, a GPI-anchored glycoprotein expressed strongly by monocyte\\/macrophages, is one of several receptors for endotoxin\\/LPS. The role of CD14 in bacterial-induced and LPS-induced shock was tested in CD14-deficient mice produced by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. CD14-deficient mice were found to

  5. Desulfovirga adipica gen. nov., sp. nov., an adipate-degrading, Gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Tanaka; Erko Stackebrandt; Shigehiro Tohyama; Tadashi Eguchi

    A novel, mesophilic, Gram-negative bacterium was isolated from an anaerobic digestor for municipal wastewater. The bacterium degraded adipate in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur. (E)-2- Hexenedioate accumulated transiently in the degradation of adipate. (E)-2- Hexenedioate, (E)-3-hexenedioate, pyruvate, lactate, C1-C12 straight-chain fatty acids and C2-C10 straight-chain primary alcohols were also utilized as electron donors. 3-Phenylpropionate was oxidized

  6. Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

    Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

  7. Attitudes and behavior in counseling skill development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip A. Hirsch; Gerald L. Stone

    1982-01-01

    To examine the association between attitudes and skill performance under laboratory conditions, 37 undergraduates received brief training in 2 counseling skills (reflection of feeling and interpretation) and then conducted interviews with coached clients. Ss with positive attitudes toward using reflection of feeling produced significantly higher quality reflective responses than did those with negative attitudes toward the use of this skill.

  8. Pseudoinefficacy: negative feelings from children who cannot be helped reduce warm glow for children who can be helped

    PubMed Central

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Slovic, Paul; Mayorga, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In a great many situations where we are asked to aid persons whose lives are endangered, we are not able to help everyone. What are the emotional and motivational consequences of “not helping all”? In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that negative affect arising from children that could not be helped decreases the warm glow of positive feeling associated with aiding the children who can be helped. This demotivation from the children outside of our reach may be a form of “pseudoinefficacy” that is non-rational. We should not be deterred from helping whomever we can because there are others we are not able to help.

  9. Pseudoinefficacy: negative feelings from children who cannot be helped reduce warm glow for children who can be helped.

    PubMed

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Slovic, Paul; Mayorga, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In a great many situations where we are asked to aid persons whose lives are endangered, we are not able to help everyone. What are the emotional and motivational consequences of "not helping all"? In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that negative affect arising from children that could not be helped decreases the warm glow of positive feeling associated with aiding the children who can be helped. This demotivation from the children outside of our reach may be a form of "pseudoinefficacy" that is non-rational. We should not be deterred from helping whomever we can because there are others we are not able to help. PMID:26042058

  10. Reducing Complexity: A Regularized Non-negative Matrix Approximation (NNMA) Approach to X-ray Spectromicroscopy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Rachel Y. C.

    X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy combines microscopy and spectroscopy to provide rich information about the chemical organization of materials down to the nanoscale. But with richness also comes complexity: natural materials such as biological or environmental science specimens can be composed of complex spectroscopic mixtures of different materials. The challenge becomes how we could meaningfully simplify and interpret this information. Approaches such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis have been used in previous studies, but with some limitations that we will describe. This leads us to develop a new approach based on a development of non-negative matrix approximation (NNMA) analysis with both sparseness and spectra similarity regularizations. We apply this new technique to simulated spectromicroscopy datasets as well as a preliminary study of the large-scale biochemical organization of a human sperm cell. NNMA analysis is able to select major features of the sperm cell without the physically erroneous negative weightings or thicknesses in the calculated image which appeared in previous approaches.

  11. Desulfovirga adipica gen. nov., sp. nov., an adipate-degrading, gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Stackebrandt, E; Tohyama, S; Eguchi, T

    2000-03-01

    A novel, mesophilic, Gram-negative bacterium was isolated from an anaerobic digestor for municipal wastewater. The bacterium degraded adipate in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur. (E)-2-Hexenedioate accumulated transiently in the degradation of adipate. (E)-2-Hexenedioate, (E)-3-hexenedioate, pyruvate, lactate, C1-C12 straight-chain fatty acids and C2-C10 straight-chain primary alcohols were also utilized as electron donors. 3-Phenylpropionate was oxidized to benzoate. The G + C content of the DNA was 60 mol%. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that the new isolate clustered with species of the genus Syntrophobacter and Desulforhabdus amnigenus. Strain TsuAS1T resembles Desulforhabdus amnigenus DSM 10338T with respect to the ability to utilize acetate as an electron donor and the inability to utilize propionate without sulfate in co-culture with Methanospirillum hungatei DSM 864. Strains TsuAS1T and DSM 10338T form a 'non-syntrophic subcluster' within the genus Syntrophobacter. Desulfovirga adipica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for the newly isolated bacterium, with strain TsuAS1T (= DSM 12016T) as the type strain. PMID:10758870

  12. Reduced soil water availability did not protect two competing grassland species from the negative effects of increasing background ozone.

    PubMed

    Wagg, Serena; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Wilkinson, Sally; Cooper, David; Davies, William J

    2012-06-01

    Two common (semi-) natural temperate grassland species, Dactylis glomerata and Ranunculus acris, were grown in competition and exposed to two watering regimes: well-watered (WW, 20-40% v/v) and reduced-watered (RW, 7.5-20% v/v) in combination with eight ozone treatments ranging from pre-industrial to predicted 2100 background levels. For both species there was a significant increase in leaf damage with increasing background ozone concentration. RW had no protective effect against increasing levels of ozone-induced senescence/injury. In high ozone, based on measurements of stomatal conductance, we propose that ozone influx into the leaves was not prevented in the RW treatment, in D. glomerata because stomata were a) more widely open than those in less polluted plants and b) were less responsive to drought. Total seasonal above ground biomass was not significantly altered by increased ozone; however, ozone significantly reduced root biomass in both species to differing amounts depending on watering regime. PMID:22420992

  13. Application of municipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effects of saline water in Hordeum maritimum L.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Hafsi, Chokri; Rabhi, Mokded; Debez, Ahmed; Montemurro, Francesco; Abdelly, Chedly; Jedidi, Naceur; Ouerghi, Zeineb

    2008-10-01

    The efficiency of composted municipal solid wastes (MSW) to reduce the adverse effects of salinity was investigated in Hordeum maritimum under greenhouse conditions. Plants were cultivated in pots filled with soil added with 0 and 40tha(-1) of MSW compost, and irrigated twice a week with tap water at two salinities (0 and 4gl(-1) NaCl). Harvests were achieved at 70 (shoots) and 130 (shoots and roots) days after sowing. At each cutting, dry weight (DW), NPK nutrition, chlorophyll, leaf protein content, Rubisco (ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) capacity, and contents of potential toxic elements were determined. Results showed that compost supply increased significantly the biomass production of non salt-treated plants (+80%). This was associated with higher N and P uptake in both shoots (+61% and +80%, respectively) and roots (+48% and +25%, respectively), while lesser impact was observed for K+. In addition, chlorophyll and protein contents as well as Rubisco capacity were significantly improved by the organic amendment. MSW compost mitigated the deleterious effect of salt stress on the plant growth, partly due to improved chlorophyll and protein contents and Rubisco capacity (-15%, -27% and -14%, respectively, in combined treatment, against -45%, -84% and -25%, respectively, in salt-stressed plants without compost addition), which presumably favoured photosynthesis and alleviated salt affect on biomass production by 21%. In addition, plants grown on amended soil showed a general improvement in their heavy metals contents Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ (in combined treatment: 190%, 53%, 168% and 174% in shoots and 183%, 42%, 42% and 114% in roots, respectively) but remained lower than phytotoxic values. Taken together, these findings suggest that municipal waste compost may be safely applied to salt-affected soils without adverse effects on plant physiology. PMID:18308562

  14. Using model derived regional climate forecasts to enhance the effectiveness and skill of selected application models in reducing negative impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, P. A.; Hewitson, B. C.

    2001-05-01

    A new approach to regional climate forecasting in Southern Africa is involving a cross section of researchers working to integrate the key elements of the global system that determine seasonal conditions. The aim is to produce seasonal forecasts of temperature and rainfall with a 1-3 month lead-time. These forecasts, reflecting climatic variation and inter-annual change, using a combination of global and regional climate models, can be used as input for a selection of crop-yield/ hydrological/ economic models to assess the impact and usefulness in specific application areas e.g. water resources, agriculture etc. The investigation focuses on the usefulness of the information content of the forecast output. The impacts of severe droughts and flooding associated with ENSO events can be prepared for and reduced. However, until recently (Vogel, 2000; Mukara, 2000) the value of these forecasts for farming, industry and commerce in South Africa has not been assessed. An essential part of the analysis is the collaboration with others working within the forecaster-user dynamic. This ensures that forecast/model output provides the most usable content for end-users whether in small scale pastoral or commercial farming, hydrological planning, industry or fishing. Input from the users informs the modellers with respect to the format and content of forecast outputs. The parameters most useful to user applications are identified and in consultation with the modellers, specified in the model output. Different model runs are compared and various hindcasts performed. The issue is to determine the level and scope of the accuracy of the identified parameters. A model's accuracy may be temporally substantial, but spatially unreliable. When submitting the seasonal forecast data into other models within a localised region, specific accuracy for that region, during the particular season and in the individual topography, is essential. If the accuracy is lower than a critical value, then the forecast must be deemed no more useful than persistence. The usefulness of model output in existing application models must be maximised. Various models have been used to identify the impacts of climatic change on agriculture (e.g. ACRU and CERES), hydrology (e.g. ACRU) and global warming (e.g. MAGICC). Many of these models have used GCM data and it remains to be investigated how the regional model data can best be beneficial in this regard.

  15. Evaluating the Effects of a Peer-Support Model: Reducing Negative Body Esteem and Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviours in Grade Eight Girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Thompson; Shelly Russell-Mayhew; Reana Saraceni

    2012-01-01

    During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss\\/weight gain behaviour, internalization

  16. Job attitudes.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D

    2012-01-01

    Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis. PMID:22129457

  17. The Predictive Utility of Attitudes toward Hookah Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Cook, Robert L.; Nuzzo, Erin; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine associations between positive and negative attitudes and hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) outcomes among college students. Methods Among a random sample of University of Florida students (N=852), multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between positive and negative attitudes toward HTS. Results Positive attitudes were associated with adjusted odds of 4.32 (95% CI=3.20, 5.82) for current HTS, while negative attitudes were associated with lower adjusted odds for current smoking HTS (AOR=0.64, 95% CI=0.53, 0.76). Positive attitudes were also associated with adjusted odds of 9.31 (95% CI=6.77, 12.80) for intention for future hookah use. Conclusion Positive attitudes toward HTS were more strongly associated with HTS outcomes compared to negative attitudes. It may be particularly valuable for future research and interventions to focus on decreasing positive attitudes towards HTS. PMID:23985224

  18. In triple negative breast tumor cells, PLC-?2 promotes the conversion of CD133high to CD133low phenotype and reduces the CD133-related invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Beyond its possible correlation with stemness of tumor cells, CD133/prominin1 is considered an important marker in breast cancer, since it correlates with tumor size, metastasis and clinical stage of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC), to date the highest risk breast neoplasia. Methods To study the correlation between the levels of CD133 expression and the biology of breast-derived cells, CD133low and CD133high cell subpopulations isolated from triple negative MDA-MB-231 cells were compared in terms of malignant properties and protein expression. Results High expression of CD133 characterizes cells with larger adhesion area, lower proliferation rate and reduced migration speed, indicative of a less undifferentiated phenotype. Conversely, when compared with CD133low cells, CD133high cells show higher invasive capability and increased expression of proteins involved in metastasis and drug-resistance of breast tumors. Among the signalling proteins examined, PLC-?2 expression inversely correlates with the levels of CD133 and has a role in inducing the CD133high cells to CD133low cells conversion, suggesting that, in TNBC cells, the de-regulation of this PLC isoform is responsible of the switch from an early to a mature tumoral phenotype also by reducing the expression of CD133. Conclusions Since CD133 plays a role in determining the invasiveness of CD133high cells, it may constitute an attractive target to reduce the metastatic potential of TNBC. In addition, our data showing that the forced up-regulation of PLC-?2 counteracts the invasiveness of CD133-positive MDA-MB-231 cells might contribute to identify unexplored key steps responsible for the TNBC high malignancy, to be considered for potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:24330829

  19. Implicit Self-Attitudes Predict Spontaneous Affect in Daily Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamlin Conner; Lisa Feldman Barrett

    2005-01-01

    In 2 studies, the authors examined the degree to which implicit self-attitudes predicted people's spontaneous affective experiences in daily life. Across both studies, implicit attitudes toward the self (as measured by Implicit Association Tests) strongly predicted negative feeling states (as measured by computerized experience-sampling procedures), suggesting that implicit self-attitudes may be linked to changes in undifferentiated negative affect. Explicit attitudes

  20. Application of a drainage film reduces fibroblast ingrowth into large-pored polyurethane foam during negative-pressure wound therapy in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Springer, Steffen; Abel, Martin; Wesarg, Falko; Ruth, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2013-01-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an advantageous treatment option in wound management to promote healing and reduce the risk of complications. NPWT is mainly carried out using open-cell polyurethane (PU) foams that stimulate granulation tissue formation. However, growth of wound bed tissue into foam material, leading to disruption of newly formed tissue upon dressing removal, has been observed. Consequently, it would be of clinical interest to preserve the positive effects of open-cell PU foams while avoiding cellular ingrowth. The study presented analyzed effects of NPWT using large-pored PU foam, fine-pored PU foam, and the combination of large-pored foam with drainage film on human dermal fibroblasts grown in a collagen matrix. The results showed no difference between the dressings in stimulating cellular migration during NPWT. However, when NPWT was applied using a large-pored PU foam, the fibroblasts continued to migrate into the dressing. This led to significant breaches in the cell layers upon removal of the samples after vacuum treatment. In contrast, cell migration stopped at the collagen matrix edge when fine-pored PU foam was used, as well as with the combination of PU foam and drainage film. In conclusion, placing a drainage film between collagen matrix and the large-pored PU foam dressing reduced the ingrowth of cells into the foam significantly. Moreover, positive effects on cellular migration were not affected, and the effect of the foam on tissue surface roughness in vitro was also reduced. PMID:23937617

  1. Negative labeling and social exclusion of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the antiretroviral therapy era: insight from attitudes and behavioral intentions of female heads of households in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Mukolo, Abraham; Blevins, Meridith; Hinton, Nicole; Victor, Bart; Vaz, Lara M E; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E

    2014-01-01

    In the age of antiretroviral therapy (ART), unraveling specific aspects of stigma that impede uptake and adherence to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services and the complex intersections among them might enhance the efficacy of stigma-reduction interventions targeted at the general public. Few studies have described community stigma in high HIV prevalence regions of Mozambique where program scale-up has been concentrated, but fear of stigma persists as a barrier to HIV service uptake. Principal components analysis of attitudinal data from 3749 female heads of households surveyed in Zambézia Province was used to examine patterns of agreement with stigmatizing attitudes and behavior toward people living with HIV. Inferences were based on comparison of factor loadings and commonality estimates. Construct validity was established through correlations with levels of knowledge about HIV transmission and consistency with the labeling theory of stigma. Two unique domains of community stigma were observed: negative labeling and devaluation (NLD, ? = 0.74) and social exclusion (SoE, ? = 0.73). NLD is primarily an attitudinal construct, while SoE captures behavioral intent. About one-third of the respondents scored in the upper tertile of the NLD stigma scale (scale: 0-100 stigma points) and the equivalent was 41.3% in the SoE stigma scale. Consistent with literature, NLD and SoE stigma scores were inversely correlated with HIV transmission route knowledge. In item level analysis, fear of being labeled a prostitute/immoral and of negative family affect defined the nature of stigma in this sample. Thus, despite ART scale-up and community education about HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), NLD and SoE characterized the community stigma of HIV in this setting. Follow-up studies could compare the impact of these stigma domains on HIV services uptake, in order to inform domain-focused stigma-reduction interventions. PMID:24274172

  2. Characteristics, Work Attitudes, and Intentions to Work A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF NEWLY LICENSED RNS AND THEIR EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS IS CRUCIAL TO REDUCING TURNOVER RATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTINE T. K OVNER; C AROL S. BREWER; S USAN FAIRCHILD; SHAKTHI POORNIMA; H ONGSOO KIM; MAJA DJUKIC

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In an effort to better understand turnover rates in hospitals and the effect of new nurses on them, this study sought to describe the characteristics and attitudes toward work of newly licensed RNs, a popula- tion important to both the nursing profession and the health care system. Methods: A survey was mailed to a random sample of new RNs

  3. Influence of sun exposure on the cutaneous collagen/elastin fibers and carotenoids: negative effects can be reduced by application of sunscreen.

    PubMed

    Darvin, Maxim E; Richter, Heike; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Haag, Stefan F; Meinke, Martina C; Le Quintrec, Delphine; Doucet, Olivier; Lademann, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy and multi-photon tomography were used in vivo to analyse the influence of sun exposure on the cutaneous carotenoids and collagen/elastin fibers. Comparing Berlin (low sun exposure) and Monegasque (high sun exposure) volunteers, it could be demonstrated that extended sun exposure significantly reduces the cutaneous carotenoids and collagen/elastin concentration (p < 0.05). The tendency towards correlation (R(2) = 0.41) between the dermal collagen/elastin (SAAID) and carotenoids confirms the important role of antioxidants in the protection against sun-induced negative effects. The application of sunscreen was shown to be effective, protecting cutaneous carotenoids and collagen/elastin from being damaged subsequent to sun exposure. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:24639418

  4. Unpacking attitude certainty: attitude clarity and attitude correctness.

    PubMed

    Petrocelli, John V; Tormala, Zakary L; Rucker, Derek D

    2007-01-01

    Attitude certainty has been the subject of considerable attention in the attitudes and persuasion literature. The present research identifies 2 aspects of attitude certainty and provides evidence for the distinctness of the constructs. Specifically, it is proposed that attitude certainty can be conceptualized, and empirically separated, in terms of attitude clarity (the subjective sense that one knows what one's attitude is) and attitude correctness (the subjective sense that one's attitude is correct or valid). Experiment 1 uses factor analysis and correlational data to provide evidence for viewing attitude clarity and attitude correctness as separate constructs. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that attitude clarity and attitude correctness can have distinct antecedents (repeated expression and consensus feedback, respectively). Experiment 4 reveals that these constructs each play an independent role in persuasion and resistance situations. As clarity and correctness increase, attitudes become more resistant to counterattitudinal persuasive messages. These findings are discussed in relation to the existing attitude strength literature. PMID:17201540

  5. Implicit attitudes in sexuality: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Geer, James H; Robertson, Gloria G

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the role of gender in both implicit and explicit attitudes toward sexuality. Implicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations of social objects that are automatically activated, often without the individual's conscious awareness of the causation. In contrast, explicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations that are well established in awareness. As described in Oliver and Hyde's (1993) meta-analysis of self-report (explicit) data, women report greater negative attitudes toward sexuality than do men. In the current study, we used the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) developed by Fisher, Byrne, White, and Kelley (1988) to index explicit attitudes and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) developed by Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998) to index implicit attitudes. Research has demonstrated that the IAT reveals attitudes that participants may be reluctant to express. Independent variables examined were participant gender, social acceptability of sexual words, and order of associated evaluations in the IAT (switching from positive to negative evaluations or the reverse). The IAT data revealed a significant Order x Gender interaction that showed that women had more negative implicit attitudes toward sexuality than did men. There was also a significant Order x Acceptability interaction, indicating that implicit attitudes were more strongly revealed when the sexual words used in the IAT were more socially unacceptable. As expected, on the SOS, women had more negative explicit attitudes toward sexuality. There was no significant correlation between explicit and implicit attitudes. These data suggest that at both automatic (implicit) and controlled (explicit) levels of attitudes, women harbor more negative feelings toward sex than do men. PMID:16362251

  6. Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4) that in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed. PMID:20822288

  7. Extensive protein hydrolysate formula effectively reduces regurgitation in infants with positive and negative challenge tests for cow’s milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Y; De Greef, E

    2014-01-01

    Aim Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is treated using an elimination diet with an extensive protein hydrolysate. We explored whether a thickened or nonthickened version was best for infants with suspected CMPA, which commonly causes regurgitation/vomiting. Methods Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge test. We compared the efficacy of two casein extensive hydrolysates (eCH), a nonthickened version (NT-eCH) and a thickened version (T-eCH), using a symptom-based score covering regurgitation, crying, stool consistency, eczema, urticarial and respiratory symptoms. Results A challenge was performed in 52/72 infants with suspected CMPA and was positive in 65.4%. All confirmed CMPA cases tolerated eCH. The symptom-based score decreased significantly in all infants within a month, and the highest reduction was in those with confirmed CMPA. Regurgitation was reduced in all infants (6.4 ± 3.2–2.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.001), but fell more with the T-eCH (?4.2 ± 3.2 regurgitations/day vs. ?3.0 ± 4.5, ns), especially in infants with a negative challenge (?3.9 ± 4.0 vs. ?1.9 ± 3.4, ns). Conclusion eCH fulfilled the criteria for a hypoallergenic formula, and the NT-eCH and T-eCH formulas both reduced CMPA symptoms. The symptom-based score is useful for evaluating how effective dietary treatments are for CMPA. PMID:24575806

  8. Youth Leadership Program for Changing Self-Image and Attitude Toward People With Disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronen Cohen; Dana Roth; Alan York; Shimshon Neikrug

    2012-01-01

    Society has a negative attitude toward people with intellectual disabilities or psychiatric disabilities. It is well documented that they are subjected to prejudice, stigma, and negative attitudes (Di Giulio, 2003; Finger, 1994). Professional literature indicates that information about disabilities and encounters with persons with disabilities can change negative attitudes (Carter, Hughes, Copeland, & Breen, 2001; Krajewski & Flaherty, 2000). This

  9. Attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, A. L., Jr.; Price, A. G. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    A device for controlling the attitude of a spacecraft is described. The device consists of two light sensors on a spacecraft that are mounted beneath a baffle which divides the light from a light source such as the sun or a star. The divided light reflects off of two reflective surfaces onto the two light sensors. When the spacecraft assumes its normal attitude, the baffle divides the light source into two equal parts, causing the two light sensors to produce equal outputs. When the light is equally detected, the stabilizing system is disconnected. Deviations from the normal attitude cause unequal distribution of the light source and energize the stabilizing system.

  10. Ideological asymmetry in the relationship between epistemic motivation and political attitudes.

    PubMed

    Federico, Christopher M; Deason, Grace; Fisher, Emily L

    2012-09-01

    Research on the psychological bases of political attitudes tends to dwell on the attitudes of conservatives, rarely placing a conscious thematic emphasis on what motivates liberals to adopt the attitudes they do. This research begins to address this imbalance by examining whether the need for cognitive closure is equally associated with conservatism in policy attitudes among those who broadly identify with the liberal and conservative labels. Counterintuitively, we predict and find that the need for closure is most strongly associated with policy conservatism among those who symbolically identify as liberals or for whom liberal considerations are made salient. In turn, we also find that the need for closure is associated with reduced ideological consistency in issue attitudes among liberal identifiers but not conservative identifiers. Although supportive of our predictions, these results run counter to a simple "rigidity of the right" hypothesis, which would predict a positive link between need for closure and policy conservatism regardless of ideological self-description, and the "ideologue" hypothesis, which would predict a positive link between these variables among conservative identifiers and a negative one among liberal identifiers. We discuss the implications these findings for understanding the motivations underlying liberals' and conservatives' attitudes and suggest that future research attend to the important distinction between ideology in the sense of symbolic identification with conservatism versus liberalism and ideology in the sense of an average tilt to the right or left in one's policy attitudes. PMID:22731763

  11. The Eden Alternative: Impact on Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosher, Richard B.; Robinson, Sherry

    2005-01-01

    Nursing homes as clinical sites for student learning have the potential to produce negative attitudes toward aging. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to determine the impact of the Eden Alternative on the attitudes of students toward elders residing in nursing homes. Prior to beginning implementation of the Eden Alternative, 61…

  12. Negative allosteric modulation of the mGluR5 receptor reduces repetitive behaviors and rescues social deficits in mouse models of autism.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jill L; Smith, Daniel G; Rizzo, Stacey J Sukoff; Karras, Michael N; Turner, Sarah M; Tolu, Seda S; Bryce, Dianne K; Smith, Deborah L; Fonseca, Kari; Ring, Robert H; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2012-04-25

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and fragile X syndrome were long thought to be medically untreatable, on the assumption that brain dysfunctions were immutably hardwired before diagnosis. Recent revelations that many cases of autism are caused by mutations in genes that control the ongoing formation and maturation of synapses have challenged this dogma. Antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5), which modulate excitatory neurotransmission, are in clinical trials for fragile X syndrome, a major genetic cause of intellectual disabilities. About 30% of patients with fragile X syndrome meet the diagnostic criteria for autism. Reasoning by analogy, we considered the mGluR5 receptor as a potential target for intervention in autism. We used BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice, an established model with robust behavioral phenotypes relevant to the three diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism--unusual social interactions, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors--to probe the efficacy of a selective negative allosteric modulator of the mGluR5 receptor, GRN-529. GRN-529 reduced repetitive behaviors in three cohorts of BTBR mice at doses that did not induce sedation in control assays of open field locomotion. In addition, the same nonsedating doses reduced the spontaneous stereotyped jumping that characterizes a second inbred strain of mice, C58/J. Further, GRN-529 partially reversed the striking lack of sociability in BTBR mice on some parameters of social approach and reciprocal social interactions. These findings raise the possibility that a single targeted pharmacological intervention may alleviate multiple diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism. PMID:22539775

  13. Variation in Sexual Behaviors in a Cohort of Adolescent Females: The Role of Personal, Perceived Peer and Family Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Melanie A.; Bost, James E.; Adimora, Ada A.; Orr, Donald P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about how adolescent sexual behaviors develop and the influence of personal or perceived social attitudes. We sought to describe how personal, perceived peer and perceived family attitudes towards adolescent sexual activity influences adolescent females’ sexual behaviors over time. Methods Between 1999–2006, 358 English-speaking females, aged 14–17 were recruited from three urban adolescent clinics. Participants completed quarterly and annual questionnaires over 4 years. Primary outcomes were engagement in eight sexual behaviors: kissing, having breasts or genitals touched, touching partners’ genitals, and oral (giving or receiving), anal, or vaginal sex. Three attitudinal scales assessed personal importance of abstinence, perceived peer beliefs about when to have sex and perceived family beliefs that adolescent sex is negative.. We used generalized estimating equations to identify predictors of each sexual behavior and compared whether personal, perceived peer or perceived family attitudes predicted sexual behaviors over time. Results The odds of reporting each sexual behavior increased with age but were lower among those whose personal or perceived family attitudes were less positive. Participants’ personal attitudes towards adolescent sex were the strongest predictor of engagement in all eight sexual behaviors even after controlling for perceived peer and perceived family attitudes. Conclusions Female adolescent’s personal attitudes towards abstinence appear to be the strongest predictor of engagement in a variety of sexual behaviors. Efforts to influence adolescent attitudes towards abstinence may be an important approach to reducing sexual behaviors that increase the risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:21185529

  14. Teacher-Trainees Attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitonga, E. R.; Andanje, M.; Wanderi, P. M.; Bailasha, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the attitudes of teacher trainees towards physical education (PE). It was hypothesised that teacher-trainees have negative attitudes towards PE. A total of 132 teacher trainees were randomly selected from a teacher Training College in Kenya completed a questionnaire adapted from Wear's attitude scale with equivalent forms.…

  15. Attitudes toward Invertebrates: Are Educational "Bug Banquets" Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looy, Heather; Wood, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Scientists have used educational presentations and "bug banquets" to alter widespread negative attitudes toward invertebrates. In this article, the authors explore whether such presentations have a measurable affect on attitudes. Junior high, high school, and university students completed an attitude survey focusing on invertebrates in general and…

  16. Attitudes of Hispanics and Anglos Surrounding a Workforce Diversity Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Jacqueline N.; Muller, Helen J.; Seitz, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Students in an organizational behavior course were surveyed concerning personal and collective self-esteem and discriminatory attitudes before and after a 16-week diversity intervention. After the intervention, Anglo women showed the most positive changes in attitudes, while Anglo men became more negative in attitudes toward women. Hispanics'…

  17. Potentiated clinoptilolite: artificially enhanced aluminosilicate reduces symptoms associated with endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, Wilna; Samuels, Caroline Selma; Snyman, Jacques Renè

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The cation exchanger, a potentiated clinoptilolite (Absorbatox™ 2.4D), is a synthetically enhanced aluminosilicate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible benefits of a potentiated clinoptilolite as a gastroprotective agent in reducing the severity of clinical symptoms and signs associated with 1) endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease (ENGORD) and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) medication. Methods and patients Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot studies, the ENGORD and NSAID studies, were conducted. After initial negative gastroscopy, a total of 25 patients suffering from ENGORD were randomized to receive either placebo capsules or 750 mg Absorbatox twice daily for 14 days. The NSAID study recruited 23 healthy patients who received orally either 1,500 mg Absorbatox or placebo three times daily, plus 500 mg naproxen twice daily. Patients underwent gastroscopic evaluation of their stomach linings prior to and on day 14 of the study. Gastric biopsies were obtained and evaluated via the upgraded Sydney system, whereas visible gastric events and status of the gastric mucosa were evaluated via a 0–3 rating scale. During both studies, patients recorded gastric symptoms in a daily symptom diary. Results In the ENGORD study, patients who received the potentiated clinoptilolite reported a significant reduction (P?0.05) in severity of symptoms including reduction in heartburn (44%), discomfort (54%), and pain (56%). Symptom-free days improved by 41% compared to the group who received placebo (not significant). This was over and above the benefits seen with the proton pump inhibitor. In the NSAID study, the reduction in gastric symptom severity was echoed in the group who received the potentiated clinoptilolite. Treatment with the potentiated clinoptilolite resulted in significant prevention (P?0.05) of mucosal erosion severity as graded by the gastroenterologist. Conclusion Absorbatox is a nonabsorbable aluminosilicate with potential gastroprotective benefits as it protected against ENGORD symptoms and NSAID-induced gastric events. The exact mechanism of action is not clear but may be due to its binding to hydrogen ions and biologically active amines and nitrates. PMID:25061329

  18. Spatial assessment of attitudes toward tigers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Carter, Neil H; Riley, Shawn J; Shortridge, Ashton; Shrestha, Binoj K; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-03-01

    In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal's Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person's position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges. PMID:23836312

  19. Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Among Students at a Canadian University

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Glenn Schellenberg; Jessie Hirt; Alan Sears

    1999-01-01

    We examined attitudes toward homosexuals amonga broad selection of undergraduates (101 men, 98 women)attending a Canadian university, where a vast majorityof the students are from working- or middle-class families of European descent. Attitudes towardgay men were more negative than attitudes towardlesbians. Compared to Science or Business students,students in the faculties of Arts or Social Science had more positive attitudes toward

  20. Overcoming Graduate Students' Negative Perceptions of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalayants, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been some attention in the literature to such issues as students' attitudes toward statistics, instructors are still constantly faced with the challenge to engage students; understand their perceptions, motivations, and interests; and deal with their reluctance and negative attitudes toward the field of statistics. The purpose…

  1. Negative ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Massey

    1976-01-01

    Topics covered include: the negative ion of hydrogen; ground states of complex atomic negative ions-theoretical considerations; the electron affinities of the elements; atomic negative ions-excited states-autodetachment, general account; autodetaching states of specific atomic negative ions; molecular negative ions-ground states; excited electronic states of molecular negative ions; modes of formation of negative ions-formation by radiative processes-radiative attachment and polar photodissociation; modes

  2. Correlates of health attitudes among homosexual and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Gust, Deborah A; Shinde, Sanjyot; Pals, Sherri L; Hardnett, Felicia; Chen, Robert T; Sanchez, Travis

    2013-03-01

    There is increased emphasis on physician attention to the overall health and wellness of homosexual and bisexual men, though little is known about the health-related attitudes of these groups. This study determined factors associated with the health attitudes of homosexual and bisexual men and identified preferred sources of health information. For this study, the 2008 ConsumerStyles panel survey was used to create three health attitude scales and to determine factors associated with each scale. The three scales were labeled: (1) health motivation; (2) relationship with health care provider; and (3) self-perception of health literacy. In addition to other factors, higher scores for health motivation and relationship with health care provider were associated with black compared with white men. In contrast, lower scores for self-perception of health literacy were associated with black compared with white men. For information on an unfamiliar health condition, most homosexual and bisexual men chose the Internet. Black homosexual and bisexual men reported being motivated to be healthy and working well with their health care provider to manage their health. However, their perception of their own health literacy [corrected] was low compared with the white men. Attempts to improve health literacy through Internet sites may be helpful in improving health attitudes and reducing negative health outcomes. PMID:23856536

  3. The Influence of Information and Daily Contact on Children's Attitudes Towards Aphasic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakay, Dan

    1985-01-01

    Influences upon attitudes towards aphasic children were studied when ordinary children (ages nine-14) were given explanations of, or had direct contact with, motoric aphasic children and explanations of their handicap. Attitudes of children exposed to daily contact were less negative and attitudes were more negative with decreasing age across…

  4. Agonists and antagonists of GnRH-I and -II reduce metastasis formation by triple-negative human breast cancer cells in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antje Schubert; Thomas Hawighorst; Günter Emons; Carsten Gründker

    Metastasis to bone is a frequent problem of advanced breast cancer. Particularly breast cancers, which do not express estrogen\\u000a and progesterone receptors and which have no overexpression\\/amplification of the HER2-neu gene, so called triple-negative\\u000a breast cancers, are considered as very aggressive and possess a bad prognosis. About 60% of all human breast cancers and about\\u000a 74% of triple-negative breast cancers

  5. Desulfoprunum benzoelyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-stain-negative, benzoate-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Junghare, Madan; Schink, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain KoBa311(T), isolated from the wastewater treatment plant at Konstanz, Germany, was characterized phenotypically and phylogenetically. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, oval to short rods, 3-5 µm long and 0.8-1.0 µm wide with rounded ends, dividing by binary fission and occurring singly or in pairs. The strain grew optimally in freshwater medium and the optimum temperature was 30 °C. Strain KoBa311(T) showed optimum growth at pH 7.3-7.6. Organic electron donors were oxidized completely to carbon dioxide concomitant with sulfate reduction to sulfide. At excess substrate supply, substrates were oxidized incompletely and acetate (mainly) and/or propionate accumulated. The strain utilized short-chain fatty acids, alcohols (except methanol) and benzoate. Sulfate and DMSO were used as terminal electron acceptors for growth. The genomic DNA G+C content was 52.3 mol% and the respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-5 (V-H2). The major fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1?7c/?6c and C18:1?7c. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain KoBa311(T) within the family Desulfobulbaceae in the class Deltaproteobacteria. Its closest related bacterial species on the basis of the distance matrix were Desulfobacterium catecholicum DSM 3882(T) (93.0% similarity), Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes (93.1%), Desulforhopalus singaporensis (92.9%), Desulfopila aestuarii (92.4%), Desulfopila inferna JS_SRB250Lac(T) (92.3%) and Desulfofustis glycolicus (92.3%). On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain KoBa311(T) was distinct from any related type species. Therefore, strain KoBa311(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Desulfoprunum benzoelyticum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desulfoprunum benzoelyticum is KoBa311(T) (?=DSM 28570(T)?=KCTC 15441(T)). PMID:25278560

  6. Development and Assessment of Traditional and Innovative Media to Reduce Individual HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Attitudes and Beliefs in India

    PubMed Central

    Catalani, Caricia; Castaneda, Diego; Spielberg, Freya

    2013-01-01

    Although stigma is considered a major barrier to effective response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, there is a lack of evidence on effective interventions. This media intervention took place among key HIV-vulnerable communities in Southern India. Two HIV stigma videos were created using techniques from traditional film production and new media digital storytelling. A series of 16 focus group discussions were held in 4 rural and 4 urban sites in South India, with specific groups for sex workers, men who have sex with men, young married women, and others. Focus groups with viewers of the traditional film (8 focus groups, 80 participants) and viewers of the new media production (8 focus groups, 69 participants) revealed the mechanisms through which storyline, characters, and esthetics influence viewers’ attitudes and beliefs about stigma. A comparative pre-/post-survey showed that audiences of both videos significantly improved their stigma scores. We found that a simple illustrated video, produced on a limited budget by amateurs, and a feature film, produced with an ample budget by professionals, elicited similar responses from audiences and similar positive short-term outcomes on stigma. PMID:24350190

  7. Attitudes towards psychotherapy manuals among clinicians treating eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Mountford, Victoria A; Tatham, Madeleine; Turner, Hannah; Gabriel, Chloe; Webber, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Clinicians have relatively low uptake and implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies for the eating disorders, and this problem appears to be associated with low use of manualized approaches. This study examines clinicians' positive and negative attitudes to manuals, and possible beliefs and emotional factors that might drive those attitudes. The participants were 125 psychological therapists working with eating-disordered patients. Each completed standardised measures of attitudes to manuals and emotional states. A number of beliefs about the content of manuals were associated with both positive attitudes to the outcome of treatment and negative attitudes to their impact on the treatment process. In addition, a more positive mood was associated with more positive attitudes. Suggestions are made regarding how attitudes might be made more positive, in order to facilitate the use of evidence-based therapies for eating disorders. PMID:24185103

  8. Racial and Gender Differences in Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Longitudinal Associations with Coital Debut

    PubMed Central

    Cuffee, Juanita J.; Hallfors, Denise D.; Waller, Martha W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Delay of sexual debut is an important strategy in reducing the risk of negative adolescent health outcomes. Race and gender are known to be related to sexual behavior and outcomes, but little is known about how these characteristics affect sexual attitudes. This paper examines differences in coital and pregnancy attitudes by gender and race, the influence of attitudes on transition to first coitus for each subgroup, and implications for prevention. Methods: Data are from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, limited to Non-Hispanic White and African American adolescents (N =6,652). We factor analyzed attitude items, and examined effects of race, gender, and their interaction, controlling for sexual debut at Wave I. We regressed sexual debut longitudinally by attitudes for virgins (N=3,281) separately for each subgroup, controlling for covariates. Results: Compared to boys, girls perceived less positive benefits from sex and more shame and guilt with sex, but had fewer negative perceptions about pregnancy. Compared to White boys, African American boys perceived less shame and guilt about sex; girls did not differ by race. Higher perceived benefits of sex increased the likelihood of sexual debut among African American girls. Perceived shame and guilt lowered the likelihood for White boys and girls. Conclusions: Reinforcing protective attitudes through gender and race-specific programs may delay sexual intercourse, but more research is needed. More research is also needed to determine whether there is an optimal coital age after which negative health outcomes are attenuated, and whether this differs by gender and race. PMID:17577530

  9. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention for enhancing adolescents' positive attitudes towards people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, George; Assimopoulos, Haris; Petanidou, Dimitra; Tzavara, Chara; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Tsiantis, John

    2012-01-01

    High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents' attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16–18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research. PMID:25478117

  10. An early Phase II randomised controlled trial testing the effect on persecutory delusions of using CBT to reduce negative cognitions about the self: The potential benefits of enhancing self confidence

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel; Pugh, Katherine; Dunn, Graham; Evans, Nicole; Sheaves, Bryony; Waite, Felicity; ?ernis, Emma; Lister, Rachel; Fowler, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Research has shown that paranoia may directly build on negative ideas about the self. Feeling inferior can lead to ideas of vulnerability. The clinical prediction is that decreasing negative self cognitions will reduce paranoia. Method Thirty patients with persistent persecutory delusions were randomised to receive brief CBT in addition to standard care or to standard care (ISRCTN06118265). The six session intervention was designed to decrease negative, and increase positive, self cognitions. Assessments at baseline, 8 weeks (posttreatment) and 12 weeks were carried out by a rater blind to allocation. The primary outcomes were posttreatment scores for negative self beliefs and paranoia. Secondary outcomes were psychological well-being, positive beliefs about the self, persecutory delusions, social comparison, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Results Trial recruitment and retention were feasible and the intervention highly acceptable to the patients. All patients provided follow-up data. Posttreatment there was a small reduction in negative self beliefs (Cohen's d = 0.24) and a moderate reduction in paranoia (d = 0.59), but these were not statistically significant. There were statistically significant improvements in psychological well-being (d = 1.16), positive beliefs about the self (d = 1.00), negative social comparison (d = 0.88), self-esteem (d = 0.62), and depression (d = 0.68). No improvements were maintained. No adverse events were associated with the intervention. Conclusions The intervention produced short-term gains consistent with the prediction that improving cognitions about the self will reduce persecutory delusions. The improvement in psychological well-being is important in its own right. We recommend that the different elements of the intervention are tested separately and that the treatment is lengthened. PMID:25468186

  11. Exploring attitudes toward older workers among Australian employers: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Gringart, Eyal; Helmes, Edward; Speelman, Craig Paul

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that negative stereotyping is at the heart of age discrimination in not hiring older workers. As the aging of the population creates pressures to maintain older adults in the work force, it is important to gain knowledge of such stereotyping. A random sample of 128 hiring decision-makers across Australian industries responded to a questionnaire that was specifically developed to assess attitudes toward older workers. Results showed systematic negative stereotyping: Respondents indicated that they were unlikely to hire older workers. The likelihood of hiring significantly correlated with employers' attitudes. Specific attributes for which older workers were seen as inferior compared to younger workers included trainability, adaptability, creativity, and interest in new technology. The findings could inform policymakers and be utilized to develop interventions aimed to reduce hiring discrimination. PMID:16219595

  12. Negative pressure wound therapy for post-sternotomy mediastinitis reduces mortality rate and sternal re-infection rate compared to conventional treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Petzina; Julia Hoffmann; Artashes Navasardyan; Malin Malmsjö; Christof Stamm; Axel Unbehaun; Roland Hetzer

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a recently introduced treatment modality for post-sternotomy mediastinitis. The aim of this study was to compare the mortality rate, the sternal re-infection rate and the length of hospital stay in patients with post-sternotomy mediastinitis after NPWT and conventional treatment. Methods: We retrospectively analysed 118 patients with post-sternotomy mediastinitis after cardiac surgery. One group

  13. High School Knowledge and Attitudes towards Thalassemia in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Motaharitabar, Eisa; Erfannia, Leila; Dashipour, Alireza; Houshvar, Marziyeh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Thalassemia (thal) is the most single gene disorders in southeast of Iran. About one quarter of total Iranian new thal cases were born in the Sistan and Balouchistan province so the aim of this study is to assess knowledge level and attitudes towards thal in high school students in Zahedan, capital of Sistan and Balouchistan province in Iran. Study design Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Methods This study was conducted on 762 Zahedan high school boys and girls students in 2009. The structured questionnaires were completed by students which consisted of three parts, namely demographic characteristics, knowledge part by 20 multiple choice questions and attitude part by 9 questions. Results The results indicated that only 14.7% students had good knowledge, good knowledge towards thal was 16.2% in boys and 29.1% in girls (P-value<0.001), positive attitude was 76.7% in boys and 84.7% in girls (P-value<0.029). Negative attitude in students who were born in villages and cities were 33.3% and 20.7% respectively (P-value=0.04). Good knowledge level in experimental field studied was between 2-4-fold more than other field students. Students in the last year high school had more knowledge and more positive attitude. Students’ knowledge score had no significant relationship with father education level (P-value=0.11) but had considerable difference with mother educational level (P-value=0.03). Conclusions It is concluded that long term and target based programs are suggested for high school students and local population of Sistan and Balouchistan where the trend of family marriages is quite high. These programs would impart valuable education and improve knowledge of people towards thal being couples in pre-marriage period and then after becoming parents thereby reducing the effects of disease. PMID:24505548

  14. A FLUCTUATING SALINITY REGIME MITIGATES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON THE ESTUARINE MACROALGA, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK. (R825381)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis...

  15. A FLUCTUATING SALINITY REGIME MITIGATES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON THE ESTUARINE MACROALGA, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK. (R827637)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis...

  16. When training boomerangs - Negative outcomes associated with Cockpit Resource Management programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Participants' self-reports and measures of attitudes regarding flightdeck management indicate that Cockpit Resource Management training is positively received and causes highly significant changes in attitudes regarding crew coordination and personal capabilities. However, a subset of participants react negatively to the training and show boomerangs (negative change) in attitudes. Explorations into the causes of this effect pinpoint personality factors and group dynamics as critical determinants of reactions to training and the magnitude and direction of attitude change.

  17. Perceived erotic value of homosexuality and sex?role attitudes as mediators of sex differences in heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. Louderback; Bernard E. Whitley Jr

    1997-01-01

    Research on attitudes toward lesbians and gay men commonly shows that heterosexual women hold similar attitudes toward members of the two groups, whereas heterosexual men hold more negative attitudes toward gay men than toward lesbians. We tested the hypothesis that one reason for this sex difference is that heterosexual men attribute a high erotic value to lesbianism and that this

  18. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n?=?500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (??=?0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (??=?0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (??=?0.19); also, both positive (??=?0.13) and negative (??=?-0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline. PMID:21336503

  19. Negative temperatures and negative dissipation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Machlup

    1975-01-01

    Negative absolute temperature, defined in terms of the Boltzmann factor, corresponds to an upside-down energy pyramid. The example of the laser shows population inversion to be accompanied by the switch from absorption to emission, that is, from positive to negative dissipation, from increasing disorder throughout a system to increasing order in a subsystem. Early treatments of the negative-temperature concept are

  20. Can the Radiation Dose to CT-Enlarged but FDG-PET-Negative Inguinal Lymph Nodes in Anal Cancer Be Reduced?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Kathrin Mai; Grit Welzel; Brigitte Hermann; Frederik Wenz; Uwe Haberkorn; Dietmar Jörg Dinter

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a \\u000a Purpose:\\u000a   To investigate whether a dose reduction to CT-enlarged but FDG-PET-negative (([18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography) inguinal lymph nodes in radiochemotherapy of anal cancer is safe.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:\\u000a   39 sequential patients with anal cancer (mean age 59 years [range: 37–86 years], median follow-up 26 months [range: 3–51 months])\\u000a receiving pretherapeutic FDG-PET were included. All patients were treated with combined radiochemotherapy

  1. Carbon-negative biofuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Mathews

    2008-01-01

    Current Kyoto-based approaches to reducing the earth's greenhouse gas problem involve looking for ways to reduce emissions. But these are palliative at best, and at worst will allow the problem to get out of hand. It is only through sequestration of atmospheric carbon that the problem can be solved. Carbon-negative biofuels represent the first potentially huge assault on the problem,

  2. Medical Students’ Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pantenburg, Birte; Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Schomerus, Georg; König, Hans-Helmut; Werner, Perla; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Studies from the USA have identified medical students as a major source of stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals. As data from Europe is scarce, medical students’ attitudes were investigated at the University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany. Design Cross-sectional survey containing an experimental manipulation consisting of a pair of vignettes depicting an obese and a normal weight 42-year-old woman, respectively. Vignettes were followed by the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), a semantic differential assessing weight related attitudes. In case of the overweight vignette a panel of questions on causal attribution for the overweight preceded administration of the FPS. Subjects 671 medical students were enrolled at the University of Leipzig from May to June 2011. Results The overweight vignette was rated significantly more negative than the normal weight vignette (mean FPS score 3.65±0.45 versus 2.54±0.38, p<0.001). A higher proportion of students had negative attitudes towards the overweight as compared to the normal weight individual (98.9% versus 53.7%, p<0.001). A “positive energy balance” was perceived as the most relevant cause for the overweight, followed by “negligent personality trait”, “societal and social environment” and “biomedical causes”. Attributing a “positive energy balance” or “negligent personality trait” as relevant cause for the overweight was positively associated with negative attitudes. Conclusion The results of this study confirm and complement findings from other countries, mainly the USA, and indicate that weight bias in the health care setting may be a global issue. Stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obesity are prevalent among a sample of medical students at the University of Leipzig. Negative attitudes arise on the basis of holding the individual accountable for the excess weight. They call for bringing the topic of overweight and obesity more into the focus of the medical curriculum and for enhancing medical students’ awareness of the complex aetiology of this health condition. PMID:23144850

  3. Expression of a functional NAD-reducing [NiFe] hydrogenase from the gram-positive Rhodococcus opacus in the gram-negative Ralstonia eutropha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antje Porthun; Michael Bernhard; Bärbel Friedrich

    2002-01-01

    The actinomycete Rhodococcus opacus MR11 harbors a bidirectional NAD-reducing [NiFe] hydrogenase (SH). This cytoplasmic enzyme is composed of two heterodimeric modules which catalyze distinct enzymatic activities. The hydrogenase moiety mediates H2:benzyl viologen oxidoreductase activity and the FMN-containing diaphorase module displays NADH:benzyl viologen oxidoreductase activity. The SH of Rh. opacus resembles [NiFe] hydrogenases present in strains of the proteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha

  4. How children with facial differences are perceived by non-affected children and adolescents: perceiver effects on stereotypical attitudes.

    PubMed

    Masnari, Ornella; Schiestl, Clemens; Weibel, Lisa; Wuttke, Franziska; Landolt, Markus A

    2013-09-01

    Children with a facial difference are presumed to be at risk of social stigmatization. The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to assess the effect of facial differences on social perceptions by unaffected children and adolescents; and (2) to identify perceiver characteristics that predict stereotypical attitudes toward facial differences. Participants were 344 non-affected children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years. Participants rated digitally altered images of 12 children depicted either with or without a facial difference. Results show that participants attributed less favorable characteristics to children with a facial difference than to those without. Moreover, participants reported less willingness to interact with or befriend a child with a facial difference. Significant predictors of low discriminative attitudes were older participant age and previous contact with someone with a facial difference. Our data call attention to the need for public education programs targeted at reducing negative attitudes toward facial differences. PMID:23810827

  5. Intergenerational Contact, Attitudes, and Stereotypes of Adolescents and Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshel, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Contradictory findings characterize the literature on the efficacy of intergenerational programs that bring children and older persons together for joint activities to promote more positive attitudes and stereotypes. Nor is it clear whether cross-generational attitudes are negative to begin with. The research reported in this paper operationalized…

  6. The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedkin, Noah E.

    2010-01-01

    The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude

  7. Gerontological Knowledge and Attitudes of Students of Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Abraham; Kaye, Lenard W.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the perceptions, expectations, and attitudes toward aging among students of religion and their graduate counterparts by means of structured interviews. Results revealed students had more positive attitudes toward young than old people, relatively low gerontological knowledge, and negative biases toward the aged. (RC)

  8. Attitudes of Dental Faculty toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Leonard A.; Grace, Edward G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of one dental school's faculty concerning attitudes toward homosexual or heterosexual patients with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia found significant negative biases both toward individuals with AIDS and toward homosexuals. (MSE)

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in attitudes towards cancer: an international cancer benchmarking partnership study

    PubMed Central

    Quaife, Samantha L.; Winstanley, Kelly; Robb, Katie A.; Simon, Alice E.; Ramirez, Amanda J.; Forbes, Lindsay J.L.; Brain, Kate E.; Gavin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) differences in attitudes towards cancer have been implicated in the differential screening uptake and the timeliness of symptomatic presentation. However, the predominant emphasis of this work has been on cancer fatalism, and many studies focus on specific community subgroups. This study aimed to assess SES differences in positive and negative attitudes towards cancer in UK adults. A population-based sample of UK adults (n=6965, age?50 years) completed the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer scale, including six belief items: three positively framed (e.g. ‘Cancer can often be cured’) and three negatively framed (e.g. ‘A cancer diagnosis is a death sentence’). SES was indexed by education. Analyses controlled for sex, ethnicity, marital status, age, self-rated health, and cancer experience. There were few education-level differences for the positive statements, and overall agreement was high (all>90%). In contrast, there were strong differences for negative statements (all Ps<0.001). Among respondents with lower education levels, 57% agreed that ‘treatment is worse than cancer’, 27% that cancer is ‘a death sentence’ and 16% ‘would not want to know if I have cancer’. Among those with university education, the respective proportions were 34, 17 and 6%. Differences were not explained by cancer experience or health status. In conclusion, positive statements about cancer outcomes attract near-universal agreement. However, this optimistic perspective coexists alongside widespread fears about survival and treatment, especially among less-educated groups. Health education campaigns targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged groups might benefit from a focus on reducing negative attitudes, which is not necessarily achieved by promoting positive attitudes. PMID:25734238

  10. Effect of the Challenger Experience on Elementary Children's Attitudes to Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Explores how the Challenger experience influenced over 655 elementary boys' and girls' general attitudes toward science and space during the five months after their visit by examining their responses to four different attitude scales. Discusses positive outcomes and negative effects of the Challenger experience on children's attitude toward…

  11. Is Contact with People with Disabilities a Guarantee for Positive Implicit and Explicit Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Sascha; Grumm, Mandy; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the past 50 years research on attitudes toward people with disabilities has repeatedly revealed negative attitudes by predominantly using self-report measures. The main aim of the present contribution was to develop an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess implicit attitudes toward people with disabilities. For this purpose 47 university…

  12. A Key to the Future: The Attitudes and Values of Adolescent Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Kay, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Based on original empirical data collected from adolescents in Europe (N = 9003) this paper focuses the lifeworlds of young people. It analyses negative and positive patterns of attitude and combines them with further concepts: personal life perspectives, various key values and political attitudes. Technically, the attitude towards Europe acts as…

  13. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own…

  14. Regular and Special Educators: Handicap Integration Attitudes and Implications for Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Karen D.

    1985-01-01

    One-hundred twenty-eight regular and 133 special educators responded to a questionnaire on mainstreaming. The two groups were similiar in their attitudes. Regular educators displayed more negative attitudes, but the differences rarely reached significance. Group differences became more apparent when attitudes concerning specific handicapping…

  15. Self-Defense, Sexism, and Etiological Beliefs: Predictors of Attitudes toward Gay and Lesbian Adoption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B J Rye; Glenn J. Meaney

    2010-01-01

    While attitudes toward gay and lesbian civil rights issues have generally become more positive, attitudes regarding the rights of gay and lesbian couples to adopt children are relatively more negative. It is proposed that attitudes toward homosexual adoption are rooted in self-protective defense mechanisms, sexism, and beliefs about the etiology of sexual orientation. A sample of Introductory Psychology students was

  16. Attitudes towards prisoners, as reported by prison inmates, prison employees and college students

    PubMed Central

    Kjelsberg, Ellen; Skoglund, Tom Hilding; Rustad, Aase-Bente

    2007-01-01

    Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Results The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Conclusion The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated. PMID:17480213

  17. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

  18. Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwitt, Linda F.

    Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

  19. Negative learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Oppenheimer; Brian C. O’Neill; Mort Webster

    2008-01-01

    New technical information may lead to scientific beliefs that diverge over time from the a posteriori right answer. We call this phenomenon, which is particularly problematic in the global change arena, negative learning. Negative\\u000a learning may have affected policy in important cases, including stratospheric ozone depletion, dynamics of the West Antarctic\\u000a ice sheet, and population and energy projections. We simulate

  20. Personality, organizational stress, and attitudes toward work as prospective predictors of professional burnout in hospital nurses

    PubMed Central

    Hudek-Kneževi?, Jasna; Kalebi? Maglica, Barbara; Krapi?, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Aim To examine to what extent personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), organizational stress, and attitudes toward work and interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work prospectively predict 3 components of burnout. Methods The study was carried out on 118 hospital nurses. Data were analyzed by a set of hierarchical regression analyses, in which personality traits, measures of organizational stress, and attitudes toward work, as well as interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work were included as predictors, while 3 indices of burnout were measured 4 years later as criteria variables. Results Personality traits proved to be significant but weak prospective predictors of burnout and as a group predicted only reduced professional efficacy (R2?=?0.10), with agreeableness being a single negative predictor. Organizational stress was positive, affective-normative commitment negative predictor, while continuance commitment was not related to any dimension of burnout. We found interactions between neuroticism as well as conscientiousness and organizational stress, measured as role conflict and work overload, on reduced professional efficacy (?NRCWO?=?-0.30; ßcRCWO?=?-0.26). We also found interactions between neuroticism and affective normative commitment (??=?0.24) and between openness and continuance commitment on reduced professional efficacy (??=?-0.23), as well as interactions between conscientiousness and continuance commitment on exhaustion. Conclusion Although contextual variables were strong prospective predictors and personality traits weak predictors of burnout, the results suggested the importance of the interaction between personality and contextual variables in predicting burnout. PMID:21853549

  1. Patients attitudes towards sleep disturbances during chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Romito, F; Cormio, C; De Padova, S; Lorusso, V; Berio, M A; Fimiani, F; Piattelli, A; Palazzo, S; Abram, G; Dudine, L; Guglielmi, A; Galise, I; Romito, S; Mattioli, V

    2014-05-01

    Sleep disturbances are among the most distressing symptoms in cancer: they often co-occur with fatigue, pain and psychological distress. Despite the negative impact on quality of life, patients rarely seek help for managing their sleep disturbances. This paper presents the results of a multicentre observational study on patients' attitudes towards their sleep problems. The study also investigates symptom correlates. Patients responded to a semi-structured interview and completed the following questionnaires: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Brief Fatigue Inventory; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life QLQ-C30 Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Four hundred and three cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Bad sleepers constituted 66% of the sample. Thirty-eight per cent of them had not turned to any professional to solve their sleep disturbances because they had various beliefs about the importance of the problem and the possibility to be treated. The main correlates of sleep disturbances were psychological distress, reduced physical functioning and reduced overall quality of life. In conclusion, there is a need to sensitise patients to actively search for a solution to their sleep disturbances so they can be solved along with other co-occurring symptoms. Doctors could also be encouraged to dedicate more attention to routinely asking cancer patients about eventual sleep disturbances. PMID:23947497

  2. High Radiation Dose May Reduce the Negative Effect of Large Gross Tumor Volume in Patients With Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Lujun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); West, Brady T. [Center for Statistical Consultation and Research, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lyons, Susan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cease, Kemp [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: Fengkong@med.umich.edu

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the effect of radiation dose varies with gross tumor volume (GTV) in patients with stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 114 consecutive patients with medically inoperable stage I/II NSCLC treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy between 1992 and 2004. The median biologic equivalent dose (BED) was 79.2 Gy (range, 58.2-124.5 Gy). The median GTV was 51.8 cm{sup 3} (range, 2.1-727.8 cm{sup 3}). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant interaction between radiation dose and GTV (p < 0.001). In patients with BED {<=}79.2 Gy (n = 68), the OS medians for patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} and {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} were 18.2 and 23.9 months, respectively (p 0.015). If BED was >79.2 Gy (n = 46), no significant difference was found between GTV groups (p = 0.681). For patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the OS medians in those with BED >79.2 Gy and {<=}79.2 Gy were 30.4 and 18.2 months, respectively (p < 0.001). If GTV was {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the difference was no longer significant (p = 0.577). Conclusion: High-dose radiation is more important for patients with larger tumors and may be effective in reducing the adverse outcome associated with large GTV. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  3. Attitudes about Food

    E-print Network

    Baker, Nicole Alexis

    2012-10-19

    Approximately 18% of adolescents are obese. Attitudes about Food is a cross sectional study that seeks to identify lifestyle factors associated with adolescent obesity such as fast food consumption, physical activity, attitudes about fast food...

  4. Attitudes about Food 

    E-print Network

    Baker, Nicole Alexis

    2012-10-19

    Approximately 18% of adolescents are obese. Attitudes about Food is a cross sectional study that seeks to identify lifestyle factors associated with adolescent obesity such as fast food consumption, physical activity, attitudes about fast food...

  5. Attitude Set, Group Learning, and Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyne, Dwight Carroll

    A special Training Institute on Problems of School Desegregation was held at the North Carolina Advancement School; the project was undertaken to determine the degree of attitude change related to group learning method, social attitude set, and characteristics of race, sex, and age among 72 teachers and counselors participating in an adult…

  6. Attitude changes during and after long submarine missions.

    PubMed

    Weybrew, B B; Molish, H B

    1979-01-01

    To assess the kind and degree of attitude changes occurring during a 2-month submerged mission, two enlisted crews of one fleet ballistic missile submarine (FBM) (n = 101 each) were administered the Submarine Attitude Questionnaire before and after two 55-day submerged missions interspersed with a rehabilitation period of the same duration. Results showed that time-in-service and pay grade bore a U-shaped relationship to positive attitudes toward the service. During submergence, most attitudes became negative and then reversed polarity during rehabilitation. However, there were no cumulative effects upon attitudes during successive missions. Attitudes pertaining to the realities of the mission (for example, boredom, hazardous aspects) became more negative but recovered faster. On the other hand, attitude changes related to long-range expectancies in terms of goal achievement of the crew members were less likely to recover. Several possible explanations for these attitude changes are discussed in the context of the mission of the FBM submarine. Suggestions for preventing or alleviating untoward attitude changes during long submarine missions are also presented. PMID:505625

  7. Impact of Perceived Consensus on Stereotypes About Obese People: A New Approach for Reducing Bias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca M. Puhl; Marlene B. Schwartz; Kelly D. Brownell

    2005-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors tested the effect of perceived social consensus on attitudes toward obese people. Participants completed self-report measures of attitudes toward obese people prior to and after manipulated consensus feedback depicting attitudes of others. In Study 1 (N = 60), participants decreased negative and increased positive stereotypes after learning that others held more favorable attitudes toward obese

  8. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  9. Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Sebastian; Wolff, Wanja; Kissler, Johanna M.; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Direct assessment of attitudes toward socially sensitive topics can be affected by deception attempts. Reaction-time based indirect measures, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), are less susceptible to such biases. Neuroscientific evidence shows that deception can evoke characteristic ERP differences. However, the cerebral processes involved in faking an IAT are still unknown. We randomly assigned 20 university students (15 females, 24.65 ± 3.50 years of age) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design, requesting them to complete a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping without deception instruction, and with the instruction to fake positive and negative doping attitudes. Cerebral activity during BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Event-related potentials during faking revealed enhanced frontal and reduced occipital negativity, starting around 150 ms after stimulus presentation. Further, a decrease in the P300 and LPP components was observed. Source analyses showed enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus between 150 and 200 ms during faking, thought to reflect the suppression of automatic responses. Further, more activity was found for faking in the bilateral middle occipital gyri and the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Results indicate that faking reaction-time based tests alter brain processes from early stages of processing and reveal the cortical sources of the effects. Analyzing the EEG helps to uncover response patterns in indirect attitude tests and broadens our understanding of the neural processes involved in such faking. This knowledge might be useful for uncovering faking in socially sensitive contexts, where attitudes are likely to be concealed. PMID:26074798

  10. Best Practices for Measuring Students’ Attitudes toward Learning Science

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students’ learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students’ attitudes influence their learning. Students’ science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students’ attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students’ attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data. PMID:24297288

  11. Factors influencing conservation attitudes of local people in Western Serengeti, Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jafari R. Kideghesho; Eivin Røskaft; Bjørn P. Kaltenborn

    2007-01-01

    Attitudinal studies are increasingly being adopted as tools for evaluating public understanding, acceptance and the impact\\u000a of conservation interventions. The findings of these studies have been useful in guiding the policy interventions. Many factors\\u000a affect conservation attitudes positively or negatively. The factors inspiring positive attitudes are likely to enhance the\\u000a conservation objectives while those inducing negative attitudes may detrimentally undermine

  12. Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.

  13. The effects of priming on children's attitudes toward older individuals.

    PubMed

    Hoe, Sony; Davidson, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine younger (7-years-old) and older (10-years-old) children's attitudes toward older individuals following one type of five primes: positive prime, negative prime, elderly prime, grandparent prime, or neutral prime. Overall, children's attitudes on three tests--Apperception, Semantic Differential, and Attribute Salience--were affected by the type of prime children were given, with positive and grandparent primes resulting in more positive views toward older individuals than negative, elderly, or neutral (control group) primes. The present research provides evidence that priming the most accessible cognitions about an individual can affect even young children's perception of the individual. These results are discussed in terms of category-based and data-driven processing and may explain the disparate findings obtained in previous studies that have shown the children's attitudes toward older individuals are sometimes negative, whereas other studies have shown that children's attitudes are more positive or neutral. PMID:12735546

  14. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

  15. Negative Messages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jurrien Gregor HALFF

    2010-01-01

    Most people think that if we send out a coherent negative message to stakeholders, everything will be fine. But, as Associate Professor Gregor Halff points out, the reality is very different. During a critical situation, there will be more people talking about you than with you.\\u000aHalff shares in this enlightening video that the key to a successful outcome is

  16. The Attitude of Iranian Nurses About Do Not Resuscitate Orders

    PubMed Central

    Mogadasian, Sima; Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Rahmani, Azad; Ferguson, Caleb; Pakanzad, Fermisk; Pakpour, Vahid; Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Do not resuscitate (DNR) orders are one of many challenging issues in end of life care. Previous research has not investigated Muslim nurses’ attitudes towards DNR orders. Aims: This study aims to investigate the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR orders and determine the role of religious sects in forming attitudes. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, 306 nurses from five hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS) in East Azerbaijan Province and three hospitals in Kurdistan province participated. Data were gathered by a survey design on attitudes on DNR orders. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software examining descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Participants showed their willingness to learn more about DNR orders and highlights the importance of respecting patients and their families in DNR orders. In contrast, in many key items participants reported their negative attitude towards DNR orders. There were statistical differences in two items between the attitude of Shiite and Sunni nurses. Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education. PMID:24600178

  17. The Impact of College Student Money Attitudes on Credit Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Marguerite; Carpenter, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    Growing concern among academics, policymakers and educators to address credit abuse among college students prompts a need for greater understanding of the determinants of these negative behaviors. The present study investigates the impact of individuals' money attitudes on both negative and positive credit behaviors within a single empirical model…

  18. Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Teresita M.; Chan, Shu B.; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. Conclusion EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. PMID:25035760

  19. Conflicting attitudes to corneal and organ donation: a study of nurses' attitudes to organ donation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bridie Kent; R. Glynn Owens

    1995-01-01

    The demand for transplantable organs and tissues is steadily increasing and action is necessary to improve the organ and tissue donation rates. Previous research has suggested that nurses have a substantial influence on the rates of donation in the clinical area. Nurses (N = 150) were asked to complete a number of measures to assess positive and negative attitudes towards

  20. Heterosexual attitudes toward same-sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996

  1. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is the workhorse of real-time spacecraft attitude estimation. Since the group SO3 of rotation matrices has dimension three, most attitude determination EKFs use lower- dimensional attitude parameterizations than the nine-parameter attitude matrix itself. The fact that all three- parameter representations of SO3 are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to extended discussions of constraints and attitude representations in EKFs. The most successful EKF uses a nonsingular parameterization for the global attitude, which necessarily has more than three parameters, while employing a three-component representation for the attitude errors. This filter has become known as the Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter. These issues are now well understood, however, and the EKF has performed admirably in the vast majority of attitude determination applications. Nevertheless, poor performance or even divergence arising from the linearization implicit in the EKF has led to the development of nonlinear filters, most recently sigma point or unscented filters and particle filters.

  2. The Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution Scale: A New Tool for Measuring Public Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Lia; Peled, Einat

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…

  3. Knowledge of and attitudes towards evidence-based practices in community child mental health practitioners.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Brad J; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Okamura, Kelsie H; Shimabukuro, Scott

    2011-07-01

    Research in the dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) suggests that practitioners' knowledge of and attitudes towards EBPs influence their decisions to adopt such practices. This study investigated the relationships between practitioner background variables and EBP knowledge and attitudes, as well as the relationship between knowledge and attitudes among public sector youth direct service providers (n = 240). Findings suggest that knowledge and attitudes relate to practitioners' most advanced degree, practice setting, and licensure status. Additionally, lack of knowledge in the form of EBP under-identification was related to negative attitudes. Findings are discussed as they relate to the dissemination of EBPs. PMID:21499945

  4. Anti-permissive attitudes to lifestyles associated with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, L A; McQueen, D V

    1993-04-01

    AIDS is in the tradition of diseases which have given moral interpretations. One way in which this moralistic perspective may express itself is by members of the public holding high risk groups responsible for their (AIDS related) lifestyles and their considering AIDS to be a self-inflicted disease. A unique data source of 7000 verbatim comments recorded in the course of 25,000 structured Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews on Lifestyle and Health which contain a substantial component on AIDS--knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and sexual behaviour, was used to document negative attitudes to 'AIDS related lifestyles'. These comments revealed that despite evidence of concern about drug use, many respondents consider AIDS to be irrelevant to the majority of the population. There is some evidence that AIDS has contributed to reinforcing negative attitudes towards homosexuality and drug use, especially among older respondents. Extreme punitive attitudes towards high risk groups were expressed by a small minority (predominantly males). PMID:8480235

  5. Attitudes toward homosexuality: Preservation of sex morality or the double standard?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. MacDonald; Jim Huggins; Susan Young; Richard A. Swanson

    1973-01-01

    Administered a battery of psychological tests concerning sex roles, attitudes, and permissiveness to 47 male and 57 female university students and faculty, to study the sources of the nonhomosexual's attitudes toward homosexuality. The hypothesis that attitudes are determined by a need to preserve a double standard, i.e., to condemn the homosexual in order to reduce sex-role confusion, was confirmed.

  6. Ground performance of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) attitude control system

    E-print Network

    Ground performance of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) attitude control system Kurt and 1 arcminute angular resolution place challenging demands on its attitude control system (ACS to reduce drift rates significantly, enabling a predicted 1 absolute attitude determination of 4.7. HEFT

  7. Thoughts on attitude measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman Reid

    2006-01-01

    Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner attitudes to explore why they were deserting

  8. Management Attitudes toward Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    In an attempt to discover management attitudes toward productivity, including management's views about worker attitudes and their motivation, managerial practices and organization, and possible changes to effect improvements in productivity, the United States Chamber of Commerce surveyed a sample of 1,870 top business executives across the country…

  9. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  10. Pornography and Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Douglas H.; Wehmer, Gerald

    1971-01-01

    The results indicate that a voluntary three hour exposure to erotic pictures, some of which have been defined as being legally obscene," does not lead to a change in a person's attitudes toward such materials or in attitudes toward their censorship. (Author)

  11. Assessment of Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Mark W.; Kershner, Keith M.

    The Assessment of Student Attitudes Scale (ASA) is a Likert-type instrument composed of 26 items grouped to yield four subtest scores and a total score. Data indicates that the ASA is both a reliable and valid measurement tool for the assessment of secondary school-age students' attitudes toward learning environments. (Author)

  12. Transmission of social attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

    1986-01-01

    Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179

  13. Hierarchical Models of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Srinivas K.; LaBarbera, Priscilla A.

    1985-01-01

    The application and use of hierarchical models is illustrated, using the example of the structure of attitudes toward a new product and a print advertisement. Subjects were college students who responded to seven-point bipolar scales. Hierarchical models were better than nonhierarchical models in conceptualizing attitude but not intention. (GDC)

  14. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies. PMID:25693867

  15. Remote attitude measurement tecniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmer, J. F.

    A probabilistic approach is developed to treat practical problems in physical geometry where the necessary data are measured by separated sensors. Remote measurement of the attitude of these sensor's own local coordinate system into its equivalent description in a common coordinate system. A technique is presented to determine the relative attitude of remotely located sensors based upon each sensor measuring the same set of two physical vectors. Sensors measure physical vectors in terms of probabilistic vectors. The attitude of the sensor is expressed in terms of a probabilitic matrix. The engineering considerations for implementing a remote attitude measurement, ReAtMent, system are presented including the development of an error budget necessary to insure that the ReAtMent system performs to the required accuracy. An experimental section is presented using an electro-optical sensor whose attitude is measured in terms of a probabilistic matrix.

  16. Attitudes and persuasion.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila

    2006-01-01

    Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding. PMID:16318599

  17. Teachers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Testor, Carles; Behar, Julia; Davins, Montse; Conde Sala, José Luís; Castillo, José A; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, Elisabeth; Segarra, Sabina

    2010-05-01

    Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers' and other professionals' attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy between likely behavior and personal values was significantly greater in women, those who hold religious beliefs, churchgoers and people without any gay or lesbian acquaintances. Approximately 88% of the teachers showed no type of prejudiced attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women. The experience of proximity to gay men and/or lesbian women reduces not only the discrepancy between personal values and likely behavior but also the presence of homophobic prejudice. It would be advisable to expand specific teacher training in the subject of sexual diversity in order to reduce prejudicial attitudes, thus fostering non-stereotyped knowledge of homosexuality. PMID:20480684

  18. Flavokawain B, a kava chalcone, exhibits robust apoptotic mechanisms on androgen receptor-negative, hormone-refractory prostate cancer cell lines and reduces tumor growth in a preclinical model

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yaxiong; Li, Xuesen; Liu, Zhongbo; Simoneau, Anne R.; Xie, Jun; Zi, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Limited success has been achieved in extending the survival of patients with metastatic and hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). There is a strong need for novel agents in the treatment and prevention of HRPC. We have shown that flavokawain B (FKB), a kava chalcone, is about 4 to 12 fold more effective in reducing the cell viabilities of androgen receptor (AR)-negative, HRPC cell lines DU145 and PC-3 than AR–positive, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell lines LAPC4 and LNCaP, with minimal effect on normal prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. FKB induces apoptosis with an associated increased expression of proapoptotic proteins: death receptor-5, Bim and Puma, and a decreased expression of inhibitors of apoptosis protein: XIAP and survivin. Among them, Bim expression was significantly induced by FKB as early as four hours of the treatment. Knockdown of Bim expression by short-hairpin RNAs attenuates the inhibitory effect on anchorage-dependent and-independent growth and caspase cleavages induced by FKB. These findings suggesting the effect of FKB, at least in part, requires Bim expression. In addition, FKB synergize with TRAIL for markedly enhanced induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, FKB treatment of mice bearing DU145 xenograft tumors results in tumor growth inhibition and increases Bim expression in tumor tissues. Together, these results suggest robust mechanisms for FKB induction of apoptosis preferentially for HRPC and the potential usefulness of FKB for prevention and treatment of HRPC in an adjuvant setting. PMID:20112340

  19. Experiencing ownership over a dark-skinned body reduces implicit racial bias

    PubMed Central

    Maister, Lara; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated how existing social attitudes towards other races affect the way we ‘share’ their bodily experiences, for example in empathy for pain, and sensorimotor mapping. Here, we ask whether it is possible to alter implicit racial attitudes by experimentally increasing self-other bodily overlap. Employing a bodily illusion known as the ‘Rubber Hand Illusion’, we delivered multisensory stimulation to light-skinned Caucasian participants to induce the feeling that a dark-skinned hand belonged to them. We then measured whether this could change their implicit racial biases against people with dark skin. Across two experiments, the more intense the participants’ illusion of ownership over the dark-skinned rubber hand, the more positive their implicit racial attitudes became. Importantly, it was not the pattern of multisensory stimulation per se, but rather, it was the change in the subjective experience of body ownership that altered implicit attitudes. These findings suggest that inducing an overlap between the bodies of self and other through illusory ownership is an effective way to change and reduce negative implicit attitudes towards outgroups. PMID:23680793

  20. Social attitudes towards smoking in pregnancy in East Surrey: A qualitative study of smokers, former smokers and non-smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leona Bull; Ronan Burke; Siobhan Walsh; Emma Whitehead

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken to explore social attitudes towards smoking by pregnant women, mothers of preschool children and their partners based in Merstham and Horley, East Surrey. All respondents felt that smoking in pregnancy was associated with considerable social stigma and negative social attitudes. Non-smokers were particularly negative in their views on smoking in pregnancy feeling that it was

  1. Translation as a Pedagogical Tool in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Qualitative Study of Attitudes and Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Niamh; Bruen, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature on language teaching reveals predominantly negative attitudes towards the use of translation in language teaching (TILT) (Cook, 2010). The purpose of this article is to explore the question of whether this negativity is reflected in the attitudes and behaviours of university lecturers engaged in language teaching as well…

  2. Stigmatizing attitudes towards people with pedophilia and their malleability among psychotherapists in training.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Sara; Philipp, Kathleen; Hoyer, Juergen

    2015-02-01

    Offering counseling and psychotherapy to patients with pedophilia is considered an essential part of sexual abuse prevention by many experts in the field. Yet, professionals' willingness to offer treatment might be compromised by stigmatizing attitudes towards these patients. In the present study, we developed and tested a 10-min online intervention (including educational material and a video about a person with pedophilia) to reduce stigma and increase motivation to work with this particular patient group. Psychotherapists in training were either assigned to the anti-stigma intervention group (n=68) or the control group (n=69) that received information about violence-free parenting. In the anti-stigma condition, agreement with the stereotypes controllability and dangerousness, anger, reduced pity and social distance were significantly reduced after the intervention, compared to the control group, while motivation to work with this group remained unchanged. The effects persisted, though slightly reduced in size, for perceived controllability, anger and social distance at follow-up. Our results suggest that stigmatizing attitudes, negative affective responses and social distance regarding people with pedophilia among psychotherapists in training can be positively influenced by a low-cost intervention. Practical implications of these findings for high quality health care and child sexual abuse prevention are discussed. PMID:25085206

  3. Attitudes Toward Nontraditional Academic Programs: Attitude Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Dan

    Little research has been done on attitudes toward and levels of support for nontraditional academic programs in higher education. A research project was conducted involving students, faculty, professional staff, and administrators at three institutions of varying size, location, and academic program: The University of Massachusetts at Amherst;…

  4. Hypochondriacal attitudes comprise heterogeneous non-illness-related cognitions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypochondriacal attitudes were associated with cognitions not related to illness: Social fears, low self-esteem, and reduced warm glow effect, i.e. less positive appraisal of familiar stimuli. Only a single study had investigated the correlation of hypochondriacal attitudes with the warm glow effect so far and the present study aimed to corroborate this association. Particularly, the present investigation tested for the first time whether social fears, low self-esteem, and reduced warm glow effect represent distinct or related biases in hypochondriacal attitudes. Methods Fifty-five volunteers filled in the Hypochondriacal Beliefs and Disease Phobia scales of the Illness Attitude Scales, two scales enquiring social fears of criticism and intimacy, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The interaction of valence and spontaneous familiarity ratings of Chinese characters indicated the warm glow effect. Results A stepwise regression model revealed specific covariance of social fears and warm glow with hypochondriacal attitudes independent from the respective other variable. The correlation between low self-esteem and hypochondriacal attitudes missed significance. Conclusions Hypochondriacal attitudes are embedded in a heterogeneous cluster of non-illness-related cognitions. Each social fears and a reduced cognitive capacity to associate two features – positive appraisal and familiarity - could diminish the susceptibility to safety signals such as medical reassurance. To compensate for reduced susceptibility to safety signals, multifocal treatment and repeated consultations appear advisable. PMID:23075409

  5. Panoramic attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, I. C.

    1976-01-01

    Each subassembly, design analysis, and final calibration data on all assemblies for the Panormic Attitude Sensor (PAS) are described. The PAS is used for course attitude determination on the International Ultraviolet Explorer Spacecraft (IUE). The PAS contains a sun sensor which is sensitive only to the sun's radiation and a mechanically scanned sensor which is sensitive to the earth, moon, and the sun. The signals from these two sensors are encoded and sent back in the telemetry data stream to determine the spacecraft attitude.

  6. Viewpoint Carbon-negative biofuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Mathews

    Current Kyoto-based approaches to reducing the earth's greenhouse gas problem involve looking for ways to reduce emissions. But these are palliative at best, and at worst will allow the problem to get out of hand. It is only through sequestration of atmospheric carbon that the problem can be solved. Carbon-negative biofuels represent the first potentially huge assault on the problem,

  7. A linkage of knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality: not necessarily a uniform relationship.

    PubMed

    Hillman, J L; Stricker, G

    1994-04-01

    A critical review of the literature regarding individuals' knowledge and their attitudes toward elderly sexuality is presented. A generally positive relationship was discovered between various age cohorts' depth of knowledge and their permissiveness of attitudes. However, some health care providers demonstrated a negative relationship between their knowledge and attitudes. In future studies, the use of a moderator methodology, rather than seeking a uniform relationship, appears essential in order to understand discrepant findings. PMID:8005500

  8. University of Malaya dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning: implications for dental education.

    PubMed

    Nor, Nor Azlida M; Yusof, Zamros Y M; Shahidan, Mohd Noor F M

    2011-12-01

    The Ministry of Higher Education in Malaysia has called for the implementation of a soft skills module in all public universities in Malaysia. In response to this and as part of curriculum development efforts for a new integrated program for 2011, a study was undertaken to improve the University of Malaya (UM) Faculty of Dentistry's communication skills course. One of the study objectives was to investigate dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning and the association between their attitudes and demographic and education-related characteristics. A cross-sectional survey--using a self-administered twenty-four-item adapted Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) that contained both positive (PAS) and negative (NAS) attitude subscales--was carried out targeting all final-year dental students at the UM and the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). A total of 148 students completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 88.1 percent. Overall, UKM students had significantly more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning (PAS score: mean=48.69, SD=4.48, p<0.001) than UM students (mean=46.03, SD=4.22). There was no statistically significant difference in negative attitudes between the two groups. UKM students with more positive attitudes tended to be female (p<0.05). UM students with more negative attitudes perceived themselves as poor communicators (p<0.05), and UKM students with more negative attitudes tended to have poor English proficiency (p<0.05). This study found that both UM and UKM final-year dental students have positive and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. These attitudes were significantly associated with certain background and education-related attributes. Outcomes of this study served as a valuable guide in strengthening the communication skills course for the UM's new, integrated dental curriculum. PMID:22184601

  9. Do women's provider-role attitudes moderate the links between work and family?

    PubMed

    Helms-Erikson, H; Tanner, J L; Crouter, A C; McHale, S M

    2000-12-01

    The authors examined the links between mothers' work qualities and their individual well-being and marital quality, as well as adolescent daughters' and sons' gender-role attitudes, as a function of mothers' provider-role attitudes, in 134 dual-earner families. In home interviews, mothers described their work, provider-role attitudes, family relationships, and mental health; their offspring reported gender-role attitudes. Women's attitudes about breadwinning were coded into main-secondary, coprovider, and ambivalent coprovider groups. Mothers' provider-role attitudes moderated the links between status indicators and mothers' depression, marital conflict, and daughters' gender-role attitudes. For example, depression and marital conflict were negatively related to coprovider mothers' earnings and occupational prestige. The same was not true for main-secondary and ambivalent coprovider mothers. These findings underscore the importance of considering employed women's interpretation of their work roles when exploring work-family links. PMID:11132487

  10. Change my body, change my mind: the effects of illusory ownership of an outgroup hand on implicit attitudes toward that outgroup

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Harry; Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-01-01

    The effect of multisensory-induced changes on body-ownership and self-awareness using bodily illusions has been well established. More recently, experimental manipulation of bodily illusions have been combined with social cognition tasks to investigate whether changes in body-ownership can in turn change the way we perceive others. For example, experiencing ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand reduces implicit bias against dark-skin groups. Several studies have also shown that processing of skin color and facial features play an important role in judgements of racial typicality and racial categorization independently and in an additive manner. The present study aimed at examining whether using multisensory stimulation to induce feelings of body-ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand would lead to an increase in positive attitudes toward black faces. We here show, that the induced ownership of a body-part of a different skin color affected the participants’ implicit attitudes when processing facial features, in addition to the processing of skin color shown previously. Furthermore, when the levels of pre-existing attitudes toward black people were taken into account, the effect of the rubber hand illusion on the post-stimulation implicit attitudes was only significant for those participants who had a negative initial attitude toward black people, with no significant effects found for those who had positive initial attitudes toward black people. Taken together, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that the representation of the self and its relation to others, as given to us by body-related multisensory processing, is critical in maintaining but also in changing social attitudes. PMID:24454301

  11. Factor analyses of condom attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy measures in diverse samples.

    PubMed

    Pratte, Katherine; Whitesell, Nancy; McFarlane, Mary; Bull, Sheana

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of condom attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy is variable, reducing research generalizability. The purpose of this study was to assess reliability and construct validity of measures of condom attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy across 3,989 youth. Data were collected at computer kiosks and on the Internet. Analyses included internal consistency reliability assessments and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of three constructs in a 32-item a priori instrument. Reliability estimates ranged between 0.68 and 0.89, and goodness of fit indices all exceeded 0.90. Factor analysis results supported the compatibility of the items from the three subscales with their conceptual domains. Final scales include measures of positive and negative outcome expectancies related to condom use, peer and partner condom norms, self-efficacy for condom negotiation, and self-efficacy for condom use. These measures of condom attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy can be employed for assessments to improve standardization of measures and generalizability of research, particularly related to HIV prevention. PMID:21290923

  12. Children's Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    Children's attitudes and beliefs about death and dying are examined, and some recommendations are made to parents, teachers, and administrators to establish a base from which the child can operate during encounters with death and dying. (JMF)

  13. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  14. Evidence-informed recommendations to reduce dissemination bias in clinical research: conclusions from the OPEN (Overcome failure to Publish nEgative fiNdings) project based on an international consensus meeting

    PubMed Central

    Meerpohl, Joerg J; Schell, Lisa K; Bassler, Dirk; Gallus, Silvano; Kleijnen, Jos; Kulig, Michael; La Vecchia, Carlo; Maruši?, Ana; Ravaud, Philippe; Reis, Andreas; Schmucker, Christine; Strech, Daniel; Urrútia, Gerard; Antes, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Dissemination bias in clinical research severely impedes informed decision-making not only for healthcare professionals and patients, but also for funders, research ethics committees, regulatory bodies and other stakeholder groups that make health-related decisions. Decisions based on incomplete and biased evidence cannot only harm people, but may also have huge financial implications by wasting resources on ineffective or harmful diagnostic and therapeutic measures, and unnecessary research. Owing to involvement of multiple stakeholders, it remains easy for any single group to assign responsibility for resolving the problem to others. Objective To develop evidence-informed general and targeted recommendations addressing the various stakeholders involved in knowledge generation and dissemination to help overcome the problem of dissemination bias on the basis of previously collated evidence. Methods Based on findings from systematic reviews, document analyses and surveys, we developed general and targeted draft recommendations. During a 2-day workshop in summer 2013, these draft recommendations were discussed with external experts and key stakeholders, and refined following a rigorous and transparent methodological approach. Results Four general, overarching recommendations applicable to all or most stakeholder groups were formulated, addressing (1) awareness raising, (2) implementation of targeted recommendations, (3) trial registration and results posting, and (4) systematic approaches to evidence synthesis. These general recommendations are complemented and specified by 47 targeted recommendations tailored towards funding agencies, pharmaceutical and device companies, research institutions, researchers (systematic reviewers and trialists), research ethics committees, trial registries, journal editors and publishers, regulatory agencies, benefit (health technology) assessment institutions and legislators. Conclusions Despite various recent examples of dissemination bias and several initiatives to reduce it, the problem of dissemination bias has not been resolved. Tailored recommendations based on a comprehensive approach will hopefully help increase transparency in biomedical research by overcoming the failure to disseminate negative findings. PMID:25943371

  15. How negative are we to the idea of suicide prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, H G; Evans, M O

    1994-01-01

    Assessment of attitudes amongst health care professionals to suicide prevention reveals a considerable degree of doubt with regards to its feasibility and appropriateness. The various professional groups may vary considerably in the degree of negative attitudes which they exhibit. Such findings suggest that there is an urgent need to ensure that health care professionals are fully informed about the key facts concerning suicide and preventive strategies. Key elements of clinical practice and service organization with regards to suicide prevention are discussed. PMID:7966117

  16. Thoughts on attitude measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Norman

    2006-05-01

    Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner attitudes to explore why they were deserting studies in such subjects. This paper explores the place of attitude measurement in science education and traces the main approaches that have been developed. The place and nature of attitude scaling techniques is analysed and it is demonstrated that such techniques have many fundamental flaws. These weaknesses make such approaches unlikely to offer the kind of precision needed to take our understanding of attitude development forward in the context of science education. Alternative approaches are outlined and it is strongly suggested that science education research rejects such scaling techniques and moves forward to develop new approaches that can give the kind of detailed analysis which will prove to be positive and useful. This paper seeks to bring evidence from many sources together, to challenge many of the unquestioned assumptions behind the metholodogies used in many attitude-related studies today and to make a positive contribution in encouraging more appropriate methodologies to be adopted more widely.

  17. Black heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Herek; John P. Capitanio

    1995-01-01

    Although the direction and intensity of Black heterosexuals’ attitudes toward homosexuality have been topics for considerable speculation, empirical data from representative samples previously have not been available. In the current article we report findings from a two?wave telephone survey with a national probability sample of 391 Black heterosexual adults. Results indicated that negative attitudes toward homosexuality are widespread but do

  18. Labeling Genetically Modified Food Products: Attitudes among the consumers in the United States and United Kingdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arbindra Rimal; Wanki Moon; Siva K. Balasubramanian

    2005-01-01

    Eight perceived attributes of agro-biotechnology were identified to be associated with consumers' attitude toward existing practices of GM food labeling. The perceived negative attributes, particularly health risk from GM food, played a dominant role in shaping the overall attitude toward GM labeling. Female and older respondents were more likely to be concerned about the existing GM labeling practices than male

  19. Development and Validation of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Arlene N.; Beck, Aaron T.

    The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) was developed to measure pervasive negative attitudes of a depressed person towards self, outside world, and future. The DAS follows Beck's construct of cognitive dysfunction. Two studies investigated the psychometric properties of the DAS and the relationship between cognition and affect in 300 normal…

  20. Psychological Contract Breach and Job Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis of Age as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; De Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Van Der Velde, Mandy E. G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age in the relation between psychological contract breach and the development of job attitudes. Based on affective events, social exchange, and lifespan theory, we hypothesized that (1) psychological contract breach would be related negatively to job attitudes, and (2) that age would moderate…

  1. "Me and Maths": Towards a Definition of Attitude Grounded on Students' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Martino, Pietro; Zan, Rosetta

    2010-01-01

    The attitude construct is widely used by teachers and researchers in mathematics education. Often, however, teachers' diagnosis of a "negative attitude" is a causal attribution of students' failure, perceived as global and uncontrollable, rather than an accurate interpretation of students' behaviour, capable of steering future action. In order to…

  2. The Effects of Dichotomous Attitudes toward Science on Interest and Conceptual Understanding in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minkee; Song, Jinwoong

    2009-01-01

    The literature on students' attitudinal constructs in science education asserts that students hold dichotomous attitudes toward science (AS). For instance, studies from the Relevance of Science Education project reveal that students possess negative attitudes in terms of their favourableness toward school science, preference toward scientific…

  3. Attitudes to Poverty, the Protestant Ethic, and Political Affiliation: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Graham F.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated British attitudes toward the poor as measured by MacDonald's Povery Scale and the Protestant Ethic Scale. Supporters of the British Conservative Party had more negative attitudes toward the poor, and were more likely to blame the poor for their fate than supporters of the British Labour Party. (JAC)

  4. Ambivalence and the Bivariate Nature of Attitudes in Information Systems Eric A. Walden

    E-print Network

    Walden, Eric

    Ambivalence and the Bivariate Nature of Attitudes in Information Systems Research Eric A. Walden of Psychology Texas Tech University jeff.larsen@ttu.edu Abstract People using information technologies experience both joy and frustration, and thus develop both positive and negative attitudes toward systems

  5. Effect of western culture on women's attitudes to eating and perceptions of body shape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amelia J. Lake; Petra K. Staiger; Huguette Glowinski

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the effect of culture on two factors implicated in the development of eating disorders, negative attitudes toward eating and dissatisfaction with body shape. Method: Hong Kong-born and Australian-born women from two Australian universities were surveyed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS). Results: Results showed no difference between the groups

  6. Learning to Love Math: Teaching Strategies that Change Student Attitudes and Get Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Has it ever seemed to you that some students are hardwired to dislike math? If so, then here's a book that explains how negative attitudes toward math get established in the brain and what you can do to turn those attitudes around. Math teacher and neurologist Judy Willis gives you over 50 strategies you can use right away in any grade level to:…

  7. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  8. The Attitudes of Primary School Teachers toward Inclusive Education in Rural and Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Meng

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of primary school teachers from the selected rural and urban areas in China toward inclusive education. The results indicated that, (1) teachers' attitudes are composed of three dimensions: positive and negative effects of inclusion, and benefits of segregated special education; (2) most surveyed teachers…

  9. Pornography, erotica, and attitudes toward women: The effects of repeated exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vernon R. Padgett; James A. Neal

    1989-01-01

    It is a widespread belief that pornography causes negative attitudes toward women, but tests of this belief are contradictory. A large body of research has studied the effect of violent pornography on behavior, but the effects of erotica and violence have often been confounded. Thus, the relationship between pornography and attitudes toward women was assessed in two correlational studies, and

  10. First Year Graduate Social Work Students' Knowledge of and attitude Toward Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zvi D. Gellis; Susan Sherman; Frances Lawrance

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined attitudes and knowledge of 96 first year MSW social work students toward older adults using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and the Facts on Aging Quiz II. Results suggest that the sample had limited previous contact with older adults and little knowledge about aging prior to admission. Students reported negative attitudes toward older adults on productivity,

  11. Korean Speech-Language Pathologists' Attitudes toward Stuttering According to Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyungjae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there…

  12. The Implicit Prejudiced Attitudes of Teachers: Relations to Teacher Expectations and the Ethnic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Linda; Denessen, Eddie; Hornstra, Lisette; Voeten, Marinus; Holland, Rob W.

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority students are at risk for school failure and show a heightened susceptibility to negative teacher expectancy effects. In the present study, whether the prejudiced attitudes of teachers relate to their expectations and the academic achievement of their students is examined. The prejudiced attitudes of 41 elementary school teachers…

  13. A Survey of Natural Resource and National Parks Knowledge and Attitudes of Dominican Republic Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berroa, Juan Leonel Batista; Roth, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a study designed to ascertain the level of ecological knowledge and attitudes of citizens of the Dominican Republic regarding national parks and natural resources. Overall, the level of ecological knowledge was determined to be very low and attitudes toward parks and resources seemed to be negative. (CW)

  14. Impact of an Oncology Course on the Attitudes of Freshman Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Marilyn H.; And Others

    Previous attempts to change the prevailing negative attitudes of health professionals toward cancer and cancer patients have consisted mainly of elective courses for small groups of students at advanced levels of medical training. In order to develop more positive attitudes, the Cancer Coordinating Committee at the Medical College of Pennsylvania…

  15. Relationship between Recent Life Events, Social Supports, and Attitudes to Domestic Violence: Predictive Roles in Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guoping, Huang; Yalin, Zhang; Yuping, Cao; Momartin, Shakeh; Ming, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between recent life events, attitudes to domestic violence (DV), and DV behaviors among perpetrators of DV in China. A total of 600 participants were assessed for recent life events, psychological functioning, social support, and attitudes to DV. Results demonstrated that recent negative life…

  16. Counselor Demographics, Ageist Attitudes, and Multicultural Counseling Competence among Counselors and Counselor Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Rebecca G.; Hays, Danica G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among counselors' self-reported multicultural counseling competence and their attitudes of the geriatric population. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between participants' attitudes of the geriatric population and their self-reported multicultural counseling…

  17. Attitudes of Speech and Language Therapists towards Stammering: 1985 and 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton-Smith, Isobel; Wright, Jannet; Stackhouse, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Background: Past research has indicated that speech and language therapists hold some negative attitudes towards people who stammer, their parents and the treatment of stammering. However, studies on attitudes towards stammering have predominantly focussed on therapists in the USA. Recent trends towards earlier intervention suggest that more…

  18. Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…

  19. Emotional openness as a predictor of college students' attitudes toward seeking psychological help

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noboru Komiya; Glenn E. Good; Nancy B. Sherrod

    2000-01-01

    Fear of emotions is hypothesized to be a primary reason for individuals' negative attitudes toward seeking psychological treatment. This study examined the effects of emotional openness and other potential predictors of attitudes toward seeking psychological help in a sample of 311 college students. Results of simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that gender (male), perception of stigma, discomfort with emotions, and

  20. Negative Mass Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    Schrödinger's analysis of the Dirac equation gives a hint for the existence of negative masses hidden behind positive masses. But their use for propulsion by reducing the inertia of matter for example, in the limit of macroscopic bodied with zero rest mass, depends on a technical solution to free them from their imprisonment by positive masses. It appears that there are basically two ways this might be achieved: 1. By the application of strong electromagnetic or gravitational fields or by high particle energies. 2. By searching for places in the universe where nature has already done this separation, and from where the negative masses can be mined. The first of these two possibilities is for all practical means excluded, because if possible at all, it would depend on electromagnetic or gravitational fields with strength beyond what is technically attainable, or on extremely large likewise not attainable particle energies. With regard to the 2nd possibility, it has been observed that non-baryonic cold dark matter tends to accumulate near the center of galaxies, or places in the universe which have a large gravitational potential well. Because of the equivalence principle of general relativity, the attraction towards the center of a gravitational potential well, produced by a positive mass, is for negative masses the same as for positive masses, and large amounts of negative masses might have over billions of years been trapped in these gravitational potential wells. Now it just happens that the center of the moon is a potential well, not too deep that it cannot be reached by making a tunnel through the moon, not possible for the deeper potential well of the earth, where the temperature and pressure are too high. Making a tunnel through the moon, provided there is a good supply of negative mass, could revolutionize interstellar space flight. A sequence of thermonuclear shape charges would make such tunnel technically feasible.

  1. Suicide-Bereaved Individuals' Attitudes Toward Therapists.

    PubMed

    Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F; Wielgus, Madeline D; Jones, Connor B

    2014-12-01

    Background: Suicide-bereaved individuals represent an important group impacted by suicide. Understanding their experiences following the suicide of a loved one is an important research domain, despite receiving limited attention. Although suicide-bereaved individuals may benefit from mental health treatment, their attitudes toward therapy and therapists are poorly understood. Aims: The present study aimed to understand the extent to which bereaved individuals' attitudes toward therapy and therapists are impacted by whether their loved one was in therapy at the time of death. Method: Suicide-bereaved individuals (N = 243) from the United States were recruited to complete an online survey about their experience with and attitudes toward therapy and therapists following the suicide of a loved one. Results: Bereaved individuals whose loved one was in therapy at the time of death (N = 48, 19.8%) reported more negative and less positive attitudes toward the treating therapist than those whose loved one was not in therapy at the time of death (N = 81, 33.3%) or whose loved one was never in therapy/the deceased's therapy status was unknown (N = 114, 46.9%). Conclusion: The deceased's involvement with a therapist appears to be an important factor impacting the experience of bereaved individuals and should be considered when attempting to engage these individuals in postvention. PMID:25467045

  2. Factors contributing to attitude exchange amongst preservice elementary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Previous research has shown that elementary education majors often dislike science and lack confidence in their ability to teach it. This is an important problem because students who hold these attitudes are likely to avoid teaching science, or teach it poorly, when they become teachers. It is therefore necessary to identify preservice elementary teachers who hold negative attitudes towards science, and attempt to convert these attitudes to positive before they become teachers. This study was designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Four participants were individually interviewed. The transcripts indicated that attitude exchange had occurred for each of the four students. Each student described several features of the course that had a positive influence. These were of three main types: personal attributes of the tutor, specific teaching strategies, and external validation. It was proposed that many of the individual factors were effective because they represented either performance accomplishments or vicarious experience as defined by Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 1977, 191-215).

  3. Effective direction measurements for spacecraft attitude: I. Equivalent directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, Malcolm D.

    2007-12-01

    The equivalent directions are a set of three unit vectors, conforming to the QUEST measurement model, which can lead in maximum-likelihood estimation to any given attitude estimate and attitude covariance matrix. Since they conform to the QUEST measurement model (i.e., are "QUEST-like"), the equivalent directions can be used not only in general estimation problems but also directly in the Wahba problem. It can be shown that three equivalent directions can always be found, and that they are unique within signs if the eigenvalues of the attitude co-information matrix are non-degenerate, but that the equivalent inverse variances for these equivalent directions may not always be non-negative, hence, not always physically meaningful. This can occur, for example, for attitude covariance matrices computed by the TRIAD algorithm for QUEST-like inputs. The equivalent inverse variances for attitude covariance matrices computed from original QUEST-like measurements will always be non-negative. The connection of the equivalent directions and inverse variances to Markley's SVD algorithm is presented. While not a practical vehicle for data fusion, the equivalent directions and their equivalent inverse variances can provide a useful tool for the analysis of attitude systems in data fusion problems and in mission design.

  4. Fast Quaternion Attitude Estimation from Two Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. Existing closed-form attitude estimates based on Wahba's optimality criterion for two arbitrarily weighted observations are somewhat slow to evaluate. This paper presents two new fast quaternion attitude estimation algorithms using two vector observations, one optimal and one suboptimal. The suboptimal method gives the same estimate as the TRIAD algorithm, at reduced computational cost. Simulations show that the TRIAD estimate is almost as accurate as the optimal estimate in representative test scenarios.

  5. Attitude towards physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Frau, Jessica; Coghe, G; Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Cadeddu, B; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a long-lasting neurological disease with onset in young adult age. Patients with MS are less active than healthy people, and their sedentary lifestyle might lead to secondary diseases or worsening of symptoms, disability and quality of life. In the study, we evaluated the attitude of physical activity (PA) of a group of MS patients and the differences in practice PA before and after the diagnosis. A randomly recruited group of patients with MS fulfilled a questionnaire about their attitudes towards PA before the onset and after the diagnosis of the disease. Clinical and demographic data were recorded. Out of 118 patients, 37 % practiced PA only before the diagnosis, 9 % only after and 52 % during both periods. After the diagnosis, 64 % of participants noted some negative differences in PA, in particular less physical resistance and worsening of symptoms, and 38 % stopped PA. However, patients referred benefits from PA after diagnosis. Individual exercises rather than group activities were preferred after diagnosis. Only 26 % of patients knew that adapted PA existed and the differences between adapted PA and classic physiotherapy. We observed a reduction in the practice of PA in patients after the diagnosis of MS, in particular for disease-related reasons. Nevertheless, active patients referred benefits from PA. It is important to know the point of view of patients towards developing individualized training programs. In this way, it could be possible to achieve more benefits from PA and reduce the negative effects. PMID:25648109

  6. Parental Childrearing Attitudes as Correlates of Father Involvement During Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Greving, Karissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Using daily diary data to document involvement with infants at 6 – 8 months of age (n = 142) and 6 months later (n = 95), we examined relations between reported childrearing attitudes and resident fathers' relative (as compared to mothers') involvement with children. Fathers' authoritarian views related negatively to their relative involvement on weekdays, and this relation held over time for caregiving and playing activities. Mothers' protective attitudes had concurrent negative associations with fathers' relative weekend involvement. Findings suggest that fathers' authoritarian and mothers' protective attitudes relate to how parenting responsibilities are shared within families and may be detrimental to how much fathers become, or choose to become, directly involved in the care of their infants in comparison to mothers. PMID:18174913

  7. Nature and operation of attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ajzen, I

    2001-01-01

    This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit. PMID:11148298

  8. Sporadic voters: how attitude change influences voter turnout

    E-print Network

    Owens, Christopher T.

    2009-06-02

    ) suggest that SES explains individuals? decisions to participate because it reflects the resources acquired through the individual?s life cycle. Though they do not deny the influence of education, they point out that it is just one of many factors... Such findings point to the importance of measuring what Brody (1978) describes as alienation and indifference. Alienation describes how negatively or positively an individual feels toward offered alternatives. If the individual has a negative attitude...

  9. How encompassing is the effect of negativity bias on political conservatism?

    PubMed

    Malka, Ariel; Soto, Christopher J

    2014-06-01

    We argue that the political effects of negativity bias are narrower than Hibbing et al. suggest. Negativity bias reliably predicts social, but not economic, conservatism, and its political effects often vary across levels of political engagement. Thus the role of negativity bias in broad ideological conflict depends on the strategic packaging of economic and social attitudes by political elites. PMID:24970443

  10. From attitudes to commonplaces -A discursive approach to attitude interviews

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    discusses the fundamental epistemological shortcomings of different approaches to attitude research. Three of presenting analyses. Introduction The fundamental idea of an attitude investigation and opinion polls collection using self-report measures is that questions about the participant's beliefs, attitudes, behaviour

  11. Sports Ideology, Attitudes toward Women, and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Tests the associations of sports ideology with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes in a sample of 304 college students. It was found that sports ideology is positively associated with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes but only among males. Reciprocal causal influences between sexist attitudes and sports ideology are discussed. (SLD)

  12. Preferences of and Attitudes toward Treble Choral Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    In choral ensembles, a pursuit where females far outnumber males, concern exists that females are being devalued. Attitudes of female choral singers may be negatively affected by the gender imbalance that exists in mixed choirs and by the placement of the mixed choir as the most select ensemble in a program. The purpose of this research was to…

  13. Attitudes of Dental Hygiene Students toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.

    1992-01-01

    At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…

  14. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  15. Attitudes of Faculty in Tennessee Community Colleges toward Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Robert G.; Franke, Dorothy N.

    1982-01-01

    A study of randomly selected faculty at Tennessee's public community colleges concluded: 50.8 percent of respondents favor collective bargaining, sense of power is negatively correlated with attitudes toward collective bargaining, and five demographic variables (political opinion, religion, race, sex, organizational membership) are significantly…

  16. Breastfeeding in Bolivia – information and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2003-01-01

    Background The main objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the attitudes of the mother and her family towards breastfeeding and the actual feeding pattern in a Bolivian population. A second objective was to study the relationship between breastfeeding information, specified according to source and timing, and feeding pattern. Methods Cross-sectional interviews with 420–502 Bolivian mothers with an infant less than or equal to 1 year of age. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding, use of prelacteal food and/or colostrum were the main outcome measures. Results The attitudes of the mother, her partner (the infant's father) and the infant's grandmother towards breastfeeding did not influence the infant feeding pattern. Women who had received breastfeeding information from health care personnel before birth or on the maternity ward breastfed exclusively for a longer duration (adjusted p = 0.0233) and avoided prelacteal food to a greater extent (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval for adjusted odds ratio (95% CI AOR) = 0.23–0.72). Information from a doctor before birth or on the maternity ward was associated with less use of prelacteal food (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI AOR = 0.31–0.93), an increased use of colostrum (AOR = 3.30; 95% CI AOR = 1.16–9.37), but was not linked to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p = 0.1767). Conclusion The current study indicates that breastfeeding information delivered by health care personnel in a non-trial setting may affect the infant feeding pattern including the use of prelacteal foods and colostrum. There was no evidence that the attitudes of the mother, or the infant's father or grandmother influenced actual feeding behavior. The lack of a "negative or neutral attitude" towards breastfeeding in the participants of the current study does, however, diminish the chances to link attitude to feeding behavior. PMID:12769829

  17. Employing music exposure to reduce prejudice and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Schwab, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Whereas previous research has mainly focused on negative effects of listening to music on intergroup attitudes and behavior, the present three experiments examined whether music exposure could reduce prejudice and discrimination. In fact, those participants who had listened to songs with pro-integration (relative to neutral) lyrics expressed less prejudice (Studies 1 and 3) and were less aggressive against (Study 2) and more helpful toward an outgroup member (Study 3). These effects were unaffected by song liking as well as mood and arousal properties of the songs employed, suggesting that it is indeed the pro-integration content of the lyrics that drives the effects. It is discussed to what extent music exposure could be employed to effectively reduce prejudice and discrimination in the real world. PMID:24604768

  18. Global optimal attitude estimation using uncertainty ellipsoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit K. Sanyal; Taeyoung Lee; Melvin Leok; N. Harris McClamroch

    2008-01-01

    A deterministic attitude estimation problem for a rigid body in a potential field, with bounded attitude and angular velocity measurement errors is considered. An attitude estimation algorithm that globally minimizes the attitude estimation error is obtained. Assuming that the initial attitude, the initial angular velocity and measurement noise lie within given ellipsoidal bounds, an uncertainty ellipsoid that bounds the attitude

  19. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  20. Satellite attitude control simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debra, D. B.; Powell, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Work was conducted to develop an extremely low drift rate gyroscope and a very precise star tracker. A proposed relativity satellite will measure very accurately the theoretically predicted 'relativistic' precession of the gyroscope relative to an inertial reference frame provided by the star tracker. Aspects of precision spinning attitude control are discussed together with questions of gyro operation, and the hopping mode for lunar transportation. For the attitude control system of the lunar hopper, a number of control laws were investigated. The studies indicated that some suboptimal controls should be adequate for the system.

  1. Got an Attitude Problem?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Through a Small Business Innovation Research grant from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Servo Corporation of America, Inc. built its Mini-Dual Sensor to provide attitude control for Earth-orbiting unmanned satellites. The sensor is an Earth horizon sensor that provides higher accuracy through the use of pyroelectric arrays and a patented radiance compensation scheme.This sensor gathers data with two pairs of lithium tantalate pyroelectric arrays that are positioned 90 degrees apart in the imaging plane. The Mini-Dual Earth Sensor is a high-accuracy sensor that could be used for attitude determination in future space missions.

  2. Effects of yaw and pitch motion on model attitude measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Tripp, John S.; Finley, Tom D.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamic effects of angular motion in yaw and pitch on model attitude measurements in which inertial sensors were used during wind tunnel tests. A technique is developed to reduce the error caused by these effects. The analysis shows that a 20-to-1 reduction in model attitude measurement error caused by angular motion is possible with this technique.

  3. Effects of yaw and pitch motion on model attitude measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Tripp, John S.; Finley, Tom D.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamic effects of angular motion in yaw and pitch on model attitude measurements in which inertial sensors were used during wind tunnel tests. A technique is developed to reduce the error caused by these effects. The analysis shows that a 20-to-1 reduction in model attitude measurement error caused by angular motion is possible with this technique.

  4. Group identification and outgroup attitudes in four South African ethnic groups: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Duckitt, John; Callaghan, Jane; Wagner, Claire

    2005-05-01

    Although Sumner's ethnocentrism hypothesis, which expects stronger group identification to be associated with more negative outgroup attitudes, has been widely accepted, empirical findings have been inconsistent. This research investigates the relationship of four dimensions of ethnocultural group identification previously proposed by Phinney, that is, salience, evaluation, attachment, and involvement, with attitudes to ethnic outgroups in four South African ethnocultural groups (Africans, Afrikaans Whites, English Whites, Indians). The findings supported the factorial independence of the four identification dimensions and indicated that only one, ethnocultural evaluation (ingroup attitudes), was systematically related to outgroup attitudes, but the association could be positive, negative, or zero. Both functionalist and similarity-dissimilarity approaches to intergroup relations seemed to provide plausible explanations for the pattern of relationships obtained between ingroup and outgroup attitudes. PMID:15802658

  5. Resistance can be good or bad: how theories of resistance and dissonance affect attitude certainty.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Robert J; Hugenberg, Kurt; McConnell, Allen R

    2006-06-01

    This research investigated how lay theories about resisting persuasion can affect attitude certainty. Specifically, people who believed that resistance was negative (i.e., implies close-mindedness) showed different levels of attitude certainty after resisting persuasive messages than people who believed resistance was positive (i.e., implies intelligence). When people held positive lay theories of resistance and overcame ostensibly strong arguments, they showed increased attitude certainty (compared to those who overcame ostensibly weak arguments). However, individuals who believed that resistance was negative did not show increases in attitude certainty when overcoming strong arguments. Experiment 2 suggests that the effect of lay theories and perceived argument strength on attitude certainty was due to dissonance created by believing that resistance is undesirable but nonetheless resisting persuasion. PMID:16648199

  6. Attitude toward Child Abuse among Mothers Referring Health Centers of Tabriz

    PubMed Central

    Jabraeili, Mahnaz; Asadollahi, Maliheh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohhammad; Hallaj, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Parental attitude is an important factor in prediction of child abuse. Awareness of people's attitudes is important in the prediction of their behavior and controlling it. This study was conducted to determine the mothers' attitudes toward child abuse. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 261 mothers referred to the 13 health centers of Tabriz with children aged 2-12, they were selected by a multistage method and their attitudes were assessed using a questionnaire within 2 months. Higher score were representing more negative attitudes. Results: The results showed that the mean score of total attitude toward child abuse was significantly higher than the middle and was significantly associated with mothers' educational level, employment status, attendance status, number of children they have, and economic status. Conclusion: The results showed that although the mothers' attitudes toward child abuse were negative, because of the relationship between mothers' attitudes with their demographic characteristics, it is necessary to enhance mothers' quality of life, and their social and spiritual support to improve their attitudes and prevent the child abuse. PMID:25821761

  7. HIV Prevention Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk for African Americans: The Influence of Community-Level Stigma and Psychological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Allecia E.; Dovidio, John F.; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T.

    2013-01-01

    Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans’ condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma—Whites’ attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites’ attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites’ attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites’ attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites’ attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants’ values and needs, which may reduce African Americans’ mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites’ attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed along with public health implications. PMID:24507916

  8. Influenza vaccination for NHS staff: attitudes and uptake

    PubMed Central

    Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Williams, Siân; Restrick, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Annual vaccination against influenza (flu) is recommended for all UK National Health Service (NHS) staff to help reduce the risk of contracting the virus and transmitting it to patients. However, despite flu campaigns and vaccination promotion, uptake remains low. The aim of this study was to investigate staff attitudes to flu vaccination to see how this may influence their decision to be vaccinated. Methods An online survey was sent to staff members across 6 NHS trusts, asking if staff had been vaccinated in the preceding flu season (2013–2014); the survey included questions about beliefs and attitudes to the vaccination, scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results 3059 NHS staff members responded to the survey (86% in the 26–59 age group, 77% female and 84% hospital based). 68% of respondents reported being vaccinated in the preceding year. Using a stepwise regression model, the survey response retained as a positive predictor of having been vaccinated was ‘people working in healthcare should have the flu vaccination every year’ (p<0.001), and the responses retained as negative predictors were ‘the flu vaccination will make me unwell’ (p<0.001) and ‘the flu vaccination was too much trouble for me’ (p<0.001). Analysis by staff group showed a significant difference in the response to ‘the flu vaccination will make me unwell’ between groups (p=0.01), with doctors having a greater tendency to disagree with this statement than other staff members. Conclusions These results suggest that addressing NHS staff beliefs around the need for vaccination, while ensuring that practical barriers to having the vaccination are removed, may help to increase uptake. An emphasis on alleviating the concerns of particular staff groups regarding adverse effects of the vaccine may also be of benefit in improving uptake, to protect patients as well as staff. PMID:26019875

  9. Sexual attitudes as correlates of sexual details in human figure drawing.

    PubMed

    Przybyla, D P; Byrne, D; Allgeier, E R

    1988-02-01

    The hypothesis that sexual attitudes, as measured by the Sexual Opinion Survey, are related to the explicitness with which nude figures are drawn was examined. The presence or absence of various sexual and nonsexual anatomical features, as well as length and width measurements, were assessed in the drawing of nudes by 17 male and 23 female undergraduates. Individuals with relatively positive sexual attitudes (erotophiles), as compared with individuals with relatively negative attitudes (erotophobes), were more likely to include such details as a glans, a urinary meatus, and chest hair on male figures and pubic hair and nipples on female figures. Positive sexual attitudes were also associated with drawing figures with longer and wider penises, breasts, testicles, and mons. Relationships between sexual attitudes and the drawing of nonsexual body parts were generally not significant. The results are discussed in terms of the pervasive generality of sexual attitudes in influencing quite varied sex-related behaviors. PMID:3282490

  10. Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tracy Dietz

    This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

  11. Graduate Statistics: Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Robert L.; Broadston, Pamela M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes toward statistics of graduate students who used a computer program as part of the instruction, which allowed for an individualized, self-paced, student-centered, activity-based course. The twelve sections involved in this study were offered in the spring and fall 2001, spring and fall 2002, spring and fall…

  12. Teacher Attitudes and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, James A., Jr.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI), the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), and the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) were administered to 183 undergraduate students enrolled in teacher education courses. The MTAI was compared with each of the two personality instruments by canonical analysis. Concludes that teacher's…

  13. Attitudes to spanking children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Furnham

    1995-01-01

    One-hundred and thirty-six adults completed a 10-item questionnaire on the spanking of children. Three clear factors emerged concerned with pro-spanking attitudes; the rarity of spanking; and alternatives to spanking. Overall subjects were against spanking though more conservative voters tended to be more pro than anti.

  14. Thoughts on Attitude Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Norman

    2006-01-01

    Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner…

  15. Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

  16. Assessing Attitudes to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, J. M.

    Many measurement techniques have been developed to assess elements related to attitudes toward reading, which encompass an individual's views, feelings, values, and beliefs. Instruments developed by British teachers include Likert-type scales, a repertory grid technique, and an approach assessing reactions to screened photographs of different…

  17. TRMM On Orbit Attitude Control System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Placanica, Sam; Morgenstern, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Attitude Control System (ACS) along with detailed in-flight performance results for each operational mode. The TRMM spacecraft is an Earth-pointed, zero momentum bias satellite launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Launched to provide a validation for poorly known rainfall data sets generated by global climate models, TRMM has demonstrated its utility by reducing uncertainties in global rainfall measurements by a factor of two. The ACS is comprised of Attitude Control Electronics (ACE), an Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), Digital Sun Sensors (DSS), Inertial Reference Units (IRU), Three Axis Magnetometers (TAM), Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS), Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTB), Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWA), Engine Valve Drivers (EVD) and thrusters. While in Mission Mode, the ESA provides roll and pitch axis attitude error measurements and the DSS provide yaw updates twice per orbit. In addition, the TAM in combination with the IRU and DSS can be used to provide pointing in a contingency attitude determination mode which does not rely on the ESA. Although the ACS performance to date has been highly successful, lessons were learned during checkout and initial on-orbit operation. This paper describes the design, on-orbit checkout, performance and lessons learned for the TRMM ACS.

  18. Attitude Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The four-component quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation, it represents the attitude matrix as a homogeneous quadratic function, and its dynamic propagation equation is bilinear in the quaternion and the angular velocity. The quaternion is required to obey a unit norm constraint, though, so Kalman filters often employ a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for small errors about the estimate. We consider these mixed attitude representations for both a first-order Extended Kalman filter and a second-order filter, as well for quaternion-norm-preserving attitude propagation.

  19. Attitude measurement: Principles and sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchon, P.; Vermande, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tools used in the measurement of satellite attitude are described. Attention is given to the elements that characterize an attitude sensor, the references employed (stars, moon, Sun, Earth, magnetic fields, etc.), and the detectors (optical, magnetic, and inertial). Several examples of attitude sensors are described, including sun sensors, star sensors, earth sensors, triaxial magnetometers, and gyrometers. Finally, sensor combinations that make it possible to determine a complete attitude are considered; the SPOT attitude measurement system and a combined CCD star sensor-gyrometer system are discussed.

  20. How Parents' Negative Experiences at Immunization Visits Affect Child Immunization Status in a Community in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Melissa S.; Irigoyen, Matilde; Martinez, Raquel Andres; Findley, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Objective Little is known about how families' experiences with immunization visits within the medical home may affect children's immunization status. We assessed the association between families' negative immunization experiences within the medical home and underimmunization. Methods We surveyed parents (n=392) of children aged 2–36 months about immunization experiences at community health centers, hospital-based clinics, private practices, and community-based organizations in New York City. We used Chi-square tests and odds ratios (ORs) to assess the relationship between medical home elements and parental immunization experience ratings. We used multivariable analysis to determine the association between negative experiences during immunization visits and underimmunization, controlling for insurance, maternal education, and receipt of benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Results The majority of children were of Latino race/ethnicity and had Medicaid and a medical home. One-sixth (16.9%) of families reported a previous negative immunization experience, primarily related to the child's reaction, waiting time, and attitudes of medical and office staff. Parents' negative immunization experiences were associated with the absence of four components of the medical home: continuity of care, family-centered care, compassionate care, and comprehensive care. In addition, children in families who reported a negative experience were more likely to have been underimmunized (adjusted OR=2.00; 95% confidence interval 1.12, 3.58). Conclusions In a community in New York City, underimmunization of young children was associated with negative immunization experiences. Strategies to improve family experiences with immunization visits within the medical home (particularly around support for the family), medical and ancillary staff attitudes, and reduced waiting time may lead to improved immunization delivery. PMID:21812166

  1. Attitude and behavior are correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrigley, Robert L.

    Science attitude scales can be expected to predict science-related behavior. But A-B correspondence can seldom be expected to approach the r value of 1.00. Attitude and behavior covary to the degree that valid measurement and mediating variables are considered: Individual differences of subjects (e.g., high versus low self-monitoring); the social situation (e.g., direct experience); cognitive factors (e.g., attitude accessibility in memory). Attitude and behavior are reciprocal; that is, attitude can follow behavior. Variables other than attitude, e.g., behavioral intention, previous behavior, and habit, may under some conditions better predict behavior. Also, a viable alternative to attitude testing may be direct appraisal of some science classroom behaviors through ethnomethodology.

  2. Attitudes of psychiatrists toward obsessive–compulsive disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    Kusalaruk, Pichaya; Saipanish, Ratana; Hiranyatheb, Thanita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Negative attitudes from doctors and the resulting stigmatization have a strong impact on psychiatric patients’ poor access to treatment. There are various studies centering on doctors’ attitudes toward psychiatric patients, but rarely focusing on the attitudes to specific disorders, such as obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This research aimed to focus on psychiatrists’ attitudes toward OCD patients. Patients and methods The participants were actual psychiatrists who signed a form of consent. The main tool used in this study was a questionnaire developed from a focus group interview of ten psychiatrists about their attitudes toward OCD patients. Results More than 80% of the participating psychiatrists reported a kindhearted attitude toward OCD patients in the form of pity, understanding, and empathy. Approximately one-third of the respondents thought that OCD patients talk too much, waste a lot of time, and need more patience when compared with other psychiatric disorder sufferers. More than half of the respondents thought that OCD patients had poor compliance with behavioral therapy. The number of psychiatrists who had confidence in treating OCD patients with medications (90.1%) was much higher than those expressing confidence in behavioral therapy (51.7%), and approximately 80% perceived that OCD patients were difficult to treat. Although 70% of the respondents chose medications combined with behavioral therapy as the most preferred mode of treatment, only 7.7% reported that they were proficient in exposure and response prevention. Conclusion Even though most psychiatrists had a more positive than negative attitude toward OCD patients, they still thought OCD patients were difficult to treat and had poor compliance with behavioral therapy. Only a small number of the participating psychiatrists reported proficiency in exposure and response prevention.

  3. Classroom climate indicators and attitudes towards foreigners.

    PubMed

    Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter

    2008-10-01

    The school has been described as an important socialization agent in the process of political development. But the mechanism concerning how school contributes to political development has rarely been investigated. In this study we focus on contextual variables, i.e., classroom climate indicators that are seen as important aspects of the context in which adolescent development takes place. The study was based on the total of 1312 German students. In multilevel analyses, we regressed students' reports on intolerant attitudes towards foreigners on background characteristics as well as on the perceived classroom climate. Fairness in the classroom as perceived by the individual student was found to be negatively related to intolerance and achievement pressure was positively related. Students attending the high college-bound track reported less antiforeigner attitudes as did students where parents had a more sophisticated educational background. The results are discussed proposing schools to provide an open climate as a contextual framework for the development of tolerant attitudes among adolescents. PMID:18083222

  4. The attitude accuracy consequences of on-orbit calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude sensors by the Flight Dynamics Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, J.; Davis, W.; Harman, R.

    1993-01-01

    The science mission of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) requires attitude solutions with uncertainties of 27, 16.7, 16.7 arcseconds (3 sigma) around the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, respectively. The primary input to the attitude determination process is provided by two NASA standard fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) and a Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) 2. The attitude determination requirements approach the limits attainable with the FHSTs and DRIRU. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designed and executed calibration procedures that far exceeded the extent and the data volume of any other FDF-supported mission. The techniques and results of this attempt to obtain attitude accuracies at the limit of sensor capability and the results of analysis of the factors that limit the attitude accuracy are the primary subjects of this paper. The success of the calibration effort is judged by the resulting measurement residuals and comparisons between ground- and onboard-determined attitudes. The FHST star position residuals have been reduced to less tha 4 arcsec per axis -- a value that appears to be limited by the sensor capabilities. The FDF ground system uses a batch least-squares estimator to determine attitude. The EUVE onboard computer (OBC) uses an extended Kalman filter. Currently, there are systematic differences between the two attitude solutions that occasionally exceed the mission requirements for 3 sigma attitude uncertainty. Attempts to understand and reduce these differences are continuing.

  5. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) reduces not only gram-negative but also gram-positive infection-associated proinflammatory cytokine release by interaction between Kupffer cells and leukocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Busch; G. A. Wanner; M. D. Menger; B. Vollmar

    2004-01-01

    Objective and Design:An important principle for the beneficial effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a central mediator in the endogenous host response, is the reduction of systemic cytokine levels in various gram-negative models of sepsis and septic shock. There is debate, however, on whether G-CSF is protective also in gram-positive sepsis and acts directly or indirectly on macrophages and hepatic

  6. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    PubMed Central

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676

  7. Applying the motorcyclist's perspective to improve car drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Amit; Clarke, David; Crundall, David

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to provide a first crucial step in the direction of developing an intervention program aimed at improving safe attitudes and skills among car drivers towards motorcycles. We intended to improve drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists by exposing them to demands that motorcyclists face on the road. Car drivers were exposed to hazard perception clips taken from a motorcyclist's perspective, and interactive hazards in a motorcycle simulator. Car hazard perception clips and a car simulator were used as control conditions. A questionnaire assessed participant knowledge and attitudes towards motorcyclists before and after the intervention. After the intervention participants had more empathic- and fewer negative-attitudes, as well as safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. Self-reported attitude-change suggested that the use of motorcycle hazard perception clips was more effective than the simulator, and the intervention was most effective for those car drivers who reported the most negative attitudes prior viewing the clips or riding the simulator. Providing car drivers with a perspective of the motorcyclist may prove to be a useful tool for promoting safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. PMID:21658502

  8. Values of Catholic science educators: Their impact on attitudes of science teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMizio, Joanne Greenwald

    This quantitative study examined the associations between the values held by middle school science teachers in Catholic schools and their attitudes towards science teaching. A total of six value types were studied---theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious. Teachers can have negative, positive, or neutral attitudes towards their teaching that are linked to their teaching practices and student learning. These teachers' attitudes may affect their competence and have a subsequent impact on their students' attitudes and dispositions towards science. Of particular interest was the relationship between science teaching attitudes and religious values. A non-experimental research design was used to obtain responses from 54 teachers with two survey instruments, the Science Teaching Attitude Scale II and the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that political values were negatively associated with attitudes towards science teaching. Data collected were inconsistent with the existence of any measurable association between religious values and attitudes towards science teaching. This study implies that science teacher preparation programs should adopt a more contextual perspective on science that seeks to develop the valuation of science within a cultural context, as well as programs that enable teachers to identify the influence of their beliefs on instructional actions to optimize the impact of learning new teaching practices that may enhance student learning.

  9. The Persuasive Power of Emotions: Effects of Emotional Expressions on Attitude Formation and Change.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, Gerben A; van den Berg, Helma; Heerdink, Marc W

    2014-11-17

    Despite a long-standing interest in the intrapersonal role of affect in persuasion, the interpersonal effects of emotions on persuasion remain poorly understood-how do one person's emotional expressions shape others' attitudes? Drawing on emotions as social information (EASI) theory (Van Kleef, 2009), we hypothesized that people use the emotional expressions of others to inform their own attitudes, but only when they are sufficiently motivated and able to process those expressions. Five experiments support these ideas. Participants reported more positive attitudes about various topics after seeing a source's sad (rather than happy) expressions when topics were negatively framed (e.g., abandoning bobsleighing from the Olympics). Conversely, participants reported more positive attitudes after seeing happy (rather than sad) expressions when topics were positively framed (e.g., introducing kite surfing at the Olympics). This suggests that participants used the source's emotional expressions as information when forming their own attitudes. Supporting this interpretation, effects were mitigated when participants' information processing was undermined by cognitive load or was chronically low. Moreover, a source's anger expressions engendered negative attitude change when directed at the attitude object and positive change when directed at the recipient's attitude. Effects occurred regardless of whether emotional expressions were manipulated through written words, pictures of facial expressions, film clips containing both facial and vocal emotional expressions, or emoticons. The findings support EASI theory and indicate that emotional expressions are a powerful source of social influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25402955

  10. The GLONASS-M satellite yaw-attitude model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilssner, F.; Springer, T.; Gienger, G.; Dow, J.

    2011-01-01

    The proper modeling of the satellites’ yaw-attitude is a prerequisite for high-precision Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning and poses a particular challenge during periods when the satellite orbital planes are partially eclipsed. Whereas a lot of effort has been put in to examine the yaw-attitude control of GPS satellites that are in eclipsing orbits, hardly anything is known about the yaw-attitude behavior of eclipsing GLONASS-M satellites. However, systematic variations of the carrier phase observation residuals in the vicinity of the orbit’s noon and midnight points of up to ±27 cm indicate significant attitude-related modeling issues. In order to explore the GLONASS-M attitude laws during eclipse seasons, we have studied the evolution of the horizontal satellite antenna offset estimates during orbit noon and orbit midnight using a technique that we refer to as “reverse kinematic precise point positioning”. In this approach, we keep all relevant global geodetic parameters fixed and estimate the satellite clock and antenna phase center positions epoch-by-epoch using 30-second observation and clock data from a global multi-GNSS ground station network. The estimated horizontal antenna phase center offsets implicitly provide the spacecraft’s yaw-attitude. The insights gained from studying the yaw angle behavior have led to the development of the very first yaw-attitude model for eclipsing GLONASS-M satellites. The derived yaw-attitude model proves to be much better than the nominal yaw-attitude model commonly being used by today’s GLONASS-capable GNSS software packages as it reduces the observation residuals of eclipsing satellites down to the normal level of non-eclipsing satellites and thereby prevents a multitude of measurements from being incorrectly identified as outliers. It facilitates continuous satellite clock estimation during eclipse and improves in particular the results of kinematic precise point positioning of ground-based receivers.

  11. Functional attitude theories revisited: an ecological perspective on attitude change 

    E-print Network

    Marsh, Kerry Lynn

    1986-01-01

    a message matched to the attitude function aroused in the priming exercise, a second third received an unmatched message, and the last third received no message. In addition, an extra con- trol group received no priming exercise or persuasive... message. Students listening to a message segmented it into meaningful units; attitude, recall, and evaluations of the message were measured afterwards. Attitude meas- ures were also obtained in the control conditions. Recall and persuasion were...

  12. Using the Internet to Facilitate Positive Attitudes of College Students Toward Aging and Working with Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frieda R. Butler; Heibatollah Baghi

    2008-01-01

    Published data suggest that a preponderance of negative attitudes toward the elderly and insufficient knowledge of aging may be the primary reasons that geriatrics is not the primary choice of employment for nurses. This study measured attitude changes toward the elderly as a result of participation by nursing, gerontology and health science students in an intergenerational reciprocal service-learning program. Using

  13. The Influences of Inductive Instruction and Resources on Students' Attitudes toward Reading: Evidence from PISA 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jhang, Fang-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The declining trend in the positive reading attitude of students' has concerned scholars. This paper aims to apply a 3-level hierarchical linear model to analyse how inductive instruction and resources influence both students' positive and negative attitudes towards reading. Approximately 470,000 15-year-old students, and their school…

  14. An Analysis of the Effects of In-Service Teacher Training on Turkish Preschool Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secer, Zarife

    2010-01-01

    Any implementation of an inclusive policy is largely dependent on educators' attitudes. In Turkey, many teachers who educate preschool children with Special Educational Needs (SEN), and who have not received in-service teacher training (INSET) are observed to have negative attitudes towards their SEN students. The aim of this article is to examine…

  15. The Impact of School Supervision of Work and Job Quality on Adolescent Work Attitudes and Job Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III; Josiam, Bharath

    2000-01-01

    In a sample of nearly 1,800 adolescents in work experience programs, job quality had the greatest positive impact on work attitudes and job satisfaction and was associated with negative job behaviors. Good supervisory relationships were linked to positive attitudes and behaviors. However, school supervision of work did not appear to influence…

  16. The Effects of Knowledge of Child Development and Social-Emotional Maturity on Adolescent Attitudes toward Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, John J.; Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between the combined effect of knowledge of child development and level of social-emotional maturity, and the extent to which this relationship affects adolescent attitudes toward parenting. Negative attitudes toward parenting were associated with lack of knowledge of child development and low levels of…

  17. Using indigenous proverbs to understand social knowledge and attitudes to leprosy among the Yoruba of southwest Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bassey Ebenso; Gbenga Adeyemi; Adegboyega O. Adegoke; Nick Emmel

    2012-01-01

    Following a systematic analysis of 23 proverbs obtained from ethnographic research and from literature searches, this article presents the cultural knowledge and attitudes about leprosy in Yorubaland, southwest Nigeria. Our analysis indicates that contrary to fragmentary evidence portraying Yoruba attitudes to leprosy as entirely negative, there is a mixed pattern of social responses to leprosy which range from drastic exclusion

  18. An Investigation of Nursing Staff Attitudes and Emotional Reactions towards Patients with Intellectual Disability in a General Hospital Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Sharna; Stenfert-Kroese, Biza

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that inequalities in health care for people with intellectual disabilities may be partly explained by negative attitudes of health professionals. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes and emotional reactions reported by nursing staff working in general hospitals towards caring for patients with…

  19. The Impact of PBL on the Students' Attitudes towards Science among Nine Graders in Hamza Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    A weak negative attitude towards learning science was noticed among the students in Qatar, a matter that was reflected on their achievement in national tests. To test if the use of PBL would improve the students' attitudes towards learning science, a sample of 25 nine graders from Hamza school were motivated to plan their own investigations and to…

  20. Changing Attitudes: Supporting Teachers in Effectively Including Students with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Mainstream Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Geraldine; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) are often considered the most challenging group to manage within mainstream education. The challenges perceived by teachers may be due, in part, to negative attitudes towards this cohort of pupils, which may exacerbate feelings of inadequacy and impact negatively upon direct interactions…

  1. Using Implicit Bias Training to Improve Attitudes toward Women in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sarah M.; Hillard, Amy L.; Schneider, Tamera R.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit biases can foster negative attitudes and lead to damaging stereotypical behaviors. Stereotypes can negatively affect the education, hiring, promotion, and retention of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This study evaluated the impact of diversity training on university faculty (N=234) by assessing changes…

  2. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

  3. Pew Global Attitudes Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Most social scientists will tell you that it is fairly hard to get any type of meaningful sense of public opinion on any number of important issues, so it is with great interest that the Scout Report has found the website of the Pew Global Attitudes Project. With principal funding from The Pew Charitable Trusts, the Global Attitudes Project was created with the intent to gauge public attitudes toward globalization, democracy, and a number of other crucial issues. To accomplish this task, they have conducted over 90,000 interviews in 50 countries over the past few years. So far, their work has yielded a number of intriguing reports which deal with subjects such as Islamic extremism, the war in Iraq, and prosperity in China. Visitors can view all of these reports on the site, and also take a look at the datasets used to craft each report. Finally, visitors can elect to sign up to receive email updates when new reports are released.

  4. An attempt to change attitudes toward the aged by providing information on activity level 

    E-print Network

    Beck, Betty Lee

    1979-01-01

    Lutes Negative attitudes toward the aged may be a result of misconcep- tions about and stereotyping of the aged. The present study invest1gated two ma1n questions. First, do students who perce1ve the aging to be less active also view the aging more...) have reported successfully changing negative atti- tudes toward the aged and aging. The purpose of the present study was to look at perceived loss of physical activity as a factor that contributes to a negative attitude toward aging. Other...

  5. Genetic Testing in Psychiatry: A Review of Attitudes and Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of genetic testing for psychiatric conditions raises difficult questions about when and how the tests should be used. Development of policies regarding these issues may be informed in a variety of ways by the views of key stakeholders: patients, family members, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Here we review empirical studies of attitudes towards genetic testing among these groups. Patients and family members show strong interest in diagnostic and predictive genetic testing, and to a considerable extent psychiatrists share their enthusiasm. Prenatal test utilization seems likely to depend both on parental views on abortion and the seriousness of the disorder. Parents show a surprising degree of interest in predictive testing of children, even when there are no preventive interventions available. Many persons report themselves ready to alter their lifestyles and plans for marriage and family in response to test results. Respondents also fear negative consequences, from discrimination to being unable to cope with knowledge of their “genetic fate.” Empirical studies of beliefs about genetic testing suggest tests are likely to be embraced widely, but the studies have methodologic limitations, reducing the certainty of their conclusions, and indicating a need for further research with more representative samples. PMID:22168293

  6. Review Are ''implicit'' attitudes unconscious? q

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertram Gawronski; Wilhelm Hofmann; Christopher J. Wilbur

    A widespread assumption in recent research on attitudes is that self-reported (explicit) evaluations reflect conscious attitudes, whereas indirectly assessed (implicit) evaluations reflect unconscious attitudes. The present article reviews the available evidence regarding unconscious features of indirectly assessed ''implicit'' attitudes. Distinguishing between three different aspects of attitudes, we conclude that (a) people sometimes lack conscious awareness of the origin of their

  7. The Importance of Attitudes in Statistics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Caroline; Schau, Candace; Emmioglu, Esma

    2012-01-01

    People forget what they do not use. But attitudes "stick." Our article emphasizes the importance of students' attitudes toward statistics. We examine 15 surveys that purport to assess these attitudes and then describe the "Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics," a commonly used attitude survey. We present our conceptual model of Students'…

  8. Automated Attitude Sensor Calibration: Progress and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlak, Joseph; Hashmall, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing work a NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to improve the quality of spacecraft attitude sensor calibration and reduce costs by automating parts of the calibration process. The new calibration software can autonomously preview data quality over a given time span, select a subset of the data for processing, perform the requested calibration, and output a report. This level of automation is currently being implemented for two specific applications: inertial reference unit (IRU) calibration and sensor alignment calibration. The IRU calibration utility makes use of a sequential version of the Davenport algorithm. This utility has been successfully tested with simulated and actual flight data. The alignment calibration is still in the early testing stage. Both utilities will be incorporated into the institutional attitude ground support system.

  9. Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward Debt.

    PubMed

    Park, Taehwan; Yusuf, Akeem A; Hadsall, Ronald S

    2015-05-25

    Objective. To examine pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt. Methods. Two hundred thirteen pharmacy students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed using items designed to assess attitudes toward debt. Factor analysis was performed to identify common themes. Subgroup analysis was performed to examine whether students' debt-tolerant attitudes varied according to their demographic characteristics, past loan experience, monthly income, and workload. Results. Principal component extraction with varimax rotation identified 3 factor themes accounting for 49.0% of the total variance: tolerant attitudes toward debt (23.5%); contemplation and knowledge about loans (14.3%); and fear of debt (11.2%). Tolerant attitudes toward debt were higher if students were white or if they had had past loan experience. Conclusion. These 3 themes in students' attitudes toward debt were consistent with those identified in previous research. Pharmacy schools should consider providing a structured financial education to improve student management of debt. PMID:26089561

  10. Pharmacy Students’ Attitudes Toward Debt

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Akeem A.; Hadsall, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine pharmacy students’ attitudes toward debt. Methods. Two hundred thirteen pharmacy students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed using items designed to assess attitudes toward debt. Factor analysis was performed to identify common themes. Subgroup analysis was performed to examine whether students’ debt-tolerant attitudes varied according to their demographic characteristics, past loan experience, monthly income, and workload. Results. Principal component extraction with varimax rotation identified 3 factor themes accounting for 49.0% of the total variance: tolerant attitudes toward debt (23.5%); contemplation and knowledge about loans (14.3%); and fear of debt (11.2%). Tolerant attitudes toward debt were higher if students were white or if they had had past loan experience. Conclusion. These 3 themes in students’ attitudes toward debt were consistent with those identified in previous research. Pharmacy schools should consider providing a structured financial education to improve student management of debt.

  11. TGF-? induced TMEPAI/PMEPA1 inhibits canonical Smad signaling through R-Smad sequestration and promotes non-canonical PI3K/Akt signaling by reducing PTEN in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singha, Prajjal K.; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Geng, Hui; Lan, Rongpei; Venkatachalam, Manjeri A.; Saikumar, Pothana

    2014-01-01

    TMEPAI (transmembrane prostate androgen-induced) is amplified at genomic, transcript and protein levels in triple-negative breast cancers and promotes TGF-? dependent growth, motility and invasion. Tumor promotion by TMEPAI depends on two different but related actions on TGF-? signaling. Firstly, TMEPAI binds and sequesters regulatory Smads2/3 and thereby decreases growth suppressive signaling by TGF-?. Secondly, increased expression of TMEPAI decreases PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) abundance, and thereby increases TGF-? dependent tumor promotive PI3K/Akt signaling. These actions of TMEPAI give rise to increased cell proliferation and motility. Moreover, signaling alterations produced by high TMEPAI were associated with oncogenic Snail expression and lung metastases. Finally, an inverse correlation between TMEPAI and PTEN levels was confirmed in triple negative breast cancer tumor samples. Together, our findings suggest that TMEPAI has dually critical roles to promote TGF-? dependent cancer cell growth and metastasis. Thus, redirected TGF-? signaling through TMEPAI may play a pivotal role in TGF-? mediated tumor promotion. PMID:25352949

  12. EXPLAINING TEACHERS' ATTITUDES TOWARDS STATISTICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assumpta Estrada; Carmen Batanero

    We summarize three studies aimed at assessing teachers' attitudes towards statistics. In the first study the comparison of prospective and in-service primary school teachers' attitudes towards statistics revealed no differences. The second study explores the structure of pre-service teachers' attitudes towards statistics and its relationships with statistical knowledge. We finally present the preliminary results of an on-going study, where an

  13. Childhood asthma: paternal critical attitude and father-child interaction.

    PubMed

    Schöbinger, R; Florin, I; Zimmer, C; Lindemann, H; Winter, H

    1992-12-01

    The study investigated paternal critical attitude (CA) and negative father-child communication in families with an asthmatic child and in controls. Twenty-seven children with bronchial asthma (6-13 yr) and 23 healthy children with their fathers participated in the project. Fathers were asked to describe their child (Five Minute Speech Sample; FMSS). Additionally, father and child discussed a mutual problem (Problem Discussion; PD). Tape recordings were taken. Critical attitude (CA) was assessed from the fathers' responses during the FMSS. Negative verbal behavior during PD was coded for father and child. During the FMSS, significantly more fathers of the asthmatic children than of the controls showed CA. During the PD, fathers of the asthmatic children made significantly more critical remarks than their controls. Significantly more long sequences of negative verbal communication occurred in father-child dyads with an asthmatic child than in the control dyads. No significant relationship was found between either the fathers' attitudes or amount of negative verbal communication and the children's severity of asthma, compliance, or IgE status. PMID:1432864

  14. Sexuality related attitudes and behaviors of Turkish university students.

    PubMed

    Askun, Duysal; Ataca, Bilge

    2007-10-01

    In this study, sexual attitudes and behaviors of Turkish university students were explored by taking many influential agents both at the distal and the proximal levels into consideration. A total of 563 students from three universities located in three cities completed a questionnaire that assessed their virginity status, first intercourse, sexual permissiveness, pornography usage, endorsement of traditional sexual double standards, and the perception of parental attitudes about sexuality. The results showed that women and students from rural areas were more traditional and conservative in their attitudes and behaviors regarding sexuality. The perception of maternal restriction about sexuality was related to sexual conservatism, negative affective reaction at first coitus, and endorsing traditional sexual double standards. The results are discussed in terms of various degrees of influences originating from proximal and distal variables in the Turkish context. PMID:17629783

  15. Spontaneous prejudice in context: variability in automatically activated attitudes.

    PubMed

    Wittenbrink, B; Judd, C M; Park, B

    2001-11-01

    The goal of the research reported in this article was to examine whether automatic group attitudes and stereotypes, commonly thought to be fixed responses to a social category cue, are sensitive to changes in the situational context. Two experiments demonstrated such variability of automatic responses due to changes in the stimulus context. In Study 1 White participants' implicit attitudes toward Blacks varied as a result of exposure to either a positive (a family barbecue) or a negative (a gang incident) stereotypic situation. Study 2 demonstrated similar context effects under clearly automatic processing conditions. Here, the use of different background pictures (church interior vs. street corner) for Black and White face primes affected participants' racial attitudes as measured by a sequential priming task. Implications for the concept of automaticity in social cognition are discussed. PMID:11708559

  16. Predictors of graduate student attitudes toward prescription privileges for psychologists.

    PubMed

    Luscher, Kristen A; Corbin, William R; Bernat, Jeffrey A; Calhoun, Karen S; McNair, Lily D

    2002-07-01

    The issue of gaining prescription privileges and its potential impact on the field of clinical psychology has special relevance for graduate students. This study was designed to investigate clinical graduate students' attitudes toward prescription authority, identify salient variables that contribute to these attitudes, and ascertain preferred models of training. Only 42.5% of respondents personally desired to obtain prescription privilege, although 61.8% of respondents favored efforts of the American Psychological Association to acquire prescription authority. Proponents and opponents were compared on their ratings of positive and negative aspects of the debate. There was strong agreement that the training should not be predoctoral and that it should lead to board certification. The strongest predictors of graduate students' attitudes were concerns about fundamental change to the field, malpractice premiums, and whether they considered it a logical extension of the field. This study provides a framework for understanding important factors influencing the decision-making process among clinical psychology graduate students. PMID:12205718

  17. COBE ground segment attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, V. K.; Freedman, I.; Wright, E. L.; Patt, F. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was launched in November 1989 by NASA to survey the sky for primordial radiation left from the Big Bang explosion. The success of the mission requires an accurate determination of the spacecraft attitude. While the accuracy of the attitude obtained from the attitude sensors is adequate for two of the experiments, the higher accuracy required by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is obtained by using the DIRBE instrument as a special type of star sensor. Presented here is an overview of the attitude processing algorithms used at the Cosmology Data Analysis Center (CDAC) and the results obtained from the flight data.

  18. Nonlinear attitude control of spacecraft and momentum management of control moment gyros

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hwa-Suk Oh

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear design procedures are presented for obtaining attitude control and momentum management laws. These are based on the Liapunov stability theorems. The Work-Energy Rate (WER) principle is extended to cover general classes of systems. It is shown that the use of the WER principle for obtaining control laws, can reduce the design efforts. The attitude control laws are designed for

  19. Measuring Teacher Attitudes toward Instructional Technology: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the TAC and TAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, Dominick; Corbell, Kristen A.; Osbourne, Jason W.; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Grable, Lisa Leonor

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors present a confirmatory factor analysis of the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computers (TAC) and the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Information Technology (TAT) scales by Christensen and Knezek (1996, 1998) using large samples from three states. The TAC was reduced from 98 items and nine factors to 35 items and eight factors,…

  20. The Role of Young Adults' Pleasure Attitudes in Shaping Condom Use.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Jenny A; Wang, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Condoms can help young adults protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. We examined young people's attitudes about whether condoms reduced pleasure and how these attitudes shape condom practices. We used a nationally representative sample of 2328 heterosexually active, unmarried 15- to 24-year-old young adults to document multivariate associations with condom nonuse at the last sexual episode. For both young men and women, pleasure-related attitudes were more strongly associated with lack of condom use than all sociodemographic or sexual history factors. Research and interventions should consistently assess and address young people's attitudes about how condoms affect pleasure. PMID:25973832

  1. Attitudes of Muslim physicians and nurses toward religious issues.

    PubMed

    Hafizi, Sina; Koenig, Harold G; Arbabi, Mohammad; Pakrah, Mohammad; Saghazadeh, Amene

    2014-10-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that suggests a positive role for religious involvement in physical and mental health. Studies have shown that attitudes of physicians toward religion affect their relationship with patients and their medical decisions, and in this way may ultimately affect treatment outcomes. Attitudes of nurses toward religion could also influence whether or not they address patients' unmet spiritual needs. To assess attitudes of physicians and nurses toward religion and how these attitudes vary by education level and demographic characteristics, a total of 800 physicians, medical students, and nurses from some of the largest hospitals in Tehran, Iran, were approached, of whom 720 completed questionnaires (148 nurses, 572 medical students and physicians). The survey questionnaire included the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL), Hoge Intrinsic Religiosity Scale, a brief measure of Negative Religious Coping (NRCOPE), and the brief Trust/Mistrust in God Scale. Religious attitudes and practices were compared between physicians (medical students and physicians) and nurses. Regression analysis revealed that except for intrinsic religiosity, physicians were not less religious than nurses on any other dimension of religiosity. Training level (year of training) was a predictor of religiosity, with those having less training being the most religious. The findings suggest that there are few religious differences between nurses and physicians in Iran. However, religiosity may become less as the training level increases. Lack of emphasis in training on the important role that religion plays in health care may result in a decrease in religious involvement and the development of negative attitudes toward religion over time (displaced by a focus on the technological aspects of health care). PMID:23690131

  2. Survey of public awareness, understanding, and attitudes toward epilepsy in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Lai, C W; Huang, X S; Lai, Y H; Zhang, Z Q; Liu, G J; Yang, M Z

    1990-01-01

    The awareness, understanding, and attitudes toward epilepsy in 1,278 men and women were surveyed in Henan, China in 1988. Results showed that 93% had read or heard about epilepsy; 77% knew someone who had epilepsy; 72% had seen someone who was having a seizure; 57% would object to having their children associate with persons with epilepsy in school or at play; 87% would object to having their children marry a person with epilepsy; 53% believed that epileptic persons should not be employed in jobs as other persons are; 16% believed that epilepsy was a form of insanity; 40% did not know the cause of epilepsy; 10% did not know what an epileptic attack was like; and 17% did not know what to recommend if their friends or relatives had epilepsy. The relationship between the responses and the respondents' age, sex, marital status, number of offspring, level of education, occupation, and residence was analyzed. Education reduced the respondent's prejudice against play and employment, but did not change their objection to marriage and appeared to have reinforced their linking epilepsy with insanity. As compared with the surveys conducted in Western countries, our survey showed that awareness of epilepsy in China was greater, if not the same, but the attitudes toward epilepsy were much more negative. PMID:2318170

  3. The self in conflict: the role of executive processes during truthful and deceptive responses about attitudes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ray; Henkell, Heather; Simon, Elizabeth; Zhu, John

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to extend previous results regarding deceptions about specific memories by investigating the role of executive processes in deceptions about evaluative judgments. In addition, given that previous studies of deception have not included valence manipulations, we also wanted to determine whether the goodness/badness aspect of the items would affect the processes used during deception. Thus, we compared behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) activity while participants made truthful and directed lie (i.e., press opposite of the truth) responses about attitude items with which they either strongly agreed or disagreed. Consistent with previous results, deceptive responses required greater cognitive control as indicated by slower RTs, larger medial frontal negativities (MFN) and smaller late positive components than truthful responses. Furthermore, the magnitude of these deception-related effects was dependent on the valence that participants assigned to the items (i.e., agree/disagree). Directed lie responses about attitudes also resulted in greatly reduced pre-response positivities, an indication that participants strategically monitored their responses even in the absence of explicit task demands. Item valence also differentially affected the amplitude of three ERP components in a 650 ms pre-response interval, independently of whether truthful or deceptive responses were made. Analyses using dipole locations based on results from fMRI studies of evaluative judgments and deception indicated a high degree of overlap between the ERP and fMRI results and revealed the possible temporal characteristics of the hemodynamic activations. PMID:17919934

  4. Predicting Student Attitudes and Grades from Perceptions of Instructors' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janie H.

    2006-01-01

    Psychological availability to students defines immediacy, a concept traditionally measured using ratings of instructor behaviors. However, students' perceptions of their professor's attitude toward them may serve as a more parsimonious measure of psychological availability. In fact, ratings of a professor's attitude toward students are positively…

  5. Attitudes and Attitude Change in Special Education: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    Twelve papers address issues of attitudes towards handicapped persons. The authors were invited to summarize and critically evaluate the literature in their area of expertise, including their own research. Contributions touch on measurement and methodological issues as well as other topics. The following papers are included: "Attitudes and…

  6. Negative-ion states

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

  7. Attitude control system conceptual design for the GOES-N spacecraft series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. L.; Bauer, F. H.; Deily, J. J.; Femiano, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    The attitude determination sensing and processing of the system are considered, and inertial reference units, star trackers, and beacons and landmarks are discussed as well as an extended Kalman filter and expected attitude-determination performance. The baseline controller is overviewed, and a spacecraft motion compensation (SMC) algorithm, disturbance environment, and SMC performance expectations are covered. Detailed simulation results are presented, and emphasis is placed on dynamic models, attitude estimation and control, and SMC disturbance accommmodation. It is shown that the attitude control system employing gyro/star tracker sensing and active three-axis control with reaction wheels is capable of maintaining attitude errors of 1.7 microrad or less on all axes in the absence of attitude disturbances, and that the sensor line-of-sight pointing errors can be reduced to 0.1 microrad by SMC.

  8. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  9. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  10. Approach-Avoidance Attitudes Associated with Initial Therapy Appointment Attendance: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Mansell, Warren; Craven, Sally; McEvoy, Phil

    2014-06-16

    Background: Initial therapy appointments have high nonattendance rates yet the reasons remain poorly understood. Aims: This study aimed to identify positive and negative attitudes towards therapy that predicted initial attendance, informed by a perceptual control theory account of approach-avoidance conflicts in help-seeking. Method: A prospective study was conducted within a low intensity CBT service using first appointment attendance (n = 96) as an outcome. Measures included attitudes towards therapy, depression and anxiety scales, and demographic variables. Results: Endorsement of a negative attitude item representing concern about self-disclosure was independently predictive of nonattendance. Positive attitudes predicted increased attendance, especially endorsement of motives for self-reflection, but only among less depressed individuals. Conclusions: Self-disclosure concerns contribute to therapy avoidance and having goals for self-reflection may represent approach motivation for therapy; however, the latter has less impact among more highly depressed people. PMID:24933408

  11. Client and counselor attitudes toward the use of medications for treatment of opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Traci; Daley, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E; Thomas, Cindy P; McCarty, Dennis

    2007-03-01

    Attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions were assessed for 376 counselors and 1,083 clients from outpatient, methadone, and residential drug treatment programs regarding four medications used to treat opiate dependence: methadone, buprenorphine, clonidine, and ibogaine. Attitudes, social norms, and intentions to use varied by treatment modality. Methadone clients and counselors had more positive attitudes toward the use of methadone, whereas their counterparts in residential and outpatient settings had neutral or negative assessments. Across modalities, attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions toward the use of buprenorphine were relatively neutral. Assessments of clonidine and ibogaine were negative for clients and counselors in all settings. Social normative influences were dominant across settings and medications in determining counselor and client intentions to use medications, suggesting that perceptions about beliefs of peers may play a critical role in use of medications to treat opiate dependence. PMID:17306729

  12. The euthanasia-religion nexus: exploring religious orientation and euthanasia attitude measures in a Muslim context.

    PubMed

    Aghababaei, Naser

    Using religious orientation paradigm, this twofold study examined the relationship between euthanasia attitude and religiosity, and compared single-item and multi-item scales of euthanasia attitude. Three hundred students were asked whether they view euthanasia as moral. In addition, participants completed the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) and Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that intrinsic religiosity was the strongest correlate of negative attitudes toward euthanasia. This type of religiosity explained additional variance when added to the two types of extrinsic religiosity (social, personal), but the reverse was not the case. The fairly strong correlation of intrinsic religiosity with the EAS provides evidence of construct validity for the EAS and proved it to be a better measure for assessing euthanasia attitude, rather than the single-item scale. PMID:23785984

  13. Students' attitudes towards science and science learning in an introductory undergraduate biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floro, Nicole

    Science education strives to cultivate individuals who understand scientific concepts as well as the nature of science and science learning. This study focused on the potential benefits of the flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning. Our study investigated changes in and effects of students' attitudes towards science and science learning in a flipped introductory biology course at the University of Massachusetts Boston. We used The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Biology to assess students' attitudes at pre and post-instruction. We investigated the effect of a flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning by measuring the impact of different teaching approaches (flipped vs. traditional lecture). Following the prior literature, we hypothesized that there would be a negative shift in students' attitudes over the semester in the traditional classroom and that this negative shift would not occur in the flipped. Our results showed there was no significant difference in the shift of students' attitudes between the traditional and flipped sections. We also examined the relationship between students' attitudes and academic performance. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between students' attitudes and their academic performance, as measured by exam average. In support of the prior literature, we found a significant positive correlation. Finally, we examined whether the relationship between students' attitudes and performance was mediated by learning behavior. Specifically, we considered if students with more favorable attitudes solved more on-line problems correctly and whether this aspect of problem solving was associated with greater achievement. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between attitudes and problem solving behavior as well as problem solving behavior and achievement. We did not find a significant correlation between attitudes and this aspect of problem solving behavior, however there was a correlation between problem solving behavior and achievement. Our results indicate attitudes towards science and science learning may play a role in undergraduate students' learning achievement. However, we were not able to show that those effects were mediated through problem solving behavior, nor did we show that the flipped classroom by itself was sufficient to enhance these attitudes.

  14. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  15. Operational support for Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) attitude sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M.; Garber, A.; Lambertson, M.; Raina, P.; Underwood, S.; Woodruff, C.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has several sensors that can provide observations for attitude determination: star trackers, Sun sensors (gimbaled as well as fixed), magnetometers, Earth sensors, and gyroscopes. The accuracy of these observations is important for mission success. Analysts on the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) UARS Attitude task monitor these data to evaluate the performance of the sensors taking corrective action when appropriate. Monitoring activities range from examining the data during real-time passes to constructing long-term trend plots. Increasing residuals (differences) between the observed and expected quantities is a prime indicator of sensor problems. Residual increases may be due to alignment shifts and/or degradation in sensor output. Residuals from star tracker data revealed and anomalous behavior that contributes to attitude errors. Compensating for this behavior has significantly reduced the attitude errors. This paper discusses the methods used by the FDF UARS attitude task for maintenance of the attitude sensors, including short- and long-term monitoring, trend analysis, and calibration methods, and presents the results obtained through corrective action.

  16. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    PubMed

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

  17. Factors that influence dental students' attitudes about older adults.

    PubMed

    Nochajski, Thomas H; Waldrop, Deborah P; Davis, Elaine L; Fabiano, Jude A; Goldberg, Louis J

    2009-01-01

    Our study considered dental students' general attitudes towards older persons using the Aging Semantic Differential. The influence of age, gender, cohort, education, and academic exposure on general attitudes towards older adults was evaluated using a total of 328 dental students across all four years of academic standing. Students were assessed in the fall and spring semesters. The results showed differential responding on the four subscales, with slight positive ratings on the autonomy, acceptability, and integrity subscales and a slight negative rating for instrumentality. Females expressed more negative attitudes than their male counterparts, with no age differences. There was also no significant impact from a specific, didactic educational component offered to the fourth-year students. However, the fourth-year students were the only group to show positive changes across the full academic year. The results suggest that general attitudes can be changed, but didactic (classroom) forms of education alone are insufficient to meaningfully modify students' perceptions of the elderly. Exposure to older adults in a clinical setting appears to be a critical element, as the fourth-year students received much greater exposure to older patients and more intensified interface with their mentors. PMID:19126770

  18. Nursing attitudes toward patients with substance use disorders in pain.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Betty D

    2014-03-01

    The problem of inadequate pain management in hospitals is well documented. Patients who have substance use disorders (SUD) have many medical problems and are often in pain as a result of these problems. Nurses often lack knowledge of appropriate treatment of both pain and SUD, and have been identified as having negative attitudes toward patients with SUD. The negative attitudes may affect the quality of care delivered to patients with problems of pain and SUD. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore nurses' attitudes toward hospitalized patients with SUD who are in pain, to expand the knowledge about nurses' attitudes and interactions with patients with SUD in pain, and to generate theory that will contribute to a greater understanding of the problem. Grounded theory methodology was used to interview hospital-based nurses who work with patients with SUD who are in pain. Individual interviews, using a semistructured interview guide, were conducted with 14 nurses who worked with this population. Additionally, an expert addictions nurse was interviewed at the end of the study to validate the findings. Interviews were analyzed and coded with the use of grounded theory concepts. A model illustrating the categories and their relationships was developed based on the theory generated as a result of the study. The implications for nursing practice, education, research, and policy are discussed. PMID:24602434

  19. The Relationship among Negative Life Events, Cognitions, and Depression within Three Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacoste, Denise R. Barnes; Wise, Erica H.

    1991-01-01

    Investigated extent to which cognitions mediate relationship between negative life events and depression. College students and their same-sex parents and grandparents (n=171) completed measures of stressful life events, automatic thoughts, dysfunctional attitudes, and depression. Found interaction between negative life events and cognition for…

  20. Health Consequences of Positive and Negative Interracial Interactions at a Predominantly Caucasian Public University

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linh Nguyen Littleford; Margaret O'Dougherty Wright

    1998-01-01

    Many studies have reported racial conflict, negative attitudes, and discriminatory behavior among ethnic groups on college campuses. This study examined the prevalence of both positive and negative interracial experiences and their impact on students' health. One hundred fifteen undergraduates (22 African Americans, 25 Asian Americans, 29 Caucasians, 17 Hispanic\\/Latino Americans, and 22 Bi–multiracial Americans; 46 males and 69 females) completed

  1. Attitudes and responses of parents to pre-adolescent masturbation.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, J H

    1985-10-01

    As part of a larger study of parental roles in sex education, a stratified probability sample of 1482 parents of three- to eleven-year-old children were interviewed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with reference to "masturbation" on the part of their children. A large majority of parents accepted the fact that children did masturbate, a smaller majority agreed that masturbation among children was alright, but less than half wanted their children as adolescents to have a positive attitude toward masturbation. Identified events of masturbation were reported to be more common among boys than girls, with mothers reporting higher incidences for both boys and girls than fathers reported. Parents with higher levels of education and liberal sexual attitudes were more positive on most attitudinal items about masturbation and reported a higher incidence of such conduct among their children. Parents who attended church more frequently were less likely to report positive views and conduct. Parents who reported they had masturbated as children were most likely to report positive views and a high incidence of masturbation on the part of their children. In general mothers played a more important role than fathers in transmitting knowledge and were more liberal in their attitudes. Negative information and attitudes toward masturbation remains a common response of parents when they are confronted with children's masturbation. PMID:4062541

  2. A dynamic attitude measurement system based on LINS.

    PubMed

    Li, Hanzhou; Pan, Quan; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Juanni; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Xiangjun

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic attitude measurement system (DAMS) is developed based on a laser inertial navigation system (LINS). Three factors of the dynamic attitude measurement error using LINS are analyzed: dynamic error, time synchronization and phase lag. An optimal coning errors compensation algorithm is used to reduce coning errors, and two-axis wobbling verification experiments are presented in the paper. The tests indicate that the attitude accuracy is improved 2-fold by the algorithm. In order to decrease coning errors further, the attitude updating frequency is improved from 200 Hz to 2000 Hz. At the same time, a novel finite impulse response (FIR) filter with three notches is designed to filter the dither frequency of the ring laser gyro (RLG). The comparison tests suggest that the new filter is five times more effective than the old one. The paper indicates that phase-frequency characteristics of FIR filter and first-order holder of navigation computer constitute the main sources of phase lag in LINS. A formula to calculate the LINS attitude phase lag is introduced in the paper. The expressions of dynamic attitude errors induced by phase lag are derived. The paper proposes a novel synchronization mechanism that is able to simultaneously solve the problems of dynamic test synchronization and phase compensation. A single-axis turntable and a laser interferometer are applied to verify the synchronization mechanism. The experiments results show that the theoretically calculated values of phase lag and attitude error induced by phase lag can both match perfectly with testing data. The block diagram of DAMS and physical photos are presented in the paper. The final experiments demonstrate that the real-time attitude measurement accuracy of DAMS can reach up to 20? (1?) and the synchronization error is less than 0.2 ms on the condition of three axes wobbling for 10 min. PMID:25177802

  3. A Dynamic Attitude Measurement System Based on LINS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanzhou; Pan, Quan; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Juanni; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Xiangjun

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic attitude measurement system (DAMS) is developed based on a laser inertial navigation system (LINS). Three factors of the dynamic attitude measurement error using LINS are analyzed: dynamic error, time synchronization and phase lag. An optimal coning errors compensation algorithm is used to reduce coning errors, and two-axis wobbling verification experiments are presented in the paper. The tests indicate that the attitude accuracy is improved 2-fold by the algorithm. In order to decrease coning errors further, the attitude updating frequency is improved from 200 Hz to 2000 Hz. At the same time, a novel finite impulse response (FIR) filter with three notches is designed to filter the dither frequency of the ring laser gyro (RLG). The comparison tests suggest that the new filter is five times more effective than the old one. The paper indicates that phase-frequency characteristics of FIR filter and first-order holder of navigation computer constitute the main sources of phase lag in LINS. A formula to calculate the LINS attitude phase lag is introduced in the paper. The expressions of dynamic attitude errors induced by phase lag are derived. The paper proposes a novel synchronization mechanism that is able to simultaneously solve the problems of dynamic test synchronization and phase compensation. A single-axis turntable and a laser interferometer are applied to verify the synchronization mechanism. The experiments results show that the theoretically calculated values of phase lag and attitude error induced by phase lag can both match perfectly with testing data. The block diagram of DAMS and physical photos are presented in the paper. The final experiments demonstrate that the real-time attitude measurement accuracy of DAMS can reach up to 20? (1?) and the synchronization error is less than 0.2 ms on the condition of three axes wobbling for 10 min. PMID:25177802

  4. Environmental Attitude and Ecological Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Florian G.; And Others

    This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…

  5. Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troxclair, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    Attitudes influence the teaching-learning process. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of undergraduate-elementary education majors at a small, rural south-central U.S. university toward gifted students. Gagne's and Nadeau's (Gagne, 1991) opinions about the gifted and their education was used. The respondents held…

  6. E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malina Jordanova; Lidia Vasileva; Maximka Rasheva; Rumiana Bojinova

    2008-01-01

    Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service.

  7. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  8. Measuring Attitudes toward Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorn, Gerald; Dubin, Samuel S.

    The attitudes of managers toward continuing education management development programs were analyzed, using the Fishbein technique; by this approach, the beliefs people have and their evaluation of these beliefs are measured separately. The evaluation of a belief is multiplied by its strength to get the direction of the attitude. A questionnaire,…

  9. Residents' attitudes toward tourism development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Teye; Ercan Sirakaya; Sevil F. Sönmez

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, tourism has been playing a more significant role in the economies of several African countries, including Ghana. The purpose of the paper is to examine attitudes of residents of two of its towns toward tourism development. Factor analysis of scaled items measuring their attitudes resulted in seven tourism-related factors: social interaction with tourists, beneficial cultural influences, welfare

  10. College Students' Attitudes toward Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Marianna K.

    This study was conducted to investigate the sexual attitudes of college students (N=384) at a Western Kansas university. Students completed the Sexual Attitudes Scale, the Personal Attribute Inventory, and a demographic questionnaire examining gender, birth order, family structure, and age at which one started dating. Of 20 main effects…

  11. Sexual Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etchison, Marilyn G.

    This study investigated the sexual attitudes of college students at a western Kansas university. The independent variables employed were gender, family structure, family sex communication, age, and classification. The dependent variables were the following subscales of sexual attitudes: permissiveness, sex practices, communion, and…

  12. Developing Attitudes towards Science Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Per; Jones, Karen; Barmby, Partick

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe the development of measures used to examine pupils' attitudes towards science. In particular, separate measures for attitudes towards the following areas were developed: learning science in school, practical work in science, science outside of school, importance of science, self-concept in science, and future…

  13. Measurement of Attitude to Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Gilah C.

    1985-01-01

    Provides definitions of "attitudes" and discusses these attitude measures: (1) Thurstone (equal-appearing) scales; (2) Likert scales; (3) (Osgood's) semantic differential scale; (4) inventories and checklists; (5) preference rankings; (6) projective techniques; (7) enrollments; (8) clinical and anthropological observations; and (9) psychological…

  14. Autonomous Attitude Sensor Calibration (ASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Chariya; Rowe, John; Mueller, Karl; Ziyad, Nigel

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to increase the degree of autonomy of flight software is proposed. We describe an enhancement of the Attitude Determination and Control System by augmenting it with self-calibration capability. Conventional attitude estimation and control algorithms are combined with higher level decision making and machine learning algorithms in order to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the problem.

  15. Opinionnaire on Attitudes Toward Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, H. C.; Patton, G. M.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Opinionnaire on Attitudes Toward Education was used as a measure of teacher attitudes toward child-centered education, discipline, and the desirability of understanding pupils'…

  16. Death, attractiveness, moral conduct, and attitudes to public figures.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C; Sheridan, Lorraine P

    In this study, 2,894 participants rated attitudes toward their favorite public figure on the Celebrity Attitude Scale. It was noted whether each figure was alive or dead, and a panel of four independent judges assessed each in terms of their moral conduct and physical attractiveness. Dead figures appealed less and were subject to lower "intense personal" celebrity worship, and death was unrelated to "borderline pathological" and "deleterious imitation" celebrity worship. Physical attractiveness was positively related to overall celebrity worship and "intense personal" celebrity worship, but negatively related to "borderline pathological" and "deleterious imitation" celebrity worship. Moral conduct was associated negatively with "deleterious imitation" celebrity worship. Results are discussed briefly in terms of their implications for research on physical attractiveness and "copycat suicide". PMID:20397615

  17. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  18. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  19. The Internship—A Prospective Investigation of Emotions and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Elliot, Diane L.; Hickam, David H.; Sparr, Landy; Clarke, Nancy G.; Warren, Linda; Koski, James

    1986-01-01

    In a prospective survey for changes in emotions and attitudes of all medical interns of The Oregon Health Sciences University (N = 22) at six intervals during the 1982-1983 academic year, both positive and negative emotional changes were noted. Satisfaction with the decision to become a physician decreased during the period, a change that correlated directly with depression and fatigue and inversely with excitement and importance. PMID:3953083

  20. Implicit attitudes towards meat and vegetables in vegetarians and nonvegetarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan De Houwer; Els De Bruycker

    2007-01-01

    Previous research, in which self?report measures were used, showed that vegetarians have more negative beliefs about meat than nonvegetarians. An important limitation of this research is that it did not examine differences in spontaneous affective reactions (i.e., implicit attitudes) towards meat and other types of food. We therefore conducted a new study in which not only self?report measures were used,

  1. Momentum transfer-based attitude control of spacecraft with backstepping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baohua Lian; Hyochoong Bang

    2006-01-01

    A nonlinear control law design based upon the backstepping approach is addressed for attitude maneuver control of spacecraft by momentum transfer (MT) in the presence of disturbance. For MT, a traditional method usually applies constant torque as an input, which tends to produce significant residual oscillation. Enhanced methods such as optimal control can somewhat reduce the residual oscillation, but may

  2. Attitude control of a satellite with redundant thrusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaehyun Jin; Min-Jea Tahk

    2006-01-01

    Redundant thrusters are generally used for a reliable attitude control system. Also, redundant thrusters yield a better performance if they are used appropriately. In this paper, the authors propose an efficient redundancy management algorithm to reduce the fuel consumption. The algorithm is based on a linear programming problem which is a constrained optimization problem. For the algorithm, a cost function

  3. Changes in Attitudes, Intentions, and Behaviors toward Tobacco and Marijuana during U.S. Students’ First Year of College

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mara W; Moreno, Megan A

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco and marijuana are commonly used by college students and have negative health effects. The purpose of this study was to understand how students’ attitudes, intentions, and behaviors toward tobacco and marijuana change during freshman year and to examine how attitude and intention predict use of these substances. 275 college students completed phone interviews before and after their freshman year. The identical interviews assessed students’ attitudes, intentions, and behaviors toward both substances. Attitudes and intentions increased significantly. 12.2% of participants initiated tobacco use and 13.5% initiated marijuana use. Only intention predicted tobacco initiation, while both attitude and intention predicted marijuana initiation. Overall, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors changed significantly toward favored use. Predictors of use varied by substance, suggesting that different prevention approaches may be beneficial. PMID:24761133

  4. Attitudes towards following meat, vegetarian and vegan diets: an examination of the role of ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Wellens, B; Conner, M

    2001-08-01

    Vegetarianism within the U.K. is growing in popularity, with the current estimate of 7% of the population eating a vegetarian diet. This study examined differences between the attitudes and beliefs of four dietary groups (meat eaters, meat avoiders, vegetarians and vegans) and the extent to which attitudes influenced intentions to follow each diet. In addition, the role of attitudinal ambivalence as a moderator variable was examined. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 111 respondents (25 meat eaters, 26 meat avoiders, 34 vegetarians, 26 vegans). In general, predictions were supported, in that respondents displayed most positive attitudes and beliefs towards their own diets, and most negative attitudes and beliefs towards the diet most different form their own. Regression analyses showed that, as predicted by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control were significant predictors of intention to follow each diet (apart from the vegetarian diet, where subjective norm was non-significant). In each case, attitudinal ambivalence was found to moderate the attitude-intention relationship, such that attitudes were found to be stronger predictors at lower levels of ambivalence. The results not only highlight the extent to which such alternative diets are an interesting focus for psychological research, but also lend further support to the argument that ambivalence in an important influence on attitude strength. PMID:11562154

  5. Neuroanatomy Predicts Individual Risk Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

  6. Neuroanatomy predicts individual risk attitudes.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W; Glimcher, Paul W; Levy, Ifat

    2014-09-10

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

  7. The brief sexual attitudes scale.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Clyde; Hendrick, Susan S; Reich, Darcy A

    2006-02-01

    The measurement of sexual attitudes is important, and ease of scale usability is one key aspect of measurement. This paper details three studies conducted to develop a briefer and thus more efficient version of the multidimensional Sexual Attitudes Scale (43 items). The first two studies (I and II) employed existing data sets to develop a 23-item version of the Sexual Attitudes Scale, using exploratory factor analysis in Study I and confirmatory factor analysis in Study II. The same four subscales of Permissiveness, Birth Control (formerly called Sexual Practices), Communion, and Instrumentality were retained in the 23-item measure, called the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale. Study III was a prospective data collection using only the 23 items composing the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale. The four subscales were hypothesized to correlate with a number of relationship measures in predictable ways. Results indicated that the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale is a reliable and valid measure of the four sexual attitudes, and has strong psychometric properties. It should be effective and efficient for both research and clinical uses. PMID:16817070

  8. Negative-ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Junzo [Kyoto Univ., Yoshida, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Electronics

    1995-12-31

    Negative-ion implantation is a promising technique for forthcoming ULSI (more than 256 M bits) fabrication and TFT (for color LCD) fabrication, since the surface charging voltage of insulated electrodes or insulators implanted by negative ions is found to saturate within so few as several volts, no breakdown of insulators would be expected without a charge neutralizer in these fabrication processes. Scatter-less negative-ion implantation into powders is also possible. For this purpose an rf-plasma-sputter type heavy negative-ion source was developed, which can deliver several milliamperes of various kinds of negative ion currents such as boron, phosphor, silicon, carbon, copper, oxygen, etc. A medium current negative-ion implanter with a small version of this type of ion source has been developed.

  9. Negative thermal expansion materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. O. Evans; T. A. Mary; A. W. Sleight

    1998-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW2O8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal

  10. Negative thermal expansion materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. O Evans; T. A Mary; A. W Sleight

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW2O8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal

  11. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  12. Correlates of Attitudes Toward Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Tom; And Others

    Results of a study using a theoretical model to measure student attitudes toward social studies are reported. Attitudes were measured as they related to five constructs: (1) teacher attitudes, including support and reinforcement for the student and enthusiasm for subject; (2) student self-concept, scholastic attitude, peer acceptance, and…

  13. Within Family Leisure Attitude Similarities and Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neulinger, John; And Others

    This study explores leisure attitudes within the family, specifically addressing itself to three primary questions: (1) Will leisure attitudes of children be "at the same level" as those of their parents?; (2) Will the children's attitudes relate significantly to their parent's attitudes?; and (3) Will the answers to these questions be the same…

  14. On the automatic activation of attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell H. Fazio; David M. Sanbonmatsu; Martha C. Powell; Frank R. Kardes

    1986-01-01

    We hypothesized that attitudes characterized by a strong association between the attitude object and an evaluation of that object are capable of being activated from memory automatically upon mere presentation of the attitude object. We used a priming procedure to examine the extent to which the mere presentation of an attitude object would facilitate the latency with which subjects could

  15. Student Attitudes towards Diversity in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmeroth, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research reported in this paper was to study and analyse student attitudes towards ethnic diversity and their expectations regarding the school in creating positive attitudes. The results show that the majority of the students embrace a positive attitude towards multicultural society. However, this attitude varies when the variables…

  16. ISO ground attitude determination during operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Batten

    1991-01-01

    The attitude determination algorithm developed for the ISO (Infrared Space Observatory) spacecraft ground control, to be used for attitude initialization during Launch and Early Operations Phase (LEOP), and for any later attitude updates required during the mission, is described. The attitude determination task contains a star pattern recognition algorithm, using a star map generated by the spacecraft Star Tracker, and

  17. Attitude determination and control system of Sathyabamasat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sheela Rani; C. Gomathy; B. Sowmya; R. Narmadha

    2010-01-01

    A high-precision attitude determination and control of the sathyabama satellite is an essential task for the success of the whole mission. Satellite Attitude determination and control system is an integral part of any satellite. For satellites in LEO an interaction with the local geomagnetic field is an important means of controlling the attitude or orientation. Attitude estimation is highly nonlinear

  18. ISO ground attitude determination using pattern recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Batten

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the attitude determination algorithm developed for the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spacecraft ground control. The attitude determination task contains a star pattern recognition algorithm, using a star map generated by the spacecraft Star Tracker and requires no a priori attitude estimates. Derivation of the algorithms for the attitude determination task is given. The practical implementation of the

  19. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  20. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  1. Negative ions in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wekhof, A.

    1981-01-01

    Negative ion sources in comets are identified and cometary plasma effects caused by negative ions are examined. The primary negative ion sources are shown to be: (1) for the inner coma - photodissociation of HCN, electron attachment of OH, and collision with alkalis; (2) in the vicinity of the nucleus - interplanetary dust collisions with the nucleus; and (3) for both the contaminated solar wind region and sporadic discharges in the nonhomogeneous inner coma plasma - dissociative electron attachment and charge inversion during keV positive ion scattering by cometary dust. Negative ion abundance for Halley's Comet has been estimated to be 10 to the -6th - 10 to the -10th of electron densities.

  2. ATTITUDE FILTERING ON SO(3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2005-01-01

    A new method is presented for the simultaneous estimation of the attitude of a spacecraft and an N-vector of bias parameters. This method uses a probability distribution function defined on the Cartesian product of SO(3), the group of rotation matrices, and the Euclidean space W N .The Fokker-Planck equation propagates the probability distribution function between measurements, and Bayes s formula incorporates measurement update information. This approach avoids all the issues of singular attitude representations or singular covariance matrices encountered in extended Kalman filters. In addition, the filter has a consistent initialization for a completely unknown initial attitude, owing to the fact that SO(3) is a compact space.

  3. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    PubMed

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradicted Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. PMID:23520357

  4. Perceptions and Attitudes of Health Professionals in Kenya on National Health Care Resource Allocation Mechanisms: A Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Chern, Jin-Yuan; Chiu, Chiung-Hsuan Megan; Wang, Bill; Huang, Kuo-Cherh; Muga, Miriam Adoyo

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care resource allocation is key towards attaining equity in the health system. However, health professionals’ perceived impact and attitude towards health care resource allocation in Sub-Saharan Africa is unknown; furthermore, they occupy a position which makes them notice the impact of different policies in their health system. This study explored perceptions and attitudes of health professionals in Kenya on health care resource allocation mechanism. Method We conducted a survey of a representative sample of 341 health professionals in Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital from February to April 2012, consisting of over 3000 employees. We assessed health professionals’ perceived impact and attitudes on health care resource allocation mechanism in Kenya. We used structural equation modeling and applied a Confirmatory Factor Analysis using Robust Maximum Likelihood estimation procedure to test the hypothesized model. Results We found that the allocation mechanism was negatively associated with their perceived positive impact (-1.04, p < .001), health professionals’ satisfaction (-0.24, p < .01), and professionals’ attitudes (-1.55, p < .001) while it was positively associated with perceived negative impact (1.14, p < .001). Perceived positive impact of the allocation mechanism was negatively associated with their overall satisfaction (-0.08) and attitude (-0.98) at p < .001, respectively. Furthermore, overall satisfaction was negatively associated with attitude (-1.10, p <.001). On the other hand, perceived negative impact of the allocation was positively associated with overall satisfaction (0.29, p <.001) but was not associated with attitude. Conclusion The result suggests that health care resource allocation mechanism has a negative effect towards perceptions, attitudes and overall satisfaction of health professionals who are at the frontline in health care. These findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers as the Kenyan health system move towards devolving the system of governance. PMID:26039053

  5. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.

    PubMed

    Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity. PMID:23921210

  6. Public Attitudes Toward Nanotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Sims Bainbridge; Wilson Boulevard

    2002-01-01

    Data from 3909 respondents to an Internet survey questionnaire provide the first insights into public perceptions of nanotechnology. Quantitative analysis of statistics about agreement and disagreement with two statements, one positive and the other negative, reveals high levels of enthusiasm for the potential benefits of nanotechnology and little concern about possible dangers. The respondents mentally connect nanotechnology with the space

  7. 'Soft and fluffy': medical students' attitudes towards psychology in medical education.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Stephen; Wallace, Sarah; Nathan, Yoga; McGrath, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Psychology is viewed by medical students in a negative light. In order to understand this phenomenon, we interviewed 19 medical students about their experiences of psychology in medical education. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were generated: attitudes, teaching culture, curriculum factors and future career path; negative attitudes were transmitted by teachers to students and psychology was associated with students opting for a career in general practice. In summary, appreciation of psychology in medical education will only happen if all educators involved in medical education value and respect each other's speciality and expertise. PMID:23988684

  8. [Attitude of hemophilic adult individuals towards their disease].

    PubMed

    Carruyo-Vizcaíno, Cecilia; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Carrizo, Edgardo; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis; Sarmiento, Sandra; Vizcaíno-Carruyo, Jennifer

    2004-09-01

    The mental health of hemophilic individuals and their families play an important role on the integral treatment of the disease. The knowledge of the beliefs and attitudes perceived by the patients toward their disease will make possible a positive influence in their clinical improvement, their response to the treatment, as well as their quality of life. On the basis of the Azjen and Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action, a questionnaire was applied to 43 adult hemophilics to determine the salient beliefs about their disease. These beliefs permitted to elaborate a main structured questionnaire named Attitude Model in Patients with Hemophilia (Modelo de Actitud en Pacientes con Hemofilia, MAPACHE, in spanish), which was administered to the individuals and thus, the attitude toward their disease was obtained. Seventy two percent (72%) gave a major importance to the clinical aspects of the disease (hemorrhage, joint discomfort and trauma), 40% knew the general concepts of hemophilia (heredity, care and seriousness of the disease), 20% mentioned the implications of the psychosocial factors and only 18% had knowledge concerning the coagulation factors deficiency and the appropriate treatment. The MAPACHE showed a slightly positive score attitude (4.44 +/- 1.12 SEM) towards the disease in the majority of the groups (74.5%); with 26% of the hemophilics with a negative attitude. There were no significant differences between attitude and clinical parameters. It is recommended that a multidisciplinary team of caregivers should focus their efforts toward education and preventive measures in order to avoid the complications and consequences of the disease, to make possible a better quality of life in individuals with hemophilia. PMID:15469070

  9. Linearization of attitude-control error dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Bach; Russell Paielli

    1993-01-01

    Some useful properties of direction-cosine and quaternion attitude formulations that include specification of attitude error and the inversion of rigid-body rotational dynamics are reviewed. The inversion procedure is then applied to a measure of attitude error to realize a new model-follower control system that exhibits linear attitude-error dynamics. Error analyses and simulation results for spacecraft attitude-control systems are presented to

  10. Attitudes toward Science (ATS): An Examination of Scientists' and Native Americans' Cultural Values and ATS and Their Effect on Action Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murry, Adam T.

    Science has been identified as a crucial element in the competitiveness and sustainability of America in the global economy. American citizens, especially minority populations, however, are not pursuing science education or careers. Past research has implicated ‘attitudes toward science’ as an important factor in the public’s participation in science. I applied Ajzen’s (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior to attitudes toward science to predict science-related sustainability-action intentions and evaluated whether scientists and Native Americans differed in their general attitudes toward science, cultural values, and specific beliefs about science. Analyses revealed that positive attitude toward science and the cultural value of individualism predicted intentions to engage with science-related sustainability actions. Unexpectedly, scientists and Native Americans did not differ in their cultural values or positive attitude toward science. However, Natives Americans held significantly more negative attitude toward science than scientists. Implications for science education and attitudes towards science theory and application are discussed.

  11. Videomicroscopy and Improved Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedak, John; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The improvement in student attitudes as the result of the use of videomicroscopy in the science classroom at the elementary, secondary, and college levels is discussed. The results of published research studies are reviewed. (CW)

  12. A Predictive Attitude Determination Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a new and efficient algorithm is developed for attitude determination from vector observations. The new algorithm, called the Predictive Attitude Determination (PAD) algorithm, is derived from a general nonlinear predictive filter approach. Traditional deterministic algorithms are shown to be suboptimal for anisotropic measurement errors. The major advantage of the PAD algorithm is that it can be easily applied to the case where anisotropic measurement errors exist. Also, an analytical expression is derived for the steady-state attitude error covariance, which is shown to be equivalent to the optimal covariance derived from maximum likelihood techniques. Simulation studies indicate that the new algorithm is able to accurately determine the attitude of a spacecraft, even for radically anisotropic measurement errors.

  13. Students' attitudes towards learning statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-05-01

    Positive attitude towards learning is vital in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. This is unexceptional in learning statistics course especially at the university level. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six variables or constructs have been identified such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The instrument used for the study is questionnaire that was adopted and adapted from the reliable instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics(SATS©). This study is conducted to engineering undergraduate students in one of the university in the East Coast of Malaysia. The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. The results are analysed in terms of descriptive analysis and it contributes to the descriptive understanding of students' attitude towards the teaching and learning process of statistics.

  14. Attitude strength and resistance processes.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, E M; Chaiken, S; Tordesillas, R S

    1995-09-01

    This study examined whether multiple indicators of attitude strength form general dimensions that foster differential pathways to resistance. Ego involvement, certainty, personal importance, knowledge, and extremity were assessed. Resistance processes and outcomes were measured in a selective judgment paradigm. Intentions to act on attitudes and information-seeking proclivities were also assessed. Factor analysis of the strength measures revealed 2 factors. Both fostered intentions to act but were associated with differential resistance processes and outcomes. Heightened levels of the factor representing Commitment to one's position were associated with increased selective elaboration, selective judgment, and attitude polarization. Embeddedness, the linkage of the attitude to one's self-concept, value system, and knowledge structure, was associated with decreased selective elaboration and increased information seeking and selective memory. PMID:7562388

  15. Attitude towards antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prescription among HIV specialists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate perceptions and attitude to prescribe Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among HIV specialists. Methods A questionnaire developed through a Focus Group and literature review was administered to a convenience sample of HIV specialists during educational courses in two Regions and an online survey in February-May 2012. Participants were classified as having a positive or negative attitude according to their willingness to prescribe PrEP. Demographic and working information, experience with HIV-infected patients, information and provision of antiretrovirals to uninfected persons, self-reported knowledge, perceptions and concerns regarding PrEP were assessed. The association between a different attitude towards PrEP prescription and selected characteristics was assessed through univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results Of 311 specialists, 70% would prescribe PrEP, mainly to serodiscordant partners (64%) but also to people at ongoing, high risk of HIV infection (56%); 66% advocated public support of costs. A negative attitude towards PrEP was significantly associated with lack of provision of information on, and prescription of, antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis; specialists with a negative attitude believed behavioural interventions to be more effective than PrEP and were more concerned about toxicity. Overall, 90% of specialists disagreed regarding a lack of time for engaging in prevention counselling and PrEP monitoring; 79% would welcome formal guidelines, while those with a negative attitude did not consider this advisable. Conclusions Although conflicting attitudes appear evident, most specialists seem to be willing, with guidance from normative bodies, to promote PrEP within multiple prevention strategies among vulnerable populations. More scientific evidence regarding effectiveness could overcome resistance. PMID:23672424

  16. Attitude and Trajectory Determination using Magnetometers and Estimated Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schierman, J. D.; Schmidt, D. K.; Deutschmann, J.

    1997-01-01

    A simultaneous attitude and orbit determination algorithm which uses magnetometer measurements and estimated attitude rates is presented. This is an extension of an algorithm which uses magnetometer and rate gyro measurements. The new algorithm is intended for gyroless spacecraft, or in the case of gyro failures/saturation. Torque control input data is used in forming the rate estimates. Simulation tests of the algorithm are presented. First, tests were performed using the 'true' rate values at each time step. This simulated using accurate gyro measurements. Then, tests were performed estimating the rates. Using estimated rates rather than 'gyro measurements' did not significantly degrade the algorithm's performance if accurate estimates of the initial rates were available. An initial Root-Sum-Square (RSS) position error of 1,400 km was reduced to an average error of approximately 100 km within the first two minutes. The RSS attitude error converged to less than 1.5 degrees within three orbits.

  17. Negative thermal expansion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. S. O.; Mary, T. A.; Sleight, A. W.

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2(MO 4) 3. Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed.

  18. Negative thermal expansion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. S. O.; Mary, T. A.; Sleight, A. W.

    1998-04-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW2O8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A2(MO4)3. Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed.

  19. SCKF for MAV attitude estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Li; Quan-Bo Ge

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel quaternion-based attitude estimation algorithm with the square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF) is proposed to improve the attitude estimation performance for micro air vehicle (MAV). The SCKF is a kind of new effective method to solve nonlinear state estimation, it can directly deal with nonlinear systems, and the QR decomposition in SCKF avoids the square-root operation

  20. ASCAL: Autonomous Attitude Sensor Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Chariya; Rowe, John; Mueller, Karl; Ziyad, Nigel

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, an approach to increase the degree of autonomy of flight software is proposed. We describe an enhancement of the Attitude Determination and Control System by augmenting it with self-calibration capability. Conventional attitude estimation and control algorithms are combined with higher level decision making and machine learning algorithms in order to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the problem.

  1. Catholic attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Smith, T W

    1984-01-01

    In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics for "hard" reasons ranges from about 80-88%. Abortion for social reasons such as poverty or not wanting additional children ranges from 35-50%. Catholic support for abortion also varies by geographical region, community type, and ethnic group. Support tends to be strongest in the Northeast, in large cities, and among descendants of immigrants from Italy, Eastern Europe, and France. Support is weakest among Catholics in the Southwest, in small towns or rural areas, and among the Irish and Hispanics, especially Mexican-Americans. Among Catholics, many factors cause opinion to deviate from the national average. A 2nd major political implication is the comparative dedication or commitment of supporters and opponents. Analysis of election returns in 1978 in particular failed to demonstrate any measurable anti-abortion vote, but this does not mean that in a particular constituency it could not be made a serious issue. PMID:12178931

  2. Citizen's Attitudes About Privacy: Results Citizen's Attitudes about Privacy While Accessing Government Websites

    E-print Network

    Yang, Junfeng

    Citizen's Attitudes About Privacy: Results 1 Citizen's Attitudes about Privacy While Accessing 10027 March 3, 2003 Abstract This paper reports the results of an investigation on citizens' attitudes Private Portal that protects citizen's personally identifying information when accessing government

  3. Secondary Counselors and Vocational Directors: Sex-Role Attitudes and Attitudes Toward Teenage Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Daisy L.; Burge, Penny L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the attitudes of secondary counselors and vocational directors toward teenage parenthood and sex roles. A positive relationship was found between the sample's attitudes toward adolescent parents and their sex role attitudes. (JOW)

  4. Students' Attitudes Toward Gene Technology: Deconstructing a Construct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Grant E.; Troelstrup, Angelique

    2015-01-01

    Emergent technologies are commonly characterized as involving cutting-edge developments while lacking wide-scale public implementation. Although currently prevalent in many applications, gene technology is often considered emergent in that the science changes so rapidly. Science educators at all levels of formal education are faced with a unique challenge of facilitating student understanding of gene technology (in comparison with more established content) as well as integrating some of the more controversial socioscientific aspects of such content into the curricula. Much of the literature regarding student understanding of biotechnology has focused on development of student attitudes toward the field and the impact of this on their learning. However, there has, of yet, been no unifying framework in the literature regarding what is meant by attitudes toward gene technology. This article reviews the current scholarship (38 empirical studies published between 1990 and 2011) on the measurement of student attitudes toward biotechnology in order to highlight major themes present within the literature. Items from all reviewed studies were collected, coded, and sorted for construction of a comprehensive instrument representing the conceptualizations of attitudes toward gene technology in all 38 studies. Factor analytic techniques were used as a tool to reduce and categorize measurement items. Results provided a framework of five factors that help describe student attitudes toward biotechnology across all the studies. This emergent framework of factors is proposed as a useful means to standardize the discourse in future research.

  5. Mental Health Stigma, Self-Concealment, and Help-Seeking Attitudes among Asian American and European American College Students with No Help-Seeking Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether mental health stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward people with a psychological disorder) and self-concealment are unique predictors of help-seeking attitudes in Asian American and European American college students with no history of seeking professional psychological services. The Asian American group had…

  6. Negative air ions as a source of superoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naum I. Goldstein; Roman N. Goldstein; Mark N. Merzlyak

    1992-01-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics and possible formation mechanisms of negative air ions are considered. It was found that the products of oxygen and nitrogen negative ionization reduce ferricytochromec and nitroblue tetrazolium, and that these reactions were inhibited by superoxide dismutase. The interaction of negatively ionized oxygen with water led to hydrogen peroxide accumulation, which was inhibited by tetranitromethane or catalase. Nitrogen

  7. Attitude toward money modulates outcome processing: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shiwei; Zhang, Wenxin; Li, Peng; Feng, Tingyong; Li, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Love of money (LOM) is concerned with the attitude toward money, which can be measured by the LOM scale through affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Research has observed that monetary attitude was tightly related to reward processing and could affect economic behavior. This study examined how monetary attitude modulated risky behavior and the underlying neural mechanisms of reward processing using event-related potential (ERP) technique. We compared both the risk level and brain responses of a high-level LOM (HLOM) group to a low-level LOM (LLOM) group using a simple gambling task. The behavioral results showed that the HLOM group was more risky than the LLOM group, particularly after loss. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) was measured as the difference wave (gain-related ERP was subtracted from loss-related ERP). The FRN difference wave was larger in the HLOM group than that in the LLOM group. The P3 in the HLOM group was more positive than that in the LLOM group. These results suggest that monetary attitude can modulate both the underlying neural mechanisms and behavioral performance in a reward-related task. The HLOM participants are more sensitive to gain/loss than the LLOM participants. PMID:22856426

  8. Comparison of nursing students’ and clinical nurses’ attitude toward the nursing profession

    PubMed Central

    Koushali, Ali Noruzi; Hajiamini, Zahra; Ebadi, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Background: To develop nursing education and promote nursing strategies, there is a need for a staff with positive attitude. The present study was conducted to compare the attitudes among clinical nurses and nursing students toward the nursing profession. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive- analytical study 313 clinical nurses and 81 nursing students (total n = 394) of Tehran, Iran, were selected through a systematic sampling method and their viewpoints were investigated using a nursing professional attitude questionnaire. Results: The findings of this study showed that 72.6% of nurses and 65.4% of students had positive attitude toward their profession, and despite the high percentage of the clinical nurses’ positive outlook, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that approximately one-third of the students and nursing practitioners had neutral or negative attitude toward their occupation. Due to the serious effect of one’s professional attitude and commitment of service, it is necessary to have further studies about the current situation to eliminate such negative factors. PMID:23853651

  9. Attitudes and beliefs of university science professors toward the discipline of education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelberg, Katherine

    Because professional development (PD) is about persuasion and influence, it makes sense to use an influence framework when trying to determine the reasons current university-level PD has been fairly ineffective in changing teacher practice to date. This research used the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to determine if university natural science professors' attitudes and beliefs toward the discipline of education (DE), a construct not recognized in the current literature, were positive or negative. The study also looked to discover some of the major influences on the participants' attitudes and beliefs toward DE. A method bricolage was used to analyze data from 10 participants in two separate phases in an attempt to establish a replicable Discourse Analysis methodology for analyzing attitudes and beliefs, and to investigate the major influences on the formation of these attitudes and beliefs. The findings indicate that in general the participants' had positive beliefs in and about DE with negative attitudes toward DE and that the majority of the participants' views of teaching were formed by a number of significant influences. However, the participants' attitudes and beliefs toward DE are complicated by several issues, the most prominent being that this cohort's ideas about DE are based upon their PD experiences, which were generally delivered by centers for teaching excellence (CTEs) or equivalent entities. This research needs to be extended to determine the generalizability of these findings, as well as to provide evidence-based research to support the re-thinking of how PD is delivered at the university level.

  10. Magnetic negative stiffness dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiang; Zhu, Songye

    2015-07-01

    This communication presents the design principle and experimental validation of two novel configurations of magnetic negative stiffness dampers (MNSDs), both of which are composed of several permanent magnets arranged in a conductive pipe. The MNSD, as a passive device, efficiently integrates negative stiffness and eddy-current damping in a simple and compact design, in which the negative stiffness behavior depends on the different arrangements of the permanent magnets. When applied to structural vibration control, passive MNSD may achieve a performance comparable with semi-active or active control in some applications. Laboratory experiments of small-scale prototypes successfully verified the proposed MNSD design concept.

  11. Introduction to Negative Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WNET.org

    2006-01-01

    This lesson plan based on a Cyberchase activity, first addresses a common misconception: starting measurement from 1 instead of 0. Then, it introduces negative numbers by extending a number line beyond 0 in the negative (left) direction. It is motivated by the Cyber Squad’s mission to find the captured Cyberchase Council on a particular floor of a tall building as seen in two quicktime videos: “Importance of the Origin" and "Inventing Negative Numbers" (each are cataloged separately). In addition to the learning activity, other support materials are included: handouts, assessments and answer keys.

  12. Negative birefringent polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor); Cheng, Stephen Z. D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A negative birefringent film, useful in liquid crystal displays, and a method for controlling the negative birefringence of a polyimide film is disclosed which allows the matching of an application to a targeted amount of birefringence by controlling the degree of in-plane orientation of the polyimide by the selection of functional groups within both the diamine and dianhydride segments of the polyimide which affect the polyimide backbone chain rigidity, linearity, and symmetry. The higher the rigidity, linearity and symmetry of the polyimide backbone, the larger the value of the negative birefringence of the polyimide film.

  13. Attitude heading reference system using MEMS inertial sensors with dual-axis rotation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li; Ye, Lingyun; Song, Kaichen; Zhou, Yang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a low cost and small size attitude and heading reference system based on MEMS inertial sensors. A dual-axis rotation structure with a proper rotary scheme according to the design principles is applied in the system to compensate for the attitude and heading drift caused by the large gyroscope biases. An optimization algorithm is applied to compensate for the installation angle error between the body frame and the rotation table's frame. Simulations and experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the AHRS. The results show that the proper rotation could significantly reduce the attitude and heading drifts. Moreover, the new AHRS is not affected by magnetic interference. After the rotation, the attitude and heading are almost just oscillating in a range. The attitude error is about 3° and the heading error is less than 3° which are at least 5 times better than the non-rotation condition. PMID:25268911

  14. Attitude Heading Reference System Using MEMS Inertial Sensors with Dual-Axis Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Li; Ye, Lingyun; Song, Kaichen; Zhou, Yang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a low cost and small size attitude and heading reference system based on MEMS inertial sensors. A dual-axis rotation structure with a proper rotary scheme according to the design principles is applied in the system to compensate for the attitude and heading drift caused by the large gyroscope biases. An optimization algorithm is applied to compensate for the installation angle error between the body frame and the rotation table's frame. Simulations and experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the AHRS. The results show that the proper rotation could significantly reduce the attitude and heading drifts. Moreover, the new AHRS is not affected by magnetic interference. After the rotation, the attitude and heading are almost just oscillating in a range. The attitude error is about 3° and the heading error is less than 3° which are at least 5 times better than the non-rotation condition. PMID:25268911

  15. Tal Como Somos/Just As We Are: An Educational Film to Reduce Stigma towards Gay and Bisexual Men, Transgender Individuals & Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes towards gay and bisexual men and transgender women (GBT) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively impact attitudes towards GBT and PLWHA. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting and film festivals. PMID:24377496

  16. Tal Como Somos/just as we are: an educational film to reduce stigma toward gay and bisexual men, transgender individuals, and persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2014-04-01

    In this article, the authors describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively influence attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting, and film festivals. PMID:24377496

  17. Social injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the attitudes towards suicide of lay persons in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Knizek, Birthe Loa

    2011-01-01

    One way of furthering our understanding of suicidal behaviour is to examine people's attitudes towards it and how they conceive the act. The aim of this study was to understand how lay persons conceive the impact of suicide on others and how that influences their attitudes towards suicide; and discuss the implications for suicide prevention in Ghana. This is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide to investigate the attitudes and views of 27 lay persons from urban and rural settings in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived breach of interrelatedness between people due to suicidal behaviour influenced the informants’ view of suicide as representing a social injury. Such view of suicide influenced the negative attitudes the informants expressed towards the act. The negative attitudes towards suicide in Ghana are cast in consequential terms. Thus, suicide is an immoral act because it socially affects others negatively. The sense of community within the African ethos and The Moral Causal Ontology for Suffering are theoretical postulations that are used to offer some explanations of the findings in this study. PMID:22065981

  18. Positivity, negativity, and entanglement

    E-print Network

    Perlmutter, Eric; Rota, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    We explore properties of the universal terms in the entanglement entropy and logarithmic negativity in 4d CFTs, aiming to clarify the ways in which they behave like the analogous entanglement measures in quantum mechanics. We show that, unlike entanglement entropy in finite-dimensional systems, the sign of the universal part of entanglement entropy is indeterminate. In particular, if and only if the central charges obey $a>c$, the entanglement across certain classes of entangling surfaces can become arbitrarily negative, depending on the geometry and topology of the surface. The negative contribution is proportional to the product of $a-c$ and the genus of the surface. Similarly, we show that in $a>c$ theories, the logarithmic negativity does not always exceed the entanglement entropy.

  19. Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A. Martin

    \\u000a Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for a broad array of infections in both the ambulatory and hospital settings. Urinary\\u000a tract infections, otitis media, pneumonia, abdominal infections, and meningitis are among the common and serious diseases\\u000a caused by these pathogens. Beta-lactams including penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems, along with fluoroquinolones\\u000a and aminoglycosides, comprise the most commonly used treatment regimens for gram-negative infections.

  20. No to negative data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2008-04-01

    A frequent criticism in biology is that we don’t publish our negative data. As a result, the literature has become biased towards papers that favor specific hypotheses1. Some scientists have become so concerned about this trend that they have created journals dedicated to publishing negative results (e.g. the Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine). Personally, I don’t think they should bother. I say this because I believe negative results are not worth publishing. Rest assured that I do not include drug studies that show a lack of effectiveness towards a specific disease or condition. This type of finding is significant in a societal context, not a scientific one, and thus we all have a vested interest in seeing this type of result published. I am talking about a set of experimental results that fail to support a particular hypothesis. The problem with these types of negative results is that they don’t actually advance science. Science is a set of ideas that can be supported by observations. A negative result does not support any specific idea, but only tells you what isn’t right. Well, there are only a small number of potential hypotheses that are correct, but essentially an infinite number of ideas are not correct. I don’t want to waste my time reading a paper about what doesn’t happen, just about those things that do. I can remember a positive result because I can associate it with a specific concept. What do I do with a negative one? It is hard enough to following the current literature. A flood of negative results would make that task all but impossible

  1. Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

  2. Attitudes toward life and death and suicidality among inpatient female adolescents with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stein, Daniel; Zinman, Dana; Halevy, Liron; Yaroslavsky, Amit; Bachar, Eytan; Kreitler, Shulamit; Orbach, Israel

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether attitudes about life and death are associated with suicidal behavior in eating disorders (EDs). We examined 43 nonsuicidal inpatients with EDs, 32 inpatients with EDs who attempted suicide, and 21 control participants with scales assessing attitudes to life and death, body-related attitudes, core ED symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Both ED groups showed less attraction to life and more repulsion from life than did the control participants. The suicide attempters showed greater attraction to death, less repulsion from death, and more negative attitudes toward their body than did the nonsuicidal ED and control participants. Fear of life was associated with elevated depression, body-related problems, and childhood sexual abuse. Pathological attitudes toward death were associated with greater depression and body-related problems. Suicide attempts were found in the inpatients with EDs showing binge/purge ED pathology and maladaptive attitudes toward death. This study suggests that whereas fear of life is a core feature of an ED, maladaptive attitudes toward death appear only in ED patients who have attempted suicide. PMID:24284642

  3. Caring for Dying Patients: Attitude of Nursing Students and Effects of Education

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Mojtaba; Rafiei, Hossein; Nassehi, Asra; Soleimani, Farzaneh; Arab, Mansuor; Noormohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Education about caring for dying patients could be effective in changing nursing students’ attitude toward caring for dying patients. Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the nursing students’ attitude toward caring for dying patients and effects of education on their attitude. Materials and Methods: The present study enjoys a quasi-experimental method with using one-group pre-test/post-test design conducted in Bam in southeast of Iran. The attitude of nursing students was measured using Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) scale before and after an educational intervention. Data were analyzed using non-parametric tests in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 18 software. Results: Of 32 students, 30 participated in this study (response rate of 94%). Only 20% of the students reported previous experience of dying patients in their clinical courses. Students showed moderately negative to neutral attitudes toward caring for dying patients. Education has improved students’ attitude significantly (mean score of FATCOD before study were 3.5 ± 0.43 and after intervention were 4.7 ± 0.33) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Educational programs about death and caring for dying patients should be added to undergraduate nursing curricula. Further research recommended examining nursing students’ knowledge about caring for dying patients and the effect of education on their knowledge. PMID:26009673

  4. Anti-homosexual attitudes in college students: predictors and classroom interventions.

    PubMed

    Cotten-Huston, A L; Waite, B M

    2000-01-01

    Undergraduate college students (N = 173) enrolled in business or psychology classes were studied to investigate (1) predictors of anti-gay and lesbian attitudes and (2) two educational approaches for counteracting negative attitudes toward homosexuality. Students' gender and other demographic characteristics, gender role orientation, gender role attitudes, and personal history variables were employed as independent variables in a multiple regression analysis to predict anti-homosexual attitudes. Results indicated that attitudes were significantly predicted by gender role attitudes, personal acquaintance with a gay man, lesbian, or bisexual person, and religious conviction. Gender, gender role orientation, age, prior participation in a workshop on homosexuality, sexual experience, and class type (psychology or business) were not significant predictors. One-way independent groups analysis of variance indicated no significant differences in level of anti-homosexual attitudes between heterosexual students who had interacted with gay and lesbian students in a one hour classroom panel discussion, viewed a video presentation on homosexuality, or had no classroom intervention. PMID:10546975

  5. Determinants of Nurses' Attitudes toward the Care of Patients with Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, Cara Elizabeth; Dorrian, Jillian

    2011-01-01

    Nurses (n = 49, age = 39 ± 11?y) from an Australian metropolitan hospital completed the Marcus Alcoholism, Seaman Mannello Nurses' Attitudes toward Alcoholism, and the shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaires. The majority had personal (73%) and/or professional (93%) experience with people with alcohol problems. Not one reported receiving drug and alcohol training. On average, nurses held neutral to positive attitudes toward alcohol problems; however, 14.3% completely disagreed with the statement “I want to work with drinkers,” and 12.5% completely disagreed that they were likely to find working with people with alcohol problems rewarding. Attitudes to care were significantly influenced by age, personal drinking habits, and beliefs about whether patients can be helped, whether alcoholism is a character defect, and the relationship between alcoholism and social status. Negative attitudes towards patient care persist and are influenced by age, personal drinking habits, and beliefs about alcoholism. Specific training in this area may be beneficial. PMID:22007327

  6. Determinants of Nurses' Attitudes toward the Care of Patients with Alcohol Problems.

    PubMed

    Crothers, Cara Elizabeth; Dorrian, Jillian

    2011-01-01

    Nurses (n = 49, age = 39 ± 11?y) from an Australian metropolitan hospital completed the Marcus Alcoholism, Seaman Mannello Nurses' Attitudes toward Alcoholism, and the shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaires. The majority had personal (73%) and/or professional (93%) experience with people with alcohol problems. Not one reported receiving drug and alcohol training. On average, nurses held neutral to positive attitudes toward alcohol problems; however, 14.3% completely disagreed with the statement "I want to work with drinkers," and 12.5% completely disagreed that they were likely to find working with people with alcohol problems rewarding. Attitudes to care were significantly influenced by age, personal drinking habits, and beliefs about whether patients can be helped, whether alcoholism is a character defect, and the relationship between alcoholism and social status. Negative attitudes towards patient care persist and are influenced by age, personal drinking habits, and beliefs about alcoholism. Specific training in this area may be beneficial. PMID:22007327

  7. Psychological mechanisms underlying doping attitudes in sport: motivation and moral disengagement.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ken; Hargreaves, Elaine A; Gerrard, David; Lonsdale, Chris

    2013-08-01

    We examined whether constructs outlined in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002), namely, autonomy-supportive and controlling motivational climates and autonomous and controlled motivation, were related to attitudes toward performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) in sport and drug-taking susceptibility. We also investigated moral disengagement as a potential mediator. We surveyed a sample of 224 competitive athletes (59% female; M age = 20.3 years; M = 10.2 years of experience participating in their sport), including 81 elite athletes. Using structural equation modeling analyses, our hypothesis proposing positive relationships with controlling climates, controlled motivation, and PEDs attitudes and susceptibility was largely supported, whereas our hypothesis proposing negative relationships among autonomous climate, autonomous motivation, and PEDs attitudes and susceptibility was not supported. Moral disengagement was a strong predictor of positive attitudes toward PEDs, which, in turn, was a strong predictor of PEDs susceptibility. These findings are discussed from both motivational and moral disengagement viewpoints. PMID:23966451

  8. On euthanasia: exploring psychological meaning and attitudes in a sample of Mexican physicians and medical students.

    PubMed

    del Río, Asunción Álvarez; Marván, Ma Luisa

    2011-12-01

    Euthanasia has become the subject of ethical and political debate in many countries including Mexico. Since many physicians are deeply concerned about euthanasia, due to their crucial participation in its decision and implementation, it is important to know the psychological meaning that the term 'euthanasia' has for them, as well as their attitudes toward this practice. This study explores psychological meaning and attitudes toward euthanasia in 546 Mexican subjects, either medical students or physicians, who were divided into three groups: a) beginning students, b) advanced students, and c) physicians. We used the semantic networks technique, which analyzed the words the participants associated with the term 'euthanasia'. Positive psychological meaning, as well as positive attitudes, prevailed among advanced students and physicians when defining euthanasia, whereas both positive and negative psychological meaning together with more ambivalent attitudes toward euthanasia predominated in beginning students. The findings are discussed in the context of a current debate on a bill proposing active euthanasia in Mexico City. PMID:22103638

  9. Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, D.M.; D'Luhosch, P. D.; Luzadis, V.A.; Malmsheimer, R.W.; Schuster, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to identify relationships between OHV rider attitudes, management preferences, and intentions toward two trail use-related behaviors (i.e., illegal use of trails by OHVs and the creation and/or use of unauthorized trails by OHV riders). Results reveal that the average responding association member has a negative attitude toward the two depreciative behaviors, intends to ride OHVs legally, and slightly prefers indirect over direct forms of management. Significant relationships between intentions and both attitudes and management preferences are identified. Policy and management implications and strategies are discussed. ?? 2011 by the Society of American Foresters.

  10. Nurses' attitudes toward patients with sickle cell disease: a worksite comparison.

    PubMed

    Jenerette, Coretta M; Pierre-Louis, Bosny J; Matthie, Nadine; Girardeau, Yasmeen

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) have reported being stigmatized when they seek care for pain. Nurse attitudes contribute to stigmatization and may affect patients' response to sickle cell cues, care-seeking, and ultimately patient outcomes. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive, comparative design study was to determine whether there are significant differences in nurse attitudes toward patients with SCD by worksite-medical-surgical units compared with emergency departments/intensive care units (ED/ICU). The sample consisted of 77 nurses (36 nurses from the ED/ICU and 41 from medical-surgical units) who completed an anonymous online survey. No significant differences were noted in attitudes by worksite, with nurses from both sites demonstrating high levels of negative attitudes toward patients with SCD. Findings suggest that nurses from both worksites need additional education about SCD and care of this vulnerable, patient population. PMID:26025791

  11. Experiences of racism, racial/ethnic attitudes, motivated fairness and mental health outcomes among primary and secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    While studies investigating the health effects of racial discrimination for children and youth have examined a range of effect modifiers, to date, relationships between experiences of racial discrimination, student attitudes, and health outcomes remain unexplored. This study uniquely demonstrates the moderating effects of vicarious racism and motivated fairness on the association between direct experiences of racism and mental health outcomes, specifically depressive symptoms and loneliness, among primary and secondary school students. Across seven schools, 263 students (54.4% female), ranging from 8 to 17 years old (M = 11.2, SD = 2.2) reported attitudes about other racial/ethnic groups and experiences of racism. Students from minority ethnic groups (determined by country of birth) reported higher levels of loneliness and more racist experiences relative to the majority group students. Students from the majority racial/ethnic group reported higher levels of loneliness and depressive symptoms if they had more friends from different racial/ethnic groups, whereas the number of friends from different groups had no effect on minority students' loneliness or depressive symptoms. Direct experiences of racism were robustly related to higher loneliness and depressive symptoms in multivariate regression models. However, the association with depressive symptoms was reduced to marginal significance when students reported low motivated fairness. Elaborating on the negative health effects of racism in primary and secondary school students provides an impetus for future research and the development of appropriate interventions. PMID:24903675

  12. The links between resource dependency and attitude of commercial fishers to coral reef conservation in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Nadine A; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Rouphael, Tony

    2010-06-01

    The imperative to further constrain extractive uses of natural resources will strengthen as resources degrade through over-use or exposure to climate changes. Here, we explore an approach to increase the support for marine conservation among coral reef fishers. We explore the proposition that resource dependency in the Egyptian Red Sea can act as a barrier to conservation. We administered face-to-face surveys to 49% of the fishing industry to: (i) identify the level of compliance to the local marine protected area (MPA), (ii) assess the level of dependency on marine resources in the region and (iii) examine the relationship between resource dependency and conservation attitudes. Only 11.4% of fishers were aware of the MPA. Fishers were mostly limited in their social flexibility and livelihood options. Results suggest that resource dependency is highly and negatively correlated with conservation attitudes suggesting that management efforts need to seriously focus on reducing dependency if conservation goals are to be met. PMID:20799680

  13. Magazine exposure, tanned women stereotypes, and tanning attitudes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunyi; Lee, Seungyoon; Wilson, Kari

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated whether magazine exposure is related to stereotypical beliefs about tanned women. A survey of White college women (n=205) assessed their exposure to beauty/fashion and health/fitness magazines. Outcome variables were the beliefs that tanned women are fashionable, fit, and shallow. Attention to the tanned women's images in health magazines positively predicted the belief that tanned women are fit and that tanned women are shallow; in contrast, attention to the images in beauty magazine negatively predicted the belief that tanned women are fit. Number of beauty magazines women read negatively predicted the belief that tanned women are shallow. The belief that tanned women are fit was unrelated, but the belief that tanned women are shallow was negatively related, with tanning attitudes. PMID:20573553

  14. Do Stereotypic Images in Video Games Affect Attitudes and Behavior? Adolescents’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Alexandra; Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie; O’Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined adolescents’ attitudes about video games along with their self-reported play frequency. Ninth and eleventh grade students (N = 361), approximately evenly divided by grade and gender, were surveyed about whether video games have stereotypic images, involve harmful consequences or affect one’s attitudes, whether game playing should be regulated by parents or the government, and whether game playing is a personal choice. Adolescents who played video games frequently showed decreased concern about the effects that games with negatively stereotyped images may have on the players’ attitudes compared to adolescents who played games infrequently or not at all. With age, adolescents were more likely to view images as negative, but were also less likely to recognize stereotypic images of females as harmful and more likely to judge video-game playing as a personal choice. The paper discusses other findings in relation to research on adolescents’ social cognitive judgments. PMID:25729336

  15. Quelques observations sur le systeme de la negation en francais parle (Some Observations on the System of Negation in Spoken French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera-Vidal, Albert

    1975-01-01

    Surveys the various forms and applications of the French negatives. Discusses the tendency to omit "ne" in spoken French, which depends on form (conversation vs. narration), external circumstances (public vs. private), socio-cultural level (upper class vs. lower class), and attitude of speaker (spontaneity vs. affectation). (Text is in French.)…

  16. Hydrodredge: Reducing the negative impacts of scallop dredging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Shephard; Clifford A. Goudey; Andrew Read; Michel J. Kaiser

    2009-01-01

    Scallop dredges typically use teeth or a cutting bar to dig though the sediment and are associated with detrimental impacts on marine benthos. A low-impact ‘Hydrodredge’ was tested that uses ‘cups’ to deflect water downward in a turbulent wave sufficient to lift scallops from the seabed. Trials took place in the Isle of Man fishery for great scallop (Pecten maximus)

  17. REDUCING NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL EXTERNALITIES FROM AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: METHODS, MODELS AND

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The MIT Emissions Predication and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model and provides pathways that can improve the environmental performance of agriculture. Chapter 2 quantified carbon emissions from the production of agricultural goods from a region undergoing rapid agricultural

  18. Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Amanda J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Köblitz, Amber R.; McCaul, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we examined nonsmokers’ perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers’ self-descriptions and nonsmokers’ perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers’ perceptions rather than smokers’ reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker. PMID:23734065

  19. The analyst's attitude toward pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Stephen D

    2008-09-01

    The increased acceptance of medication in psychoanalysis has occurred with too little consideration of possible complications. The potentially adverse psychological effects and disintegrative aspects of this important technical modification require further examination. While the use of phenomenologically defined diagnostic criteria provides valuable guidance to the clinician, the decision to include pharmacotherapy in a psychoanalysis must be understood also as a transference-countertransference enactment. The analyst's attitude toward pharmacotherapy is an essential element in some defensive and gratifying enactments, resistances that can interfere with psychoanalytic processes. Clinical material is presented illustrating narcissistic and perverse resistances that might be facilitated by analysts' attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, attitudes often tacitly communicated in decisions to use combined treatment. PMID:18802137

  20. Student Attitudes toward Impairment: An Assessment of Passive and Active Learning Methods in Urban Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Designing for the needs of people with impairments has rarely been a significant feature of urban planning theory and education. Given the role of urban planners as shapers of the built environment and public policy, the prevalence of negative and misinformed attitudes among planners toward impaired populations has been highlighted as requiring…

  1. Linguistic Insecurity: The Effect of Attitudes toward Language on Language Production. Flowers of Evil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Dennis E.

    This paper, a small part of a larger project which explores the effects of linguistic insecurity on language production, discusses the negative attitudes toward language of some of the present-day "language elite"--those who take pleasure in or earn their livelihood by "Correcting every body else." Linguistic insecurity is, then, the feeling that…

  2. Ethnic Attitudes among Elementary School Students in a Multiethnic School Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Lois A.; Nakagawa, Tara; Murdoch, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    Examined ethnic attitudes in a multiethnic elementary school in Hawaii. Interviews and surveys in Study 1 revealed age-related differences in how children described different ethnic groups. Results of Study 2 (participants nominated peers to fulfill certain roles with positive and negative connotations) indicated some differences from research in…

  3. Heterosexual Adolescents' and Young Adults' Beliefs and Attitudes about Homosexuality and Gay and Lesbian Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Stacey S.

    2006-01-01

    Reports on the school climate for gay and lesbian students in the United States suggest that negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian individuals are quite common in adolescence. Very little research, however, has investigated adolescents' sexual prejudice from a developmental perspective. In this study, 10th- (N = 119) and 12th- (N = 145) grade…

  4. Attitudes of Taiwanese Scholars toward English and Chinese as Languages of Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ju Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Under the influence of globalization, English has almost become the default language in scientific academia. While the culture-independent nature of scientific research may result in scholars' preference for using one common language, over-reliance on English may shape non-English-speaking scholars' negative attitudes toward their national…

  5. Racial profiling in law enforcement and its effects on citizen attitudes toward police

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebekah M Thompson

    2008-01-01

    Racial profiling in policing is a very controversial issue. Perceived notions of racial profiling in law enforcement could have a profound negative effect on citizen attitudes toward police. Recent research has been conducted concerning the use of race as a reason to stop someone. Although racial profiling is discussed in many aspects, this study will focus solely on vehicle stops.

  6. The unexpected “yes”: Explanatory factors behind the positive attitudes to congestion charges in Stockholm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Eliasson; Lina Jonsson

    2011-01-01

    Several authors have argued that acceptability for road pricing is likely to increase with familiarity. The experiences in Stockholm, where a trial period with congestion charges changed the public opinion from negative to positive, support this hypothesis. Analysing acceptability and attitudes in Stockholm allows us to study a situation where the population is in fact familiar with congestion charges, and

  7. Changing Middle-School Students' Attitudes and Performance regarding Engineering with Computer-Based Social Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, E. Ashby; Baylor, Amy L.; Doerr, Celeste E.; Rosenberg-Kima, Rinat B.

    2009-01-01

    Women's under-representation in fields such as engineering may result in part from female students' negative beliefs regarding these fields and their low self-efficacy for these fields. In this experiment, we investigated the use of animated interface agents as social models for changing male and female middle-school students' attitudes toward…

  8. Children's Attitudes towards ADHD, Depression and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellanca, Faye Francesca; Pote, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression and general learning disabilities (LD) are common difficulties for British primary school children. It has been found that characteristics associated with these difficulties can result in negative attitudes and stigma from other children, causing problems with peer relationships.…

  9. High School Students' Attitudes towards Spiders: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Tolarovicova, Andrea; Camerik, Anne M.; Peterkova, Viera

    2010-01-01

    Spiders are traditionally considered to be among the least popular of animals. Current evidence suggests that a negative attitude towards spiders could be influenced by both cultural and evolutionary pressures. Some researchers suggest that science education activities could positively influence students' perceptions of spiders. Their evidence is,…

  10. Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

  11. CS Unplugged and Middle-School Students' Views, Attitudes, and Intentions regarding CS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Rivka; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    Many students hold incorrect ideas and negative attitudes about computer science (CS). In order to address these difficulties, a series of learning activities called Computer Science Unplugged was developed by Tim Bell and his colleagues. These activities expose young people to central concepts in CS in an entertaining way without requiring a…

  12. Relationship between Teachers' Anti-Stimulant Attitudes and Their Experience with ADHD Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davino, Dana; And Others

    Teachers play an important role in monitoring the effects of stimulant medication used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Any negative attitudes they hold toward ADHD students or the students' parents, doctors, or medication, can compromise treatment efficacy. To assess teachers' perceptions of ADHD concerning social…

  13. Out-group value incongruence and intergroup attitude: The roles of common identity and multiculturalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanjun Guan; Maykel Verkuyten; Helene Hoi-lam Fung; Michael Harris Bond; Sylvia Xiaohua Chen; Charles Ching-hai Chan

    2011-01-01

    This research was designed to examine the moderation roles of common social identity and multiculturalism on the established relationship between Mainland Chinese's perceived value incongruence with Hong Kong Chinese and their negative attitude towards Hong Kong Chinese. A survey study was conducted among 202 college students in Mainland China and the results showed Mainland Chinese's value incongruence with Hong Kong

  14. Decision Makers Attitude towards the Computer and its effect on Web-Based Technology Adoption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alastair Robertson

    This paper presents research exploring the concept that many small businesses do not adopt computer based technologies due to decision maker's negative attitudes towards computers generally. Importantly, by assessing the entrepreneur's belief structure, we provide quantitative evidence how SMEs, particularly micros, are affected. Earlier research that addresses Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) suggests that TAM parameters are particularly influential factors of

  15. Multiprofessional learning: the attitudes of medical, nursing and pharmacy students to shared learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Horsburgh; Rain Lamdin; Emma Williamson

    2001-01-01

    Objectives The belief that the effectiveness of patient care will improve through collaboration and teamwork within and between health care teams is providing a focus internationally for 'shared learning' in health professional education. While it may be hard to over- come structural and organizational obstacles to imple- menting interprofessional learning, negative student attitudes may be most difficult to change. This

  16. Relationships between Exposure to Rap Music Videos and Attitudes toward Relationships among African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Yaphet

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to (a) predict adversarial attitudes toward male-female relationships and (b) explore the relationships between traditional agents of socialization and personal acceptance of negative images in rap videos by African American adolescents. Participants completed psychosocial measures, viewed videos, and completed surveys…

  17. Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Suicide: Does Knowledge that the Parents Are Divorced Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jeffie A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    High school students (N=120) read versions of teenager's death in which teenager lived either with both parents or with divorced mother, and died from either a rare disease or suicide. Students reported comparatively negative attitudes toward suicide victims and families and toward divorced parents and their children. Combination of divorce and…

  18. The Importance of Attitudes toward and Understanding of Disability and Science in the Age of Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Matthew J.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford; Pence, Ray; Rack, Jennifer; Schrandt, Suzanne; Laub, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    This article reports concerns among disability community members that the implications of genetic research will be driven by mistaken beliefs about genetics and negative attitudes toward disability as identified in a qualitative study funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute. In addition to reporting the nature and the context of…

  19. Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…

  20. Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes toward Aging among Nursing and Non-Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…

  1. The Role of Young Adults’ Pleasure Attitudes in Shaping Condom Use

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Jenny; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    How do young people’s attitudes about whether condoms reduce pleasure shape condom practices—and, in turn, exposure to STIs and unintended pregnancy? Using a nationally representative sample of 2,328 heterosexually-active, unmarried 15–24 year-olds, we documented multivariate associations with condom non-use at last sexual episode. For both young men and women, pleasure-related attitudes were more strongly associated with lack of condom use than all socio-demographic or sexual history factors. Research and interventions should consistently assess and address young people’s attitudes about how condoms affect pleasure. PMID:25973832

  2. Spacecraft attitude control using nonlinear servomechanism theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Huang; Ching-Fang Lin; Fred Y. Hadaegh; Richard Y. Chiang

    1994-01-01

    The nonlinear servomechanism theory is applied to the attitude control of large maneuvering spacecraft subject to sinusoidal disturbances and parametric uncertainties. Simulation shows significant advantages of our attitude controller over the controller resulting from the feedback linearization approach

  3. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods F. Landis Markley

    E-print Network

    Crassidis, John L.

    , but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance majority of attitude determination applications. Nev- ertheless, poor performance or even divergenceNonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods F. Landis Markley NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt

  4. Parental Attitudes and the Effects of Ethnicity: How They Influence Children's Attitudes toward Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the manner in which parents' attitudes toward science learning influences their children's attitudes and the effect of ethnicity on attitudes toward science learning. The results of this study show that parental attitudes toward science learning were influenced by both parents' early life experiences and…

  5. The Moderating Influence of Attitude Strength on the Susceptibility to Context Effects in Attitude Surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Lavine; Joseph W. Huff; Stephen H. Wagner; Donna Sweeney

    1998-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors assessed whether attitude strength moderates the susceptibility of attitudes to item context effects in surveys. In Experiment 1, respondents completed multiple measures of attitude strength. Three weeks later, respondents participated in a context experiment. Results revealed that respondents with weak attitudes exhibited significantly larger context effect for 1 of 2 issues. In Experiment 2, the

  6. Attitudes in social context: A social identity perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Hogg; Joanne R. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Research on attitudes and attitude phenomena occupies a central place in social psychology, but tends to focus mainly on cognitive, intra-individual, and interpersonal dimensions. The normative, group membership, and identity dimensions of attitudes tend to attract less attention. This article approaches attitudes from the perspective of research on group processes, intergroup relations, and social identity, and conceptualises attitudes and attitude

  7. Improving Student Attitudes Toward Biology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Connie P. Russell

    2006-01-01

    Osborne, Simon, and Collins (2003) found positive correlations between attitude and certain characteristics of the classroom environment, including student-centered instructional designs, high levels of personal support, use of a variety of teaching strategies, and innovative learning activities. While these methods have been used successfully at the pre-college level, they are rare at the college level. In this chapter the authors describe their version of a student-centered, active learning science classroom and present results that indicate that their efforts were successful in changing college students' attitudes toward science. This model of instruction should help promote both general science literacy and the continued pursuit of science as a career.

  8. Negative energy waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C. N.

    2005-04-01

    A brief history of the concept of negative energy waves in fluid and plasma media is given. The theory of microwave tubes is highlighted, where the small signal power theorem was first derived, which led to the interpretation of these devices in terms of the interaction of positive and negative energy waves. Three examples are described to illustrate the use of negative waves in stability problems. The first is concerned with the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in neutral fluids. The second comes from a kinetic theory of instability in a collisionless shock wave in a magnetized plasma, and the third is concerned with the effect of a resistive wall and plasma flow on the magnetohydrodynamic stability of a magnetically confined plasma. The paper ends with some general conclusions.

  9. Attitude analysis in Flatland: The plane truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1993-01-01

    Many results in attitude analysis are still meaningful when the attitude is restricted to rotations about a single axis. Such a picture corresponds to attitude analysis in the Euclidean plane. The present report formalizes the representation of attitude in the plane and applies it to some well-known problems. In particular, we study the connection of the 'additive' and 'multiplicative' formulations of the differential corrector for the quaternion in its two-dimensional setting.

  10. Exploring attitudes: the case for Q methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Cross

    2005-01-01

    Attitudes are often referred to, researched and considered in the discipline of health education and health promotion. This paper highlights Q methodology as an appropriate and relevant meansofexploringandstudyingattitudeswithin thisfield.Itbeginsbydiscussingthedifficultiesin defining attitude and the problems inherent in attitude measurement. A brief history of Q methodologyisgiven,followedbyanexplanation of what Q methodology is and the processes involved.Thispaperarguesthecasefortheuseof Q methodology when studying attitudes and justifies

  11. The structure of cockpit management attitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorich, S. E.; Helmreich, R. L.; Wilhelm, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A revised version of the Cockpit Management Attitudes Questionnaire (CMAQ) is introduced. Factor analyses of responses from 3 different samples reveal comparable factor structure (previous attempts to factor analyze this measure had produced equivocal results). Implications for the measurement of attitudes and the assessment of attitude change are discussed. It is argued that the CMAQ will benefit both special training programs and efforts to explore attitude-performance linkages in air-transport operations.

  12. Attitude Error Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation. The quaternion must obey a unit norm constraint, though, which has led to the development of an extended Kalman filter using a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for attitude errors. We consider various attitude error representations for this Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter and its second-order extension.

  13. Attitude control using the SDRE technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wencheng Luo; Yun-chung Chu

    2002-01-01

    Attitude control is always considered as a nonlinear control problem. The state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) method of nonlinear suboptimal regulation is applied here to the attitude control of a rigid spacecraft. The saturated control is also considered by gain scheduling when using the SDRE method. Numerical simulations for a large-angle attitude maneuver under bounded control are carried out to demonstrate

  14. Attitude: A Component of Competent Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meussling, Vonne

    The findings of a survey of attitude studies to determine the effect of students' attitudes on communication competence as they enter the work force and develop their careers are reported in this paper. The paper explains how attitude improvement is an effective management tool in controlling costly absenteeism, output, job productivity, work…

  15. The Relationships Between Health Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Bonnie L.

    1970-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of health attitudes on behavior as well as the effects of a persuasive communication on health attitudes and behavior and the effects of attitudes and behavior on receptivity to health educational materials. Teenagers exposed to two persuasive communications about diabetes exhibited no effects on…

  16. Attitudes toward community policing: A casual analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a model of police officers attitude toward community policing. A theory of community policing is proposed. This theory identifies several dimensions which influence community policing attitudes. We apply Analysis of Covariance Structures (Lisrel) in estimating the causal model of the several dimensions explaining attitudes toward community policing. We also assess the overall goodness of fit of the

  17. Attitude of Student Teachers towards Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhargava, Anupama; Pathy, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favourable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers' proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect…

  18. Perceived Interactivity and Attitude toward Website

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guohua Wu

    Abstract With the growth of the Web as a marketing medium, it has become increasingly important for advertisers to gain a favorable attitude toward their Websites among,their target customers. An empirical study was conducted to examine the relationship between perceived interactivity and attitude toward Website. Findings indicate that users’ attitude toward Website is positively related to their perceived interactivity of

  19. The Structure of Cockpit Management Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven E. Gregorich; Robert L. Helmreich; John A. Wilhelm

    1990-01-01

    A revised version of the Cockpit Management Attitudes Questionnaire (CMAQ) is introduced. Factor analyses of responses from 3 different samples reveal comparable factor structure (previous attempts to factor analyze this measure had produced equivocal results). Implications for the measurement of attitudes and the assessment of attitude change are discussed. It is argued that the CMAQ will benefit both special training

  20. Novel methods for spacecraft attitude estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye-Young Kim

    2002-01-01

    Star trackers represent the most prominent class of attitude sensors. They provide three axis attitude information with high precision. This study addresses various issues on developing improved star tracker software, presents new approaches for better performance of star trackers, and considers applications to realize high precision attitude estimates. Firstly, a guide star selection method is developed, which generates a new

  1. Attitudes and Achievement: A Complex Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mary L.

    This paper investigates the popular belief that children's attitudes toward school and particular subjects have a positive relationship with their school and subject achievement. Definitions of attitude by L. L. Thurstone, L. W. Doob, and M. Fishbein are presented as a basis for the investigation. The difficulties involved in assessing attitudes

  2. Refereed paper Assessing attitudes toward electronic

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    Refereed paper Assessing attitudes toward electronic prescribing adoption in primary care: a survey Background Using survey instruments to assess physicians' attitudes toward electronic health rec- ord (EHR used a theoretically-based, 37-ques- tion survey instrument to assess attitudes toward electronic (e

  3. The Attitudes of Teachers in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Reports a survey of educational attitudes among teachers and tutors in English colleges of education. Three domains were studied: naturalism-formalism in attitude toward pedagogic role and student-teacher interaction; egalitarianism-conservatism in attitude toward access to educational systems and resources; and liberalism-utilitarianism in…

  4. Attitude Toward Reading: Alternatives in Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Thomas H.

    This paper discusses change and development of student attitudes, especially in reading, and several alternative methods which are available for measurement and observation of change in attitudes. Important considerations for the reading teacher who is interested in developing student attitudes include establishing a positive environment which…

  5. Attitude determination from single camera vector observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasko Sazdovski; Peter M. G. Silson; Antonios Tsourdos

    2010-01-01

    Attitude determination is of major importance in Guidance and Control Systems of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's). Supplying wrong or not precise attitude very often turns to be catastrophic for the UAV's. Vision sensors are must nowadays. They provide reach source of information given as relative measurements between the vehicle navigation parameters (position, velocity and attitude) and the environment. This

  6. Low cost attitude sensors for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S.; Von Bun, F. O.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented of two-low cost attitude sensors developed with existing technology, but with emphasis directed to reducing the unit costs without compromising reliability or quality. The solar aspect sensor was developed to determine the angle of the sun with respect to the optical axis of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Experiment Package. Using sensor readings updated every five milliseconds, signal processing electronics determine the location of the center of the sun's image on the array. An earth horizon sensor was developed to measure the nadir angle with respect to the optical axis of the SSBUV Experiment Package to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 deg. Operation of each of the sensors is described along with flight results obtained when flown onboard Atlantis as part of the SSBUV Experiment Package.

  7. Information Filtering Based on Users' Negative Opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The process of heat conduction (HC) has recently found application in the information filtering [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 154301 (2007)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. The classical HC model predicts users' potential interested objects based on their interesting objects regardless to the negative opinions. In terms of the users' rating scores, we present an improved user-based HC (UHC) information model by taking into account users' positive and negative opinions. Firstly, the objects rated by users are divided into positive and negative categories, then the predicted interesting and dislike object lists are generated by the UHC model. Finally, the recommendation lists are constructed by filtering out the dislike objects from the interesting lists. By implementing the new model based on nine similarity measures, the experimental results for MovieLens and Netflix datasets show that the new model considering negative opinions could greatly enhance the accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, from 0.049 to 0.036 for Netflix and from 0.1025 to 0.0570 for Movielens dataset, reduced by 26.53% and 44.39%, respectively. Since users prefer to give positive ratings rather than negative ones, the negative opinions contain much more information than the positive ones, the negative opinions, therefore, are very important for understanding users' online collective behaviors and improving the performance of HC model.

  8. Negative Transportation in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Ellen F.

    There is a class of verbs in French which require that their complement verb be in the indicative. However, if the matrix clause contains a negative or an interrogative, the complement verb is usually in the subjunctive, but sometimes in the indicative. Examples are the verbs "penser" and "croire" in sentences such as: 1) Elle ne croit pas que…

  9. Negative Binomial Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    This resource consists of a Java applet and descriptive text. The applet illustrates the number of trials needed to get a specified number of successes in Bernoulli trials, in terms of random points on a discrete timeline. The applet illustrates the negative binomial distribution. The number of successes and the probability of success can be varied.

  10. Anthropological objects and negation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Jeanne Borel

    1992-01-01

    Ever since Kant, the possibility of having objects of knowledge has been one of the most basic anthropological questions (“what can I know?”). For the logician, the linguist, or the semiologist who studies natural language, negation is one of these objects. However, as an operation and as a symbol, it has the paradoxical property of not being able to be

  11. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  12. Negative pressure wound therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL KIRBY

    2010-01-01

    D iabetic foot disease is a major global burden. Foot ulcers frequently develop complications and become chronic, representing a considerable challenge as these are typically very difficult to treat. New therapies are needed to address these wounds and there is an increasing focus on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). This technique has been shown to accelerate wound healing and although

  13. Negative pressure wound therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kirby

    2007-01-01

    iabetic foot disease is a major global burden. Foot ulcers frequently develop complications and become chronic, representing a considerable challenge as these are typically very difficult to treat. New therapies are needed to address these wounds and there is an increasing focus on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). This technique has been shown to accelerate wound healing and although its

  14. Changing Attitudes toward Teacher Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald

    The identification, encouragement, and recruitment of teachers is a professional responsibility that must be faced today. The field of industrial arts holds no external attractors; the job of teacher recruitment rests on the shoulders of teachers, supervisors, and teacher educators. Teachers have attitudes that fail to support any process that…

  15. Freshman Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutt, Roberta L.; Sedlacek, William E.

    At the University of Maryland, 758 randomly selected incoming freshman students were administered an anonymous poll regarding their sexual attitudes and behavior. Results showed that the Maryland freshman generally resembled other U.S. college students in their sexual experience. Approximately half (52% of males, 46% of females) reported that they…

  16. Work attitudes, motivation, and performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond A. Katzell

    1980-01-01

    Discusses motivational variables both as determinants of performance by the individual in an organization, and as ingredients of work attitudes, such as job satisfaction. Motivation studies have included motivational traits (relatively enduring predispositions), motivating environments, expectancies, and equity theory. Research on job satisfaction and job involvement reveals few consistent relationships to job performance, but they do predict absenteeism and turnover.

  17. [Students' attitudes to active euthanasia].

    PubMed

    Schioldborg, P

    1999-06-30

    Attitude surveys in the Norwegian population show that an increasing majority support active euthanasia for patients with terminal disease. Among physicians, only a minority supports active euthanasia. Attitudes towards euthanasia were surveyed among students of medicine, law and psychology (n = 588, response rate 66%) with regard to a patient suffering from a painful, incurable and deadly or non-deadly disease, asking the doctor for help to die. To assess the strength of the students' attitude, the questions were presented either in a Christian context disapproving of euthanasia, in a humanistic context in favour, or in a neutral context-free form. 125 of 176 law students (71%), 134 of 216 psychology students (62%) and 71 of 196 medical students (36%) supported active euthanasia in cases of terminal disease. In cases of non-terminal disease, the corresponding percentages were 45%, 29% and 11%. 38% of the students with a Christian belief supported euthanasia in terminal disease while 79% of the humanists, 70% of those of another faith, and 65% of those without a definable faith did so. No significant gender difference was observed. 17% of the students stated that they were willing to perform euthanasia. No effect of context was observed. The results indicate stable and differentiated attitudes to the question of active euthanasia. One third of the medical students supported active euthanasia, which is twice as many as for physicians in general. Two thirds of the law and psychology students did so, which is similar to comparable age groups in the population. PMID:10425907

  18. Tanzanian Students' Attitudes toward English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Although much research has been conducted on language policy and its effects in Tanzania, few studies have focused directly on the attitudes and opinions of Tanzanian students and teachers. For this project, 153 secondary students and 28 secondary school teachers from three secondary schools in Dar es Salaam were surveyed. Overall, both students…

  19. Attitudes and Characteristics of Nonusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Ann; Kahn, Malcolm

    The attitudes and life-style characteristics of 58 undergraduate nonusers of illegal drugs were evaluated through comparisons with 47 regular marijuana users. The nonusers were found to be more settled in their values, more goal-directed, and more involved academically. They also had higher Grade Point Averages. The nonusers appeared to be both…

  20. Public attitudes toward the police

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Jesilow; J’ona Meyer; Nazi Namazzi

    1995-01-01

    Surveys attitudes to police (ATP) in Santa Ana, California by asking respondents what they most like or dislike about police. Finds inter alia that the primary indicator of ATP is how people feel about their location. Contrasts sharply with previous research in finding that ethnicity is not a very good predictor of ATP. Points out that unrealistic expectations for law