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1

Correlates of Chilean Adolescents' Negative Attitudes Toward Cigarettes: The Role of Gender, Peer, Parental, and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. Results: For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Conclusion: Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls’ but not boys’ attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking.

Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

2012-01-01

2

How Negative Expectancies and Attitudes Undermine Females' Math Confidence and Performance: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Females' underperformance in mathematics is discussed as a function of negative expectancies by parents, teachers, and peers. These negative expectancies of significant others lead to negative self-expectancies and negative attitudes about mathematics on the part of female students. These negative expectancies and attitudes lead to lower…

Gutbezahl, Jennifer

3

Reducing the Negative Effects of Large Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents an overview of recent efforts to promote small schools by first reviewing the rationale for small schools based on recent studies linking school size and various educational outcomes, followed by arguments supporting larger schools. Succeeding sections explore the following four ways to reduce the negative effects of school…

Duke, Daniel L.; Trautvetter, Sara

4

Neural Correlates of Attitude Change Following Positive and Negative Advertisements  

PubMed Central

Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

2009-01-01

5

[Negative and positive attitudes to EDP installation in Varkaus District Hospital].  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to describe the attitudes of the personnel of a hospital toward automatic data processing. We describe also the change in the attitudes during a four-year adp-system development. In 1984 123 persons were interviewed in Varkaus district hospital in Eastern Finland. The number of interviewed persons in the same hospital in 1988 was 125. During the four years the attitudes became more positive. Nearly all personnel groups changed their attitudes. Only the clerical staff on the wards had more negative attitudes in 1988 than in 1984. That was mostly due to ample amount of faults both in hardware and software at the time interviewing took place. That was even seen in the attitudes of the out-patient clinic personnel who had to work with the same problems. High level both in base and in data processing education had effect on positive attitudes. PMID:2078365

Halttunen, A; Halonen, P

1990-01-01

6

Attitudes About Childlessness in the United StatesCorrelates of Positive, Neutral, and Negative Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study used cross-sectional analyses of the National Survey of Families and Households (1987-1988, 1992-1994) to examine attitudes about childlessness in the United States. It (a) assesses prevalence of positive, neutral, and negative attitudes about childlessness and (b) identifies the correlates of different attitudes in the population. About one fifth of adults disagreed with prescriptive norms that favor parenthood over

Tanya Koropeckyj-Cox; Gretchen Pendell

2007-01-01

7

Analysis of Factors Influencing Negative Attitude toward Teacher Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study critically examined the factors influencing public attitudes toward teacher education in Nigeria. It analysed a series of nationwide surveys of negative public attitude toward the teaching profession using parents and prospective university students as respondents. A questionnaire made up of 12 items was used to gather data on public…

Ogiegbaen, S. E. Aduwa; Uwameiye, Raymond

2005-01-01

8

Dimensions and correlates of negative attitudes toward female survivors of sexual violence in Eastern DRC.  

PubMed

The aim of the study described in this article is to examine the dimensions and correlates of attitudes toward survivors of sexual violence (SV) in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Four dimensions of attitudes were identified: victim responsibility, victim denigration, victim credibility, and deservingness. Gender roles attitudes represented the most significant correlate of attitudes toward survivors in this population. Other significant correlates of overall attitudes toward survivors included current employment, province of residence, knowledge about the SV law, awareness about where to go for information on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), and the perceived prevalence of SV in own community. There are differences and communalities in the variables associated with the various dimensions of attitudes. For example, sex of the respondent and discussion of SGBV with others were only significantly associated with the tendency to ascribe responsibility to the victim. The findings indicate that changing negative gender norms should be central to efforts aimed at promoting accepting attitudes toward survivors. Furthermore, addressing the various dimensions of attitudes toward survivors may require different strategies. PMID:24366960

Babalola, Stella O

2014-06-01

9

Negative Affect in Victimized Children: The Roles of Social Withdrawal, Peer Rejection, and Attitudes toward Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the validity of mediating pathways in predicting self-assessed negative affect from shyness/social withdrawal, peer rejection, victimization by peers (overt and relational), and the attitude that aggression is legitimate and warranted. Participants were 296 3rd through 5th graders (156 girls, 140 boys) from 10 elementary…

Dill, Edward J.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Gamm, Bridget K.

2004-01-01

10

Multifaceted Foci: The Antecedents of Statistics Anxiety and Negative Attitudes toward Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to augment current knowledge regarding the antecedents of statistics anxiety and negative attitudes toward statistics among graduate students. The researchers also sought to investigate and identify promising methods for gathering and analyzing data in order to advance study in this emerging domain. Initially, 3 focus…

Watson, Freda S.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Lang, Thomas; Hess, Melinda R.; Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Dedrick, Robert D.

11

Some Characteristics of Those Who Hold Positive and Negative Attitudes Toward Homosexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study (presented as a paradigm in the area of majority-minority relations) replicates previous findings that negative attitudes toward homosexuals are associated with lack of support for equality between the sexes. It includes a multidimensional measure of support for equality between the sexes; Semantic Differentials for Man, Woman, Male Homosexual, and Lesbian; four value factors derived from Rokeach's 36 Instrumental

A. P. MacDonald Jr; Richard G. Games

1976-01-01

12

Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

2012-01-01

13

The Continuation of Prejudice: Addressing Negative Attitudes in Nurse Training and Continuing Professional Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of attitudes to ageing typically examine only explicit attitudes, treating attitude holders as a homogeneous group with regards to education levels. Implicit attitudes (i.e., the immediate attitudinal response before conscious processes amend that attitude to an explicit attitude) have been less commonly examined. The current study…

Nash, Paul; Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mayer, Peter

2014-01-01

14

Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. PMID:24368880

Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

2013-01-01

15

A comparison of HIV/AIDS-related stigma in four countries: Negative attitudes and perceived acts of discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS?  

PubMed Central

HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination have a substantial impact on people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the associations of two constructs of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (negative attitudes towards PLHA and perceived acts of discrimination towards PLHA) with previous history of HIV testing, knowledge of antiretroviral therapies (ARVs) and communication regarding HIV/AIDS and (2) to compare these two constructs across the five research sites with respect to differing levels of HIV prevalence and ARV coverage, using data presented from the baseline survey of U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Project Accept, a four-country HIV prevention trial in Sub-Saharan Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa) and northern Thailand. A household probability sample of 14,203 participants completed a survey including a scale measuring HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Logistic regression models determined the associations between negative attitudes and perceived discrimination with individual history of HIV testing, knowledge of ARVs and communication regarding HIV/AIDS. Spearman's correlation coefficients determined the relationships between negative attitudes and perceived discrimination and HIV prevalence and ARV coverage at the site-level. Negative attitudes were related to never having tested for HIV, lacking knowledge of ARVs, and never having discussed HIV/AIDS. More negative attitudes were found in sites with the lowest HIV prevalence (i.e., Tanzania and Thailand) and more perceived discrimination against PLHA was found in sites with the lowest ARV coverage (i.e., Tanzania and Zimbabwe). Programs that promote widespread HIV testing and discussion of HIV/AIDS, as well as education regarding and universal access to ARVs, may reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination.

Genberg, Becky L.; Hlavka, Zdenek; Konda, Kelika A.; Maman, Suzanne; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Mbwambo, Jessie; Modiba, Precious; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Celentano, David D.

2010-01-01

16

Predictors and consequences of negative attitudes toward immigrants in Belgium and Turkey: the role of acculturation preferences and economic competition.  

PubMed

This research tested predictors and consequences of majority members' negative attitudes towards immigrants in Belgium and Turkey. It tested a mediation model in which economic competition and a perceived preference of the immigrants for culture maintenance have negative effects on majority members' own acculturation preference for integration, and where a perceived preference of the immigrants for contact has a positive effect. The effects of all three predictors were hypothesized to be mediated by negative attitudes toward immigrants. Two survey studies were conducted, one in Belgium (N=106) and one in Turkey (N=93). Results showed that, as hypothesized, 'economic competition' and a 'perceived preference for contact' had indirect effects on 'own acculturation preference' for integration, and 'negative attitude' was the mediator. 'Perceived preference for cultural maintenance' had a direct effect on 'own acculturation preference'. PMID:17355723

Zagefka, Hanna; Brown, Rupert; Broquard, Murielle; Leventoglu Martin, Sibel

2007-03-01

17

Can Union Support Reduce the Negative Effects of Job Insecurity on Well-Being?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of rapidly changing environmental conditions, innumerable organizations engage in restructuring activities. As a consequence, many employees feel insecure about the future existence of their jobs. While research suggests that such job insecurity has negative consequences for employee attitudes and well-being, less is known about if and how these negative effects can be alleviated by social support from

Johnny Hellgren; Antonio Chirumbolo

2003-01-01

18

Imagining intergroup contact can combat mental health stigma by reducing anxiety, avoidance and negative stereotyping.  

PubMed

Research has demonstrated widespread negative attitudes held toward people with mental health problems. Our study investigated whether a new prejudice reduction technique, imagined intergroup contact (Crisp & Turner, 2009), could combat stigma against people with mental illness, and the mediating processes through which it may exert this beneficial effect. We found that compared to a control condition, participants who imagined a positive encounter with a schizophrenic person reported weakened stereotypes and formed stronger intentions to engage in future social interactions with schizophrenic people in general. Importantly, these intentions were formed due to reduced feelings of anxiety about future interactions. We discuss the implications of these findings for improving the social inclusion of people with mental health problems. PMID:23057193

Stathi, Sofia; Tsantila, Katerina; Crisp, Richard J

2012-01-01

19

The Peer Attitudes toward Children Who Stutter (PATCS) Scale: An Evaluation of Validity, Reliability and the Negativity of Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Persistent calls for school-based education about stuttering necessitate a better understanding of peer attitudes toward children who stutter and a means to measure outcomes of such educational interventions. Langevin and Hagler in 2004 developed the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter scale (PATCS) to address these needs and…

Langevin, Marilyn; Kleitman, Sabina; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

2009-01-01

20

External Insect Morphology: A Negative Factor in Attitudes toward Insects and Likelihood of Incorporation in Future Science Education Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated if the external morphology of an insect had a negative effect on United States (US) preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward insects and beliefs concerning the likelihood of incorporating insects into future science education settings. 270 US kindergarten through sixth grade preservice elementary teachers…

Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

2012-01-01

21

Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

Shin, Junseob

2011-01-01

22

Contact Reduces Transprejudice: A Study on Attitudes towards Transgenderism and Transgender Civil Rights in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between Hong Kong Chinese people's contact with transgender\\/transsexual (TG\\/TS) people and attitudes toward transgenderism and transgender civil rights, based on Allport's Contact Hypothesis. The term transprejudice is introduced to refer to the negative valuing, stereotyping and discriminatory treatment of TG\\/TS people. Data are presented from a population-based survey with a random sample of 856 Hong

Mark E. King; Sam Winter; Beverley Webster

2009-01-01

23

Negative Affect Reduces Performance in Implicit Sequence Learning  

PubMed Central

Background It is well documented that positive rather than negative moods encourage integrative processing of conscious information. However, the extent to which implicit or unconscious learning can be influenced by affective states remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings A Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task with sequence structures requiring integration over past trials was adopted to examine the effect of affective states on implicit learning. Music was used to induce and maintain positive and negative affective states. The present study showed that participants in negative rather than positive states learned less of the regularity. Moreover, the knowledge was shown by a Bayesian analysis to be largely unconscious as participants were poor at recognizing the regularity. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrated that negative rather than positive affect inhibited implicit learning of complex structures. Our findings help to understand the effects of affective states on unconscious or implicit processing.

Shang, Junchen; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan; Shao, Can; Fu, Xiaolan

2013-01-01

24

Human attitudes towards herpetofauna: The influence of folklore and negative values on the conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background Human values and folklore of wildlife strongly influence the effectiveness of conservation efforts. These values and folklore may also vary with certain demographic characteristics such as gender, age, or education. Reptiles and amphibians are among the least appreciated of vertebrates and are victims of many negative values and wrong ideas resulting from the direct interpretation of folklore. We try to demonstrate how these values and folklore can affect the way people relate to them and also the possible conservation impacts on these animals. Methods A questionnaire survey distributed to 514 people in the district of Évora, Portugal, was used to obtain data regarding the hypothesis that the existence of wrong ideas and negative values contributes to the phenomenon of human-associated persecution of these animals. A structural equation model was specified in order to confirm the hypothesis about the possible relationships between the presence of perceptions and negative values about amphibians and reptiles and persecution and anti-conservation attitudes. Sociodemographic variables were also added. Results The results of the model suggest that the presence of folklore and negative values clearly predicts persecution and anti-conservation attitudes towards amphibians and reptiles. Also, the existence of folklore varies sociodemographically, but negative values concerning these animals are widespread in the population. Conclusions With the use of structural equation models, this work is a contribution to the study of how certain ideas and values can directly influence human attitudes towards herpetofauna and how they can be a serious conservation issue.

2012-01-01

25

Reducing STD/HIV stigmatizing attitudes through community popular opinion leaders in Chinese markets  

PubMed Central

Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes and practices of risky sexual behavior and its consequences. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus one campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community popular opinion leaders to discuss these issues in everyday social venues. This study tested the effectiveness of such an approach on reducing HIV/AIDS stigma, across two years, from a sample of over 4500 market vendors, in three conditions. Results showed an increasing growth in market communication about intervention messages, and concomitant declines in stigmatizing attitudes, across time, with the greatest changes in community popular opinion leaders, significant changes in intervention non-opinion leaders, and little change in the control markets.

Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2013-01-01

26

Columbia University study shows breastfeeding reduced risk for ER/PR-negative breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Breast-feeding reduces the risk for estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer, according to a study conducted at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health.

27

Attitudes and subjective norms: determinants of parents' intentions to reduce childhood fever with medications.  

PubMed

Fever is a natural protective response of the host organism. Mild to moderate fevers, up to 40.0 degrees C, have immunological benefits and do not need to be reduced. However, parents regularly reduce fever with medications to prevent perceived harmful outcomes. This study identified the determinants of parents' intentions to reduce childhood fever with medications. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 391 Australian parents of children aged between 6 months and 5 years. Recruitment was through advertising, face-to-face and snowball methods. The survey targeted constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior: attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions and previously identified background factors. Structural equation modeling identified 69% of the variance in intentions. The strongest influences were from non-scientifically based attitudes (phobic) (beta=0.55) and subjective norms (husband/partner and doctors) (beta=0.36). Attitudes (beta=0.69) and subjective norms (beta=0.52) were strongly determined by child medication behavior (whether the child took medications easily when febrile) which had a total effect on intentions of beta=0.66. Perceived control, education and number of children had minimal influence on intentions. There is an urgent need for (i) the education of both parents in the benefits of fever and (ii) for doctors to consistently provide parents with evidence-based information. PMID:18974070

Walsh, A; Edwards, H; Fraser, J

2009-06-01

28

Options for reducing the negative effects of nitrogen in agriculture.  

PubMed

After addition to farms by fertilizer, crop residues, biological fixation and animal excreta, nitrogen can be lost through gaseous emission, runoff and leaching to contaminate the atmosphere and water bodies, and cause adverse health effects. The efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen can be increased and losses reduced, by matching supply with crop demand, optimizing split application schemes, changing the form to suit the conditions, and use of slow-release fertilizers and inhibitors. In addition, agronomic practices such as higher plant densities, weed and pest control and balanced fertilization with other nutrients can also increase efficiency of nitrogen use. Efficiency of use by animals can be increased by diet manipulation. Feeding dairy cattle low degradable protein and high starch diets, and grazing sheep and cattle on grasses high in water soluble carbohydrate result in less nitrogen excretion in urine and reduced ammonia volatilization. PMID:20549441

Freney, J R

2005-09-01

29

Short-term clinical stability and lack of insight are associated with a negative attitude towards antipsychotic treatment at discharge in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Purpose The primary aim of this study was to assess the range of attitudes towards antipsychotic treatment at hospital discharge in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The secondary aim was to analyze the relationship between patients’ attitudes and sociodemographic and clinical parameters. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study with a sample of patients admitted due to acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or a manic episode was conducted. Attitude towards pharmacological treatment at discharge was assessed with the 10-item Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10). Logistic regression was used to determine significant variables associated with attitude to medication. Results Eighty-six patients were included in the study. The mean age was 43.1 years (standard deviation [SD] 12.1), and 55.8% were males. Twenty-six percent of the patients presented a negative attitude towards antipsychotic treatment (mean DAI-10 score of ?4.7, SD 2.7). Most of them had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Multivariate analysis showed that poor insight into illness and a greater number of previous acute episodes was significantly associated with a negative attitude towards medication at discharge (odds ratio 1.68 and 1.18, respectively). Conclusion Insight and clinical stability prior to admission were related to patients’ attitude towards antipsychotic treatment at hospital discharge among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The identification of factors related to the attitude towards medication would offer an improved opportunity for clinicians to select patients eligible for prophylactic adherence-focused interventions.

Medina, Esteban; Salva, Joan; Ampudia, Ruben; Maurino, Jorge; Larumbe, Juan

2012-01-01

30

Positive and Negative Affect as Moderators of the Job Satisfaction-Job Attitudes Relationship.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

B.R. Staw, in an article in Administrative Sciences, Quarterly, called for a dispositional approach to the study of job attitudes, arguing that deposition or affect may supersede the influences of the situation in the formulation of job satisfaction. In a...

D. H. Andrews L. A. Witt M. N. Beorkrem

1991-01-01

31

Investigating the impact of message format, involvement, scientific literacy, and education on attitude toward reducing cancer risk through regulation.  

PubMed

Recent research links perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to increased breast cancer risk. Efforts to inform the lay public about potential risks associated with PFOA need to be accessible in their content as many individuals, including highly educated ones, have low scientific literacy. This study investigates the role of message format, as well as personal involvement, scientific literacy, and education in influencing attitudes about PFOA regulation. Participants (N = 2,078) were exposed to one of three message formats about PFOA and then responded to survey questions related to their attitude about the need for new regulation. Results revealed that issue involvement was positively related to favorable attitude regarding new regulation, while education and advocacy status were negatively related; cancer experience, scientific literacy, and message format did not influence attitude about new regulation. Implications of the results are discussed as they relate to communicating uncertain risk information to inform and influence lay individuals. PMID:22124892

Silk, Kami J; Nazione, Samantha; Neuberger, Lindsay; Smith, Sandi; Atkin, Charles

2012-03-01

32

Calibrating Attitude Scale with Negatively Worded Items Using PARELLA and Rating Scale Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important principle in constructing rating scales is to develop items that reflect various degrees of the "pro" (positive) and "contra" (negative) aspects of the trait being measured. Where both positive and negative items are pooled, they can be arranged in order along the trait continuum, but for classical and item response theory analysis,…

Lam, Peter; Foong, Yoke-Yeen

33

Children and the New 3 Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle): Attitudes toward the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between children's environmental attitudes and their perceived competence and locus of control. The study sample consisted of 171 children in grades 3, 4, and 5. Children completed the Children's Attitudes Toward the Environment Scale (CATES) and the Janus Environmental Attitudes Scale (JEAS), which assessed…

Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

34

Thermostats with attitudes: A sociological analysis of assumptions underlying common approaches to reducing residential energy consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contributes to the emerging literature in the sociology of energy consumption by answering three important questions about the assumptions underlying popular approaches to reducing energy consumption behavior. The answers are gleaned from data on Wisconsin households gathered in 1998 and 1999. The first question has to do with the efficacy of a "cognitive fix" approach of attempting to change attitudes in hopes of changing behavior, and asks whether energy-related attitudes can predict actual energy savings. The results of a regression analysis of heating energy intensity revealed that a variable measuring respondents' attitudes toward energy conservation predict heating energy intensity, but the effect was overwhelmed by control variables for insulation and draftiness. These and other results offer some support for the cognitive fix approach of attitudinal change as a means of reducing energy consumption. The second question concerns a popular "technological fix" of subsidizing the replacement of manual thermostats with programmable ones, and asks whether programmable thermostats actually save significant home heating energy. The data show that households with programmable thermostats appear to use no less energy than do households with manual thermostats, and that it is behavioral norms, not the type of thermostat, that determine thermostat setting behavior. The results suggest strongly that in aggregate, the installation of programmable thermostats in residential households cannot be expected to deliver promised energy savings. The third question addressed is whether popular knowledge about global warming or the connection between energy use and global environmental change is growing, and if so, what is the likelihood that these prospective socio-cultural shifts might result in increased residential energy conservation. The analysis suggests that, compared to the findings of earlier studies, awareness of the environmental consequences of energy use is on the increase, but the likelihood that this growing awareness will lead to increased conservation appears to be minimal. In addition to answering the questions above, this work provides an example of how a comprehensive sociological approach to studying energy consumption can help inform our understanding of energy use in ways that earlier approaches could not.

Nevius, Monica Josefina

2001-12-01

35

Preliminary Comparison of Two Negative Reinforcement Schedules to Reduce Self-Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effectiveness of differential negative reinforcement of other behavior (DNRO) and alternative behavior (DNRA) for reducing self-injurious tantrums maintained by escape from demands in a 4-year-old girl with severe retardation. Both DNRO and DNRA reduced self-injury and increased independent task performance, with DNRA…

Roberts, Maura L.

1995-01-01

36

Differentiating Hostile and Benevolent Sexist Attitudes Toward Positive and Negative Sexual Female Subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions of hostile and benevolent sexism toward a female character whose behavior was consistent with either a positive (i.e., chaste) or negative (i.e., promiscuous) sexual female subtype were examined. Consistent with the theory that benevolent and hostile sexism form complementary ideologies that serve to maintain and legitimize gender-based social hierarchies, men expressed increased hostile, but decreased benevolent,sexism toward a female

Chris G. Sibley; Marc Stewart Wilson

2004-01-01

37

The Peer Attitudes toward Children Who Stutter Scale: Reliability, Known Groups Validity, and Negativity of Elementary School-Age Children's Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychometric properties of the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter (PATCS) scale (Langevin, M., & Hagler, P. (2004). Development of a scale to measure peer attitudes toward children who stutter. In A.K. Bothe (Ed.), Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: empirical bases and clinical applications (pp. 139-171). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum…

Langevin, Marilyn

2009-01-01

38

Adolescents' attitudes toward schizophrenia, depression and PTSD.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare adolescents' attitudes toward schizophrenia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stigmatizing attitudes toward these three mental disorders were evaluated in 325 senior students from medical, commercial, and grammar high schools in Croatia using a 45-item questionnaire. Results indicated that stigmatizing attitudes toward PTSD were at the same level as attitudes toward depression and were less stigmatizing than were attitudes toward schizophrenia. Negative attitudes were the lowest among medical students. Gender differences existed only for attitudes toward depression. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PTSD were not as high as expected. All of the students believed mental disorders are different from other disorders. Specific knowledge of psychiatry has been shown to reduce stigma. The nonaddictive nature of psychotropic medications should receive greater emphasis when teaching psychiatry. PMID:18416274

Arbanas, Goran

2008-03-01

39

An active control method to reduce the effect of negative damping in disk brake system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel approach to reduce the effect of negative damping that causes brake noise is proposed by applying an active force control (AFC) based strategy to a two degree-of-freedom model of a disk brake system. At first, the disc brake model is simulated and analyzed using a closed loop pure PID controller. Later, it is integrated with

Sayed-Mahdi Hashemi-Dehkordi; Musa Mailah; A. R. A. Bakar

2009-01-01

40

Development of SLP-II Steel Pipe Piles for Reducing Negative Skin Friction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SLP-II steel pipe pile that is coated with a bituminous material and covered with a hard protective layer to facilitate transportation, storage and installation was developed as a new type of steel pipe pile for reducing negative skin friction. Labora...

K. Kawakami M. Kusumoto F. Ohtsuki H. Yoshida K. Torizaki

1986-01-01

41

Countermeasure for reducing post-flight orthostatic intolerance: Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) experiment E140  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigators have shown that after 1-2 weeks of bed rest ingestion of 1000 ml of a salt water solution during 4 hours of continuous exposure to 30 mm Hg of lower body negative pressure will protect plasma volume and orthostatic function for up to 24 hours. We hypothesize that a similar countermeasure will reduce the effects of fluid loss induced by headward fluid shift during space flight. The objective of this flight experiment is to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed countermeasure in reversing these effects on the cardiovascular system. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) involves exposing the legs and lower abdomen to reduced air pressure. The LBNP device is an air-tight chamber that seals the subject's waist to enclose the lower body. As used in this experiment, LBNP provides both the candidate treatment as well as the means of assessing the effectiveness of the treatment.

Charles, John B.

1993-01-01

42

Healthy Neonates Possess a CD56-Negative NK Cell Population with Reduced Anti-Viral Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal Natural Killer (NK) cells show functional impairment and expansion of a CD56 negative population of uncertain significance. Methods NK cells were isolated from cord blood and from adult donors. NK subpopulations were identified as positive or negative for the expression of CD56 and characterized for expression of granzyme B and surface markers by multi-parameter flow cytometry. Cell function was assessed by viral suppression and cytokine production using autologous lymphocytes infected with HIV. Activating (NKp30, NKp46) and inhibitory (Siglec-7) markers in healthy infants and adults were compared with viremic HIV-infected adults. Results Cord blood contained increased frequencies of CD56 negative (CD56neg) NK cells with reduced expression of granzyme B and reduced production of IFN? and the CC-class chemokines RANTES, MIP1? and MIP1? upon stimulation. Both CD56pos and CD56neg NK subpopulations showed impaired viral suppression in cord blood, with impairment most marked in the CD56neg subset. CD56neg NK cells from cord blood and HIV-infected adults shared decreased inhibitory and activating receptor expression when compared with CD56pos cells. Conclusions CD56neg NK cells are increased in number in normal infants and these effectors show reduced anti-viral activity. Like the expanded CD56neg population described in HIV-infected adults, these NK cells demonstrate functional impairments which may reflect inadequate development or activation.

Lejarcegui, Nicholas; Mitchell, Caroline; Frenkel, Lisa; Horton, Helen

2013-01-01

43

Do experiences of racial discrimination predict cardiovascular disease among African American Men? The moderating role of internalized negative racial group attitudes  

PubMed Central

Studies examining associations between racial discrimination and cardiovascular health outcomes have been inconsistent, with some studies finding the highest risk of hypertension among African Americans who report no discrimination. A potential explanation of the latter is that hypertension and other cardiovascular problems are fostered by internalization and denial of racial discrimination. To explore this hypothesis, the current study examines the role of internalized negative racial group attitudes in linking experiences of racial discrimination and history of cardiovascular disease among African American men. We predicted a significant interaction between reported discrimination and internalized negative racial group attitudes in predicting cardiovascular disease. Weighted logistic regression analyses were conducted among 1216 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL; 2001– 2003). We found no main effect of racial discrimination in predicting history of cardiovascular disease. However, agreeing with negative beliefs about Blacks was positively associated with cardiovascular disease history, and also moderated the effect of racial discrimination. Reporting racial discrimination was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease among African American men who disagreed with negative beliefs about Blacks. However, among African American men who endorsed negative beliefs about Blacks, the risk of cardiovascular disease was greatest among those reporting no discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination and the internalization of negative racial group attitudes are both risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African American men. Furthermore, the combination of internalizing negative beliefs about Blacks and the absence of reported racial discrimination appear to be associated with particularly poor cardiovascular health. Steps to address racial discrimination as well as programs aimed at developing a positive racial group identity may help to improve cardiovascular health among African American men.

Lincoln, Karen D; Adler, Nancy E; Syme, S. Leonard

2010-01-01

44

The use of peer monitors to reduce negative interaction during recess.  

PubMed Central

The negative interactions of a midly retarded child, Dennis, were reduced in three daily recess periods, with the use of a point system. Adult monitors initiated the intervention in the morning recess; reductions achieved during adult monitoring were maintained in that recess during two subsequent conditions: peer monitoring and self-monitoring. Dennis' negative interactions were reduced next in the afternoon recess by peer monitors. Again, reductions were maintained during a subsequent self-monitoring condition. Finally, during the noon recess, Dennis was trained to serve as a peer monitor for Ed, a moderately retarded classmate. Dennis' rate of negative interactions quickly decreased following his appointment as a peer monitor. The results show that a point system, originally designed for adult monitoring, can be adapted without loss of program effectiveness for peer monitoring or self-monitoring. The results also suggest that classmates who serve as peer monitors may benefit significantly from their role. The conditions under which these therapeutic effects occur and the role that treatment order effects may play in this process require further investigation.

Dougherty, B S; Fowler, S A; Paine, S C

1985-01-01

45

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Among a Sample of HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Females Visiting an Urban VCT Center in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of over 43,000 women attending the Groupe Hatien d’Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) Centers in Haiti between 1999–2004 were examined. Comparative analyses were conducted for several sub-samples. Analyses revealed that across the entire sample, HIV-positive women appeared to engage in more risky behaviors than HIV-negative women (p<.01); however, as a

Jean Willam Pape

2009-01-01

46

Food, Mood, and Attitude: Reducing Risk for Eating Disorders in College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food, Mood, and Attitude (FMA) is a CD-ROM prevention program developed to decrease risk for eating disorders in college women. Female 1st-year students (N = 240) were randomly assigned to the intervention (FMA) or control group. Equal numbers of students at risk and of low risk for developing an eating disorder were assigned to each condition. Participants in the FMA

Debra L. Franko; Laurie B. Mintz; Mona Villapiano; Traci Craig Green; Dana Mainelli; Lesley Folensbee; Stephen F. Butler; M. Meghan Davidson; Emily Hamilton; Debbie Little; Maureen Kearns; Simon H. Budman

2005-01-01

47

Hepatic glucose output in humans measured with labeled glucose to reduce negative errors  

SciTech Connect

Steele and others have suggested that minimizing changes in glucose specific activity when estimating hepatic glucose output (HGO) during glucose infusions could reduce non-steady-state errors. This approach was assessed in nondiabetic and type II diabetic subjects during constant low dose (27 mumol.kg ideal body wt (IBW)-1.min-1) glucose infusion followed by a 12 mmol/l hyperglycemic clamp. Eight subjects had paired tests with and without labeled infusions. Labeled infusion was used to compare HGO in 11 nondiabetic and 15 diabetic subjects. Whereas unlabeled infusions produced negative values for endogenous glucose output, labeled infusions largely eliminated this error and reduced the dependence of the Steele model on the pool fraction in the paired tests. By use of labeled infusions, 11 nondiabetic subjects suppressed HGO from 10.2 +/- 0.6 (SE) fasting to 0.8 +/- 0.9 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 after 90 min of glucose infusion and to -1.9 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 after 90 min of a 12 mmol/l glucose clamp, but 15 diabetic subjects suppressed only partially from 13.0 +/- 0.9 fasting to 5.7 +/- 1.2 at the end of the glucose infusion and 5.6 +/- 1.0 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 in the clamp (P = 0.02, 0.002, and less than 0.001, respectively).

Levy, J.C.; Brown, G.; Matthews, D.R.; Turner, R.C. (Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford (England))

1989-10-01

48

Strategies to Reduce Negative Socialization in the First Years of Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transitioning into a new role can be difficult in any walk of life, and this is no different for physical educators entering a new teaching environment. In a new setting, a physical educator may go through a socialization process where beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and teaching philosophies are influenced. Teacher socialization research suggests…

Hushman, Glenn; Napper-Owens, Gloria

2012-01-01

49

Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.  

PubMed

Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation. PMID:22148989

Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul

2012-04-01

50

A thermophilic gram-negative nitrate-reducing bacterium, Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens, exhibiting electricity generation capability.  

PubMed

To exploit the potential diversity of thermophilic exoelectrogens, two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were inoculated with thermophilic anaerobic digester sludge and operated at 55 °C without supplementing with exogenous redox mediator. The MFC generated a maximum power density of 823 mW m(-2) after 200 h of operation. Molecular phylogenetic analyses suggested that the microbial population on the anode was dominated by a species closely related to a thermophilic nitrate-reducing bacterium Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens, for which a strain (Yu37-1) has been isolated in pure culture. Thus, a pure culture of the C. nitroreducens strain Yu37-1 was inoculated into MFC to examine the electricity generation capability. Without an exogenous mediator, MFCs stably produced electricity with a maximum power density of 272 mW m(-2) for >400 h of operation. The MFC current recovered to the original level within few hours after medium replacement, suggesting that the electricity generation was caused by the anodic microorganisms. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that redox systems (E3 and Ec) with similar potentials (-0.14 and -0.17 V) made the main contributions to the exoelectrogenic activities of the sludge-derived consortium and C. nitroreducens Yu37-1, respectively. This study undertook the bioelectrochemical characterization of C. nitroreducens as the first example of a thermophilic Gram-negative exoelectrogen. PMID:24053548

Fu, Qian; Kobayashi, Hajime; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Wakayama, Tatsuki; Maeda, Haruo; Sato, Kozo

2013-11-01

51

Can corrective information reduce negative appraisals of intrusive thoughts in a community sample?  

PubMed

Background: Improving mental health literacy in the general population is important as it is associated with early detection and treatment-seeking for mental health problems. Target areas for mental health literacy programs should be guided by research that tests the impact of improving knowledge of psychological constructs associated with the development of mental health problems. Aims: This study investigated the impact of providing corrective information about the nature of intrusive thoughts on their subsequent appraisal in a community sample. Method: In an online, experimental design, 148 community participants completed measures of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and appraisals (Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised [OCI-R]; Intrusions Inventory [III]). Individuals were instructed to read either a brief informational text about the nature of intrusive thoughts or a control text. All participants then completed post-test measurements of appraisals. Intervention effectiveness was analysed using hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Individuals in the intervention group reported significantly lower levels of maladaptive appraisals than those in the control group (? = .05). Conclusions: The results of this study support the efficacy of provision of brief written information in reducing negative appraisals of intrusive thoughts in a community sample. It suggests a possible role for education about intrusive thoughts as a prevention strategy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:24280554

Rees, Clare S; Austen, Tomas; Anderson, Rebecca A; Egan, Sarah J

2014-07-01

52

Improving intergroup attitudes and reducing stereotype threat: An integrated contact model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we develop an intergroup contact model of stereotype threat effects. We review research on improving intergroup relations and reducing stereotype threat. We then propose an integrated model that specifies the processes through which both actual and imagined intergroup contact reduce the impact of stereotypes on behaviour. We discuss support for this model and, drawing on social identity

Richard J. Crisp; Dominic Abrams

2008-01-01

53

Attitudes and subjective norms: determinants of parents' intentions to reduce childhood fever with medications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fever is a natural protective response of the host organism. Mild to moderate fevers, up to 40.0C, have immunological benefits and do not need to be reduced. However, parents regularly reduce fever with medications to prevent per- ceived harmful outcomes. This study identified the determinants of parents' intentions to re- duce childhood fever with medications. A com- munity-based cross-sectional survey

A. Walsh; H. Edwards; J. Fraser

2009-01-01

54

Atnoa1 mutant Arabidopsis plants induce compensation mechanisms to reduce the negative effects of the mutation.  

PubMed

Alterations in temperature adaptation processes and changes in the content of stress-related compounds, polyamines and salicylic acid were evaluated in Atnoa1 (NO-associated 1) Arabidopsis mutant. The F(v)/F(m) chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction parameter and the actual quantum yield were significantly lower in the Atnoa1 mutant than in the wild-type. In the wild-type Col-0, the fastest increase in the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) occurred in plants pre-treated at low temperature (4 °C), while the slowest was in those adapted to 30 °C. The NPQ showed not only a substantially increased level in the light-adapted state, but also more rapid light induction after the dark-adapted state in the Atnoa1 mutant than in the wild-type. The results of freezing tests indicated that both the wild-type and the mutant had better freezing tolerance after cold hardening, since no significant differences were found between the genotypes. The level of putrescine increased substantially, while that of spermine decreased by the end of the cold-hardening (4°C, 4d) period. The quantity of spermidine in Atnoa1 was significantly higher than in Col-0, at both control and cold-hardening temperatures. A similar trend was observed for spermine, but only under control conditions. The mutant plants showed substantially higher salicylic acid (SA) contents for both the free and bound forms. This difference was significant not only in the control, but also in the cold-hardened plants. These results suggest that there is a compensation mechanism in Atnoa1 mutant Arabidopsis plants to reduce the negative effects of the mutation. These adaptation processes include the stimulation of photoprotection and alterations in the SA and polyamine compositions. PMID:21392840

Majláth, Imre; Szalai, Gabriella; Papp, István; Vanková, Radomíra; Janda, Tibor

2011-07-15

55

Attitudes toward psychotropic medications.  

PubMed

Attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication were evaluated among psychiatric outpatients, patients receiving buprenorphine treatment for substance abuse, and a group who reported never having used psychotropic medications (non-users). The Drug Attitude Inventory scale and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire General were used to assess attitudes and beliefs of 49 participants. Non-users exhibited more negative attitudes and beliefs toward psychotropic medication than both psychiatric groups. PMID:22662401

Fife, Stephanie A; Ketzenberger, Kay E; Olson, James N

2012-04-01

56

Reducing antibiotic prescriptions for acute cough by motivating GPs to change their attitudes to communication and empowering patients: a cluster-randomized intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Assessing the efficacy of an educational intervention that aimed to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions in primary care by motivating GPs to change their attitudes to communication and by empowering patients. Methods: One hundred and four GPs in North-Rhine\\/Westphalia-Lippe, Germany were cluster- randomized into intervention and control. GPs randomized to receive the intervention were visited by peers. The intervention strategy

Attila Altiner; Silke Brockmann; Martin Sielk; Stefan Wilm; Karl Wegscheider; Heinz-Harald Abholz

2007-01-01

57

Information and Attitudes toward Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of two movies, Like Other People and The Music Box, on attitudes as measured by the Attitudes toward Disabled Persons scale. Results indicated more negative attitudes were induced in pretested participants by Like Other People at initial post-test; however, more favorable attitudes were exhibited by participants six weeks later.…

Hafer, Marilyn; Narcus, Margery

1979-01-01

58

The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

2011-01-01

59

Cavitation selectively reduces the negative-pressure phase of lithotripter shock pulses  

PubMed Central

Measurements using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone, high-speed camera, and B-mode ultrasound showed attenuation of the trailing negative-pressure phase of a lithotripter shock pulse under conditions that favor generation of cavitation bubbles, such as in water with a high content of dissolved gas or at high pulse repetition rate where more cavitation nuclei persisted between pulses. This cavitation-mediated attenuation of the acoustic pulse was also observed to increase with increasing amplitude of source discharge potential, such that the negative-pressure phase of the pulse can remain fixed in amplitude even with increasing source discharge potential.

Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.; McAteer, James A.

2009-01-01

60

Video Games as a Means to Reduce Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Attitudes, Compliance, and Effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a “brain fitness” game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants’ ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why.

Boot, Walter R.; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P.; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J.; Charness, Neil

2013-01-01

61

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Reduces Negative Affect but Not Cigarette Craving in Overnight Abstinent Smokers  

PubMed Central

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (?1.5?h) smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode to the right supra-orbital area for 20?min with a current of 2.0?mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS) Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension–anxiety, depression–dejection, and confusion–bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation.

Xu, Jiansong; Fregni, Felipe; Brody, Arthur L.; Rahman, Ardeshir S.

2013-01-01

62

Use of Negative Air Ionization for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Stainless Steel Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Microbiological concerns in food plant sanitation that relies heavily on physical and chemical methods for removing and killing bacteria could be reduced by the use of non-chemical intervention methods. This initial work on the effects of electrostatic space charge on biofilms shows promise as a viable intervention option for reducing bacterial contamination on surfaces. Natural bacterial populations from a

J. W. Arnold; B. W. Mitchell

2002-01-01

63

Understanding the Dynamics Behind the Relationship Between Exposure to Negative Consequences of Risky Sex on Entertainment Television and Emerging Adults' Safe-Sex Attitudes and Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social cognitive theory (SCT; Bandura, 1986) has established that people often are inhibited from engaging in a behavior when they observe models experience negative consequences for their actions. Thus, in the realm of sexual portrayals on television, a program that depicts consequences of risky intercourse should reduce the likelihood that a viewer would respond positively. In addition, SCT suggests that

Keli Finnerty-Myers

2011-01-01

64

Factors Affecting Attitudes Toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had

Kimberly J. Sahlstrom; Elizabeth L. Jeglic

2008-01-01

65

Paranoid males have reduced lateralisation for processing of negative emotions: an investigation using the chimeric faces test.  

PubMed

Reduced strength of lateralisation in patients with schizophrenia has been reported in a number of studies. However the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. In this study, lateralisation for processing emotional faces was measured using the chimeric faces test and examined in relation to paranoia in a non-clinical sample. For males only, those with higher scores on a paranoia questionnaire had reduced lateralisation for processing negative facial emotion. For females there were no significant relationships. These findings suggest that atypical patterns of lateralisation for processing emotional stimuli may be implicated in, or associated with, increased levels of paranoia. PMID:23844655

Bourne, Victoria J; McKay, Ryan T

2014-01-01

66

Triple Negative Breast Cancers Have a Reduced Expression of DNA Repair Genes  

PubMed Central

DNA repair is a key determinant in the cellular response to therapy and tumor repair status could play an important role in tailoring patient therapy. Our goal was to evaluate the mRNA of 13 genes involved in different DNA repair pathways (base excision, nucleotide excision, homologous recombination, and Fanconi anemia) in paraffin embedded samples of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to luminal A breast cancer (LABC). Most of the genes involved in nucleotide excision repair and Fanconi Anemia pathways, and CHK1 gene were significantly less expressed in TNBC than in LABC. PARP1 levels were higher in TNBC than in LABC. In univariate analysis high level of FANCA correlated with an increased overall survival and event free survival in TNBC; however multivariate analyses using Cox regression did not confirm FANCA as independent prognostic factor. These data support the evidence that TNBCs compared to LABCs harbour DNA repair defects.

Andreis, Daniele; Bertoni, Ramona; Giardini, Roberto; Fox, Stephen B.; Broggini, Massimo; Bottini, Alberto; Zanoni, Vanessa; Bazzola, Letizia; Foroni, Chiara; Generali, Daniele; Damia, Giovanna

2013-01-01

67

Triple negative breast cancers have a reduced expression of DNA repair genes.  

PubMed

DNA repair is a key determinant in the cellular response to therapy and tumor repair status could play an important role in tailoring patient therapy. Our goal was to evaluate the mRNA of 13 genes involved in different DNA repair pathways (base excision, nucleotide excision, homologous recombination, and Fanconi anemia) in paraffin embedded samples of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to luminal A breast cancer (LABC). Most of the genes involved in nucleotide excision repair and Fanconi Anemia pathways, and CHK1 gene were significantly less expressed in TNBC than in LABC. PARP1 levels were higher in TNBC than in LABC. In univariate analysis high level of FANCA correlated with an increased overall survival and event free survival in TNBC; however multivariate analyses using Cox regression did not confirm FANCA as independent prognostic factor. These data support the evidence that TNBCs compared to LABCs harbour DNA repair defects. PMID:23825533

Ribeiro, Enilze; Ganzinelli, Monica; Andreis, Daniele; Bertoni, Ramona; Giardini, Roberto; Fox, Stephen B; Broggini, Massimo; Bottini, Alberto; Zanoni, Vanessa; Bazzola, Letizia; Foroni, Chiara; Generali, Daniele; Damia, Giovanna

2013-01-01

68

Effects of an intervention to reduce insecticide exposure on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude: a quasi-experimental study in Shogun orange farmers in Krabi Province, Thailand  

PubMed Central

An intervention to reduce insecticide exposure in Shogun orange farmers was implemented in Krabi Province, Thailand. Intervention effects on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude were evaluated in a quasi-experimental study in two farms about 20 kilometers (km) apart. The intervention was conducted at one farm; the other served as control. The study included 42 and 50 farmers at the intervention and control farms, respectively. The intervention included several components, including didactic instruction, practical demonstrations, use of a fluorescent tracer, and continuing guidance on insecticide use via a small, specially trained group within the overall intervention group. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first such intervention in Thailand. Knowledge and attitude were measured at baseline (pre-intervention), and at 2 and 5 months after the intervention (follow-up 1 and follow-up 2, respectively). Intervention effects were assessed with linear mixed models, specified to enable testing of effects at each follow-up time. The intervention was associated with substantial and statistically significant improvements in both knowledge score and attitude score (P < 0.001 for each score at each follow-up time). Intervention-related improvements in knowledge score and attitude score were equivalent to about 27% and 14% of baseline mean knowledge and attitude scores, respectively. Intervention-related benefits were similar at both follow-up times. Findings were similar before and after adjustment for covariates. These findings increase confidence that well-designed interventions can reduce farmers’ insecticide exposure in Thailand and elsewhere. In future research, it would be desirable to address long-term intervention effects on farmers’ health and quality of life.

Boonyakawee, Paisit; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Chapman, Robert S

2013-01-01

69

Reducing False Negative Reads in RFID Data Streams Using an Adaptive Sliding-Window Approach  

PubMed Central

Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D. M.; Vermaak, Herman

2012-01-01

70

Microwave oscillator with reduced phase noise by negative feedback incorporating microwave signals with suppressed carrier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillator configurations which reduce the effect of 1/f noise sources for both direct feedback and stabilized local oscillator (STALO) circuits are developed and analyzed. By appropriate use of carrier suppression, a small signal is generated which suffers no loss of loop phase information or signal-to-noise ratio. This small signal can be amplified without degradation by multiplicative amplifier noise, and can be detected without saturation of the detector. Together with recent advances in microwave resonator Qs, these circuit improvements will make possible lower phase noise than can be presently achieved without the use of cryogenic devices.

Dick, G. J.; Saunders, J.

1989-01-01

71

Attitude Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of assessing camp staff attitudes, the nature of attitudes, and how attitudes are formed. Recommends Likert scales as effective in measuring the direction and strength of an attitude, identifying the object of an attitude, and detecting how an attitude was formed. Provides guidelines for developing a Likert scale and…

Norland, Emmalou

1995-01-01

72

The negative inotropic action of canrenone is mediated by L-type calcium current blockade and reduced intracellular calcium transients  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Adding spironolactone to standard therapy in heart failure reduces morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We analysed the effect of canrenone, the major active metabolite of spironolactone, on myocardial contractility and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Experimental approach: Left ventricular papillary muscles and cardiomyocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats. Contractility of papillary muscles was assessed with force transducers, Ca2+ transients by fluorescence and Ca2+ fluxes by electrophysiological techniques. Key results: Canrenone (300–600 µmol·L?1) reduced developed tension, maximum rate of tension increase and maximum rate of tension decay of papillary muscles. In cardiomyocytes, canrenone (50 µmol·L?1) reduced cell shortening and L-type Ca2+ channel current, whereas steady-state activation and inactivation, and reactivation curves were unchanged. Canrenone also decreased the Ca2+ content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and intracellular diastolic Ca2+ concentration. However, the time course of [Ca2+]i decline during transients evoked by caffeine was not affected by canrenone. Conclusion and implications: Canrenone reduced L-type Ca2+ channel current, amplitude of intracellular Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ content of sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiomyocytes. These changes are likely to underlie the negative inotropic effect of canrenone.

Costa, AR; Torres, LB; Medei, E; Ricardo, RA; Franca, JP; Smaili, S; Nascimento, JHM; Oshiro, MEM; Bassani, JWM; Ferreira, AT; Tucci, PJF

2009-01-01

73

Optimization of the End-Effector Trajectory to Suppress the Attitude Variation and Reduce Impulsive Force Simultaneously at Capturing a Target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to optimize the trajectory of the end-effector of space robot to suppress the attitude variation of the main body and to reduce impulsive force at capturing a target as well as to preserve the manipulability during manipulator motions. The B spline curve is applied to represent the trajectory shape. Constrained parameters of the manipulation include relative velocities and attitude between the target and the end-effector and the approach direction to the target at the capture. The knot vectors and control points of the curve at the end of the trajectory are determined to meet the constraints. By discretizing states variables, the problem is formulated as the non-linear optimization problem. The optimal trajectories for five approach directions are obtained by using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) method. Effect of difference of the approaching direction on the manipulability, impulsive forces, attitude variation and optimal trajectory is investigated, and a basic strategy for planning the end-effector trajectory is discussed to conclude the present result of study.

Kojima, Hirohisa

74

DEPRESSION STIGMA, RACE, AND TREATMENT SEEKING BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related attitudes and behaviors. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma mediated the relationship between public stigma and attitudes toward mental health treatment. Within group analyses indicated that the mediating effect of internalized stigma was significant for whites only. Among African Americans, internalized stigma did not mediate public stigma; it was directly related to attitudes toward mental health treatment. The internalization of stigma is key in the development of negative attitudes toward mental health treatment, and future research should focus on this aspect of stigma in both individual and community-based efforts to reduce stigma.

Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F.

2011-01-01

75

Gender, Internet and computer attitudes and experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely assumed that participation by females on the Internet is hampered by their attitudes towards computers, which in turn is reflective of their attitudes towards new technology. Research generally supports that females have less overall experience with computers and are more likely than males to have negative attitudes towards computers. Although limited, research on Internet experiences and attitudes

P. Schumacher; J. Morahan-Martin

2001-01-01

76

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

77

A Depression Training Session With Consumer Educators to Reduce Stigmatizing Views and Improve Pharmacists' Depression Care Attitudes and Practices  

PubMed Central

Objective. To measure the impact of a depression training day for pharmacists that included a 75-minute session with a consumer educator. Design. The training day included interactive lectures on depression; the effects and side effects of and indications for the use of antidepressants; adherence issues; non-drug treatment options for depression; and basic skills in communication. Pharmacists also participated in a session with a consumer educator and in counseling exercises that included role playing. Assessment. The study used a randomized, clustered, comparative design to measure pharmacists' stigma, attitudes, and current practice related to the provision of pharmaceutical care to people with depression. Mean scores for depression-care practice after the training session were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Analysis of the changes between baseline and postintervention measures in both the control and intervention groups confirmed a significant difference in the change in both social distance and practice but no significant difference in the change in attitude between the 2 groups of pharmacists. Conclusion. A continuing-education depression training day for pharmacists that involve consumer educators may improve the care delivered in the community pharmacy to people with depression.

Smits, Tim; Laekeman, Gert; Foulon, Veerle

2013-01-01

78

?-Synuclein Negatively Regulates PKC? Expression to Suppress Apoptosis in Dopaminergic Neurons by Reducing p300 HAT Activity  

PubMed Central

We recently demonstrated that PKC?, an important member of the novel PKC family, is a key oxidative stress-sensitive kinase that can be activated by caspase-3-dependent proteolytic cleavage to induce dopaminergic neuronal cell death. We now report a novel association between ?-synuclein (?syn), a protein associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s diseases (PD), and PKC?, in which ?syn negatively modulates the p300 and NF?B dependent transactivation to down-regulate proapoptotic kinase PKC? expression and thereby protects against apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Stable-expression human wild-type ?syn at physiological levels in dopaminergic neuronal cells resulted in an isoform-dependent transcriptional suppression of PKC? expression without changes in the stability of mRNA and protein or DNA methylation. The reduction in PKC? transcription was mediated, in part, through the suppression of constitutive NF?B activity targeted at two proximal PKC? promoter ?B sites. This occurred independently of NF?B/I?B? nuclear translocation, but was associated with decreased NF?B-p65 acetylation. Also, ?syn reduced p300 levels and its histone acetyl-transferase (HAT) activity, thereby contributing to diminished PKC? transactivation. Importantly, reduced PKC? and p300 expression also were observed within nigral dopaminergic neurons in ?syn transgenic mice. These findings expand the role of ?syn in neuroprotection by modulating the expression of the key proapoptotic kinase PKC? in dopaminergic neurons.

Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Ghosh, Anamitra; Yang, Yongjie; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha

2011-01-01

79

The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.  

PubMed

This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed. PMID:20587476

Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

2011-05-01

80

Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST: 37.8 plus or minus 1.9 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute). KES was significantly reduced by 30% in Con (PRE: 113 plus or minus 12; POST: 78 plus or minus 8 N-m), but was not different in EX (PRE: 126 plus or minus 25; POST: 115 plus or minus 25 N-m). The combination LBNPex and Rex during 60-d BR protects against cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning and may be efficacious countermeasure for prolonged space flight.

Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

2006-01-01

81

Large birth size does not reduce negative latent effects of harsh environments across life stages in two coral species.  

PubMed

When juveniles must tolerate harsh environments early in life, the disproportionate success of certain phenotypes across multiple early life stages will dramatically influence adult community composition and dynamics. In many species, large offspring have a higher tolerance for stressful environments than do smaller conspecifics (parental effects). However, we have a poor understanding of whether the benefits of increased parental investment carry over after juveniles escape harsh environments or progress to later life stages (latent effects). To investigate whether parental effects and latent effects interactively influence offspring success, we determined the degree to which latent effects of harsh abiotic conditions are mediated by offspring size in two stony coral species. Larvae of both species were sorted by size class and exposed to relatively high-temperature or low-salinity conditions. Survivorship was quantified for six days in these stressful environments, after which surviving larvae were placed in ambient conditions and evaluated for their ability to settle and metamorphose. We subsequently assessed long-term post-settlement survival of one species in its natural environment. Following existing theory, we expected that, within and between species, larger offspring would have a higher tolerance for harsh environmental conditions than smaller offspring. We found that large size did enhance offspring performance in each species. However, large offspring size within a species did not reduce the proportional, negative latent effects of harsh larval environments. Furthermore, the coral species that produces larger offspring was more, not less, prone to negative latent effects. We conclude that, within species, large offspring size does not increase resistance to latent effects. Comparing between species, we conclude that larger offspring size does not inherently confer greater robustness, and we instead propose that other life history characteristics such as larval duration better predict the tolerance of offspring to harsh and variable abiotic conditions. Additionally, when considering how stressful environments influence offspring performance, studies that only evaluate direct effects may miss crucial downstream (latent) effects on juveniles that have significant consequences for long-term population dynamics. PMID:24279268

Hartmann, Aaron C; Marhaver, Kristen L; Chamberland, Valérie F; Sandin, Stuart A; Vermeij, Mark J A

2013-09-01

82

Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy using Lukosz bound apodization reduces pixel negativity at no resolution cost.  

PubMed

The quality of the reconstructed image in structured illumination microscopy (SIM) depends on various aspects of the image filtering process. To optimize the trade-off between resolution and ringing artifacts, which lead to negative intensities, we extend Lukosz-bound filtering to 3D SIM and derive the parametrization of the 3D SIM cut-off. We compare the use of the Lukosz-bound as apodization filter to triangular apodization and find a tenfold reduction in the most negative pixel value with a minimal resolution loss. We test this algorithm on experimental SIM images of tubulin filaments and DAPI stained DNA structure in cancer cells and find a substantial reduction in the most negative pixel value and the percentage of pixels with a negative value. This means that there is no longer a need to clip the final image to avoid these negative pixel values. PMID:24921819

Righolt, Christiaan H; Mai, Sabine; van Vliet, Lucas J; Stallinga, Sjoerd

2014-05-01

83

Literature review and summary of perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, and marketing of potentially reduced exposure products: communication implications.  

PubMed

Potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs) have continued to enter the market during the 1990s and first part of the 21st century. Attempts by the tobacco industry to develop and market products with implied reductions in adverse health effects (i.e., harm reduction) are not new. Over the last half of the 20th century, the tobacco industry developed and marketed several products that purported to reduce the health risks associated with smoking cigarettes. Among these were filtered cigarettes in the 1950s and light and ultra-light cigarettes in the 1970s and 1980s. This review summarizes published and unpublished research that is directly relevant to the marketing, advertising, and communication about PREPs. The marketing strategies for these new products do not appear to differ from those used by the tobacco industry for light and ultra-light cigarettes. Although smokers report not using the new products in large numbers because of dissatisfaction with taste, they are interested in using products with reduced risk. Despite the absence of explicit health claims by the industry for PREPs, many smokers believe that these products are safer based on the advertising claims of reduced exposure and a belief that claims are approved by the government. No data are available to indicate that PREPs are useful for prevention or cessation of smoking, nor does specific research exist to suggest what health communication messages will provide smokers with accurate information about these products. PMID:17454709

Pederson, Linda L; Nelson, David E

2007-05-01

84

Effects of labeling and interpersonal contact upon attitudes towards schizophrenia: implications for reducing mental illness stigma in urban China  

PubMed Central

Purpose As mental illness stigma contributes to poor outcomes for schizophrenia in China, locating strategies to reduce public stigma is imperative. It is currently unknown whether diagnostic labeling and contact with different help-seeking sources increase or decrease public stigma in China. Further, it remains unresolved whether prior personal contact acts to reduce stigma in this context. Advancing understanding of these processes may facilitate stigma-reduction strategies. Methods We administered an experimental vignette randomly assigning one of four labeling conditions to respondents to assess social distance towards a psychotic vignette individual in a sample of 160 Northern, urban Chinese community respondents. Results As expected, respondents given a “non-psychiatric, indigenous label” + “lay help-seeking” condition endorsed the least social distance. Unexpectedly, the labeling condition with a “psychiatric diagnostic label” + “lay help-seeking” condition elicited the greatest social distance. Unlike Western studies, personal contact did not independently decrease community stigma. However, prior contact reduced social distance to a greater extent in the labeling condition with a “non-psychiatric, indigenous label” + “lay help-seeking” condition when compared with all other labeling conditions. Conclusion The results indicate that cultural idioms do provide some protection from stigma, but only among respondents who are already familiar with what mental illness is. Our finding that the condition that depicted untreated psychosis elicited the greatest amount of stigma, while the “treated psychosis” condition was viewed relatively benignly in China, suggests that improved access to mental health services in urban China has the potential to decrease public stigma via labeling mechanisms.

Lo, Graciete; WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J.; Singla, Daisy R.; Link, Bruce G.; Phillips, Michael R.

2013-01-01

85

Dogmatism and Attitudes Toward Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale and an Adoption Attitude Scale administered to 113 college students study supports hypothesis that among males dogmatism and intolerance toward areas relating to adoption would be positively correlated. Negative correlation for females suggests that emphasis on maternal role makes adoption attitudes exception to…

Dembroski, Betty G.; Johnson Dale L.

1969-01-01

86

Attitudes Towards AIDS Among Pharmacy Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the present research were to assess the attitudes toward AIDS of a large sample of pharmacy students, to identify demographic and attitudinal variables within the pharmacy sample associated with positive and negative AIDS attitudes, and to compare the attitudes of pharmacy students to those of medical and nursing students. To accomplish this, 636 students at the Massachusetts

Edward Krupat

1994-01-01

87

Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

88

Agonists and antagonists of GnRH-I and -II reduce metastasis formation by triple-negative human breast cancer cells in vivo.  

PubMed

Metastasis to bone is a frequent problem of advanced breast cancer. Particularly breast cancers, which do not express estrogen and progesterone receptors and which have no overexpression/amplification of the HER2-neu gene, so called triple-negative breast cancers, are considered as very aggressive and possess a bad prognosis. About 60% of all human breast cancers and about 74% of triple-negative breast cancers express receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which might be used as a therapeutic target. Recently, we could show that bone-directed invasion of human breast cancer cells in vitro is time- and dose-dependently reduced by GnRH analogs. In the present study, we have analyzed whether GnRH analogs are able to reduce metastases of triple-negative breast cancers in vivo. In addition, we have evaluated the effects of GnRH analogs on tumor growth. To quantify formation of metastasis by triple-negative MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancers, we used a real-time PCR method based on detection of human-specific alu sequences measuring accurately the amount of human tumor DNA in athymic mouse organs. To analyze tumor growth, the volumes of breast cancer xenotransplants into nude mice were measured. We could demonstrate that GnRH analogs significantly reduced metastasis formation by triple-negative breast cancer in vivo. In addition, we could show that GnRH analogs significantly inhibited the growth of breast cancer into nude mice. Side effects were not detectable. In conclusion, GnRH analogs seem to be suitable drugs for an efficacious therapy for triple-negative, GnRH receptor-positive human breast cancers to prevent metastasis formation. PMID:21279682

Schubert, Antje; Hawighorst, Thomas; Emons, Günter; Gründker, Carsten

2011-12-01

89

Fearless Dominance and reduced feedback-related negativity amplitudes in a time-estimation task - further neuroscientific evidence for dual-process models of psychopathy.  

PubMed

Dual-process models of psychopathy postulate two etiologically relevant processes. Their involvement in feedback processing and its neural correlates has not been investigated so far. Multi-channel EEG was collected while healthy female volunteers performed a time-estimation task and received negative or positive feedback in form of signs or emotional faces. The affective-interpersonal factor Fearless Dominance, but not Self-Centered Impulsivity, was associated with reduced feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitudes. This neural dissociation extends previous findings on the impact of psychopathy on feedback processing and further highlights the importance of distinguishing psychopathic traits and extending previous (neuroscientific) models of psychopathy. PMID:23607997

Schulreich, Stefan; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Derntl, Birgit; Sailer, Uta

2013-07-01

90

Activating health goals reduces (increases) hedonic evaluation of food brands for people who harbor highly positive (negative) affect toward them.  

PubMed

Associations of pleasure and fun with junk foods have the potential to create considerable challenges for efforts to improve diets. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals had the potential to exploit mixed motivations (i.e., health and pleasure) that people have related to food, and subsequently strip junk foods of the expected pleasure derived from them. In study 1, 98 participants evaluated a soft drink brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In study 2, 93 participants evaluated a presweetened breakfast cereal brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In both studies, participants who harbored highly positive feelings for the food brands devalued their hedonic judgments of them when they were primed for health. However, in an unexpected result, participants in both studies who harbored highly negative feelings for the food brands revalued their hedonic judgments of them (i.e., increased the favorability) when they were primed for health. Thus, increasing health salience is only effective in decreasing expected pleasure derived from junk foods for people who harbor positive affect toward junk food brands, and is likely counterproductive for people who harbor negative affect toward junk food brands. PMID:23428938

Connell, Paul M; Mayor, Lauren F

2013-06-01

91

Fetal programming: excess prenatal testosterone reduces postnatal luteinizing hormone, but not follicle-stimulating hormone responsiveness, to estradiol negative feedback in the female.  

PubMed

Exposure of female sheep fetuses to excess testosterone (T) during early to midgestation produces postnatal hypergonadotropism manifest as a selective increase in LH. This hypergonadotropism may result from reduced sensitivity to estradiol (E2) negative feedback and/or increased pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. We tested the hypothesis that excess T before birth reduces responsiveness of LH and FSH to E2 negative feedback after birth. Pregnant ewes were treated with T propionate (100 mg/kg in cotton seed oil) or vehicle twice weekly from d 30-90 gestation. Responsiveness to E2 negative feedback was assessed at 12 and 24 wk of age in the ovary-intact female offspring. Our experimental strategy was first to arrest follicular growth and reduce endogenous E2 by administering the GnRH antagonist (GnRH-A), Nal-Glu (50 microg/kg sc every 12 h for 72 h), and then provide a fixed amount of exogenous E2 via an implant. Blood samples were obtained every 20 min at 12 wk and every 10 min at 24 wk before treatment, during and after GnRH-A treatment both before and after E2 implant. GnRH-A ablated LH pulsatility, reduced FSH by approximately 25%, and E2 production diminished to near detection limit of assay at both ages in both groups. Prenatal T treatment produced a precocious and selective reduction in responsiveness of LH but not FSH to E2 negative feedback, which was manifest mainly at the level of LH/GnRH pulse frequency. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to excess T decreases postnatal responsiveness to E2 inhibitory feedback of LH/GnRH secretion to contribute to the development of hypergonadotropism. PMID:15976056

Sarma, Hirendra N; Manikkam, Mohan; Herkimer, Carol; Dell'Orco, James; Welch, Kathleen B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

2005-10-01

92

Perspective Taking as a Means of Reducing Negative Stereotyping of Individuals Who Speak English as a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a test of the hypothesis that perspective taking reduces stereotyping of individuals who speak English as a second language, 160 college students participated in a 2 ¥ 2 factorial experiment. Participants heard an audio recording of either a native or non-native speaker of English. Then, they wrote a paragraph about the speaker either with instructions to take the speaker's

James M. Weyant

2007-01-01

93

Trends in attitudes toward people living with HIV, homophobia, and HIV transmission knowledge in Quebec, Canada (1996, 2002, and 2010)  

Microsoft Academic Search

People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in

Alix Adrien; Marianne Beaulieu; Viviane Leaune; Michèle Perron; Clément Dassa

2012-01-01

94

Understanding narrative effects: the role of discrete negative emotions on message processing and attitudes among low-income African American women.  

PubMed

This study tests the processes through which breast cancer narrative messages are effective by taking a functional approach. We explore how discrete negative emotions (i.e., sadness, fear, and anger) induced by breast cancer survivor stories affect African American women's message processing, recall of message content, and attitudinal outcomes. Structural equation modeling was performed for narrative and informational versions of a breast cancer screening video shown to 489 low-income African American women ages 40 years and older. The model was well fitted. Sadness enhanced the persuasive process, while fear inhibited it. Sadness also helped participants recall more message-relevant content, while fear inhibited recall. Anger was not related to the persuasive process. Implications of these findings for narrative research and application are discussed. PMID:24111724

Yoo, Jina H; Kreuter, Matthew W; Lai, Choi; Fu, Qiang

2014-01-01

95

Evaluating the effects of a peer-support model: reducing negative body esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in grade eight girls.  

PubMed

During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed. PMID:22364343

Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana

2012-01-01

96

The Predictive Utility of Attitudes toward Hookah Tobacco Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine associations between positive and negative attitudes and hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) outcomes among college students. Methods Among a random sample of University of Florida students (N=852), multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between positive and negative attitudes toward HTS. Results Positive attitudes were associated with adjusted odds of 4.32 (95% CI=3.20, 5.82) for current HTS, while negative attitudes were associated with lower adjusted odds for current smoking HTS (AOR=0.64, 95% CI=0.53, 0.76). Positive attitudes were also associated with adjusted odds of 9.31 (95% CI=6.77, 12.80) for intention for future hookah use. Conclusion Positive attitudes toward HTS were more strongly associated with HTS outcomes compared to negative attitudes. It may be particularly valuable for future research and interventions to focus on decreasing positive attitudes towards HTS.

Barnett, Tracey E.; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Cook, Robert L.; Nuzzo, Erin; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

97

Are Jamaicans really that stigmatizing? A comparison of mental health help-seeking attitudes.  

PubMed

Research suggests that there is a high level of stigma surrounding mental illness in the English-speaking Caribbean, limited knowledge about aetiology and scepticism about the effectiveness of treatment. Further, in spite of experiencing symptoms of distress, a growing body of literature has suggested that Caribbean nationals hold negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. It has been suggested that these attitudes may be even more negative than for other populations. This paper presents the results of two studies which sought to examine this assumption. It was hypothesized that Jamaicans would hold more negative attitudes toward seeking professional mental health services than samples from other populations. Data regarding attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were collected from 339 Jamaican adolescents. In study 1, a review of the literature was conducted. Three published studies that utilized the same measure of help-seeking attitudes, had a sample similar in age, and published their sample size, means and standard deviations, which were compared to the Jamaican sample. In study 2, data from the Jamaican sample were compared to a sample of African-American adolescents (n = 81). Results did not support the hypothesis. Jamaicans were generally found to be either similar or more positive in their attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. These encouraging results are discussed. Suggestions for improving education and reducing mental health stigma are presented. PMID:24756657

Jackson Williams, D

2013-01-01

98

In vivo NGF deprivation reduces SNS expression and TTX-R sodium currents in IB4-negative DRG neurons.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that changes in sodium channel expression and localization may be involved in some pathological pain syndromes. SNS, a tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channel, is preferentially expressed in small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, many of which are nociceptive. TTX-R sodium currents and SNS mRNA expression have been shown to be modulated by nerve growth factor (NGF) in vitro and in vivo. To determine whether SNS expression and TTX-R currents in DRG neurons are affected by reduced levels of systemic NGF, we immunized adult rats with NGF, which causes thermal hypoalgesia in rats with high antibody titers to NGF. DRG neurons cultured from rats with high antibody titers to NGF, which do not bind the isolectin IB4 (IB4(-)) but do express TrkA, were studied with whole cell patch-clamp and in situ hybridization. Mean TTX-R sodium current density was decreased from 504 +/- 77 pA/pF to 307 +/- 61 pA/pF in control versus NGF-deprived neurons, respectively. In comparison, the mean TTX-sensitive sodium current density was not significantly different between control and NGF-deprived neurons. Quantification of SNS mRNA hybridization signal showed a significant decrease in the signal in NGF-deprived neurons compared with the control neurons. The data suggest that NGF has a major role in the maintenance of steady-state levels of TTX-R sodium currents and SNS mRNA in IB4(-) DRG neurons in adult rats in vivo. PMID:10036280

Fjell, J; Cummins, T R; Fried, K; Black, J A; Waxman, S G

1999-02-01

99

Characteristics, Work Attitudes, and Intentions to Work A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF NEWLY LICENSED RNS AND THEIR EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS IS CRUCIAL TO REDUCING TURNOVER RATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In an effort to better understand turnover rates in hospitals and the effect of new nurses on them, this study sought to describe the characteristics and attitudes toward work of newly licensed RNs, a popula- tion important to both the nursing profession and the health care system. Methods: A survey was mailed to a random sample of new RNs

CHRISTINE T. K OVNER; C AROL S. BREWER; S USAN FAIRCHILD; SHAKTHI POORNIMA; H ONGSOO KIM; MAJA DJUKIC

2007-01-01

100

Work Attitudes of Mexican Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with Euro-Americans, Mexican Americans, as a group, are younger, less well-educated, less often represented in higher status occupations, and earn less. Because these characteristics are known to negatively correlate with many work attitudes, it was predicted that Mexican American and Euro-American work attitudes would be different. Data from 21 surveys representative of the United States work force were used

Charles N. Weaver

2000-01-01

101

Down regulation of SPAG9 reduces growth and invasive potential of triple-negative breast cancer cells: possible implications in targeted therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, we reported an association of a novel cancer testis (CT) antigen, sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression in breast cancer clinical samples, indicating its potential role in carcinogenesis. Around 15% breast cancers are designated as triple-negative for which treatment modalities are limited. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the role of SPAG9 in triple-negative breast cancer cells. Methods SPAG9 mRNA and protein expression was investigated in various breast cancer cells of different hormone receptor status and different subtypes by employing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real time PCR, Western blotting, indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Employing plasmid-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach, knockdown of SPAG9 was carried out in triple-negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231, to assess its role on various malignant properties in vitro and in vivo. Results SPAG9 mRNA and protein expression was detected in all breast cancer cells. Further, IIF results showed that SPAG9 was predominantly localized in the cytoplasm of breast cancer cells. FACS analysis revealed distinct SPAG9 surface localization in breast cancer cells. Gene silencing of SPAG9 resulted in significant reduction in cellular proliferation, colony forming ability, migration, invasion and cellular motility of MDA-MB-231 cells. Further, ablation of SPAG9 expression resulted in reduction in the tumor growth of human breast cancer xenograft in nude mice in vivo. Conclusions In summary, our data indicated that down regulation of SPAG9 reduces growth and invasive potential of triple-negative breast cancer cells, suggesting that SPAG9 may be a potential target for therapeutic use.

2013-01-01

102

Changes in attitudes toward seeking mental health services: a 40-year cross-temporal meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Although rates of treatment seeking for mental health problems are increasing, this increase is driven primarily by antidepressant medication use, and a majority of individuals with mental health problems remain untreated. Helpseeking attitudes are thought to be a key barrier to mental health service use, although little is known about whether such attitudes have changed over time. Research on this topic is mixed with respect to whether helpseeking attitudes have become more or less positive. The aim of the current study was to help clarify this issue using a cross-temporal meta-analysis of scores on Fischer and Turner's (1970) helpseeking attitude measure among university students (N=6796) from 1968 to 2008. Results indicated that attitudes have become increasingly negative over time, r(44)=-0.53, p<0.01, with even stronger negative results when the data are weighted (w) for sample size and study variance, r(44)=-0.63, p<.001. This disconcerting finding may reflect the greater emphasis of Fischer and Turner's scale toward helpseeking for psychotherapy. Such attitudes may be increasingly negative as a result of the unintended negative effects of efforts in recent decades to reduce stigma and market biological therapies by medicalizing mental health problems. PMID:24486521

Mackenzie, Corey S; Erickson, Julie; Deane, Frank P; Wright, Michelle

2014-03-01

103

Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat  

PubMed Central

A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4) that in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed.

Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni

2010-01-01

104

Cognitive Predictors of Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol and Cocaine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…

Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

2003-01-01

105

Targeted expression of a dominant-negative EGF-R in the kidney reduces tubulo-interstitial lesions after renal injury  

PubMed Central

The role of EGF in the evolution of renal lesions after injury is still controversial. To determine whether the EGF expression is beneficial or detrimental, we generated transgenic mice expressing a COOH-terminal–truncated EGF-R under the control of the kidney-specific type 1 ?-glutamyl transpeptidase promoter. As expected, the transgene was expressed exclusively at the basolateral membrane of proximal tubular cells. Under basal conditions, transgenic mice showed normal renal morphology and function. Infusion of EGF to transgenic animals revealed that the mutant receptor behaved in a dominant-negative manner and prevented EGF-signaled EGF-R autophosphorylation. We next evaluated the impact of transgene expression on the development of renal lesions in two models of renal injury. After 75% reduction of renal mass, tubular dilations were less severe in transgenic mice than in wild-type animals. After prolonged renal ischemia, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in transgenic mice as compared with wild-type mice. The beneficial effect of the transgene included a reduction of tubular cell proliferation, interstitial collagen accumulation, and mononuclear cell infiltration. In conclusion, functional inactivation of the EGF-R in renal proximal tubular cells reduced tubulo-interstitial lesions after renal injury. These data suggest that blocking the EGF pathway may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce the progression of chronic renal failure.

Terzi, Fabiola; Burtin, Martine; Hekmati, Mehrak; Federici, Pierre; Grimber, Giselle; Briand, Pascale; Friedlander, Gerard

2000-01-01

106

Application of a drainage film reduces fibroblast ingrowth into large-pored polyurethane foam during negative-pressure wound therapy in an in vitro model.  

PubMed

Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an advantageous treatment option in wound management to promote healing and reduce the risk of complications. NPWT is mainly carried out using open-cell polyurethane (PU) foams that stimulate granulation tissue formation. However, growth of wound bed tissue into foam material, leading to disruption of newly formed tissue upon dressing removal, has been observed. Consequently, it would be of clinical interest to preserve the positive effects of open-cell PU foams while avoiding cellular ingrowth. The study presented analyzed effects of NPWT using large-pored PU foam, fine-pored PU foam, and the combination of large-pored foam with drainage film on human dermal fibroblasts grown in a collagen matrix. The results showed no difference between the dressings in stimulating cellular migration during NPWT. However, when NPWT was applied using a large-pored PU foam, the fibroblasts continued to migrate into the dressing. This led to significant breaches in the cell layers upon removal of the samples after vacuum treatment. In contrast, cell migration stopped at the collagen matrix edge when fine-pored PU foam was used, as well as with the combination of PU foam and drainage film. In conclusion, placing a drainage film between collagen matrix and the large-pored PU foam dressing reduced the ingrowth of cells into the foam significantly. Moreover, positive effects on cellular migration were not affected, and the effect of the foam on tissue surface roughness in vitro was also reduced. PMID:23937617

Wiegand, Cornelia; Springer, Steffen; Abel, Martin; Wesarg, Falko; Ruth, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

2013-01-01

107

[Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].  

PubMed

This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem. PMID:23681384

Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

2013-01-01

108

Factors affecting attitudes toward colorectal cancer screening in the primary care population  

PubMed Central

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of death in the United Kingdom. Regular screening could significantly reduce CRC-related morbidity and mortality. However, screening programmes in the United Kingdom have to date seen uptake rates of less than 60%. Attitudes towards screening are the primary factors determining patient uptake. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to people aged 50–69 years who were registered with general practices in the West Midlands. A total of 11?355 people (53%) completed the questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify those factors (gender, age, ethnicity, deprivation, number of symptoms, and their duration) that most strongly contributed to negative/positive attitudes in the primary care population. Results: Fourteen percent of respondents had a negative attitude towards screening. Men, older people, and those with Indian ethnic backgrounds were more likely to have negative attitudes toward screening, whereas people with Black-Caribbean ethnic background, people with multiple symptoms and those reporting abdominal pain, bleeding, and tiredness were more likely to have a positive attitude. Conclusion: Culturally relevant screening strategies should aim to increase knowledge of the symptoms and signs related to bowel cancer among South Asian ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. It is also important to find ways to increase the acceptability of screening among asymptomatic patients.

Taskila, T; Wilson, S; Damery, S; Roalfe, A; Redman, V; Ismail, T; Hobbs, R

2009-01-01

109

Attitudes without objects: evidence for a dispositional attitude, its measurement, and its consequences.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive vs. negative attitudes, a trait termed the dispositional attitude. Across 4 studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual preexisting attitudes; (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits; and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the Big 5 and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. PMID:23586409

Hepler, Justin; Albarracín, Dolores

2013-06-01

110

Attitudes without Objects: Evidence for a Dispositional Attitude, its Measurement, and its Consequences  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive versus negative attitudes, a trait termed the Dispositional Attitude. Across four studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual pre-existing attitudes, (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits, and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the big-five and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction.

Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores

2013-01-01

111

Attitudes toward Invertebrates: Are Educational "Bug Banquets" Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists have used educational presentations and "bug banquets" to alter widespread negative attitudes toward invertebrates. In this article, the authors explore whether such presentations have a measurable affect on attitudes. Junior high, high school, and university students completed an attitude survey focusing on invertebrates in general and…

Looy, Heather; Wood, John R.

2006-01-01

112

Urban middle-school students' attitudes toward a defined science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that urban students and students of color have exceptionally negative attitudes toward school science and their futures in that field as compared with white students and nonurban students. In this paper we summarize research findings on students' attitudes toward science. We note that most of the studies of students' attitudes toward science that have been conducted

Zacharias Zacharia; Angela Calabrese Barton

2004-01-01

113

CORRELATES OF ENTERING MEDICAL STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD GERIATRICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six successive entering classes at a medical school were surveyed concerning their attitudes toward geriatrics. Responding students' general attitudes toward the elderly were not negative. Despite this, only 3% of all students showed interest in specializing in geriatric medicine. Path analysis revealed that preference for treating older patients, prior volunteer work with the elderly, and a positive attitude toward the

Celeste P. M. Wilderom; Jacob A. Tebes; Linda Nichols; Evan Calkins; Arthur G. Cryns; Frank Schimpfhauser

1990-01-01

114

Teacher-Trainees Attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the attitudes of teacher trainees towards physical education (PE). It was hypothesised that teacher-trainees have negative attitudes towards PE. A total of 132 teacher trainees were randomly selected from a teacher Training College in Kenya completed a questionnaire adapted from Wear's attitude scale with equivalent forms.…

Gitonga, E. R.; Andanje, M.; Wanderi, P. M.; Bailasha, N.

2012-01-01

115

Development of a Scale to Measure Attitudes toward Inclusive Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to scale the Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) with Rasch analysis. The ATIES records positive and negative attitudes toward integrating children with various disabilities into regular classes. Rasch analysis resolved the nonlinear relationship between the finite range of recorded ATIES scores and the conceptually infinite range of attitudes. Results showed that the 16-item scale defined

Felicia L. Wilczenski

1995-01-01

116

Expressed Attitudes of Adolescents toward Marriage and Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examined attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While about one third expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage or had engaged in sex. The adolescents…

Martin, Paige D.; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

2003-01-01

117

The use of core needle biopsy as first-line in diagnosis of thyroid nodules reduces false negative and inconclusive data reported by fine-needle aspiration  

PubMed Central

Background The reported reliability of core needle biopsy (CNB) is high in assessing thyroid nodules after inconclusive fine-needle aspiration (FNA) attempts. However, first-line use of CNB for nodules considered at risk by ultrasonography (US) has yet to be studied. The aim of this study were: 1) to evaluate the potential merit of using CNB first-line instead of conventional FNA in thyroid nodules with suspicious ultrasonographic features; 2) to compare CNB and FNA as a first-line diagnostic procedure in thyroid lesions at higher risk of cancer. Methods Seventy-seven patients with a suspicious-appearing, recently discovered solid thyroid nodule were initially enrolled as study participants. No patients had undergone prior thyroid fine-needle aspiration/biopsy. Based on study design, all patients were proposed to undergo CNB as first-line diagnostic aspiration, while those patients refusing to do so underwent conventional FNA. Results Five patients refused the study, and a total of 31 and 41 thyroid nodules were subjected to CNB and FNA, respectively. At follow-up, the overall rate of malignancy was of 80% (CNB, 77%; FNA, 83%). However, the diagnostic accuracy of CNB (97%) was significantly (P?negative (N?=?1), indeterminate (N?=?2) or not adequate (N?=?1) samples. Conclusions CNB can reduce the false negative and inconclusive results of conventional FNA and should be considered a first-line method in assessing solid thyroid nodules at high risk of malignancy.

2014-01-01

118

Reducing stigma toward seeking mental health treatment among adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce explicit and implicit stigma-relevant attitudes toward mental illness and treatment-seeking and behavioural indicators of willingness to seek treatment. Methods Adolescents were randomly assigned to the experimental (education about mental illness and treatment involving psychoeducation and contact (via DVD) with an affected individual) or control intervention (education about tobacco). Results Findings suggest the stigma intervention was effective at reducing explicit but not implicit stigma-relevant attitudes. As hypothesized, participants receiving the experimental intervention reported less explicit stigma toward treatment and greater openness to personally seek treatment if they had also reported prior mental health treatment. Conclusions and Implications These findings support the potential for a brief educational intervention among adolescents to reduce negative attitudes toward mental health treatment, but raise questions about how to effectively address implicit stigma as well as the importance of translating stigma reduction into behavior changes.

Saporito, J. M.; Ryan, C.; Teachman, B. A.

2012-01-01

119

Motion models in attitude estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attitude estimator use observations from different times to reduce the effects of noise. If the vehicle is rotating, the attitude at one time needs to be propagated to that at another time. If the vehicle measures its angular velocity, attitude propagating entails integrating a rotational kinematics equation only. If a measured angular velocity is not available, torques can be computed and an additional rotational dynamics equation integrated to give the angular velocity. Initial conditions for either of these integrations come from the estimation process. Sometimes additional quantities, such as gyro and torque parameters, are also solved for. Although the partial derivatives of attitude with respect to initial attitude and gyro parameters are well known, the corresponding partial derivatives with respect to initial angular velocity and torque parameters are less familiar. They can be derived and computed numerically in a way that is analogous to that used for the initial attitude and gyro parameters. Previous papers have demonstrated the feasibility of using dynamics models for attitude estimation but have not provided details of how each angular velocity and torque parameters can be estimated. This tutorial paper provides some of that detail, notably how to compute the state transition matrix when closed form expressions are not available. It also attempts to put dynamics estimation in perspective by showing the progression from constant to gyro-propagated to dynamics-propagated attitude motion models. Readers not already familiar with attitude estimation will find this paper an introduction to the subject, and attitude specialists may appreciate the collection of heretofore scattered results brought together in a single place.

Chu, D.; Wheeler, Z.; Sedlak, J.

1994-01-01

120

Aortic distensibility is reduced during intense lower body negative pressure and is related to low frequency power of systolic blood pressure.  

PubMed

As sympathetic activity approximately doubles during intense lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of -60 mmHg or greater, we examined the relationship between surrogate markers of sympathetic activation and central arterial distensibility during severe LBNP. Eight participants were exposed to progressive 8-min stages of LBNP of increasing intensity (-20, -40, -60, and -80 mmHg), while recording carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV), stroke volume (SV), heart rate, and beat-by-beat blood pressure. The spectral power of low frequency oscillations in SBP (SBP(LF)) was used as a surrogate indicator of sympathetically modulated vasomotor modulation. Total arterial compliance (C) was calculated as C = SV/pulse pressure. Both cPWV and C were compared between baseline, 50 % of the maximally tolerated LBNP stage (LBNP(50)), and the maximum fully tolerated stage of LBNP (LBNP(max)). No change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) occurred over LBNP. An increase in cPWV (6.5 ± 2.2; 7.2 ± 1.4; 9.0 ± 2.5 m/s; P = 0.004) occurred during LBNP(max). Over progressive LBNP, SBP(LF) increased (8.5 ± 4.6; 9.3 ± 5.8; 16.1 ± 12.9 mmHg(2); P = 0.04) and C decreased significantly (18.3 ± 6.8; 14.3 ± 4.1; 11.6 ± 4.8 ml/mmHg × 10; P = 0.03). The mean correlation (r) between cPWV and SBP(LF) was 0.9 ± 0.03 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99). Severe LBNP increased central stiffness and reduced total arterial compliance. It appears that increased sympathetic vasomotor tone during LBNP is associated with reduced aortic distensibility in the absence of changes in MAP. PMID:22971725

Phillips, Aaron A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Cote, Anita T; Drury, C Taylor; Warburton, Darren E R

2013-03-01

121

Further experience with the Body Attitude Test.  

PubMed

The Body Attitude Test (BAT) questionnaire was specifically developed for the assessment of patients with eating disorders. To test its usefulness, the BAT was administered together with other self-report measures (Body Shape Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory, Body Attitude Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) in 69 anorectic, 26 bulimic patients and 165 female university students. The results indicate that the negative body attitude expressed on the BAT is related to other signs of negative body experience. The BAT differentiates between clinical and non-clinical subjects and between anorectics and bulimics. PMID:14655849

Probst, M; Van Coppenolle, H; Vandereycken, W

1997-06-01

122

Noise screen for attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude control system comprising a controller and a noise screen device coupled to the controller. The controller is adapted to control an attitude of a vehicle carrying an actuator system that is adapted to pulse in metered bursts in order to generate a control torque to control the attitude of the vehicle in response to a control pulse. The noise screen device is adapted to generate a noise screen signal in response to the control pulse that is generated when an input attitude error signal exceeds a predetermined deadband attitude level. The noise screen signal comprises a decaying offset signal that when combined with the attitude error input signal results in a net attitude error input signal away from the predetermined deadband level to reduce further control pulse generation.

Rodden, John J. (Inventor); Stevens, Homer D. (Inventor); Hong, David P. (Inventor); Hirschberg, Philip C. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

123

The Duration of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Can Be Reduced Using the HeartShield Device in Patients With Deep Sternal Wound Infection  

PubMed Central

Background: Heart rupture resulting in lethal bleeding is a devastating complication associated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with deep sternal wound infection (DSWI). We have previously reported that the use of a protective HeartShield device in combination with NPWT decreases the risk of damage to the heart. This article presents a retrospective analysis of NPWT duration with and without the HeartShield device. Subjects and patients: The study included 6 patients treated with the HeartShield device in combination with NPWT and 6 patients treated with conventional NPWT during the same time period. The duration of active treatment time was measured. Results: The median duration of NPWT was 8 days (range: 6-14 days) in the HeartShield device NPWT group and 14 days in the conventional group (range: 10-18 days). The difference was statistically significant (P < .05). Conclusions: It appears that the treatment of patients with DSWI with the HeartShield device reduces the duration of NPWT.

Ingemansson, Richard; Malmsjo, Malin; Lindstedt, Sandra

2014-01-01

124

The Duration of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Can Be Reduced Using the HeartShield Device in Patients With Deep Sternal Wound Infection.  

PubMed

Background: Heart rupture resulting in lethal bleeding is a devastating complication associated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with deep sternal wound infection (DSWI). We have previously reported that the use of a protective HeartShield device in combination with NPWT decreases the risk of damage to the heart. This article presents a retrospective analysis of NPWT duration with and without the HeartShield device. Subjects and patients: The study included 6 patients treated with the HeartShield device in combination with NPWT and 6 patients treated with conventional NPWT during the same time period. The duration of active treatment time was measured. Results: The median duration of NPWT was 8 days (range: 6-14 days) in the HeartShield device NPWT group and 14 days in the conventional group (range: 10-18 days). The difference was statistically significant (P < .05). Conclusions: It appears that the treatment of patients with DSWI with the HeartShield device reduces the duration of NPWT. PMID:24741387

Ingemansson, Richard; Malmsjö, Malin; Lindstedt, Sandra

2014-01-01

125

Relationship between HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude among student nurses: a structural equation model.  

PubMed

With the rising incidence of HIV/AIDS in China, nurses will increasingly be caring for patients with HIV/AIDS. Thus, it is necessary that they have enough knowledge to reduce the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection and that they change their attitude to care for HIV/AIDS patients. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between student nurses' HIV/AIDS knowledge and their attitude using a structural equation model (SEM). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in January 2008 among 528 student nurses at the technical secondary school of the China Medical University. An SEM is proposed to determine the direction and magnitude of the interdependent effects between the latent factors. The SEM was built using LISREL version 8.5. The measurement properties of the latent factors underlying the questionnaire were based on a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Our results as following, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude may be measured by seven underlying constructs, namely, preventive knowledge, knowledge of transmission routes, specialty knowledge, knowledge of nontransmission routes, positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS, negative attitude toward HIV/AIDS, and occupational attitude. The SEM fits the data well. The interdependent relationships between these constructs identified the factors of preventive knowledge, specialty knowledge, and attitude toward HIV/AIDS as having both direct and indirect effects on occupational attitude. In conclusions, our results represent an initial effort to assess the relationship between student nurses' HIV/AIDS knowledge and their attitude toward the disease. CFA and SEM analysis have demonstrated their usefulness in evaluating multifactor complex constructs. PMID:20113151

Qu, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Haiqiang; Sun, Gao

2010-01-01

126

Physicians' attitudes about obesity and their associations with competency and specialty: A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physicians frequently report negative attitudes about obesity which is thought to affect patient care. However, little is known about how attitudes toward treating obese patients are formed. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians in order to better characterize their attitudes and explore the relationships among attitudes, perceived competency in obesity care, including report of weight loss in patients,

Melanie Jay; Adina Kalet; Tavinder Ark; Michelle McMacken; Mary Jo Messito; Regina Richter; Sheira Schlair; Scott Sherman; Sondra Zabar; Colleen Gillespie

2009-01-01

127

Sex differences in attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: A multidimensional perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We addressed four components of attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: condemnation\\/tolerance, morality, contact, and stereotypes. We hypothesized that attitudes would vary by component and by the sex of the person being rated. Results indicated that men (n = 137) held more negative attitudes toward homosexuals than did women (n = 133) on all factors except stereotypes, and that attitudes

Lisa LaMar; Mary Kite

1998-01-01

128

A Multiple Measure Approach to the Relationship Between Work and Retirement Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research on work and retirement attitudes is discrepant; some studies report a positive relationship between work attitudes and retirement attitudes, while other investigations find a negative or no relationship. Anticipated work changes and work and retirement attitudes were examined to determine patterns of withdrawal from occupational roles…

Grubbs, Michael Gene; Powers, Edward A.

129

Malignant Memories: Effect of a Shooting in the Workplace on School Personnel's Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Post-disaster surveys of elementary school personnel examined the effects of a shooting incident on attitudes toward self, family, workplace, community, and social issues. Specific attitudes were associated with specific preexisting personality and familial variables. Results revealed more positive than negative attitudes. Positive self attitudes

Schwarz, Eitan D.; Kowalski, Janice M.

1993-01-01

130

Negative-pressure wound therapy for deep sternal wound infections reduces the rate of surgical interventions for early re-infections†  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To evaluate the outcome of treatment for deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) in a nationwide patient cohort, before and after the introduction of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT). METHODS This was a population-based cohort of all patients treated for DSWI in Iceland out of 2446 open heart operations performed between 2000 and 2010. Length of hospital stay, survival and reoperations were compared in (i) 23 patients treated with open and/or closed irrigation before August 2005 (conventional treatment, CvT group) and in (ii) 20 patients treated after this time with NPWT as a first-line therapy (NPWT group). RESULTS The DSWI rate was 1.8% and did not change during the study period. Demographics were similar for both groups, except for peripheral arterial disease which was less common in the NPWT group. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were also more common (as the only pathogen identified) in the NPWT group (70% vs 30%, P = 0.01). The median length of hospital stay was 43 days in both groups and the sternum could be closed with delayed primary closure in all except 2 patients, one in each group. Eight patients in the CvT group required surgical revision for re-infections, including debridement and rewiring, when compared with 1 patient in the NPWT group (P = 0.02). Furthermore, 6 patients in the CvT group developed late chronic infections of the sternum requiring surgical revision, compared with one in the NPWT group (P = 0.10). The 30-day mortality was not significantly different between groups (4% vs 0%, P > 0.1) and the same was true for 1-year mortality (17% vs 0%, P = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS NPWT significantly reduces the risk of early re-infections in patients with DSWI. There was a lower rate of late chronic sternal infections and lower mortality in the NPWT group, but the difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that NPWT should be considered as a first-line treatment for most DSWIs.

Steingrimsson, Steinn; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Gudmundsdottir, Ingibjorg; Sjogren, Johan; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

2012-01-01

131

Potentiated clinoptilolite: artificially enhanced aluminosilicate reduces symptoms associated with endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastritis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The cation exchanger, a potentiated clinoptilolite (Absorbatox™ 2.4D), is a synthetically enhanced aluminosilicate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible benefits of a potentiated clinoptilolite as a gastroprotective agent in reducing the severity of clinical symptoms and signs associated with 1) endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease (ENGORD) and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) medication. Methods and patients Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot studies, the ENGORD and NSAID studies, were conducted. After initial negative gastroscopy, a total of 25 patients suffering from ENGORD were randomized to receive either placebo capsules or 750 mg Absorbatox twice daily for 14 days. The NSAID study recruited 23 healthy patients who received orally either 1,500 mg Absorbatox or placebo three times daily, plus 500 mg naproxen twice daily. Patients underwent gastroscopic evaluation of their stomach linings prior to and on day 14 of the study. Gastric biopsies were obtained and evaluated via the upgraded Sydney system, whereas visible gastric events and status of the gastric mucosa were evaluated via a 0–3 rating scale. During both studies, patients recorded gastric symptoms in a daily symptom diary. Results In the ENGORD study, patients who received the potentiated clinoptilolite reported a significant reduction (P?0.05) in severity of symptoms including reduction in heartburn (44%), discomfort (54%), and pain (56%). Symptom-free days improved by 41% compared to the group who received placebo (not significant). This was over and above the benefits seen with the proton pump inhibitor. In the NSAID study, the reduction in gastric symptom severity was echoed in the group who received the potentiated clinoptilolite. Treatment with the potentiated clinoptilolite resulted in significant prevention (P?0.05) of mucosal erosion severity as graded by the gastroenterologist. Conclusion Absorbatox is a nonabsorbable aluminosilicate with potential gastroprotective benefits as it protected against ENGORD symptoms and NSAID-induced gastric events. The exact mechanism of action is not clear but may be due to its binding to hydrogen ions and biologically active amines and nitrates.

Potgieter, Wilna; Samuels, Caroline Selma; Snyman, Jacques Rene

2014-01-01

132

Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

Chang, Chingching

2012-01-01

133

Development and Assessment of Traditional and Innovative Media to Reduce Individual HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Attitudes and Beliefs in India.  

PubMed

Although stigma is considered a major barrier to effective response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, there is a lack of evidence on effective interventions. This media intervention took place among key HIV-vulnerable communities in Southern India. Two HIV stigma videos were created using techniques from traditional film production and new media digital storytelling. A series of 16 focus group discussions were held in 4 rural and 4 urban sites in South India, with specific groups for sex workers, men who have sex with men, young married women, and others. Focus groups with viewers of the traditional film (8 focus groups, 80 participants) and viewers of the new media production (8 focus groups, 69 participants) revealed the mechanisms through which storyline, characters, and esthetics influence viewers' attitudes and beliefs about stigma. A comparative pre-/post-survey showed that audiences of both videos significantly improved their stigma scores. We found that a simple illustrated video, produced on a limited budget by amateurs, and a feature film, produced with an ample budget by professionals, elicited similar responses from audiences and similar positive short-term outcomes on stigma. PMID:24350190

Catalani, Caricia; Castaneda, Diego; Spielberg, Freya

2013-01-01

134

Overcoming Graduate Students' Negative Perceptions of Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there has been some attention in the literature to such issues as students' attitudes toward statistics, instructors are still constantly faced with the challenge to engage students; understand their perceptions, motivations, and interests; and deal with their reluctance and negative attitudes toward the field of statistics. The purpose…

Lalayants, Marina

2012-01-01

135

Oral Health Status: Impact on Dental Student Attitudes toward the Aged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have repeatedly found negative attitudes toward the aged among health professionals. Evaluates the impact of oral health status upon dental student attitudes toward the aged. Suggests that attitudes of students may become initially more negative due to exposure to generally poor oral conditions of elderly patients. (Author)

Beck, James D.; And Others

1979-01-01

136

Effects of Valence and Extremity of eWOM on Attitude toward the Brand and Website  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to examine the influence of valence and extremity of consumer product reviews on attitude toward the brand and attitude toward the website. Each experiment was a one factor (valence\\/extremity: extremely negative, moderately negative, extremely positive) between-subjects design with a control group. Results in both studies showed that although extremely positive reviews increased attitude toward the brand,

Mira Lee; Shelly Rodgers; Mikyoung Kim

2009-01-01

137

Attitudes towards people with mental illness: a cross-sectional study among nursing staff in psychiatric and somatic care.  

PubMed

Stigma and discrimination have been identified as important obstacles to the integration of people with mental illness in society. In efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination, health professionals play an important role as they have frequent contact with and responsibility for treatment and rehabilitation of consumers. The aim of the present study was to investigate attitudes towards mental illness and people with mental illness among nursing staff working in psychiatric or somatic care. The sample consisted of 120 registered or assistant nurses who were interviewed about intimacy with mental illness and attitudes about seven different mental illnesses. The results showed that nursing staff in somatic care, to a higher degree than nursing staff in mental health, reported more negative attitudes with regard to people with schizophrenia as being more dangerous and unpredictable. In contrast, professional experience, intimacy with mental illness and type of care organization were found to be more associated with attitudes to specific mental illnesses concerning the prospect of improvement with treatment and the prospect of recovery. In conclusion, attitudes among nursing staff are in several respects comparable with public opinions about mental illness and mentally ill persons. In order to elucidate if negative attitudes about dangerousness and unpredictability of persons with specific mental illnesses are associated with realistic experiences or with prejudices further studies with a qualitative design are suggested. PMID:18489686

Björkman, Tommy; Angelman, Therese; Jönsson, Malin

2008-06-01

138

Potential Impact of Adding Genetic Markers to Clinical Parameters in Predicting Prostate Biopsy Outcomes in Men Following an Initial Negative Biopsy: Findings from the REDUCE Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Several germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been consistently associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Objective To determine whether there is an improvement in PCa risk prediction by adding these SNPs to existing predictors of PCa. Design, setting, and participants Subjects included men in the placebo arm of the randomized Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial in whom germline DNA was available. All men had an initial negative prostate biopsy and underwent study-mandated biopsies at 2 yr and 4 yr. Predictive performance of baseline clinical parameters and/or a genetic score based on 33 established PCa risk-associated SNPs was evaluated. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were used to compare different models with different predictors. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) and decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to assess changes in risk prediction by adding genetic markers. Results and limitations Among 1654 men, genetic score was a significant predictor of positive biopsy, even after adjusting for known clinical variables and family history (p = 3.41 × 10?8). The AUC for the genetic score exceeded that of any other PCa predictor at 0.59. Adding the genetic score to the best clinical model improved the AUC from 0.62 to 0.66 (p < 0.001), reclassified PCa risk in 33% of men (NRI: 0.10; p = 0.002), resulted in higher net benefit from DCA, and decreased the number of biopsies needed to detect the same number of PCa instances. The benefit of adding the genetic score was greatest among men at intermediate risk (25th percentile to 75th percentile). Similar results were found for high-grade (Gleason score ?7) PCa. A major limitation of this study was its focus on white patients only. Conclusions Adding genetic markers to current clinical parameters may improve PCa risk prediction. The improvement is modest but may be helpful for better determining the need for repeat prostate biopsy. The clinical impact of these results requires further study.

Kader, A. Karim; Sun, Jielin; Reck, Brian H.; Newcombe, Paul J.; Kim, Seong-Tae; Hsu, Fang-Chi; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Tao, Sha; Zhang, Zheng; Turner, Aubrey R.; Platek, Greg T.; Spraggs, Colin F.; Whittaker, John C.; Lane, Brian R.; Isaacs, William B.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Torti, Frank M.; Trent, Jeffery M.; McConnell, John D.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Condreay, Lynn D.; Rittmaster, Roger S.; Xu, Jianfeng

2012-01-01

139

The Reactive Effect on Pretesting in Attitude Change Research: General or Specific?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of taking an attitude pretest on the attitude scores for a posttest were studied. A comparison was also made of the effects of negatively worded pretest questions. Small but statistically significant differences were found. (CTM)

Hoogstraten, Joh.

1980-01-01

140

Attitudes toward euthanasia among Swedish medical students.  

PubMed

Attitudes toward euthanasia differ between individuals and populations, and in many studies the medical profession is more reluctant than the general public. Our goal was to explore medical students' attitude toward euthanasia. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions was answered anonymously by 165 first- and fifth-year medical students. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The students' arguments opposing euthanasia were based on opinions of 1. euthanasia being morally wrong, 2. fear of possible negative effects on society, 3. euthanasia causing strain on physicians and 4. doubts about the true meaning of requests of euthanasia from patients. Arguments supporting euthanasia were based on 1. patients' autonomy and 2. the relief of suffering, which could be caused by severe illnesses, reduced integrity, hopelessness, social factors and old age. There are several contradictions in the students' arguments and the results indicate a possible need for education focusing on the possibility of symptom control in palliative care and patients' perceived quality of life. PMID:17942500

Karlsson, Marit; Strang, Peter; Milberg, Anna

2007-10-01

141

Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. Conclusion EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels.

Hogan, Teresita M.; Chan, Shu B.; Hansoti, Bhakti

2014-01-01

142

Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.  

PubMed

Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the elimination answering methods in MCQ tests via rewarding partial and full knowledge. PMID:23437081

Bond, A Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O F; Jones, D Hugh; Restall, Colin J; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

2013-01-01

143

Negatively-Marked MCQ Assessments That Reward Partial Knowledge Do Not Introduce Gender Bias Yet Increase Student Performance and Satisfaction and Reduce Anxiety  

PubMed Central

Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The ‘Single Answer’ (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the elimination answering methods in MCQ tests via rewarding partial and full knowledge.

Bond, A. Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O. F.; Jones, D. Hugh; Restall, Colin J.; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

2013-01-01

144

Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is an account of how negative numbers became part of the "vocabulary" of mathematicians and of some of the earliest appearances of negative numbers in calculations of the ancient civilizations of China, India and Greece. Although negative numbers were used in calculations, negative answers to mathematical problems were considered meaningless or impossible. The troubled history of negative numbers presented in this article shows how the simple mathematical principles taken for granted today have taken thousands of years to develop.

Howard, Jill

2009-05-01

145

Reducing Teacher Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a case study of inservice training conducted to enhance the teacher/student relationship and reduce teacher anxiety. Found significant improvements in attitudes, classroom management activities, and lower anxiety among teachers. (MD)

Docking, R. A.; Docking, E.

1984-01-01

146

Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Science "and" Religion among Sixth-Form Pupils: Dealing with Scientism and Creationism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth-form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude

Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.

2010-01-01

147

Attitudes Toward Computer Technology Between Nursing and Medical Educators  

PubMed Central

The results of this descriptive study indicated no significant difference between nursing and medical educators' attitudes toward computer technology. Demographic variables and usages of computer technology in educational and clinical practice environments were not significant. Previous experience with computer technology was significant but negatively correlated; whereas, education regarding computer technology was not. Word processing and record keeping in the education environment, however, were negatively correlated with attitudes. In the clinical environment, diagnosing was positively correlated, but patient assessment and network systems were negatively correlated with attitudes.

Harsanyi, Bennie E.; Kelsey, Clyde E.

1989-01-01

148

A FLUCTUATING SALINITY REGIME MITIGATES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON THE ESTUARINE MACROALGA, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK. (R827637)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis...

149

A FLUCTUATING SALINITY REGIME MITIGATES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON THE ESTUARINE MACROALGA, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK. (R825381)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis...

150

Palliative Care in the Inner City: Patient Religious Affiliation, Underinsurance, and Symptom Attitude  

PubMed Central

Many barriers, including being uninsured or having less than comprehensive health insurance coverage, reduce access to palliative and end-of-life care by inner city minorities. Medicaid or Medicare coverage alone can limit options for pain and symptom management, especially when late referrals make it more difficult to achieve symptom control. Patient affiliation with a religion could offset perceived difficulties with pain medication as well as negative pain and symptom attitudes. Data were analyzed from the most recent assessments of 146 African Americans and Latinos enrolled in an outpatient palliative care unit of an inner city hospital. Fifty-seven percent were receiving palliative care for cancer. Compared with other patients, patients with a religious affiliation did not differ regarding pain medication stress. Uninsured patients with a religious affiliation reported more hopeful pain and symptom attitudes, while patients with a religious affiliation covered only by Medicaid reported less hopeful pain and symptom attitudes. More hopeful pain and symptom attitudes by religious-affiliated, uninsured patients may reveal adequate coping, yet also conceal problem domains. Conversely, less hopeful attitudes by religious-affiliated patients covered only by Medicaid serve as clues to coping difficulties and problem domains. Palliative care programs should carefully consider how to integrate religious support networks as pipelines for program referrals and potential partners for care.

Francoeur, Richard B.; Payne, Richard; Raveis, Victoria H.; Shim, Hyunjung

2007-01-01

151

Negative Leadership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Senior leaders must have the moral courage to modify the behavior or eliminate negative leadership in the Army. If action is not taken immediately, negative leaders and their toxic leadership style will be taught to their subordinates, the future leaders ...

D. M. Oberlander

2013-01-01

152

Medical Students' Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies from the USA have identified medical students as a major source of stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals. As data from Europe is scarce, medical students’ attitudes were investigated at the University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany. Design Cross-sectional survey containing an experimental manipulation consisting of a pair of vignettes depicting an obese and a normal weight 42-year-old woman, respectively. Vignettes were followed by the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), a semantic differential assessing weight related attitudes. In case of the overweight vignette a panel of questions on causal attribution for the overweight preceded administration of the FPS. Subjects 671 medical students were enrolled at the University of Leipzig from May to June 2011. Results The overweight vignette was rated significantly more negative than the normal weight vignette (mean FPS score 3.65±0.45 versus 2.54±0.38, p<0.001). A higher proportion of students had negative attitudes towards the overweight as compared to the normal weight individual (98.9% versus 53.7%, p<0.001). A “positive energy balance” was perceived as the most relevant cause for the overweight, followed by “negligent personality trait”, “societal and social environment” and “biomedical causes”. Attributing a “positive energy balance” or “negligent personality trait” as relevant cause for the overweight was positively associated with negative attitudes. Conclusion The results of this study confirm and complement findings from other countries, mainly the USA, and indicate that weight bias in the health care setting may be a global issue. Stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obesity are prevalent among a sample of medical students at the University of Leipzig. Negative attitudes arise on the basis of holding the individual accountable for the excess weight. They call for bringing the topic of overweight and obesity more into the focus of the medical curriculum and for enhancing medical students’ awareness of the complex aetiology of this health condition.

Pantenburg, Birte; Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Schomerus, Georg; Konig, Hans-Helmut; Werner, Perla; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

2012-01-01

153

How Do Attitudes toward Mental Health Treatment Vary by Age, Gender, and Ethnicity/Race in Young Adults?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment in a national epidemiological sample. Young adults reported the most negative attitudes, as compared to older adults. Males reported more negative attitudes, as compared to females, a consistent finding in young adults. The gender difference was not consistent in Latinos…

Gonzalez, Jodi M.; Alegria, Margarita; Prihoda, Thomas J.

2005-01-01

154

Examining Teachers' Attitudes toward a Required Environmental Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Requiring teachers to partake in environmental education (EE) may generate negative reactions since elementary teachers can be overloaded with meeting standards and student performance goals. This study explores teachers' attitudes toward a required EE program, Lagoon Quest. We compare attitudes among teachers with and without prior Lagoon Quest,…

Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.

2010-01-01

155

The Effects of Priming on Children's Attitudes toward Older Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present research was to examine younger (7-years-old) and older (10-years-old) children's attitudes toward older individuals following one type of five primes: positive prime, negative prime, elderly prime, grandparent prime, or neutral prime. Overall, children's attitudes on three tests--Apperception, Semantic Differential, and…

Hoe, Sony; Davidson, Denise

2002-01-01

156

Regular and Special Education Teachers Marking Attitudes and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Marking Attitude Scale was administered to regular and special education teachers. Results indicated that regular educators believed that marks have a positive influence on students while special educators believed marks exerted neither positive nor negative influence. Assigned marks, attitude scores, and teaching experience were not…

Crowl, Thomas K.; Berkowitz, Mina

1985-01-01

157

The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude

Friedkin, Noah E.

2010-01-01

158

SMAD3 rs17228212 Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Reduced Risk to Cerebrovascular Accidents and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Anti-CCP Negative Spanish Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex polygenic inflammatory disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Previous genome-wide association studies have described SMAD3 rs17228212 polymorphism as an important signal associated with CV events. The aim of the present study was to evaluate for the first time the relationship between this gene polymorphism and the susceptibility to CV manifestations and its potential association with the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by the evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in patients with RA. Methods One thousand eight hundred and ninety-seven patients fulfilling classification criteria for RA were genotyped for SMAD3 rs17228212 gene polymorphism through TaqMan genotyping assay. Also, subclinical atherosclerosis determined by the assessment of cIMT was analyzed in a subgroup of these patients by carotid ultrasonography. Results No statistically significant differences were observed when allele frequencies of RA patients with or without CV events were compared. Nevertheless, when RA patients were stratified according to anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) status, we found that in RA patients who were negative for anti-CCP antibodies, the presence of C allele of SMAD3 rs17228212 polymorphism conferred a protective effect against the risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) after adjustment for demographic and classic CV risk factors (HR [95%CI]=0.36 [0.14–0.94], p=0.038) in a Cox regression model. Additionally, correlation between the presence of C allele of SMAD3 rs17228212 polymorphism and lower values of cIMT was found after adjustment for demographic and classic CV risk factors (p-value=0.0094) in the anti-CCP negative RA patients. Conclusions Our results revealed that SMAD3 rs17228212 gene variant is associated with lower risk of CVA and less severe subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients negative for anti-CCP antibodies. These findings may have importance to establish predictive models of CV disease in RA patients according to anti-CCP status.

Genre, Fernanda; Castaneda, Santos; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca, Javier; Corrales, Alfonso; Miranda-Filloy, Jose A.; Rueda-Gotor, Javier; Gomez-Vaquero, Carmen; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Benjamin; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora; Balsa, Alejandro; Lopez-Longo, Francisco J.; Carreira, Patricia; Blanco, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Alvaro, Isidoro; Martin, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

159

Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

Alwitt, Linda F.

160

From Stigma To Discriminatio n: An Analysis of Community Efforts To Reduce the Negative Consequences of Having a Psychiatric Disorder and Label  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrimination related to psychiatric disorders and people diagnosed with them is receiving increased interest and attention from researchers, policy makers, and the general public There are diverse views about how best to alter and reduce what all parties agree are personally painful, socially wasteful, and morally inex- cusable practices that surround people with psychi- atric disorders. We report the results

Sue E. Estroff; David L. Perm; Julie R. Toporek

2010-01-01

161

Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales  

PubMed Central

The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term “euthanasia” influences people’s support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman’s Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term “euthanasia”, the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it.

Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

2011-01-01

162

Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales.  

PubMed

The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term "euthanasia" influences people's support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman's Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term "euthanasia", the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it. PMID:23908751

Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

2011-01-01

163

The accuracy of dynamic attitude propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propagating attitude by integrating Euler's equation for rigid body motion has long been suggested for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) but until now has not been implemented. Because of limited Sun visibility, propagation is necessary for yaw determination. With the deterioration of the gyros, dynamic propagation has become more attractive. Angular rates are derived from integrating Euler's equation with a stepsize of 1 second, using torques computed from telemetered control system data. The environmental torque model was quite basic. It included gravity gradient and unshadowed aerodynamic torques. Knowledge of control torques is critical to the accuracy of dynamic modeling. Due to their coarseness and sparsity, control actuator telemetry were smoothed before integration. The dynamic model was incorporated into existing ERBS attitude determination software. Modeled rates were then used for attitude propagation in the standard ERBS fine-attitude algorithm. In spite of the simplicity of the approach, the dynamically propagated attitude matched the attitude propagated with good gyros well for roll and yaw but diverged up to 3 degrees for pitch because of the very low resolution in pitch momentum wheel telemetry. When control anomalies significantly perturb the nominal attitude, the effect of telemetry granularity is reduced and the dynamically propagated attitudes are accurate on all three axes.

Harvie, E.; Chu, D.; Woodard, M.

1990-01-01

164

Transmission of social attitudes.  

PubMed Central

Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance.

Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

1986-01-01

165

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that h...

F. L. Markley J. L. Crassidis Y. Cheng

2005-01-01

166

Evangelical Christian College Students and Attitudes toward Gay Rights: A California University Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research demonstrates that Evangelical Christians generally hold more negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and are less supportive of gay rights than the general U.S. population. To assess these attitudes, undergraduate students at an Evangelical Christian university in California (N = 319) completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay…

Wolff, Joshua R.; Himes, Heather L.; Kwon, Ellen Miller; Bollinger, Richard A.

2012-01-01

167

Euthanasia: A National Survey of Attitudes toward Voluntary Termination of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study on the attitudes of adults related to the voluntary termination of life showed that those persons with favorable attitudes toward suicide were also favorable toward euthanasia. Religiosity was negatively associated with pro-euthanasia attitudes. Whites and males were more favorable toward euthanasia than Blacks and females. (Author)

Jorgenson, David E.; Neubecker, Ron C.

1980-01-01

168

Predicting Educational Outcomes and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents Using Time Attitude Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

2014-01-01

169

Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Attitudes Toward Sexist\\/Nonsexist Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite documented, negative effects of sexist language, some people still strongly oppose inclusive language. Their attitudes need study, but existing measures of attitude lack comprehensiveness or validity. This paper reports construction and validation of the 42-item Inventory of Attitudes Toward Sexist\\/Nonsexist Language (IASNL), which is based on a conceptual framework related to beliefs about language, recognition of sexist language, and

Janet B. Parks; Mary Ann Roberton

2000-01-01

170

Mainstream Children's Attitudes towards Integration with the Disabled in Zimbabwe's Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire of 500 pupils (ages 16-17)in Zimbabwe investigated their attitudes toward being integrated with students with disabilities. Results showed the students had more positive attitudes towards integration of students with disabilities than negative ones. No significant differences were found in attitudes of female and male students.…

Zindi, Fred

1996-01-01

171

Is Contact with People with Disabilities a Guarantee for Positive Implicit and Explicit Attitudes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 50 years research on attitudes toward people with disabilities has repeatedly revealed negative attitudes by predominantly using self-report measures. The main aim of the present contribution was to develop an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess implicit attitudes toward people with disabilities. For this purpose 47 university…

Hein, Sascha; Grumm, Mandy; Fingerle, Michael

2011-01-01

172

Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes

Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

2009-01-01

173

Attitudes of Human-Resource Management Students toward Persons with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined attitudes of human-resource management students (n=143) from three major Mississippi universities toward persons with disabilities using Form O of the Attitudes toward Disabled Persons Scale. Found that African-American human-resource management students manifested more negative attitudes toward persons with disabilities than did white…

Satcher, Jamie; Dooley-Dickey, Katherine

1992-01-01

174

Perceived Cultural Attitudes Toward Homosexuality and Their Effects on Iranian and American Sexual Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between three mental health constructs and perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Specifically, differences in perceived cultural attitudes and depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress between 49 Iranians and 47 Americans were compared. It was hypothesized that (a) perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality would be more negative among Iranians than Americans;

Sholeh I. Mireshghi; David Matsumoto

2008-01-01

175

Discourse Analysis of Navy Leaders' Attitudes About Mental Health Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mental disorders are a significant source of medical and occupational morbidity for sailors. The literature suggests that stigma, fear of negative career impact, and subordinates' concern about leaders' attitudes are significant barriers to the use of men...

R. J. Westphal

2004-01-01

176

How children with facial differences are perceived by non-affected children and adolescents: perceiver effects on stereotypical attitudes.  

PubMed

Children with a facial difference are presumed to be at risk of social stigmatization. The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to assess the effect of facial differences on social perceptions by unaffected children and adolescents; and (2) to identify perceiver characteristics that predict stereotypical attitudes toward facial differences. Participants were 344 non-affected children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years. Participants rated digitally altered images of 12 children depicted either with or without a facial difference. Results show that participants attributed less favorable characteristics to children with a facial difference than to those without. Moreover, participants reported less willingness to interact with or befriend a child with a facial difference. Significant predictors of low discriminative attitudes were older participant age and previous contact with someone with a facial difference. Our data call attention to the need for public education programs targeted at reducing negative attitudes toward facial differences. PMID:23810827

Masnari, Ornella; Schiestl, Clemens; Weibel, Lisa; Wuttke, Franziska; Landolt, Markus A

2013-09-01

177

Distinct roles of age and abdominal visceral fat in reducing androgen receptor-dependent negative feedback on LH secretion in healthy men.  

PubMed

Testosterone (T) impacts luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion through negative feedback via the androgen receptor (AR) in the hypothalamo-pituitary system. An untested postulate is that increasing body mass index (BMI), abdominal visceral fat (AVF) or total abdominal fat (TAF) with ageing decreases LH secretion by heightening T negative feedback via AR. This hypothesis was tested in a prospective, randomized double-blind cross-over study of 19 healthy men comparing the effects of flutamide, a selective non-steroidal AR antagonist and placebo administration on basal and pulsatile LH secretion as a function of age and obesity measures. To this end, serum levels of 2-hydroxyflutamide (2-OHF), a major active flutamide metabolite, were measured by mass spectrometry, and AVF/TAF quantified by abdominal computerized tomography. Statistical analysis showed that antiandrogen administration elevated 6-h mean LH concentrations to 5.4 ± 1.3 IU/L compared with 3.3 ± 1.2 IU/L for placebo (p < 10(-3) ), and total T by 35% (p < 10(-4) ). The LH-T concentration product doubled (p < 10(-8) ). According to deconvolution analysis, flutamide exposure increased total LH secretion (p < 10(-3) ) and pulsatile LH secretion (p = 0.0077), along with LH pulse frequency (p = 0.019). Despite feedback inhibition, the LH-T product declined as a linear function of AVF (p = 0.021) and TAF (p = 0.017). This was explained by the fact that higher BMI was associated with lower 2-OHF concentrations (R = -0.562, p = 0.012). In contrast, age was associated with less pulsatile LH secretion (R = -0.567, p = 0.011) even when LH responses were normalized to antiantrogen levels. In conclusion, increased AVF, TAF and BMI predict decreased LH and flutamide blood levels, whereas older age is marked by impaired stimulation of pulsatile LH secretion even when normalized for antiandrogen levels, suggesting different mechanisms of regulation by adiposity and age. PMID:24782426

Takahashi, P Y; Liu, P Y; Veldhuis, J D

2014-07-01

178

Negative Influence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter is all about negative numbers, and how to deal with them. They're not all that difficult to understand, but for some reason people get just a little uptight when they see computations involving negative numbers. I'm guessing that the apprehension results from the view that negative numbers mean there are more rules to follow--rules you don't necessarily understand. Well, we'll try and correct that.

Robertson, William C.

2006-01-01

179

Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

Speer, Rita D.

180

The role of values in understanding attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.  

PubMed

Seventy-one undergraduate participants completed the Rokeach Values Inventory and Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale. Six values correlated significantly with attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: salvation, obedience, and national security correlated with negative attitudes; broad-minded, a world of beauty and imaginative correlated with positive attitudes. Because values are more stable than attitudes, we suggest that those attempting to improve attitudes toward lesbians and gay men use arguments that are consonant with the existing values of prejudiced individuals. [ PMID:16048889

Vicario, Brett A; Liddle, Becky J; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony

2005-01-01

181

Fibroblast growth factor-23 negates 1,25(OH)2D3-induced intestinal calcium transport by reducing the transcellular and paracellular calcium fluxes.  

PubMed

The calciotropic hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] has been known to stimulate intestinal calcium transport via both transcellular and paracellular pathways. Recently, we reported that the 1,25(OH)2D3-enhanced calcium transport in the mouse duodenum could be abolished by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, but the targeted calcium transport pathway has been elusive. Herein, the 1,25(OH)2D3-enhanced calcium transport was markedly inhibited by FGF-23 and inhibitors of the basolateral calcium transporters, NCX1 and PMCA1b, suggesting the negative effect of FGF-23 on the transcellular calcium transport. Similar results could be observed in the intestinal epithelium-like Caco-2 monolayer. Although the Arrhenius plot indicated that FGF-23 decreased the potential barrier (e.g., activation energy) of the paracellular calcium movement, FGF-23 was found to modestly decrease the 1,25(OH)2D3-enhanced paracellular calcium transport and calcium permeability. Moreover, FGF-23 affected the 1,25(OH)2D3-induced change in duodenal water permeability as determined by tritiated water, but both 1,25(OH)2D3 and FGF-23 were without effects on the transepithelial fluxes of paracellular markers, (3)H-mannitol and (14)C-polyethylene glycol. It could be concluded that FGF-23 diminished the 1,25(OH)2D3-enhanced calcium absorption through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. Our findings have thus corroborated the presence of a bone-kidney-intestinal axis of FGF-23/vitamin D system in the regulation of calcium homeostasis. PMID:23747333

Khuituan, Pissared; Wongdee, Kannikar; Jantarajit, Walailuk; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

2013-08-01

182

Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males).

2013-01-01

183

Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Poland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes

Przepiorka, Aneta M.; Blachnio, Agata; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Wozniak, Tomasz

2013-01-01

184

Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.

Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

185

Awareness of implicit attitudes.  

PubMed

Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures of implicit attitudes toward 5 social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across 4 studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2-4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants' predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. Altogether, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24294868

Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M; Hirsh, Holen K; Blair, Irene V

2014-06-01

186

Awareness of Implicit Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes.

Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

2013-01-01

187

Comparing project-based learning to direct instruction on students' attitude to learn science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.

Haugen, Marlen Ingvard

188

The lytic activity of the bee venom peptide melittin is strongly reduced by the presence of negatively charged phospholipids or chloroplast galactolipids in the membranes of phosphatidylcholine large unilamellar vesicles.  

PubMed

We have investigated the dependence of the lytic activity of the bee venom peptide melittin on the lipid composition of its target membrane. The lysis of large unilamellar liposomes, measured as loss of the fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein, in the presence of melittin was strongly reduced when the negatively charged lipids phosphatidylglycerol (PG) or phosphatidylserine (PS), or the plant chloroplast lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) or digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) were incorporated into egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) membranes. This reduction was evident at concentrations below 10 wt% of the additional lipids. It was not due to reduced binding of melittin to the vesicles. It was also not related to a reduced insertion depth of the peptide into the bilayer, as shown by quenching of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the peptide by the aqueous quencher sodium nitrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed specific interactions of the peptide with the headgroups of the inhibitory lipids. The phosphate peak in PG was shifted by two wavenumbers after the addition of melittin. There was no shift in EPC or PS. Instead, in PS the COO- peak was strongly distorted in the presence of melittin. These data indicate ionic interactions between the basic peptide and the negative charges on the membrane surface. The galactolipids are uncharged. Here the evidence points to hydrogen bonding between melittin and OH-groups of the sugar headgroups. Liposomes containing DGDG were the only case where we found evidence for changes in fatty acyl chain motion due to the presence of melittin, from the CH2-scissoring peaks. PMID:8914580

Hincha, D K; Crowe, J H

1996-10-23

189

Patients attitudes towards sleep disturbances during chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbances are among the most distressing symptoms in cancer: they often co-occur with fatigue, pain and psychological distress. Despite the negative impact on quality of life, patients rarely seek help for managing their sleep disturbances. This paper presents the results of a multicentre observational study on patients' attitudes towards their sleep problems. The study also investigates symptom correlates. Patients responded to a semi-structured interview and completed the following questionnaires: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Brief Fatigue Inventory; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life QLQ-C30 Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Four hundred and three cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Bad sleepers constituted 66% of the sample. Thirty-eight per cent of them had not turned to any professional to solve their sleep disturbances because they had various beliefs about the importance of the problem and the possibility to be treated. The main correlates of sleep disturbances were psychological distress, reduced physical functioning and reduced overall quality of life. In conclusion, there is a need to sensitise patients to actively search for a solution to their sleep disturbances so they can be solved along with other co-occurring symptoms. Doctors could also be encouraged to dedicate more attention to routinely asking cancer patients about eventual sleep disturbances. PMID:23947497

Romito, F; Cormio, C; De Padova, S; Lorusso, V; Berio, M A; Fimiani, F; Piattelli, A; Palazzo, S; Abram, G; Dudine, L; Guglielmi, A; Galise, I; Romito, S; Mattioli, V

2014-05-01

190

High Radiation Dose May Reduce the Negative Effect of Large Gross Tumor Volume in Patients With Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the effect of radiation dose varies with gross tumor volume (GTV) in patients with stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 114 consecutive patients with medically inoperable stage I/II NSCLC treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy between 1992 and 2004. The median biologic equivalent dose (BED) was 79.2 Gy (range, 58.2-124.5 Gy). The median GTV was 51.8 cm{sup 3} (range, 2.1-727.8 cm{sup 3}). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant interaction between radiation dose and GTV (p < 0.001). In patients with BED {<=}79.2 Gy (n = 68), the OS medians for patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} and {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} were 18.2 and 23.9 months, respectively (p 0.015). If BED was >79.2 Gy (n = 46), no significant difference was found between GTV groups (p = 0.681). For patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the OS medians in those with BED >79.2 Gy and {<=}79.2 Gy were 30.4 and 18.2 months, respectively (p < 0.001). If GTV was {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the difference was no longer significant (p = 0.577). Conclusion: High-dose radiation is more important for patients with larger tumors and may be effective in reducing the adverse outcome associated with large GTV. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

Zhao Lujun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); West, Brady T. [Center for Statistical Consultation and Research, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lyons, Susan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cease, Kemp [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: Fengkong@med.umich.edu

2007-05-01

191

Negative Staining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from CUNY Kingsborough Community College describes negative staining. The brief demonstration is described step by step and would be easy to replicate in a laboratory setting. Running time for the video is 1:32.

2013-06-21

192

Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. PMID:23866038

Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

2013-08-01

193

The Effects of Dichotomous Attitudes toward Science on Interest and Conceptual Understanding in Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on students' attitudinal constructs in science education asserts that students hold dichotomous attitudes toward science (AS). For instance, studies from the Relevance of Science Education project reveal that students possess negative attitudes in terms of their favourableness toward school science, preference toward scientific careers, and emotional states toward science (negative intrinsic AS), despite their positive perception that science

Minkee Kim; Jinwoong Song

2009-01-01

194

Attitudes Toward Cosmetic Surgery Patients: The Role of Culture and Social Contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmetic surgery is increasingly popular globally, but how cosmetic surgery patients are socially evaluated is largely unknown. The present research documents attitudes toward these patients in multiple cultures (Hong Kong, Japan, and the U.S.). Across these cultures, attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients were predominantly negative: Participants ascribed more negative attributes to cosmetic surgery patients and found cosmetic surgery not acceptable.

Kim-Pong Tam; Henry Kin-Shin Ng; Young-Hoon Kim; Victoria Wai-Lan Yeung; Francis Yue-Lok Cheung

2012-01-01

195

When feeling different pays off: how older adults can counteract negative age-related information.  

PubMed

Negative age stereotypes are pervasive and threaten older adults' self-esteem. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that differentiation from one's age group reduces the impact of negative age-related information on older adults' self-evaluation. In Experiment 1, older adults (N = 83, M = 71.9 years) were confronted with neutral or negative age-related information followed by a manipulation of self-differentiation. Experiment 2 (N = 44, M = 73.55 years) tested the moderating role of self-differentiation in the relationship of implicit attitudes toward older adults and implicit self-esteem. Results suggest that self-differentiation prevents the impact of negative age-related information on older adults' self-esteem. PMID:23957227

Weiss, David; Sassenberg, Kai; Freund, Alexandra M

2013-12-01

196

Efficacy and safety of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy for reducing the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy (the Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Damage control laparotomy, or abbreviated initial laparotomy followed by temporary abdominal closure (TAC), intensive care unit resuscitation, and planned re-laparotomy, is frequently used to manage intra-abdominal bleeding and contamination among critically ill or injured adults. Animal data suggest that TAC techniques that employ negative pressure to the peritoneal cavity may reduce the systemic inflammatory response and associated organ injury. The primary objective of this study is to determine if use of a TAC dressing that affords active negative pressure peritoneal therapy, the ABThera Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System, reduces the extent of the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy for intra-abdominal sepsis or injury as compared to a commonly used TAC method that provides potentially less efficient peritoneal negative pressure, the Barker’s vacuum pack. Methods/Design The Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial will be a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Adults will be intraoperatively allocated to TAC with either the ABThera or Barker’s vacuum pack after the decision has been made by the attending surgeon to perform a damage control laparotomy. The study will use variable block size randomization. On study days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28, blood will be collected. Whenever possible, peritoneal fluid will also be collected at these time points from the patient’s abdomen or TAC device. Luminex technology will be used to quantify the concentrations of 65 mediators relevant to the inflammatory response in peritoneal fluid and plasma. The primary endpoint is the difference in the plasma concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 at 24 and 48 h after TAC dressing application. Secondary endpoints include the differential effects of these dressings on the systemic concentration of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, collective peritoneal and systemic inflammatory mediator profiles, postoperative fluid balance, intra-abdominal pressure, and several patient-important outcomes, including organ dysfunction measures and mortality. Discussion Results from this study will improve understanding of the effect of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy after damage control laparotomy on the inflammatory response. It will also gather necessary pilot information needed to inform design of a multicenter trial comparing clinical outcomes among patients randomized to TAC with the ABThera versus Barker’s vacuum pack. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier http://www.clicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01355094

2013-01-01

197

Kalman Filter for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.

Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.

2008-01-01

198

Attitude Control Subsystem for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.

Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

1996-01-01

199

Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral social skills training for older consumers with schizophrenia: Defeatist performance attitudes and functional outcome  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) is an effective psychosocial intervention to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and whether defeatist performance attitudes are associated with change in functioning in CBSST. Design An 18-month, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting Outpatient clinic at a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants Veteran and non-veteran consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=79) age 45–78. Interventions CBSST was a 36-session, weekly group therapy that combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem solving training to improve functioning. The comparison intervention, goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC), was supportive group therapy focused on achieving functioning goals. Measurements Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey) CBSST skill mastery, positive and negative symptoms, depression, anxiety, defeatist attitudes, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results Functioning trajectories over time were significantly more positive in CBSST than in GFSC, especially for participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes. Greater improvement in defeatist attitudes was also associated with better functioning in CBSST, but not GFSC. Both treatments showed comparable significant improvements in amotivation, depression, anxiety, positive self-esteem and life satisfaction. Conclusions CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and other supportive goal-focused interventions can reduce symptom distress, increase motivation and self esteem, and improve life satisfaction. Participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes may benefit most from cognitive behavioral interventions that target functioning.

Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C.; McQuaid, John R.; Jeste, Dilip V.

2012-01-01

200

Miniaturized attitude control system for nanosatellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A miniaturized attitude control system suitable for nanosatellites, developed using only commercial off-the-shelf components, is described in the paper. It is a complete and independent system to be used on board nanosatellites, allowing automated attitude control. To integrate this system into nanosatellites such as Cubesats its size has been reduced down to a cube of side about 5 cm. The result is a low cost attitude control system built with terrestrial components, integrating three micro magnetotorquers, three micro reaction wheels, three magnetometers and redundant control electronics, capable of performing automatics operations on request from the ground. The system can operate as a real time maneuvering system, executing commands sent from the ground or as a standalone attitude control system receiving the solar array status from a hosting satellite and the satellite ephemeris transmitted from the ground station. The main characteristics of the developed system and test results are depicted in this paper.

Candini, Gian Paolo; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Santoni, Fabio

2012-12-01

201

Modular design attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

Chichester, F. D.

1984-01-01

202

Attitudes toward Animals: Th e Eff ect of Priming Th oughts of Human-Animal Similarities and Mortality Salience on the Evaluation of Companion Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human attitudes toward nonhuman animals are complex and quite contradictory. Th ey can range between extremely negative (animal cruelty) to positive (treating companion animals like human surrogates). Attitudes toward animals are especially negative when people think about human creatureliness and personal mortality. Th is paper investigates people's attitudes toward highly valued animals (companion animals). Th e research presented here tested

Ruth Beatson; Stephen Loughnan; Michael Halloran

203

Greek Cypriot attitudes toward Turkish Cypriots and Turkish immigrants.  

PubMed

The authors examined the attitudes of 106 Greek Cypriots toward Turkish Cypriots and Turkish immigrants on Cyprus. The authors examined Greek Cypriot attitudes, willingness to cohabit with Turkish Cypriots and Turkish immigrants, and the reasons behind their attitudes in terms of their social-identity perceptions, victimization experiences, and human-rights concerns. A series of repeated measures analyses of variance showed that Greek Cypriots were more willing to cohabit with and had less negative attitudes toward Turkish Cypriots than they were with and toward Turkish immigrants. Women felt more victimized by Turkish Cypriots and Turkish immigrants than did men. Perceived differences in social identity predicted unwillingness to cohabit with Turkish Cypriots. Feelings of victimization predicted negative attitudes toward Turkish Cypriots. Differences in social identity and victimization experiences predicted unwillingness to cohabit with Turkish immigrants. Differences in social identity predicted negative attitudes toward Turkish immigrants. The authors discussed the findings in terms of support for realistic group conflict theories of attitudes and their implications for the coexistence of these ethnic groups in Cyprus and of other ethnic groups in multicultural societies. PMID:16894701

Danielidou, Liana; Horvath, Peter

2006-08-01

204

The Time for Doing is Not the Time for Change: Effects of General Action and Inaction Goals on Attitude Retrieval and Attitude Change  

PubMed Central

Implicit in many informal and formal principles of psychological change is the understudied assumption that change requires either an active approach or an inactive approach. This issue was systematically investigated by comparing the effects of general action goals and general inaction goals on attitude change. As prior attitudes facilitate preparation for an upcoming persuasive message, general action goals were hypothesized to facilitate conscious retrieval of prior attitudes and therefore hinder attitude change to a greater extent than general inaction goals. Experiment 1 demonstrated that action primes (e.g., “go,” “energy”) yielded faster attitude report than inaction primes (e.g., “rest,” “still”) among participants who were forewarned of an upcoming persuasive message. Experiment 2 showed that the faster attitude report identified in Experiment 1 was localized on attitudes towards a message topic participants were prepared to receive. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 showed that, compared to inaction primes, action primes produced less attitude change and less argument scrutiny in response to a counterattitudinal message on a previously forewarned topic. Experiment 6 confirmed that the effects of the primes on attitude change were due to differential attitude retrieval. That is, when attitude expression was induced immediately after the primes, action and inaction goals produced similar amounts of attitude change. In contrast, when no attitude expression was induced after the prime, action goals produced less attitude change than inaction goals. Finally, Experiment 7 validated the assumption that these goal effects can be reduced or reversed when the goals have already been satisfied by an intervening task.

Albarracin, Dolores; Handley, Ian M.

2011-01-01

205

Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illusions that produce perceptual suppression despite constant retinal input are used to manipulate visual consciousness. Here we report on a powerful variant of existing techniques, continuous flash suppression. Distinct images flashed successively at ?10 Hz into one eye reliably suppress an image presented to the other eye. The duration of perceptual suppression is at least ten times greater than that

Christof Koch; Naotsugu Tsuchiya

2005-01-01

206

Conflicting attitudes to corneal and organ donation: a study of nurses' attitudes to organ donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for transplantable organs and tissues is steadily increasing and action is necessary to improve the organ and tissue donation rates. Previous research has suggested that nurses have a substantial influence on the rates of donation in the clinical area. Nurses (N = 150) were asked to complete a number of measures to assess positive and negative attitudes towards

Bridie Kent; R. Glynn Owens

1995-01-01

207

The Impact of College Student Money Attitudes on Credit Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing concern among academics, policymakers and educators to address credit abuse among college students prompts a need for greater understanding of the determinants of these negative behaviors. The present study investigates the impact of individuals' money attitudes on both negative and positive credit behaviors within a single empirical model…

Moore, Marguerite; Carpenter, Jason M.

2009-01-01

208

Creationism, Scientism, Christianity and Science: A Study in Adolescent Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a study of 16 to 18 year olds measuring attitude toward Christianity and interest in science. Finds significant negative correlation between the two. Cites key factors explaining this negative relationship as the perception of Christianity as necessarily involving creationism and of science as attaining to absolute truth or…

Fulljames, Peter; And Others

1991-01-01

209

Students' Attitude Towards Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' success in mathematics depends upon attitude towards mathematics. It also influences the participation rate of learners. This study was based on a survey of high school students about their attitudes towards mathematics. Students of both the gender constitute the population of this study. Sample of the study was 685 students (male = 379…

Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Shah, Syed Zia Ullah

2008-01-01

210

Students' Attitudes Toward Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of a random sample survey of 737 college students' attitudes toward computers. Less than 7% had never used computers, and those who used them most were most positive in their attitudes. Data were factor analyzed, and instruments are included. (JDH)

Arndt, Stephan; And Others

1985-01-01

211

Marine Attitude Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

212

Calibration of attitude sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles governing the development of simple algorithms for calibrating attitude and velocity sensors without the need for reference point identification and without using information on the orientation of the moving object are examined. The approach proposed here makes it possible to calibrate attitude and velocity sensors by using an on-board computer.

Potapenko, E. M.

1986-04-01

213

Management Attitudes toward Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to discover management attitudes toward productivity, including management's views about worker attitudes and their motivation, managerial practices and organization, and possible changes to effect improvements in productivity, the United States Chamber of Commerce surveyed a sample of 1,870 top business executives across the country…

Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

214

Pulsed Plasma Thrusters for Small Spacecraft Attitude Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT's) are a new option for attitude control of a small spacecraft and may result in reduced attitude control system (ACS) mass and cost. The primary purpose of an ACS is to orient the spacecraft configuration to the desired accur...

M. L. Mcguire R. M. Myers

1996-01-01

215

Analytical Resolution Method based on ambiguity function for attitude determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we provide an experimental result of a new method for resolving GNSS baseline vector. We discuss the single differencing (SD) model for attitude determination and it will be chosen for experiment based on GPS and GLONASS. The Analytical Resolution Method (ARM) is used for attitude angle resolving. This method will be better in reducing computation time. The

Boxiong Wang; Xingqun Zhan; Yanhua Zhang

2010-01-01

216

Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems is well established and highlighted by studies establishing a correlation between the protective function of mangroves and the loss of lives and property caused by coastal hazards. Nevertheless, degradation of this ecosystem remains a matter of concern, emphasizing the fact that effective conservation of natural resources is possible only with an understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of local communities. In the present study, we examined the attitudes and perceptions of local communities towards mangrove forests through questionnaire surveys in 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. The sample villages were selected from 336 villages using hierarchical cluster analysis. The study revealed that local communities in the area had positive attitudes towards conservation and that their demographic and socio-economic conditions influenced people's attitudes. Local communities valued those functions of mangrove forests that were directly linked to their wellbeing. Despite human-wildlife conflict, the attitudes of the local communities were not altogether negative, and they were willing to participate in mangrove restoration. People agreed to adopt alternative resources if access to forest resources were curtailed. Respondents living near the forests, who could not afford alternatives, admitted that they would resort to pilfering. Hence, increasing their livelihood options may reduce the pressure on mangrove forests. In contrast with other ecosystems, the linkages of mangrove ecosystem services with local livelihoods and security are direct and tangible. It is therefore possible to develop strong local support for sustainable management of mangrove forests in areas where a positive attitude towards mangrove conservation prevails. The current debates on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and payment for ecosystem services provide ample scope for development of sustainable livelihood options for local communities from the conservation of critical ecosystems such as mangroves.

Badola, Ruchi; Barthwal, Shivani; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2012-01-01

217

An analysis of the effects of in?service teacher training on Turkish preschool teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any implementation of an inclusive policy is largely dependent on educators’ attitudes. In Turkey, many teachers who educate preschool children with Special Educational Needs (SEN), and who have not received in?service teacher training (INSET) are observed to have negative attitudes towards their SEN students. The aim of this article is to examine differences between the attitudes of preschool teachers before

Zarife Seçer

2010-01-01

218

Intervention Effectiveness in Reducing Prejudice against Transsexuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…

Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

2013-01-01

219

Negative Bodily Self in Suicide Attempters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study we investigated the relationship between suicidal behavior and aspects of bodily perception and parental care. Measures of bodily perception included measures of tactile sensitivity, body attitudes, and body experiences. Measures of parental care included parental bonding, negative and positive touch, and early maltreatment.…

Orbach, Israel; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Sheffer, Amir; Meged, Sorin; Har-Even, Dov; Stein, Daniel

2006-01-01

220

How Damaging is Negative Word of Mouth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this exploratory study was to seek evidence of whether word of mouth (WOM) has a significant effect on the attitudes and probability of purchase of potentia l consumers. The study, which partially replicates that of Herr, Kardes and Kim (1991), tested the following two research hypotheses: i. That both positive and negative WOM will affect consumers' probability

Don Charlett; Ron Garland; Norman Marr

1995-01-01

221

Attitude Determination Using Two Vector Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.

Markley, F. Landis

1999-01-01

222

Attitude Determination Using Two Vector Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.

Markley, F. Landis

1998-01-01

223

Changes in provider attitudes toward telemedicine.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study was conducted in which the pre- and post-telemedicine encounter attitudes of healthcare providers were compared in order to ascertain whether and how experience with telemedicine changes their attitudes toward telemedicine. Attitudinal changes of providers who had used telemedicine previously were compared to those experiencing telemedicine for the first time. Data were gathered from the providers in two telemedicine programs located in Georgia and Nebraska. Both used real-time videoconferencing and peripheral devices to conduct telemedicine consultations. A total of 87 providers completed questionnaires just prior to and immediately after each telemedicine encounter in their respective programs. The questions focused on the expected impact of telemedicine on their productivity and ability to prescribe treatment. A 3-point scale was used to measure the responses. More than three quarters (79.3%) of the providers did not change their attitudes subsequent to the use of telemedicine. There was no significant difference between first-time users and those who had experience (p = 0.392). The shift in attitude in the minority (n = 18) of providers who did change their minds after the telemedicine encounter was more positive among those who used telemedicine for the first time as compared to those with experience. Contrariwise, those with experience became more negative (p = 0.025). This finding suggests that experience with telemedicine results in more positive attitudes that may not be realized in subsequent interactions with the technology. PMID:19199846

Hanson, Deborah; Calhoun, Judith; Smith, Dean

2009-01-01

224

Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents of this guide present: (1) the three gasoline consumption-reducing options for which attitudes are to be explored; (2) exercises; and (3) appendices including an energy attitudes survey. (MR)

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

225

The Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution Scale: A New Tool for Measuring Public Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…

Levin, Lia; Peled, Einat

2011-01-01

226

Does the Attitude Similarity of College Professors and Their Students Produce \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between student\\/teacher attitude similarity and teacher rating form (TRF) scores. Students (N = 345) completed a 24-item attitude scale, once for themselves and once for their instructors, and a 28-item TRF. The results indicated that TRF variance explained by total similarity was reduced by almost half when teacher effects were removed. Similarity of attitudes relevant

Philip C Abrami; Deborah A Mizener

1983-01-01

227

GOES dynamic propagation of attitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spacecraft in the next series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-Next) are Earth pointing and have 5-year mission lifetimes. Because gyros can be depended on only for a few years of continuous use, they will be turned off during routine operations. This means attitude must, at times, be determined without benefit of gyros and, often, using only Earth sensor data. To minimize the interruption caused by dumping angular momentum, these spacecraft have been designed to reduce the environmental torque acting on them and incorporate an adjustable solar trim tab for fine adjustment. A new support requirement for GOES-Next is that of setting the solar trim tab. Optimizing its setting requires an estimate of the unbalanced torque on the spacecraft. These two requirements, determining attitude without gyros and estimating the external torque, are addressed by replacing or supplementing the gyro propagation with a dynamic one, that is, one that integrates the rigid body equations of motion. By processing quarter-orbit or longer batches, this approach takes advantage of roll-yaw coupling to observe attitude completely without Sun sensor data. Telemetered momentum wheel speeds are used as observations of the unbalanced external torques. GOES-Next provides a unique opportunity to study dynamic attitude propagation. The geosynchronous altitude and adjustable trim tab minimize the external torque and its uncertainty, making long-term dynamic propagation feasible. This paper presents the equations for dynamic propagation, an analysis of the environmental torques, and an estimate of the accuracies obtainable with the proposed method.

Markley, F. Landis; Seidewitz, ED; Chu, Don; Rowe, John N.

1988-01-01

228

Dysfunctional Attitudes and Expectancies in Deficit Syndrome Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The deficit syndrome was proposed over 20 years ago as a separate negative symptom syndrome within schizophrenia with a distinct neurobiological pathophysiology and etiology. Recent research, however, has indicated that psychological factors such as negative attitudes and expectancies are significantly associated with the broad spectrum of negative symptoms. Specifically, defeatist beliefs regarding performance mediate between neurocognitive impairment and both negative symptoms and functional outcome. Additionally, asocial beliefs predict asocial behavior and negative expectancies regarding future pleasure are associated with negative symptoms. The present study explored whether these dysfunctional beliefs and negative expectancies might also be a feature of the deficit syndrome. Based on a validated proxy method, 22 deficit and 72 nondeficit patients (from a pool of 139 negative symptom patients) were identified and received a battery of symptom, neurocognitive, and psychological measures. The deficit group scored significantly worse on measures of negative symptoms, insight, emotion recognition, defeatist attitudes, and asocial beliefs but better on measures of depression, anxiety, and distress than the nondeficit group. Moreover, the deficit group showed a trend for higher scores on self-esteem. Based on these findings, we propose a more comprehensive formulation of deficit schizophrenia, characterized by neurobiological factors and a cluster of psychological attributes that lead to withdrawal and protect the self-esteem. Although the patients have apparently opted-out of participation in normal activities, we suggest that a psychological intervention that targets these negative attitudes might improve their functioning and quality of life.

Beck, Aaron T.; Grant, Paul M.; Huh, Gloria A.; Perivoliotis, Dimitri; Chang, Nadine A.

2013-01-01

229

Attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude control system is described in which angular rate signals are generated by rate gyros mounted closely adjacent to gimbaled engines at the rear of a vehicle. Error signals representative of a commanded change in vehicle angle or attitude are obtained from a precision inertial platform located in the nose region of the vehicle. The rate gyro derived signals dominate at high frequencies where dynamic effects become significant, and platform signals dominate at low frequencies where precision signals are required for a steady vehicle attitude. The blended signals are applied in a conventional manner to control the gimbaling of vehicle engines about control axes.

Vonpragenau, G. L.; Rupp, C. C. (inventors)

1976-01-01

230

Older Adults Talk Technology: Technology Usage and Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Older adults (n = 113) participated in focus groups discussing their use of and attitudes about technology in the context of their home, work, and healthcare. Participants reported using a wide variety of technology items, particularly in their homes. Positive attitudes (i.e., likes) outnumbered negative attitudes (i.e., dislikes), suggesting that older adults perceive the benefits of technology use to outweigh the costs of such use. Positive attitudes were most frequently related to how the technology supported activities, enhanced convenience, and contained useful features. Negative attitudes were most frequently associated with technology creating inconveniences, unhelpful features, as well as security and reliability concerns. Given that older adults reported more positive than negative attitudes about the technologies they use, these results contradict stereotypes that older adults are afraid or unwilling to use technology. These findings also highlight the importance of perceived benefits of use and ease of use for models of technology acceptance. Emphasizing the benefits of technology in education and training programs may increase future technology adoption.

Mitzner, Tracy L.; Boron, Julie B.; Fausset, Cara Bailey; Adams, Anne E.; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph

2010-01-01

231

Beyond bipolar conceptualizations and measures: the case of attitudes and evaluative space.  

PubMed

All organisms must be capable of differentiating hostile from hospitable stimuli to survive. Typically, this evaluative discrimination is conceptualized as being bipolar (hostile-hospitable). This conceptualization is certainly evident in the area of attitudes, where the ubiquitous bipolar attitude measure, by gauging the net affective predisposition toward a stimulus, treats positive and negative evaluative processes as equivalent, reciprocally activated, and interchangeable. Contrary to conceptualizations of this evaluative process as bipolar, recent evidence suggests that distinguishable motivational systems underlie assessments of the positive and negative significance of a stimulus. Thus, a stimulus may vary in terms of the strength of positive evaluative activation and the strength of negative evaluative activation it evokes. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects attitude neutrality or indifference, whereas high activation of positive and negative evaluative processes reflects attitude ambivalence. As such, attitudes can be represented more completely within a bivariate space than along a bipolar continuum. Evidence is reviewed showing that the positive and negative evaluative processes underlying many attitudes are distinguishable (stochastically and functionally independent), are characterized by distinct activation functions (positivity offset and negativity bias principles), are related differentially to attitude ambivalence (corollary of ambivalence asymmetries), have distinguishable antecedents (heteroscedacity principle), and tend to gravitate from a bivariate toward a bipolar structure when the underlying beliefs are the target of deliberation or a guide for behavior (principle of motivational certainty). The implications for society phenomena such as political elections and democratic structures are discussed. PMID:15647126

Cacioppo, J T; Gardner, W L; Berntson, G G

1997-01-01

232

Can Music Change Ethnic Attitudes among Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed the effectiveness of a musical programme at reducing anti-dark-skinned stereotyping among light-skinned Portuguese children aged 7-10 years, as measured through the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure II (Williams et al., 1975). The programme consisted of introducing a sub-series of Cape Verdean songs into the series of regular…

Sousa, Maria Do Rosario; Neto, Felix; Mullet, Etienne

2005-01-01

233

Cross-sectional survey of attitudes and beliefs about back pain in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the prevalence of attitudes and beliefs about back pain in New Zealand and compare certain beliefs based on back pain history or health professional exposure. Design Population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Postal survey. Participants New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18?years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. Participants listed on the Electoral Roll with an overseas postal address were excluded. 602 valid responses were received. Measures Attitudes and beliefs about back pain were measured with the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ). The interaction between attitudes and beliefs and (1) back pain experience and (2) health professional exposure was investigated. Results The lifetime prevalence of back pain was reported as 87% (95% CI 84% to 90%), and the point prevalence as 27% (95% CI 24% to 31%). Negative views about the back and back pain were prevalent, in particular the need to protect the back to prevent injury. People with current back pain had more negative overall scores, particularly related to back pain prognosis. There was uncertainty about links between pain and injury and appropriate physical activity levels during an episode of back pain. Respondents had more positive views about activity if they had consulted a health professional about back pain. The beliefs of New Zealanders appeared to be broadly similar to those of other Western populations. Conclusions A large proportion of respondents believed that they needed to protect their back to prevent injury; we theorise that this belief may result in reduced confidence to use the back and contribute to fear avoidance. Uncertainty regarding what is a safe level of activity during an episode of back pain may limit participation. People experiencing back pain may benefit from more targeted information about the positive prognosis. The provision of clear guidance about levels of activity may enable confident participation in an active recovery.

Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Stanley, James; Mathieson, Fiona; Melloh, Markus; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

2014-01-01

234

GPS Based Attitude Determination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final technical report describes the research performed by the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research for the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) on GPS Based Attitude Determination for spacecraft over the period 01 September 1993 - 31 August 1995. T...

P. Axelrad

1995-01-01

235

Ring Laser Attitude System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of effort carried out on this program was to fabricate a two-axis Ring Laser Gyro Attitude System complete with electronics which would be usable as instrumentation on a 100 g rocket sled.

F. Vescial; P. L. Anthony

1976-01-01

236

Student attitudes to physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reported is a summary of the responses of 363 college science and engineering students to a questionnaire designed to determine their attitude towards physics. The majority of students found physics moderately interesting.

Briggs, B. H.

2005-11-03

237

Airship attitude tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered\\u000a in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input\\/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based\\u000a on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds\\u000a of the uncertainties. Using the input\\/output feedback

Xiao-liang Wang; Xue-xiong Shan

2006-01-01

238

Energy management and attitude control for spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This PhD dissertation describes the design and implementation of various control strategies centered around spacecraft applications: (i) an attitude control system for spacecraft, (ii) flywheels used for combined attitude and energy tracking, and (iii) an adaptive autobalancing control algorithm. The theory found in each of these sections is demonstrated through simulation or experimental results. An introduction to each of these three primary chapters can be found in chapter one. The main problem addressed in the second chapter is the quaternion-based, attitude tracking control of rigid spacecraft without angular velocity measurements and in the presence of an unknown inertia matrix. As a stepping-stone, an adaptive, full-state feedback controller that compensates for parametric uncertainty while ensuring asymptotic attitude tracking errors is designed. The adaptive, full-state feedback controller is then redesigned such that the need for angular velocity measurements is eliminated. The proposed adaptive, output feedback controller ensures asymptotic attitude tracking. This work uses a four-parameter representation of the spacecraft attitude that does not exhibit singular orientations as in the case of the previous three-parameter representation-based results. To the best of my knowledge, this represents the first solution to the adaptive, output feedback, attitude tracking control problem for the quaternion representation. Simulation results are included to illustrate the performance of the proposed output feedback control strategy. The third chapter is devoted to the use of multiple flywheels that integrate the energy storage and attitude control functions in space vehicles. This concept, which is referred to as an Integrated Energy Management and Attitude Control (IEMAC) system, reduces the space vehicle bus mass, volume, cost, and maintenance requirements while maintaining or improving the space vehicle performance. To this end, two nonlinear IEMAC strategies (model-based and adaptive) that simultaneously track a desired attitude trajectory and desired energy/power profile are presented. Both strategies ensure asymptotic tracking while the adaptive controller compensates for uncertain spacecraft inertia. In the final chapter, a control strategy is designed for a rotating, unbalanced disk. The control strategy, which is composed of a control torque and two control forces, regulates the disk displacement and ensures angular velocity tracking. The controller uses a desired compensation adaptation law and a gain adjusted forgetting factor to achieve exponential stability despite the lack of knowledge of the imbalance-related parameters, provided a mild persistency of excitation condition is satisfied.

Costic, Bret Thomas

2001-07-01

239

Ew, that's icky: Assessing children's attitudes towards the insects of Connecticut  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated children's attitudes towards insects, focusing on how attitudes change from fascination to repulsion as the children age. This study involved 127 elementary students (grades 4-6) and 139 high school students (grades 9-12) from New Haven public schools. Students were administered Likert type surveys to evaluate their attitudes after viewing photos of 8 common insects of Connecticut; the butterfly, ladybug, dragonfly, ant, moth, cricket, beetle, and fly. Scores from elementary school students were compared with high school students to determine if attitudes towards insects became less favorable as the children age. The results were also analyzed to determine if attitudinal changes were consistent between girls and boys. It was found that elementary school students did not hold more negative attitudes than high school students, but girls did hold more negative attitudes towards insects than boys.

Weeks, Faith Jean-Ellen

240

Differential aspects of consultation liaison psychiatry in a Saudi hospital. II: knowledge and attitudes of physicians and patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the attitude and knowledge of physicians and patients towards psychiatry, we asked 115 referring doctors and 188 referred patients to complete questionnaires. We examined the results along with the referral rates to try to identify factors that may affect a consultation-liaison psychiatry service. Generally, knowledge was poor and attitudes towards psychiatry negative in both groups. This negatively influenced

A. M. Alhamad; M. H. Al-Sawaf; A. A. Osman; I. S. Ibrahim

241

Predictors of Attitudes toward Disability and Employment Policy Issues among Undergraduate Students at the University of Nairobi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disability rights issues are an emerging area of discourse in Kenya. Persons with disabilities in Kenya face many barriers to integration into the larger Kenyan society possibly due to barriers such as societal negative attitudes. Research has indicated that the greatest barrier to rehabilitation of persons with disabilities is negative attitudes

Mamboleo, George Isaboke

2009-01-01

242

Health Professionals' Attitudes and Emotions towards Working with Adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) and Mental Ill Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Mainstream mental health services are providing more care for individuals with an intellectual disability (ID); this has implications for staff and service users. Attitudes of staff towards people with ID in mental health services may be negative and negative staff attitudes may have a detrimental impact on service provision. Design: A…

Rose, N.; Kent, S.; Rose, J.

2012-01-01

243

Perceived intergroup threat and attitudes of host community members toward immigrant acculturation.  

PubMed

The authors expected the extent to which host community members (a) perceive immigrants as threatening, (b) believe that the immigrants are able to assimilate to the host community (permeability), and (c) consider their presence in the host community as legitimate to predict attitudes towards immigrant acculturation. The authors designed Study 1 to examine attitudes of Germans toward Turkish immigrants. Participants were 227 German white-collar and blue-collar workers. As expected, ethnocentric acculturation attitudes positively correlated with perceived threat and negatively correlated with perceived legitimacy and perceived permeability. However, only perceived threat contributed uniquely to the prediction of the attitudes. In Study 2, the authors applied an experimental manipulation of perceived threat. Before answering attitude questions, participants read magazine articles with a threatening, enriching, or irrelevant content. The manipulation had the predicted impact on the self-reported attitudes toward immigrants. However, the salience of threatening or enriching aspects of the Turkish culture did not affect implicitly measured attitudes. PMID:14609057

Florack, Arnd; Piontkowski, Ursula; Rohmann, Anette; Balzer, Tanja; Perzig, Steffi

2003-10-01

244

Predicted torque equilibrium attitude utilization for Space Station attitude control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate knowledge of the torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is shown to improve the performance of a control moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum management/attitude control law for Space Station Freedom. The linearized equations of motion are used in conjunction with a state transformation to obtain a control law which uses full state feedback and the predicted TEA to minimize both attitude excursions and CMG peak and secular momentum. The TEA can be computationally determined either by observing the steady state attitude of a 'controlled' spacecraft using arbitrary initial attitude, or by simulating a fixed attitude spacecraft flying in desired orbit subject to realistic environmental disturbance models.

Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.; Robertson, Brent P.

1990-01-01

245

Venirepersons’s Attitudes Toward the Insanity Defense: Developing, Refining, and Validating a Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the prevalence and predictive strength of negative attitudes toward the insanity defense, we conducted three studies with 426 venirepersons to develop an understanding and a measure of public attitudes toward the insanity defense. In these studies, we developed, iteratively refined, and cross-validated the insanity defense attitude-revised (IDA-R) scale. The results suggest that IDAs are underpinned by one’s degree of

Jennifer L. Skeem; Jennifer Eno Louden; Jennee Evans

2004-01-01

246

Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country  

PubMed Central

Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ‘evil’ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher's Exact Test). Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.

Mir, Azeem Sultan; Malik, Raees

2010-01-01

247

Humor Styles and Negative Affect as Predictors of Different Components of Physical Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which humor and negative affect each predict different components of physical health was examined by having 105 participants complete measures of four distinct humor styles, negative affect, and three indices of physical health. An increased number of physical symptoms and more negative attitudes about illness were associated with higher levels of negative affect, but were unrelated to

Nicholas A. Kuiper; Andrea L. Harris

2009-01-01

248

Patients' attitudes to general practice registrars: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

With the population ageing, it is imperative for training practices to provide general practice registrars (GPRs) with sound experience in managing the health problems of older persons, especially chronic conditions. However, it is reported that a significant proportion of these patients will be resistant to consulting registrars, with concerns regarding disruption of continuity of care being a significant factor. The challenge for training practices is to identify approaches to engage registrars in the management of older patients whilst maintaining patient satisfaction. This paper presents a review of the literature on patient attitudes to GPRs to better understand the nature and magnitude of the challenge, and to identify important research gaps. Major electronic medical literature databases were searched for relevant articles using search terms including general practice, registrar, doctor-patient relationship, patient attitudes and elderly, for the period from January 1980 to March 2009. The studies were analysed by methodology, content and theme. A total of 15 studies were identified that directly addressed patients' attitudes to GPRs. Whilst there appeared to be an overall high acceptance of registrars by patients, increasing patient age was associated with more negative attitudes towards registrars, reduced trust and decreased satisfaction with communication. Presentations for chronic or emotional problems were associated with reduced willingness to consult registrars. Patients generally appreciated an ongoing involvement with their usual GP. These findings have implications for training practices and research directions. Demonstrating continuity of care through shared chronic disease management between supervisors and registrars is a possible model that meets registrars' training and patients' continuity needs. There is a need for quality research on the type and magnitude of problems affecting GPR encounters with older patients and, based on results from these studies, to create and assess models of registrar training involving older patients, that meet patients' needs for continuity of care. PMID:19849904

Bonney, Andrew; Phillipson, Lyn; Reis, Samantha; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don

2009-09-01

249

Flavokawain B, a kava chalcone, induces apoptosis via up-regulation of death-receptor 5 and Bim expression in androgen receptor negative, hormonal refractory prostate cancer cell lines and reduces tumor growth.  

PubMed

Limited success has been achieved in extending the survival of patients with metastatic and hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). There is a strong need for novel agents in the treatment and prevention of HRPC. We have shown that flavokawain B (FKB), a kava chalcone, is about 4- to 12-fold more effective in reducing the cell viabilities of androgen receptor (AR)-negative, HRPC cell lines DU145 and PC-3 than AR-positive, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell lines LAPC4 and LNCaP, with minimal effect on normal prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. FKB induces apoptosis with an associated increased expression of proapoptotic proteins: death receptor-5, Bim and Puma and a decreased expression of inhibitors of apoptosis protein: XIAP and survivin. Among them, Bim expression was significantly induced by FKB as early as 4 hr of the treatment. Knockdown of Bim expression by short-hairpin RNAs attenuates the inhibitory effect on anchorage-dependent and -independent growth and caspase cleavages induced by FKB. These findings suggest that the effect of FKB, at least in part, requires Bim expression. In addition, FKB synergizes with TRAIL for markedly enhanced induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, FKB treatment of mice bearing DU145 xenograft tumors results in tumor growth inhibition and increases Bim expression in tumor tissues. Together, these results suggest robust mechanisms for FKB induction of apoptosis preferentially for HRPC and the potential usefulness of FKB for prevention and treatment of HRPC in an adjuvant setting. PMID:20112340

Tang, Yaxiong; Li, Xuesen; Liu, Zhongbo; Simoneau, Anne R; Xie, Jun; Zi, Xiaolin

2010-10-15

250

Change my body, change my mind: the effects of illusory ownership of an outgroup hand on implicit attitudes toward that outgroup.  

PubMed

The effect of multisensory-induced changes on body-ownership and self-awareness using bodily illusions has been well established. More recently, experimental manipulation of bodily illusions have been combined with social cognition tasks to investigate whether changes in body-ownership can in turn change the way we perceive others. For example, experiencing ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand reduces implicit bias against dark-skin groups. Several studies have also shown that processing of skin color and facial features play an important role in judgements of racial typicality and racial categorization independently and in an additive manner. The present study aimed at examining whether using multisensory stimulation to induce feelings of body-ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand would lead to an increase in positive attitudes toward black faces. We here show, that the induced ownership of a body-part of a different skin color affected the participants' implicit attitudes when processing facial features, in addition to the processing of skin color shown previously. Furthermore, when the levels of pre-existing attitudes toward black people were taken into account, the effect of the rubber hand illusion on the post-stimulation implicit attitudes was only significant for those participants who had a negative initial attitude toward black people, with no significant effects found for those who had positive initial attitudes toward black people. Taken together, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that the representation of the self and its relation to others, as given to us by body-related multisensory processing, is critical in maintaining but also in changing social attitudes. PMID:24454301

Farmer, Harry; Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

2014-01-13

251

Change my body, change my mind: the effects of illusory ownership of an outgroup hand on implicit attitudes toward that outgroup  

PubMed Central

The effect of multisensory-induced changes on body-ownership and self-awareness using bodily illusions has been well established. More recently, experimental manipulation of bodily illusions have been combined with social cognition tasks to investigate whether changes in body-ownership can in turn change the way we perceive others. For example, experiencing ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand reduces implicit bias against dark-skin groups. Several studies have also shown that processing of skin color and facial features play an important role in judgements of racial typicality and racial categorization independently and in an additive manner. The present study aimed at examining whether using multisensory stimulation to induce feelings of body-ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand would lead to an increase in positive attitudes toward black faces. We here show, that the induced ownership of a body-part of a different skin color affected the participants’ implicit attitudes when processing facial features, in addition to the processing of skin color shown previously. Furthermore, when the levels of pre-existing attitudes toward black people were taken into account, the effect of the rubber hand illusion on the post-stimulation implicit attitudes was only significant for those participants who had a negative initial attitude toward black people, with no significant effects found for those who had positive initial attitudes toward black people. Taken together, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that the representation of the self and its relation to others, as given to us by body-related multisensory processing, is critical in maintaining but also in changing social attitudes.

Farmer, Harry; Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

2014-01-01

252

The effects of study abroad on health educators' attitudes toward international health efforts.  

PubMed

The major hypothesis of this study was that graduate level course work about internationl health matters carried out in an international setting would reduce hostility and increase cooperativeness in attitudes toward international relations. An eight week program of this type was executed and a comparison of pre- and post-program measurements of these attitudes confirmed the hypotheses. However, it was noted even though statistically significant shifts occured, there were many students who reported negative changes or no change at all. It was also found there were moderately strong correlations between hostility and cooperation. The implications of these findings are that programs of this nature can have a positive impact on attitudes such as these, but that there may be mediating variables tied closely to participant receptiveness to the message of the program; variables which might be important to consider in selection and screening. However, if this were true, it might also be true that those individuals capable of greatest gains may be in least need of such a program and vice versa. PMID:1050531

Weinstein, S; Barthalow, P; Hamburg, M V

1976-12-01

253

Chinese nursing students' attitudes toward traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined Chinese nursing students' attitudes toward and use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Survey questionnaires were distributed to 439 nursing students, 263 of whom (60%) returned them. Of the respondents, 92% had used TCM, while 48% had used TCM at least once during the previous year. Forty-five percent of respondents reported positive attitudes toward TCM use, 52% had neutral attitudes, and only 3% reported negative attitudes. The majority of respondents (76%) reported no change in their attitude toward TCM after studying nursing. Mean scores related to the adequacy of the current curriculum in TCM training and the state of respondents' TCM knowledge were generally low. Of the respondents who had used TCM during the past year, the most common use was for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common type of TCM used by respondents was herbal tea or soup. Final-year nursing students were more likely to have used TCM during the previous year, report they would like more courses on TCM, and consult Western medicine physicians before using TCM; they were also less likely to develop more negative attitudes toward TCM after studying nursing. PMID:16722501

Hon, Kam-lun Ellis; Twinn, Sheila F; Leung, Ting F; Thompson, David R; Wong, Yin; Fok, Tai F

2006-05-01

254

Prediction of attitudes towards child sexual abuse among three different Norwegian samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse and investigate predictors of such attitudes. A random sample of the Norwegian adult population (n = 296), active Christians (n = 125) and prisoners convicted of child sexual abuse (n = 36) were included in the study. The results show that women were more negative towards

Oddfrid Skorpe Tennfjord

2006-01-01

255

The Olympic Effect on American Attitudes towards China: beyond personality, ideology, and media exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact that increased exposure to China during the two and a half weeks of the Beijing Olympics had on American attitudes towards China. A large N longitudinal survey revealed a significant increase in negative attitudes towards China from the beginning to the end of August 2008. Statistical analysis revealed no dominant explanation for this change, however.

Peter Hays Gries; H. Michael Crowson; Todd Sandel

2010-01-01

256

Impact of an Oncology Course on the Attitudes of Freshman Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous attempts to change the prevailing negative attitudes of health professionals toward cancer and cancer patients have consisted mainly of elective courses for small groups of students at advanced levels of medical training. In order to develop more positive attitudes, the Cancer Coordinating Committee at the Medical College of Pennsylvania…

Appel, Marilyn H.; And Others

257

Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities at High School: Applying the Integrated Threat Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this work was to study attitudes toward people with disabilities from the viewpoint of the integrated threat theory of prejudice. This theory postulates that threat may cause negative attitudes toward a group and posits that such threat may come from different sources. To test this model, a study was carried out with high school…

Bustillos, Antonio; Silvan-Ferrero, Maria del Prado

2013-01-01

258

Marital Attitudes and Personal Readiness for Marriage of Young Adult Children of Alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage of young adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) were investigated. Never-married young adults (N = 943) completed the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) to determine whether they were ACOAs. Other instruments were completed to measure family dysfunction, marital attitudes, and perceived readiness for marriage. ACOAs were found to be significantly more negative in

Jeffry H. Larson; Tim R. Thayne

1999-01-01

259

First Year Graduate Social Work Students' Knowledge of and attitude Toward Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined attitudes and knowledge of 96 first year MSW social work students toward older adults using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and the Facts on Aging Quiz II. Results suggest that the sample had limited previous contact with older adults and little knowledge about aging prior to admission. Students reported negative attitudes toward older adults on productivity,

Zvi D. Gellis; Susan Sherman; Frances Lawrance

2003-01-01

260

The Effects of Dichotomous Attitudes toward Science on Interest and Conceptual Understanding in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on students' attitudinal constructs in science education asserts that students hold dichotomous attitudes toward science (AS). For instance, studies from the Relevance of Science Education project reveal that students possess negative attitudes in terms of their favourableness toward school science, preference toward scientific…

Kim, Minkee; Song, Jinwoong

2009-01-01

261

Attitude Change as Mediated by Audience-Tailored Video and Follow-Up Discussion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine if audience-tailored videotapes and the format of follow-up discussions can change audience attitudes. Sixth-grade students in Taiwan were given a survey on their attitudes toward elderly people. Scripts for videotapes were written based on the data obtained from the survey. Children found to have a negative

Tyan, Nay-ching Nancy; Hu, Yi-chain

262

The “new career” and organizational commitment : Do boundaryless and protean attitudes make a difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to establish whether positive or negative relationships exist between boundaryless and protean career attitudes (respectively) and organizational commitment and whether such relationships can be moderated by development opportunities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Surveys from 212 part-time MBAs were analyzed using correlation, regression, or moderated multiple regression to explore relationships between boundaryless career attitudes (boundaryless

Jon P. Briscoe; Lisa M. Finkelstein

2009-01-01

263

Attitudes toward Individuals with Disabilities: Results of a Recent Survey and Implications of Those Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes toward individuals with disabilities are often negative and deleterious, resulting in decreased opportunity and chances at successful integration into the community for these individuals. The purpose of the current study was to investigate attitudes of a group of 129 individuals attending a state-wide conference aimed toward improving…

Goreczny, Anthony J.; Bender, Erin E.; Caruso, Guy; Feinstein, Celia S.

2011-01-01

264

Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

2005-01-01

265

Psychological Contract Breach and Job Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis of Age as a Moderator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age in the relation between psychological contract breach and the development of job attitudes. Based on affective events, social exchange, and lifespan theory, we hypothesized that (1) psychological contract breach would be related negatively to job attitudes, and (2) that age would moderate…

Bal, P. Matthijs; De Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Van Der Velde, Mandy E. G.

2008-01-01

266

Development and Validation of Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes towards Sexual Health among University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a questionnaire on attitudes towards sexual health and validate it on a sample of medical and non-medical students and adult women. Methods For the purpose of constructing a Likert-type scale, four medical students generated 130 statements re- flecting clearly positive or negative attitudes towards sexual health. The scale had five scoring points (1 - strongly disagree, 2 -

Nina Nemèiæ; Sandra Novak; Ivana Novosel; Ozren Kronja; Darko Hren

267

Pornography, erotica, and attitudes toward women: The effects of repeated exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a widespread belief that pornography causes negative attitudes toward women, but tests of this belief are contradictory. A large body of research has studied the effect of violent pornography on behavior, but the effects of erotica and violence have often been confounded. Thus, the relationship between pornography and attitudes toward women was assessed in two correlational studies, and

Vernon R. Padgett; James A. Neal

1989-01-01

268

Learning to Love Math: Teaching Strategies that Change Student Attitudes and Get Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Has it ever seemed to you that some students are hardwired to dislike math? If so, then here's a book that explains how negative attitudes toward math get established in the brain and what you can do to turn those attitudes around. Math teacher and neurologist Judy Willis gives you over 50 strategies you can use right away in any grade level to:…

Willis, Judy

2010-01-01

269

Counselor Demographics, Ageist Attitudes, and Multicultural Counseling Competence among Counselors and Counselor Trainees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among counselors' self-reported multicultural counseling competence and their attitudes of the geriatric population. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between participants' attitudes of the geriatric population and their self-reported multicultural counseling…

McBride, Rebecca G.; Hays, Danica G.

2012-01-01

270

Improving Attitudes towards Children with Disabilities in a School Context: A Cluster Randomized Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Although inclusive education of disabled children is now an accepted practice, it is often challenged by negative peer attitudes. We undertook an interventional study aimed at improving students' attitudes towards their disabled peers. Method: The participants were students from the 7th grade of twelve paired schools (1509 students from 62…

Godeau, Emmanuelle; Vignes, Celine; Sentenac, Mariane; Ehlinger, Virginie; Navarro, Felix; Grandjean, Helene; Arnaud, Catherine

2010-01-01

271

Attitudes toward women, personality rigidity, and idealized physique preferences in males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idealized physique preferences of a group of 94 male college students were measured and correlated with scales measuring attitudes toward women and personality rigidity. Three hypotheses, derived from sex-role research, were tested and confirmed: (1) Males who have negative attitudes toward women would like most to have a tapering V physique. (2) Males who have a rigid personality structure

Richard A. Maier; Paul J. Lavrakas

1984-01-01

272

Attitudes of Speech and Language Therapists towards Stammering: 1985 and 2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Past research has indicated that speech and language therapists hold some negative attitudes towards people who stammer, their parents and the treatment of stammering. However, studies on attitudes towards stammering have predominantly focussed on therapists in the USA. Recent trends towards earlier intervention suggest that more…

Crichton-Smith, Isobel; Wright, Jannet; Stackhouse, Joy

2003-01-01

273

Comparison of Drug Attitudes of College Freshmen: Metropolitan Area Vs. University Community Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A "Social Attitude Questionnaire" was used to obtain anonymous replies from 481 University of Houston (U.H.) and 470 University of Georgia (U. Ga.) freshmen concerning drug use and related attitudes. Among the most significant results were: (1) more U.H. freshmen endorsed negative statements about their parents than did U. Ga. students; (2) the…

Boardman, William K.

274

Attitudes of Future Human Service Professionals: The Effects of Victim and Helper Qualities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the attitudes of future members in human service professions toward victims, based on the qualities effected by trauma victims and their helpers. Reports that the high-trauma and poorly adapted victims elicited more negative attitudes than did the low-trauma and well-adapted victims. (CMK)

Liebkind, Karmela; Eranen, Liisa

2001-01-01

275

Developmental instrument supplies accurate attitude and attitude-rate data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three orthogonal-plane projection provides accuracy of readout of both attitude and attitude-rate information in an easily interpreted, uncluttered arrangement where blind navigation of a moving body is involved. The longitudinal length of the projection is constant, and independent of the pitch and roll attitudes of the moving body.

1966-01-01

276

Utilization of Attitude Maps in Evaluating Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various methods have been performed to identify teachers' attitudes towards assessment. Recognizing the idea that mapping is one of the most efficient tools, this study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of attitude maps in the evaluation of teachers' attitudes towards assessment. The instrument, composed of open-ended questions, was…

Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral

2008-01-01

277

Associations between adult attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. METHODS: A sample of undergraduate students (n=160) completed the Relationships Structures Questionnaire, which provides global ratings of adult attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance) by assessing attachment across four relationship targets (friend, mother, father and romantic partner). Attitudes regarding the acceptability of pain behaviour were assessed using male and female versions of the Appropriate Pain Behaviour Questionnaire (APBQ). RESULTS: Consistent with the hypothesis, attachment avoidance was negatively correlated with both APBQ-Female and APBQ-Male scores. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the attachment scales and the APBQ scales while statistically adjusting for sex and testing for interaction effects. The findings revealed complex relationships involving interaction effects that provided further support for the hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provided support for the hypothesis that attachment avoidance is associated with less accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. Additional research regarding the role of attachment and attitudes on responses to pain behaviour is warranted.

McWilliams, Lachlan A; Murphy, Paul DJ; Bailey, S Jeffrey

2010-01-01

278

Synthetic mammalian transgene negative autoregulation.  

PubMed

Biological networks contain overrepresented small-scale topologies, typically called motifs. A frequently appearing motif is the transcriptional negative-feedback loop, where a gene product represses its own transcription. Here, using synthetic circuits stably integrated in human kidney cells, we study the effect of negative-feedback regulation on cell-wide (extrinsic) and gene-specific (intrinsic) sources of uncertainty. We develop a theoretical approach to extract the two noise components from experiments and show that negative feedback results in significant total noise reduction by reducing extrinsic noise while marginally increasing intrinsic noise. We compare the results to simple negative regulation, where a constitutively transcribed transcription factor represses a reporter protein. We observe that the control architecture also reduces the extrinsic noise but results in substantially higher intrinsic fluctuations. We conclude that negative feedback is the most efficient way to mitigate the effects of extrinsic fluctuations by a sole regulatory wiring. PMID:23736683

Shimoga, Vinay; White, Jacob T; Li, Yi; Sontag, Eduardo; Bleris, Leonidas

2013-01-01

279

SMM attitude control recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the way in which the Modular Attitude Control System (MACS) onboard computer of the NASA Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) laboratory was reprogrammed, to restore attitude control for the SMM, after fuse failures permanently disabled all three of the MACS primary reaction wheels. Algorithms were developed which provided both a thermal- and power-safe, spin-stabilized mode and three-axis sun pointing, using the damaged primary wheels' backup skew wheel in a momentum-bias control scheme. Magnetic torquing was used in these algorithms for angular momentum vector magnitude and directional control.

Hoffman, H. C.; Donohue, J. H.; Flatley, T. W.

1981-01-01

280

Satellite attitude control simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work was conducted to develop an extremely low drift rate gyroscope and a very precise star tracker. A proposed relativity satellite will measure very accurately the theoretically predicted 'relativistic' precession of the gyroscope relative to an inertial reference frame provided by the star tracker. Aspects of precision spinning attitude control are discussed together with questions of gyro operation, and the hopping mode for lunar transportation. For the attitude control system of the lunar hopper, a number of control laws were investigated. The studies indicated that some suboptimal controls should be adequate for the system.

Debra, D. B.; Powell, J. D.

1973-01-01

281

Instrument Attitude Precision Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

Juang, Jer-Nan

2004-01-01

282

Attitudes in Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More than half of all students with learning disabilities (LD) receive science instruction in regular education classes. Because LD student numbers are increasing, the ability of classroom teachers to accommodate these students is being challenged. The success of inclusion depends on many factors, including the attitudes of professional educators and the quality of instruction they offer their students. This article presents the findings of a survey that was conducted to assess how teachers' attitudes about inclusion of learning disabled students affects their use of accommodations.

Biddle, Susan

2006-03-01

283

Fur Trappers' Attitudes toward the Upper Missouri Sioux, 1820-1860.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fur traders and trappers had very different views about and relationships with individual Indian tribes. Article discusses the historical context of hostile, negative attitudes held by the wild, White "mountain men" toward the Indians among whom they worked. (DS)

Strayer, Brian F.

1979-01-01

284

Uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control of artificial satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the context of a simple mechanical model the paper examines the movement of a satellite with respect to the center of masses under conditions of uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control. The equations of motion of the satellite take account of the gravitational and restorative aerodynamic moments. It is presumed that the aerodynamic moment is much larger than the gravitational, and the motion equations contain a large parameter. A two-parameter integrated surface of these equations is constructed in the form of formal series in terms of negative powers of the large parameter, describing the oscillations and rotations of the satellite about its lengthwise axis, approximately oriented along the orbital tangent. It is proposed to treat such movements as nominal undisturbed motions of the satellite under conditions of aerodynamic attitude control. A numerical investigation is made for the above integrated surface.

Sazonov, V. V.

1983-01-01

285

Bilismen och Miljoen: Attityder och Attitydbildning (Motoring and the Environment: Attitudes and Formation of Attitudes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was initiated as part of the basis for a new government bill about the transport policy in Sweden (SOU 1997:35). The purpose was to investigate the attitudes toward certain policy measures aiming at reducing car use but also to study environmen...

M. Bennulf N. Fransson M. Polk A. Biel

1998-01-01

286

Developing Attitudes towards Science Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we describe the development of measures used to examine pupils’ attitudes towards science. In particular, separate measures for attitudes towards the following areas were developed: learning science in school, practical work in science, science outside of school, importance of science, self?concept in science, and future participation in science. In developing these measures, criticisms of previous attitude studies

Per Kind; Karen Jones; Partick Barmby

2007-01-01

287

Attitudes towards individuals with disabilities as measured by the Implicit Association Test: a literature review.  

PubMed

Research investigating attitudes towards individuals with disabilities has largely focused on self-reported explicit attitudes. Given that factors such as social desirability may influence explicit attitudes, researchers have developed tools which instead assess less consciously controllable implicit attitudes. Considering research on implicit attitudes thus seems pertinent. A review of studies measuring implicit attitudes towards individuals with physical disabilities (visual, motor or hearing) or intellectual disabilities via the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was carried out. Systematic searches of PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Scopus and Web of Science databases identified relevant articles published between January 2000 and September 2012. Seventeen articles (reporting on 18 studies that employed the IAT) were identified. These investigated implicit attitudes towards individuals with; physical disabilities (N=13), intellectual disabilities (N=3), both physical and intellectual disabilities (N=1), and 'unspecified disabilities' (N=1). Across all studies, moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes were found and there was little to no association between explicit and implicit attitudes. Individuals' beliefs about the controllability of their future, sensitivity to the concept of disease, and contact with individuals with disabilities appear to be associated with implicit attitudes. A consistent pattern of moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes towards individuals with disabilities was evident. These studies provide a starting point, but methodological issues related to sampling and the employed IATs limit the generalizability of these results. Further research investigating implicit attitudes towards specific disability types, with a wider subject pool are necessary as well as further investigation of factors that contribute to these attitudes. PMID:24316588

Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina

2014-02-01

288

Breastfeeding in Bolivia - information and attitudes  

PubMed Central

Background The main objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the attitudes of the mother and her family towards breastfeeding and the actual feeding pattern in a Bolivian population. A second objective was to study the relationship between breastfeeding information, specified according to source and timing, and feeding pattern. Methods Cross-sectional interviews with 420–502 Bolivian mothers with an infant less than or equal to 1 year of age. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding, use of prelacteal food and/or colostrum were the main outcome measures. Results The attitudes of the mother, her partner (the infant's father) and the infant's grandmother towards breastfeeding did not influence the infant feeding pattern. Women who had received breastfeeding information from health care personnel before birth or on the maternity ward breastfed exclusively for a longer duration (adjusted p = 0.0233) and avoided prelacteal food to a greater extent (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval for adjusted odds ratio (95% CI AOR) = 0.23–0.72). Information from a doctor before birth or on the maternity ward was associated with less use of prelacteal food (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI AOR = 0.31–0.93), an increased use of colostrum (AOR = 3.30; 95% CI AOR = 1.16–9.37), but was not linked to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p = 0.1767). Conclusion The current study indicates that breastfeeding information delivered by health care personnel in a non-trial setting may affect the infant feeding pattern including the use of prelacteal foods and colostrum. There was no evidence that the attitudes of the mother, or the infant's father or grandmother influenced actual feeding behavior. The lack of a "negative or neutral attitude" towards breastfeeding in the participants of the current study does, however, diminish the chances to link attitude to feeding behavior.

Ludvigsson, Jonas F

2003-01-01

289

Towards Automating Spacecraft Attitude Sensor Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a view towards reducing cost and complexity for spacecraft early mission support at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), efforts are being made to automate the attitude sensor calibration process. This paper addresses one of the major components needed by such a system. The beneficiaries of an improved calibration process are missions that demand moderate to high precision attitude knowledge or that need to perform accurate attitude slews. Improved slew accuracy reduces the time needed for re-acquisition of fine-pointing after each attitude maneuver, Rapid target acquisition can be very important for astronomical targeting or for off-nadir surface feature targeting by Earth-oriented spacecraft. The normal sequence of on-orbit calibration starts with alignment calibration of the star trackers and possibly the Sun sensor. Their relative alignment needs to be determined using a sufficiently large data set so their fields of view are adequately sampled. Next, the inertial reference unit (IRU) is calibrated for corrections to its alignment and scale factors. The IRU biases are estimated continuously by the onboard attitude control system, but the IRU alignment and scale factors are usually determined on the ground using a batch-processing method on a data set that includes several slews sufficient to give full observability of all the IRU calibration parameters. Finally, magnetometer biases, alignment, and its coupling to the magnetic torquers are determined in order io improve momentum management and occasionally for use in the attitude determination system. The detailed approach used for automating calibrations will depend on whether the automated system resides on the ground or on the spacecraft with an ultimate goal of autonomous calibration. Current efforts focus on a ground-based system driving subsystems that could run either on the ground or onboard. The distinction is that onboard calibration should process the data sequentially rather than in a single large batch since onboard computer data storage is limited. Very good batch- processing calibration utilities have been developed and used extensively at NASA/GSFC for mission support but no sequential calibration utilities are available. To meet this need, this paper presents the mathematical description of a sequential IRU calibration system. The system has been tested using flight data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during a series of attitude slews. The paper also discusses the current state of the overall automated system and describes plans for adding sequential alignment calibration and other additions that will reduce the amount of analyst time and input.

Sedlak, Joseph; Welter, Gary; Ottenstein, Neil

2003-01-01

290

Group Supervision Attitudes: Supervisory Practices Fostering Resistance to Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices  

PubMed Central

The focus of this study was to qualitatively evaluate worker’s attitudes about clinical supervision. It is believed that poor attitudes toward clinical supervision can create barriers during supervision sessions. Fifty-one participants within a social services organization completed an open-ended questionnaire regarding their clinical supervision experiences. Results suggest four key areas which appear to be strong factors in workers’ experiences and attitudes regarding group supervision: a. facilitator’s skill level; b. creativity; c. utilization of technology; and d. applicability. For organizations interested in overcoming potential barriers to adopting best practices, effectively addressing workers’ negative attitudes toward group supervision would be a worthy endeavor.

Brooks, Charles T.; Patterson, David A.; McKiernan, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

291

Impact of a homonegativity awareness workshop on attitudes toward homosexuality.  

PubMed

The current study evaluated the effects of a homonegativity awareness workshop on attitudes toward homosexuality and examined individual difference variables associated with attitude change. Participants included 71 female and 43 male students (approximate mean age = 23). Compared to a control group of introductory psychology students, participants were less homonegative and erotophobic (F(1, 359) = 62.47 and 15.92, ps < .001) after the workshop. Implications for contact with gay and lesbian persons through structured intervention programs on attitudes toward homosexuality are discussed in terms of both the practice and theory of reducing prejudice and discrimination. PMID:19197642

Rye, B J; Meaney, Glenn J

2009-01-01

292

Implicit attitudes toward smoking: how the smell of cigarettes influences responses of college-age smokers and nonsmokers.  

PubMed

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. PMID:23479305

Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

2014-05-01

293

Thoughts on Attitude Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner…

Reid, Norman

2006-01-01

294

Nurses' Attitudes toward Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether nurses' attitudes toward suicide are based on clinical specialty, age, and degree completed. Findings from 184 nurses revealed no significant differences between clinical specialty groups. Age and degree were significant only on Right to Die scale. Older nurses and those with advanced degrees were more likely to agree with…

Alston, Maude H.; Robinson, Beverly H.

1992-01-01

295

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

296

Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

Dietz, Tracy

297

Attitudes toward Rape.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the perception of rape has been studied intensely in recent years, most scales focus on rape myths as the content domain. The need exists for a more general instrument which would include items from a variety of sources, e.g., attitudes toward rape awareness, sexual history, age, virginity, community support, etc., in addition to the myth of…

Larsen, Knud S.; Long, Ed

298

Academics, Activities, Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Oklahoma high school is striving to integrate activities, attitudes, and academics. The school broadens curriculum by involving students in its performance, governance, service, and instruction via sports activities, job-related organizations, course-related clubs, membership groups, and school-service and government clubs open to all students.…

Lannert, Grace

2000-01-01

299

Got an Attitude Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through a Small Business Innovation Research grant from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Servo Corporation of America, Inc. built its Mini-Dual Sensor to provide attitude control for Earth-orbiting unmanned satellites. The sensor is an Earth horizon se...

1999-01-01

300

Age and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses age differences in public attitudes toward public schools from recent Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll. For example, the biggest problem facing schools identified by those 50 and older is discipline, whereas those between 18 and 29 identified finance. Both age groups strongly support public schools. (PKP)

Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

2003-01-01

301

Measures of Political Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is a compilation and evaluation of 95 attitude scales for survey research. An introductory chapter outlines the fifteen chapters, discusses the background and rationale of the project, and details the major criteria for scale construction used to evaluate the scales reviewed in the volume. Chapter 2 contains a historical summary of…

Robinson, John P.; And Others

302

Evaluating Attitudes from Texts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper an example is given how the theory of knowledge graphs and the theory of social atoms can be used to evaluate the attitudes that actors have with respect to each other as far is evident from a text.

C. Hoede

1999-01-01

303

Attitude Is Everything  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 10 years, college and university administrators have been embracing online learning as the next logical step in higher education, but not all faculty have been on board. Studies conducted by the Sloan Consortium, an association that promotes online learning, suggest that faculty attitudes have become a barrier to successful online…

Hunt, Jazelle

2009-01-01

304

Safety: An Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes eight safety concepts developed by the author to teach safety and accident prevention in industrial arts shops and to promote more positive student attitudes toward shop safety. Stressing several general safety concepts instead of requiring dozens of rules has been found to work. (MF)

Smith, Harry T.

1978-01-01

305

Words with attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional notion of word meaning used in natural language processing is literal or lexical meaning as used in dictionaries and lexicons. This relatively objective notion of lexical meaning is different from more subjective notions of emotive or affective meaning. Our aim is to come to grips with subjective aspects of meaning expressed in written texts, such as the attitudes

Jaap Kamps; Maarten Marx

2002-01-01

306

Science Center and Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project team gathered data with the assistance of Recreational and Cultural Organization of Mashhad Municipality, Organization of Mashhad Municipality and Science and Astronomy Science Center of Mashhad Municipality, Khorasan Razavi, Islamic Republic of Iran. This paper discusses the effect of science center on attitude of students who visit…

Daneshamooz, Saeed; Alamolhodaei, Hassan; Darvishian, Saeed; Daneshamooz, Soniya

2013-01-01

307

Preferences of and Attitudes toward Treble Choral Ensembles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In choral ensembles, a pursuit where females far outnumber males, concern exists that females are being devalued. Attitudes of female choral singers may be negatively affected by the gender imbalance that exists in mixed choirs and by the placement of the mixed choir as the most select ensemble in a program. The purpose of this research was to…

Wilson, Jill M.

2012-01-01

308

A New Scale for Measuring College Student Attitudes toward Protest  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Protest Situational Attitude Scale (PSAS) is designed to measure reactions to various types of protest behavior. The PSAS consists of two forms, a general, neutral version and a more extreme or concrete form. Results demonstrate that students have not become negatively disposed toward the idea of protest behavior. (Author)

Hopple, Gerald W.

1976-01-01

309

Age Differences in Alcohol and Cocaine Expectancies and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive and negative expectancies regarding the behavioral effects of alcohol and cocaine were assessed and used to predict attitudes toward their use across four age groups. Children and adolescents appeared to overgeneralize their beliefs about alcohol to a less familiar drug, cocaine, perceiving the effects of the two drugs similarly. Only…

Sigelman, Carol K.; Weir, Catherine; Davies, Elizabeth; Silk, Alyson

2002-01-01

310

Attitudes and Concerns towards Distance Education: The Case of Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the attitudes of schoolteachers and directors towards the worth and value of implementing a distance education program in Lebanon. The study surveys 7 school directors and 112 schoolteachers unequally divided among fourteen urban and rural schools. School directors were negative about the possibilty of distance education meeting the training needs of schoolteachers. In addition, they reported costly

Ramzi Nasser; Kamal Abouchedid

311

Validation of the Attitudes toward Intellectual Disability--ATTID Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) continue to experience major obstacles towards social, educational and vocational integration. Negative attitudes toward persons with ID has remained relevant over time and has led to discrimination and stigma. Objective: The present study describes the development of a new questionnaire…

Morin, D.; Crocker, A. G.; Beaulieu-Bergeron, R.; Caron, J.

2013-01-01

312

College Students' Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: Implications for Sexuality Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether human sexuality and general health courses were negatively affecting college students'"moral fiber," hypothesizing that there would be no differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors before and after taking the courses. Questionnaires indicated the only change was that students had more positive safer sex behaviors…

Feigenbaum, Rhona; And Others

1995-01-01

313

Parental Childrearing Attitudes as Correlates of Father Involvement during Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using daily diary data to document involvement with infants at 6-8 months of age (n = 142) and 6 months later (n = 95), we examined relations between reported childrearing attitudes and resident fathers' relative (as compared to mothers') involvement with children. Fathers' authoritarian views related negatively to their relative involvement on…

Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Greving, Karissa A.

2007-01-01

314

Cryo-negative staining.  

PubMed

A procedure is presented for the preparation of thin layers of vitrified biological suspensions in the presence of ammonium molybdate, which we term cryo-negative staining. The direct blotting of sample plus stain solution on holey carbon supports produces thin aqueous films across the holes, which are routinely thinner than the aqueous film produced by conventional negative staining on a continuous carbon layer. Because of this, a higher than usual concentration of negative stain (ca. 16% rather than 2%) is required for cryo-negative staining in order to produce an optimal image contrast. The maintenance of the hydrated state, the absence of adsorption to a carbon film and associated sample flattening, together with reduced stain granularity, generates high contrast cryo-images of superior quality to conventional air-dry negative staining. Image features characteristic of unstained vitrified cryo-electron microscopic specimens are present, but with reverse contrast. Examples of cryo-negative staining of several particulate biological samples are shown, including bacteriophage T2, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), bovine liver catalase crystals, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) types 1 and 2, the 20S proteasome from moss and the E. coli chaperone GroEL. Densitometric quantitation of the mass-density of cryo-negatively stained bacteriophage T2 specimens before and after freeze-drying within the TEM indicates a water content of 30% in the vitreous specimen. Determination of the image resolution from cryo-negatively stained TMV rods and catalase crystals shows the presence of optical diffraction data to ca. 10 A and 11.5 A, respectively. For cryo-negatively stained vitrified catalase crystals, electron diffraction shows that atomic resolution is preserved (to better than 20 diffraction orders and less than 3 A). The electron diffraction resolution is reduced to ca. 10 A when catalase crystal specimens are prepared without freezing or when they are freeze-dried in the electron microscope. Thin vitrified films of TMV, TBSV and TYMV in the presence of 16% ammonium molybdate show a clear indication of two-dimensional (2-D) order, confirmed by single particle orientational analysis of TBSV and 2-D crystallographic analysis of TYMV. These observations are in accord with earlier claims that ammonium molybdate induces 2-D array and crystal formation from viruses and macromolecules during drying onto mica. Three-dimensional analysis of the TBSV sample using the tools of icosahedral reconstruction revealed that a significant fraction of the particles were distorted. A reconstruction from a subset of undistorted particles produced the characteristic T = 3 dimer clustered structure of TBSV, although the spikes are shortened relative to the structure defined by X-ray crystallography. The 20S proteasome, GroEL, catalase, bacteriophage T2, TMV, TBSV and TYMV all show no indication of sample instability during cryo-negative staining. However, detectable dissociation of the KLH2 oligomers in the presence of the high concentration of ammonium molybdate conforms with existing knowledge on the molybdate-induced dissociation of this molecule. This indicates that the possibility of sample-stain interaction in solution, prior to vitrification, must always be carefully assessed. PMID:9684350

Adrian, M; Dubochet, J; Fuller, S D; Harris, J R

1998-01-01

315

Attitude measurement: Principles and sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tools used in the measurement of satellite attitude are described. Attention is given to the elements that characterize an attitude sensor, the references employed (stars, moon, Sun, Earth, magnetic fields, etc.), and the detectors (optical, magnetic, and inertial). Several examples of attitude sensors are described, including sun sensors, star sensors, earth sensors, triaxial magnetometers, and gyrometers. Finally, sensor combinations that make it possible to determine a complete attitude are considered; the SPOT attitude measurement system and a combined CCD star sensor-gyrometer system are discussed.

Duchon, P.; Vermande, M. P.

1981-01-01

316

Effects of yaw and pitch motion on model attitude measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamic effects of angular motion in yaw and pitch on model attitude measurements in which inertial sensors were used during wind tunnel tests. A technique is developed to reduce the error caused by these effects. The analysis shows that a 20-to-1 reduction in model attitude measurement error caused by angular motion is possible with this technique.

Tcheng, Ping; Tripp, John S.; Finley, Tom D.

1995-01-01

317

Group identification and outgroup attitudes in four South African ethnic groups: a multidimensional approach.  

PubMed

Although Sumner's ethnocentrism hypothesis, which expects stronger group identification to be associated with more negative outgroup attitudes, has been widely accepted, empirical findings have been inconsistent. This research investigates the relationship of four dimensions of ethnocultural group identification previously proposed by Phinney, that is, salience, evaluation, attachment, and involvement, with attitudes to ethnic outgroups in four South African ethnocultural groups (Africans, Afrikaans Whites, English Whites, Indians). The findings supported the factorial independence of the four identification dimensions and indicated that only one, ethnocultural evaluation (ingroup attitudes), was systematically related to outgroup attitudes, but the association could be positive, negative, or zero. Both functionalist and similarity-dissimilarity approaches to intergroup relations seemed to provide plausible explanations for the pattern of relationships obtained between ingroup and outgroup attitudes. PMID:15802658

Duckitt, John; Callaghan, Jane; Wagner, Claire

2005-05-01

318

EDUCATIONAL ATTITUDES, SCHOOL PEER CONTEXT, AND THE "IMMIGRANT PARADOX" IN EDUCATION  

PubMed Central

Previous research has been unable to explain declines in educational outcomes across immigrant generations. This study uses data on Mexican and Asian-origin youth from Add Health to test educational attitudes and behaviors as mechanisms linking immigrant generation to four educational outcomes. First, it assesses whether generational changes in attitudes and behaviors correspond to generational differences in educational outcomes. Second, it tests whether generational changes in immigrant children’s attitudes depend on the school peer context in which they acculturate. Findings show that educational attitudes and behaviors do decline across immigrant generations, but that these changes in attitudes account for little of the generational variation in educational outcomes. The relationship between immigrant generation and attitudes is strongest in schools with more negative peer cultures.

Greenman, Emily

2013-01-01

319

TRMM On Orbit Attitude Control System Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Attitude Control System (ACS) along with detailed in-flight performance results for each operational mode. The TRMM spacecraft is an Earth-pointed, zero momentum bias satellite launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Launched to provide a validation for poorly known rainfall data sets generated by global climate models, TRMM has demonstrated its utility by reducing uncertainties in global rainfall measurements by a factor of two. The ACS is comprised of Attitude Control Electronics (ACE), an Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), Digital Sun Sensors (DSS), Inertial Reference Units (IRU), Three Axis Magnetometers (TAM), Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS), Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTB), Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWA), Engine Valve Drivers (EVD) and thrusters. While in Mission Mode, the ESA provides roll and pitch axis attitude error measurements and the DSS provide yaw updates twice per orbit. In addition, the TAM in combination with the IRU and DSS can be used to provide pointing in a contingency attitude determination mode which does not rely on the ESA. Although the ACS performance to date has been highly successful, lessons were learned during checkout and initial on-orbit operation. This paper describes the design, on-orbit checkout, performance and lessons learned for the TRMM ACS.

Robertson, Brent; Placanica, Sam; Morgenstern, Wendy

1999-01-01

320

Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Families of suicidal youths are viewed as more psychologically disturbed than families of youths who die from other causes, and experience other comparatively negative reactions as well. Likewise, divorced families also are viewed more negatively than intact families. To see whether a combination of suicide plus divorce led adolescents have particularly negative views, 120 high school students read one of

Jeffie A. Gibson; Lillian M. Range; Howard N. Anderson

1987-01-01

321

Sexually transmitted diseases and condoms: high school students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours.  

PubMed

Researchers conducted a survey of 199 students enrolled 2 public high schools in Alberta in Canada to learn of their knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about condoms and their use. 41% were sexually active. 41% of these students did not or rarely used condoms. 44% had =or+ 3 partners. 61% of those with =or+ 3 partners used condoms and 56% with 1 partner used them. Knowledge of STDs and condom use stood high regardless of sex or sexual activity. 93% of the boys, 80% of the girls, 88% of sexually active and 87% of nonsexually active students stated it was their responsibility to carry condoms if they are sexually active. Moreover 96% of the boys, 78% of the girls, 81% of sexually active and 91% of nonsexually active students said they would use a condom during sexual intercourse. Nevertheless males and sexually active students did express some negative attitudes towards condoms, such as reduce sensation and interference with sexual spontaneity. Nonsexually active students tended to view condom use as a negative stigma (p.05). Most students claimed to be more likely to buy condoms from condom vending machines in the rest rooms than from stores (p.05). Sexual partners had the largest influence on students, especially sexually active students, to have or not have sexual intercourse followed by concerns about STDs, friends, and family. Further, the large majority of all students, especially females and sexually active students, said they would choose their sexual partner carefully because of the concern for AIDS and other STDs. They also tended to be monogamous and avoided high risk groups. In conclusion, no reliable differences occurred between attitudes towards condoms and use or nonuse of condoms to explain behavior. Future studies should be designed to center on factors that influence sexual behavior. PMID:1892493

Varnhagen, C K; Svenson, L W; Godin, A M; Johnson, L; Salmon, T

1991-01-01

322

College Students' Intentions to Seek Help for Suicidal Ideation: Accounting for the Help-Negation Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has identified a negative association between suicidal ideation and help-seeking, a phenomenon called "help-negation." Help-negation has been documented to occur for both professional and nonprofessional sources of help. In this study help-seeking attitudes, stigma concerns, and perceptions of social support were examined as…

Yakunina, Elena S.; Rogers, James R.; Waehler, Charles A.; Werth, James L., Jr.

2010-01-01

323

Attitudes toward biotechnology in the European Union.  

PubMed

Public attitudes toward biotechnology in the European Union have been characterized as negative using Eurobarometer data, but so far little attention has been paid to building a robust metric appropriate for emerging public opinion issues which combine high salience with very limited knowledge by the public. On the basis of the general literature about the formation and structure of attitudes and about public perceptions of science, this article presents a new metric and analysis: first, for estimating the level of awareness and knowledge of biotechnology in Europe; second, for assessing the stability and depth of these evaluative perceptions; and third, for exploring the roles of canonical socio-demographic variables, the knowledge variable and general attitudinal schemas for understanding the perceptions of both benefits and risks of biotech applications. The results show the importance of general value orientations or "worldviews" in shaping positive attitudes, and more of these general cognitive schemas should be measured in future research. The same multivariate model was unable to account for a significant percentage of the total variance in the perception of risks, suggesting that new measures are needed to tap this critical area in the acceptance of biotech in Europe. PMID:12126802

Pardo, Rafael; Midden, Cees; Miller, Jon D

2002-09-11

324

Spacecraft methods and structures with enhanced attitude control that facilitates gyroscope substitutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and structures are provided that enhance attitude control during gyroscope substitutions by insuring that a spacecraft's attitude control system does not drive its absolute-attitude sensors out of their capture ranges. In a method embodiment, an operational process-noise covariance Q of a Kalman filter is temporarily replaced with a substantially greater interim process-noise covariance Q. This replacement increases the weight given to the most recent attitude measurements and hastens the reduction of attitude errors and gyroscope bias errors. The error effect of the substituted gyroscopes is reduced and the absolute-attitude sensors are not driven out of their capture range. In another method embodiment, this replacement is preceded by the temporary replacement of an operational measurement-noise variance R with a substantially larger interim measurement-noise variance R to reduce transients during the gyroscope substitutions.

Li, Rongsheng (Inventor); Kurland, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Dawson, Alec M. (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei A. (Inventor); Uetrecht, David S. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

325

The attitude accuracy consequences of on-orbit calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude sensors by the Flight Dynamics Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science mission of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) requires attitude solutions with uncertainties of 27, 16.7, 16.7 arcseconds (3 sigma) around the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, respectively. The primary input to the attitude determination process is provided by two NASA standard fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) and a Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) 2. The attitude determination requirements approach the limits attainable with the FHSTs and DRIRU. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designed and executed calibration procedures that far exceeded the extent and the data volume of any other FDF-supported mission. The techniques and results of this attempt to obtain attitude accuracies at the limit of sensor capability and the results of analysis of the factors that limit the attitude accuracy are the primary subjects of this paper. The success of the calibration effort is judged by the resulting measurement residuals and comparisons between ground- and onboard-determined attitudes. The FHST star position residuals have been reduced to less tha 4 arcsec per axis -- a value that appears to be limited by the sensor capabilities. The FDF ground system uses a batch least-squares estimator to determine attitude. The EUVE onboard computer (OBC) uses an extended Kalman filter. Currently, there are systematic differences between the two attitude solutions that occasionally exceed the mission requirements for 3 sigma attitude uncertainty. Attempts to understand and reduce these differences are continuing.

Hashmall, J.; Davis, W.; Harman, R.

1993-01-01

326

Does Higher Education Reduce or Reproduce Social Class Differences? Schooling at Yale University, University of Connecticut, and University of New Haven, and Student Attitudes and Expectations Regarding Future Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of whether higher education reduces or reproduces structured social inequality was investigated by comparing the background, current educational experiences, and expectations regarding future work of freshmen and senior liberal arts students who attend upper, middle, and working class universities. Responses were received from 173 Yale…

Hoffnung, Robert J.; Sack, Allan L.

327

The Importance of Attitudes in Statistics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People forget what they do not use. But attitudes "stick." Our article emphasizes the importance of students' attitudes toward statistics. We examine 15 surveys that purport to assess these attitudes and then describe the "Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics," a commonly used attitude survey. We present our conceptual model of Students'…

Ramirez, Caroline; Schau, Candace; Emmioglu, Esma

2012-01-01

328

Torque equilibrium attitudes for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All spacecraft orbiting in a low earth orbit (LEO) experience external torques due to environmental effects. Examples of these torques include those induced by aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and solar forces. It is the gravity-gradient and aerodynamic torques that produce the greatest disturbances to the attitude of a spacecraft in LEO, and large asymmetric spacecraft, such as the space station, are affected to a greater degree because the magnitude of the torques will, in general, be larger in proportion to the moments of inertia. If left unchecked, these torques would cause the attitude of the space station to oscillate in a complex manner and the resulting motion would destroy the micro-gravity environment as well as prohibit the orbiter from docking. The application of control torques will maintain the proper attitude, but the controllers have limited momentum capacity. When any controller reaches its limit, propellant must then be used while the device is reset to a zero or negatively-biased momentum state. Consequently, the rate at which momentum is accumulated is a significant factor in the amount of propellant used and the frequency of resupply necessary to operate the station. A torque profile in which the area curve for a positive torque is not equal to the area under the curve for a negative torque is 'biased,' and the consequent momentum build-up about that axis is defined as secular momentum because it continues to grow with time. Conversely, when the areas are equal, the momentum is cyclic and bounded. A Torque Equilibrium Attitude (TEA) is thus defined as an attitude at which the external torques 'balance' each other as much as possible, and which will result in lower momentum growth in the controllers. Ideally, the positive and negative external moments experienced by a spacecraft at the TEA would exactly cancel each other out and small cyclic control torques would be required only for precise attitude control. Over time, the only momentum build-up in the controllers would be due to electro-mechanical losses within the device. However, the atmospheric torques are proportional to the density of the atmosphere and the density varies with the orbital position, time of day, time of year, and the solar cycle. In addition, there are unmodeled disturbances and uncertainties in the mass and inertias. Therefore, there is no constant attitude that will completely balance the environmental torques and the dynamic TEA cannot be solved in closed form. The objective of this research was to determine a method to calculate a dynamic TEA such that the rate of momentum build-up in the controllers would be minimized and to implement this method in the MATRIX(x) simulation software by Integrated Systems, Inc.

Thompson, Roger C.

1993-01-01

329

An Intervention to Increase Positive Attitudes and Address Misconceptions About Australian Muslims: A Call for Education and Open Mindedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes a nine-week anti-prejudice intervention targeting attitudes towards Australian Muslims at a Western Australian university in 2008 using data from 19 Psychology students. Quantitative results found a marginal increase in reported positive attitudes towards Australian Muslims, together with a significant reduction in the reporting of negative media-related beliefs. Using a thematic analysis on reported attitudes and beliefs

Anne Aly; Anne Al; Lisa Hartley; Craig McGarty

2009-01-01

330

Use of nonlinear identification in robust attitude and attitude rate estimation for SAMPEX  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for obtaining optimal attitude estimation/identification algorithms for spacecraft lacking attitude rate measurement devices (rate gyros), and then demonstrated using actual flight data from the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft. SAMPEX does not have on-board rate sensing, and relies on sun sensors and a three-axis magnetometer for attitude determination. The absence of rate data normally reduces both the total amount of data available and the sampling density (in time) by a substantial fraction. In addition, attitude data is occasionally unavailable (for example, during sun occultation). As a result, the sensitivity of the estimates to model uncertainty and to measurement noise increases. In order to maintain accuracy in the attitude estimates, there is an increased need for accurate models of the rotational dynamics. The Minimum Model Error(MME)/Least Square Correlation(LSC) algorithm accurately identifies an improved model for SAMPEX to be used during periods of complete data loss or extreme noise. The model correction is determined by estimating only one orbit(the identification pass) just prior to the assumed data loss(the prediction pass). The MME estimator correctly predicted the states during the identification phase, but more importantly determines the necessary model correction trajectory, d(t). The LSC algorithm is then used to find this trajectory's functional form, H(x(t)). The results show significant improvement of the new corrected model's attitude estimates as compared to the original uncorrected model's estimates. The possible functional form of the correction term is limited at this point in the study to functions strictly of the estimated states. The results, however, strongly suggest that functions based on the relative position of the satellite may also be possible candidates for future consideration.

Mook, D. Joseph; Depena, Juan; Trost, Kelly; Wen, Jung; Mcpartland, Michael

1995-01-01

331

Medical student attitudes and knowledge about ECT.  

PubMed

We report the results of a survey of second-year medical students concerning attitudes and basic knowledge of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). It appeared that there were significant negative biases against ECT in a portion of the group. Forty percent of the students who participated felt that psychiatrists often misused ECT, while 31% actually thought ECT was used to punish violent or uncooperative patients. Few students knew the typical frequency or duration of treatment or even that it was done under general anesthesia. It was interesting that the group describing themselves as highly knowledgeable about psychiatric illness had a greater bias against ECT. Students in the negative group did not differ in the sources of their information about ECT. The most common sources of this information about ECT were movies or college classes. The results document the need for appropriate coverage of ECT in medical school curriculum. PMID:11417934

Clothier, J L; Freeman, T; Snow, L

2001-06-01

332

Attitude control of tethered spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for achieving attitude control of single-body and multibody, tethered spacecraft are examined. The design considerations for attitude control and the generation of control torques are described. Two dimensional tether attach point motion is utilized to produce torque about two axes and the third axis is controlled with either a control moment gyro or a reaction wheel. The ability to perform attitude control of a tethered spacecraft is evaluated in the Kinetic Isolation Tether Experiment (KITE). It is observed that the KITE/SPARTAN design bandwidth is adequate to fully utilize the capability of attitude sensors with accuracies in the 1-arcsec range.

Lemke, L. G.; Powell, J. D.; He, X.

1986-01-01

333

Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men's attitudes toward seeking psychological help.  

PubMed

This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes. PMID:23668728

Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M

2013-07-01

334

Applying the motorcyclist's perspective to improve car drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists.  

PubMed

This study sought to provide a first crucial step in the direction of developing an intervention program aimed at improving safe attitudes and skills among car drivers towards motorcycles. We intended to improve drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists by exposing them to demands that motorcyclists face on the road. Car drivers were exposed to hazard perception clips taken from a motorcyclist's perspective, and interactive hazards in a motorcycle simulator. Car hazard perception clips and a car simulator were used as control conditions. A questionnaire assessed participant knowledge and attitudes towards motorcyclists before and after the intervention. After the intervention participants had more empathic- and fewer negative-attitudes, as well as safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. Self-reported attitude-change suggested that the use of motorcycle hazard perception clips was more effective than the simulator, and the intervention was most effective for those car drivers who reported the most negative attitudes prior viewing the clips or riding the simulator. Providing car drivers with a perspective of the motorcyclist may prove to be a useful tool for promoting safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. PMID:21658502

Shahar, Amit; Clarke, David; Crundall, David

2011-09-01

335

Automated Attitude Sensor Calibration: Progress and Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes ongoing work a NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to improve the quality of spacecraft attitude sensor calibration and reduce costs by automating parts of the calibration process. The new calibration software can autonomously preview data quality over a given time span, select a subset of the data for processing, perform the requested calibration, and output a report. This level of automation is currently being implemented for two specific applications: inertial reference unit (IRU) calibration and sensor alignment calibration. The IRU calibration utility makes use of a sequential version of the Davenport algorithm. This utility has been successfully tested with simulated and actual flight data. The alignment calibration is still in the early testing stage. Both utilities will be incorporated into the institutional attitude ground support system.

Sedlak, Joseph; Hashmall, Joseph

2004-01-01

336

Ion Accelerator With Negatively Biased Decelerator Grid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-grid ion accelerator in which accelerator grid is biased at negative potential and decelerator grid downstream of accelerator grid biased at smaller negative potential. This grid and bias arrangement reduces frequency of impacts, upon accelerator grid, of charge-exchange ions produced downstream in collisions between accelerated ions and atoms and molecules of background gas. Sputter erosion of accelerator grid reduced.

Brophy, John R.

1994-01-01

337

Meningitis - gram-negative  

MedlinePLUS

Gram-negative meningitis ... Acute bacterial meningitis can be caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Meningococcal and H. influenzae meningitis are due to Gram-negative bacteria and are covered in detail in other articles. This article ...

338

[Some tendencies in the attitude of persons in the youth-age in respect to nudism ("KFKK")].  

PubMed

Opinions of 291 persons (students of the faculty Biology/Chemistry) on their attitude to FKK ("Free-Body-Cult" similar nudism behavior) are discussed. Comparisons of affirmative, modified affirmative and negative answers with age and with attitude-categories show distinct tendencies. PMID:7446309

Schliephake, G

1980-01-01

339

The Impact of PBL on the Students' Attitudes towards Science among Nine Graders in Hamza Independent School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A weak negative attitude towards learning science was noticed among the students in Qatar, a matter that was reflected on their achievement in national tests. To test if the use of PBL would improve the students' attitudes towards learning science, a sample of 25 nine graders from Hamza school were motivated to plan their own investigations and to…

Faris, Ahmed

2008-01-01

340

Pressure ulcers: Development and psychometric evaluation of the Attitude towards Pressure ulcer Prevention instrument (APuP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPressure ulcers continue to be a significant problem in hospitals, nursing homes and community care settings. Pressure ulcer incidence is widely accepted as an indicator for the quality of care. Negative attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention may result in suboptimal preventive care. A reliable and valid instrument to assess attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention is lacking.

D. Beeckman; T. Defloor; L. Demarré; A. Van Hecke; K. Vanderwee

2010-01-01

341

An Analysis of the Effects of In-Service Teacher Training on Turkish Preschool Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any implementation of an inclusive policy is largely dependent on educators' attitudes. In Turkey, many teachers who educate preschool children with Special Educational Needs (SEN), and who have not received in-service teacher training (INSET) are observed to have negative attitudes towards their SEN students. The aim of this article is to examine…

Secer, Zarife

2010-01-01

342

An Investigation of Nursing Staff Attitudes and Emotional Reactions towards Patients with Intellectual Disability in a General Hospital Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It has been suggested that inequalities in health care for people with intellectual disabilities may be partly explained by negative attitudes of health professionals. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes and emotional reactions reported by nursing staff working in general hospitals towards caring for patients with…

Lewis, Sharna; Stenfert-Kroese, Biza

2010-01-01

343

Attitudes and Attitude Change in Special Education: Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve papers address issues of attitudes towards handicapped persons. The authors were invited to summarize and critically evaluate the literature in their area of expertise, including their own research. Contributions touch on measurement and methodological issues as well as other topics. The following papers are included: "Attitudes and…

Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

344

Attitude sensor package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design, construction, testing, and successful flight of the Attitude Sensor Package. The payload was assembled on a standard HITCHHIKER experiment mounting plate, and made extensive use of the carrier's power and data handling capabilities. The side mounted HITCHHIKER version was chosen, since this configuration provided the best viewing conditions for the instruments. The combustion was successfully flown on board Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-52), in October 1992. The payload was one of the 14 experiments of the In-Orbit Technology Demonstration Program (Phase 1) of the European Space Agency.

Aceti, R.; Trischberger, M.; Underwood, P. J.; Pomilia, A.; Cosi, M.; Boldrini, F.

1993-01-01

345

Attitudes toward the unconscious.  

PubMed

As a keynote to a conference bringing together psychoanalysts and analytical psychologists, this paper addresses different mythic attitudes toward the unconscious, starting with the caricatures of Oedipus and Narcissus that the author feels Jung and Freud originally projected onto each other in the course of their quarrel. He moves on to the fairytale-like stories of Perseus and Beauty and the Beast to discover more complex images of the stance taken in relation to the unconscious by present-day analysts working within both the Jungian and the Freudian traditions. PMID:9062086

Beebe, J

1997-01-01

346

Attitudes of European farmers towards GM crop adoption.  

PubMed

This article analyses European Union (EU) farmers' attitudes towards adoption of genetically modified crops by identifying and classifying groups of farmers. Cluster analysis provided two groups of farmers allowing us to classify farmers into potential adopters or rejecters of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops. Results showed that economic issues such as the guarantee of a higher income and the reduction of weed control costs are the most encouraging reasons for potential adopters and rejecters of GMHT crops. This article also examines how putting in place measures to ensure coexistence between GM and non-GM crops may influence farmers' attitudes towards GMHT crop adoption. Results show that the implementation of a coexistence policy would have a negative impact on farmers' attitudes on adoption and consequently may hamper GMHT adoption in the EU. PMID:21923717

Areal, Francisco J; Riesgo, Laura; Rodríguez-Cerezo, Emilio

2011-12-01

347

[Evaluation of knowledge and health attitude towards cigarette smoking, alcohol and drugs use among students].  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol and drug use are important epidemiological problems affecting state of health. Negative effects of these unhealthy behaviors are commonly known and result in many socioeconomic consequences. Despite relatively good knowledge about harm-fullness of cigarette smoking a percentage of smokers in polish population is still high, especially in young population, and hesitates between 20-30% depending on age, sex and socioeconomic conditions. Negative health attitude towards smoking, drinking alcohol and drug use among young people requires further education and promotion in this area. Aim of the study was evaluation of knowledge about harmful effects of smoking, drinking alcohol and drug use among students of Silesian University of Technology and evaluation of health attitudes towards smoking, drinking alcohol and drug abuse in examined population. 109 students of Silesian University of Technology at age between 19-24 years took part in the study and filled the anonymous questionnaire prepared by authors. The study revealed that 8% of Silesian University of Technology students smoke cigarettes regularly. 15% of students declare smoking occasionally despite most of them know negative effects of such smoking. Almost 80% do not smoke at all. In opinion of 66,7% passive model of smoking is as harmful as the active one. Relatively many (8%) of examined students admit drinking alcohol regularly. Only 15% do not drink alcohol. 35% of students declare taking a drug, at least once during entire life, and some of examined consider marihuana as not addictive. High knowledge about harmful effects of smoking among students results in a relatively low percentage of inveterate smokers. Despite knowledge about harmfulness of drinking alcohol and drug abuse proper healthy behaviors in this area are not put into practice in examined motion in order to reduce unhealthy behaviors among young people. PMID:16523547

Malara, Beata; Góra-Kupilas, Kalina; Jo?ko, Jadwiga; Malara, Piotr

2005-01-01

348

How Parents' Negative Experiences at Immunization Visits Affect Child Immunization Status in a Community in New York City  

PubMed Central

Objective Little is known about how families' experiences with immunization visits within the medical home may affect children's immunization status. We assessed the association between families' negative immunization experiences within the medical home and underimmunization. Methods We surveyed parents (n=392) of children aged 2–36 months about immunization experiences at community health centers, hospital-based clinics, private practices, and community-based organizations in New York City. We used Chi-square tests and odds ratios (ORs) to assess the relationship between medical home elements and parental immunization experience ratings. We used multivariable analysis to determine the association between negative experiences during immunization visits and underimmunization, controlling for insurance, maternal education, and receipt of benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Results The majority of children were of Latino race/ethnicity and had Medicaid and a medical home. One-sixth (16.9%) of families reported a previous negative immunization experience, primarily related to the child's reaction, waiting time, and attitudes of medical and office staff. Parents' negative immunization experiences were associated with the absence of four components of the medical home: continuity of care, family-centered care, compassionate care, and comprehensive care. In addition, children in families who reported a negative experience were more likely to have been underimmunized (adjusted OR=2.00; 95% confidence interval 1.12, 3.58). Conclusions In a community in New York City, underimmunization of young children was associated with negative immunization experiences. Strategies to improve family experiences with immunization visits within the medical home (particularly around support for the family), medical and ancillary staff attitudes, and reduced waiting time may lead to improved immunization delivery.

Stockwell, Melissa S.; Irigoyen, Matilde; Martinez, Raquel Andres; Findley, Sally

2011-01-01

349

Alienation Attitudes and Exploratory Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to give the psychological conception of alienation greater cogency relative to the influence of sociological alienation, research is needed that ties alienation attitudes to individual personal behavior. It was hypothesized that the stronger the alienation attitudes of people, the weaker will be their exploratory behavior. Thus,…

Maddi, Salvatore R.

350

Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

2012-01-01

351

What do attitudes tell you?  

PubMed

Increasing employee productivity and efficiency is a goal for every medical group administrator. By allowing employees the opportunity to voice their opinions anonymously, management can gain accurate and valuable information on employee attitudes. The author demonstrates, through a case study, how an attitude survey can provide specifics on the strengths and weaknesses of a group, thus giving direction to initiate needed changes. PMID:10267994

Hausle, E A

1984-01-01

352

Sexual Attitudes of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the sexual attitudes of college students at a western Kansas university. The independent variables employed were gender, family structure, family sex communication, age, and classification. The dependent variables were the following subscales of sexual attitudes: permissiveness, sex practices, communion, and…

Etchison, Marilyn G.

353

Adolescent Attitudes and Cutaneous Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In trying to understand the attitudes of adolescents about their skin or any other problem physicians must honestly examine attitudes toward the adolescent. Physicians must accept and understand that adolescence is the age of the final unfolding of the personality. Presented at the 12th National Conference on Physicians and Schools, Chicago, 1969.…

Zeller, William W.

1970-01-01

354

Environmental Attitude and Ecological Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…

Kaiser, Florian G.; And Others

355

Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

2009-01-01

356

Calibration of attitude control sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles governing the development of simple algorithms for calibrating attitude and velocity sensors without the need for reference point identification and without using information on the orientation of the moving object are examined. The approach proposed here makes it possible to calibrate attitude and velocity sensors by using an onboard computer.

Potapenko, Ye. M.

1987-05-01

357

Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes influence the teaching-learning process. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of undergraduate-elementary education majors at a small, rural south-central U.S. university toward gifted students. Gagne's and Nadeau's (Gagne, 1991) opinions about the gifted and their education was used. The respondents held…

Troxclair, Debra A.

2013-01-01

358

Autonomous Attitude Sensor Calibration (ASCAL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, an approach to increase the degree of autonomy of flight software is proposed. We describe an enhancement of the Attitude Determination and Control System by augmenting it with self-calibration capability. Conventional attitude estimation and control algorithms are combined with higher level decision making and machine learning algorithms in order to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the problem.

Peterson, Chariya; Rowe, John; Mueller, Karl; Ziyad, Nigel

1998-01-01

359

Attitude Consistency Among American Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes of youth (ages 14-21) toward fertility expectations and women's roles are examined for consistency (e.g., whether high career expectations are correlated with a desire for fewer children). Approximately 12,000 White, Black, and Hispanic youth rated their attitudes toward statements that a woman's place is in the home, employment of wives…

Mott, Frank L.; Mott, Susan H.

360

Measuring Teacher Attitudes toward Instructional Technology: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the TAC and TAT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors present a confirmatory factor analysis of the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computers (TAC) and the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Information Technology (TAT) scales by Christensen and Knezek (1996, 1998) using large samples from three states. The TAC was reduced from 98 items and nine factors to 35 items and eight factors,…

Shattuck, Dominick; Corbell, Kristen A.; Osbourne, Jason W.; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Grable, Lisa Leonor

2011-01-01

361

Attitude change and behavior change: a field experiment investigating responses to an alternative electric rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the ability of a persuasive communications and consumer-education campaign to produce attitude change and behavior change. The study involved a field experiment investigating the responses of residential consumers to an alternative electric rate designed to reduce the amount of electricity used during the utility's hours of peak demand. Knowledge and attitudes of treatment group subjects were experimentally

Baumgartner

1987-01-01

362

Seasat. Volume 4: Attitude determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Seasat project was a feasibility demonstration of the use of orbital remote sensing for global ocean observation. The satellite was launched in June 1978 and was operated successfully until October 1978. A massive electrical failure occurred in the power system, terminating the mission prematurely. The actual implementation of the Seasat Attitude Determination system and the contents of the attitude data files generated by that system are documented. The deviations from plan caused by the anomalous Sun interference with horizon sensors, inflight calibration of Sun sensor head 2 alignment and horizon sensor biomass, estimation of yaw interpolation parameters, Sun and horizon sensor error sources, and yaw interpolation accuracy are included. Examples are given of flight attitude data from all modes of the Orbital Attitude Control System, of the ground processing effects on attitude data, and of cold cloud effects on pitch, and roll data.

Treder, A. J.

1980-01-01

363

Origins of the ethical attitude.  

PubMed

This paper seeks to explore the genesis of the capacity for an ethical attitude, personally and professionally. As analysts working in intimate clinical settings, ethics is at the foundation of our professional lives, as it is at the foundation of our humanity and what it is we struggle towards in our own personal development. The ethical attitude presupposes special responsibilities that we choose to adopt in relation to another. Thus, a parallel situation pertains between caregiver and child and between analyst and patient: they are not equal partners, but nevertheless are in a situation of mutuality, shared subjectivity, and reciprocal influence. The basic premise of this paper is that the analytic attitude is an ethical attitude, and that the ethical attitude is a developmental achievement, and as such it may reach beyond the depressive position. PMID:11471333

Solomon, H M

2001-07-01

364

Operational support for Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) attitude sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has several sensors that can provide observations for attitude determination: star trackers, Sun sensors (gimbaled as well as fixed), magnetometers, Earth sensors, and gyroscopes. The accuracy of these observations is important for mission success. Analysts on the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) UARS Attitude task monitor these data to evaluate the performance of the sensors taking corrective action when appropriate. Monitoring activities range from examining the data during real-time passes to constructing long-term trend plots. Increasing residuals (differences) between the observed and expected quantities is a prime indicator of sensor problems. Residual increases may be due to alignment shifts and/or degradation in sensor output. Residuals from star tracker data revealed and anomalous behavior that contributes to attitude errors. Compensating for this behavior has significantly reduced the attitude errors. This paper discusses the methods used by the FDF UARS attitude task for maintenance of the attitude sensors, including short- and long-term monitoring, trend analysis, and calibration methods, and presents the results obtained through corrective action.

Lee, M.; Garber, A.; Lambertson, M.; Raina, P.; Underwood, S.; Woodruff, C.

1994-01-01

365

Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.  

PubMed

Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

2014-05-01

366

Elementary teachers' attitudes toward science and the teaching of science and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine the relationship between teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and their perceptions of students' attitudes about Science and Technology (S&T), gender differences in students' patterns of S&T learning, and teachers' perceptions of scientists and S&T A sample of 50 grade 4 to 8 teachers completed an original questionnaire and 10 of those participants were subsequently interviewed. The quantitative results suggested that teachers that perceive their students' attitudes as positive and hold no prejudices about scientists or negative opinions about S&T tend to perceive no gender differences in students' attitudes. The qualitative analyses concerning teachers' beliefs about scientists/S&T principally confirmed all quantitative findings. The further exploration of the relationships between teachers' attitudes and their beliefs concerning scientists/S&T, however, indicated that the results are two-edged.

Haase, Rita P.

367

The euthanasia-religion nexus: exploring religious orientation and euthanasia attitude measures in a Muslim context.  

PubMed

Using religious orientation paradigm, this twofold study examined the relationship between euthanasia attitude and religiosity, and compared single-item and multi-item scales of euthanasia attitude. Three hundred students were asked whether they view euthanasia as moral. In addition, participants completed the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) and Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that intrinsic religiosity was the strongest correlate of negative attitudes toward euthanasia. This type of religiosity explained additional variance when added to the two types of extrinsic religiosity (social, personal), but the reverse was not the case. The fairly strong correlation of intrinsic religiosity with the EAS provides evidence of construct validity for the EAS and proved it to be a better measure for assessing euthanasia attitude, rather than the single-item scale. PMID:23785984

Aghababaei, Naser

368

Chinese primary care physicians and work attitudes.  

PubMed

China passed a landmark health care reform in 2009, aimed at improving health care for all citizens by strengthening the primary care system, largely through improvements to infrastructure. However, research has shown that the work attitudes of primary care physicians (PCPs) can greatly affect the stability of the overall workforce and the quality and delivery of health care. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between reported work attitudes of PCPs and their personal, work, and educational characteristics. A multi-stage, complex sampling design was employed to select a sample of 434 PCPs practicing in urban and rural primary care settings, and a survey questionnaire was administered by researchers with sponsorship from the Ministry of Health. Four outcome measures describing work attitudes were used, as well as a number of personal-, work-, and practice-related factors. Findings showed that although most PCPs considered their work as important, a substantial number also reported large workloads, job pressure, and turnover intentions. Findings suggest that policymakers should focus on training and educational opportunities for PCPs and consider ways to ease workload pressures and improve salaries. These policy improvements must accompany reform efforts that are already underway before positive changes in reduced disparities and improved health outcomes can be realized in China. PMID:23527460

Shi, Leiyu; Hung, Li-Mei; Song, Kuimeng; Rane, Sarika; Tsai, Jenna; Sun, Xiaojie; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue

2013-01-01

369

Client and Counselor Attitudes Toward the Use of Medications for Treatment of Opioid Dependence  

PubMed Central

Attitudes, perceived social norms and intentions were assessed for 376 counselors and 1083 clients from outpatient, methadone and residential drug treatment programs regarding four medications used to treat opiate dependence: methadone, buprenorphine, clonidine, and ibogaine. Attitudes, social norms and intentions to use varied by treatment modality. Methadone clients and counselors had more positive attitudes toward the use of methadone, while their counterparts in residential and outpatient settings had neutral or negative assessments. Across modalities, attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions toward the use of buprenorphine were relatively neutral. Assessments of clonidine and ibogaine were negative for clients and counselors in all settings. Social normative influences were dominant across settings and medications in determining counselor and client intentions to use medications, suggesting that perceptions about beliefs of peers may play a critical role in use of medications to treat opiate dependence.

Rieckmann, Traci; Daley, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E.; Thomas, Cindy P.; McCarty, Dennis

2009-01-01

370

[Cognitive alterations of the elderly in home settings and the attitudes of children towards aging].  

PubMed

Children develop attitudes towards aging from birth and are influenced by everyday factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards aging of children living with elderly individuals with and without cognitive changes. Home interviews were performed with 54 children from five Family Health Units, 25 of whom lived with seniors with cognitive changes (group 1), and 29 living with seniors without cognitive changes (group 2). All ethical precautions were observed. The Scale for Children's Attitudes Towards Aging was used. The mean scores obtained were 1.66 (group 1) and 1.52 (group 2). One point represented the most positive possible score, and three points the most negative. The comparison between groups, cognition domains, and social relationships presented significant rates, showing that children living with seniors with cognitive changes have more negative attitudes in these domains. Primary healthcare professionals should pay close attention to multigenerational families and invest in their education. PMID:22576536

Luchesi, Bruna Moretti; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost; Viana, Aline Silveira

2012-04-01

371

Ethnicity, gender socialization, and children's attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to assess whether children’s attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women differ in relation to their ethnic backgrounds, and whether ethnic differences are a result of perceived differential gender socialization practices. Data were collected from children in eight Dutch elementary schools by means of a paper-and-pencil questionnaire administered in the classroom. All children (mean age 11.47; N = 229) lived in the Netherlands; 50.2% had non-Western and 49.8% Western ethnic backgrounds. Children with non-Western ethnic backgrounds reported more negative attitudes towards gays and lesbians. These children perceived more parental pressure to behave in accordance with their gender and showed more negative attitudes towards gender-nonconforming behaviour by peers. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that cultural differences in attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women are partly mediated by differentially perceived parental pressure to behave in accordance with their gender.

Bos, Henny M.W.; Picavet, Charles; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

2011-01-01

372

Reducing Media Viewing: Implications for Behaviorists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American children spend an average of 6 hours and 32 minutes each day using various forms of media. Research has suggested that this high level of exposure has a negative impact on children's attitudes and behaviors. For example, media violence increases aggression in children, especially video games which allows children to be the aggressor and…

Jason, Leonard A.; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Mesina, Anna

2005-01-01

373

Relation of Racial Identity Attitudes to Self-Actualization and Affective States of Black Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between racial identity attitudes derived from Cross's (1971) model of psychological nigrescence, or black self-actualization, and various affective states hypothesized to be relevant to the racial identification process were investigated through multiple regression analysis. Subjects were 166 black university students. Both prowhite-antiblack (preencounter) and problack-antiwhite (immersion) attitudes were associated with greater personal distress as indicated by negative relations

Thomas A. Parham; Janet E. Helms

1985-01-01

374

PRESERVICE AND EARLY CAREER TEACHERS' ATTITUDES TOWARD INCLUSION, INSTRUCTIONAL ACCOMMODATIONS, AND FAIRNESS: THREE PROFILES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined the attitudes of beginning general education teachers (preservice and early career) with respect to teaching in inclusion classrooms. Sixty graduate students, taking a survey at the conclusion of a special education course, completed Q-sorts constructed to evaluate responses regarding attitude toward (a) inclusion, (b) instructional accommodations, and (c) fairness, along two dimensions: positive\\/negative and anxious\\/confident. A three-factor

Ruth A. W. Berry

2010-01-01

375

Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

Markley, F. Landis

2003-01-01

376

Improving facilities, transforming attitudes.  

PubMed

Providing an effective healing environment for patients facing a wide range of mental health issues, while balancing their needs with security, safety, and affordability considerations, will be key area of focus at this year's Design in Mental Health (DIMH) conference and exhibition, taking place from 13-14 May at the National Motorcycle Museum in Bickenhill near Solihull. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports, conference speakers will include the director of estates and new business at the Priory Group; the chief executive of mental health charity, Mind; architects and designers with substantial mental healthcare experience; top academics, and service-users--all with their own perspective on the 2014 conference theme, 'Improving facilities, transforming attitudes'. PMID:24783329

Baillie, Jonathan

2014-04-01

377

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Attitudes Toward Homosexuality: An Australian Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward homophobia, we analysed data from 4,688 twins who completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour and attitudes, including attitudes toward homosexuality. Results show that, in accordance with literature, males have significantly more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than females and non-heterosexuals are less homophobic than heterosexuals. In contrast with some earlier findings, age had no significant effect on the homophobia scores in this study. Genetic modelling showed that variation in homophobia scores could be explained by additive genetic (36%), shared environmental (18%) and unique environmental factors (46%). However, corrections based on previous findings show that the shared environmental estimate may be almost entirely accounted for as extra additive genetic variance arising from assortative mating for homophobic attitudes. The results suggest that variation in attitudes toward homosexuality is substantially inherited, and that social environmental influences are relatively minor.

Shekar, Sri N.; Zietsch, Brendan P.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Bailey, J. Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2008-01-01

378

Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality: an Australian twin study.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward homophobia, we analysed data from 4,688 twins who completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour and attitudes, including attitudes toward homosexuality. Results show that, in accordance with literature, males have significantly more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than females and non-heterosexuals are less homophobic than heterosexuals. In contrast with some earlier findings, age had no significant effect on the homophobia scores in this study. Genetic modelling showed that variation in homophobia scores could be explained by additive genetic (36%), shared environmental (18%) and unique environmental factors (46%). However, corrections based on previous findings show that the shared environmental estimate may be almost entirely accounted for as extra additive genetic variance arising from assortative mating for homophobic attitudes. The results suggest that variation in attitudes toward homosexuality is substantially inherited, and that social environmental influences are relatively minor. PMID:18347968

Verweij, Karin J H; Shekar, Sri N; Zietsch, Brendan P; Eaves, Lindon J; Bailey, J Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G

2008-05-01

379

Undergraduate nursing student's attitudes towards caring for people with HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

The aim of this quantitative study was to determine the attitudes of Australian nursing students towards caring for people with HIV/AIDS. This research study was conducted among second year undergraduate nursing students at a university in South Australia, during August 2007. The survey tool consisted of six demographic questions and the AIDS Attitude Scale. This questionnaire was completed by 396 students, giving a response rate of 94.7%. The vast majority (95.7%) of students participating in this study demonstrated very positive attitudes towards caring for people with HIV/AIDS and only 4.3% demonstrated negative attitudes. No statistically significant differences were found in attitude score based on participants' age, gender, previous HIV/AIDS education, previous nursing experience or previous experience of caring for someone with HIV/AIDS. A statistically significant difference in AIDS attitude score was found in relation to participants' country/region of citizenship, with nursing students from China, East Asia, South East Asia, and Central Asia and Middle East having more negative attitudes than students from other countries/regions. As an increasing number of nursing students have been recruited to Australia from these countries/regions, nurse educators need to be aware of such differences when planning and delivering HIV/AIDS educational programs in tertiary institutions. PMID:21333413

Pickles, David; King, Lindy; Belan, Ingrid

2012-01-01

380

A rigorous attitude estimation method for satellite attitude determination based on star sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attitude estimation method is one of influencing factors for the attitude accuracy. Traditionally, the elements of the rotation matrix as attitude unknowns are estimated optimally, but the solved attitude angles based on the elements of rotation matrix aren't optimal. A rigorous attitude estimation approach for satellite attitude determination based on star sensor is presented in this paper, which directly considers three-axis attitude angles as attitude unknowns. The experiment indicates the proposed approach can improve the attitude accuracy to a great degree when the position errors of image points are within +/-0.5 pixel, and the efficiency can be guaranteed as well.

Xie, Junfeng; Gong, Jianya; Jiang, Wanshou

2008-10-01

381

Children's Attitudes to Reading: Do Teachers Know?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the reading attitudes of students with reading difficulties to teachers' impressions of their students' reading attitudes. Finds that teachers underestimate their students' positive attitude toward reading activities and that structured observation by teachers may increase teachers' knowledge of students' attitudes. (RS)

McKinlay, Susan

1990-01-01

382

Chinese Children's Attitudes Toward Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to: (1) examine Chinese children's attitudes toward mental retardation, (2) investigate cross-cultural similarities or differences in these attitudes, and (3) extend the use of Western-attitude questionnaires to Chinese samples. The present study included 489 Chinese children (265 boys and 224 girls), aged from 4 to 15 years. Results showed that Chinese children demonstrated favorable attitudes toward

Catherine So-kum Tang; Cindy Davis; Anize Wu; Christopher Oliver

2000-01-01

383

Correlates of College Students' Attitudes toward Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the development of the Attitude Toward Grades (ATG) survey instrument, a brief internally consistent measure of college student attitude toward grades and reports on selected behavioral correlates of that attitude. An initial item pool of approximately 50 attitude statements was created and the Thurstone equal appearing…

Bahn, Changhwan; And Others

384

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

385

Student Attitudes towards Diversity in Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the research reported in this paper was to study and analyse student attitudes towards ethnic diversity and their expectations regarding the school in creating positive attitudes. The results show that the majority of the students embrace a positive attitude towards multicultural society. However, this attitude varies when the variables…

Elmeroth, Elisabeth

2009-01-01

386

Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

2012-01-01

387

Measuring attitude with a gradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static attitude estimation and dynamic attitude estimation are used to describe a gradiometer composed of a number of accelerometers that are used to measure a combination of the local gravity gradient and instrument rotation effects. After a series of measures to isolate the gradient, a global mesh of measurements can be obtained that determine the planetary external gravity potential. Orbital and spacecraft models are developed to determine if, when the gravity potential is known, the same measurements, unsupported by any other information can be used to infer the spacecraft attitude.

Sonnabend, David; Born, George H.

1994-01-01

388

Community breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs.  

PubMed

The cultural norms of a society have a powerful influence over health behavior decisions such as choosing an infant feeding method. The objective of this study was to explore the community breastfeeding perspective by examining breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs, experiences, and behaviors of a U.S. university community through an online survey. Linear and logistic regressions were used to determine predictors of those who had breastfed and those with positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs. Through the findings, the researchers suggest that exposure to breastfeeding and increasing positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs are important as the focus for public breastfeeding campaigns. PMID:23391135

Vari, Patty; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Olsen, Glenn; Anderson, Cindy; Holm, Jeffrey; Peterson, Heidi; Henly, Susan

2013-07-01

389

The more it is needed, the less it is wanted: attitudes toward face-to-face intervention among depressed patients undergoing online treatment.  

PubMed

Many individuals suffering from depression do not actively seek treatment. Self-help strategies represent low-threshold treatment options that are particularly relevant for milder cases. The present study addressed two important issues: (1) we examined depressed individuals' motives and attitudes that may represent barriers to face-to-face treatment; (2) we examined if the participation in an online treatment program facilitates or compromises their willingness to undergo face-to-face treatment. We recruited 210 participants with depression for a trial on the efficacy of an online treatment program for depression. Participants were randomly allocated either to a self-help treatment (Deprexis) or to a wait-list control group. All participants filled out a newly developed 42-item questionnaire called Psychotherapy Expectations, Concerns, and Hopes Inventory (PECHI). The scale measures attitudes toward face-to-face treatment and was administered at baseline and 8 weeks later. Principal component analysis of the PECHI revealed five dimensions: hope for symptomatic improvement, fear of poor alliance with the therapist, skill acquisition, skepticism and resentment of psychotherapy, and self-stigma. Attitudes toward treatment were stable over time and neither modulated by group status nor by self-reported or objective symptom decline. Correlation analyses revealed that current levels of depression and well-being were potent predictors of attitudes toward treatment, suggesting that when the patient feels more depressed, doubts about the effectiveness of therapy emerge more strongly. To conclude, results suggest that Deprexis neither promotes nor reduces negative attitudes toward psychotherapy, nor does it increase barriers to enter face-to-face treatments. An alarming paradox emerged: when a depressed person is in greatest need of help, motivation to seek face-to-face treatment is lowest. PMID:22930656

Moritz, Steffen; Schröder, Johanna; Meyer, Björn; Hauschildt, Marit

2013-02-01

390

Attitudes towards and knowledge about homosexuality among medical students in Zagreb.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p < 0.001) with 38% of explained variance. The significant predictor variables that indicate lower attitudes about homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p < 0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students; therefore, educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community. PMID:24851595

Grabovac, Igor; Abramovi?, Marija; Komlenovi?, Gordana; Milosevi?, Milan; Mustajbegovi?, Jadranka

2014-03-01

391

Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

2014-01-01

392

The Effects of Course Structure on Students' Computer Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of course structure variables on the computer anxiety, confidence, and attitudes of college students. Course structure variables include the number of weeks the course met (course length) and the number of meetings per week (course frequency). The effects of differences in instructors' use of anxiety reducing

Bohlin, Roy M.; Hunt, Nancy P.

393

Physicians' Attitudes Toward a New Gynecological Examination Gown  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gynecologists' attitudes toward an examination gown found in previous studies to reduce patients' distress during examination were investigated. Twenty-six gynecologists in four cities volunteered to use the new examination gown and complete a questionnaire evaluating the gown for adequacy of design and perceived patient comfort. Participants rated the gown positively overall. Favorability ratings were highly correlated with ratings of the

Janice G. Williams; Lauretta I. Park; Judith Kline

1995-01-01

394

Health workers' attitudes toward immigrant patients: a cross-sectional survey in primary health care services  

PubMed Central

Background Health workers’ attitudes toward immigrant patients influence behaviour, medical decisions, quality of care and health outcomes. Despite the increasing number of immigrant patients in health services and the potential influence of health workers’ attitudes, there is little research in this area. This study aimed to examine attitudes of different health workers’ groups toward immigrant patients and to identify the associated factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 400 health workers from primary health care services in the Lisbon region, Portugal. Among those, 320 completed a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used for the evaluation of data. Results Most participants did not agree that immigrant patients tend to behave like victims, but about half considered that some are aggressive and dangerous. Doctors and nurses showed more positive attitudes than office workers. Among doctors, the older ones reported less positive attitudes compared to the younger ones. Health workers who have less daily contact with immigrants revealed more positive attitudes. Most participants evaluated their knowledge and competencies to work with immigrants as moderate or low. Conclusions Although health workers reveal positive attitudes, this study reinforces the need to develop strategies that prevent negative attitudes and stereotyping in health services. Efforts should be made to improve workers’ competencies to deal with culturally diverse populations, in order to promote quality of health care and obtain positive health outcomes among immigrant populations.

2012-01-01

395

Negative-ion states  

SciTech Connect

In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

Compton, R.N.

1982-01-01

396

Negative ion generator  

DOEpatents

A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

Stinnett, Regan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-01-01

397

Negative ion generator  

DOEpatents

A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

Stinnett, R.W.

1984-05-08

398

Long-term administration of the TNF blocking drug Remicade (cV1q) to mdx mice reduces skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis, but negatively impacts cardiac function.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative skeletal muscle disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin (DYS). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis since short-term treatment of mdx mice with TNF blocking drugs proved beneficial; however, it is not clear whether long-term treatment will also improve long-term outcomes of fibrosis and cardiac health. In this investigation, short and long-term dosing studies were carried out using the TNF blocking drug Remicade and a variety of outcome measures were assessed. Here we show no demonstrable benefit to muscle strength or morphology with 10mg/kg or 20mg/kg Remicade; however, 3mg/kg produced positive strength benefits. Remicade treatment correlated with reductions in myostatin mRNA in the heart, and concomitant reductions in cardiac and skeletal fibrosis. Surprisingly, although Remicade treated mdx hearts were less fibrotic, reductions in LV mass and ejection fraction were also observed, and these changes coincided with reductions in AKT phosphorylation on threonine 308. Thus, TNF blockade benefits mdx skeletal muscle strength and fibrosis, but negatively impacts AKT activation, leading to deleterious changes to dystrophic heart function. These studies uncover a previously unknown relationship between TNF blockade and alteration of muscle growth signaling pathways. PMID:24844454

Ermolova, N V; Martinez, L; Vetrone, S A; Jordan, M C; Roos, K P; Sweeney, H L; Spencer, M J

2014-07-01

399

Negative Ion Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of research on hydrogen negative ion and heavy element sources is examined in this survey. The ranges of application and methods of producing negative ions are examined. Data on the production and annihilation cross sections of negative ions as...

M. A. Abroyan V. P. Golubev V. L. Komarov G. V. Chemyakin

1974-01-01

400

Triple Negative Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... to 10 PM EST. FACTS FOR LIFE Triple Negative Breast Cancer Who gets triple negative breast cancer? About 15-20 percent of all ... Women who have BRCA1 mutations What makes triple negative cancer unique? TNBC is less likely to be ...

401

Attitude Selective Aircrew Escape Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A line cutter of discharge valve responsive to aircraft attitude is positioned on an aircraft ejection seat to interrupt the gas initiated sustainer rocket system. During inverted ejections, the cutter or valve will either sever or discharge pressure from...

J. W. Stone V. D. Burklund R. B. Dillinger

1978-01-01

402

A Predictive Attitude Determination Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a new and efficient algorithm is developed for attitude determination from vector observations. The new algorithm, called the Predictive Attitude Determination (PAD) algorithm, is derived from a general nonlinear predictive filter approach. Traditional deterministic algorithms are shown to be suboptimal for anisotropic measurement errors. The major advantage of the PAD algorithm is that it can be easily applied to the case where anisotropic measurement errors exist. Also, an analytical expression is derived for the steady-state attitude error covariance, which is shown to be equivalent to the optimal covariance derived from maximum likelihood techniques. Simulation studies indicate that the new algorithm is able to accurately determine the attitude of a spacecraft, even for radically anisotropic measurement errors.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.

1997-01-01

403

College Student Attitudes Toward Marijuana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaire attempts to determine attitudes in effort to learn how students perceive danger, or lack of it, in the use of marihuana. Tabulated responses are presented, and while no conclusions are drawn several interpretations are suggested. (Author/CJ)

Amo, Michael F.; Bittner, John R.

1970-01-01

404

Attitudes Toward the Federal Government  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the heterogeneity of liberal-conservative attitudes," this study used 15 subscales which were factor anayzed into 5 factors: Practical Individualism; Moral Crusading, Unequal Opportunities, Idealistic Individualism, and Confidence in Government Officials. (DB)

Gold, Joel A.; Modrick, John A.

1970-01-01

405

Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Teacher Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the teacher's guide to accompany the student guide which together comprise one of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. This unit is concerned with the attitude of people toward gasoline shortages and different steps the government could take to reduce gasoline consumption. Through the exercises, part of which make…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

406

Preservice teacher attitudes toward gay and lesbian parents.  

PubMed

Gay and lesbian parents are raising an increasing number of children, but little is known about how these parents are viewed by school personnel. In this study, preservice teacher attitudes toward gay and lesbian parents were assessed using implicit, explicit, behavioral, and behavioroid measures. Implicit measures indicate that participants rated same-gender targets more negatively than they rated heterosexual targets, and they rated targets of gay men more negatively than they rated lesbians; however, response patterns varied by participant sex. Furthermore, implicit measures of sexual prejudice generally correlated with explicit and behavioroid measures. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23647242

Herbstrith, Julie C; Tobin, Renée M; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Joel Schneider, W

2013-09-01

407

Negative Word-Of-Mouth Communication Intention: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research employed the Theory of Planned Behavior as a theoretical foundation to test the antecedents of negative word-of-mouth (WOM) communication intention. The hypothesized model proposed that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were associated with the negative WOM communication. The data and hypotheses were examined using structural equation modeling (SEM) by AMOS. Results from the maximum likelihood

Simone Cheng; Terry Lam; Cathy H. C. Hsu

2006-01-01

408

Integrated inertial stellar attitude sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated inertial stellar attitude sensor for an aerospace vehicle includes a star camera system, a gyroscope system, a controller system for synchronously integrating an output of said star camera system and an output of said gyroscope system into a stream of data, and a flight computer responsive to said stream of data for determining from the star camera system output and the gyroscope system output the attitude of the aerospace vehicle.

Brady, Tye M. (Inventor); Kourepenis, Anthony S. (Inventor); Wyman, Jr., William F. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

409

SCKF for MAV attitude estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel quaternion-based attitude estimation algorithm with the square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF) is proposed to improve the attitude estimation performance for micro air vehicle (MAV). The SCKF is a kind of new effective method to solve nonlinear state estimation, it can directly deal with nonlinear systems, and the QR decomposition in SCKF avoids the square-root operation

Chao Li; Quan-Bo Ge

2011-01-01

410

ASCAL: Autonomous Attitude Sensor Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstract In this paper, an approach to increase the degree of autonomy of flight software is proposed. We describe an enhancement of the Attitude Determination and Control System by augmenting it with self-calibration capability. Conventional attitude estimation and control algorithms are combined with higher level decision making and machine learning algorithms in order to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the problem.

Peterson, Chariya; Rowe, John; Mueller, Karl; Ziyad, Nigel

1999-01-01

411

Public Attitudes Toward Nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 3909 respondents to an Internet survey questionnaire provide the first insights into public perceptions of nanotechnology. Quantitative analysis of statistics about agreement and disagreement with two statements, one positive and the other negative, reveals high levels of enthusiasm for the potential benefits of nanotechnology and little concern about possible dangers. The respondents mentally connect nanotechnology with the space

William Sims Bainbridge; Wilson Boulevard

2002-01-01

412

Nursing student attitudes toward statistics.  

PubMed

Nursing is guided by evidence-based practice. To understand and apply research to practice, nurses must be knowledgeable in statistics; therefore, it is crucial to promote a positive attitude toward statistics among nursing students. The purpose of this quantitative cross-sectional study was to assess differences in attitudes toward statistics among undergraduate nursing, graduate nursing, and undergraduate non-nursing students. The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics Scale-36 (SATS-36) was used to measure student attitudes, with higher scores denoting more positive attitudes. The convenience sample was composed of 175 students from a public university in the northeastern United States. Statistically significant relationships were found among some of the key demographic variables. Graduate nursing students had a significantly lower score on the SATS-36, compared with baccalaureate nursing and non-nursing students. Therefore, an innovative nursing curriculum that incorporates knowledge of student attitudes and key demographic variables may result in favorable outcomes. [J Nurs Educ. 2014;53(4):233-237.]. PMID:24654592

Mathew, Lizy; Aktan, Nadine M

2014-04-01

413

Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.  

PubMed

Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity. PMID:23921210

Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

2013-01-01

414

A summary of the Dynamics Explorer /DE/-2 spacecraft attitude control operations and dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of attitude control operations and observed attitude dynamics for the Dynamics Explorer (DE)-2 spacecraft is presented. By performing a systematic analysis of spacecraft drift and through optimization of modeling parameters in dynamics simulators, insight is given into spacecraft dynamics, techniques for reducing drift, and methods for streamlining operational procedures. This paper discusses how attitude and momentum drift were reduced for DE-2 by changing spacecraft geometry, altering operational procedures and making timely use of the control modes available. Attempts to correlate spacecraft drift activity with known environmental variables are made with only limited success.

Stengle, T. H.

1982-01-01

415

Enculturation and attitudes toward intimate partner violence and gender roles in an asian Indian population: implications for community-based prevention.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationships among enculturation, attitudes supporting intimate partner violence (IPV-supporting attitudes), and gender role attitudes among one of the largest Asian Indian population groups in the US. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18-64 in Metropolitan Detroit. Using structural equation modeling, we modeled the effects of three components of enculturation (behavior, values, and community participation) on gender role attitudes and IPV-supporting attitudes among married respondents (N = 373). Analyses also accounted for the effects of respondent age, education, religious service attendance, perceived financial difficulty, and lengths of residence in the US. The second-order, overall construct of enculturation was the strongest predictor of IPV-supporting attitudes (standardized B = 0.61), but not gender role attitudes. Patriarchal gender role attitudes were positively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes (B = 0.49). In addition to the overall effect of the enculturation construct, two of the components of enculturation had specific effects. "Enculturation-values" had a specific positive indirect association with IPV-supporting attitudes, through its relationship with patriarchal gender role attitudes. However, "enculturation-community participation" was negatively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes, suggesting the importance of community-based prevention of IPV among this immigrant population group. PMID:24515653

Yoshihama, Mieko; Blazevski, Juliane; Bybee, Deborah

2014-06-01

416

Reducing Self-Entitlement Attitudes through Service Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study is to explore the effects of community service work and community involvement on perceptions of self-entitlement--expectations of others to do things for oneself--among undergraduate students. Over the course of a 16-week semester, 26 randomly selected subjects (20 community college psychology students and six…

Hoffman, August; Wallach, Julie

2007-01-01

417

Further Support For the Role of Dysfunctional Attitudes in Models of Real-World Functioning in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

According to A.T. Beck and colleagues’ cognitive formulation of poor functioning in schizophrenia, maladaptive cognitive appraisals play a key role in the expression and persistence of negative symptoms and associated real-world functioning deficits. They provided initial support for this model by showing that dysfunctional attitudes are elevated in schizophrenia and account for significant variance in negative symptoms and subjective quality of life. The current study used structural equation modeling to further evaluate the contribution of dysfunctional attitudes to outcome in schizophrenia. One hundred eleven outpatients and 67 healthy controls completed a dysfunctional attitudes scale, and patients completed a competence measure of functional capacity, clinical ratings of negative symptoms, and interview-based ratings of real-world functioning. Patients reported higher defeatist performance beliefs than controls and these were significantly related to lower functional capacity, higher negative symptoms, and worse community functioning. Consistent with Beck and colleagues’ formulation, modeling analyses indicated a significant indirect pathway from functional capacity ? dysfunctional attitudes ? negative symptoms ? real world functioning. These findings support the value of dysfunctional attitudes for understanding the determinants of outcome in schizophrenia and suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting these attitudes may facilitate functional recovery.

Horan, William P.; Rassovsky, Yuri; Kern, Robert S.; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Green, Michael F.

2012-01-01

418

Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in coastal areas of Karachi  

PubMed Central

Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS.

2014-01-01

419

Metalinguistic negation and echoic use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The metalinguistic use of 'not' has been brought to prominence by the work of Laurence Horn, who characterizes it as a marked, non-truth-functional use of negation, not reducible to the standard truth-functional operator. Discussion of the phenomenon so far has focused on those cases which tend to temporarily garden-path the hearer and achieve interesting rhetorical effects in the process.

ROBYN CARSTON

1994-01-01

420

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

421

Improved negative ion source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

Delmore, J.E.

1984-05-01

422

Attitude and Trajectory Determination using Magnetometers and Estimated Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simultaneous attitude and orbit determination algorithm which uses magnetometer measurements and estimated attitude rates is presented. This is an extension of an algorithm which uses magnetometer and rate gyro measurements. The new algorithm is intended for gyroless spacecraft, or in the case of gyro failures/saturation. Torque control input data is used in forming the rate estimates. Simulation tests of the algorithm are presented. First, tests were performed using the 'true' rate values at each time step. This simulated using accurate gyro measurements. Then, tests were performed estimating the rates. Using estimated rates rather than 'gyro measurements' did not significantly degrade the algorithm's performance if accurate estimates of the initial rates were available. An initial Root-Sum-Square (RSS) position error of 1,400 km was reduced to an average error of approximately 100 km within the first two minutes. The RSS attitude error converged to less than 1.5 degrees within three orbits.

Schierman, J. D.; Schmidt, D. K.; Deutschmann, J.

1997-01-01

423

The development and demonstration of hybrid programmable attitude control electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the course of extended life attitude control system (ELACS) research sponsored by NASA a hybrid programable attitude control electronics (HYPACE) concept was developed and demonstrated. The wide variety of future planetary missions demanded a new control approach to accommodate the automatic fault tolerance and long the life requirements of such missions. HYPACE provides an adaptable, analog/digital design approach that permits preflight and in-flight accommodation of mission changes, component performance variations, and spacecraft changes, through programing. This enabled broad multimission flexibility of application in a cost effective manner. Previously, flight control computers have not been not flown on planetary missions because of weight and power problems. These problems were resolved in the design of HYPACE. The HYPACE design, which was demonstrated in breadboard form on a single-axis gas-bearing spacecraft simulation, uses a single control channel to perform the attitude control functions sequentially, thus significantly reducing the number of component parts over hard-wired designs.

Smith, L. S.; Kopf, E. H., Jr.

1973-01-01

424

Attitude identification for SCOLE using two infrared cameras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm is presented that incorporates real time data from two infrared cameras and computes the attitude parameters of the Spacecraft COntrol Lab Experiment (SCOLE), a lab apparatus representing an offset feed antenna attached to the Space Shuttle by a flexible mast. The algorithm uses camera position data of three miniature light emitting diodes (LEDs), mounted on the SCOLE platform, permitting arbitrary camera placement and an on-line attitude extraction. The continuous nature of the algorithm allows identification of the placement of the two cameras with respect to some initial position of the three reference LEDs, followed by on-line six degrees of freedom attitude tracking, regardless of the attitude time history. A description is provided of the algorithm in the camera identification mode as well as the mode of target tracking. Experimental data from a reduced size SCOLE-like lab model, reflecting the performance of the camera identification and the tracking processes, are presented. Computer code for camera placement identification and SCOLE attitude tracking is listed.

Shenhar, Joram

1991-01-01

425

Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through autoclitic functions. That is, verbal communities reinforce (a) reporting general rather than specific attitudes and beliefs, (b) presentation of intraverbals as if they were tacts, and (c) presentation of beliefs as if they were attitudes. Consistency among and between attitudes, beliefs, and behavior is also contingent upon the reinforcing practices of verbal communities. Thus, attitudes and beliefs can be studied as social behavior rather than as private, cognitive processes.

Guerin, Bernard

1994-01-01

426

Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior.  

PubMed

Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through autoclitic functions. That is, verbal communities reinforce (a) reporting general rather than specific attitudes and beliefs, (b) presentation of intraverbals as if they were tacts, and (c) presentation of beliefs as if they were attitudes. Consistency among and between attitudes, beliefs, and behavior is also contingent upon the reinforcing practices of verbal communities. Thus, attitudes and beliefs can be studied as social behavior rather than as private, cognitive processes. PMID:22478181

Guerin, B

1994-01-01

427

LOCAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS AN INTERNATIONAL PROJECT: A STUDY OF RESIDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARDS A FUTURE HIGH SPEED RAIL LINE IN GENERAL AND TOWARDS ANNOYANCE IN PARTICULAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plans for a high speed rail line in Holland generate concerns about the impact on the living environment. Residents living near the planned track have an extremely negative attitude towards the high speed rail line. Most of them do not see the need for the line and they expect a great deal of noise annoyance. There is a disparity between

D. Schaap

1996-01-01

428

Youth Justice staff attitudes towards screening for self-harm.  

PubMed

Young offenders are recognised as a high-risk group for suicidal behaviour. It is essential that the screening used to identify those at risk and refer them to mental health services is effective, especially in community settings where service utilisation is low. Staff attitudes towards screening for suicide and self-harm are likely to influence how a young offender engages with the screening process. Our study is the first to explore community youth justice staff attitudes towards, and perceptions of, screening for self-harmful behaviour. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted at an English Youth Offending Team in June 2006 with staff who had used the suicide screening tool with young offenders. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Staff attitudes towards working within the screening system varied along two dimensions. The first 'active/passive' dimension related to perceived confidence in dealing with self-harm. The second 'positive/negative' dimension related to perceptions of the benefits of screening and the effectiveness of mental health provision for young offenders. Results indicate that barriers to effective screening must be tackled at both individual and organisational levels. The model of attitudes presented here could be used to increase understanding of how staff can be supported to engage effectively with the screening system. PMID:22443106

Knowles, Sarah E; Townsend, Ellen; Anderson, Martin P

2012-09-01

429

Women's attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: To examine women's attitude towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) in association with their access to information, knowledge of health effects and cultural beliefs concerning FGM in Egypt. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 9159 women, using data from the household survey in Egypt by Demographic and Health survey 2003. A comprehensive questionnaire covering attitudes towards FGM, demographics, and access to information was used. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were applied to investigate how demographics, level of education, access to information, knowledge of health consequences and cultural beliefs influence women's attitudes towards FGM. Results: Among the demographic variables, discontinuation of FGM was independently associated with urban residency and post-secondary education. Moreover, women who were informed by the media, and those who had attended community meetings, church, or mosque where FGM was discussed, as well as women who were aware of the negative health consequences of FGM, were more likely to support discontinuation of FGM. By contrast, women with positive cultural conceptions of FGM were less likely to favor its discontinuation. Conclusions: Public education and information dissemination aiming to change current cultural notions favoring FGM practice - through community and religious leaders, and radio and television programs - may play an important role in modifying women's attitudes towards FGM. These findings have some implications for intervention and policy.

Dalal, Koustuv; Lawoko, Stephen; Jansson, Bjarne

2010-01-01

430

Attitude toward money modulates outcome processing: an ERP study.  

PubMed

Love of money (LOM) is concerned with the attitude toward money, which can be measured by the LOM scale through affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Research has observed that monetary attitude was tightly related to reward processing and could affect economic behavior. This study examined how monetary attitude modulated risky behavior and the underlying neural mechanisms of reward processing using event-related potential (ERP) technique. We compared both the risk level and brain responses of a high-level LOM (HLOM) group to a low-level LOM (LLOM) group using a simple gambling task. The behavioral results showed that the HLOM group was more risky than the LLOM group, particularly after loss. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) was measured as the difference wave (gain-related ERP was subtracted from loss-related ERP). The FRN difference wave was larger in the HLOM group than that in the LLOM group. The P3 in the HLOM group was more positive than that in the LLOM group. These results suggest that monetary attitude can modulate both the underlying neural mechanisms and behavioral performance in a reward-related task. The HLOM participants are more sensitive to gain/loss than the LLOM participants. PMID:22856426

Jia, Shiwei; Zhang, Wenxin; Li, Peng; Feng, Tingyong; Li, Hong

2013-01-01

431

Identifying and relating nurses' attitudes toward computer use.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to measure nurses' attitudes toward computer use based on an adaptation of Vroom's expectancy theory, and identify variables that may correlate with these attitudes. Content validity and reliability for internal consistency were determined for the developed attitude questionnaire. Nurses' individual characteristics and computer-use satisfaction, beliefs, and motivation were correlated. Data analysis revealed that nurses' attitudes were significantly related (satisfaction to beliefs, r = 0.783, p less than 0.001; satisfaction to motivation, r = 0.598, p less than 0.001; and beliefs to motivation r = 0.651, p less than 0.001), supporting the model based on Vroom's expectancy theory. Computer knowledge significantly related to computer-use beliefs (r = 0.229, p less than 0.05). Length of computer experience (r = -0.265, p less than 0.05) and nursing experience (r = -0.239, p less than 0.05) related negatively to nurses' computer-use satisfaction. PMID:1933661

Burkes, M

1991-01-01

432

[Attitude towards immigration a study among nursing professionals].  

PubMed

Somewhat more than 5 million foreigners reside in Spain; they make up 11.3% of the total population, their presence implies an increase in the cultural diversity of the people who make use of public health services. By means of a descriptive quantitative study which used interviews, we have been able to discover the attitudes towards immigration which nursing professionals in the three public hospitals in the province of Almeria hold; and to analyze whether or not significant differences exist among them. After analyzing the results of more than 200 questionnaires collected, we can conclude that there are few clearly positive or negative attitudes while almost 75% of this sample show moderate attitudes and there are no statistically significant differences based on work place; therefore, we can suppose that the percentage of foreigners attended to does not determine the attitude toward immigration by personnel in each hospital. This research project was financed by the Andalucian Government's Health Council as part of those Biomedical and Health Sciences Research Projects subsidized in Andalucia in 2007, according to the official Andalucian Government publication "BOJA no 149 de fecha 30 de julio. Expediente: Pl 424-2007". PMID:20143740

Plaza del Pino, Fernando Jesús

2009-12-01

433

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Using DNA-Fragmented Sperm in Mice Negatively Affects Embryo-Derived Embryonic Stem Cells, Reduces the Fertility of Male Offspring and Induces Heritable Changes in Epialleles  

PubMed Central

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in mice using DNA-fragmented sperm (DFS) has been linked to an increased risk of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities both in embryos and offspring. This study examines: whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from DFS-ICSI embryos reflect the abnormalities observed in the DFS-ICSI progeny; the effect of DFS-ICSI on male fertility; and whether DFS-ICSI induces epigenetic changes that lead to a modified heritable phenotype. DFS-ICSI-produced embryos showed a low potential to generate ESC lines. However, these lines had normal karyotype accompanied by early gene expression alterations, though a normal expression pattern was observed after several passages. The fertility of males in the DFS-ICSI and control groups was compared by mating test. Sperm quantity, vaginal plug and pregnancy rates were significantly lower for the DFS-ICSI-produced males compared to in vivo-produced mice, while the number of females showing resorptions was higher. The epigenetic effects of DFS-ICSI were assessed by analyzing the phenotype rendered by the Axin1Fu allele, a locus that is highly sensitive to epigenetic perturbations. Oocytes were injected with spermatozoa from Axin1Fu/+ mice and the DFS-ICSI-generated embryos were transferred to females. A significantly higher proportion of pups expressed the active kinky-tail epiallele in the DFS-ICSI group than the controls. In conclusion: 1) ESCs cannot be used as a model of DFS-ICSI; 2) DFS-ICSI reduces sperm production and fertility in the male progeny; and 3) DFS-ICSI affects the postnatal expression of a defined epigenetically sensitive allele and this modification may be inherited across generations.

Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Pericuesta, Eva; Calero, Antonia; Ramirez, Miguel Angel; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso

2014-01-01

434

Negative ions in comets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Negative ion sources in comets are identified and cometary plasma effects caused by negative ions are examined. The primary negative ion sources are shown to be: (1) for the inner coma - photodissociation of HCN, electron attachment of OH, and collision with alkalis; (2) in the vicinity of the nucleus - interplanetary dust collisions with the nucleus; and (3) for both the contaminated solar wind region and sporadic discharges in the nonhomogeneous inner coma plasma - dissociative electron attachment and charge inversion during keV positive ion scattering by cometary dust. Negative ion abundance for Halley's Comet has been estimated to be 10 to the -6th - 10 to the -10th of electron densities.

Wekhof, A.

1981-01-01

435

Negative Ion Density Fronts  

SciTech Connect

Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

Igor Kaganovich

2000-12-18

436

The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature  

PubMed Central

Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people’s attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta

2009-01-01

437

Attitude and knowledge of dental students of National Capital Region regarding HIV and AIDS  

PubMed Central

Background: India is estimated to have third highest number of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in world with about 2.4 million people currently living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). There is a possibility of HIV transmission in the oral health care setting and thus adequate knowledge and proper attitude among dental students is vital to prevent the chances of transmission and for proper care of the patient. Aims and Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the knowledge of dental students about HIV infection and their attitude toward treating HIV/AIDS patients and behaviour practiced. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 600 dental students of different colleges present in National Capital Region (NCR). The students were from third and fourth year and they completed a predesigned questionnaire assessing the knowledge, attitude and willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patients. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to compare mean level of knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS. Result: The results showed that only 28% students have excellent knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS. Certain misconceptions were prevalent regarding mode of transmission. It also shows that around 43% of the dental students have an overall negative attitude. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the students had adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS and their attitude toward this group of people was significantly negative. There is need and scope to provide correct and detailed information on HIV/AIDS for dental students.

Grover, Neeraj; Prakash, Abhishek; Singh, Sanjeet; Singh, Nishant; Singh, Paramjit; Nazeer, Jazib

2014-01-01

438

Mental Health Stigma, Self-Concealment, and Help-Seeking Attitudes among Asian American and European American College Students with No Help-Seeking Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined whether mental health stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward people with a psychological disorder) and self-concealment are unique predictors of help-seeking attitudes in Asian American and European American college students with no history of seeking professional psychological services. The Asian American group had…

Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S.

2011-01-01

439

Perceived Negative Consequences of Donor Gametes from Male and Female Members of Infertile Couples  

PubMed Central

Objective The use of donor sperm or ova becomes an option for some infertile couples. We sought to determine the views towards donor sperm and eggs of both men and women. Design Prospective cohort of infertile couples Setting Eight California reproductive endocrinology practices Patients Infertile couples (n=377) were recruited after initial infertility clinic visit. Main Outcome Measures From questionnaires administered at recruitment, ratings concerning the impact of the use of donor gametes were assessed. Differences between men and women in attitudes toward donor gametes were compared with ANOVA. Linear regression was used to identify independent predictors of attitudes towards gametes. Results Female's attitudes towards donor sperm were significantly more negative than their attitudes towards donor eggs (5.1±1.4 vs 4.7±1.6*). Similarly, male donor gamete attitude scores were higher for donor sperm compared to donor eggs (4.9±1.6 vs 4.1±1.6*). Both men and women agreed that the use of donor sperm was more likely to have negative effects on their relationship and negative societal ramifications. Female donor gamete attitude scores were predicted by marital status, race, and education while men's scores were independent of all measured factors.* p<0.0001 Conclusions Both men and women view the use of donor sperm with more skepticism compared to the use of donor eggs suggesting a unique underlying perception regarding the use of male donor gametes.

Eisenberg, Michael L.; Smith, James F.; Millstein, Susan G.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Katz, Patricia P.

2009-01-01

440

The addiction to negativity.  

PubMed

In this paper, we have described a type of resistance that has attracted increasing psychoanalytic attention in recent years. Patients exposed to intense negativity during early life may develop an addiction to negative experience as adolescents and adults, and this may constitute a central organizing feature of their personality. In almost all patients, however, some moments of negativity may be observed. We have traced the developmental origins of an attachment to negativity, drawing especially on psychoanalytic investigations of preoedipal pathology. Manifestations and derivatives of early negativity include anhedonia, attachment to physical pain, fear of success, masochism, deprivation of self and others, and negative voyeurism. In discussing the dynamic functions of negativity, we place particular emphasis on two motives: the patient's desires for revenge against early objects that have been a source of deprivation and frustration; and the defensive function of negativity in helping to express as well as ward off dangerous wishes to merge with the object. Deviant forms of autoerotism are likely to be used by these patients to deal with the reactivation of early experiences of neglect and rejection. When negativity is used as a defense or method of relating to others it can lead to a severe disruption of the psychotherapeutic relationship. We have reviewed suggestions for the management of extreme negativity in treatment. Resolution of the therapist's countertransference reactions, especially induced feelings of frustration, rage, and helplessness, is crucial. Emphasis also has been placed on the patient's desires for revenge against self and object, and the manner in which these may be understood and eventually resolved. Only when patient and therapist begin to investigate the adaptive functions of extreme negativity can this pathological symptom be resolved and the patient's awareness of self and sense of autonomy be enhanced. PMID:1763149

Lane, R C; Hull, J W; Foehrenbach, L M

1991-01-01

441

Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy.

Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

2014-01-01

442

Nutritional knowledge and attitudes of adolescent swimmers in trinidad and tobago.  

PubMed

Purpose. To investigate the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent male and female swimmers training competitively in Trinidad and Tobago. Methodology. A self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 21 nutrition knowledge and 11 attitude statements, was utilized to assess the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent swimmers. For the assessment of nutrition knowledge, correct answers were given a score of "1" and incorrect answers were given a score of "0." For the evaluation of attitude towards nutrition, a score ranging from 1 to 5 was assigned to each response; "5" was given to the most positive response, and "1" was given to the most negative. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Results. Two hundred and twenty swimmers with a mean age of 14.56 ± 2.544 completed the questionnaire. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 10.97 ± 2.897 and mean attitude score was 41.69 ± 6.215. Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the number of reported nutrition sources (r = 0.172, P = 0.005). Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the attitude (r = 0.130, P = 0.027). Conclusions and Implication. Athletes lack nutrition knowledge but have a positive attitude towards nutrition, which may indicate receptiveness to future nutrition education. PMID:24669316

Webb, Marquitta C; Beckford, Safiya E

2014-01-01

443

Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were us